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Sample records for newcastle disease i-2

  1. vaccination with newcastle disease vaccines strain i2 and lasota in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    chickens. Keywords: Chickens, Newcastle Disease vaccines, Vaccine carriers. ..... observed in this study might have been responsible for inactivating the vaccine virus. As tannins are ... research and the Staff of Viral Research,. Virology and ...

  2. Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Newcastle Disease Virus (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to ... cancer (see Question 8 ). Questions and Answers About Newcastle Disease Virus What is Newcastle disease virus? Newcastle ...

  3. Efficacy and transmissibility of Newcastle disease I-2 vaccine strain against a field isolate of virulent ND virus (JF820294.1) in village chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Hassan; Nili, Hassan; Asasi, Kramat; Mosleh, Najmeh; Firouzi, Sobhan; Mohammadi, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess efficacy of heat-stable I-2 vaccine against Newcastle diseases in vaccinated and vaccinated in contact birds group following challenge against virulent Newcastle disease (ND) virus in village chicken. Also, to assess whether birds that have been exposed to vaccine virus-shedding, birds were protected against mortality and clinical signs after infection with a virulent strain of the ND virus (NDV). One hundred fifty one-day-old native chickens were divided into seven groups (4 experimental groups of 30 birds/group and 3 control groups (unvaccinated unchallenged, challenged, and just vaccinated). Birds in experimental groups were vaccinated either via drinking water or as food carrier with thermostable I-2 vaccine and then challenged with virulent isolate of NDV (JF820294.1), and eight birds were added as in-contact birds to vaccinated groups. Following challenge, seven extra birds were added to each group as in contact with vaccinated and challenged birds. Survival rate, clinical signs, necropsy finding, and mean antibody titer were evaluated in different experimental and control groups. Birds vaccinated via drinking water showed 100% survival rate. However, birds vaccinated with food carrier vaccine showed less than 50% survival rate. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be recommended that I-2 vaccination via drinking water can effectively prevent ND in village chicken, since I-2 strain has been able to transmit to non-vaccinated-sensitive birds more effectively than velogenic NDV.

  4. Newcastle Disease i vilde fugle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.

    Newcastle Disease (ND) anses for at være en af de alvorligste fjerkræsygdomme i verden. Danmark har haft udbrud af den stærkt smitsomme virussygdom i 1995, 1996, 1998 og 2002. ND virus (NDV) er tillige isoleret fra fritlevende fasaner og en skarv i Danmark. Alle fuglearter kan smittes med NDV...

  5. Virulence Determinants of Newcastle Disease Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Newcastle disease is one of the most serious diseases of birds, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1). The disease is distributed world-wide and may cause large economic losses in the poultry industry. The severity of the disease varies depending

  6. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Clavijo, A.; Robinson, Y; Booth, T.; Munroe, F

    2000-01-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry.

  7. Velogenic Newcastle disease in imported caged birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo, A; Robinson, Y; Booth, T; Munroe, F

    2000-05-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease was diagnosed in pet birds intended for importation into Canada. Virological and histopathological examination confirmed the presence of the disease. The group of birds was denied entry into Canada. Similar birds illegally imported are a potential source of velogenic Newcastle disease virus and are a threat to domestic poultry.

  8. 9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine... Newcastle disease virus supplied by or approved by Veterinary Services and the vaccinates observed each...

  9. Newcastle disease: a high consequence foreign animal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (vNDV), the etiological agents of Newcastle disease (ND), are not found in poultry in the United States (U.S.). With 68 countries reporting ND outbreaks in domestic poultry to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) from 2013 to 2014, the U.S. must...

  10. Newcastle Disease Virus and Other Avian Paramyxoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are currently 11 recognized serotypes of avian paramyxovirus. Type 1 is the most important for poultry and includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is a form of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) that is highly virulent for chickens and turkeys. NDV is considered to be one of the mos...

  11. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) severely impact poultry egg production. Decreased egg yield and hatchability, as well as misshapen eggs, are often observed during infection with AIV and NDV, even with low-virulence strains or in vaccinated flocks. Data suggest that in...

  12. Improving newcastle disease vaccination with homologous vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    All Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) belong to a single serotype; however, current vaccine strains display important amino acid differences at the F and HN protein compared with virulent outbreak strains (vNDV). Previous studies have shown decreased viral shedding after challenge when vaccines were...

  13. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  14. Newcastle disease vaccines- a solved problem or a continuous challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organization for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND m...

  15. Molecular basis for the thermostability of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to protect village chickens against Newcastle disease, due to their decreased dependence on cold chain for transport and storage. However, the genetic basis underlying the NDV thermostability is poorly understood. In this stud...

  16. Virus Pathogenity of Newcastle Disease in Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is one of the highly infectious diseases in poultry industry. Newcastle disease causes high morbidity and mortality in birds, then it causes significant loss for poultry industry. This disease is caused by Avian paramyxovirus-1, included in the genus of Avulavirus and family of Paramyxoviridae. This virus has six prior proteins and two non structural proteins that evolving its genom. Those proteins are Nucleocapsid protein (N, Phosphoprotein (P, Matrix protein (M, Fusion protein (F, Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein (HN and Large polymerase protein (L and two non structural proteins iVe and W protein which are produced during the transcriptation process of P gen on editing process. Each of the protein has a specific role that responsible for the virulence of the virus. The previous result showed that HN and F proteins have significant contribution in the virulence and spreading of ND virus in the hosts. Virulence of ND virus primarily is determined by the cleavage site of F protein, but the recent research showed that the cleavage site motiv of F0 protein is not the only factor to determine the virulence of ND virus. Besides F protein, other proteins also contribute patern to the virulence of ND virus. ND virus can infect more than 200 species of birds, but the severity level of the disease varies depending on the host and strain of ND virus. Chicken has the highest pathogenicity index compared to other birds. Generally, the immunity system in chicken against infection of ND virus is similar to the immunity system of other birds. Cell mediated and humoral immunity responses play an important role in overcome ND virus.

  17. Retrospective analysis of Newcastle disease diagnosed at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2015-10-22

    Oct 22, 2015 ... Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild birds with devastating impact on poultry ... mild live virus vaccines known as the Hitchner B1 ..... environmental temperature can inactivate the.

  18. Newcastle disease virus as a vaccine vector for infectious laryngotracheitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective, safe, and incapable of reverting to virulence are characteristics desirable for infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) vaccines. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing foreign antigens of avian and mammalian pathogens have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity....

  19. International collaborations to facilitate a better understanding of Newcastle disease epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), worldwide one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers. Biological engagement programs (BEP) between the Southeast Poultry Research Laborator...

  20. Thermal Stability Study of Five Newcastle Disease Attenuated Vaccine Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumart, Zineb; Hamdi, Jihane; Daouam, Samira; Elarkam, Amal; Tadlaoui, Khalid Omari; El Harrak, Mehdi

    2016-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a big concern throughout the world because of the devastating losses that can occur with commercial and backyard poultry. The major problem in many countries is the loss of the vaccine's effectiveness due to inadequate use or storage conditions, particularly in hot climates. In the present study, stability of the five, most-used NDV vaccine strains (I-2, LaSota, B1, Clone 30 [C30], and VG-GA) was tested comparatively at different storage temperatures (4 and 37 C for the freeze-dried form and 4, 24, 37, and 45 C for the freeze-dried vaccine reconstituted in diluents). The vaccine stability was evaluated by the cumulative infectious titer drop and the theoretical shelf life at particular temperatures. Results showed that I-2 and LaSota are the most stable vaccine strains compared to B1, C30, and VG-GA; they registered the lowest titer drops and the longest shelf life whether at cool, high, or room temperatures and for both freeze-dried and reconstituted vaccines.

  1. Epizootology of Newcastle disease in Indian house crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, S; Pillai, R M; Nair, G K; Sudharma, D; Abdulla, P K

    1981-09-19

    During an investigation into the role of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens splendens) in the epizootology of Newcastle disease, a total of 164 samples from 82 crows were examined. Fifteen isolations of Newcastle diseases virus were made from 10 birds and one of these was highly pathogenic to chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests showed that 38 per cent of these crows possessed antibody to Newcastle disease virus. Initiation and duration of virus excretion and development of HI antibodies were also studied by experimental infection. Virus excretion began on day 3, continued till day 5 and complete elimination occurred by day 6. HI antibody titre began to rise from the seventh day to peak by the twenty-first day and declined thereafter.

  2. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, van M.; Bouma, A.; Fabri, T.H.F.; Katsma, E.; Hartog, L.; Koch, G.

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination

  3. Newcastle disease virus from domestic mink, China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Sun, Lingshuang; Sun, Xiao; Li, Siwen; Zhang, Wen; Pulscher, Laura A; Chai, Hongliang; Xing, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a pathogen that most often infects poultry species. In investigating a 2014 outbreak of encephalitis and death among farmed mink (Mustela vison), we found pathological and later experimental evidence that NDV can infect and cause severe encephalitic and pneumonic disease in these animals. Our findings confirm the host range of NDV.

  4. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in poultry by vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boven, Michiel; Bouma, Annemarie; Fabri, Teun H F; Katsma, Elly; Hartog, Leo; Koch, Guus

    2008-02-01

    Newcastle disease is an economically important disease of poultry for which vaccination is applied as a preventive measure in many countries. Nevertheless, outbreaks have been reported in vaccinated populations. This suggests that either the vaccination coverage level is too low or that vaccination does not provide perfect immunity, allowing the virus to spread in partially vaccinated populations. Here we study the requirements of an epidemiologically effective vaccination program against Newcastle disease in poultry, based on data from experimental transmission studies. The transmission studies indicate that vaccinated birds with low or undetectable antibody titres may be protected against disease and mortality but that infection and transmission may still occur. In fact, our quantitative analyses show that Newcastle disease virus is highly transmissible in poultry with low antibody titres. As a consequence, herd immunity can only be achieved if a high proportion of birds (>85%) have a high antibody titre (log(2) haemagglutination inhibition titre > or =3) after vaccination. We discuss the implications for the control of Newcastle disease in poultry by vaccination.

  5. Expressing foreign genes by Newcastle disease virus for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interesting aspect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the ability to selectively replicate in tumor cells. Recently, using reverse genetics technology to enhance the oncolytic properties and therapeutic potential of NDV for tumor therapy has become popular in immunocompetent carcinoma tumor mod...

  6. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...

  7. Virulence of Newcastle disease virus: what is known so far?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortmans, J.C.F.M.; Koch, G.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Peeters, B.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade many studies have been performed on the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This is mainly due to the development of reverse genetics systems which made it possible to genetically modify NDV and to investigate the contribution of individual genes and genome regions to its

  8. 9 CFR 113.329 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... virus-bearing cell culture fluids or embryonated chicken eggs. Only Master Seed Virus which has been... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine. 113.329 Section 113.329 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, H P; Trow, E W; Greenwood, A G; Jennings, A R; Keymer, I F

    1976-01-01

    In the 4 year period 1971-74 11 isolations of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were made from 44 birds of prey that died in captivity. Three species of Falconiformes were involved, including one red-headed falcon (Falco chicquera), 5 European kestrels (F. tinnunculus), and 2 secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), also 2 species of Strigiformes, comprising 2 barn owls (Tyto alba) and one little owl (Athene noctua). All NDV isolates were of the velogenic type.

  10. Fibre Optic Biosensor Assay of Newcastle Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    A fluorometric sandwich immunoassay for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed using a fibre optic biosensor. Antibodies directed against NDV...and low baseline variation. These and other properties of the fibre optic biosensor indicate that it has the potential to serve as an on-line...continuous monitoring device of an automated or semiautomated detection system. As a part of the fibre optic biosensor development, the surface coverage of

  11. Pathogenesis of new sub-genotypes of Newcastle disease virus strains from Israel and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating disease of poultry worldwide caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). New genotypes and sub-genotypes of NDV frequently emerge. In the past few years, NDV strains belonging to sub-genotype VIIi and XIIIb emerged in the Middle East and Asi...

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Newcastle Disease in Mexico and the Potential Spillover of Viruses from Poultry into Wild Bird Species

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A.; Marquez, Miguel A.; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissi...

  13. Newcastle disease: An in-depth review including epidemiology and molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections of birds with strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), (synonyms: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), pigeon PMV-1 (PPMV-1)) are associated with two clinical outcomes: 1) Newcastle disease (ND) results from infections with virulent APMV-1, and is also called Exotic ND (END) in U. S...

  14. Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Mohammadamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

  15. Development of a novel thermostable Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for expression of a heterologous gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines have been used widely to control Newcastle disease (ND) for village flocks, due to their independence of cold chains for delivery and storage. To explore the potential use of the thermostable NDV as a vaccine vector, an infectious clone of the...

  16. Characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from pigeons in the territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a continual problem for the poultry industry with synanthropic birds representing one of the possible reservoirs of infection. Outbreaks of ND are regularly confirmed among pigeons in different regions of the Russian Federation. The spread of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) a...

  17. Interference of infectious bursal disease virus on antibody production against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WM Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has the objective of verifying the interference of infectious bursal disease virus in the antibody production against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. The experiment was carried out with 640 day-old-chicks from a 42 weeks old hen flock. The birds were separated into eight experimental groups (n=80/group and were submitted to different combinations of vaccinations, with live vaccines, to Newcastle disease, avian infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease with diverse combinations of days of vaccination. We verified that the utilization of polyvalent vaccinal programs have a different efficacy comparing to monovalent vaccinations when Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, and infectious bursal disease vaccinations are applied. This way, the use of vaccinations to infectious bursal disease in polyvalent vaccinal programs is desirable due to improvement of NDV response with the presence of IBV by the probable reduction of interference of IBV under NDV.

  18. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Swayne, David E.; Suarez, David L.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  19. Immune responses of poultry to Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J

    2013-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) remains a constant threat to poultry producers worldwide, in spite of the availability and global employment of ND vaccinations since the 1950s. Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belong to the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae, and genus Avulavirus, are contained in one serotype and are also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). They are pleomorphic in shape and are single-stranded, non-segmented, negative sense RNA viruses. The virus has been reported to infect most orders of birds and thus has a wide host range. Isolates are characterized by virulence in chickens and the presence of basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. Low virulent NDV typically produce subclinical disease with some morbidity, whereas virulent isolates can result in rapid, high mortality of birds. Virulent NDV are listed pathogens that require immediate notification to the Office of International Epizootics and outbreaks typically result in trade embargos. Protection against NDV is through the use of vaccines generated with low virulent NDV strains. Immunity is derived from neutralizing antibodies formed against the viral hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins, which are responsible for attachment and spread of the virus. However, new techniques and technologies have also allowed for more in depth analysis of the innate and cell-mediated immunity of poultry to NDV. Gene profiling experiments have led to the discovery of novel host genes modulated immediately after infection. Differences in virus virulence alter host gene response patterns have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the timing and contributions of cell-mediated immune responses appear to decrease disease and transmission potential. In view of recent reports of vaccine failure from many countries on the ability of classical NDV vaccines to stop spread of disease, renewed interest in a more complete understanding of the global immune response of poultry to NDV will be

  20. Characterization of emerging Newcastle disease virus isolates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Wan-Hua; Ren, Juan-Juan; Tang, Pan; Wu, Ning; Wu, Hung-Yi; Ching, Ching-Dong; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2015-08-07

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a devastating worldwide disease of poultry characterized by increased respiration, circulatory disturbances, hemorrhagic enteritis, and nervous signs. Sequence analysis shows several amino acid residue substitutions at neutralizing epitopes on the F and HN proteins of recent Shaanxi strains. Both Cross protection and cross serum neutralization tests revealed that the traditional vaccine strains were unable to provide full protection for the flocks. To better understand the epidemiology of Newcastle disease outbreak, a portion of the F gene and the full-length HN gene were amplified from Shaanxi isolates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and then conducted sequence and phylogenetic analyzes. In pathogenicity analysis, both high intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) and mean death time (MDT) tests of chicken embryo were carried out. Furthermore, a cross-protection experiment in which specific-pathogen-free chickens vaccinated with a LaSota vaccine strain were challenged by the recent Shaanxi strain was also performed. Nine Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) isolates which were recovered from ND outbreaks in chicken flocks in China were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that all the recent Shaanxi-isolated NDVs have (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117) for the C-terminus of the F2 protein and exhibit high ICPI and MDT of chicken embryos, suggesting that they were all classified as velogenic type of NDVs. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates showed that they belong to subgenotype VIId that have been implicated in the recent outbreaks in northwestern China. The percentage of amino acid sequence identity of F protein between recent Shaanxi stains and five vaccine strains was in the range of 81.9 %-88.1 %, while the percentage of amino acid sequence identity of HN protein between recent Shaanxi strains and vaccine strains was in the range of 87.4 %-91.2 %. Furthermore, a number

  1. Novel in-ovo chimeric recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine protects against both Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qiulin; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Bu, Zhigao

    2014-03-14

    Development of a safe and efficient in-ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease (NDV) and very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) is of great importance. In this study, a chimeric NDV LaSota virus with the L gene of Clone-30 (rLaC30L) was used to generate a recombinant chimeric virus expressing the VP2 protein of vvIBDV (rLaC30L-VP2). The safety and efficacy of rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination was then evaluated in 18-day-old special pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos and commercial broiler embryos for prevention of NDV and vvIBDV. Hatchability and global survival rate of the hatched birds was not affected by in-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination. However, rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination induced significant anti-IBDV and anti-NDV antibodies in SPF birds and commercial broilers, and 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal NDV challenge. In-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination also provided resistance against vvIBDV challenge in a significant amount of animals. These results suggest that rLaC30L-VP2 is a safe and efficient bivalent live in-ovo vaccine against NDV and vvIBDV.

  2. Novel tubular and crystalline structures in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowans, E J; McNulty, M S

    1979-01-01

    Hitherto undescribed tubular and crystalline structures were detected by negative contrast electron microscopy in purified preparations of Newcastle disease virus. It is suggested that these are viral in origin and are composed of aggregates of viral glycoprotein.

  3. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  4. Delayed Newcastle disease virus replication using RNA interference to target the nucleoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year millions of chickens die from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) worldwide, leading to economic and food losses. Current vaccination campaigns have limitations including cost, administration, and thermostability. These problems are heightened in the developing world where constraints are more...

  5. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  6. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano de Oliveira Torres Carrasco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia and chickens (Gallus gallus in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota, developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.

  7. Experimental infection with Brazilian Newcastle disease virus strain in pigeons and chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250

  8. Newcastle disease virus--biology of the disease and molecular biology of NDV

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, 61 countries reported outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) in domestic poultry. While there are four well-documented panzootics of ND, a fifth panzootic involving Indonesia, Israel, Pakistan, and at least two other countries appears to be occurring. Despite worldwide vaccination, ND contin...

  9. An evolutionary insight into Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñora, Martin; Moreno, Pilar; Echeverría, Natalia; Fischer, Sabrina; Comas, Victoria; Fajardo, Alvaro; Cristina, Juan

    2015-08-01

    The disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a severe threat to the poultry industry worldwide. Recently, NDV has been isolated in the Antarctic region. Detailed studies on the mode of evolution of NDV strains isolated worldwide are relevant for our understanding of the evolutionary history of NDV. For this reason, we have performed Bayesian coalescent analysis of NDV strains isolated in Antarctica to study evolutionary rates, population dynamics, and patterns of evolution. Analysis of F protein cleavage-site sequences of NDV isolates from Antarctica suggested that these strains are lentogenic. Strains isolated in Antarctica and genotype I reference strain Ulster/67 diverged from ancestors that existed around 1958. The time of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was established to be around 1883 for all class II viruses. A mean rate of evolution of 1.78 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (s/s/y) was obtained for the F gene sequences of NDV strains examined in this study. A Bayesian skyline plot indicated a decline in NDV population size in the last 25 years. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of Antarctica in emerging or re-emerging viruses and the evolution of NDV populations worldwide.

  10. Proteomic analysis of purified Newcastle disease virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiangpeng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV is an enveloped RNA virus, bearing severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Previous virion proteomic studies have shown that enveloped viruses carry multiple host cellular proteins both internally and externally during their life cycle. To address whether it also occurred during NDV infection, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of highly purified NDV La Sota strain particles. Results In addition to five viral structural proteins, we detected thirty cellular proteins associated with purified NDV La Sota particles. The identified cellular proteins comprised several functional categories, including cytoskeleton proteins, annexins, molecular chaperones, chromatin modifying proteins, enzymes-binding proteins, calcium-binding proteins and signal transduction-associated proteins. Among these, three host proteins have not been previously reported in virions of other virus families, including two signal transduction-associated proteins (syntenin and Ras small GTPase and one tumor-associated protein (tumor protein D52. The presence of five selected cellular proteins (i.e., β-actin, tubulin, annexin A2, heat shock protein Hsp90 and ezrin associated with the purified NDV particles was validated by Western blot or immunogold labeling assays. Conclusions The current study presented the first standard proteomic profile of NDV. The results demonstrated the incorporation of cellular proteins in NDV particles, which provides valuable information for elucidating viral infection and pathogenesis.

  11. The adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide for Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-γ mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator.

  12. Isolation of a virulent Newcastle disease virus from confiscated LaSota vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Janice C; Hines, Nichole L; Killian, Mary Lea; Predgen, Ann S; Schmitt, Beverly J

    2013-06-01

    Vials of Newcastle disease vaccine labeled as LaSota were confiscated by the Arizona Division of Customs and Border Protection officials. Two different avian type 1 paramyxoviruses were isolated from all three vials of vaccine submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratories. The LaSota strain of avian paramyxovirus type 1 virus was isolated from all three vials and analyzed by nucleotide sequence analysis. A virulent Newcastle disease virus was also present in all three vials, but in low concentration. The virulence of the Newcastle disease virus was characterized by the intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index chicken inoculation assay but could not be determined by nucleotide sequence analysis from the virus isolated from embryonating chicken eggs. The intracerebral chicken pathogenicity index value for the isolated Newcastle disease virus was 1.55. Strains of Newcastle disease virus with intracerebral pathogenicity indexes significantly above 1.0 have been found to selectively kill many types of cancer cells while not affecting normal nonneoplastic cells and are considered to be a viable option for cancer treatment in humans by alternative medical researchers; however, the treatment is not approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration. Customs and Border Protection officials have been notified of an increased risk of Newcastle disease virus entering the United States for use as a nonapproved cancer treatment. Illegal importation of Newcastle disease vaccine for vaccination of backyard poultry is also a threat. This case report emphasizes the importance of conducting chicken inoculation for complete virus pathotyping and demonstrates the need for stringent security procedures at U.S. borders to detect known livestock pathogens that may be smuggled in for use in animal agriculture and reasons unrelated to animal agriculture.

  13. The role of vaccination in risk mitigation and control of Newcastle disease in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Jo; Mansfield, Karen L; Brown, Ian H

    2017-09-23

    Newcastle disease is regarded as one of the most important avian diseases throughout the world and continues to be a threat and economic burden to the poultry industry. With no effective treatment, poultry producers rely primarily on stringent biosecurity and vaccination regimens to control the spread of this devastating disease. This concise review provides an historical perspective of Newcastle disease vaccination and how fundamental research has paved the way for the development of instrumental techniques which are still in use today. Although vaccination programmes have reduced the impact of clinical disease, they have historically been ineffective in controlling the spread of virulent viruses and therefore do not always offer an adequate solution to the world's food security problems. However, the continued development of novel vaccine technology and improved biosecurity measures through education may offer a solution to help reduce the global threat of Newcastle disease on the poultry industry. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Genetic and Biological Changes of Newcastle Disease Virus Due to The Development of Chicken Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, Newcastle Disease (ND is one of the most important diseases of poultry. It causes serious economic losses in poultry industry. Newcastle Disease or pseudo-fowl pest is a highly infectious viral disease that causes very high mortality (up to 100% in severe epidemics in poultry and wild birds around the world. Newcastle Disease remains endemic in many regions and continues to severely limit poultry production in some developing countries. The disease is currently being controlled by routine vaccinations in many countries. However, it was reported that outbreaks of ND in vaccinated flocks often occur on the field may not only be due to differences in the antigenicity of the NDV wild field strains and vaccine strains, but could also be as a result of differences in pathogenicity and virulence between different strains used as vaccine seed in NDV vaccine production.

  15. Newcastle disease viruses causing recent outbreaks worldwide show unexpectedly high genetic similarity with historical virulent isolates from the 1940s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII throug...

  16. One Prediction Model Based on BP Neural Network for Newcastle Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Gong, Duqiang; Xiao, Jianhua; Zhang, Ru; Li, Lin

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between meteorological factors and Newcastle disease incidence, and to determine the key factors that affect Newcastle disease. Having built BP neural network forecasting model by Matlab 7.0 software, we tested the performance of the model according to the coefficient of determination (R2) and absolute values of the difference between predictive value and practical incidence. The result showed that 6 kinds of meteorological factors determined, and the model's coefficient of determination is 0.760, and the performance of the model is very good. Finally, we build Newcastle disease forecasting model, and apply BP neural network theory in animal disease forecasting research firstly.

  17. CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS OF PIGEONS (COLUMBA LIVIA SUFFERING FROM NEWCASTLE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaheen, A. D. Anjum and F. Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to study clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions in pigeons with naturally occurring Newcastle disease. For this purpose, 30 pigeon lofts were visited. Among these, 14 lofts showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease, including mainly greenish white mucoid diarrhoea and nervous signs with high morbidity and mortality. Postmortem examination of affected birds showed lesions mainly in brain, liver, kidneys and spleen. Amongst various organs, kidneys were more frequently involved. Histopathological changes were also observed in lungs, liver, kidneys, brain and spleen. The results showed that the Newcastle disease virus was widespread in pigeons locally and caused heavy mortality. No preventive measures or vaccination is being adopted by pigeon fanciers to control the disease.

  18. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A

    1992-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Newcastle disease in Mexico and the potential spillover of viruses from poultry into wild bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Navarro Lopez, Roberto; Morales, Romeo; Olvera, Miguel A; Marquez, Miguel A; Merino, Ruben; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-08-01

    Newcastle disease, one of the most important health problems that affects the poultry industry around the world, is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. Newcastle disease virus is considered to be endemic in several countries in the Americas, including Mexico. In order to control Newcastle disease outbreaks and spread, intensive vaccination programs, which include vaccines formulated with strains isolated at least 60 years ago, have been established. These vaccines are dissimilar in genotype to the virulent Newcastle disease viruses that had been circulating in Mexico until 2008. Here, 28 isolates obtained between 2008 and 2011 from different regions of Mexico from free-living wild birds, captive wild birds, and poultry were phylogenetically and biologically characterized in order to study the recent epidemiology of Newcastle disease viruses in Mexico. Here we demonstrate that, until recently, virulent viruses from genotype V continued to circulate and evolve in the country. All of the Newcastle disease viruses of low virulence, mostly isolated from nonvaccinated free-living wild birds and captive wild birds, were highly similar to LaSota (genotype II) and PHY-LMV42 (genotype I) vaccine strains. These findings, together with the discovery of two virulent viruses at the Mexican zoo, suggest that Newcastle disease viruses may be escaping from poultry into the environment.

  20. Development of a Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus VG/GA Strain Infectious Clone as an Enterotropic Vaccine Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) vaccine strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is commonly used worldwide to prevent Newcastle disease. The VG/GA strain is thought to preferentially replicate in intestinal tract of chickens and induce local mucosal immunoresponse. In the presen...

  1. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species wer...

  2. Correlation of haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein content with protective antibody response after immunisation with inactivated Newcastle disease vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, R.A.; Komen, M.; Diepen, van M.; Oei, H.L.; Claassen, I.J.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between the antigen content of inactivated Newcastle disease (ND) oil emulsion-vaccines and the serological response after immunisation was studied. The haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were quantified in 33 inactivated oil-ad

  3. First genetic characterization of newcastle disease viruses from Namibia: identification of a novel VIIk subgenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molini, Umberto; Aikukutu, Gottlieb; Khaiseb, Siegfried; Cattoli, Giovanni; Dundon, William G

    2017-08-01

    The complete sequences of the fusion (F) protein genes of six Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from backyard poultry in Namibia in 2016 have been determined. The F gene cleavage site motif for all of the isolates was (112)RRQKRF(117), indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses belong to a novel subgenotype, VIIk. This is the first genetic characterization of NDV isolates from Namibia, and the findings have important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in the region.

  4. An outbreak of Newcastle disease in free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Handberg, Kurt; Ahrens, Peter;

    1999-01-01

    The epidemiology of an outbreak of Newcastle disease in a population of approximately 12 000 free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) on the island of Faeno in Denmark in 1996 is described. The mortality epizootic demonstrated over an observation period of 3 weeks. A total of 70 avian paramyxo......The epidemiology of an outbreak of Newcastle disease in a population of approximately 12 000 free-living pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) on the island of Faeno in Denmark in 1996 is described. The mortality epizootic demonstrated over an observation period of 3 weeks. A total of 70 avian...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique (2011-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapaco, Lourenço P; Monjane, Iolanda V A; Nhamusso, Antonieta E; Viljoen, Gerrit J; Dundon, William G; Achá, Sara J

    2016-10-01

    The complete sequence of the fusion (F) protein gene from 11 Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) isolated from commercial poultry in Mozambique between 2011 and 2016 has been generated. The F gene cleavage site motif for all 11 isolates was (112)RRRKRF(117) indicating that the viruses are virulent. A phylogenetic analysis using the full F gene sequence revealed that the viruses clustered within genotype VIIh and showed a higher similarity to NDVs from South Africa, China and Southeast Asia than to viruses previously described in Mozambique in 1994, 1995 and 2005. The identification of these new NDVs has important implications for Newcastle disease management and control in Mozambique.

  6. Review of Newcastle disease virus with particular references to immunity and vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Garib, S.O.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Gruys, E.; Koch, G.

    2003-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease. The present paper deals with classification of ND virus (NDV), clinical signs and pathology, virus strain classification and molecular backgrounds for the pathogenicity. Major emphasis is reviewing immunity and vaccination. Clinical forms of the

  7. Vaccination of hens decreases virus contamination in eggs after challenge with the virulent Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is an important infectious disease of poultry causing economic losses worldwide. The control is routinely performed by vaccination, however vaccinated birds can shed virus, creating a barrier for trade exports. To determine if vaccination could mitigate these negative outcomes, h...

  8. Experimental clinical and pathologic characterization of West African Newcastle disease viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease is a very significant disease of commercial and backyard poultry in Africa, and has been reported in numerous African countries. Recent analysis of strains from West Africa has revealed the emergence of at least one novel genetic lineage that differs from the previously-characteriz...

  9. Full genome sequencing of the Newcastle disease viruses VS/GA and clone 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of the Villegas-Glisson/University of Georgia (VG/GA) strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and of a plaque purified clone (clone 5) exhibiting a different phenotype were sequenced and analyzed. The VG/GA strain, isolated from the intestine of healthy turkeys replicat...

  10. Repeated challenge with virulent Newcastle Disease Virus does not decrease the efficacy of vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the field, well-vaccinated birds may be repeatedly exposed to challenges with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (vNDV), which may infect macrophages and cause damage to the immune system. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that daily challenges with high doses of vNDV may overwh...

  11. Complete Genome Sequences of New Emerging Newcastle Disease Virus Strains Isolated from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hualei; Lv, Yan; Afonso, Claudio L.; Ge, Shengqiang; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling

    2013-01-01

    Five Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from geese were classified into a new genotype, designated genotype XII. The complete genome sequences of two strains indicated that these viruses were distinct from viruses of genotype VII. More investigations need to be conducted for us to understand the origin of these new strains. PMID:23469337

  12. Complete genome sequence of genotype VI Newcastle disease viruses isolated from pigeons in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two complete genome sequences of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are described here. Virulent isolates pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/21A/2015 and pigeon/Pakistan/Lahore/25A/2015 were obtained from racing pigeons sampled in the Pakistani province of Punjab during 2015. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion prot...

  13. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing human TRAIL as a potential candidate for hepatoma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently proved for clinical trials. We have previously reported, for the first time, NDV Anhinga strain has an efficient cancer therapeutic efficacy in hepatoma. Tumor necrosis factor-related apo...

  14. Presence of vaccine-derived newcastle disease viruses in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcast...

  15. Complete genome sequence of a recent panzootic virulent Newcastle disease virus from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete genome sequence of a new strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (chicken/Pak/Lahore-611/2013) is reported. The strain was isolated from a vaccinated chicken flock in Pakistan in 2013 and has panzootic features. The genome is 15192 nucleotides in length and is classified as sub-genotype V...

  16. Presence of virulent Newcastle disease virus in vaccinated chickens in farms in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sites where virulent Newcastle disease virus persists in endemic countries are unknown. Evidence presented here shows that the same strain that caused a previous outbreak was present in both apparently healthy and sick vaccinated birds from multiple farms that had high average specific antibody...

  17. Protein Organization in Newcastle Disease Virus as Revealed by Perturbant Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of Newcastle disease virus with lithium diiodosalicylate differentially elutes the internally disposed proteins, M and NP, showing that these proteins are extrinsic, i.e., not associated with the lipid hydrophobic core. This selective elution requires disruption of the viral envelope, a process that is maximal at low temperature and influenced by the lipid composition of the virus envelope.

  18. Recombinant immunomodulating lentogenic or mesogenic oncolytic newcastle disease virus for treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.R.A. Buijs (Pascal); S. van Nieuwkoop (Stefan); Vaes, V. (Vincent); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractOncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) might be a promising new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated recombinant NDVs (rNDVs) expressing interferon (rNDV-hIFNβ-F0) or an IFN antagonistic protein (rNDV-NS1-F0), as well as rNDV with

  19. Assessment of Newcastle Disease specific T cell proliferation in different inbred MHC chicken lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Liselotte Rothmann; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Pedersen, Asger Roer;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we have described the establishment of an antigen-specific T cell proliferation assay based on recall stimulation with Newcastle disease (ND) antigen; further, we have described the results obtained after recall stimulation of animals containing different Major Histocompatibility...

  20. Identification and complete genome sequence analysis of a genotype XIV Newcastle disease virus from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus from genotype XIV is reported here. Strain duck/Nigeria/NG-695/KG.LOM.11-16/2009 was isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck from a live bird market in Kogi State, Nigeria, in 2009. This strain is classified as a m...

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from recent outbreaks in eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otim, Maxwell O.; Christensen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    2004-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus isolates from chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001 were found to be velogenic by fusion protein cleavage site sequence analysis and biological characterization; the intracerebral pathogenicity index was 1.8. Analysis of their hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene sequences...

  2. POTENSI VIRUS NEWCASTLE DISEASE SEBAGAI AGEN ANTI-KANKER PADA MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus Newcastle Disease (NDV menimbulkan penyakit yang hebat pada beberapa spesies unggas dan mengakibatkan kerugian ekonomi yang besar pada industri peternakan unggas di seluruh dunia. Genomnya terdiri atas RNA berserat tunggal dan berpolaritas negatif dengan panjang 15,186Kb. Genom virus ND menyandi enam

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolate from an Outbreak in Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Polakshee; Morla, Sudhir; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDV/Chicken/Nagpur/01/12 was isolated from vaccinated chicken farms in India during outbreaks in 2012. The genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length and is classified as genotype VII in class II. PMID:25593257

  4. Research Progresses of Newcastle Disease Vaccine%新城疫疫苗的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨煦; 刘玉芬; 刘怀然

    2012-01-01

    综述了常规疫苗和基因工程疫苗2种类型新城疫疫苗的研究进展,分析新城疫疫苗的发展方向,以促进新城疫疫苗的研究。%Research progresses of newcastle disease vaccine were overviewed,including conventional vaccine and genetic engineering vaccine. The development direction of newcastle disease vaccine was analyzed. It could promote the study of newcastle disease vaccine.

  5. A Case of Newcastle Disease Virus in Red-Headed Lovebird in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim; Jedda Elhag

    2014-01-01

    Two diseased red-headed lovebirds were presented for diagnosis to the Department of Avian Diseases and Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute, aged 37 days and 4 years. The symptoms were dyspnea, cyanosis of the comb, diarrhea, and fever. Postmortem lesions included pale liver and bloody enteritis. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from lungs, trachea, and intestines following inoculation in the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old fertile eggs; the NDV was identified by the means of HA&HI tes...

  6. The Effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis Bacterin on the Immune Response Against Influenza and Newcastle Disease Vaccines in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Talazadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In poultry production, improving immunity is very important to prevent infectious diseases. One solution to improve the immunity of animals and to decrease their susceptibility to infectious disease is administration of immunostimulants. Surveys have indicated that some bacteria can work as immunomodulators such as Mycobacterium vaccae and can promote Th1-mediated mechanisms, and switch off pre-existing Th2 preponderance (1. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin on the immune response against Influenza and Newcastle disease vaccine in broiler chickens . Materials and Methods: A total of 170 day-old broiler chicks were purchased and divided randomly into 5 equal groups. Chickens of group A received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on two days before vaccination against Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Chickens of group B received 106 bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the first injection of bacterin. Chickens of group C received 106bacterin subcutaneously on six days after the second injection of bacterin. Chickens of group D, vaccinated against Newcastle disease and avian influenza but did not receive bacterin. Chickens of group E, did not vaccinate against Newcastle disease and avian influenza and did not receive bacterin. All groups except group E, were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2. Blood samples were collected and antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and avian influenza vaccine was determined by HI test. Results: The results of present study showed that receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin for 3 times, significantly increased the specific antibody response to avian influenza subtype H9N2 vaccine. Also about Newcastle vaccine, significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine at 21 and 28 days after vaccination. Conclusions: Receiving of Tsukamurella inchonensis bacterin

  7. Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Fringe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28, as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in

  8. Molecular characterisation of Newcastle disease virus isolates from different geographical regions in Mozambique in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fringe, Raul; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Ebersohn, Karen; Bisschop, Shahn; Abolnik, Celia; Venter, Estelle

    2012-08-31

    Newcastle disease (ND) is regarded as a highly contagious and economically important disease in poultry and has a worldwide distribution. Viral determinants for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) virulence are not completely understood and viruses of different pathotypes can be found at live-bird markets in different geographical areas. The prevalence of Newcastle disease in village poultry in Mozambique is not well documented and strains of NDV involved in yearly outbreaks are unknown. The fusion (F) protein is an important determinant of pathogenicity of the virus and is used commonly for phylogenetic analysis. Newcastle disease viruses from various geographical regions of Mozambique were sequenced and compared genetically to published sequences obtained from GenBank. Samples were collected in three different areas of Mozambique and NDV was isolated by infection of embryonated chicken eggs. Sequence analysis of the F-protein encoding gene was used to classify 28 isolates from Mozambique into genotypes and compare these genotypes phylogenetically with existing genotypes found in GenBank. The isolates obtained from Mozambique grouped mainly into two clades. In the first clade, 12 isolates grouped together with sequences of isolates representing genotypes from Mozambique that were previously described. In the second clade, 16 isolates group together with sequences obtained from GenBank originating from Australia, China, South Africa and the USA. Eleven of these isolates showed a high similarity with sequences from South Africa. The number of samples sequenced (n = 28), as well as the relatively small geographical collection area used in this study, are too small to be a representation of the circulating viruses in Mozambique in 2005. Viruses characterised in this study belonged to lineage 5b, a similar finding of a previous study 10 years ago. From this data, it merely can be concluded that no new introduction of the virus occurred from 1995 to 2005 in Mozambique.

  9. Viral nucleoprotein localization and lesions of Newcastle disease in tissues of indigenous ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy Wanjiru; Mbuthia, Paul Gichohi; Nyaga, Phillip Njeru; Bebora, Lilly Caroline; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-04-01

    Localization of Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein and pathological lesions was evaluated in tissues of 55 indigenous ducks (45 experimentally infected and 10 sentinel ones). In addition, ten Newcastle disease infected chickens were used to ensure that the virus inoculum administered to the ducks produced the disease in chickens, the susceptible hosts. Ducks were killed on day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection. Post-mortem examination was done with six tissues (liver, spleen, lung, caecal tonsils, kidneys and brain) being collected from each bird. The tissues were preserved in 10% neutral formalin for 24 h. They were then transferred to 70% ethanol for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Airsacculitis, necrotic splenic foci, congested intestines, lymphoid depleted caecal tonsils and focal infiltrations by mononuclear cells were the main pathological lesions in infected ducks. Over 28.9% of the infected ducks had Newcastle disease viral nucleoprotein in macrophage-like large mononuclear cells in the caecal tonsils and kidney tubular epithelium. The viral antigens were located in the cytoplasm and nucleolus of the cells. The other organs had no detectable viral antigens. This study shows that the kidneys and caecal tonsils are the likely predilection sites for the virus in ducks. They thus need to be considered as diagnostic indicators for the viral carriage in ducks.

  10. Genetic characterization and pathogenicity assessment of Newcastle disease virus isolated from wild peacock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, Sagar A; Gaikwad, Satish S; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Mishra, Bishnu Prasad; Dey, Sohini

    2014-12-01

    The continued spread and occurrence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed potential threat to domestic poultry industry around the globe. Mainly, wild avian species has always been implicated for the natural reservoir for virus and spread of the disease. In the present study, we report the isolation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV/Peacock/India/2012) in necropsy brain tissue sample of wild peacock from North India. Complete genome of the virus was found to be 15,186 nucleotides (nts) with six genes in order of 3'-N-P-M-F-HN-L-5', which was limited by 55-nts leader region at the 3' end and a 114-nts trailer sequence at 5' end. Sequence analysis of fusion protein revealed the dibasic amino acid cleavage site (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117), a characteristic motif of virulent virus. Phylogenetic analysis placed the isolate in genotype II of Newcastle disease virus showing the lowest mean percent divergence (6 %) with other genotype II counterparts. The isolate was characterized as mesogenic (intermediate pathotype) based on the mean death time (63 h) in embryonated chicken eggs and the intra-cerebral pathogenicity index (1.40) in day-old chicks. The report emphasizes the dynamic ecology of NDV strains circulating in a wild avian host during the outbreak of 2012 in North India. Further the genotypic and pathotypical characterizations of the isolate could help in development of homologous vaccine against NDV strain circulating in avian population.

  11. Analysis of Newcastle disease virus quasispecies and factors affecting the emergence of virulent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenbelt, Jacqueline A; Stevens, Matthew P; Selleck, Paul W; Gould, Allan R

    2010-10-01

    Genome sequence analysis of a number of avirulent field isolates of Newcastle disease virus revealed the presence of viruses (within their quasispecies) that contained virulent F0 sequences. Detection of these virulent sequences below the ~1% level, using standard cloning and sequence analysis, proved difficult, and thus a more sensitive reverse-transcription real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect both virulent and avirulent NDV F0 sequences. Reverse-transcription real-time PCR analysis of the quasispecies of a number of Newcastle disease virus field isolates, revealed variable ratios (approximately 1:4-1:4,000) of virulent to avirulent viral F0 sequences. Since the ratios of these sequences generally remained constant in the quasispecies population during replication, factors that could affect the balance of virulent to avirulent sequences during viral infection of birds were investigated. It was shown both in vitro and in vivo that virulent virus present in the quasispecies did not emerge from the "avirulent background" unless a direct selection pressure was placed on the quasispecies, either by growth conditions or by transient immunosuppression. The effect of a prior infection of the host by infectious bronchitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus on the subsequent emergence of virulent Newcastle disease virus was examined.

  12. Isolation, Identification and Molecular Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Newcastle Disease Virus From Field Outbreaks

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    Asma Ashraf

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Newcastle disease (ND is a major infectious disease of the poultry caused by a virulent strain of Avian Paramyxovirus - 1, that is a single strand non-segmented negative sense RNA virus. ND virus is major threat to the poultry industry in many countries of the world. The study was aimed to isolate and identify Newcastle disease virus (NDV by using a haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. A total 100 samples of infected and dead birds were collected from different poultry farms. The weight of the birds was ranged 1000-1200g. The birds were divided into 3 groups. Haemagglutination assay (HA was performed to detect the presence of NDV in suspension of infected homogenized tissues and it was found that HA is not the best method to detect the virus when it is in trace amounts. RT-PCR using NDV specific primers analyzed different clinical and postmortem samples. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and specific primers was used for determining the presence of viruses. It was found that the virus was present in most of the infected samples except the serum of infected birds. During multiple sequence alignment (MSA it was found that, our isolates have high homology (98% with other reported NDV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that our isolate was closely related with viscerotropic velogenic types of NDV, which are highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus.

  13. Serological and pathological studies of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from caged birds from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, M; Nerome, K; Kodama, H; Izawa, H; Mikami, T

    1987-01-01

    Eleven isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), from caged birds imported from or captured in Southeast Asia in 1979-80, were antigenically divided into five distinct groups. Most of them were distinguishable from more classical NDVs (vaccine B1 strain and Miyadera strain) on the basis of their reactivity to eight monoclonal antibodies against the HN molecule of NDV in hemagglutination-inhibition tests. However, when three representative isolates were evaluated for their biological properties and pathogenicity against 1-day-old chickens, all three were found to be velogenic types that could induce serious symptoms of Newcastle disease and which eventually killed all of the chickens, regardless of the route of infection. There was not any significant correlation between their reactivity patterns with the monoclonal antibodies and their virulence.

  14. Application of standard and molecular methods for the diagnosis of newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidanović D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four pooled samples of whole poultry carcasses with their internal organs were used to determine the presence of Newcastle disease (ND virus. Samples were collected from one epizootiological area in the Republic of Serbia during January 2007. Newcastle disease virus strains were isolated from four samples. The identification of isolated strains was done by using the hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. The nucleic acid of the ND virus was identified in all the four samples It was confirmed that all the isolated strains were velogenic strains. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the gene encoding the F cleavage site of the fusion F protein showed the presence of motifs 112RRQKRFIG119, characteristic for the velogenic strains of the ND virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene sequences revealed that all isolated strains of the virus belong to class II and genotype VIId. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31008

  15. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Sánchez; Rosana Pelayo; Luis Alberto Medina; Eduardo Vadillo; Rogelio Sánchez; Luis Núñez; Gabriela Cesarman-Maus; Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic s...

  16. Detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in serum of broiler chickens of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a common problem in poultry farms of Iran. Several serological and molecular tools are applied to diagnose the infection and predict its effects. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is a serologic test that commonly used in diagnostic laboratories. In order to determine NDV antibody status in broiler flocks of West and East Azarbayjan at the end of rearing period, 383 blood samples collected from 2 slaughterhouses in West Azarbayjan and subjected to HI test. 40.6% of sa...

  17. Presence of Vaccine-Derived Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Andrea J.; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Becker, Cassidy R.; Goraichuk, Iryna V.; Arns, Clarice W.; Bolotin, Vitaly I.; Ferreira, Helena L.; Gerilovych, Anton P.; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V.; Martini, Matheus C.; Muzyka, Denys V.; Orsi, Maria A.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Silva, Renata K.; Solodiankin, Olexii S.; Stegniy, Boris T.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Our study demonstrates the repeated isolation of vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses from different species of wild birds across four continents from 1997 through 2014. The data indicate that at least 17 species from ten avian orders occupying different habitats excrete vaccine-derived Newcastle disease viruses. The most frequently reported isolates were detected among individuals in the order Columbiformes (n = 23), followed in frequency by the order Anseriformes (n = 13). Samples were isolated from both free-ranging (n = 47) and wild birds kept in captivity (n = 7). The number of recovered vaccine-derived viruses corresponded with the most widely utilized vaccines, LaSota (n = 28) and Hitchner B1 (n = 19). Other detected vaccine-derived viruses resembled the PHY-LMV2 and V4 vaccines, with five and two cases, respectively. These results and the ubiquitous and synanthropic nature of wild pigeons highlight their potential role as indicator species for the presence of Newcastle disease virus of low virulence in the environment. The reverse spillover of live agents from domestic animals to wildlife as a result of the expansion of livestock industries employing massive amounts of live virus vaccines represent an underappreciated and poorly studied effect of human activity on wildlife. PMID:27626272

  18. O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan nanoparticles for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunxiao; Kang, Hong; Yang, Wanqiu; Sun, Jinyan; Liu, Chunlong; Cheng, Guogang; Rong, Guangyu; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Kai

    2015-10-05

    A novel complex chitosan derivative, O-2'-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (O-2'-HACC), was synthesized and used to make nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. We found that O-2'-HACC had high antimicrobial activity, low toxicity, and a high safety level. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was then encapsulated in the O-2'-HACC nanoparticles (NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs) by the ionic crosslinking method, and the properties of the resulting nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs had regular spherical morphologies and high stability, with an encapsulation efficiency of 95.68 ± 2.2% and a loading capacity of 58.75 ± 4.03%. An in vitro release assay indicated that release of NDV from NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs occurred slowly. Specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs intranasally had much stronger cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses than did those immunized intramuscularly or with live attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine. NDV/La Sota-O-2'-HACC-NPs are a novel drug delivery carrier with immense potential in medical applications.

  19. A retrospective study and predictive modelling of Newcastle Disease trends among rural poultry of eastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubamba, C; Ramsay, G; Abolnik, C; Dautu, G; Gummow, B

    2016-10-01

    Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014. The study found that Newcastle Disease cases in eastern Zambia followed a seasonal and cyclic pattern with peaks in the hot dry season (Overall Seasonal Index 1.1) as well as cycles every three years with an estimated provincial incidence range of 0.16 to 1.7% per year. Annual trends were compared with major intervention policies implemented by the Zambian government, which often received donor support from the international community during the study period. Aid delivered through government programmes appeared to have no major impact on ND trends between 1989 and 2014 and reasons for this are discussed. There were apparent spatial shifts in districts with outbreaks over time which could be as a result of veterinary interventions chasing outbreaks rather than implementing uniform control. Data was also fitted to a predictive time series model for ND which could be used to plan for future ND control. Time series modelling showed an increasing trend in ND annual incidence over 25 years if existing interventions continue. A different approach to controlling the disease is needed if this trend is to be halted. Conversely, the positive trend may be a function of improved reporting by farmers as a result of more awareness of the disease.

  20. Viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease virus replication in feathers of infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-03-01

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) cause systemic diseases in chickens with high mortality. However, little is known about persistence of NDVs in contaminated tissues from infected birds. In this study, we examined viral replication in the feather pulp of chickens inoculated with viscerotropic velogenic NDV (vvNDV) genotype VII. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate viral persistence in the samples. vvNDV was detected in the oropharynx and cloaca and viral antigens were detected in the feathers, suggesting that feathers act as sources of viral transmission.

  1. Assembly and immunological properties of a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) for avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huifang; Xue, Chunyi; Lv, Lishan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Qiliang; Liu, Kang; Chen, Xianxian; Zheng, Jing; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Yongchang

    2013-12-26

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are both important pathogens in poultry worldwide. The protection of poultry from avian influenza and Newcastle disease can be achieved through vaccination. We embarked on the development of a bivalent vaccine that would allow for a single immunization against both avian influenza and Newcastle disease. We constructed a chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) that is composed of the M1 protein and HA protein of avian influenza virus and a chimeric protein containing the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of AIV neuraminidase protein (NA) and the ectodomain of the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein (NA/HN). The single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced both AIV H5- and NDV-specific antibodies. The HI titers and specific antibodies elicited by the chimeric VLPs were statistically similar to those elicited in animals vaccinated with the corresponding commercial monovalent vaccines. Chickens vaccinated with chimeric VLP vaccine and then challenged with the Newcastle disease F48E9 virus displayed complete protection. Overall, the chimeric VLP vaccine elicits strong immunity and can protect against Newcastle disease virus challenge.

  2. Improved immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus inactivated vaccine following DNA vaccination using Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ideris, Aini

    2016-03-01

    The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.

  3. Conventional and Molecular Detection of Newcastle Disease and Infectious Bursal Disease in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ameer H. Zahid

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare different diagnostic procedures for the detection of Newcastle disease and Infectious bursal disease in broilers and layers (during the period from March 2011 to February 2012 in the laboratory of the Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia (UPM .A total of 187 sick and dead chickens (63 broilers and 124 layers of different ages (1 week to >15 weeks were collected from 12 selective poultry farms (4 broilers and 8 layers. Clinically, 7 (14.89% of 63 affected broiler and 27 (30.68% of 124 affected layer chickens were diagnosed as Newcastle disease (ND whereas, 11 (23.4% of 63 affected broiler and 6 (4.82% of the 124 affected layer birds were diagnosed as IBD on the basis of clinical history, clinical signs and postmortem findings. Virus isolation from field samples was performed by inoculating each suspected sample into 10-day-old chicken embryos. Out of 34 ND suspected field samples, 26 (5 broilers and 21 layers were positive for NDV isolation and 11 (8 broilers and 3 layers of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive for IBDV isolation. For confirmatory diagnosis, virus detection was confirmed by serological tests (HI and AGID and RT-PCR assay. Out of 34 clinically diagnosed ND field samples, 20 (5 broiler and 15 layer were positive by RT-PCR assay and 15 (10 broiler and 5 layer of 17 IBD suspected field samples, were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay. Of the 26 HA positive NDV suspected AF, 19 (4 broilers and 15 layers were positive by both HI and RT-PCR assay whereas, 10 (7 broilers and 3 layers of 11 IBDV isolation positive tissue suspension were positive by both AGIDT and RT-PCR assay in the laboratory. Therefore, it may be concluded that serological (HI and AGIDT and molecular (RT-PCR techniques which allow rapid identification of most of samples are the reliable, sensitive, specific and more accurate methods to detect the

  4. Isolation and characterization of Newcastle disease virus from vaccinated commercial layer chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Balachandran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an infectious, highly contagious and destructive viral disease of poultry and controlled by vaccination. In spite of vaccination, incidence of ND was reported in commercial layers with gastrointestinal lesions. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence and pathotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV involved in gastrointestinal tract abnormalities of vaccinated commercial layer chicken of Namakkal region for a period of three years from 2008 and 2011. Materials and Methods: Pooled tissue (trachea, lung, spleen, proventriculus, intestine and caecal tonsils samples collected from dead birds on postmortem examination from 100 layer flocks above 20 weeks of age with gastrointestinal lesions were subjected to isolation of NDV in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF chicken eggs. Mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index of the isolates were characterized. Flock details were collected from NDV positive flocks to assess the prevalence and impact of NDV on vaccinated commercial layer chicken. Results: Among the 100 flocks examined Newcastle disease virus was detected in 14 flocks as a single infection and 10 flocks as combined infections with worm infestation, necrotic enteritis and coccidiosis. Chicken embryo mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI values ranged from 50.4 to 96.0 hrs and from 0.650 to 1.675 respectively. Affected birds showed anorexia, diarrohea and drop in egg production. Macropathologically, matting of vent feathers, petechial haemorrhage on the tip of proventricular papilla, caecal tonsils and degeneration of ovarian follicles were noticed. The incidence of ND was most commonly noticed in 20-50 wk of age and between the months of September to November. Morbidity rate varied from 5% to 10% in the NDV alone affected flocks and 5 to 15% in NDV with other concurrent infections. Egg production drop from the expected level ranged between 3 to 7 % in ND and

  5. Evaluation of the infection and transmission of wild type and recombinant strains of Newcastle disease virus in Japanese Quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a range of clinical disease ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe disease with high mortality. Vaccination for NDV is practiced almost worldwide in commercial chickens. Attenuated live vaccines are most commonly used, with recombinant vaccines becoming ...

  6. Repeated Challenge with Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Does Not Decrease the Efficacy of Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya L; Miller, Patti J; Olivier, Timothy L; Montiel, Enrique; Cardenas Garcia, Stivalis; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Afonso, Claudio L

    2017-06-01

    Globally, poultry producers report that birds well-vaccinated for Newcastle disease (ND) often present clinical disease and mortality after infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease (vNDV), which is contrary to what is observed in experimental settings. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is that the birds in the field may be exposed to multiple successive challenges with vNDV, rather than one challenge dose, and that the repeated infection may overwhelm the immune system and neutralizing antibodies available to prevent clinical disease. In this study, we evaluated this hypothesis under highly controlled conditions. We challenged well-vaccinated chickens with high doses of vNDV daily for 10 days, and looked for signs of clinical disease, changes in antibody titers, and mortality. All sham-vaccinated birds died by the fourth day postchallenge. No morbidity or mortality was observed in any of the NDV-vaccinated birds up to 14 days postchallenge; repeated high-dose challenges of vNDV was not sufficient to overcome vaccine immunity.

  7. In Vitro Synergistic Enhancement of Newcastle Disease Virus to 5-Fluorouracil Cytotoxicity against Tumor Cells

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    Ahmed M. Al-Shammari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy is one of the antitumor therapies used worldwide in spite of its serious side effects and unsatisfactory results. Many attempts have been made to increase its activity and reduce its toxicity. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is still a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent, especially in combination with other chemotherapies. Combination therapy seems to be the best option for targeting tumor cells by different mechanisms. Virotherapy is a promising agent for fighting cancer because of its safety and selectivity. Newcastle disease virus is safe, and it selectively targets tumor cells. We previously demonstrated that Newcastle disease virus (NDV could be used to augment other chemotherapeutic agents and reduce their toxicity by halving the administered dose and replacing the eliminated chemotherapeutic agents with the Newcastle disease virus; the same antitumor activity was maintained. Methods: In the current work, we tested this hypothesis on different tumor cell lines. We used the non-virulent LaSota strain of NDV in combination with 5-FU, and we measured the cytotoxicity effect. We evaluated this combination using Chou–Talalay analysis. Results: NDV was synergistic with 5-FU at low doses when used as a combination therapy on different cancer cells, and there were very mild effects on non-cancer cells. Conclusion: The combination of a virulent, non-pathogenic NDV–LaSota strain with a standard chemotherapeutic agent, 5-FU, has a synergistic effect on different tumor cells in vitro, suggesting this combination could be an important new adjuvant therapy for treating cancer.

  8. Antibody response to Newcastle disease vaccination in a flock of young partridges (Rhynchotus rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, R L; Cardoso, T C; Paulillo, A C; Montassier, H J; Pinto, A A

    1999-09-01

    Ten young partridges (Rhynchotus rufescens) were vaccinated with the lentogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus. Another eight unvaccinated birds were kept in close contact with the treated flock. Antibodies levels were measured over the course of 3 mo in all birds using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-ELISA). The LPB-ELISA was standardized, and the results were compared with those obtained with the HI test. Antibodies increased after 23 days postvaccination in 16 birds with no side effects as determined by both the HI test and the LPB-ELISA.

  9. Construction and Application of Newcastle Disease Virus-Based Vector Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichgers Schreur, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses are able to stably express a wide-variety of heterologous antigens at relatively high levels in various species and are consequently considered as potent gene delivery vehicles. A single vaccination is frequently sufficient for the induction of robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we provide detailed methods for the construction and application of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-based vector vaccines. The in silico design and in vitro rescue as well as the in vivo evaluation of NDV based vectors are described in this chapter.

  10. Genotypic and pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from racing pigeons in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengda; Qu, Yajin; Wang, Fangkun; Liu, Sidang; Sun, Honglei

    2015-07-01

    A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from an outbreak in racing pigeons in China was characterized in this study. Complete gene of the NDV isolate was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis. Pathogenicity experiment was carried out in pigeons, chickens, and ducks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered with the Class II viruses, has highly phylogenetically similar to NDV strains isolated from pigeons in China, but was distant from the viruses prevalence in chickens and vaccine strains used in China. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the virulent motif (112)RRQKRF(117) at the cleavage site, but it caused no appearance disease in chickens and ducks. However, the isolate had virulence in pigeons, resulting in severe nervous signs and highly mortality. Pigeons were considered as a potential source of NDV infection and disease for commercial poultry flocks. Therefore, new vaccines to prevent the NDV infection in the pigeon flocks should be developed as soon as possible, and strict biosecurity measures should be taken to reduce the risk of pigeon Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  11. Newcastle disease outbreaks in recent years in Western Europe were caused by an old (VI) and a novel genotype (VII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomniczi, B.; Wehmann, E.; Herczeg, J.;

    1998-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, isolated from outbreaks during epizootics between 1992 and 1996 in Western European countries, were compared by restriction enzyme cleavage site mapping of the fusion (F) protein gene between nucleotides 334 and 1682 and by sequence analysis between nucleoti......Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, isolated from outbreaks during epizootics between 1992 and 1996 in Western European countries, were compared by restriction enzyme cleavage site mapping of the fusion (F) protein gene between nucleotides 334 and 1682 and by sequence analysis between...

  12. Characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses from vaccinated chicken flocks in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Hu, Shunlin; Xu, Haixu; Liu, Jingjing; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiufan

    2016-06-16

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most contagious and devastating diseases to poultry in the world. The causative agents are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which belong to the genus Avulavirus, sub-family Paramyxoviridae, family Paramyxovirinae. Knowing the genomic and antigenic characteristics of virulent NDVs might contribute to ND control in China. The results showed that all of the virulent strains belonged sub-genotype VIId shared the same cleavage site (112)RRQKR/F(117) in the fusion protein. At least 69 % (38 of 55) of the NDV strains possessed E347K variation in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein. The cross-neutralization tests confirmed that the strains harboring 347 K showed lower antigenic relatedness with LaSota. Furthermore, the immune-challenge experiment indicated that LaSota could not provide complete protection against infection with the E347K variant NDVs as the vaccinated birds were still able to be infected and shed virulent challenge viruses. Currently, sub-genotype VIId NDVs are the prevalent virulent strains circulating among vaccinated chicken flocks in Eastern China. Our findings indicated that the E347K variation in HN gene would expand the antigenic difference with LaSota, which may be responsible for the increasing isolation rate of these strains from vaccinated chickens.

  13. Genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis of Newcastle disease virus isolated from domestic duck in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Suk Chan; Choi, Kang-Seuk

    2016-03-15

    Domestic ducks are considered a potential reservoir of Newcastle disease virus. In the study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a domestic duck during surveillance in South Korea was characterized. The complete genome of the NDV isolate was sequenced, and the phylogenetic relationship to reference strains was studied. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain clustered in genotype I of Class II ND viruses, has highly phylogenetic similarity to NDV strains isolated from waterfowl in China, but was distant from the viruses isolated in chickens and vaccine strains used in South Korea. Pathogenicity experiment in chickens revealed it to be a lentogenic virus. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein confirmed that the isolate contained the avirulent motif (112)GKQGRL(117) at the cleavage site and caused no apparent disease in chickens and ducks. With phylogeographic analysis based on fusion gene, we estimate the origin of an ancestral virus of the isolate and its sister strain located in China around 1998. It highlights the need of continuous surveillance to enhance current understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolution of the pathogenic strains.

  14. S1PR1 expression correlates with inflammatory responses to Newcastle disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaling; Xie, Peng; Sun, Minhua; Xiang, Bin; Kang, Yinfeng; Gao, Pei; Zhu, Wenxian; Ning, Zhangyong; Ren, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, which is characterized by inflammatory pathological changes in the organs of chickens. The inflammatory response to this disease has not been well characterized. Previous reports showed that the sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor, is important to the activation of inflammatory responses. To understand better the viral pathogenesis and host inflammatory response, we analyzed S1PR1 expression during NDV infection. We observed a direct correlation between chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cellular inflammatory responses and S1PR1 expression. Virulent NDV-infected CEF cells also had elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18). When S1PR1 was inhibited by using the specific antagonist W146, pro-inflammatory cytokine production declined. Overexpression of S1PR1 resulted in increased virus-induced IL-1β production. S1PR1 expression levels did not impact significantly NDV replication. These findings highlight the important role of S1PR1 in inflammatory responses in NDV infection.

  15. Genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 1: Proposal for a unified nomenclature and classification system of Newcastle disease virus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically diverse Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates circulate and cause disease in different geographic locations of the world. The differences found on the genome of distinct NDV isolates have been used to classify different isolates into genetic groups called genotypes or lineages. Both l...

  16. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-09-19

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Inactive vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate an application of an inactive Newcastle disease (ND vaccine derived from velogenic strain of local Newcastle disease virus (NDV. In this research . the Ira strain of velogenic ND virus was grown in specific pathogen free (SPF eggs and then was inactivated by formalin at a final concentration of 1 :1,000 at 4°C. The inactive antigen was then emulsified with an oil adjuvant or aluminium hydroxide gel before being administered for vaccination in layers and compared to a commercial inactive ND vaccine . Results indicated that application of these inactivated ND vaccines for booster vaccination following vaccination with an active lentogenic ND virus in pullets nearly producing eggs, resulted in high antibody titre which persisted for considerable long period of time and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production . Hence, it could be concluded that the inactivated vaccine emulsified in either oil-adjuvant (lanolin-paraffin or aluminium hydroxide gel were considered to be highly immunogenic and capable of protecting layers from sick of ND and from reducing egg production

  18. Effect of immunosuppression on newcastle disease virus persistence in ducks with different immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njagi, Lucy W; Nyaga, Phillip N; Bebora, Lilly C; Mbuthia, Paul G; Minga, Uswege M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to verify the possibility that ducks are sources of Newcastle disease (ND) virus infection for chickens in mixed flocks. Immunosuppressed (IS) and non immunosuppressed (NIS) birds, at three different antibody levels (medium, low and absent) were used; the titres having been induced through vaccination, and Immunosuppression done using dexamethazone. Each of the 3 respective groups was further divided into 2 groups of about 12 ducks each: one challenged with velogenic ND virus; the other not challenged. Selected ducks from all groups had their antibody titres monitored serially using hemagglutination inhibition test, while two birds from each of the challenged groups were killed and respective tissues processed for ND viral recovery, using chicken embryo fibroblasts. In general, antibody titres of IS and NIS challenged ducks were significantly higher than their unchallenged counterparts (P < 0.05). Non-challenged pre-immunised ducks had a progressive decrease in antibody levels; non-immunised ducks did not seroconvert. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from livers and kidneys of the challenged ducks throughout the experimental period; indicating a possibility of viral excretion, especially when the birds are stressed. It, therefore, provides another possible model of viral circulation within mixed flocks.

  19. Antiviral effect of sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharide in chickens infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu; Zhang, Yuetian; Yin, Zhongqiong; Zhao, Xinghong; Liang, Xiaoxia; He, Changliang; Yin, Lizi; Lv, Cheng; Zhao, Ling; Ye, Gang; Shi, Fei; Shu, Gang; Jia, Renyong

    2015-02-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belonging to the Paramyxovirinae subfamily is one of the most devastating pathogens in poultry. Although vaccines are widely applied to control the infection, outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) repeatedly happen. Currently, there are no alternative control measures available for ND. In the present study, we found that sulfated Chuanmingshen violaceum polysaccharide (sCVPS) were potent inhibitors of NDV in specific pathogen free chickens infected with a virulent strain. With sCVPS treatment, the survival rate increased by almost 20% and virus titers in test organs, including brain, lung, spleen and thymus, were significantly decreased. The sCVPS also exhibited the ability to prevent viral transmission by reducing the amount of virus shed in saliva and feces. Higher concentrations of interferon α and γ in serum were detected in chickens treated with sCVPS, indicating that one of the antiviral mechanisms may be attributed to the property of immunoenhancement. Histopathological examination showed that sCVPS could alleviate the tissue lesions caused by NDV infection. These results suggest that sCVPS are expected to be a new alternative control measure for NDV infection and further studies could be carried out to evaluate the antiviral activity of sCVPS against other paramyxoviruses.

  20. Proteomic analysis of chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells after infection by Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoyu; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Yang, Guilian; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Liu, Xiufan; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2014-12-01

    Characteristic clinical manifestations of Newcastle disease include leukopenia and immunosuppression. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are the main targets of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. To survey changes in proteomic expression in chicken PBMCs following NDV infection, PBMC proteins from 30 chickens were separated using two- dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Quantitative intensity analysis showed that the expression of 78 proteins increased more than two-fold. Thirty-five proteins exhibited consistent changes in expression and 13 were identified as unique proteins by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer including three that were down-regulated and 10 that were up-regulated. These proteins were sorted into five groups based on function: macromolecular biosynthesis, cytoskeleton organization, metabolism, stress responses, and signal transduction. Furthermore, Western blot analysis confirmed the down-regulation of integrin-linked kinase expression and up-regulation of lamin A production. These data provide insight into the in vivo response of target cells to NDV infection at the molecular level. Additionally, results from this study have helped elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of NDV and may facilitate the development of new antiviral therapies as well as innovative diagnostic methods.

  1. Phylogenetic characterization of virulent Newcastle disease viruses isolated during outbreaks in northwestern Iran in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Elham; Pourbakhsh, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Malahat; Mardani, Karim; Talebi, Alireza

    2016-11-01

    The northwest of Iran shares long borders with three neighboring countries; therefore, it is considered one of the main entry portals of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) into the country. Ten virulent NDVs were recovered from 19 poultry farms of various prefectures in northwestern Iran during Newcastle disease outbreaks in 2010. The isolates were genotypically analyzed using an F-gene-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The amplified F gene (nucleotides 189-1666) sequences of the NDV isolates were compared phylogenetically with those of previously published strains in GenBank. All of the NDV isolates belonged to genotype VIIb and were closely related to some isolates from Iran, Russia, and Sweden. Therefore, it can be postulated that these isolates evolved from previously reported strains. The velogenic viruses carried the motif (112)R-R-Q-K-R/F(117) at the F0 cleavage site and a unique substitution of (190)L→F which had never been reported in any NDV genotype VIIb isolate. They shared high sequence similarity with each other but were distinct from current NDV vaccines and NDV strains reported from other countries. This information is fundamental for improving the efficacy of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  2. Wild Birds in Romania Are More Exposed to West Nile Virus Than to Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Niculae, Mihaela; Páll, Emőke; Domşa, Cristian; Brudaşcă, Florinel Ghe; Spînu, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in wild and domestic birds from Romania. During 2011-2014, 159 plasma samples from wild birds assigned to 11 orders, 27 families, and 61 species and from 21 domestic birds (Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) were collected. The sera were assayed by two commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) kits for antibodies against WNV and NDV. We found a high prevalence of WNV antibodies in both domestic (19.1%) and wild (32.1%) birds captured after the human epidemic in 2010. Moreover, the presence of anti-NDV antibodies among wild birds from Romania (5.4%) was confirmed serologically for the first time, as far as we are aware. Our findings provide evidence that wild birds, especially resident ones are involved in local West Nile and Newcastle disease enzootic and epizootic cycles. These may allow virus maintenance and spread and also enhance the chance of new outbreaks.

  3. Sulfated glucan can improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mi; Yang, Ruile; Zhang, Lifang; Meng, Xinyu; Fei, Chenzhong; Zhang, Keyu; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Wenli; Xiao, Sui; Zhang, Saiqi; Xue, Feiqun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the immune effect of sulfated glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGSC) on chickens, two experiments were researched. In vitro experiment, the effects of SGSC on chicken splenic lymphocyte proliferation were determined. The results displayed that SGSC could significantly stimulate chicken splenic lymphocyte proliferation. In vivo experiment, 200 14-day-old chickens were averagely divided into 5 groups. The chickens, except blank control (BC) group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three SGSC groups were injected, respectively, with the SGSC at low, medium and high concentrations, in vaccination control (VC) and BC group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the first vaccination, the lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were measured. The results showed that SGSC at suitable dose could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, and improve serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations. It indicated that SGSC could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, and would be as the candidate of a new-type immune adjuvant.

  4. Beta-chitosan extracted from Loligo Japonica for a potential use to inhibit Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaofei; Xing, Ronge; Li, Kecheng; Qin, Yukun; Zou, Ping; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Beta-chitosan has a parallel structure, which differs from alpha-chitosan's antiparallel structure while producing different properties and difficulties. In this paper, we prepared the beta-chitosan through acid and alkali methods and the resultant material was characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, HPLC, XRD, NMR and AFS. To increase the solubility and biological activity of the beta-chitosan, we degraded it through microwave-assisted process. After characterization, we determined that the chitosan had not changed its configuration during the reaction with H2O2 under microwave irradiation. The inhibitory activity of the degraded chitosan for Newcastle disease was revealed by a hemagglutination test and RT-PCR. The yield of the beta-chitosan was approximately 30%, and its molecular weight can be degraded to 1000 to 10,000g/mol. Moreover, the degraded β-chitosan has higher antiviral activity, reducing the hemagglutination titre to zero, compared with alpha-chitosan. Therefore, beta-chitosan has good development prospects during the development of veterinary drugs for Newcastle disease.

  5. Development of a highly immunogenic Newcastle disease virus chicken vaccine strain of duck origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.

  6. Species based synonymous codon usage in fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar Kumar

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is highly pathogenic to poultry and many other avian species. However, the Newcastle disease virus (NDV has also been reported from many non-avian species. The NDV fusion protein (F is a major determinant of its pathogenicity and virulence. The functionalities of F gene have been explored for the development of vaccine and diagnostics against NDV. Although the F protein is well studied but the codon usage and its nucleotide composition from NDV isolated from different species have not yet been explored. In present study, we have analyzed the factors responsible for the determination of codon usage in NDV isolated from four major avian host species. The F gene of NDV is analyzed for its base composition and its correlation with the bias in codon usage. Our result showed that random mutational pressure is responsible for codon usage bias in F protein of NDV isolates. Aromaticity, GC3s, and aliphatic index were not found responsible for species based synonymous codon usage bias in F gene of NDV. Moreover, the low amount of codon usage bias and expression level was further confirmed by a low CAI value. The phylogenetic analysis of isolates was found in corroboration with the relatedness of species based on codon usage bias. The relationship between the host species and the NDV isolates from the host does not represent a significant correlation in our study. The present study provides a basic understanding of the mechanism involved in codon usage among species.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Elmardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90 and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1. Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.

  8. Serological investigation of five diseases; Influenza, Newcastle disease, Salmonella, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in native hens of Eghlid, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mokhtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of the five diseases influenza, Newcastle, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and salmonella, among around native hens of Eghlid in Iran, on spring 2011. Materials and Methods: On the basis of native Hens distribution, this region divided into four parts of Eghlid, Doskord, Sedeh and Hasan-abad. Fifty unvaccinated native Hens randomly selected from each part. Blood samples were aseptically collected from the wing veins using 5-ml sterile syringe. Serum from hens was tested for detection and titration for Mycoplasma and Salmonella by the rapid slide agglutination method, and was tested for influenza and Newcastle by the Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. The data was analyzed completely in randomized design with four treatments, 50 repetitions for each disease. Results: 34 out of 200 samples (17% were positive for influenza. There were significant differences between regions (p<0.01. 38 out of 200 samples (19% were positive for Newcastle. The maximum infectious rate obtained from Eghlid. There were significant differences between regions (p <0.05. 170 out of 200 samples (85% were positive for Mycoplasma gallisepticum. 4 from 200 samples (2% were positive for Mycoplasma synoviae. The results do not show a significant difference for salmonella (p <0.05. Conclusion: Contamination of Influenza, Newcastle and Mycoplasma gallisepticum was high, and the highest contamination rate was related to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. It is usually recommended that preventive strategies, such as appropriate husbandry and hygiene, sanitary handling of chicks and eggs, routine health monitoring and vaccination of Native hens should be emphasized. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 126-130

  9. A Case of Newcastle Disease Virus in Red-Headed Lovebird in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbal Sidahmed Abdelrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two diseased red-headed lovebirds were presented for diagnosis to the Department of Avian Diseases and Diagnosis, Veterinary Research Institute, aged 37 days and 4 years. The symptoms were dyspnea, cyanosis of the comb, diarrhea, and fever. Postmortem lesions included pale liver and bloody enteritis. Newcastle disease virus was isolated from lungs, trachea, and intestines following inoculation in the allantoic cavity of 10-day-old fertile eggs; the NDV was identified by the means of HA&HI tests using specific NDV antisera (Lasota strain. The isolate agglutinated equine RBCs but failed to agglutinate sheep and bovine RBCs. The pathogenicity of the NDV isolate was studied, the mean death time was 96 hours, and the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI value was 0.9, indicating the isolate of lentogenic type.

  10. Recombinant phosphoprotein based single serum dilution ELISA for rapid serological detection of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moushumee; Kumar, Sachin

    2015-12-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in avian species. All strains of NDV belong to avian paramyxovirus serotype-1. The disease is endemic in different parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect birds from NDV infection. The virus non-structural phosphoprotein (P) is the second most abundant protein and a major modulator of viral replication. Although P protein shows lesser evolutionary divergence among NDV isolates, it is known to be highly divergent among different avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In the present study, a recombinant P protein based single serum dilution ELISA was developed which showed better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy as compared to conventional methods for NDV detection. The recombinant P protein based ELISA could be an alternative to existing diagnostics against NDV infection in chickens.

  11. Primer sequence-independent full genome amplification and sequencing of the VG/GA strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Villegas-Glisson Newcastle disease virus strain from the University of Georgia (VG/GA) was isolated from the intestine of healthy turkeys and has been demonstrated to replicate in the respiratory and intestinal tract of chickens. Field experiences have shown that the VG/GA is useful in the cont...

  12. Effects of insertion sites in a Newcastle disease virus vector on foreign gene expression through an internal ribosomal entry site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian paramyxovirus type 1, has been developed as a vector to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign genes are usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit (ITU), which potentially a...

  13. Newcastle disease virus vectored infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines protect commercial broiler chickens in the presence of maternally derived antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins B and D have previously been demonstrated to confer complete clinical protection against virulent ILTV and NDV challenges in naive chickens. We extended this study to assess whether mate...

  14. Evaluation of a thermostable Newcastle disease virus strain TS09-C as an in-ovo vaccine for chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-ovo vaccination is an attractive immunization approach for poultry industry. However, most of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strains used after hatch are unsafe, as in-ovo vaccines, due to their high pathogenicity for chicken embryos. In this study, we evaluated the safety and immunoge...

  15. Generation of a recombinant chimeric Newcastle disease virus vaccine that allows serological differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, B.P.; Leeuw, de O.S.; Verstegen, I.; Koch, G.; Gielkens, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    Using a recently developed reverse genetics system, we have generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine in which the gene encoding the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) has been replaced by a hybrid HN gene consisting of the cytoplasmic domain, transmembrane region, and stalk region

  16. Analysis of transcriptional responses of chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using paraffin embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transcriptional response of several cytokines in the spleen of chicken naturally infected by Newcastle Disease velogenic viscerotropic viruses was compared to the responses of atypical velogenic, velogenic neurotropic, and mesogenic strains during the first five days after infection. The ribonuc...

  17. The VG/GA strain of Newcastle disease virus: Mucosal immunity, protection against lethal challenge and molecular analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The VG/GA strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from the intestine of healthy turkeys has been proposed to replicate in the respiratory and intestinal tract of chickens. In this study, the virus distribution, the mucosal and systemic immune response, the efficacy against lethal challenge...

  18. Characterization and Sequencing of a Genotype XII Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Peacock (Pavo cristatus) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataje-Lavanda, Luis; Figueroa, Aling; Segovia, Karen; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; Montalvan, Angela; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the first complete sequence and biological characterization of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a peacock in South America (NDV/peacock/Peru/2011). This isolate, classified as genotype XII in class II, highlights the need for increased surveillance of noncommercial avian species. PMID:26227592

  19. Development of a Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a foreign gene through an internal ribosomal entry site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign genes are usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit (ITU). Based on the well-accepted “stop-start” transcr...

  20. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  1. Complete genome sequence of a genotype XVII Newcastle disease virus, isolated from an apparently healthy domestic duck in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete genome sequence of a strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype XVII is described here. A velogenic strain (duck/Nigeria/903/KUDU-113/1992) was isolated from an apparently healthy free-roaming domestic duck sampled in Kuru, Nigeria, in 1992. Phylogenetic analysis of the f...

  2. Immunogenicity of Newcastle disease virus vectors expressing Norwalk virus capsid protein in the presence or absence of VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Shun; Jiang, Xi; Green, Kim Y; Samal, Siba K

    2015-10-01

    Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. Development of an effective vaccine is required for reducing their outbreaks. In order to develop a GI norovirus vaccine, Newcastle disease virus vectors, rLaSota and modified rBC, were used to express VP1 protein of Norwalk virus. Co-expression of VP1 and VP2 proteins by Newcastle disease virus vectors resulted in enhanced expression of Norwalk virus VP1 protein and self-assembly of VP1 protein into virus-like particles. Furthermore, the Norwalk virus-specific IgG response induced in mice by Newcastle disease virus vectors was similar to that induced by baculovirus-expressed virus-like particles in mice. However, the modified rBC vector in the presence of VP2 protein induced significantly higher levels of cellular and mucosal immune responses than those induced by baculovirus-expressed VLPs. These results indicate that Newcastle disease virus has great potential for developing a live Norwalk virus vaccine by inducing humoral, cellular and mucosal immune responses in humans.

  3. Previous infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus affects infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of...

  4. Isolation of a recent Korean epizootic strain of Newcastle disease virus from Eurasian Scops Owls affected with severe diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Nah, Jin-Ju; Kim, Young-Jun; Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lee, Hang; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2008-01-01

    Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was recovered from two dead Eurasian Scops Owls (Otus scops) from a wildlife rescue center in Korea during 2005. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the partial fusion (F) protein revealed that the isolates had the highest level of homology to recent Korean NDV strains from poultry.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Kseniya S; Sivay, Mariya V; Glushchenko, Alexandra V; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Shchelkanov, Michail Y; Shestopalov, Alexander M

    2015-01-29

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II.

  6. Tissue tropism in the chicken embryo of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle diseases strains that express green fluorescence protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Garib, S.O.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Gruys, E.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Koch, G.

    2003-01-01

    The tissue tropism of non-virulent and virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was investigated using 8-day-old and 14-day-old embryonating chicken eggs (ECE), inoculated with an infectious clone of the non-virulent La Sota strain (NDFL-GFP) or its virulent derivative (NDFLtag-GFP). Both strains expr

  7. P and M gene junction is the optimal insertion site in Newcastle disease virus vaccine vector for foreign gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. However, the optimal insertion site for foreign gene expression remained to be determined. In the present study, we inserted the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene into five different intergenic ...

  8. Newcastle disease vaccines-A solved problem or a continuous challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Afonso, Claudio L; Yu, Qingzhong; Miller, Patti J

    2016-12-16

    Newcastle disease (ND) has been defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health as infection of poultry with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Lesions affecting the neurological, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive systems are most often observed. The control of ND must include strict biosecurity that prevents virulent NDV from contacting poultry, and also proper administration of efficacious vaccines. When administered correctly to healthy birds, ND vaccines formulated with NDV of low virulence or viral-vectored vaccines that express the NDV fusion protein are able to prevent clinical disease and mortality in chickens upon infection with virulent NDV. Live and inactivated vaccines have been widely used since the 1950's. Recombinant and antigenically matched vaccines have been adopted recently in some countries, and many other vaccine approaches have been only evaluated experimentally. Despite decades of research and development towards formulation of an optimal ND vaccine, improvements are still needed. Impediments to prevent outbreaks include uneven vaccine application when using mass administration techniques in larger commercial settings, the difficulties associated with vaccinating free-roaming, multi-age birds of village flocks, and difficulties maintaining the cold chain to preserve the thermo-labile antigens in the vaccines. Incomplete or improper immunization often results in the disease and death of poultry after infection with virulent NDV. Another cause of decreased vaccine efficacy is the existence of antibodies (including maternal) in birds, which can neutralize the vaccine and thereby reduce the effectiveness of ND vaccines. In this review, a historical perspective, summary of the current situation for ND and NDV strains, and a review of traditional and experimental ND vaccines are presented.

  9. Vaccination of broilers against Newcastle disease in the presence of maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Anto; Halas, Máté; Süli, Tamás

    2017-06-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease in broilers with different levels of maternally derived antibodies (MDA). While vaccination remains the single most important means for controlling Newcastle disease, presence of MDA may interfere with the vaccination of young birds and decrease the efficacy of the vaccine. Day-old chicks with variable levels of MDA (negative, low and high) were vaccinated with a live attenuated vaccine against Newcastle disease. Three most commonly used inoculation routes were compared; oculonasal, spray and oral (drinking water). Onset and duration of immunity were measured by serology and challenge with virulent virus. Immune response in vaccinated MDA-positive birds was delayed in comparison with SPF controls. Protection was well established already at 14 days post vaccination in SPF birds while in MDA-positive birds it was 1-2 weeks delayed and was lower throughout the study. Non-vaccinated MDA-positive birds lost passive protection completely at 3-4 weeks of age and were significantly more susceptible to challenge than vaccinated hatch mates at all test points. The protection rate increased in vaccinated birds towards the end of the experiment and reached 70-100 % at the last test points (35-42 days of age). Correlation of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre vs. protection rate revealed the importance of cellular and local immunity as most of the vaccinated birds with low HI titre were protected, contrary to their unvaccinated hatch mates with the same HI titre. Oculonasal route seems to provide slightly better protection than the other two routes. Although immune protection in vaccinated MDA-positive birds may be decreased or delayed, vaccination still provides high protection against ND challenge in comparison with the unvaccinated hatch mates. The degree of interference seems to be proportional to the level of MDA. Vaccination schedules therefore need to be

  10. Protection and antibody response caused by turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Motoyuki; Godoy, Alecia; Rosenberger, Jack K; Rosenberger, Sandra C; Gardin, Yannick; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore

    2013-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is prevalent worldwide and causes significant clinical and economic losses to the poultry industry. Current vaccine programs using live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines have limitations, and new vaccines with distinct features are needed. To offer an alternative solution to control ND, a turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine (HVT/ND) expressing the fusion gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed. First, immunogenicity of the HVT/ND was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free layer chickens after vaccination by the in ovo route to 18-day-old embryos or by the subcutaneous route to 1-day-old chicks. Antibodies against NDV were detected at 24 days of age using a commercial NDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and the hemagglutination inhibition test. At least 90% of chickens were protected against challenge with velogenic neurotropic NDV Texas GB strain (genotype II; pathotype velogenic) at 4 wk of age, while none of the nonvaccinated, challenged controls were protected from challenge. Second, the age at which a vaccinated chicken elicits an immunologic response to the HVT/ND prepared for this study, and thus is protected from ND virus, was assessed in commercial broiler chickens after in ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryos. Challenge was conducted using a low-virulence NDV strain (genotype II; pathotype lentogenic) via the respiratory tract each week between 1 and 5 wk of age, in order to mimic the situation in areas where virulent NDV strains do not normally exist and low-virulence strains cause mild respiratory symptoms leading to economic losses. Protection was evaluated by the presence or absence of isolated virus from tracheal swabs at 5 days postchallenge. Partial protection was observed at 3 wk of age, when 6 out of 10 (60%) chickens were protected. Full protection was obtained at 4 and 5 wk of age, when 9 out of 10 (90%) and 10 out of 10 (100%) chickens were protected, respectively

  11. Molecular and antigenic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus isolates from domestic ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Huairan; Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Jiang, Yanyu; Xu, Qianqian; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating diseases to the poultry industry. The causative agents of ND are virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which are members of the genus Avulavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. Waterfowl, such as ducks and geese, are generally considered potential reservoirs of NDV and may show few or no clinical signs when infected with viruses that are obviously virulent in chickens. However, ND outbreaks in domestic waterfowl have been frequently reported in many countries in the past decade. In this study, 18 NDV strains isolated from domestic ducks in southern and eastern China, between 2005 and 2013, were genetically and phylogenetically characterized. The complete genomes of these strains were sequenced, and they exhibited genome sizes of 15,186 nucleotides (nt), 15,192 nt, and 15,198 nt, which follow the "rule of six" that is required for the replication of NDV strains. Based on the cleavage site of the F protein and pathogenicity tests in chickens, 17 of our NDV isolates were categorized as lentogenic viruses, and one was characterized as a velogenic virus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequences of the F gene and the complete genome sequences showed that there are at least four genotypes of NDV circulating in domestic ducks; GD1, AH224, and AH209 belong to genotypes VIId, Ib, and II of class II NDVs, respectively, and the remaining 15 isolates belong to genotype 1b of class I NDVs. Cross-reactive hemagglutination inhibition tests demonstrated that the antigenic relatedness between NDV strains may be associated with their genotypes, rather than their hosts. These results suggest that though those NDV isolates were from duck, they still don't form a phylogenetic group because they came from the same species; however, they may play an important role in promoting the evolution of NDVs.

  12. Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle disease virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingping; Liu, Ying; Jin, Liying; Gao, Dongni; Bai, Chengle; Ping, Wenxiang

    2016-08-10

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-GED), (2) woodchuck hepatitis virus post-transcriptional regulatory element (WPRE), (3) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) of adeno-associated virus (AAV Serotype II), and (4) the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. To test the in vivo efficacy of the viruses, we vaccinated chickens with each construct and characterized the cellular and humoral immune response to challenge with virulent NDV (F48E9). All of the vaccine constructs provided some level of protection (62.5-100% protection). The F-series of vaccines provided a greater degree of protection (87.5-100%) than the HN-series (62.5-87.5%). While all of the vaccines elicited a robust cellular and humoral response subtle differences in efficacy were observed. The combination of the WPRE and VSV-GED regulatory elements enhanced the immune response and increased antigen expression. The ITRs effectively increased the length of time IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 were expressed in the plasma. The F-series elicited higher titers of neutralizing antibody and NDV-specific IgG. The baculovirus system is a promising platform for NDV vaccine development that combines the immunostimulatory benefits of a recombinant virus vector with the non-replicating benefits of a DNA vaccine.

  13. The Diagnosis and Prevention Measures of Newcastle Disease%鸡新城疫的诊断与防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢梅

    2012-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is an acute, febrile, septic and highly contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. ND is one of the major infectious diseases in the poultry industry. The diagnosis and prevention measures of ND was reviewed in the paper.%鸡新城疫(newcastle disease,ND)是由新城疫病毒(newcastle disease virus,NDV)引起的一种急性、热性、败血性和高度接触性传染病,具有很高的发病率和病死率,是危害养禽业的一种主要传染病.本文将就ND的诊断和防治措施做一详细的综述.

  14. Fifty Years of Clinical Application of Newcastle Disease Virus: Time to Celebrate!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Schirrmacher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of 50 years of basic and clinical research on an oncolytic avian virus, Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, which has particular anti-neoplastic and immune stimulatory properties. Of special interest is the fact that this biological agent induces immunogenic cell death and systemic anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, localized oncolytic virotherapy with NDV was shown to overcome systemic tumor resistance to immune checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Clinical experience attests to low side effects and a high safety profile. This is due among others to the strong virus-induced type I interferon response. Other viral characteristics are lack of interaction with host cell DNA, lack of genetic recombination and independence of virus replication from cell proliferation. In this millennium, new recombinant strains of viruses are being produced with improved therapeutic properties. Clinical applications include single case observations, case series studies and Phase I to III studies.

  15. Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccines as bivalent or antigen delivery vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in reverse genetics techniques make it possible to manipulate the genome of RNA viruses such as Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Several NDV vaccine strains have been used as vaccine vectors in poultry, mammals, and humans to express antigens of different pathogens. The safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of these NDV-vectored vaccines have been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The vaccines are safe in mammals, humans, and poultry. Bivalent NDV-vectored vaccines against pathogens of economic importance to the poultry industry have been developed. These bivalent vaccines confer solid protective immunity against NDV and other foreign antigens. In most cases, NDV-vectored vaccines induce strong local and systemic immune responses against the target foreign antigen. This review summarizes the development of NDV-vectored vaccines and their potential use as a base for designing other effective vaccines for veterinary and human use. PMID:28775971

  16. Characterization of Pigeon Paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus) Isolated in Kazakhstan in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy; Vladimir Berezin; Alexey Prilipov; Eugeniy Usachev; Ilya Korotetskiy; Irina Zaitceva; Aydyn Kydyrmanov; Marat Sayatov

    2012-01-01

    Isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from deceased wild and domestic pigeons in Kazakhstan were obtained from the Almaty region during 2005 and were genotypically analyzed by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers specific to the viral fusion (F) protein gene.Part of the amplified F protein DNA product (nucleotide sequence 47-422) and the deduced amino acid sequenceswere compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in other geographic regions.Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Kazakhstanian pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) isolates belong to genotype Ⅵ or 4bii.To our knowledge,this is the first reported Ⅵ isolates that possess the sequences of 112 GKRQKR116* F117 within the F0 protein.The information is fundamental to improving the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  17. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Newly Avirulent Newcastle Disease Virus Hubei 92(HB92) Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zi-shu; Chen Yu-dong; Shao Hua-bin; Yang Jun; Xiong Zhong-liang; Wen Guo-yuan; Zhang Chu-yu

    2004-01-01

    A new avirulent, heat-resistance HB92 strain of newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was acquired from Australia V4 strain. Its complete nucleotides sequence was first determined. The entire genome of NDV HB92 consists of 15 186nucleotides (GenBank accession no. AY225110 ). It was demonstrated by sequence analysis that nucleotides homology of HB92 strain with virulent strain ZJ1 were 83.9%, and the homology compared with avirulent vaccine strain La Sota and BI were 94. 0% and 93. 5%, respectively. These results might be contributive to tbe study of the molecular mechanism of evolution of the NDV strain HB92 and to develop the engineered recombinant vaccine.

  18. Genetic and biological characterizations of a Newcastle disease virus from swine in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiaoyuan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV has been considered to only infect avian species. However, one paramyxovirus named as Xiny10 was isolated from swine. The differences of Xiny10, another previous swine NDV (JL01 and vaccine strain La Sota were compared on the basis of sequences of the whole-lengthen Fusion (F gene and biological characteristics. Findings Through serologic tests and sequence alignment, Xiny10 was proved as NDV. It has great differences with JL01 in virulence, biological characteristics, genotype and amino acid homology of F gene. The sequence alignment showed Xiny10 and La Sota both belonged to genotype II. It shared 97.3% to 98.7% identities with genotype II NDVs, which was higher than these strains from the other genotypes. Conclusions These above data suggested that the swine virus was NDV and it might be generated from La Sota.

  19. Genetic variation in V gene of class II Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Liu, Peng; Ren, Shanhui; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    The genetic variation and molecular evolution of the V gene of the class II Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates with genotypes I-XVIII were determined using bioinformatics. Results indicated that low homology existed in different genotype viruses, whereas high homology often for the same genotypes, exception may be existed within genotypes I, V, VI, and XII. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic variation of V protein was consistent with virus genotype, and specific signatures on the V protein for nine genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the phylogenetic trees were highly consistent between the V and F genes, with slight discrepancies in the sub-genotypes. Evolutionary rate analyses based on V and F genes revealed the evolution rates varied in genotypes. These data indicate that the genetic variation of V protein is genotype-related and will help in elucidating the molecular evolution of NDV.

  20. Atypical velogenic Newcastle disease in a commercial layer flock in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Dennis V; Ito, Hiroshi; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Ito, Toshihiro; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, a commercial layer flock in Japan was initially diagnosed as being infected with infectious bronchitis (IB) based on clinical signs, virus isolation, and serological analysis but was later found to be atypically infected with velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) following molecular diagnosis. The flock had slightly decreased egg production and an increased occurrence of soft-shelled eggs without significant mortality. IB-like viruses were isolated, which caused dwarfing and curling in 12-day-old chicken embryos. Ten years after this case, retrospective genetic analyses showed that apart from IB virus (IBV), the flock was also infected with NDV. Mean death time (MDT), intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), and deduced amino acid sequence of the cleavage site of the fusion (F)-protein gene revealed that the NDV isolate was velogenic ((112)RRQKR(116)). These results indicate that poultry clinicians should look out for atypical velogenic ND, especially in vaccinated commercial chicken flocks, which may harbor hidden NDV infection.

  1. Comparative analysis of sialidase protein in velogenic and lentogenic strains of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelizad, M; Ashtiani, M P

    2015-06-01

    The sialidase protein is a  major part of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is an important multifunctional envelope protein. This protein plays key roles in virus attachment to cells and virus-cell fusion. In this study, we compared the sialidase protein of Iranian virulent velogenic field strains with that of avirulent lentogenic strains. Six of seventeen variations in amino acid 395, 523, 550 432, 479 and 540 were observed near the catalytic and glycosylation sites in the sialidase protein. The obtained results showed fundamental differences in various biological parameters such as post-translational modification, antigenic index and electrostatic potential of tertiary structure of the sialidase protein. We suggest these six amino acids might play an effective role in the pathogenesis of NDV.

  2. Detecting Newcastle disease virus in combination of RT-PCR with red blood cell absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chengqian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has limited sensitivity when treating complicated samples, such as feces, waste-water in farms, and nucleic acids, protein rich tissue samples, all the factors may interfere with the sensitivity of PCR test or generate false results. In this study, we developed a sensitive RT-PCR, combination of red blood cell adsorption, for detecting Newcastle disease virus (NDV. One pair of primers which was highly homologous to three NDV pathotypes was designed according to the consensus nucleocapsid protein (NP gene sequence. To eliminate the interfere of microbes and toxic substances, we concentrated and purified NDV from varied samples utilizing the ability of NDV binding red blood cells (RBCs. The RT-PCR coupled with red blood cell adsorption was much more sensitive in comparison with regular RT-PCR. The approach could also be used to detect other viruses with the property of hemagglutination, such as influenza viruses.

  3. Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; PNewcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens.

  4. Risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in smallholder farming systems, Madagascar highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina Andriamanivo, H; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Rakotondrafara, T F; Jourdan, M; Renard, J F; Gil, P; Servan de Almeida, R; Albina, E; Martinez, D; Tillard, E; Rakotondravao, R; Chevalier, V

    2012-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are issues of interest to avian producers in Madagascar. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the major constraint for village aviculture, and avian influenza viruses type A (AIAV) are known to circulate in bird flocks. This study aims at classifying smallholder poultry farms, according to the combination of risk factors potentially associated with NDV and AIAV transmission and to assess the level of infection for each farm class. Two study sites, Lake Alaotra and Grand Antananarivo, were chosen with respect to their differences in terms of agro-ecological features and poultry productions. A typology survey involving 526 farms was performed to identify possible risk factors for (i) within-village, and (ii) between-village virus transmission. A cross-sectional serological study was also carried out in 270 farms to assess sero-prevalences of NDV and AIAV for each farm class and the link between them and risk factor patterns. For within-village transmission, four classes of farms were identified in Grand Antananarivo and five in Lake Alaotra. For between-village virus transmission, four classes of farms were identified for each site. In both sites, NDV sero-prevalence was higher than for AIAV. There was no evidence of the presence of H5 or H7 subtypes of AIAV. Sero-prevalences were significantly higher in Lake Alaotra than in Grand Antananarivo for both viruses (OR=2.4, p=0.02 for NDV, and OR=9.6, prisk of virus transmission between the different farm classes. In Grand Antananarivo, farm visits by collectors or animal health workers, and farm contacts with several markets were identified as potential risk factors for NDV transmission. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, and provide adapted control measures.

  5. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Newcastle disease virus (NDV inactivated vaccines and attenuated live vaccines have been used to prevent and control Newcastle disease (ND for years, there are some disadvantages. Recently, newly developed DNA vaccines have the potential to overcome these disadvantages. The low delivery efficiency, however, hindered the application of DNA vaccines for ND in practice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-F (o DNA that expressed the F gene of NDV encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method and optimal preparation conditions of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were determined. Under the optimal conditions, the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were produced in good morphology and had high stability with a mean diameter of 433.5 ± 7.5 nm, with encapsulation efficiency of 91.8 ± 0.3% and a Zeta potential of +2.7 mV. Release assay in vitro showed that the fusion gene plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs up to 93.14% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed and maintained its bioactivity. Immunization results showed that better immune responses of SPF chickens immunized with the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs were induced compared to the chickens immunized with the DNA vaccine alone. In addition, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-PLGA-NPs was also tested in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pFNDV-PLGA-NPs could induce stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and reached the sustained release effect. These results laid a foundation for further development of vaccines and drugs in PLGA nanoparticles.

  6. Newcastle Disease Virus infection study on duck and chicken in Subang district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprizal Panus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV infection in Subang area and to examine the diversity of the circulating NDV. Swabs of cloacal and oropharynx, and serum were sampled from total of 393 chickens and 149 ducks in backyard farms and live bird markets located in 10 subdistricts. Screening of NDV in pool of 5-7 samples by real-time Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR matrix (M showed 19/67 (28.3% cloacal and 8/67 (11.9% pharyngeal pools of chicken samples; 18/67 (26.9% of the pools excreted virus via cloaca and oropharynx, while the duck pools of 8/30 (26.7% shed virus from cloaca. Virus isolation attempted on individual sample from positive pools yielded 18 isolates which the majority of the isolates showed homogeneous antigenic character, only some of these showed variations up to 2 Log2 with Lasota and 4 Log2 with Komarov antisera. Majority of isolates had a higher affinity to Komarov indicating their propencity to virulent strains. Pathogenicity examination using elution test showed 3 isolates virus were grouped to mesogenic strains and 15 isolates to velogenic strain, in agreement with rRT-PCR fusion results. HI test on 408 sera showed that NDV antibody was detected in 48 (12% birds with titres ranging from 1 to 8 Log2; only about 13% of vaccinated chickens demonstrated protective antibody titre (≥3 Log2. Newcastle disease is still endemic in Subang with relatively low antigenic variation among circulating strains.

  7. Real knowledge of the lmmunity of newcastle disease%正确认识鸡新城疫的免疫机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天奇; 张玲; 董发明

    2001-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the epidimic diseases of thechicken,Taking a scientific immune method is the key of achieveing good results in prevention and control of newcastle disease.%鸡新城疫(ND)是危害养鸡业的重要疫病之一,采取科学的免疫方法是取得良好控制效果的关键。

  8. Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ovais Omer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F. Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 μg/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Newcastle disease virus-like particles as a platform for the development of vaccines for human and agricultural pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Trudy G

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination is the single most effective way to control viral diseases. However, many currently used vaccines have safety concerns, efficacy issues or production problems. For other viral pathogens, classic approaches to vaccine development have, thus far, been unsuccessful. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are increasingly being considered as vaccine candidates because they offer significant advantages over many currently used vaccines or developing vaccine technologies. VLPs formed with structural proteins of Newcastle disease virus, an avian paramyxovirus, are a potential vaccine candidate for Newcastle disease in poultry. More importantly, these VLPs are a novel, uniquely versatile VLP platform for the rapid construction of effective vaccine candidates for many human pathogens, including genetically complex viruses and viruses for which no vaccines currently exist. PMID:21339837

  10. Newcastle disease virus in little owls (Athene noctua) and African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) in an Israeli zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, R; Meir, R; Perk, S; Horowitz, I; Lapin, E; Rosenbluth, E; Lublin, A

    2014-12-01

    Newcastle disease is a contagious and often fatal disease, capable of affecting all species of birds. A velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) outbreak occurred in an Israeli zoo, in which Little owls (Athene noctua) and African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) were found positive for presence of NDV. Some of them have died. The diagnostic process included: post-mortem examination, histopathology, real-time RT-PCR assay, virus isolation, serology, intracerebral pathogenicity index and phylogenetic analysis. A vNDV was diagnosed and found to be closely related to isolates from vNDV outbreaks that occurred in commercial poultry flocks during 2011. All isolates were classified as lineage 5d. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Attitude of poultry farmers towards vaccination against newcastle disease and avian influenza in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OE Oluwole,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Avian Influenza (AI are among the important viral diseases of poultry with very high economic implications. ND is enzootic in most parts of the world while Highly Pathogenic AI (HPAI is an emerging zoonosis in Nigeria. This study was carried out to assess the perception and attitude of poultry farmers in the selected Local Government Areas in Ibadan towards vaccination of birds against these diseases, and to find out the types of vaccines that were available for the control of the two diseases. A total of 84 respondents out of 100 (84% completed and returned the questionnaires administered. The results indicated that all farmers vaccinated their birds against ND. The regime for ND vaccination was not the same across the local government areas. Some 32 (38.1% farmers operated vaccination schedules provided by hatchery technicians, while 43 (51.2% farmers vaccinated their birds at about 4-6 weeks interval. Nine (10.7% farmers combined hatchery and laboratory evaluation to determine schedule. Thirty nine farmers (46.4% indicated that they were aware of national policy of non-vaccination against AI. However, 14 out of 84 farmers (16.7% vaccinated their birds against HPAI. There is a need to continue the national policy of slaughter of HPAI infected poultry birds and compensation of farmers, albeit allowing strategic use of vaccine to effectively control HPAI outbreaks in south-western part of Nigeria.

  12. Reciprocal Antibody and Complement Responses of Two Chicken Breeds to Vaccine Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

    2006-01-01

    Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular c

  13. Isolation, Identification, and Sequencing of a Goose-Derived Newcastle Disease Virus and Determination of Its Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Li, Zi-Bing; Hu, Gui-Xue; Gu, Song-Zhi; Zhang, Shuang; Ying, Ying; Gao, Feng-Shan

    2015-06-01

    In August 2010, geese in the Meihekou area of Jilin province in China were found to be infected by a pathogen that caused a disease similar to Newcastle disease. To determine the causative agent of the infections, a virus was isolated from liver tissues of infected geese, followed by a pathogenicity determination. The isolated virus was named NDV/White Goose/China/Jilin(Meihekou)/MHK-1/2010. Specific primers were designed to amplify the whole genome of the MHK-1 virus, followed by sequencing and splicing of the entire genome. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of MHK-1 showed that the isolate was a virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus. The MHK-1 genome is 15,192 nucleotides long, and it belongs to the class II branch of Newcastle disease viruses, as evidenced by the amino acid sequence (112R-R-Q-K-R-F117) of the F protein. The hemagglutinin titer was 1:128 to 1:512. The chicken embryo mean death time, the intracerebral pathogenicity index, and the median lethal dose of chicken embryos of MHK-1 were 43 hr, 1.63, and 10(9)/ml, respectively, which revealed that the newly isolated MHK-1 strain is strongly pathogenic to geese.

  14. Identification of a new Newcastle disease virus isolate from Indonesia represents an ancestral lineage of class II genotype XIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Naomi L; Widen, Steve G; Wood, Thomas G; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2013-08-01

    An unknown virus was isolated from a mosquito pool collected in Jakarta during routine surveillance in 1979. Analysis of the sample using the Illumina platform resulted in the identification of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate. The sequence of the isolate indicated that it is an ancestral lineage of class II, genotype XIII. The source of the isolate is unusual, as newcastle disease virus is not believed to be vector-borne, although this mosquito pool was processed in a laboratory also handling samples for avian influenza surveillance and it is possible that this resulted in cross-contamination. This NDV isolate is still ancestral to most extant genotype XIII strains and provides a useful insight into historic NDV evolution.

  15. Determination of the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus type 1 in Zambian backyard chicken flocks

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    Chimuka Musako

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.

  16. 鸡新城疫防制研究进展%Research Progresses of Prophylaxis and Treatment on Newcastle Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘太秀

    2011-01-01

    新城疫的防控措施主要以疫苗预防为主,药物治疗为辅。文章就当前使用的疫苗种类、应用现状、治疗药物的种类、抗病毒机理进行综述,以期对新城疫的防制提供参考。%The main control measures against Newcastle disease are various vaccine and treatment with various drugs as supplement. The vaccine type, application of vaccine, drug category and mechanisms of anti-virus were introduced in this paper. Maybe these were helpful to researches of prophylaxis and treatment against Newcastle disease.

  17. Aerosol Disinfection Capacity of Slightly Acidic Hypochlorous Acid Water Towards Newcastle Disease Virus in the Air: An In Vivo Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hakimullah; Thammakarn, Chanathip; Suguro, Atsushi; Ishida, Yuki; Nakajima, Katsuhiro; Kitazawa, Minori; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-12-01

    Existence of bioaerosol contaminants in farms and outbreaks of some infectious organisms with the ability of transmission by air increase the need for enhancement of biosecurity, especially for the application of aerosol disinfectants. Here we selected slightly acidic hypochlorous acid water (SAHW) as a candidate and evaluated its virucidal efficacy toward a virus in the air. Three-day-old conventional chicks were challenged with 25 doses of Newcastle disease live vaccine (B1 strain) by spray with nebulizer (particle size Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain Sato, too, was immediately inactivated by SAHW containing 50 ppm chlorine in the aqueous phase. These data suggest that SAHW containing 100 ppm chlorine can be used for aerosol disinfection of NDV in farms.

  18. A novel chimeric Newcastle disease virus vectored vaccine against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Paldurai, Anandan; Samal, Siba K

    2017-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an economically-important disease of poultry worldwide. The use of vaccines to control AI has increased because of frequent outbreaks of the disease in endemic countries. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored vaccine has shown to be effective in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection. However, preexisting antibodies to NDV vector might affect protective efficacy of the vaccine in the field. As an alternative strategy, we evaluated vaccine efficacy of a chimeric NDV vectored vaccine in which the ectodomains of F and HN proteins were replaced by those of avian paramyxovirus serotype-2. The chimeric NDV vector stably expressed the HA protein in vivo, did not cross-react with NDV, was attenuated to be used as a safe vaccine, and provided a partial protection of 1-day-old immunized chickens against HPAIV subtype H5N1challenge, indicating its potential use for early protection of chickens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental infection of turkeys with avian pneumovirus and either Newcastle disease virus or Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Elizabeth A; Perkins, Laura E L; Swayne, David E

    2002-01-01

    Avian pneumoviruses (APVs) are RNA viruses responsible for upper respiratory disease in poultry. Experimental infections are typically less severe than those observed in field cases. Previous studies with APV and Escherichia coli suggest this discrepancy is due to secondary agents. Field observations indicate APV infections are more severe with concurrent infection by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In the current study, we examined the role of lentogenic NDV in the APV disease process. Two-week-old commercial turkey poults were infected with the Colorado strain of APV. Three days later, these poults received an additional inoculation of either NDV or E. coli. Dual infection of APV with either NDV or E. coli resulted in increased morbidity rates, with poults receiving APV/NDV having the highest morbidity rates and displaying lesions of swollen infraorbital sinuses. These lesions were not present in the single APV, NDV, or E coli groups. These results demonstrate that coinfection with APV and NDV can result in clinical signs and lesions similar to those in field outbreaks of APV.

  20. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,2,* Yang Zhang,1,2,* Xiaoyan Zhang,1,* Wei Li,1 Ci Shi,1,2 Chen Guo,1 Chunxiao Dai,3 Qian Chen,1 Zheng Jin,3 Yan Zhao,2 Hongyu Cui,2 Yunfeng Wang2 1College of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, 2Division of Avian Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-Efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Optimal preparation conditions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (pFNDV-CS-NPs were determined. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were prepared according to a complex coacervation method. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 199.5 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 98.37%±0.87%, loading capacity of 36.12%±0.19%, and a zeta potential of +12.11 mV. The in vitro release assay showed that the plasmid DNA was sustainably released from the pFNDV-CS-NPs, up to 82.9%±2.9% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed the F gene in cells and maintained good bioactivity. Additionally, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-CS-NPs was also tested in vitro by cell cytotoxicity and in vivo by safety test in chickens. In vivo immunization showed that better immune responses of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with the pFNDV-CS-NPs were induced, and prolonged release of the plasmid DNA was achieved compared to the chickens immunized with the control plasmid. This study lays the foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. Keywords: Newcastle disease, DNA vaccine, chitosan nanoparticles, mucosal immunity delivery system, immune effectiveness

  1. Rapid Detection/pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus isolates in clinical samples using real time polymerase chain reaction assay

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Abdul Wajid, Muhammad Wasim, Tahir Yaqub, Shafqat F Rehmani, Tasra Bibi, Nadia Mukhtar, Javed Muhammad, Umar Bacha, Suliman Qadir Afridi, Muhammad Nauman Zahid, Zia u ddin, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Kamran Abbas & Muneer Ahmad ### Abstract In the present protocol we describe the real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the rapid detection/pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isoaltes in clinical samples. Fusion gene and matrix ...

  2. A study of Newcastle disease virus obtained from exotic caged birds in Tehran between 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, O; Karimi, V; Nazaktabar, A; Kazemimanesh, M; Ghafari, M M; Azimi Dezfouli, S M; Hojjati, P

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection and its virulence in exotic cage birds over a limited area and time period. A set of 335 samples was collected from 24 different species of exotic unvaccinated cage birds kept in the zoological gardens and bird markets of the Tehran province of Iran during 1.5 years. Except for three pigeons, all of the sampled birds were healthy with no clinical signs of Newcastle disease. NDV was detected in three sick pigeons by haemagglutination assay (HA), haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests while two of them were identified as virulent types by RT-PCR. Although the remaining samples were negative by Newcastle-disease-specific HA and HI tests, 35 of them (10%) were identified as positive and 25 (72%) were determined as the velogenic type by RT-PCR test. Five PCR products were sequenced and all were confirmed as NDV but sequences were different from each other and from other sequences from Iran. In total, 14 species (58%) were infected and 10 species were uninfected with the velogenic type without showing any signs. Pigeons are very sensitive to NDV infection and play an important role in its epidemiology. In this study, the PCR test was found to be a more sensitive and powerful method than the HA and HI tests for detection of NDV reservoirs and carrier status in exotic birds. Also, the frequency of infection with the virulent type showed that the exotic birds should probably be considered one of the main causes of recurrent annual epidemics of Newcastle disease in endemic regions.

  3. The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M D S; Santos, Ivan F C; Paulillo, António C; Martins, Gislaine R V; Denadai, Janine; Lapela, Ivan M

    2014-08-25

    The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota) of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease.

  4. The haematological profile of female bronze turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo vaccinated with various commercial strains of Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M.d.S. Schmidt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vaccination on avian blood parameters are poorly understood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether different strains (Ulster 2C, B1, live LaSota and inactivated LaSota of Newcastle disease vaccines had an effect on the haematological profile of female turkeys. Seventy-five female turkeys were allocated to treatment groups according to vaccination strain. All the birds, except those in the control group, were vaccinated at 32 weeks of age and revaccinated at 40 and 48 weeks of age. Blood samples were obtained for haematological analyses and serum samples for the haemagglutination inhibition test. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower (p < 0.05 in vaccinated female turkeys than in the control birds 28 days after vaccination. Monocytes were significantly higher (p < 0.05 in 44-week-old female turkeys vaccinated with inactivated LaSota strain compared with the other groups. Turkeys vaccinated with the B1 strain showed significantly higher (p < 0.05 total white blood cell counts compared with the other groups vaccinated with various commercial strains of the Newcastle disease virus. In conclusion, female turkeys showed significant differences in haemoglobin concentrations, monocytes and white blood cell counts when vaccinated against Newcastle disease.

  5. Identification of new sub-genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus with potential panzootic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Haddas, Ruth; Simanov, Luba; Lublin, Avishay; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima; Wajid, Abdul; Bibi, Tasra; Khan, Taseer Ahmad; Yaqub, Tahir; Setiyaningsih, Surachmi; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates from new sub-genotypes within genotype VII are rapidly spreading through Asia and the Middle East causing outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) characterized by significant illness and mortality in poultry, suggesting the existence of a fifth panzootic. These viruses, which belong to the new sub-genotypes VIIh and VIIi, have epizootic characteristics and do not appear to have originated directly from other genotype VII NDV isolates that are currently circulating elsewhere, but are related to the present and past Indonesian NDV viruses isolated from wild birds since the 80s. Viruses from sub-genotype VIIh were isolated in Indonesia (2009-2010), Malaysia (2011), China (2011), and Cambodia (2011-2012) and are closely related to the Indonesian NDV isolated in 2007, APMV1/Chicken/Karangasem, Indonesia (Bali-01)/2007. Since 2011 and during 2012 highly related NDV isolates from sub-genotype VIIi have been isolated from poultry production facilities and occasionally from pet birds, throughout Indonesia, Pakistan and Israel. In Pakistan, the viruses of sub-genotype VIIi have replaced NDV isolates of genotype XIII, which were commonly isolated in 2009-2011, and they have become the predominant sub-genotype causing ND outbreaks since 2012. In a similar fashion, the numbers of viruses of sub-genotype VIIi isolated in Israel increased in 2012, and isolates from this sub-genotype are now found more frequently than viruses from the previously predominant sub-genotypes VIId and VIIb, from 2009 to 2012. All NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIIi are approximately 99% identical to each other and are more closely related to Indonesian viruses isolated from 1983 through 1990 than to those of genotype VII, still circulating in the region. Similarly, in addition to the Pakistani NDV isolates of the original genotype XIII (now called sub-genotype XIIIa), there is an additional sub-genotype (XIIIb) that was initially detected in India and Iran

  6. Re-evaluation the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease virus vaccine in commercial laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingsong; Gao, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengpeng; Xiao, Sa; Wang, Xinglong; Liu, Peng; Tong, Lina; Hao, Huafang; Zhang, Shuxia; Dang, Ruyi; Yang, Zengqi

    2017-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection causes serious problems in laying chickens, like reducing egg production, increasing rate of abnormal eggs in spite of strict vaccination in layer farms program. A new evaluation system is needed to show complete protection of the immunization in laying chickens based on the egg-laying performance, rather than clinical signs of the disease. In this study, laying chickens with different anti-NDV HI (hemagglutination-inhibition) antibody titer after vaccination were divided into different groups. These chickens were then challenged with field isolated highly virulent NDV strains. Results showed that the chickens in low HI titers group (5log2 to 8log2) and medium HI titers group (9log2 to 11log2) had atypical symptoms, produced abnormal eggs, and shed virus. Whereas, with HI titers≥12log2, the chickens were completely protected, and did not show symptoms, or produce abnormal eggs or shed virus. Morbidity, positive viral shedding rate and abnormal egg-rate decreased with increase in pre-challenge HI antibody titer. Our result suggested that 12log2 is the threshold of the HI antibody in providing complete protection to laying chickens under field condition, and protective efficacy is correlated with HI antibody titer. This study provides a valuable reference for the vaccination and control of ND in poultry. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Molecular characterization of an apoptotic strain of Newcastle disease virus isolated from an outbreak in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, U; Kumar, S

    2015-08-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry. The ND virus (NDV) encodes an error-prone RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which can cause high mutation rate leading to the emergence of its new antigenic variants. Antigenic difference of NDV strains may result in massive outbreak in vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry flocks around the globe. Apart from its pathogenic potential NDV has been explored as an oncolytic agent for a broad range of human cancers. In the present study, we isolated a novel NDV strain from an outbreak in chicken flock from the eastern part of India. Molecular characterization showed the NDV strain to be virulent in nature. The complete genome sequence analysis of the newly isolated strains belongs to genotype XIII. Moreover, the newly isolated strain of NDV showed positive results in various apoptotic assays in human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. The study will be useful to explore the possibility of using a newly isolated strain of NDV for virotherapy.

  8. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  9. Newcastle disease in white Pekin ducks: response to experimental vaccination and challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nishizawa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 120 Pekin ducks were distributed at random into four experimental groups, vaccinated or not against Newcastle disease (ND: G1 (Ulster 2C strain, G2 (B1 strain, G3 (LaSota strain, and G4 (nonvaccinated group. At 60 days of age, all groups were challenged with a pathogenic ND virus (NDV suspension, and a group of specific pathogen free (SPF chicks (G5 was also inoculated. Cloacal and tracheal swabs from all birds were collected after six, 14, 20, and 30 days post-challenge for virus isolation. NDV was isolated in 100% of SPF chicks. Pekin ducks from all groups, vaccinated or not, did not show any ND clinical signs, demonstrating that these birds are not susceptible to ND clinical disease. In the control group (G4, the virus was isolated 20 to 30 days after challenge, suggesting their possible NDV carrier state. In the vaccinated groups, no virus was isolated. This demonstrates that vaccination of white Pekin ducks against NDV is important to reduce NDV shedding in the field.

  10. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P backyard poultry production in Ethiopia.

  11. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known about the interaction between these two viruses when simultaneously co-infecting the same host, especially in areas of the world where both viruses are...

  12. Evidence of independent evolution of genotype XIII Newcastle disease viruses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moushumee; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in India through the decades, there has been little genetic characterisation of the virulent strains circulating in Northeast India. In 2014, a poultry farm in the Kamrup district of Assam reported an ND outbreak. In this study, genetic analysis and clinicopathological tests showed the virulent nature of the isolate Kamrup. Based on prudent classification criteria, the virulent strain Kamrup was found to be most closely related to members of genotype XIII of class II NDV. A phylogenetic analysis of NDV strains suggested three sub-genotypes: XIIIa, XIIIb and XIIIc. NDV strain Kamrup belonged to sub-genotype XIIIc. Sub-genotype XIIIc isolates were similar to the 1982 isolate from cockatoo and appeared to have evolved parallel to the preceding genotype XIII viruses circulating in India. The high genetic diversity and frequency of mutations observed in the envelope glycoproteins of strain Kamrup demonstrate the evolution of the pandemic genotype XIII NDV in India, which further undermines and complicates of NDV management in India.

  13. Genotype Characterization of Commonly Used Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine Strains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Satish; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Vakharia, Vikram N.

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an avian pathogen causing severe economic losses to the Indian poultry industry due to recurring outbreaks in vaccinated and unvaccinated flocks. India being an endemic country, advocates vaccination against the virus using lentogenic and mesogenic strains. Two virus strains which are commonly used for vaccination are strain F (a lentogenic virus) and strain R2B (a mesogenic virus). Strain F is given to 0–7 days old chicks and R2B is given to older birds which are around 6–8 weeks old. To understand the genetic makeup of these two strains, a complete genome study and phylogenetic analysis of the F, HN genes of these vaccine strains were carried out. Both the viral strains had a genome length of 15,186 nucleotides and consisted of six genes with conserved complimentary 3' leader and 5' trailer regions. The fusion protein cleavage site of strain F is GGRQGRL and strain R2B is RRQKRF. Although both the viral strains had different virulence attributes, the length of the HN protein was similar with 577 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of F, HN and complete genome sequences grouped these two strains in genotype II category which are considered as early genotypes and corroborated with their years of isolation. PMID:24897503

  14. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3’-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5’. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China. PMID:27391305

  15. The 1992 epizootic of Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, L.C.; Barker, I.K.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Ludwig, J.; Windingstad, R.M.; Key, D.W.; Bollinger, T.K.

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1992, morbidity and mortality in juvenile double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus; DCC) attributable to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was observed for the first time in seven northern USA states and one Canadian province, and recurred in three western Canadian provinces. Based on clinical signs and laboratory diagnostic findings, DCC mortality from NDV occurred in 59 of the 63 nesting colonies and two of three non-colony sites investigated. An estimate of in excess of 20,000 DCC died, with mortality rates ranging from cause for the mortality of an estimated 5,000 pelicans was determined. No evidence of NDV was found in other species nesting in proximity to affected cormorants. Although the source of the NDV infection is unknown in cormorants, the simultaneous onset of the epizootics in juvenile birds over a wide geographic area implies that the virus was acquired by adults prior to migration and was carried back to nest sites, exposing susceptible nestlings. The possible transmission of this virus from free-ranging wild birds to domestic poultry is a concern. Based on repeated epizootics in cormorants since 1990, NDV seems to be established in DCC.

  16. On the origin and diversity of Newcastle disease virus in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongolo, Mmeta G; Christensen, Henrik; Handberg, Kurt; Minga, Uswege; Olsen, John E

    2011-09-30

    Free-range rural chickens (FRCs) dominate the poultry industry in developing countries and chickens are exposed to multi-host infections, including Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The knowledge about the characteristics of NDV from FRCs is limited. This study investigated the persistence, spread and risks of NDV from FRCs. NDV isolates (n = 21) from unvaccinated FRCs in Tanzania were characterised by conventional intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) and sequence analysis of a partial region of the deduced fusion protein encompassing the cleavage site. Results showed that five isolates were screened as lentogenic, nine as mesogenic and six as velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 isolates compared to reference sequences revealed three, four, nine and five isolates in genotypes 1, 2, 3c and 4a, respectively. Genotype 3c also included published sequences of Tanzanian isolates obtained from exotic birds and chicken isolates from Uganda. The analysis showed that NDV were persistently present among chicken populations and possibly spread through live chicken markets or migration of wild birds. Differences in amino acid sequences detected around the cleavage site separated the isolates in six types. However, cleavage site pattern could not fully differentiate mesogenic isolates from velogenic isolates.

  17. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dwi Desmiyeni; Handharyani, Ekowati; Soejoedono, Retno Damajanti; Setiyono, Agus; Mayasari, Ni Luh Putu Ika; Poetri, Okti Nadia

    2017-04-01

    This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers. A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains. Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed (112)K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F(117) on NDV virulent strains and (112)G-K/R-Q-G-R-L(117) on NDV avirulent strain. Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.

  18. Antitumor Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase Used as a Molecular Adjuvant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hui-fan; CHI Bao-rong; HE Dong-yun; LI Chang; HU Ning-ning; WANG Kai; SHENG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is a potentially powerful tool used in cancer therapy.The strength of immune responses induced by some strategies is usually low,therefore,the development of agents capable of enhancing these responses is highlighted.The authors investigated the potential of an approach based on the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase(HN) of Newcastle disease virus(NDV) as a potential immune adjuvant.It was found that recombinant adenovirus(Ad) infected SGC7901 cells expressing HN exhibited both hemagglutinin(HA) and neuraminidase(NA) activities.It was demonstrated that administration of HN induced higher levels of the effector cytokines TNF-α,IFN-α and IFN-γ and increased natural killer(NK) cell activity.Based on the therapeutic tumor model,the results show that the administration of HN with Apoptin led to improved survival and tumor suppression.In conclusion,this study indicates that HN stimulates innate immune responses to make the activity of NK cells increased,which highlights the potential adjuvant activity of HN in cancer gene therapy.

  19. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus F protein in the post-fusion conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Kurt; Wen, Xiaolin; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (Stanford-MED); (NWU); (HHMI)

    2010-11-17

    The paramyxovirus F protein is a class I viral membrane fusion protein which undergoes a significant refolding transition during virus entry. Previous studies of the Newcastle disease virus, human parainfluenza virus 3 and parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins revealed differences in the pre- and post-fusion structures. The NDV Queensland (Q) F structure lacked structural elements observed in the other two structures, which are key to the refolding and fusogenic activity of F. Here we present the NDV Australia-Victoria (AV) F protein post-fusion structure and provide EM evidence for its folding to a pre-fusion form. The NDV AV F structure contains heptad repeat elements missing in the previous NDV Q F structure, forming a post-fusion six-helix bundle (6HB) similar to the post-fusion hPIV3 F structure. Electrostatic and temperature factor analysis of the F structures points to regions of these proteins that may be functionally important in their membrane fusion activity.

  20. Prevalence of newcastle disease virus in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus in Brazil

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    M.A Orsi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out during 2002/2003, aiming to determine the prevalence of virulent Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV in Brazilian commercial poultry farms. Clinical samples were obtained from the Southeastern, Southern and Central-Western regions, which comprise the main area of the Brazilian poultry production. Serum samples and tracheal and cloacal swabs of 23,745 broiler chickens from 1,583 flocks, including both vaccinated chickens and those with no vaccination information, were tested for NDV using a diagnostic ELISA kit. The seropositivity was 39.1%, and the isolation percentage by flock varied from 1.0 to 7.6%, and by region from 6.5 to 58.4%. Higher isolation rates (74.3-83.3% were obtained after three passages in embryonated chicken eggs. All isolates preliminarily identified as NDV were characterized as nonpathogenic strains, as their Intracerebral Pathogenicity Index (ICPI was below 0.7. Based on results of this study, Brazil can claim a virulent NDV-free status for commercial flocks.

  1. Neuropathogenic Capacity of Lentogenic, Mesogenic, and Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strains in Day-Old Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, V M B D; Susta, L; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Stanton, J B; Miller, P J; Afonso, C L; Brown, C C

    2016-01-01

    Strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have different abilities to elicit neurologic signs. To determine the capacity of different NDV strains to replicate and cause lesions in the brain, independently of their peripheral replication, 1-day-old chickens were inoculated in the subdural space with 7 NDV strains of different virulence (4 velogenic, 2 mesogenic, 1 lentogenic). Velogenic strains induced severe necrotizing and heterophilic ventriculitis and meningitis, as well as edema of the neuroparenchyma, and replicated extensively in the nervous tissue by day 2 postinfection, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, when all infected birds died. Clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and viral replication were delayed (days 3 and 4 postinfection) with mesogenic strains. Velogenic and mesogenic NDV strains replicated mainly in neurons, and immunolabeling was first detected in surface-oriented areas (periventricular and submeningeal), possibly as a reflection of the inoculation route. The lentogenic NDV strain did not cause death of infected birds; replication was confined to the epithelium of the ependyma and choroid plexuses; and lesions consisted of lymphoid aggregates limited to the choroid plexuses. Results show that extensive NDV replication in the brain is typical of velogenic and mesogenic, but not lentogenic, NDV strains. In addition, this study suggests that differences in the rate of NDV replication in nervous tissue, not differences in neurotropism, differentiate velogenic from mesogenic NDV strains. This study indicates that intracerebral inoculation might be used as an effective method to study the mechanisms of NDV neuropathogenesis.

  2. PLASMID VACCINE ENCODING HN GENE FROM NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS HAS MARKED ANTITUMORAL EFFECT IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛立娟; 金宁一; 龚伟; 王宏伟; 李萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antitumor effects of hemaagglutinin-neuraminase gene (HN gene) from Newcastle disease virus. Methods: Plasmid vaccine of pIRHN was constructed and transfected into HeLa cells. The expression of HN was analyzed by Western blot analysis, and the mode of cell death was detected by fluorescence microscope, gel electrophoresis and TUNEL assay and the expression of p53 and bcl-2 was also analyzed in transfected Hela cells. The effect of pIRHN on sialic acid contents in the Hela cell was examined. Results: pIRHN nucleic acid vaccines could be expressed in eukaryotic cell. pIRHN could induce apoptosis after HeLa cells were transfected. The effect of antitumor responses of pIRHN was correlated with the contents of sialic acid in tumor cells, and there was no prominent evidence for the relatedness of the antitumor effect with the expression of p53 and bcl-2. Conclusion: pIRHN may become a new antitumor biological agent.

  3. NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN THE INTESTINAL CONTENTS OF BROILERS AND LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ullah, M. Ashfaque, S.U. Rahman, M. Akhtar and A. Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred intestines pieces (100 each of broilers and layers of about 8 cm length were collected from the poultry sale shops in Faisalabad city. These pieces were opened, scratched and vigorously shaken into sterilized normal saline, the suspension was centrifuged and supernatants were subjected to spot haemagglutination with 2% chicken RBC’s. Out of 200 samples, 95% samples of layers and 75% of the broilers showed positive spot haemagglutination. Micro haemagglutination inhibition with Newcastle disease (ND antiserum revealed, 85 and 66 samples positive in layers and broilers respectively. A total of 10% samples of the layers and 9% of the broilers were not inhibited by ND antiserum suggesting other HA viruses. A total of 20 samples were used to isolate the virus in embryonated eggs (allantoic route. These isolates were confirmed as NDV by haemagglutination inhibition test. Five isolates were tested for intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI in day old chicks. The ICPI values obtained were 0.28, 0.31, 0.37, 0.38 and 0.46. The isolates were found to be lentogenic.

  4. Anti-tumor Immune Response Mediated by Newcastle Disease Virus HN Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Li-ping; JIN Ning-yi; LI Xiao; SUN Li-li; WEN Zhong-mei; LIU Yan; GAO Peng; HUANG Hai-yan; PIAO Bing-guo; JIN Jing

    2011-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-neuramidinase(HN) is one of the most important surface structure proteins of the Newcastle disease virus(NDV). HN not only mediates receptor recognition but also possesses neuraminidase(NA) activity,which gives it the ability to cleave a component of those receptors, NAcneu. Previous studies have demonstrated that HN has interesting anti-neoplastic and immune-stimulating properties in mammalian species, including humans. To explore the application of the HN gene in cancer gene therapy, we constructed a Lewis lung carcinoma(LLC) solid tumor model using C57BL/6 mice. Mice were injected intratumorally with the recombinant adenovirus expressing HN gene(Ad-HN), and the effect of HN was explored by natural killer cell activity assay, cytotoxic lymphocyte activity assay, T cell subtype evaluation, and Thl/Th2 cytokines analysis. The results demonstrate that HN not only can elicit clonal expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations and cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL) and killer cell response, but also skews the immune response toward Thl. Thus, vaccination with Ad-HN may be a potential strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  5. Newcastle Disease Virus as a Vaccine Vector for Development of Human and Veterinary Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Samal, Siba K

    2016-07-04

    Viral vaccine vectors have shown to be effective in inducing a robust immune response against the vaccine antigen. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is a promising vaccine vector against human and veterinary pathogens. Avirulent NDV strains LaSota and B1 have long track records of safety and efficacy. Therefore, use of these strains as vaccine vectors is highly safe in avian and non-avian species. NDV replicates efficiently in the respiratory track of the host and induces strong local and systemic immune responses against the foreign antigen. As a vaccine vector, NDV can accommodate foreign sequences with a good degree of stability and as a RNA virus, there is limited possibility for recombination with host cell DNA. Using NDV as a vaccine vector in humans offers several advantages over other viral vaccine vectors. NDV is safe in humans due to host range restriction and there is no pre-existing antibody to NDV in the human population. NDV is antigenically distinct from common human pathogens. NDV replicates to high titer in a cell line acceptable for human vaccine development. Therefore, NDV is an attractive vaccine vector for human pathogens for which vaccines are currently not available. NDV is also an attractive vaccine vector for animal pathogens.

  6. Antigenic validation of recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulape, S A; Maity, H K; Pathak, D C; Mohan, C Madhan; Dey, S

    2015-09-01

    The outer membrane glycoprotein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is important for virus infection and subsequent immune response by host, and offers target for development of recombinant antigen-based immunoassays and subunit vaccines. In this study, the expression of HN protein of NDV is attempted in yeast expression system. Yeast offers eukaryotic environment for protein processing and posttranslational modifications like glycosylation, in addition to higher growth rate and easy genetic manipulation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be better expression system for HN protein than Pichia pastoris as determined by codon usage analysis. The complete coding  sequence of HN gene was amplified with the histidine tag, cloned in pESC-URA under GAL10 promotor and transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant HN (rHN) protein was characterized by western blot, showing glycosylation heterogeneity as observed with other eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant protein was purified by affinity column purification. The protein could be further used as subunit vaccine.

  7. Selection and characterization of single-chain recombinant antibodies against phosphoprotein of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Benqiang; Ye, Jiaxin; Lin, Yuan; Wang, Man; Jia, Rui; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-09-01

    Phosphoprotein (P), involved in virus RNA replication and transcription, had become a new target for the research on treating Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Here we described the cloning and expression of phosphoprotein from NDV, and then screened the anti-P antibodies from the chicken single chain fragment variable (scFv) library, which were generated from chickens immunized with the ND vaccines. As a first step, the recombinant expression vector pET28a-P was successfully constructed. In a following step, two anti-P positive scFv clones from the scFv library were selected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The sequence analysis of two positive clones showed that there were more variation in complementary determine region (CDR) of VH and VL, and the CDR3 in VH exhibited a significant change in amino acid number and type. In another experiment, the purified scFv antibodies used in the assay was shown to be specific for NDV-P by western blot. The results indicated that the strategy we used in this experiment proved to be convenient way for screening scFv antibody, which paved a new way for the immunization diagnosis and the exploration of integrated control of NDV.

  8. Identification and functional analysis of phosphorylation in Newcastle disease virus phosphoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xusheng; Zhan, Yuan; Meng, Chunchun; Wang, Junqing; Dong, LuNa; Sun, Yingjie; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Chan

    2016-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) encodes a highly phosphorylated P protein; however, the phosphorylation sites have not been identified, and the relationship between phosphorylation and protein function is still unclear. In this study, we bioinformatically predicted 26 amino acid residues in the P protein as potential phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, we treated infected cells with kinase inhibitors to investigate NDV propagation and found that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the NDV life cycle and that PKC-activated phosphorylation functions in NDV replication. Using an NDV minigenome assay, we found that expression of a reporter protein decreased when the minigenome system contained P mutants lacking T44, S48, T271, S373 and especially T111. The phosphorylation status of S48, T111, S125 and T271 was determined by Phos-tag SDS-PAGE analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that the binding activity of NP and the P-T111A mutant was stronger than that of NP and the wild-type P, suggesting that P-T111 is involved in NP-P interaction. This study sheds light on the mechanism by which P protein phosphorylation affects NDV replication and transcription.

  9. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visnuvinayagam, Sivam; Thangavel, K; Lalitha, N; Malmarugan, S; Sukumar, Kuppannan

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC) system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18(th)(final) passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  10. Phylogenetic characterization and virulence of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from wild birds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijin; Zhang, Peng; Wu, Pengpeng; Chen, Shengli; Mu, Guohui; Duan, Xuji; Hao, Huafang; Du, Enqi; Wang, Xinglong; Yang, Zengqi

    2013-12-01

    Wild birds are considered as a natural reservoir of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). However, there is no information about genotype IX NDV from wild birds, especially from Columbiformes. In this study, two genotype IX NDV viruses were isolated from wild birds. One was from Eurasian Blackbird, while the other was from Spotted-necked dove. After purification by plaque technique, complete genomes of both viruses were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of partial fusion (F) gene and complete genome indicated both strains belonged to genotype IX. Based on intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the virus from Eurasian Blackbird was velogenic virus, while the strain from Spotted-necked dove was lentogenic virus. However, both strains showed one of velogenic cleavage sites. In addition, the strain from Eurasian Blackbird showed greater replication ability and generated larger fusion foci in vitro than that of strain from Spotted-necked dove. Comparing all the corresponding protein sequences of both strains, there were only 9 different amino acid residues between them. Furthermore, after analysis of these differences, the information about lentogenic NDV with multi-basic cleavage site was presented.

  11. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Li, Wei; Shi, Ci; Guo, Chen; Dai, Chunxiao; Chen, Qian; Jin, Zheng; Zhao, Yan; Cui, Hongyu; Wang, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Optimal preparation conditions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (pFNDV-CS-NPs) were determined. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were prepared according to a complex coacervation method. The pFNDV-CS-NPs were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 199.5 nm, encapsulation efficiency of 98.37% ± 0.87%, loading capacity of 36.12% ± 0.19%, and a zeta potential of +12.11 mV. The in vitro release assay showed that the plasmid DNA was sustainably released from the pFNDV-CS-NPs, up to 82.9% ± 2.9% of the total amount. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed the F gene in cells and maintained good bioactivity. Additionally, the safety of mucosal immunity delivery system of the pFNDV-CS-NPs was also tested in vitro by cell cytotoxicity and in vivo by safety test in chickens. In vivo immunization showed that better immune responses of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with the pFNDV-CS-NPs were induced, and prolonged release of the plasmid DNA was achieved compared to the chickens immunized with the control plasmid. This study lays the foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles.

  12. FILTRATION OF NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS FOR IMMUNODIAGNOSTIC KIT

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    R. Ahmad Raus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to purify recombinant nucleocapsid (NP protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV using microfitration fitration system and improve the processing conditions as well. A microporous membrane screening using two different sizes of membrane which are 0.1µm and 0.45µm was performed before further improvement on NP protein filtration was carried out. Several conditions of the independent variables that affect the microfiltration process such as the temperature, transmembrane pressure (TMP, and viscosity were observed. It turned out to be that 0.45µm membrane gave higher yield of NP protein than that of 0.1µm membrane. Thus, 0.45µm membrane was used to improve the filtration process for NP protein. Based on the Full Factorial Design (STATISTICA 8.0, Statsoft, Inc., eight sets of experiment were designed to identify the best conditions for the NP protein filtration. From these experiments, the optimal conditions that gave the highest yield of NP protein are; TMP 4.5psi, viscosity 2.39cP at 4ºC. Based on ANOVA (analysis of variance, all the independent variables studied do not significantly affect the purification of NP protein. However, based on the lowest p value for each variable corresponding to the response, temperature has the largest effect for the NP protein yield.

  13. Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin Neuraminidase as a Potential Cancer Targeting Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradaran, Ali; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with its immunotherapeutic activities and sialic acid binding abilities is a promising cancer adjuvant. The HN was surfaced displayed on Lactococcus lactis and its cancer targeting ability was investigated via attachment to the MDA-MB231 breast cancers. To surface display the HN protein on the bacterial cell wall, HN was fused to N-acetylmuraminidase (AcmA) anchoring motif of L. lactis and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The expressed recombinant fusion proteins were purified and mixed with a culture of L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Immunofluorescence assay showed the binding of the recombinant HN-AcmA protein on the surface of the bacterial cells. The bacterial cells carrying the HN-AcmA protein interacted with the MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Direct and fluorescent microscopy confirmed that L. lactis and Lb. plantarum surface displaying the recombinant HN were attached to the breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, providing evidence for the potential ability of HN in targeting to cancer cells.

  14. On the origin and diversity of Newcastle disease virus in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmeta G. Yongolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-range rural chickens (FRCs dominate the poultry industry in developing countries and chickens are exposed to multi-host infections, including Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The knowledge about the characteristics of NDV from FRCs is limited. This study investigated the persistence, spread and risks of NDV from FRCs. NDV isolates (n = 21 from unvaccinated FRCs in Tanzania were characterised by conventional intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI and sequence analysis of a partial region of the deduced fusion protein encompassing the cleavage site. Results showed that five isolates were screened as lentogenic, nine as mesogenic and six as velogenic. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 isolates compared to reference sequences revealed three, four, nine and five isolates in genotypes 1, 2, 3c and 4a, respectively. Genotype 3c also included published sequences of Tanzanian isolates obtained from exotic birds and chicken isolates from Uganda. The analysis showed that NDV were persistently present among chicken populations and possibly spread through live chicken markets or migration of wild birds. Differences in amino acid sequences detected around the cleavage site separated the isolates in six types. However, cleavage site pattern could not fully differentiate mesogenic isolates from velogenic isolates.

  15. Assessment of the pathogenicity of cell-culture-adapted Newcastle disease virus strain Komarov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivam Visnuvinayagam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease vaccines hitherto in vogue are produced from embryonated chicken eggs. Egg-adapted mesogenic vaccines possess several drawbacks such as paralysis and mortality in 2-week-old chicks and reduced egg production in the egg-laying flock. Owing to these possible drawbacks, we attempted to reduce the vaccine virulence for safe vaccination by adapting the virus in a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture (CEFCC system. Eighteen passages were carried out by CEFCC, and the pathogenicity was assessed on the basis of the mean death time, intracerebral pathogenicity index, and intravenous pathogenicity index, at equal passage intervals. Although the reduction in virulence demonstrated with increasing passage levels in CEFCC was encouraging, 20% of the 2-week-old birds showed paralytic symptoms with the virus vaccine from the 18th(final passage. Thus, a tissue-culture-adapted vaccine would demand a few more passages by CEFCC in order to achieve a complete reduction in virulence for use as a safe and effective vaccine, especially among younger chicks. Moreover, it can be safely administered even to unprimed 8-week-old birds.

  16. Newcastle disease virus passage in MDBK cells as an aid in detection of a virulent subpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D J

    1993-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus strains (NDV) La Sota, Texas GB (GB), and mixtures of the two strains were serially passaged in embryonated chicken eggs or the MDBK cell line, a more restrictive culture system than eggs for NDV. The two culture systems were compared by evaluating culture harvests for pathogenicity in inoculated chickens; the harvests were identified by hemagglutination-inhibition tests against monoclonal antibodies that can differentiate La Sota and GB cultures. Both viruses, inoculated alone or as mixtures, were propagated by passage in chicken eggs. La Sota strain failed to propagate by continuous passage in MDBK cells, and only GB was identified in culture harvests propagated in MDBK cells that had been inoculated with GB or mixtures of GB and La Sota. The results indicate that the MDBK cell line is a more selective substrate than chicken eggs and suggest that passage in MDBK cells may aid in selecting for more virulent subpopulations of NDV in a mixed culture. Other reference NDV strains, pigeon NDV isolates, and recent lentogenic NDV isolates from chickens were also passaged in MDBK cells; all strains except those that are classified as lentogens like La Sota could be serially propagated in MDBK cells.

  17. An electron microscopic study of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, M S; Gowans, E J; Louza, A C; Fraser, G

    1977-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of a line of MDBK cells persistently infected with Newcastle disease virus (MDBKpi cells) revealed the presence of cytoplasmic aggregates of both smooth and granular nucleocapsids. Only granular nucleocapsids aligned under modified areas of plasma membrane and were incorporated into virus particles. On the grounds of morphogenesis, there was no apparent explanation for the persistent, not-cytocidal nature of the infection. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic aggregates of smooth nucleocapsids were present in MDBKpi cells which had been held without subculture for between 40 and 130 days (aged MDBKpi cells). Modified areas of plasma membrane with associated alignment of nucleocapsids were not present in aged MDBKpi cells, and neither budding nor released virus particles were observed, indicating a block in virus maturation. It is suggested that the granular material coating granular nucleocapsids allows them to interact with modified areas of plasma membrane, thereby inducing virus budding. A deficiency of this material, as apparently occurs in aged MDBKpi cells, would therefore cause a block in virus maturation. The nature of this granular material is discussed, and we suggest that it consists of M protein.

  18. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Dongxia; Zhao, Yunling; Castellan, David; Liu, Hualei; Wang, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV), designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261), was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM) from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  19. Genomic Characterizations of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Ducks in Live Bird Markets in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wang

    Full Text Available One class I Newcastle disease virus (NDV, designated as duck/Guangxi/1261/2015 (GX1261, was isolated from asymptomatic ducks in live bird markets (LBM from southern China during the national active surveillance for NDVs in 2015. The complete genome length of GX1261 isolate was 15,198 nucleotides with the gene order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The motif at the cleavage site of F protein was 112ERQER/L117, which was typical of low virulence NDV. Several mutations were identified in the functional domains of F and HN proteins, including fusion peptide, heptad repeat region, transmembrane domains and neutralizing epitopes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete F gene revealed that the isolate was clustered into sub-genotype 1c in class I, and showed a high level of similarity with the strains isolated from waterfowl in the United States of America. This is the first report of this kind of virus in the mainland of China. These results demonstrated that GX1261-like viruses might exist in asymptomatic waterfowl, and remain undetected or unidentified. Thus, more investigation needs to be done in order to identify the source of the virus. This study revealed the genetic and phylogenetic characteristics of GX1261 isolate and could help us to better understand the epidemiological context of class I NDV in China.

  20. Characterization of pigeon paramyxoviruses (Newcastle disease virus isolated in South Africa from 2001 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abolnik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1, a variant of Newcastle disease virus that primarily affects doves and pigeons has been isolated in South Africa since the mid-1980s. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 viruses were introduced in to South Africa on multiple occasions, based on the presence of two separate lineages, 4bi and 4bii, that have been circulating in Europe and the Far East since the early 1990s. During 2006, a PPMV-1 virus was isolated from an African ground hornbil(l Bucorvus leadbeateri which becamea cutely infected with PPMV-1 and died, probably after scavenging off infected dove carcasses in the region, since a closely-related PPMV-1 strain was also isolated from doves collected nearby. The hornbill isolate had lCPl and MDT values characteristic of PPMV-1s trains. The threat of PPMV-1 to poultry production and biodiversity in southern Africa highlights the importance of monitoring the spread of this strain.

  1. RNA sequence and transcriptional properties of the 3' end of the Newcastle disease virus genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurilla, M.G.; Stone, H.O.; Keene, J.D.

    1985-09-01

    The 3' end of the genomic RNA of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been sequenced and the leader RNA defined. Using hybridization to a 3'-end-labeled genome, leader RNA species from in vitro transcription reactions and from infected cell extracts were found to be 47 and 53 nucleotides long. In addition, the start site of the 3'-proximal mRNA was determined by sequence analysis of in vitro (beta-32P)GTP-labeled transcription products. The genomic sequence extending beyond the leader region demonstrated an open reading frame for at least 42 amino acids and probably represents the amino terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (NP). The terminal 8 nucleotides of the NDV genome were identical to those of measles virus and Sendai virus while the sequence of the distal half of the leader region was more similar to that of vesicular stomatitis virus. These data argue for strong evolutionary relatedness between the paramyxovirus and rhabdovirus groups.

  2. The Role of Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems in Poultry against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Hewajuli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND is caused by avian paramyxovirus-1 which belong to Avulavirus genus and Paramyxoviridae family. The birds have abnormalities in humoral (bursa fabricius and cellular (thymus and spleen lymphoid organs. Lesions decrease the immune system. Immune system consists of non-specific and specific immune systems. The main components of non-specific immunity are physical and chemical barrier (feather and skin or mucosa, phagocytic cells (macrophages and natural killer, protein complement and the mediator of inflammation and cytokines. Interferons (IFNs belong to a group of cytokines that play a major role in the nonspecific or innate (natural immunity. The virulent ND virus encodes protein of V gene can be suppressed IFN type I. This leads to non-specific immune system fail to respond to the virulent strains resulting in severe pathogenicity. The defense mechanism of the host is replaced by specific immunity (adaptive immunity when natural immunity fails to overcome the infection. The specific immune system consists of humoral mediated immunity (HMI and cell-mediated immunity (CMI. The cells of immune system that react specifically with the antigen are B lymphocytes producing the antibodies, T lymphocytes that regulate the synthesis of antibodies and T cells as effector or the direct cytotoxic cells. Both non-specific and specific immunities are complementary against the invasion of ND virus in the birds. The objective of this article is to discuss the role of non specific and specific immune system in ND.

  3. Preparation of mucosal nanoparticles and polymer-based inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease and H9N2 AI viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. El Naggar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. Materials and Methods: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2 based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response was measured as well as challenge trial was carried out. In addition, ISA71 water in oil was also evaluated. Results: Our results showed that the use of spray route as vaccination delivery method of polymer and nanoparticles MontanideTM adjuvants revealed that it enhanced the cell mediated immune response as indicated by phagocytic activity, gamma interferon and interleukin 6 responses and induced protection against challenge with Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2 viruses. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the potentiality of polymer compared to nanoparticles adjuvantes when used via spray route. Mass application of such vaccines will add value to improve the vaccination strategies against ND virus and Avian influenza viruses.

  4. Study on a Newcastle Disease Detection and the Strain Typing of Newcastle Disease Virus%一起鸡新城疫的诊断及强弱毒株鉴别的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭延敏

    2012-01-01

    某鸡场鸡群中出现以神经症状、产蛋下降,畸形蛋增多和呼吸困难、腹泻等为主要特征的疾病,对发病鸡场进行实地走访并采集发病鸡病料.根据临床症状,病理剖检及实验室细菌学、血清学、病毒学检测,鉴定该鸡场发生新城疫疫情,并继发鸡群大肠杆菌感染;通过实时荧光RT-PCR检测,对该病毒进行强弱毒株的鉴别,显示该鸡场发生的新城疫是由新城疫中强毒株引起的.%There were some chickens troubled with a disease which caused the chickens neurosis, declining of egg laying, increasing of egg abnormal, embarrassment as well as diarrhea and so on. The chicken farm was visited and the infected chickens were acquisited. The disease was identified to be the Newcastle disease and produced Escherichia coli afterwards to send infection according to the results of clinical symptom, pathoanatomical examination, bacteriology, orrhology as well as virologi-cal examination. Then, real-time fluorescent PCR was done to identify the strain typing of Newcastle disease virus, the result showed that the Newcastle disease virus was midst-velogenic strain.

  5. Evaluation of histopathological changes, viral load and immune function of domestic geese infected with Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ailing; Diao, Youxiang; Chen, Hao; Wang, Jiao; Ge, Pingping; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hao, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of Newcastle disease in flocks of geese with high morbidity and mortality in southern and eastern China have been reported frequently since the late 1990s, which broke the traditional view that geese are considered to be the natural reservoir of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) but show few or no clinical signs after infection. In this present study, geese were infected intranasally with a local strain of NDV. Clinical disease and gross pathology were observed. Serum and immune organs were collected from geese sequentially euthanized or after disease-associated death. We studied the histopathology of immune organs by haematoxylin and eosin staining and NDV fusion protein was detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry. At the same time, the SYBR Green I real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the viral load from the collected samples. Serum samples were tested for NDV-specific antibodies and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibodies by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that severe lesions and numerous positive reactions of NDV antigen were detected in the immune organs. High viral loads developed in immune organs of infected geese, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, the infected geese developed low HI antibody titres to both AIV and NDV. The present study showed that the replication and dissemination of the NDV isolate was widespread in immune organs of geese. The study revealed that waterfowl may not only be a natural reservoir of NDV but also become susceptible to disease and may play a major role in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease.

  6. Generation of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Recombinants Expressing the Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus (ILTV) Glycoprotein gB or gD as Dual Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infection with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), a member of the family Herpesviridae. The current commercial ILT vaccines are either unsafe or ineffective. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious vaccines. Newcastle disease (ND), caused by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, is one of the most serious infectious diseases of poultry. The NDV LaSota strain, a naturally occurring low-virulence NDV strain, has been routinely used as a live vaccine throughout the world. This chapter describes the generation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain-based recombinant viruses expressing glycoprotein B (gB) or glycoprotein D (gD) of ILTV as dual vaccines against ND and ILT using reverse genetics technology.

  7. Evaluation of fusion protein cleavage site sequences of Newcastle disease virus in genotype matched vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Chen, Zongyan; Yoshida, Asuka; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Samal, Siba K

    2017-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a devastating poultry disease worldwide. Frequent outbreaks of NDV in chickens vaccinated with conventional live vaccines suggest a need to develop new vaccines that are genetically matched against circulating NDV strains, such as the genotype V virulent strains currently circulating in Mexico and Central America. In this study, a reverse genetics system was developed for the virulent NDV strain Mexico/01/10 strain and used to generate highly attenuated vaccine candidates by individually modifying the cleavage site sequence of fusion (F) protein. The cleavage site sequence of parental virus was individually changed to those of the avirulent NDV strain LaSota and other serotypes of avian paramyxoviruses (APMV serotype-2, -3, -4, -6, -7, -8, and -9). In general, these mutations affected cell-to-cell fusion activity in vitro and the efficiency of the F protein cleavage and made recombinant Mexico/01/10 (rMex) virus highly attenuated in chickens. When chickens were immunized with the rMex mutant viruses and challenged with the virulent parent virus, there was reduced challenge virus shedding compared to birds immunized with the heterologous vaccine strain LaSota. Among the vaccine candidates, rMex containing the cleavage site sequence of APMV-2 induced the highest neutralizing antibody titer and completely protected chickens from challenge virus shedding. These results show the role of the F protein cleavage site sequence of each APMV type in generating genotype V-matched vaccines and the efficacy of matched vaccine strains to provide better protection against NDV strains currently circulating in Mexico.

  8. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  9. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Ramey, Andrew M; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  10. Newcastle Disease Viruses Causing Recent Outbreaks Worldwide Show Unexpectedly High Genetic Similarity to Historical Virulent Isolates from the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Lee, Dong-Hun; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Olivier, Timothy L; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-05-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. Phylogenetic analyses clearly distinguish historical isolates (obtained prior to 1960) from currently circulating viruses of class II genotypes V, VI, VII, and XII through XVIII. Here, partial and complete genomic sequences of recent virulent isolates of genotypes II and IX from China, Egypt, and India were found to be nearly identical to those of historical viruses isolated in the 1940s. Phylogenetic analysis, nucleotide distances, and rates of change demonstrate that these recent isolates have not evolved significantly from the most closely related ancestors from the 1940s. The low rates of change for these virulent viruses (7.05 × 10(-5) and 2.05 × 10(-5) per year, respectively) and the minimal genetic distances existing between these and historical viruses (0.3 to 1.2%) of the same genotypes indicate an unnatural origin. As with any other RNA virus, Newcastle disease virus is expected to evolve naturally; thus, these findings suggest that some recent field isolates should be excluded from evolutionary studies. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses show that these recent virulent isolates are more closely related to virulent strains isolated during the 1940s, which have been and continue to be used in laboratory and experimental challenge studies. Since the preservation of viable viruses in the environment for over 6 decades is highly unlikely, it is possible that the source of some of the recent virulent viruses isolated from poultry and wild birds might be laboratory viruses. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Preparation and Competative Immune Responce Evaluation of Infectious Bronchitis (H-120 + Newcastle Disease (La-Sota Live Bivalent Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudi, Sh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and Infectious Bronchitis (IB are highly contagious, acute and common poultry viral diseases. Control of these two important diseases of poultry industry was based on biosecurity and vaccination program. There is discussion about viral interference between these two viruses when combined. The aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of a Razi live bivalent vaccine containing LaSota strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and H-120 strain of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV. The bivalent vaccine was formulated based on EID50 titer of viruses. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was compared with commercial and monovalent Razi live IB (H-120 and ND (La Sota vaccines in Specific pathogen free (SPF and commercial chickens. The vaccination response was evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI, serum neutralization and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA antibody titers. SPF chickens that had received one dose of the Razi bivalent vaccine, has antibody titer (HI of Newcastle 5.87 based on Log2 and the serum neutralization index of Infectious bronchitis 6.5. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs of HI were 3.20 and 3.30 for Razi bivalent vaccine and commercial one respectively. Serum IBV ELISA antibodies GMTs were 3569 and 1992 and 320 for Razi bivalent vaccine and commercial one and control group respectively. Therefore antibody titers against NDV and IBV in chickens that received Razi vaccine were similar to those that were given monovalent and commercial vaccine. Our results show that the combined ND+IB vaccine has the ability to induce a high level of immune response in vaccinated chickens and no interference was seen between Razi and commercial one.

  12. Production and application of recombinant haemagglutinin neuraminidase of Newcastle disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvan Nallaiyan; Sukumar Sundaramoorthy; Jeyakumar Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the possibility of expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein in prokaryotic system such asEscherichia coli(E. coli) cells by cloning the full length HN gene.Methods:The full lengthHN gene of Newcastle Disease Virus(NDV) of size1 734bp was preciously isolated byRT-PCR. The sequence was assessed and submitted to Nucleic Acid Databank(NCBI) and the gene ID wasEU215390.1 after cloning and sequencing. Now the assessed HN gene was subcloned into pET 32 a+ expression vector for production theHN protein inE. coli, BL21 (DE3) PLYSS cells following standard protocols. The crude lysate protein from the induced positive clone was size assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and their haemagglutination(HA) property against chickenRBC was assessed by standard microHA test.Results: The molecular size of the fullHN gene ofNDV as assessed by cloning and digesting the positive clone to release the insert was 1.7kb. The expressed protein in both crude and pure form was assessed to be63 kDa and 81 kDa, respectively. TheHA activity of the crude protein of the positive clone was1 in40.Conclusions:This finding indicates that the fusion protein retains the biological activity of native protein in the crude form and therefore could be used as a diagnostic reagent for antibody detection and for routine assessment of immune status in commercial layer forms.

  13. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4, as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5% and dog (34% ± 12% lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 1012 TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  14. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Diana; Pelayo, Rosana; Medina, Luis Alberto; Vadillo, Eduardo; Sánchez, Rogelio; Núñez, Luis; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2015-12-23

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4), as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5%) and dog (34% ± 12%) lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h) biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 10(12) TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose) in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  15. Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyge, Katrien; Van Reeth, Kristien; De Beer, Thomas; Landman, Wil J M; van Eck, Jo H H; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Dry powders containing a live-attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine (LZ58 strain) and intended for mass vaccination of poultry were prepared by spray drying using mannitol in combination with trehalose or inositol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as stabilizers. These powders were evaluated for vaccine stabilizing capacity during production and storage (at 6 °C and 25 °C), moisture content, hygroscopicity and dry powder dispersibility. A mixture design, varying the ratio of mannitol, inositol and BSA, was used to select the stabilizer combination which resulted in the desired powder properties (i.e. good vaccine stability during production and storage, low moisture content and hygroscopicity and good dry dispersibility). Inositol-containing powders had the same vaccine stabilizing capacity as trehalose powders, but were less hygroscopic. Incorporation of BSA enhanced the vaccine stability in the powders compared to PVP-containing formulations. However, increasing the BSA concentration increased the hygroscopicity and reduced the dry dispersibility of the powder. No valid mathematical model could be calculated for vaccine stability during production or storage, but the individual experiments indicated that a formulation combining mannitol, inositol and BSA in a ratio of 73.3:13.3:13.3 (wt/wt) resulted in the lowest vaccine titre loss during production (1.6-2.0 log(10) 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) and storage at 6 °C (max. 0.8 log(10) EID(50) after 6 months) in combination with a low moisture content (1.1-1.4%), low hygroscopicity (1.9-2.1% water uptake at 60% relative humidity) and good dry dispersibility properties.

  16. Rescue and Preliminary Application of a Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-lin HU; Qin SUN; Qu-zhi WANG; Yul-iang LIU; Yan-tao WU; Xiu-fan LIU

    2007-01-01

    Based on the complete genome sequence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) ZJI strain,seven pairs of primers were designed to amplify a cDNA fragment for constructing the plasmid pNDV/ZJI,which contained the full-length cDNA of the NDV ZJI strain.The pNDV/ZJI,with three helper plasmids,pCIneoNP,pCIneoP and pCIneoL,were then cotransfected into BSR-T7/5 cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase.After inoculation of the transfected cell culture supernatant into embryonated chicken eggs from specific-pathogen-free (SPF) flock,an infectious NDV ZJI strain was successfully rescued.Green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was amplified and inserted into the NDV full-length cDNA to generate a GFP-tagged recombinant plasmid pNDV/ZJIGFP.After cotransfection of the resultant plasmid and the three support plasmids into BSR-T7/5 cells,the recombinant NDV,NDV/ZJIGFP,was rescued.Specific green fluorescence was observed in BSR-T7/5 and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells 48h post-infection,indicating that the GFP gene was expressed at a relatively high level.NDV/ZJIGFP was inoculated into 10-day-old SPF chickens by oculonasal route.Four days post-infection,strong green fluorescence could be detected in the kidneys and tracheae,indicating that the recombinant GFP-tagged NDV could be a very useful tool for analysis of NDV dissemination and pathogenesis.

  17. Effects of Newcastle disease virus vaccine antibodies on the shedding and transmission of challenge viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L; El Attrache, John; Dorsey, Kristi M; Courtney, Sean C; Guo, Zijing; Kapczynski, Darrell R

    2013-12-01

    Different genotypes of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 virus (APMV-1) circulate in many parts of the world. Traditionally, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is recognized as having two major divisions represented by classes I and II, with class II being further divided into sixteen genotypes. Although all NDV are members of APMV-1 and are of one serotype, antigenic and genetic diversity is observed between the different genotypes. Reports of vaccine failure from many countries and reports by our lab on the reduced ability of classical vaccines to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding have created renewed interest in developing vaccines formulated with genotypes homologous to the virulent NDV (vNDV) circulating in the field. We assessed how the amount and specificity of humoral antibodies induced by inactivated vaccines affected viral replication, clinical protection and evaluated how non-homologous (heterologous) antibody levels induced by live NDV vaccines relate to transmission of vNDV. In an experimental setting, all inactivated NDV vaccines protected birds from morbidity and mortality, but higher and more specific levels of antibodies were required to significantly decrease viral replication. It was possible to significantly decrease viral replication and shedding with high levels of antibodies and those levels could be more easily reached with vaccines formulated with NDV of the same genotype as the challenge viruses. However, when the levels of heterologous antibodies were sufficiently high, it was possible to prevent transmission. As the level of humoral antibodies increase in vaccinated birds, the number of infected birds and the amount of vNDV shed decreased. Thus, in an experimental setting the effective levels of humoral antibodies could be increased by (1) increasing the homology of the vaccine to the challenge virus, or (2) allowing optimal time for the development of the immune response.

  18. Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Ottosson, Ulf; Muller, Claude P

    2013-12-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.

  19. Activity of T Cells Stimulated by Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of Newcastle Disease Virus in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PIAO Bing-guo; SUN Jiu-hua; PIAO Yun-feng; JIN Ning-yi; LI Xiao; SUN Li-li; KAN Shi-fu; LIU Lei; HUANG Hai-yan; YANG Guo-hua; WANG Yu-hang; WANG Zhuo-yue

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the stimulated activity of T cells and the anti-tumor properties of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase(HN) of Newcastle disease virus(NDV) strain Changchun(NDVcc), the expression of HN gene in hepatoma cells(human HepG-2 and mouse H22 cells) infected with the recombinant adenovirus(Ad-HN) was identified by Western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Sialidase activity of NDVcc HN expressed by Ad-HN was assayed by the periodate-resorcinol method. The in vivo anti-tumor effects of NDVcc HN were evaluated in the H22 solid tumor model. Regional lymph nodes of the mouse model treated with Ad-HN were removed to harvest T lymphocytes and evaluating the specific cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL) and natural killer(NK) cells by an L-lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) assay, in the mean time, the secretion of cytokines was analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays(ELISA). The results show that NDVcc HN was effectively expressed by Ad-HN in HepG-2 and H22 cells.The sialidase activity assay showed that Ad-HN significantly reduced sialic acid level of the hepatoma cells compared with the cells infected the empty adenovirus vector(Ad-mock). When treated with Ad-HN, the growth of subcutaneous H22 primary tumors in C57BL/6 mice was suppressed, and the mean mice survival increased. In addition, the treatment of Ad-HN elicited strong NK and CTL responses, and high levels of Thl cytokines, such as IL-2 and IFN-γ.In conclusion, NDVcc HN effectively elicits T cell-mediate anti-tumor cytotoxicity via sialidase activity and may be a novel strategy for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Induction of interferon by temperature-sensitive mutants of Newcastle disease virus. [Uv radiation, chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal, K.J.; Youngner, J.S.

    1978-10-01

    Spontaneously selected and mutagen-induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were used to study interferon induction in chick embryo (CE) cells at temperatures permissive (37/sup 0/) and nonpermissive (42/sup 0/) for virus replication. Both infectious and uv-irradiated virus were tested for interferon-inducing ability in cells pretreated or not pretreated with homologous interferon. At 37/sup 0/, only uv-irradiated NDV was capable of inducing interferon in cells not treated with interferon before infection. In cells pretreated with interferon, on the other hand, both unirradiated and uv-irradiated virus stimulated the production of interferon. At 42/sup 0/, the interferon-inducing phenotype for some uv-irradiated ts mutants was dependent on whether or not cells were pretreated with interferon. For example, out of 10 mutants examined, one uv-irradiated ts mutant induced interferon in both untreated and interferon pretreated cells; 7 mutants failed to induce in untreated cells but induced from 25 to 100 percent of the wild-type level of interferon in cells pretreated with interferon; and two mutants failed to induce interferon in both types of cells. In addition, one mutant (NDV/sub 0/ ts-100) induced low or undetectable levels of interferon at both 37 and 42/sup 0/, conditions under which wild-type virus (NDV/sub 0/) produced significant levels of interferon. Co-infection of cells with uv-irradiated ts-100 and a preparation of NDV/sub 0/ exposed to prolonged irradiation resulted in considerable production of interferon. These results suggest the possibility that more than one virus function may be involved in interferon induction by NDV in CE cells.

  1. Ethanol extract and chromatographic fractions of Tamarindus indica stem bark inhibits Newcastle disease virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Omobola O; Obiiyeke, Grace E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-12-01

    The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T. indica extract. Tamarindus indica stem bark was extracted through ethanol maceration over 24 h, and the crude extract was fractionated by gravity-propelled column chromatography. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) inhibitory activity of extract and fractions were evaluated in vivo using 10-d-old embryonated chicken egg (ECE) as the medium for virus cultivation and antivirus assay. About 240 ECE were grouped into eight (three controls and five experimental) and, 200 μL of the extract and fractions respectively inoculated into NDV pre-infected eggs and incubated at 37 °C. Allantoic fluid was harvested 5 d post-virus infection and assayed for haemagglutination (HA). Anti-NDV assessment showed 62.5 mg/mL of crude extract and fractions: TiA, TiC and TiD to yield a HA titre of 1:128 each, while TiB showed 1:64 HA titre. At 125 mg/mL, a titre of 1:16 was recorded against TiB and TiD and, 1:8 against TiA. Similarly, crude extract and TiC, each recorded 1:4 HA titre. However, the minimum concentrations of extract and fraction for virus inactivation were 0.24 mg/mL and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively. The antiviral activity shown by T. indica portends novel antiviral drugs and, perhaps, as scaffold for new drugs.

  2. Research on Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati Against Newcastle Disease Virus%中药虎杖体外抗新城疫病毒活性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增成; 傅剑; 李颖; 林树乾; 李桂明; 黄中利; 冯敏燕; 宋敏训

    2015-01-01

    In order to select efficient Chinese herbal medicine against Newcastle disease virus, Using the chick embryo inoculation test, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati decoction in vitro anti Newcastle disease virus activity were determined. The results show that Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati in vitro on Newcastle disease virus has better inhibition effect.%为了筛选出有效的防治新城疫的中草药,采用鸡胚接种试验,对虎杖煎煮液的体外抗新城疫病毒活性进行了测定,结果表明:中药虎杖在体外对新城疫病毒具有较好的抑制作用。

  3. Efficacy of experimental Newcastle disease water-in-oil oil-emulsion vaccines formulated from squalane and squalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H D; Xie, Z X

    1990-01-01

    Water-in-oil inactivated Newcastle disease oil-emulsion vaccines were formulated with the terpene oils squalane or squalene, or mixtures thereof, and injected into 4-week-old broilers. Vaccine efficacy based on hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers was comparable to that of control mineral oil vaccines. Tissue reaction to intramuscular injection of the terpene oil emulsion vaccines was greatly reduced 3 weeks post-vaccination compared with that of mineral oil-based vaccine. Viscosity of the terpene oil vaccines was satisfactory but increased three to four times that of mineral oil vaccine when the antigen phase volume increased from 5% to 20%.

  4. Molecular characterization of Newcastle disease virus strains isolated from different outbreaks in Northeast India during 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Barnali; Barman, Nagendra N; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-02-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates recovered from different outbreaks in chicken flocks in Assam during 2014-15 were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin protein genes showed a close similarity with genotype XIII strains of NDV. Amino acid sequence of F protein showed a virulent cleavage site (112)R-R-Q-K-R-F(117). Furthermore, pathogenicity test in one-day-old chicks and embryonated chicken eggs showed a virulent pathotype of the isolated NDV strains. The study will help us to understand the biology of circulating strains of NDV in Northeastern part of India.

  5. Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh

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    Helal Uddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Newcastle disease (ND is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA activity of ND virus (NDV at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A−, B+, B−, AB+, AB−, O+, and O− were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4°C, incubating (37°C, and room temperature (24°C. Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37°C requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O− blood group do not show any HA activity. Significant variation (p<0.05 found in quail RBC at incubation temperature. In mammalian species, a significant difference (p<0.05 has been observed in goat and horse RBC at chilling; horse and dog RBC at incubation; goat, horse, buffalo, and dog RBC at room temperature. In human, significant variation (p<0.05 has been found in A+, A− and B− blood group

  6. Clinicopathological characterization of experimental infection in chickens with sub-genotype VIIi Newcastle disease virus isolated from peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, P A; Singh, S D; Dhama, K; Kumar, O R Vinodh; Malik, Y S; Singh, R

    2017-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an economically important viral disease distressing poultry industry across the globe. Herein, we report the clinicopathology of sub-genotype VIIi Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from peafowl in chickens. The virus isolate produced systemic infection with prominent tropism in visceral organs in chicken, confirmed on the basis of gross and microscopic lesions, and immunohistochemistry findings. The experimentally infected chickens exhibited 100% mortality with severe hemorrhagic lesions in the proventriculus and intestine, especially marked lymphocytolysis in spleen and bursa. The virus could be re-isolated from the cloacal swabs of infected chickens during 4th to 6th dpi (on 6th dpi all birds died), and all were tested positive in conventional RT-PCR. This is the first report on clinicopathology of NDV isolated from peafowl and/or sub-genotype VIIi NDV in experimentally infected chickens. Explorative epidemiological and molecular studies are suggested to screen wild peafowls and poultry flocks of the country for establishing the occurrence of this sub-genotype and opting for appropriate prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic diversity of the genotype VII Newcastle disease virus: identification of a novel VIIj sub-genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cong; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Sun, Yixue; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Qian, Jing; Yuan, Qianliang; Yang, Mingxi; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2017-02-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of poultry caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Multiple genotypes of NDV have been circulating worldwide and NDV is continuously evolving, resulting into more diversity. Of multiple viral genotypes, VII is particularly important given that it had been associated with most recent ND outbreaks worldwide. In this study, an epidemiological investigation performed in northeastern China during 2014-2015 showed that 11 genotype VII isolates amounted to 55 percent in a total number of NDV isolates. Therefore, to evaluate the genetic diversity worldwide and epidemiological distribution in China of genotype VII NDV, a phylogenetic analysis based on the 1255 complete F gene sequences showed that VII is the most predominant genotype worldwide. A further detailed characterization on genotype VII was conducted based on the 477 complete F gene sequences from 11 isolates and 466 reference viruses available in GenBank. The results demonstrated that VII can be further divided into 8 sub-genotypes (VIIb, VIId-VIIj), indicating its complex genetic diversity. It is worthy of note that the isolation rate of VIIj is increasing recently. It emphasizes the necessity to pay close attention to the epidemiological dynamic of genotype VII NDV and highlights the importance of vaccination program.

  8. Identification of novel Newcastle disease virus sub-genotype VII-(j) based on the fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelizad, Majid; Mayahi, Vafa; Pashaei, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is believed to be the cause of fatal poultry disease worldwide. The fusion (F) protein plays a key role in virus pathogenesis, and it is also used for Newcastle disease virus classification. In this study, we determined the complete coding sequence of the F gene in new velogenic NDV isolates with an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) of 1.8 and a mean death time (MDT) of 72 or 48 h. Complete sequences of the F genes of new Iranian isolates were amplified and sequenced in both directions. These isolates were compared to 195 nucleotide sequences from GenBank (available as of 07/17/2016). A phylogenetic tree was constructed for the F gene, using MEGA6 software with statistical analysis based on 500 bootstrap replicates. Evolutionary distances revealed that the new virulent isolates from Iran belonged to genotype VII in a new distinct sub-genotype named VII-(j). This new sub-genotype showed 3% divergence from genotype VIId. Recombination analysis showed that these new isolates were not recombinant NDVs.

  9. Infectivity and pathogenicity of Newcastle disease virus strains of different avian origin and different virulence for mallard ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Cheng, Xu; Shen, Xinyue; Wei, Yuyong; Zhou, Sheng; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Chan

    2013-03-01

    Experimental infections of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of different avian origin and different virulence in mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings were undertaken to evaluate infectivity and pathogenicity of NDV for ducks and the potential role of ducks in the epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND). Ducklings were experimentally infected with seven NDV strains, and their clinical sign, weight gain, antibody response, virus shedding, and virus distribution in tissues were investigated. The duck origin virulent strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) and the Chinese standard virulent strain F48E8 were highly pathogenic for ducklings. They caused high morbidity and mortality, and they distributed extensively in various tissues of infected ducklings. Other strains, including pigeon origin virulent strain pigeon/Jiangsu/JSP0204/2002 (JSP0204), chicken origin virulent strain chicken/Jiangsu/JSC0804/2008 (JSC0804), goose origin virulent goose/Jiangsu/JSG0210/2002 (JSG0210), and vaccine strains Mukteswar and LaSota had no pathogenicity to ducklings. They produced neither clinical signs of the disease nor adverse effect on growth of infected ducklings, and they persisted in duck bodies for only a short period. Virus shedding was detectable in all infected ducklings, but its period and route varied with the virulence of NDV strains. The results suggest that NDV with high pathogenicity in ducks may arise from the evolution within its corresponding host, further confirming that the ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND.

  10. In vitro characterization of the antiviral activity of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against Newcastle Disease Virus

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    Elizondo-Gonzalez Regina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV causes a serious infectious disease in birds that results in severe losses in the worldwide poultry industry. Despite vaccination, NDV outbreaks have increased the necessity of alternative prevention and control measures. Several recent studies focused on antiviral compounds obtained from natural resources. Many extracts from marine organisms have been isolated and tested for pharmacological purposes, and their antiviral activity has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide present in the cell wall matrix of brown algae that has been demonstrated to inhibit certain enveloped viruses with low toxicity. This study evaluated the potential antiviral activity and the mechanism of action of fucoidan from Cladosiphon okamuranus against NDV in the Vero cell line. Methods The cytotoxicity of fucoidan was determined by the MTT assay. To study its antiviral activity, fusion and plaque-forming unit (PFU inhibition assays were conducted. The mechanism of action was determined by time of addition, fusion inhibition, and penetration assays. The NDV vaccine strain (La Sota was used in the fusion inhibition assays. PFU and Western blot experiments were performed using a wild-type lentogenic NDV strain. Results Fucoidan exhibited antiviral activity against NDV La Sota, with an obtained IS50 >2000. In time of addition studies, we observed viral inhibition in the early stages of infection (0–60 min post-infection. The inhibition of viral penetration experiments with a wild-type NDV strain supported this result, as these experiments demonstrated a 48% decrease in viral infection as well as reduced HN protein expression. Ribavirin, which was used as an antiviral control, exhibited lower antiviral activity than fucoidan and high toxicity at active doses. In the fusion assays, the number of syncytia was significantly reduced (70% inhibition when fucoidan was added before cleavage of

  11. An i2b2-based, generalizable, open source, self-scaling chronic disease registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natter, Marc D; Quan, Justin; Ortiz, David M; Bousvaros, Athos; Ilowite, Norman T; Inman, Christi J; Marsolo, Keith; McMurry, Andrew J; Sandborg, Christy I; Schanberg, Laura E; Wallace, Carol A; Warren, Robert W; Weber, Griffin M; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Registries are a well-established mechanism for obtaining high quality, disease-specific data, but are often highly project-specific in their design, implementation, and policies for data use. In contrast to the conventional model of centralized data contribution, warehousing, and control, we design a self-scaling registry technology for collaborative data sharing, based upon the widely adopted Integrating Biology & the Bedside (i2b2) data warehousing framework and the Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) peer-to-peer networking software. Focusing our design around creation of a scalable solution for collaboration within multi-site disease registries, we leverage the i2b2 and SHRINE open source software to create a modular, ontology-based, federated infrastructure that provides research investigators full ownership and access to their contributed data while supporting permissioned yet robust data sharing. We accomplish these objectives via web services supporting peer-group overlays, group-aware data aggregation, and administrative functions. The 56-site Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry and 3-site Harvard Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Longitudinal Data Repository now utilize i2b2 self-scaling registry technology (i2b2-SSR). This platform, extensible to federation of multiple projects within and between research networks, encompasses >6000 subjects at sites throughout the USA. We utilize the i2b2-SSR platform to minimize technical barriers to collaboration while enabling fine-grained control over data sharing. The implementation of i2b2-SSR for the multi-site, multi-stakeholder CARRA Registry has established a digital infrastructure for community-driven research data sharing in pediatric rheumatology in the USA. We envision i2b2-SSR as a scalable, reusable solution facilitating interdisciplinary research across diseases.

  12. Production of Newcastle Disease Virus by Vero Cells Grown on Cytodex 1 Microcarriers in a 2-Litre Stirred Tank Bioreactor

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    Mohd Azmir Arifin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prepare a model for the production of Newcastle disease virus (NDV lentogenic F strain using cell culture in bioreactor for live attenuated vaccine preparation. In this study, firstly we investigated the growth of Vero cells in several culture media. The maximum cell number was yielded by culture of Vero cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM which was 1.93×106 cells/ml. Secondly Vero cells were grown in two-litre stirred tank bioreactor by using several commercial microcarriers. We achieved the maximum cell concentration about 7.95×105 cells/ml when using Cytodex 1. Later we produced Newcastle Disease virus in stirred tank bioreactor based on the design developed using Taguchi L4 method. Results reveal that higher multiplicity of infection (MOI and size of cell inoculums can yield higher virus titer. Finally, virus samples were purified using high-speed centrifugation based on 3∗∗(3-1 Fractional Factorial Design. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum virus titer can be achieved at virus sample concentration of 58.45% (v/v, centrifugation speed of 13729 rpm, and centrifugation time of 4 hours. As a conclusion, high yield of virus titer could be achieved through optimization of cell culture in bioreactor and separation by high-speed centrifugation.

  13. Molecular characterization of genotype XIIIb Newcastle disease virus from central India during 2006-2012: Evidence of its panzootic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morla, Sudhir; Shah, Manisha; Kaore, Megha; Kurkure, Nitin Vasantrao; Kumar, Sachin

    2016-10-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the causative agent of Newcastle disease (ND) in many avian species. ND is a serious problem in developing countries, causing huge loss in the poultry industry. Although there are reports of continuous outbreaks of ND leading to serious losses to the poultry farming, very less is known about the genetic characteristics of its strains circulating in different parts of India. In the present study, we have five isolates of NDV reported from different outbreaks in Central India between the years 2006-2012. Deduced amino acid sequence of the F protein cleavage site and phylogenetic analysis of all the five isolates showed circulation of NDV genotype XIIIb. All the isolates showed a unique virulent cleavage site (112)RRQKR↓F(117). The close genetic similarity of all the isolates suggested circulation of the virulent NDV strains of the same ancestor in and around central India. Continuous isolation of genotype XIIIb NDV strains within the country suggests its panzootic potential. The study will be useful to understand the circulating strains of NDV and plan a vaccination strategy for poultry in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in broilers

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    WM Cardoso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of viral interference between live vaccines against Newcastle Disease and infectious bronchitis has been reported since the 50's and many researchers have reported its prejudicial effects on avian immunization. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of associated vaccines on the interference between Newcastle disease virus (NDV and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV in broilers. There were 400 broiler chicks divided into five groups. The groups were submitted to mono or polyvalent vaccinations against IBV and NDV, except for the non-vaccinated control group (CG. Sera were collected at 35 and 45 days of age and submitted to serologic tests to assess antibody levels. It was observed the occurrence of interference in the immune response against NDV by the use of associated vaccines to NDV and IBV; however, the group that was immunized with commercial combined vaccines (IBV+NDV presented antibody titers to NDV similar to the group that was given only vaccine against NDV. We concluded based on these preliminary studies that the interference of IBV on the immune response against NDV depends also whether the association between the two vaccines is done just before vaccination or in the manufacturing laboratory.

  15. Detection and characterization of Newcastle disease virus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from commercial broilers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Glil, Mostafa Y; Mor, Sunil K; Sharafeldin, Tamer A; Porter, Robert E; Goyal, Sagar M

    2014-03-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is highly contagious and causes severe economic losses to the poultry industry due to high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we describe the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in formalin-fixed tissues from an outbreak of ND on broiler farms in Egypt. The affected birds experienced respiratory and/or nervous signs and a 75% mortality rate. Tissue samples were collected and placed in 10% neutral buffered formalin followed by embedding in paraffin. RNA was extracted from 80-microm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and recovered in 60 microl of elution buffer. All samples were negative for influenza virus by real-time reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR but positive for NDV. These flocks were known to have been vaccinated with a live NDV vaccine (LaSota strain). The nucleic acid sequences of the virus detected in this study were similar to those of a velogenic virus at its cleavage site 111GRRQKR*F117 and clustered with class II genogroup VII lineage of NDV, with a nucleotide sequence identity of 94%-99%. Although extraction and amplification of NDV from paraffin-embedded tissues from experimentally infected birds has been reported previously, this study reports on the use of RT-PCR on formalin-fixed tissues from actual field samples.

  16. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphorylated Abacavir Derivatives as Antiviral Agents Against Newcastle Disease Virus Infection in Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K A, Suresh; Venkata Subbaiah, Kadiam C; Lavanya, Rayapu; Chandrasekhar, Kuruva; Chamarti, Naga Raju; Kumar, M Suresh; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

    2016-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus is the most devastating virus in poultry industry. It can eradicate the entire poultry flocks once infected. This study is aimed to investigate the antiviral efficacy of novel phosphorylated analogues of the drug abacavir (ABC) against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). About 16 analogues of ABC were designed and docking was performed against fusion protein of NDV. Three compounds were identified and selected for synthesis and biological evaluation based on binding affinity and docking scores. The compounds were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P and CHN analysis and mass spectra. These compounds were tested for antiviral efficacy against NDV-infected DF-1 cells. Compound ABC-1 had shown potent antiviral activity as evidenced by significant reduction in plaque units and cytopathic effect. Therefore, ABC-1 was selected to test for NDV-infected chicken survival rate. Effective dose50 concentrations were determined for ABC-1. Antioxidant enzyme levels in brain, liver and lung tissues were estimated. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly raised and lipid peroxidation and HA titer levels were decreased upon treatment with 2 mg/kg body weight ABC-1. Histopathological modifications were also restored in the ABC-1-treated group. These findings demonstrated ABC-1 as a potential antiviral agent against NDV in chicken.

  17. Serological Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus Antibodies in Local Chickens and Guinea Fowls in the Area of Kumasi, Ghana

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    OD Boakye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Newcastle Disease (ND has been identified as a major constraint to local poultry production with its impact being felt more in rural poultry production which forms about 80% of Ghana poultry population. However documented evidence on ND virus activity in rural poultry in Ghana is still lacking. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the level of circulating antibodies against ND using the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI technique. Sera collected from unvaccinated 292 chickens and 153 guinea fowls randomly selected from households and a live bird market in Kumasi and its environs were evaluated for Newcastle disease virus antibodies. Results showed 81.8 % (239/292 of local chickens and 24.2 % (37/153 of guinea fowls tested positive for ND antibodies. Comparison was made between the seroprevalence of ND antibodies in household and live bird market as well as between sexes. Significantly higher prevalence rate (p<0.05 was observed with chickens sampled from households compared to those from the live bird market. Higher ranges of titers were also observed in chickens from households than those from live bird markets. The presence of ND antibodies in these unvaccinated local chickens and guinea fowls indicated the presence of the virus amongst the rural poultry population, hence aneed for improvement in vaccine campaignand delivery against ND for rural poultry especially with the use of thermostable and improved oral or feed-based vaccine delivery systems.

  18. A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for Newcastle disease virus and avian pneumovirus (Colorado strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Reynolds, D L

    2000-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian pneumovirus (APV) cause Newcastle disease and rhinotracheitis respectively, in turkeys. Both of these viruses infect the respiratory system. A one-tube, multiplex, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the detection of both NDV and Colorado strain of APV (APV-Col) was developed and evaluated. The primers, specific for each virus, were designed from the matrix protein gene of APV-Col and the fusion protein gene of NDV to amplify products of 631 and 309 nucleotides, respectively. The multiplex RT-PCR assay, for detecting both viruses simultaneously, was compared with the single-virus RT-PCR assays for its sensitivity and specificity. The specific primers amplified products of predicted size from each virus in the multiplex as well as the single-virus RT-PCR assays. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was determined to be equivalent to the single-virus RT-PCR assays for detecting both NDV and APV-Col. This multiplex RT-PCR assay proved to be a sensitive method for the simultaneous and rapid detection of NDV and APV-Col. This assay has the potential for clinical diagnostic applications.

  19. Evolution of Newcastle Disease Virus Quasispecies Diversity and Enhanced Virulence after Passage through Chicken Air Sacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chunchun; Qiu, Xusheng; Yu, Shengqing; Li, Chuanfeng; Sun, Yingjie; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiangle; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Liu, Guangqing; Ding, Chan

    2015-12-09

    It has been reported that lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates have the potential to become velogenic after their transmission and circulation in chickens, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, a highly velogenic NDV variant, JS10-A10, was generated from the duck-origin lentogenic isolate JS10 through 10 consecutive passages in chicken air sacs. The velogenic properties of this selected variant were determined using mean death time (MDT) assays, intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), the intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI), histopathology, and the analysis of host tissue tropism. In contrast, JS10 remained lentogenic after 20 serial passages in chicken eggs (JS10-E20). The JS10, JS10-A10, and JS10-E20 genomes were sequenced and found to be nearly identical, suggesting that both JS10-A10 and JS10-E20 were directly generated from JS10. To investigate the mechanism for virulence enhancement, the partial genome covering the F0 cleavage site of JS10 and its variants were analyzed using ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and the proportions of virulence-related genomes in the quasispecies were calculated. Velogenic NDV genomes accumulated as a function of JS10 passaging through chicken air sacs. Our data suggest that lentogenic NDV strains circulating among poultry might be a risk factor to future potential velogenic NDV outbreaks in chickens. An avirulent isolate, JS10, was passaged through chicken air sacs and embryos, and the pathogenicity of the variants was assessed. A virulent variant, JS10-A10, was generated from consecutive passage in air sacs. We developed a deep-sequencing approach to detect low-frequency viral variants across the NDV genome. We observed that virulence enhancement of JS10 was due to the selective accumulation of velogenic quasispecies and the concomitant disappearance of lentogenic quasispecies. Our results suggest that because it is difficult to avoid contact between natural waterfowl reservoirs and sensitive

  20. Construction and identification of helper plasmids of newcastle disease virus Italien strain

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    Zhen REN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Newcastle disease virus (NDV is a naturally oncolytic virus that has been shown to be safe and effective for cancer therapy. NDV virions possess a non-segmented negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome which contains six genes encoding the nucleocapsid protein (NP, phosphoprotein (P, large polymerase protein (L, matrix protein, fusion protein, and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. The ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex consisting of the genomic RNA and the three proteins NP, P, and L are the active template for transcription and replication of the viral genome. The purpose of this study was to construct the expression plasmids of NP, P and L genes of NDV Italien strain in which phage T7 promoter was a transcription promoter for the aim of generation of recombinant NDV. Methods NP, P and L genes were cloned from the genome RNA of NDV Italien followed by introduction into the downstream of T7 promoter and internal ribosome entry sites to construct the expression plasmids of NP, P and L, respectively. Expression of exogenous gene in BSR-T7/5 cells which constitutively express phage T7 RNA polymerase and transfected with plasmids of NP and P was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The function of NP, P and L proteins expressed by constructed plasmids to facilitate the genomic RNA to form RNP complex was tested using minigenome of NDV Italien carrying firefly luciferase as a reporter gene. Results The expression plasmids of NP, P and L genes were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Using the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we detected the expression of viral NP and P proteins in BSR-T7/5 cells. When the helper plasmids were co-transfected with NDV minigenome plasmid, the expression of firefly luciferase was more significant compared with the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion The helper plasmids of NDV Italien strain using T7 promoter as a transcription promoter has been constructed successfully, and it provides a basis for the

  1. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

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    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  2. Characterization of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease Viruses from Poultry in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammon, Abdulwahab; Heidari, Alireza; Dayhum, Abdunaser; Eldaghayes, Ibrahim; Sharif, Monier; Monne, Isabela; Cattoli, Giovanni; Asheg, Abdulatif; Farhat, Milad; Kraim, Elforjani

    2015-09-01

    On March 2013, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreaks due to mixed infections of APMV-1 (Newcastle disease) and low pathogenic avian influenza (AI) of the H9N2 subtype which were causing high mortality and great economic losses. APMV-1 and H9N2 were isolated and characterized. Genetic sequencing of the APMV-1/chicken/Libya/13VIR/ 7225-1/2013 isolate revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 belonging to lineage 5 (GRRRQKR*F Lin.5) or genotype VII in class II, according to the nomenclature in use. Three AI viruses of the H9N2 subtype, namely A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-2/2013, A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-3/2013, and A/avian/Libya/13VIR7225-5/2013, were isolated and found to belong to the G1 lineage. Analysis of amino acid sequences showed that the analyzed H9N2 viruses contained the amino acid Leu at position 226 (H3 numbering) at the receptor binding site of the HA, responsible for human virus-like receptor specificity. On March 2014, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was diagnosed in a backyard poultry farm in an eastern region of Libya. The H5N1 isolate (A/chicken/Libya/14VIR2749-16/2014) was detected by real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). Genetic characterization of the HA gene revealed that the identified subtype was highly pathogenic, belonged to the 2.2.1 lineage, and clustered with recent Egyptian viruses. This study revealed the presence of a velogenic APMV-1 genotype and of two influenza subtypes, namely HPAI H5N1 and H9N2, which are of major interest for public and animal health. Considering these findings, more investigations must be undertaken to establish and implement adequate influenza surveillance programs; this would allow better study of the epidemiology of APMV-1 genotype VII in Libya and evaluation of the current vaccination strategies.

  3. Longitudinal Study of Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease in Village Poultry, Mali, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Grosbois, Vladimir; Kamissoko, Badian; Sidibe, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Traore, Idrissa; Diakite, Adama; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2017-06-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is endemic in West Africa, which has also experienced outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) H5N1 since 2006. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of AI and ND in village poultry in Mali and to identify associated risk factors. A longitudinal serologic study was conducted between November 2009 and February 2011 using ELISA commercial kits to detect antibodies. Sera (5963) were collected from 4890 different poultry. AI was rare, with a seroprevalence of 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-3.5) and a seroincidence rate of 0.7 birds per 100 bird-months at risk (95% CI 0.4-1.0). AI antibodies were short lived, with a seroreversion rate of 25.4 birds per 100 bird-months at risk (95% CI 19.0-31.7). Risk factors for AI were limited: temporal variation occurred, but proximity to a water body was a risk factor only when large populations of wild waterbirds were present. ND was very common, with seroprevalence of 68.9% (95% CI 61.9-76.0) and a seroincidence rate of 15.9 birds per 100 bird-months at risk (95% CI 11.9-19.8). ND seroreversion rate was 6.2 birds per 100 bird-months at risk (95% CI 3.6-8.9). Regarding risk factors for ND, temporal variations occurred, and ND was more likely to be present in the Sudanian agro-ecological zone than in the Sahelian zone, in chickens than in other species, in flocks with higher numbers of Guinea fowl, and in flocks that had access to a waterbody. Control efforts would benefit from further increasing the ND vaccination coverage of village poultry, although this was already quite high (54.9%) for an African country. Seroconversion seemed satisfactory in vaccinated poultry, since 90.0% (95% CI 87.6-92.4) of these had ND antibodies. Further research should investigate the apparent lack of an epidemiologic role of domestic ducks for AI in Mali (unlike in Southeast Asia) and the potential role of Guinea fowl as a reservoir for ND.

  4. High pathogenicity and low genetic evolution of avian paramyxovirus type I (Newcastle disease virus) isolated from live bird markets in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byarugaba, Denis K; Mugimba, Kizito K; Omony, John B; Okitwi, Martin; Wanyana, Agnes; Otim, Maxwell O; Kirunda, Halid; Nakavuma, Jessica L; Teillaud, Angélique; Paul, Mathilde C; Ducatez, Mariette F

    2014-10-01

    Newcastle disease is still a serious disease of poultry especially in backyard free-range production systems despite the availability of cross protective vaccines. Healthy-looking poultry from live bird markets have been suspected as a major source of disease spread although limited studies have been conducted to ascertain the presence of the virulent strains in the markets and to understand how they are related to outbreak strains. This study evaluated the occurrence of Newcastle disease virus in samples collected from poultry in live bird markets across Uganda. The isolates were pathoyped using standard methods (mean death time (MDT), intracelebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), and sequencing of the fusion protein cleavage site motif) and also phylogenetically analysed after sequencing of the full fusion and hemagglutin-neuraminidase genes. The isolates were classified into genotypes and subgenotypes based on the full fusion protein gene classification system and compared with other strains in the region and world-wide. Virulent avian paramyxovirus type I (APMV-1) (Newcastle disease virus) was isolated in healthy-looking poultry in live bird markets. The viruses belonged to a new subgenotype, Vd, in genotype V, and clustered together with Tanzania and Kenya strains. They harbored low genetic diversity. The occurrence of virulent AMPV-1 strains in live bird markets may serve as sources of Newcastle disease outbreaks in non-commercial farms.

  5. Recovery of avirulent, thermostable Newcastle disease virus strain NDV4-C from cloned cDNA and stable expression of an inserted foreign gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Zhao, C.; Kong, X.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse genetics system for thermostable Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not currently available. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for the avirulent and thermostable NDV4-C strain. Successful recovery of NDV4-C was achieved by using either T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA po

  6. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site (‘‘113RQKR;F117’’), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values rang...

  7. Experimental evaluation of killed and live Newcastle disease virus vaccines heterologous to the virulent genotype XII challenge strain from the Peru/2008 outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    While all Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are contained within one serotype and different NDV provide cross-protection against others, antigenically matched strains have been shown to decrease viral shedding. Therefore, using recombinant technology, some companies have directed efforts in developin...

  8. Characterization of a new bacteria, Ochrobactrum sp., as a co-infectant with Newcastle disease virus in chickens experiencing high mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus and a new bacterial species were isolated from eight oral swabs obtained from chickens, pigeons and a domestic duck in Nigeria and Pakistan that were experiencing high mortality. Bacterial samples were streaked on solid media (TSA or Farrell’s) for colony isolation a...

  9. Development of a Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a foreign gene through an internal ribosomal entry site provides direct proof for a sequential transcription mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramxoviridae family, has been developed as a vector to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign genes are usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit (ITU...

  10. Have we found an optimal insertion site in a Newcastle disease virus vector to express a foreign gene for vaccine and gene therapy purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using reverse genetics technology, many strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been developed as vectors to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign gene is usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit. Eval...

  11. Evaluation of bivalent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vectored infectious laryngotracheitis vaccines in broiler chickens in the presence of NDV maternally derived antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously we have demonstrated that Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins B (gB) or D (gD) protein conferred complete clinical protection against ILTV and NDV challenges in specific pathogen free (SPF) and 3 week old commer...

  12. Development of a Newcastle disease virus vector expressing a foreign gene through an internal ribosomal entry site provides direct proof for a sequential transcription mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed as a vector to express foreign genes for vaccine and gene therapy purposes. The foreign genes are usually inserted into a non-coding region of the NDV genome as an independent transcription unit (ITU). Based on the well-accepted “stop-start” transcr...

  13. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV/Anh-IL-2) expressing human IL-2 as a potential candidate for suppresses growth of hepatoma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical study and are currently approved for clinical trials. NDV Anhinga strain which is a mesogenic strain should be classified as lytic strain and has a therapeutic efficacy in hepatocellular cancer. In this study, we ...

  14. Effect of Infection with a Mesogenic Strain of Newcastle Disease Virus on Infection with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinic...

  15. Influence of a yeast fermented product on the serum levels of the mannan-binding lectin and the antibodies against the Newcastle disease virus in Ross broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortés-Coronado, R F; Gómez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M;

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the serum concentrations of mannan-binding lectin (MBL) at different ages in Ross broilers fed increasing amounts of a yeast-fermented product (YFP) and inoculated with a vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Eighty mixed Ross B308 broilers...

  16. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with inserted gene coding for GM-CSF as a new vector for cancer immunogene therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janke, M.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Leeuw, de O.S.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Arnold, A.; Fournier, P.; Schirrmacher, V.

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report describing recombinant (rec) Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as vector for gene therapy of cancer. The gene encoding granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was inserted as an additional transcription unit at two different positions into the NDV genome. The r

  17. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Figueira Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus, previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds.A doença de Newcastle é caracterizada por manifestações respiratórias associadas a sintomas nervosos e/ou digestivos. Sua prevenção é feita pela vacinação com vacinas vivas atenuadas (cepas lentogênicas e/ou inativadas. As cepas lentog

  18. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  19. Pathotyping and Phylogenetic Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses Isolated in Peru: Defining Two Novel Subgenotypes Within Genotype XII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbe, Ana; Izquierdo-Lara, Ray; Tataje, Luis; Gonzalez, Rosa; Cribillero, Giovana; González, Armando E; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Icochea, Eliana

    2017-03-01

    Infections of poultry with virulent strains of avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), also known as Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), cause Newcastle disease (ND). This highly contagious disease affects poultry and many other species of birds worldwide. In countries where the disease is prevalent, constant monitoring and characterization of isolates causing outbreaks are necessary. In this study, we report the results of pathogenicity testing and phylogenetic analyses of seven NDVs isolated from several regions of Peru between 2004 and 2015. Six viruses had intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPIs) of between 1.75 and 1.88, corresponding to a velogenic pathotype. The remaining virus had an ICPI of 0.00, corresponding to a lentogenic pathotype. These results were consistent with amino acid sequences at the fusion protein (F) cleavage site. All velogenic isolates had the polybasic amino acid sequence (112)RRQKR↓F(117) at the F cleavage site. Phylogenetic analyses of complete F gene sequences showed that all isolates are classified in class II of APMV-1. The velogenic viruses are classified in genotype XII, while the lentogenic virus is classified in genotype II, closely related to the LaSota vaccine strain. Moreover, tree topology, bootstrap values, and genetic distances observed within genotype XII resulted in the identification of novel subgenotypes XIIa (in South America) and XIIb (in China) and possibly two clades within genotype XIIa. All velogenic Peruvian viruses belonged to subgenotype XIIa. Overall, our results confirm the presence of genotype XII in Peru and suggest that it is the prevalent genotype currently circulating in our country. The phylogenetic characterization of these isolates helps to characterize the evolution of NDV and may help with the development of vaccines specific to our regional necessities.

  20. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

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    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  1. Avian paramyoxvirus-8 immunization reduces viral shedding after homologous APMV-8 challenge but fails to protect against Newcastle disease.

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    Grund, Christian; Steglich, Constanze; Huthmann, Eva; Beer, Martin; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela

    2014-10-08

    Protection against infection by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also designated as avian paramyxovirus subtype-1 (APMV-1), is mediated by immune responses to the two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) protein. Thus, a chimeric APMV-1 based vaccine that encodes APMV-8 HN- and F-proteins and expresses the hemagglutinin of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1, is able to protect against HPAIV H5N1 but fails to protect against NDV [PLoS One8:e72530, 2013]. However, it is unclear whether avirulent APMV-subtypes, like APMV-8 can induce subtype-specific immunity and protect from a homologous challenge. APMV-8 infections of 3- and 6-weeks-old specific pathogen free (SPF)-chickens did not induce any clinical signs but was associated with virus shedding for up to 6 days. Viral replication was only detected in oropharyngeal- and never in cloacal swabs. Upon reinfection with homologous APMV-8, viral shedding was restricted to day 2 and in contrast to naive SPF-chickens, only RNA but no infectious virus was recovered. No protection was induced against virulent NDV challenge, although morbidity and mortality was delayed in APMV-8 primed chickens. This lack of protection is in line with a lack of reactivity of APMV-8 specific sera to APMV-1 HN-protein: Neither by hemagglutin-inhibition (HI) test nor immunoblot analyses, cross-reactivity was detected, despite reactivity to internal proteins. Immune responses mounted during asymptomatic APMV-8 infection limit secondary infection against homologues reinfection and facilitates a delay in the onset of disease in a subtype independent manner but is unable to protect against Newcastle disease, a heterologous APMV-subtype.

  2. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew B.; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S.; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, V. N.; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, N. Y.; Afonso, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  3. Infection of goose with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus of goose origin elicits strong immune responses at early stage

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    Qianqian Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND, caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV, is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06. The virus showed early replication, especially in digestive and immune tissues. The expression profiles showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR1–3, 5, 7 and 15, avian β-defensin (AvBD 5–7, 10, 12 and 16, cytokines interleukin (IL-8, IL-18, IL-1β and interferon-γ, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and MHC class I in some tissues of geese in response to NDV. In contrast, NDV infection suppressed expression of AvBD1 in cecal tonsil of geese. Moreover, we observed a highly positive correlation between viral replication and host mRNA expressions of TLR1-5 and 7, AvBD4-6, 10 and 12, all the cytokines measured, MHC class I, FAS ligand, and iNOS, mainly at 72 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDV infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in goose which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.

  4. Phylogenetic and pathotypic characterization of newcastle disease viruses circulating in west Africa and efficacy of a current vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Arthur; Nayak, Baibaswata; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Aplogan, Gilbert L; Awoume, Kodzo A; Webby, Richard J; Ducatez, Mariette F; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-03-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a deadly avian disease worldwide. In Africa, ND is enzootic and causes large economic losses, but little is known about the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains circulating in African countries. In this study, 27 NDV isolates collected from apparently healthy chickens in live-bird markets of the West African countries Benin and Togo in 2009 were characterized. All isolates had polybasic fusion (F)-protein cleavage sites and were shown to be highly virulent in standard pathogenicity assays. Infection of 2-week-old chickens with two of the isolates resulted in 100% mortality within 4 days. Phylogenetic analysis of the 27 isolates based on a partial F-protein gene sequence identified three clusters: one containing all the isolates from Togo and one from Benin (cluster 2), one containing most isolates from Benin (cluster 3), and an outlier isolate from Benin (cluster 1). All the three clusters are related to genotype VII strains of NDV. In addition, the cluster of viruses from Togo contained a recently identified 6-nucleotide insert between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and large polymerase (L) genes in a complete genome of an NDV isolate from this geographical region. Multiple strains that include this novel element suggest local emergence of a new genome length class. These results reveal genetic diversity within and among local NDV populations in Africa. Sequence analysis showed that the F and HN proteins of six West African isolates share 83.2 to 86.6% and 86.5 to 87.9% identities, respectively, with vaccine strain LaSota, indicative of considerable diversity. A vaccine efficacy study showed that the LaSota vaccine protected birds from morbidity and mortality but did not prevent shedding of West African challenge viruses.

  5. Genetic diversity and mutation of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (Newcastle disease virus) in wild birds and evidence for intercontinental spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; Ogawa, Haruko; Ip, Hon S; Imai, Kunitoshi; Bui, Vuong Nghia; Yamaguchi, Emi; Silko, Nikita Y; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-12-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus, is the causative agent of Newcastle disease, one of the most economically important diseases for poultry production worldwide and a cause of periodic epizootics in wild birds in North America. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity of APMV-1 isolated from migratory birds sampled in Alaska, Japan, and Russia and assessed the evidence for intercontinental virus spread using phylogenetic methods. Additionally, we predicted viral virulence using deduced amino acid residues for the fusion protein cleavage site and estimated mutation rates for the fusion gene of class I and class II migratory bird isolates. All 73 isolates sequenced as part of this study were most closely related to virus genotypes previously reported for wild birds; however, five class II genotype I isolates formed a monophyletic clade exhibiting previously unreported genetic diversity, which met criteria for the designation of a new sub-genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of wild-bird isolates provided evidence for intercontinental virus spread, specifically viral lineages of APMV-1 class II genotype I sub-genotypes Ib and Ic. This result supports migratory bird movement as a possible mechanism for the redistribution of APMV-1. None of the predicted deduced amino acid motifs for the fusion protein cleavage site of APMV-1 strains isolated from migratory birds in Alaska, Japan, and Russia were consistent with those of previously identified virulent viruses. These data therefore provide no support for these strains contributing to the emergence of avian pathogens. The estimated mutation rates for fusion genes of class I and class II wild-bird isolates were faster than those reported previously for non-virulent APMV-1 strains. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into the diversity, spread, and evolution of APMV-1 in wild birds.

  6. Infection of Goose with Genotype VIId Newcastle Disease Virus of Goose Origin Elicits Strong Immune Responses at Early Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianqian; Chen, Yuqiu; Zhao, Wenjun; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Chenggang; Qi, Tianming; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Ma, Deying; Liu, Shengwang

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious disease of birds that is responsible for heavy economic losses for the poultry industry worldwide. However, little is known about host-virus interactions in waterfowl, goose. In this study, we aim to characterize the host immune response in goose, based on the previous reports on the host response to NDV in chickens. Here, we evaluated viral replication and mRNA expression of 27 immune-related genes in 10 tissues of geese challenged with a genotype VIId NDV strain of goose origin (go/CH/LHLJ/1/06). The virus showed early replication, especially in digestive and immune tissues. The expression profiles showed up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)1-3, 5, 7, and 15, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 5-7, 10, 12, and 16, cytokines [interleukin (IL)-8, IL-18, IL-1β, and interferon-γ], inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and MHC class I in some tissues of geese in response to NDV. In contrast, NDV infection suppressed expression of AvBD1 in cecal tonsil of geese. Moreover, we observed a highly positive correlation between viral replication and host mRNA expressions of TLR1-5 and 7, AvBD4-6, 10, and 12, all the cytokines measured, MHC class I, FAS ligand, and iNOS, mainly at 72 h post-infection. Taken together, these results demonstrated that NDV infection induces strong innate immune responses and intense inflammatory responses at early stage in goose which may associate with the viral pathogenesis.

  7. Expression of recombinant Newcastle disease virus F protein in Pichia pastoris and its immunogenicity using flagellin as the adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xilong; Wang, Jing; Jiao, Yang; Tang, Peipei; Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Yin, Yuelan; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2016-12-01

    Newcastle disease (ND), a highly contagious, acute, and potent infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), has a considerable impact on the global poultry industry. Although both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are used to prevent and control the spread of ND among chickens, the increasing number of ND outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks worldwide indicates that routine vaccinations are insufficient to control ND. Hence, efforts are being invested into developing alternative and more effective vaccination strategies. In this study, we focus on F protein, the neutralizing and protective antigen of NDV, and flagellin (FliC), a toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) agonist that is an effective inducer of innate immune responses. We amplified F gene from velogenic NDV strain F48E8. The recombinant histidine (His)-tagged F protein was efficiently expressed in a Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) eukaryotic system and verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. The conditions for F protein expression in P. pastoris were optimal. The immunogenicity of F protein with FliC as the adjuvant was evaluated in a C3H/HeJ mouse model. FliC was found to enhance both F-specific and NDV-specific IgG responses and F-specific cellular immune responses following intraperitoneal co-administration with F protein. Thus, the recombinant F protein expressed by P. pastoris when used with flagellin as the adjuvant has potential as a subunit vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jie Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND, infectious bronchitis (IB and avian influenza (AI was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis.

  9. CD55 is a key complement regulatory protein that counteracts complement-mediated inactivation of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; Cotter, Christopher R; Cheng, Xing; Jin, Hong; Chen, Zhongying

    2016-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is being developed as an oncolytic virus for virotherapy. In this study we analysed the regulation of complement-mediated inactivation of a recombinant NDV in different host cells. NDV grown in human cells was less sensitive to complement-mediated virus inactivation than NDV grown in embryonated chicken eggs. Additionally, NDV produced from HeLa-S3 cells is more resistant to complement than NDV from 293F cells, which correlated with higher expression and incorporation of complement regulatory proteins (CD46, CD55 and CD59) into virions from HeLa-S3 cells. Further analysis of the recombinant NDVs individually expressing the three CD molecules showed that CD55 is the most potent in counteracting complement-mediated virus inactivation. The results provide important information on selecting NDV manufacture substrate to mitigate complement-mediated virus inactivation.

  10. Antibodies against analogous heptad repeat peptide HR212 of Newcastle Disease Virus inhibit virus-cell membrane fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; TIEN Po

    2007-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key step in enveloped virus entry. Highly conserved heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) are critical functional domains for viral membrane fusion. They display different conformations in the membrane fusion states and are viewed as candidate targets for neutralizing antibody responses. We previously reported that an analog of heptad repeat peptides HR2-HR1-HR2(HR212) and HR2 could inhibit NDV induced cell-cell membrane fusion. Here, we show that HR212 can induce the production of highly potent antibody in immunized rabbits, which could recognize full length peptides of both HR1 and HR2, and inhibit NDV hemagglutination and NDV entry. These suggest that either HR212 or its antibody could be an inhibitor of virus-induced cell-cell membrane fusion.

  11. Situation of serum antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in slaughter-age ostriches after vaccination campaign in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenphet, Sakchai; Jahangir, Alam; Shoham, Dany; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2012-04-01

    A total of 516 slaughter-age ostrich sera were collected in Japan during 2006-2009. Sixty-one of five hundred and sixteen were positive by virus neutralization (VN) test and the titer of most positive samples was low level. Within the 61 positive sera, 35 sera were collected from unvaccinated ostriches. This result implies that these ostriches might have been infected naturally with low-virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Within the 455 negative samples, 125 samples were from vaccinated ostriches. Since ostrich farmers use live attenuated vaccines, it is reasonable that the titer decreased to below detection level by 1 or 1.5 year-old. The above data indicate that NDV has infiltrated into ostrich farms in Japan, and that the efficacy of ostrich ND vaccination is often time-limited.

  12. Inactivation of avian influenza virus, newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus using solution of nano-sized scallop shell powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Satoh, Keisuke; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2014-09-01

    Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms.

  13. An i2b2-based, generalizable, open source, self-scaling chronic disease registry

    OpenAIRE

    Natter, Marc D; Quan, Justin; Ortiz, David M; Bousvaros, Athos; Ilowite, Norman T; Inman, Christi J; Marsolo, Keith; McMurry, Andrew J; Sandborg, Christy I; Schanberg, Laura E.; Wallace, Carol A.; Warren, Robert W.; Weber, Griffin M.; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Objective Registries are a well-established mechanism for obtaining high quality, disease-specific data, but are often highly project-specific in their design, implementation, and policies for data use. In contrast to the conventional model of centralized data contribution, warehousing, and control, we design a self-scaling registry technology for collaborative data sharing, based upon the widely adopted Integrating Biology & the Bedside (i2b2) data warehousing framework and the Shared Health...

  14. An i2b2-based, generalizable, open source, self-scaling chronic disease registry

    OpenAIRE

    Natter, Marc D; Quan, Justin; Ortiz, David M; Bousvaros, Athos; Ilowite, Norman T; Inman, Christi J; Marsolo, Keith; McMurry, Andrew J; Sandborg, Christy I; Schanberg, Laura E.; Wallace, Carol A.; Warren, Robert W.; Weber, Griffin M.; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Registries are a well-established mechanism for obtaining high quality, disease-specific data, but are often highly project-specific in their design, implementation, and policies for data use. In contrast to the conventional model of centralized data contribution, warehousing, and control, we design a self-scaling registry technology for collaborative data sharing, based upon the widely adopted Integrating Biology & the Bedside (i2b2) data warehousing framework and the Shared Healt...

  15. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Ping; Swanson, Kurt A.; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (Stanford-MED); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein plays multiple roles in viral entry and egress, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activating the fusion (F) protein to activate membrane fusion and viral entry, and cleaving sialic acid from carbohydrate chains. HN is an oligomeric integral membrane protein consisting of an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stalk region, and an enzymatically active neuraminidase (NA) domain. Structures of the HN NA domains have been solved previously; however, the structure of the stalk region has remained elusive. The stalk region contains specificity determinants for F interactions and activation, underlying the requirement for homotypic F and HN interactions in viral entry. Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for understanding these dual affects on HN functions has been lacking. Here, we report the structure of the Newcastle disease virus HN ectodomain, revealing dimers of NA domain dimers flanking the N-terminal stalk domain. The stalk forms a parallel tetrameric coiled-coil bundle (4HB) that allows classification of extensive mutational data, providing insight into the functional roles of the stalk region. Mutations that affect both F activation and NA activities map predominantly to the 4HB hydrophobic core, whereas mutations that affect only F-protein activation map primarily to the 4HB surface. Two of four NA domains interact with the 4HB stalk, and residues at this interface in both the stalk and NA domain have been implicated in HN function.

  16. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  17. Investigation of Influenza A, West Nile and Newcastle Disease Viruses in Birds from the Pantanal Wetlands of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pantanal is the world's largest wetland biome with a seasonal flood pulse that attracts a great diversity of birds, many of which are migratory. Birds can be natural reservoirs Influenza A, West Nile and Newcastle Disease viruses. However, the occurrence of carriers for these viruses in the Pantanal was not verified yet. The present study evaluated the occurrence of natural infection by Influenza A, WN and ND virus of birds in the municipality of Poconé, a subregion of the Pantanal in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 76 birds belonging to 11 orders and 20 families were captured using mist nets. The most representative order was Passeriformes, followed by the other nine orders, which included Columbiformes, Psittaciformes, Charadriiformes and Anseriformes. The most representative family was Thamnophilidae, with 16 individuals (21.0%, followed by the family Tyrannidae with 10 individuals (7.6% and the family Furnariidae, with eight individuals (10.5%. The bird species were identified, and cloacal and tracheal swab samples were collected. The samples were subjected to RNA extraction and tested for the presence of the three agents by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. All the sampled birds were considered healthy, had no clinical sign of infection, and were tested negative for the three viruses. Based on our findings, we can conclude that Influenza, West Nile and Newcastle Disease viruses were absent from the samples in this region of the Pantanal wetlands during the period of this study.

  18. The History and Current Status of Newcastle Disease%新城疫的流行历史与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华雷; 王志亮

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease is a devastating disease of poultry. The history and current status of the disease the worldwide were described in the paper. The history of the disease in China was analyzed as well,with the main present epidemiological characteristic of the disease in particular. Some suggestions on prevention and control of the disease were provided according to the main problems in the field.%新城疫是严重危害养禽业的一种烈性传染病。本文对新城疫的全球流行历史与现状进行了阐述,对我国流行历史及现阶段的流行特点进行了分析,针对目前防控实践中存在的主要问题提出了防控措施建议,为科学防控该病提供依据。

  19. Molecular characterization of chicken-derived genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus isolates in China during 2005-2012 reveals a new length in hemagglutinin-neuraminidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Shao, Meng-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guo-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important diseases of poultry, and causes severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Although all Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates belong to a single serotype, significant genetic diversity has been described between different NDV isolates. Here, we report the molecular characterization of 23 virulent genotype VIId NDV isolates of class II circulating in China. Phylogenetic construction and analysis revealed the existence of distinctly genomic and amino acid differences that clearly distinguished these isolates from other typical NDV genotypes and vaccine strains. We also report a new 582-amino-acid hemagglutinin-neuraminidase in genotype VII NDV strains. This is believed to be the first study to investigate systematically the most predominant NDV strains, and provides more information on the genetic nature of genotype VIId NDV of class II circulating in China.

  20. Protection and differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus/avian influenza H5 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Specific-pathogen-free chickens immunized at 14 days of age with either an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus-LaSota/avian influenza H5 (K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5) vaccine or a killed Newcastle disease/avian influenza whole-virus vaccine (K-ND/AI) were protected from disease when challenged with either A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2), a high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain isolated in Mexico in 1995, or with a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) strain 21 days postvaccination. All nonvaccinated chickens challenged with HPAIV or VVNDV succumbed to disease, while those vaccinated with K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5 or K-ND/AI were protected from severe clinical signs and death. Both vaccines induced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses against NDV and AIV. Antibodies against AIV nucleoprotein were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in birds vaccinated with the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. These chickens became positive for AIV antibodies by ELISA only after challenge with HPAIV. The data clearly indicate that the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine confers protection comparable to that of the conventional killed whole-virus vaccine against both NDV and AIV, while still allowing differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by HI and ELISA tests.

  1. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; He, Ying; Hutcheson, Jessica M; Lu, Yangqing; West, Franklin D; Stice, Steven L; Yu, Ping; Abdo, Zaid; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-12-05

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV-caused disease. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows adult cells to be reprogrammed into an embryonic stem cell-like state capable of contributing to live offspring and passing on unique traits in a number of species. Recently, iPSC approaches have been successfully applied to avian cells. If chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) are genetically or epigenetically modified to resist NDV infection, it may be possible to generate ND resistant poultry. There is limited information on the potential of ciPSCs to be infected by NDV, or the capacity of these cells to become resistant to infection. The aim of the present work was to assess the characteristics of the interaction between NDV and ciPSCs, and to develop a selection method that would increase tolerance of these cells to NDV-induced cellular damage. Results showed that ciPSCs were permissive to infection with NDV, and susceptible to virus-mediated cell death. Since ciPSCs that survived infection demonstrated the ability to recover quickly, we devised a system to select surviving cells through multiple infection rounds with NDV. ciPSCs that sustained 9 consecutive infections had a statistically significant increase in survival (up to 36 times) compared to never-infected ciPSCs upon NDV infection (tolerant cells). Increased survival was not caused by a loss of permissiveness to NDV replication. RNA sequencing followed by enrichment pathway analysis showed that numerous metabolic pathways where differentially regulated between tolerant and never-infected ciPSCs. Results demonstrate that ciPSCs are permissive to NDV infection and become increasingly tolerant to NDV under selective pressure, indicating that

  2. Efficacy of a genotype 2 Newcastle disease vaccine (Avinew® against challenge with highly virulent genotypes 5d and 3d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Bwala

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 2002, following its introduction, the lineage 5d Newcastle disease virus (so-called Goose paramyxovirus -GPMV strain has caused numerous disease outbreaks among commercial and backyard poultry in South Africa, raising questions about the ability of commercially available Newcastle disease vaccines to fully protect poultry against the strain. This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the level of protection offered by Avinew® Newcastle disease vaccine against GPMV virus as compared with a 3d Newcastle disease virus isolated in South Africa in 1993 (Rainbow challenge virus - RCV strain. Six groups of 10-day-old, specific pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated with doses of 103.0, 104.5 and 106.0 EID50 of Avinew® vaccine and challenged at 4 weeks of age intramuscularly at a dose of 105.3EID50/ 0.2 mℓ/bird of GPMV and RCV. No statistically significant difference could be found in the protection offered by Avinew® vaccine against GPMV as compared to RCV challenge. The protection offered against the ND challenge was found to be dose dependent. At the recommended field dose of 106.0 EID50 the vaccine gave 100 % protection from mortality against both the challenge viruses, but not against infection and replication of the viruses, as gross lesions were evident even in apparently healthy birds that survived the challenge. The protective dose (PD90 of the Avinew® vaccine against GPMV challenge was calculated at 104.38 and against that of RCV at 104.43.

  3. Short hairpin RNA targeting NP mRNA inhibiting Newcastle disease virus production and other viral structural mRNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hua; Deng, Shu; Yang, Fa-Long; Li, Ding-Fei; Fu, An-Jing; Yang, Fan; Tang, Cheng

    2009-02-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), formally recognized as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), is the etiological agent of Newcastle disease (ND), an affliction which can cause severe losses in the poultry industry. Better understanding of the molecular basis of viral structural genes involved with production should contribute significantly toward the development of improved prophylactic and therapeutic reagents to control the infection. Here we show that a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) eukaryotic expression vector targeting nucleocapsid (NP) gene of NDV can potently inhibit NDV production in both primary cells and embryonated chicken eggs. Moreover, shRNA specific for NP abolished the accumulation of not only the corresponding mRNA but also P, HN, F, M gene mRNA. The findings reveal that newly synthesized NP mRNA is essential for NDV transcription and replication, and provide a basis for the development of shRNAs as a prophylaxis and therapy for NDV infection in poultry.

  4. 新城疫病毒出芽机制的研究进展%Research Progress on the Mechanism of Budding of Newcastle Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛鑫

    2008-01-01

    新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,virus,NDV)是引起禽类急性、高度接触性传染病一新城疫(Newcastle disease,ND)的病原,给养禽业造成了严重经济损失,虽然有疫苗可用于该病的预防,但由于对病原的致病机理、免疫机理了解不充分,一直没能从根本上控制该病.近些年来,VLPs(Viruslike Particles,VLPs)技术在病毒的组装和出芽机制的研究以及某些传染病的疫苗开发上应用广泛,以VLPs技术阐述了NDV出芽的机制.

  5. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing African swine fever virus protein 72 is safe and immunogenic in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Yang, Jifei; Ji, Yanhong; Okoth, Edward; Liu, Bin; Li, Xiaoyang; Yin, Hong; Zhu, Qiyun

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease that affects wild and domestic swine. The etiological agent of ASF is African swine fever virus (ASFV). Since the first case was described in Kenya in 1921, the disease has spread to many other countries. No commercial vaccines are available to prevent ASF. In this study, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) expressing ASFV protein 72 (p72) by reverse genetics and evaluated its humoral and cellular immunogenicity in a mouse model. The recombinant virus, rNDV/p72, replicated well in embryonated chicken eggs and was safe to use in chicks and mice. The p72 gene in rNDV/p72 was stably maintained through ten passages. Mice immunized with rNDV/p72 developed high titers of ASFV p72 specific IgG antibody, and had higher levels of IgG1 than IgG2a. Immunization also elicited T-cell proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4. Taken together, these results indicate that rNDV expressing ASFV p72 might be a potential vaccine candidate for preventing ASF.

  6. Newcastle / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2009-01-01

    17. sajandi parimast ratsanikust Newcastle'i krahvist ja alates 1665. aastast Newcastle'i hertsogist William Cavendishist, kes rajas Antverpenis oma aja tähtsaima ratsasõidukunsti kooli ning avaldas hobuste õpetamisest raamatu

  7. Newcastle / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2009-01-01

    17. sajandi parimast ratsanikust Newcastle'i krahvist ja alates 1665. aastast Newcastle'i hertsogist William Cavendishist, kes rajas Antverpenis oma aja tähtsaima ratsasõidukunsti kooli ning avaldas hobuste õpetamisest raamatu

  8. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianfei; Qu, Hao; Luo, Chenglong; Li, Xuewei; Shu, Dingming; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV) and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV) in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP) and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP). Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV) in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising.

  9. Genomic selection for the improvement of antibody response to Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianfei Liu

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease (ND and avian influenza (AI are the most feared diseases in the poultry industry worldwide. They can cause flock mortality up to 100%, resulting in a catastrophic economic loss. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of genomic selection for antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (Ab-NDV and antibody response to Avian Influenza virus (Ab-AIV in chickens. The data were collected from a crossbred population. Breeding values for Ab-NDV and Ab-AIV were estimated using a pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction model (BLUP and a genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP. Single-trait and multiple-trait analyses were implemented. According to the analysis using the pedigree-based model, the heritability for Ab-NDV estimated from the single-trait and multiple-trait models was 0.478 and 0.487, respectively. The heritability for Ab-AIV estimated from the two models was 0.301 and 0.291, respectively. The estimated genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.438. A four-fold cross-validation was used to assess the accuracy of the estimated breeding values (EBV in the two validation scenarios. In the family sample scenario each half-sib family is randomly allocated to one of four subsets and in the random sample scenario the individuals are randomly divided into four subsets. In the family sample scenario, compared with the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of the genomic prediction increased from 0.086 to 0.237 for Ab-NDV and from 0.080 to 0.347 for Ab-AIV. In the random sample scenario, the accuracy was improved from 0.389 to 0.427 for Ab-NDV and from 0.281 to 0.367 for Ab-AIV. The multiple-trait GBLUP model led to a slightly higher accuracy of genomic prediction for both traits. These results indicate that genomic selection for antibody response to ND and AI in chickens is promising.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of a Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Exotic Parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Basharat, Asma; Khan, Taseer Ahmed; Wasim, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain isolated from an exotic parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) is described here. The virulent strain parakeet/Pak/R-Pindi/SFR-16/2016 was isolated from a bird reared as a pet in the province of Punjab in the northern region of Pakistan in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis classified the isolate as a member of NDV class II, subgenotype VIIi, in genotype VII. PMID:28183762

  11. Effects of Thymoquinone on Interleukin-1 and Interferon Gamma Gene Expression and Antibody Titers against Newcastle Disease in Broiler Chickens under Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rastad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of the dietary inclusion of different levels of thymoquinone (TQ of broilers subjected to oxidative stress or not on the antibody titers against Newcastle disease and on the gene expression of interleukine-1 and interferon gamma. A total of 320 one-day-old broilers was randomly assigned to eight treatments with four replicates of 10 birds each, in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of four thymoquinone (TQ levels (0, 5, 8, or 11 mg/kg body weight and two levels tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP injection (0 or 0.02 mmol/kg of body weight. Blood samples were collected from two birds per replicate to determine antibody titers against Newcastle disease. At the end of experiment, two birds per replicate were randomly selected, sacrificed and their spleens were collected to evaluate the genes expressioninterleukin-1 and interferon gamma (p<0.05. The dietary inclusion of TQ of broilers subjected or not oxidative stress increased antibody production against Newcastle disease (p<0.05. Both individual and combined dietary inclusion of t-BHP and TQ promote the differentiation and proliferation of spleen cells and the gene expression of interleukin-1 and interferon gamma (p<0.05.

  12. A model for the transfer of passive immunity against Newcastle disease and avian influenza in specific pathogen free chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardinois, Amélyne; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Steensels, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Chicks possess maternally derived antibody (MDA) against pathogens and vaccines previously encountered by the dams. This passive immunity is important in early life, when the immune system is immature and unable to fight off infection. On the other hand, MDA can also affect the development of the immune system and interfere with vaccination against avian diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI). The effect of MDA is generally investigated by studying the progeny of vaccinated dams, which is time-consuming, poorly flexible and expensive. Moreover, the antibody titres obtained are not homogeneous. In this study, a model was developed to offer a faster, more reproducible and cheaper way to study passive immunity in specific pathogen free chickens by injection of a polyclonal serum into the egg yolk at embryonic day 14, combined with an intraperitoneal injection at day 1. A satisfactory model, with consistent, homogeneous antibody titres, as well as persistence close to natural passive immunity, could be obtained for ND virus. On the other hand, the application of this optimized protocol in an H5 AI context induced only a low artificial passive immunity compared with that described in the literature for the progeny of AI vaccinated dams. This artificial model should facilitate future studies regarding the effect of passive immunity on vaccine efficacy at a young age and its effect on immune system development.

  13. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein is downregulated in response to Newcastle disease virus infection to promote viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xinxin; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Guangyao; Zhang, Pingze; Meng, Xin; Ai, Lili; Xu, Rongyi; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a severe and economically significant disease affecting almost the entire poultry industry worldwide. However, factors that affect NDV replication in host cells are poorly understood. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a physiological inhibitor of c-RAF kinase and NF-κB signalling, known for their functions in the control of immune response as well as tumour invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we investigated the consequences of overexpression of host RKIP during viral infection. We demonstrate that NDV infection represses RKIP expression thereby promoting virus replication. Experimental upregulation of RKIP in turn acts as a potential antiviral defence mechanism in host cells that restricts NDV replication by repressing the activation of Raf/MEK/ERK and IκBα/NF-κB signalling pathways. Our results not only extend the concept of linking NDV-host interactions, but also reveal RKIP as a new class of protein-kinase-inhibitor protein that affects NDV replication with therapeutic potential.

  14. Experimental infection of Newcastle disease virus in pigeons (Columba livia): humoral antibody response, contact transmission and viral genome shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Torres Carrasco, Adriano; Seki, Meire Christina; de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Paulillo, Antônio Carlos; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2008-05-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the humoral antibody response, the genome viral excretion and the contact transmission of pathogenic chicken origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from experimentally infected pigeons (Columba livia) to in-contact pigeon. The antibody response to infection was assessed by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the genome viral excretion was detected by RT-PCR. Viral strain induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and in sentinel birds. The pathogenic viral strain for chickens was unable to produce clinical signs of the disease in experimentally infected pigeons, although it induced the humoral antibody response and produced NDV genome shedding. NDV genome was detected intermittently throughout the experimental period, from 5 days post-infection (dpi) to 24 dpi. Therefore, viral genome shedding occurred for 20 days. The viral genome was detected in all birds, between 11 and 13 dpi. Furthermore, the high infectivity of the virus was confirmed, as all non-inoculated sentinel pigeons showed antibody levels as high as those of inoculated birds.

  15. Riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle a Chile por la importación de avestruces Risk of introduction of Newcastle disease in Chile through import of ostriches

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    L. A. Burbano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile ha estado libre de de la enfermedad de Newcastle del tipo PMV-1 desde 1977; por consiguiente, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle asociado a la importación de avestruces. Se utilizó un modelo de simulación de tipo estocástico, para lo cual se consideraron los siguientes procesos: los relacionados previos a la importación en el país de origen, aquellos que corresponden al proceso mismo de importación y los realizados en la cuarentena en el país de destino. De acuerdo a los reportes de enfermedad en cada uno de los países exportadores de avestruces, se categorizó a los países en dos niveles: aquel donde la enfermedad de Newcastle no ha sido reportada y el de un país endémico. Las probabilidades de las entradas del modelo de simulación fueron obtenidas de fuentes bibliográficas e información sanitaria publicada por organismos de sanidad animal. Se ejecutó un análisis de sensibilidad, para lo cual se usó el coeficiente de correlación de rango a fin de identificar las variables que ejercen mayor influencia en el modelo, siendo éstas: la probabilidad de brote y la cantidad de avestruces importadas. Esta información sirvió para el diseño de cuatro escenarios que incluyeron valores extremos de la presentación de la enfermedad basados en la situación endémica, así como el uso de una mejor prueba diagnóstica. El número de avestruces positivos que ingresarían a Chile resultó fuertemente relacionado al número de brotes en el país endémico y al número de avestruces importadas del país endémico; el valor fue de 2.2 x 10-5, con un límite de confianza superior del 90% de 8.5*10-5 por año. El riesgo de introducción de la enfermedad de Newcastle a Chile asociado a la importación de avestruces fue muy bajo, incluso en los peores escenarios.Chile has been free of Newcastle disease (ND of type PMV- 1 since 1977. The objective of this study was to

  16. Immunization with a thermostable newcastle disease virus K148/08 strain originated from wild mallard duck confers protection against lethal viscerotropic velogenic newcastle disease virus infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Choi, Soo-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most devastating poultry infections because of its worldwide distribution and accompanying economical threat. In the present study, we characterized the ND virus (NDV) K148/08 strain from wild mallard duck, with regard to safety, thermostability, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy against velogenic ND viral infection. The NDV K148/08 strain offered enhanced immunogenicity and safety relative to commercially available vaccine strains. The NDV K148/08 strain was safe in 1-day-old SPF chicks after vaccination using a coarse or cabinet-type fine sprayer. We demonstrated that the NDV K148/08 strain elicited high levels of antibody responses and provided protective efficacy against lethal NDV challenge. In addition, the thermostability of the NDV K148/08 strain was as high as that of the thermostable V4 strain. Therefore, the NDV K148/08 strain may be useful to ensure NDV vaccine performance and effectiveness in developing countries, especially in remote areas without cold chains.

  17. Enhancement of the pro-apoptotic properties of Newcastle disease virus promotes tumor remission in syngeneic murine cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Castano, Sara; Ayllon, Juan; Mansour, Mena; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Jordan, Stefan; Tripathi, Shashank; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Villar, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is considered a promising agent for cancer therapy due to its oncolytic properties. These include preferential replication in transformed cells, induction of innate and adaptive immune responses within tumors and cytopathic effects in infected tumor cells due to the activation of apoptosis. In order to enhance the latter and thus possibly enhance the overall oncolytic activity of NDV, we generated a recombinant NDV encoding the human TNF receptor Fas (rNDV-B1/Fas). rNDV-B1/Fas replicates to similar titers as its wild type (rNDV-B1) counterpart, however overexpression of Fas in infected cells leads to higher levels of cytotoxicity correlated with faster and increased apoptosis responses in which both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways are activated earlier. Furthermore, in vivo studies in syngeneic murine melanoma model show an enhancement of the oncolytic properties of rNDV-B1/Fas, with major improvements in survival and tumor remission. Altogether, our data suggest that up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic function of NDV is a viable approach to enhance its anti-tumor properties, and adds to the currently known, rationally-based strategies to design optimized therapeutic viral vectors for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25761895

  18. The nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 targets Newcastle disease virus matrix protein to the nucleoli and facilitates viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jian; Xu, Haixu; Zhu, Jie; Li, Qunhui; He, Liang; Liu, Huimou; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2014-03-01

    The cellular nucleolar proteins are reported to facilitate the replication cycles of some human and animal viruses by interaction with viral proteins. In this study, a nucleolar phosphoprotein B23 was identified to interact with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein. We found that NDV M protein accumulated in the nucleolus by binding B23 early in infection, but resulted in the redistribution of B23 from the nucleoli to the nucleoplasm later in infection. In vitro binding studies utilizing deletion mutants indicated that amino acids 30-60 of M and amino acids 188-245 of B23 were required for binding. Furthermore, knockdown of B23 by siRNA or overexpression of B23 or M-binding B23-derived polypeptides remarkably reduced cytopathic effect and inhibited NDV replication. Collectively, we show that B23 facilitates NDV replication by targeting M to the nucleolus, demonstrating for the first time a direct role for nucleolar protein B23 in a paramyxovirus replication process.

  19. Pathotypic and genotypic characterization of two Bangladeshi isolates of Newcastle disease virus of chicken and pigeon origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooruzzaman, M; Mazumder, A C; Khatun, S; Chowdhury, E H; Das, P M; Islam, M R

    2015-02-01

    Two Bangladeshi isolates of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one from a chicken and one from a pigeon, were characterized in this study. Pathogenicity of the isolates was evaluated on the basis of intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Both the isolates were found to be of velogenic pathotype having ICPI of 1.83 and 1.51 for the chicken and pigeon isolate, respectively. Genotype of the isolates was determined by phylogenetic analysis based on partial F gene sequences. A 766-bp genome fragment spanning partial M and F gene was amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The first 354 bp of the coding region of F gene and corresponding deduced amino acid sequences (residues 1-118) of these two NDV isolates were aligned with that of other NDV strains retrieved from GenBank. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the alignment showed that the chicken isolate (BD-C162) belonged to the newly described genotype XIII and the pigeon isolate (BD-P01) to genotype VI. Both the chicken and pigeon isolates possessed a virulent-like fusion protein cleavage site (112) RRQKRF(117) . © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Generation and evaluation of a genetically attenuated Newcastle disease virus rGM-VIIm as a genotype-matched vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minhua; Xiang, Bin; Li, Yaling; Xie, Peng; Gao, Shimin; Kang, Yinfeng; Gao, Pei; Li, Yanling; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Liang, Jianpeng; Yu, Deshui; Ren, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Despite intensive vaccination campaigns, outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) have been frequently reported in China, especially of genotype VII that first emerged in the late 1990s. Given the dire need for vaccines against the circulating genotype VII virus, we developed an alternative method to recover a highly virulent recombinant GM (rGM) virus that involves a T7 system with a hammerhead ribozyme sequence introduced downstream of the T7 promoter. By changing the F0 polybasic cleavage site RRQKR↓F to the monobasic GRQGR↓L, we generated a mutant virus (rGM-VIIm) that was found to be highly attenuated in chickens. The rGM-VIIm virus not only produced fourfold higher hemagglutination assay (HA) titers than the parental virus, but also exhibited genetic stability after 15 continuous passages in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated eggs. Whether live or inactivated, rGM-VIIm and LaSota vaccines can protect vaccinated birds from GM challenge infection. However, live and inactivated rGM-VIIm vaccines reduced virus shedding of the homologous challenge virus significantly better than the LaSota virus vaccine did. Altogether, our results suggest that rGM-VIIm vaccines could aid in the control of ND in China.

  1. Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain AF2240 on Mammary Carcinoma Cell Line

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    Umar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the malignant tumour that developed from cells of the breast and is the first leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the available treatments for breast cancer, but these were reported to have side effects. Newcastle disease virus (NDV known as Avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV1 belongs to the genus Avulavirus in a family Paramyxoviridae. NDV is shown to be a promising anticancer agent, killing tumour cells while sparing normal cells unharmed. In this study, the oncolytic and cytotoxic activities of NDV AF2240 strain were evaluated on MDA-MB-231, human mammary carcinoma cell line, using MTT assay, and its inhibitory effects were further studied using proliferation and migration assays. Morphological and apoptotic-inducing effects of NDV on MD-MB-231 cells were observed using phase contrast and fluorescence microscopes. Detection of DNA fragmentation was done following terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated Br-dUTP nick end labeling staining (TUNEL assay, which confirmed that the mode of death was through apoptosis and was quantified by flow cytometry. Furthermore, analysis of cellular DNA content demonstrated that the virus caused an increase in the sub-G1 phase (apoptotic peak of the cell cycle. It appears that NDV AF2240 strain is a potent anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in time-dependent manner.

  2. Structure of the Ulster Strain Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Reveals Auto-Inhibitory Interactions Associated with Low Virulence

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    Yuan, Ping; Paterson, Reay G.; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (Stanford-MED); (NWU)

    2012-09-06

    Paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) plays roles in viral entry and maturation, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activation of the F protein to drive membrane fusion, and enabling virion release during virus budding. HN can thereby directly influence virulence and in a subset of avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, such as NDV Ulster, HN must be proteolytically activated to remove a C-terminal extension not found in other NDV HN proteins. Ulster HN is 616 amino acids long and the 45 amino acid C-terminal extension present in its precursor (HN0) form has to be cleaved to render HN biologically active. Here we show that Ulster HN contains an inter-subunit disulfide bond within the C-terminal extension at residue 596, which regulates HN activities and neuraminidase (NA) domain dimerization. We determined the crystal structure of the dimerized NA domain containing the C-terminal extension, which extends along the outside of the sialidase {beta}-propeller domain and inserts C-terminal residues into the NA domain active site. The C-terminal extension also engages a secondary sialic acid binding site present in NDV HN proteins, which is located at the NA domain dimer interface, that most likely blocks its attachment function. These results clarify how the Ulster HN C-terminal residues lead to an auto-inhibited state of HN, the requirement for proteolytic activation of HN{sub 0} and associated reduced virulence.

  3. Streptovirudins -- new antibiotics with antiviral activity. The antiviral spectrum and inhibition of Newcastle disease virus in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonew, E; Tonew, M; Eckardt, K; Thrum, H; Gumpert, B

    1975-07-01

    Streptovirudins are new antibiotics isolated as a mixture of several structurally related compounds from fermentations of Streptomyces griseoflavus (Krainsky) Waksman et Henrici var. thuringensis JA 10124. They possess antiviral activity against RNA and DNA viruses cultivated in chick embryo cells, namely Sindbis, fowl plague, Newcastle disease (NDV), pseudorabies, vaccinia and sheep abortion viruses. The naturally formed streptovirudin complex, in concentrations of 20-2.5 mug/ml inhibited the viral cytopathic effect and caused 100 percent plaque reduction. Mengo, Coxsackie B1-B5, ECHO 30 and 33, and polio (wild and attenuated types 1, 2, and 3) viruses grown in FL cells were not sensitive in the agar-diffusion plaque-inhibition test. The antibiotics failed to show a direct virucidal effect on the NDV virion itself or to influence virus adsorption and penetration processes. Addition of streptovirudin complex during a one-step growth cycle of NDV from 0-4 hours after virus adsorption resulted in complete suppression of virus yield. The antibiotic complex consists of two main groups: I - A1, B1, C1, D1, E1 and II - A2, B2, C2, D2, E2, each of which possess antiviral activity.

  4. Evaluation of a thermostable Newcastle disease virus strain TS09-C as an in-ovo vaccine for chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Wang, Hongling; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhang, Rongrong; Zhang, Wanpo; Shao, Huabin

    2017-01-01

    In-ovo vaccination is an attractive immunization approach for poultry industry. However, most of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strains used after hatch are unsafe, as in-ovo vaccines, due to their high pathogenicity for chicken embryos. In this study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a thermostable NDV strain TS09-C, derived from V4 strain, as in-ovo vaccine. Chickens in-ovo vaccinated with the parental V4 strain displayed greatly reduced hatchability and severe histopathological lesions in both trachea and intestine tissues, while the hatchability was not affected by in-ovo vaccination withTS09-C strain. The safe dose that infected all chicken embryos without obviously histopathological lesions was 103.0 EID50 per bird. In-ovo vaccination of chickens with TS09-C virus conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. Results suggest that the thermostable NDV strain TS09-C is a safe and immunogenic in-ovo vaccine candidate that can be delivered quickly and uniformly, and induce earlier immune response. PMID:28234989

  5. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induces protein oxidation and nitration in brain and liver of chicken: Ameliorative effect of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kadiam C; Valluru, Lokanatha; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Ramamurthy, Chiteti; Thirunavukkarusu, Chinnasamy; Subramanyam, Rajagopal

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the therapeutic efficacy of vitamin E on oxidative injury in brain and liver of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenged chickens. We have analyzed the xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity; uric acid (UA) levels and superoxide radical generation by using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Further, protein oxidation, nitration and apoptosis were evaluated in the brain and liver of the control, NDV-infected and NDV+Vit. E treated groups. A significant elevation was observed in XOD activity and UA levels in brain (p<0.001) and liver (p<0.05) of NDV infected birds when compared to controls. Further, significant increase in the production of superoxides, enhanced intracellular protein carbonyls and nitrates were observed in the brain and liver of NDV-infected birds over healthy subjects. Apoptosis studies also suggested that a larger number of TUNEL positive cells were observed in brain and a moderately in liver of NDV-infected chickens. However, all these perturbations were significantly ameliorated in NDV+Vit. E treated chickens as compared to NDV-infected birds. Taken together, our results suggested that NDV-induced neuronal and hepatic damage at least in part mediates oxidative stress and on the other hand, supplementation of vitamin E mitigates NDV-induced oxidative damage thereby protects brain and liver of chickens. These findings could provide new insights into the understanding of NDV pathogenesis and therapeutic effects of dietary antioxidants.

  6. The in vitro effects of Newcastle disease virus on the metabolic and antibacterial functions of human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faden, H.; Humbert, J.; Lee, J.; Sutyla, P.; Ogra, P.L.

    1981-08-01

    Live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was used to investigate the in vitro effects of a viral infection on phagocytosis, chemiluminescence generation, superoxide production, oxygen consumption, NADPH-oxidase activity, and intracellular killing of bacteria by Ficoll-Hypaque separated human neutrophils. Phagocytosis of oil red O particles by NDV-treated PMN was inhibited by 50%. Chemiluminescence by PMN was inhibited 79% after zymosan stimulation and 86% after tetradeconyl phorbol acetate stimulation. Superoxide generation was inhibited by 68%. Oxygen consumption was inhibited in the presence of NDV by 37% after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate, while membrane-associated NADPH-enzyme activity was decreased by 19%. The percent of surviving intracellular S. aureus was significantly elevated in NDV-treated PMN after 60 and 120 min of incubation. Purified bacterial neuraminidase markedly suppressed chemiluminescence, while neuraminic acid blocked the effects of the virus. These observations suggest that infections with myxoviruses may suppress a number of vital neutrophil functions. It appears that the effects may be partly mediated by the interaction of viral neuraminidase with the external neutrophil membrane.

  7. Design and analysis of post-fusion 6-helix bundle of heptad repeat regions from Newcastle disease virus F protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieqing; Li, Pengyun; Wu, Tinghe; Gao, Feng; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Catherine W-H; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F; Tien, Po

    2003-05-01

    Fusion of paramyxovirus to the cell involves receptor binding of the HN glycoprotein and a number of conformational changes of F glycoprotein. The F protein is expressed as a homotrimer on the virus surface. In the present model, there are at least three conformations of F protein, i.e. native form, pre-hairpin intermediate and the post-fusion state. In the post-fusion state, the two highly conserved heptad repeat (HR) regions of F protein form a stable 6-helix coiled-coil bundle. However, no crystal structure is known for this state for the Newcastle disease virus, although the crystal structure of the F protein native form has been solved recently. Here we deployed an Escherichia coli in vitro expression system to engineer this 6-helix bundle by fusion of either the two HR regions (HR1, linker and HR2) or linking the 6-helix [3 x (HR1, linker and HR2)] together as a single chain. Subsequently, both of them form a stable 6-helix bundle in vitro judging by gel filtration and chemical cross-linking and the proteins show salient features of an alpha-helix structure. Crystals diffracting X-rays have been obtained from both protein preparations and the structure determination is under way. This method could be used for crystallization of the post-fusion state HR structures of other viruses.

  8. Two Avirulent, Lentogenic Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus Are Cytotoxic for Some Human Pancreatic Tumor Lines In Vitro

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    Robert J Walter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Highly infectious Newcastle disease virus (NDV strains are known to be very cytotoxic for an array of human tumor cell types in vitro and in vivo but the effects of these and avirulent NDV strains on pancreatic neoplasms are little known. Objective Here, the direct cytolytic effects of the avirulent Hitchner-B1 (B1 and Ulster (U NDV strains on 7 human pancreatic tumor cell lines and 4 normal human cell lines were studied. Methods Cytotoxicity assays used serially diluted NDV to determine minimum cytotoxic plaque forming unit (PFU doses. Results For NDV-B1, normal human cells were killed only by relatively high doses (range: 471-3,724 PFU whereas NDV-U killed these cells at low PFU (range: 0.32-1.60 PFU. Most pancreatic cancer cell types were killed by much lower NDV-B1 doses (range: 0.40- 2.60 PFU while NDV-U killed Capan-1 and SU.86.86 cultures at very low doses (0.00041 PFU and 0.0034 PFU, respectively. Conclusions On average, 1,555 times more NDV-B1 was needed to kill normal cells than most pancreatic tumor cells and 558 times more NDV-U to kill the two most sensitive pancreatic cancer lines. These innately-targeted lentogenic viruses may have meaningful potential in treating pancreatic cancer.

  9. Fusogenic activity of reconstituted newcastle disease virus envelopes: a role for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in the fusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaleda, C; Muñoz-Barroso, I; Sagrera, A; Villar, E

    2002-04-01

    Enveloped viruses, such as newcastle disease virus (NDV), make their entry into the host cell by membrane fusion. In the case of NDV, the fusion step requires both transmembrane hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) viral envelope glycoproteins. The HN protein should show fusion promotion activity. To date, the nature of HN-F interactions is a controversial issue. In this work, we aim to clarify the role of the HN glycoprotein in the membrane fusion step. Four types of reconstituted detergent-free NDV envelopes were used, on differing in their envelope protein contents. Fusion of the different virosomes and erythrocyte ghosts was monitored using the octadecyl rhodamine B chloride assay. Only the reconstituted envelopes having the F protein, even in the absence of HN protein, displayed residual fusion activity. Treatment of such virosomes with denaturing agents affecting the F protein abolished fusion, indicating that the fusion detected was viral protein-dependent. Interestingly, the rate of fusion in the reconstituted systems was similar to that of intact viruses in the presence of the inhibitor of HN sialidase activity 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The results show that the residual fusion activity detected in the reconstituted systems was exclusively due to F protein activity, with no contribution from the fusion promotion activity of HN protein.

  10. Investigation on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV and Avian Poxvirus (APV in magellanic penguins in Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Freitas Nunes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the exposure of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV and avian poxvirus (APV in Magellanic penguins found on the beaches in Southern regions of Brazil, the frequency of serum antibodies was estimated in 89 samples taken during 2005 and 2006. All the penguins were negative for the presence of antibodies against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition test and to APV by indirect ELISA. The reactivity was similar to the positives controls using ELISA kit for the IBDV made in the chickens in 50 samples. This reactivity also was demonstrated in 42 samples using agar gel immunodiffusion. No clinical signs related to IBDV infection were observed. The results indicated the absence of infection by NDV and APV but suggested IBDV exposure in the population of penguins studied.

  11. Newcastle disease virus fusion protein is the major contributor to protective immunity of genotype-matched vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Wanasen, Nanchaya; Paldurai, Anandan; Xiao, Sa; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2013-01-01

    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease. To produce genotype-matched vaccines, a full-genome reverse genetics system has been used to generate a recombinant virus in which the F protein cleavage site has been changed to that of avirulent vaccine virus. In the other strategy, the vaccines have been generated by replacing the F and HN genes of a commercial vaccine strain with those from a genotype-matched virus. However, the protective efficacy of a chimeric virus vaccine has not been directly compared with that of a full-genome virus vaccine developed by reverse genetics. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of genotype VII matched chimeric vaccines by generating three recombinant viruses based on avirulent LaSota (genotype II) strain in which the open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the F and HN proteins were replaced, individually or together, with those of the circulating and highly virulent Indonesian NDV strain Ban/010. The cleavage site of the Ban/010 F protein was mutated to the avirulent motif found in strain LaSota. In vitro growth characteristics and a pathogenicity test indicated that all three chimeric viruses retained the highly attenuated phenotype of the parental viruses. Immunization of chickens with chimeric and full-length genome VII vaccines followed by challenge with virulent Ban/010 or Texas GB (genotype II) virus demonstrated protection against clinical disease and death. However, only those chickens immunized with chimeric rLaSota expressing the F or F plus HN proteins of the Indonesian strain were efficiently protected against shedding of Ban/010 virus. Our findings showed that genotype-matched vaccines can provide protection to chickens by efficiently preventing spread of virus, primarily due to the F protein.

  12. Patho-epidemiological study on Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus infection in commercial vaccinated layer farms

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    J. H. Khorajiya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present research work was carried out to study the patho-epidemiological aspects of Genotype-XIII Newcastle disease virus (NDV infection in commercial layer in and around Anand, Gujarat. As the outbreaks have reported in vaccinated flocks, it was felt necessary to study the disease with respect to its changing pathogenicity and relevant aspects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of patho-epidemiology of Newcastle disease (ND by information collected from different layer farms suffering from the disease in relation to incidence pattern and mortality, duration of mortality, susceptible age, and loss due to production performance. Clinical signs were recorded based on observations. During postmortem, gross lesions were also recorded. For histopathological examination visceral organs according to lesions were collected in 10% formalin and processed slide stained by hematoxylin and eosin for microscopic examination. Cultivation of virus was done in embryonated specific pathogen-free (SPF eggs of 9-11 days and isolation of virus was done for haemagglutination (HA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI test and to identify pathotype of virus by intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI test to determine the virulence of virus. The Genotype-XIII NDV was confirmed by F gene sequence and whole genome sequence. Results: During the study mortality due to ND was recorded in 13 layer flocks in spite of routine vaccination, which usually contain Genotype-II strain of virus. The mortality was observed as high as above 50% with an average of 21.21%. The susceptible age for disease was found to be 6-14 weeks. The duration of mortality observed was 23 days. The disease resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, feed intake and drop in egg production. Majority of the outbreaks appeared during extremely hot months of April to June. Greenish diarrhoea was frequently seen in birds that survived early in infection. Mortality continued for 2

  13. Efficacy of an inactivated bivalent vaccine against the prevalent strains of Newcastle disease and H9N2 avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Huiming; Xu, Hongjun; Ma, Zengbin; Zhang, Guozhong

    2017-03-16

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AI) are two of the most important diseases of poultry, causing severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Vaccination is an effective way to prevent and control the spread of ND virus (NDV) and H9N2 AI virus (AIV), but the antigenic differences between the current circulating strains and the vaccine strains might account for recent ND and H9N2 AI outbreaks in vaccinated poultry flocks. We developed an inactivated bivalent H9N2 and NDV vaccine based on the current prevalent strains of H9N2 AIV and NDV in China and evaluated its efficacy in chickens in this study. The results indicated that the inactivated bivalent vaccine could induce a fast antibody response in vaccinated chickens. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer in the sera increased rapidly, and the highest HI titer was observed at 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv) with a mean titre of 8.6 log2 for NDV and 9.5 log2 for H9N2. Up until 15 wpv, HI titers were still detectable at a high level of over 6 log2. The immunized chickens showed no signs of disease after challenge at 3 wpv with the prevalent strains of NDV and H9N2 AIV isolated in 2012-2014. Moreover, viral shedding was completely inhibited in vaccinated chickens after challenge with H9N2 AIV and inhibited by at least 90% with NDV compared to the controls at 5dpc. Our findings suggest that the inactivated NDV and H9N2 vaccine induces a fast and strong antibody response in vaccinated chickens and is efficacious in poultry against NDVs and H9N2 AIVs.

  14. Expression of interferon gamma by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus decreases its pathogenicity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Cornax, Ingrid; Diel, Diego G; Garcia, Stivalis Cardenas; Miller, Patti J; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2013-01-01

    The role of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chickens is unknown. Infection of chickens with highly virulent NDV results in rapid death, which is preceded by increased expression of IFN-γ in target tissues. IFN-γ is a cytokine that has pleiotropic biological effects including intrinsic antiviral activity and immunomodulatory effects that may increase morbidity and mortality during infections. To better understand how IFN-γ contributes to NDV pathogenesis, the coding sequence of the chicken IFN-γ gene was inserted in the genome of the virulent NDV strain ZJ1 (rZJ1-IFNγ), and the effects of high levels of IFN-γ expression during infection were determined in vivo and in vitro. IFN-γ expression did not significantly affect NDV replication in fibroblast or in macrophage cell lines. However, it affected the pathogenesis of rZJ1-IFNγ in vivo. Relative to the virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP) or lacking the IFN-γ insert (rZJ1-rev), expression of IFN-γ by rZJ1-IFNγ produced a marked decrease of pathogenicity in 4-week-old chickens, as evidenced by lack of mortality, decreased disease severity, virus shedding, and antigen distribution. These results suggest that early expression of IFN-γ had a significant protective role against the effects of highly virulent NDV infection in chickens, and further suggests that the level and timing of expression of this cytokine may be critical for the disease outcome. This is the first description of an in vivo attenuation of a highly virulent NDV by avian cytokines, and shows the feasibility to use NDV for cytokine delivery in chicken organs. This approach may facilitate the study of the role of other avian cytokines on the pathogenesis of NDV.

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Atypical Newcastle Disease Coinfected with E.coli in Red-crested Crane%丹顶鹤非典型新城疫与大肠杆菌混合感染的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静姬; 李福军; 梁玉嬉

    2013-01-01

    Avian Newcastle disease had high incidence and mortality rate in poultry. The disease was mainly prevented with immune vaccination. Newcastle disease was controlled, but atypical Newcastle was occurred at the same time. The disease was epidemical in Red-rested crane in Jilin city zoo, atypical Newcastle disease infection mixed with E. coli was diagnosed. The epidemic was controlled by specific therapy of high immune yolk antibody and antibiotic therapy.%新城疫(Newcastle disease,ND)是危害禽类的一种接触性致死性传染病,OIE将其列为A类疫病.各养殖户对该病高度重视,主要采用全程免疫接种的方式加以预防,使急性新城疫得到有效控制,但随之而来的是,非典型新城疫发病率有所提高.吉林市某公园观赏动物丹顶鹤发生疫情,经临床剖检及实验室诊断确诊为非典型新城疫(CND)与大肠杆菌(E.col)混合感染,经高免卵黄抗体特异性疗法配合抗菌治疗及有效的消毒防疫措施,使疫情得到控制.

  16. The effect of Aquablend Avian probiotic®including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium on systemic antibody response against Newcastle and Influenza disease vaccine in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Talazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production is very important because there are increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance. So, researchers have been directed to the research back to natural antimicrobial products. Some researchers stated that probiotics can stimulate the immune system and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Objectives: Theaimof this studywasto examine the effect of a commercial probiotic mixture (AquablendAvian® supplementation to the drinking water of broiler chickens on the immune response against Newcastle and influenza diseases vaccines. Materials and Methods: In this study, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 60 for each group. Chickens in groups A and B received 300 mg of the probiotic in drinking water for first 3 days and first 7 days, respectively. Chickens in group C were kept as a control group and did not receive probiotic. All groups were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain intraocularly on 8th day, and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 subcutaneously at the back of the neck on 8th day. Two mL of blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 postimmunization. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and an antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine(subtype H9N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Results: The results of the present study showed that oral administration of the probiotic for 7 days significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine compared to the control group (0.75 - 1.6 log, based on log2, while the probiotic administration had no significant effect on antibody productions against avian influenza vaccine as compared to the control group. Conclusions: Oral administration of Aquablend Avian® probiotic strains including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium

  17. The effect of Aquablend Avian probiotic ® including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium on systemic antibody response against Newcastle and Influenza disease vaccine in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Finding alternatives to antibiotics for poultry production is very important because there are increasing concerns about antibiotic resistance. So, researchers have been directed to the research back to natural antimicrobial products. Some researchers stated that probiotics can stimulate the immune system and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a commercial probiotic mixture (Aquablend Avian® supplementation to the drinking water of broiler chickens on the immune response against Newcastle and influenza diseases vaccines. Materials and Methods In this study, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were purchased and divided randomly into 3 groups (n = 60 for each group. Chickens in groups A and B received 300 mg of the probiotic in drinking water for first 3 days and first 7 days, respectively. Chickens in group C were kept as a control group and did not receive probiotic. All groups were vaccinated with live Newcastle vaccine (B1 strain intraocularly on 8th day, and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 subcutaneously at the back of the neck on 8th day. Two mL of blood samples were collected before vaccination as well as on days 14, 28 and 35 postimmunization. Ten chickens of each group were bled randomly and an antibody titer against Newcastle disease vaccine and AI-ND killed vaccine (subtype H9N2 was determined by the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Results The results of the present study showed that oral administration of the probiotic for 7 days significantly increased the specific antibody response to Newcastle vaccine compared to the control group (0.75 - 1.6 log, based on log2, while the probiotic administration had no significant effect on antibody productions against avian influenza vaccine as compared to the control group. Conclusions Oral administration of Aquablend Avian® probiotic strains including Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and Bifidobacterium

  18. Atrophy of the lymphoid organs and suppression of antibody response caused by velogenic Newcastle disease virus infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Wilfred Sunday; Eze, Didacus Chukwuemeka; Shoyinka, Shodeinde Vincent Olu; Okoye, John Osita Arinze

    2016-12-01

    This project was undertaken to study the immunosuppressive capabilities of velogenic viscerotropic pathotype of Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) infection in cockerels. Two hundred six-week-old cockerels were divided into four groups. Groups B/VUC and C/VC were vaccinated with LaSota in drinking water at 6 weeks of age. Groups C/VC and D/UC were challenged with VVNDV at 8 weeks of age. Three days post challenge (PC), the cockerels in group D/UC came down with clinical signs which included depression and greenish diarrhoea. Total mortality was 74.6 %. The C/VC cockerels showed no clinical signs. But both challenged groups showed significant weight loss, significant loss of total serum proteins, globulin and albumen (P < 0.05). These losses were more severe in the D/UC than in the C/VC. There was severe atrophy of the bursa, spleen and thymus in both groups. Histopathology showed severe necrosis and depletion of the lymphocytes in the three lymphoid organs. However, the lesions were more severe in the D/UC than in C/VC cockerels. On day 28, PC groups B/VUC, C/VIC and D/UIC were revaccinated with LaSota. The haemagglutination inhibition antibody response on days 35, 42 and 49 PC was very low in groups C/VIC and D/UIC when compared with B/VUC cockerels. These observations show that VVNDV infection both clinical and subclinical can cause immunosuppression and vaccine failure due to severe destruction of the lymphocytes in the lymphoid organs. This will be a serious problem for poultry production in those countries where the disease is enzootic.

  19. Alteration in lymphocyte responses, cytokine and chemokine profiles in chickens infected with genotype VII and VIII velogenic Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoli, Mehdi; Yeap, Swee Keong; Tan, Sheau Wei; Moeini, Hassan; Ideris, Aini; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Kaiser, Pete; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease and one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. The emergence of virulent NDV genotypes and repeated outbreaks of NDV in vaccinated chickens have raised the need for fundamental studies on the virus-host interactions. In this study, the profiles of B and T lymphocytes and macrophages and differential expression of 26 immune-related genes in the spleen of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, infected with either the velogenic genotype VII NDV strain IBS002 or the genotype VIII NDV strain AF2240, were evaluated. A significant reduction in T lymphocyte population and an increase in the infiltration of IgM+ B cells and KUL01+ macrophages were detected in the infected spleens at 1, 3 and 4 days post-infection (dpi) (P<0.05). The gene expression profiles showed an up-regulation of CCLi3, CXCLi1, CXCLi2 (IL-8), IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, TLR7, MHCI, IL-17F and TNFSF13B (P<0.05). However, these two genotypes showed different cytokine expression patterns and viral load. IBS002 showed higher viral load than AF2240 in spleen at 3 and 4dpi and caused a more rapid up-regulation of CXCLi2, IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-18, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-10 at 3dpi. Meanwhile, the expression levels of CCLI3, CXCLi1, IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-1β and iNOS genes were significantly higher in AF2240 at 4dpi. In addition, the expression levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in the IBS002-infected chickens at 3 and 4dpi. Hence, infection with velogenic genotype VII and VIII NDV induced different viral load and production of cytokines and chemokines associated with inflammatory reactions.

  20. COMPARATIVE IMMUNO PATHOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EEFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT GUMBORO VACCINE STRAINS AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE VACCINA TION IN BROILERS

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    R. M. Ayyub, A. Aslam, S. A. Khan and M. A. Munir1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This project was carried out to study the comparative immunosuppressive effects of three different Gumboro live vaccine strains on Newcastle disease (NO vaccination. A total of 100 chicks were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and O. Birds of all the groups were vaccinated against ND on 5th and 21st day of age. Specific Gumboro vaccine strain was given to specific group at 14th and 28th day of age. Group A, Band C were vaccinated with 228-E, D- 78 and Bursine-2, respectively, while group D was kept as control. Immune organs including bursa, thymus and spleen were examined for their gross and, histopathological changes, before and after Infectious Bursal disease (IBO vaccination. For this purpose, these organs were collected at 13th, 17th and 31st days of age. At 13th day (before 1BD vaccination no gross and histopathological lesions were observed in any bird of any group. At 17th and 31st day, severe lesions were noted in group A, moderate lesions in group B, mild lesions in group C and no lesions were observed in immune organs of group D. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI test showed that 228-E vaccine strain, (group A was highly immunosuppressive, D- 78 vaccine strain (group B was less immunosuppressive while Bursine-2 vaccine strain (group C was least immunosuppressive. No humoral immunosuppression was observed in unvaccinated control group D. This study suggests the use of Bursine-2 strain of IBD vaccine in a flock having risk of ND infection, as it has least immunosuppressive effect against ND vaccination.

  1. Cellular transcripts of chicken brain tissues in response to H5N1 and Newcastle disease virus infection

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    Balasubramaniam Vinod RMT

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 and Newcastle disease (ND viruses are the two most important poultry viruses in the world, with the ability to cause classic central nervous system dysfunction in poultry and migratory birds. To elucidate the mechanisms of neurovirulence caused by these viruses, a preliminary study was design to analyze host's cellular responses during infections of these viruses. Methods An improved mRNA differential display technique (Gene Fishing™ was undertaken to analyze differentially expressed transcripts regulated during HPAI H5N1 and velogenic neurotropic NDV infections of whole brain of chickens. The identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs was made possible as this technique uses annealing control primers that generate reproducible, authentic and long PCR products that are detectable on agarose gels. Results Twenty-three genes were identified to be significantly regulated during infections with both viruses, where ten of the genes have been selected for validation using a TaqMan® based real time quantitative PCR assay. Some of the identified genes demonstrated to be key factors involving the cytoskeletal system, neural signal transduction and protein folding during stress. Interestingly, Septin 5, one of the genes isolated from HPAI H5N1-infected brain tissues has been reported to participate in the pathogenic process of Parkinson's disease. Conclusions In this limited study, the differentially expressed genes of infected brain tissues regulated by the viruses were found not to be identical, thus suggesting that their neurovirulence and neuropathogenesis may not share similar mechanisms and pathways.

  2. [Comparative research into sensitivity and specificity of immune-enzyme analysis with chemiluminescence and colorimetric detection for detecting antigens and antibodies to avian influenza viruses and newcastle disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkova, O N; Kapustina, T P; Mikhailova, V V; Safonov, G A; Vlasova, N N; Belousova, R V

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to demonstrate the results of the development of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent tests with chemiluminescence detection and colorimetric detection of specific viral antigens and antibodies for identifying the avian influenza and the Newcastle disease viruses: high sensitivity and specificity of the immuno- chemiluminescence assay, which are 10-50 times higher than those of the ELISA colorimetric method. The high effectiveness of the results and the automation of the process of laboratory testing (using a luminometer) allow these methods to be recommended for including in primary screening tests for these infectious diseases.

  3. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.

    1998-01-01

    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  4. Protective dose of a recombinant Newcastle disease LaSota-avian influenza virus H5 vaccine against H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus in broilers with high maternal antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel

    2010-03-01

    The protective dose of a live recombinant LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-avian influenza H5 vaccine (rNDV-LS/AI-H5) was determined in broiler chickens with high levels of maternal antibodies against NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV). At hatch the geometric mean titers (GMT) of the chickens' maternal antibodies were 2(5.1) and 2(10.3) for NDV and AIV, respectively. At the time of vaccination the GMT was 2(3.1) for NDV and 2(7.9) for AIV. The chickens were vaccinated with one drop (0.03 ml) in the eye at 10 days of age as is typical under field conditions. The test chickens received 10(4.8), 10(5.8), 10(6.8), or 10(7.8) mean chicken embryo infective doses (CEID50) of the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. Control chickens were either nonvaccinated, or vaccinated with 10(5.8) or 10(6.8) CEID50 of a commercial live LaSota NDV vaccine. Birds were challenged with either the Mexican highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) or a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic (VV) NDV strain. One hundred percent of the chickens vaccinated with the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine were protected against HPAIV and VVNDV when a challenge dose of 10(6.8) EID50 or higher was administered by eye drop. Birds vaccinated with the LaSota NDV vaccine were protected against VVNDV, but not against HPAIV.

  5. Biological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a novel genetic group of Newcastle disease virus isolated from outbreaks in commercial poultry and from backyard poultry flocks in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Muhammad; Cortey, Martí; Abbas, Muhammad; Qureshi, Zafar Ul Ahsan; Afzal, Farhan; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Ahmed, Safia; Ahmad, Saeed; Baule, Claudia; Ståhl, Karl; Zohari, Siamak; Berg, Mikael

    2012-07-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious viral disease of many avian species particularly domestic poultry, and is responsible for devastating outbreaks in the poultry industries around the globe. In spite of its importance and endemicity in Southern Asia, data on the genetic nature of the viruses and epizootiological information of the disease is scarce. In this study, six isolates from an emerging wave of ND outbreaks in the north of Pakistan and two isolates from healthy poultry flocks were biologically and genetically characterized. Based on pathogenicity indices such as intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI), mean death time (MDT) and cleavage motifs in the fusion protein, all these isolates were classified as virulent. Phylogenetic analysis of the fusion (F), hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and matrix (M) genes indicated the emergence of a novel genetic group within lineage 5, distinct from isolates previously reported in the region. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes and functionally important motifs of the F and HN genes pose a need for re-evaluation of the currently used vaccine and vaccination practices. The characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as virulent (F protein cleavage site, ICPI and MDT) in apparently healthy backyard poultry (BYP) explain that BYP can play crucial role in the epizootiology and spread of the disease. The present investigation provides essential information on the genetic nature of NDV circulating in Pakistan and its implication on disease diagnosis and control. Furthermore, these investigations emphasize the importance of continuous surveillance of ND in developing countries.

  6. Effect of phylogenetic diversity of velogenic Newcastle disease virus challenge on virus shedding post homologous and heterologous DNA vaccination in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; Abdelaziz, Adel M; Kumar, Sachin; Al-Habib, Malik A; Megahed, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly devastating disease for the poultry industry as it causes high economic losses. In this present study, a DNA vaccine containing the F and HN surface antigens of a highly virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), NDV/1/Chicken/2005 (FJ939313), was successfully generated. Cell transfection test indicated that the vaccine expressed the F and HN genes in Hep-2 cells. The main objective of this study was to compare the extent of protection induced by DNA vaccination after homologous and heterologous NDV-challenge as determined by the amount of NDV shedding after challenge. NDV-antibody-negative chickens were vaccinated either once, twice or thrice intramuscularly at 7, 14 and 21 days old and were challenged 14 days post vaccination with either homologous virus (vaccine-matched velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (vvNDV) strain, FJ939313), phylogenetically related to group VII, or a phylogenetically divergent heterologous virus (unmatched vvNDV strain, AY968809), which belongs to genogroup VI and shows 84.1% nucleotide similarity to the NDV-sequences of the DNA vaccine. Our data indicate that birds, which received a single dose of the DNA vaccine were poorly protected, and only 30-40% of these birds survived after challenge with high virus shedding titre. Multiple administration of the DNA vaccine induced high protection rates of 70-90% with reduced virus shedding compared to the non-vaccinated and challenged birds. Generally, homologous challenge led to reduced tracheal and cloacal shedding compared to the heterologous vvNDV strain. This study provides a promising approach for the control of ND in chickens using DNA vaccines, which are phylogenetically closely related to the circulating field strains.

  7. Immunological Detection of Newcastle Disease Viral Antigen in the Naturally Infected Chickens by Monoclonal Antibodies against Fusion-2 Protein

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    Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against Fusion (F2 protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV wereproduced for the detection of the viral antigen in infected chickens. Cells derived from spleen of Balb/c miceimmunized with the virus were fused with mouse myeloma cells to generate hybridomas capable ofproducing mAbs against the virus. The hybridomas were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA for anti-NDV specific mAbs using crude viral antigen (allantoic fluid of NDV-infected fertile eggsand normal uninfected allantoic fluid of fertile eggs as negative control. The NDV proteins reactive withmAbs were then determined by Western Blotting using purified NDV as antigen. The mAbs reactive withF2 (12.5 KDa protein of NDV were then used for the detection of NDV antigen in both the allantoic fluidof NDV- infected chicken embryos and in organs of naturally infected chickens. The results showed that 2out of 5 mAbs produced were against F2 protein of NDV. By indirect ELISA, the mAbs were able to detectthe viral antigen in allantoic fluid of NDV infected fertile chicken eggs at the titre as low as 2-2 to 2-4 HAunits per 0.1 mL. NDV–antigen was also detected by immunoperoxidase staining in paraffin-embeddedtissues of NDV-infected chickens but not in normal uninfected chickens. The most prominent infection wasdetected in the gastrointestinal tract and the lung. The NDV antigen was also detected in other organssuch as the brain, spleen, and several other tissues. It is evident that mAbs produced against F2 proteinof NDV were applicable for use in the detection of NDV antigen in infected chickens.

  8. OBSERVATION ON VACCINATING Newcastle Disease Virus Vaccine with Inhalation and Preventing Recurrence of Nasopharyngeal cancer after Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To understand whether the Newcastle disease virus(NDV) vaccine can successfully vaccinate the rabbits and volunteers of cancer patients by inhalation and to observe the effects of NDV vaccine on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NRC) patients after radiotherapy. Methods: The live NDV vaccine was vaccinated through nasal cavities of rabbits, NPC patients and other cancer patients who were treated by surgery or chemotherapy with larynx spray. The blood specimens of vein from the tested rabbits and volunteers of patients with cancer were collected before and after vaccination. The anti-NDV-antibody in serum was detected by conventional blood coagulation inhibiting method. The white blood cell (WBC) amount in blood samples was counted. In addition, the NPC patients after radiotherapy were divided into both test group and control group with random match. The both were followed-up by multiple kinds of way in order to understand effects of NDV immunotherapy for NPC. Results: The anti-NDV-antibody level of the rabbits and the patients with NPC rose significantly after vaccination. The WBC amount of cancer patients treated by surgery or chemotherapy also rose significantly after vaccination. The recurrence rate (3.23%) of NRC patients in test group who received immunotherapy of NDV vaccine for 4 to 10 treatment courses within 3 years after end of radiotherapy were significantly lower than that (25.81%) of the control group (P<0.025). Conclusion: The NDV vaccine La Sota strain can vaccinate the rabbits and the cancer patients in success by inhalation. And it has remarkable effect to decrease 3 year recurrence rate of NRC patients after radiotherapy.

  9. Positive selection in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus and its effect on vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Shunlin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the relationship between the selective pressure and the sequence variation of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN protein, we performed the positive selection analysis by estimating the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions with 132 complete HN gene sequences of Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs isolated in China. Results The PAML software applying a maximum likelihood method was used for the analysis and three sites (residues 266, 347 and 540 in the HN protein were identified as being under positive selection. Codon 347 was located exactly in a recognized antigenic determinant (residues 345-353 and codon 266 in a predicted linear B-cell epitope. Substitutions at codon 540 contributed to the N-linked glycosylation potential of residue 538. To further evaluate the effect of positively selected sites on the vaccine efficacy, we constructed two recombinant fowlpox viruses rFPV-JS6HN and rFPV-LaSHN, expressing the HN proteins from a genotype VII field isolate Go/JS6/05 (with A266, K347 and A540 and vaccine strain La Sota (with V266, E347 and T540, respectively. Two groups of SPF chickens, 18 each, were vaccinated with the two recombinant fowlpox viruses and challenged by Go/JS6/05 at 3 weeks post-immunization. The results showed that rFPV-JS6HN could elicit more effective immunity against the prevalent virus infection than rFPV-LaSHN in terms of reducing virus shedding. Conclusions The analysis of positively selected codons and their effect on the vaccine efficacy indicated that the selective pressure on the HN protein can induce antigenic variation, and new vaccine to control the current ND epidemics should be developed.

  10. Lack of detection of host associated differences in Newcastle disease viruses of genotype VIId isolated from chickens and geese

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    Wang Yuyang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in the past 15 years have been predominantly VIId viruses, published data comparing goose- and chicken-originated ND viruses are scarce and controversial. Results In this paper, we compared genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens genetically and pathologically. Ten entire genomic sequences and 329 complete coding sequences of individual genes from genotype VIId NDVs of both goose- and chicken-origin were analyzed. We then randomly selected two goose-originated and two chicken-originated VIId NDVs and compared their pathobiology in both geese and chickens in vivo and in vitro with genotype IV virus Herts/33 as a reference. The results showed that all the VIId NDVs either from geese or from chickens shared high sequence homology and characteristic amino acid substitutions and clustered together in phylogenetic trees. In addition, geese and chickens infected by goose or chicken VIId viruses manifested very similar pathological features distinct from those of birds infected with Herts/33. Conclusions There is no genetic or phenotypic difference between genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens. Therefore, no species-preference exists for either goose or chicken viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VIId NDVs between geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  11. Phylogenetic and pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease viruses circulating in South China and transmission in different birds

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    Yinfeng eKang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although Newcastle disease virus (NDV with high pathogenicity has frequently been isolated in poultry in China since 1948, the mode of its transmission among avian species remains largely unknown. Given that various wild bird species have been implicated as sources of transmission, in this study we genotypically and pathotypically characterized 23 NDV isolates collected from chickens, ducks, and pigeons in live bird markets (LBMs in South China as part of an H7N9 surveillance program during December 2013–February 2014. To simulate the natural transmission of different kinds of animals in LBMs, we selected three representative NDVs—namely, GM, YF18, and GZ289—isolated from different birds to evaluate the pathogenicity and transmission of the indicated viruses in chickens, ducks, and pigeons. Furthermore, to investigate the replication and shedding of NDV in poultry, we inoculated the chickens, ducks, and pigeons with 106 EID50 of each virus via intraocular and intranasal routes. Eight h after infection, the naïve contact groups were housed with those inoculated with each of the viruses as a means to monitor contact transmission. Our results indicated that genetically diverse viruses circulate in LBMs in South China’s Guangdong Province and that NDV from different birds have different tissue tropisms and host ranges when transmitted in different birds. We therefore propose the continuous epidemiological surveillance of LBMs to support the prevention of the spread of these viruses in different birds, especially chickens, and highlight the need for studies of the virus–host relationship.

  12. Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis in Chickens after Experimental Infection with 9a5b Newcastle Disease Virus Mutant Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahrawy, A; Zaid, A; Sunden, Y; Sakurai, M; Ito, H; Ito, T; Morita, T

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on the chicken pancreas. A virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally into 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens. The pancreas was examined grossly and fixed for histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopical investigations. Inflammatory changes were observed in the peripancreatic tissue at the early stage of infection (12 h post infection) and became more prevalent towards the end of the experiment. Multifocal areas of necrotizing inflammation were detected in the exocrine portion of the pancreas by 5 days post infection (dpi) and became more severe at 10 dpi. The endocrine islets were generally preserved, but slight degenerative changes were observed at 10 dpi. Immunohistochemically, NDV-nucleoprotein (NDV-NP) signals were detected in the peripancreatic tissues (associated with macrophages and other lymphoid cells) by 1 dpi. In the exocrine portion of the pancreas, NDV-NP signals were detected at 5 dpi and increased in intensity and distribution by 10 dpi. NDV particles were confirmed in the cytoplasm of exocrine acinar cells by transmission electron microscopy. CD3-positive cells were observed in the peripancreatic tissues earlier than in the pancreatic tissue. Moreover, in comparison with control chickens, insulin immunoexpression was unchanged, except on the last day of the experiment, when it was slightly reduced. The 9a5b NDV infection induced an inflammatory reaction and viral replication in the peripancreatic tissues earlier than in the pancreatic tissue. Furthermore, necrosis affected mainly the exocrine portion of the pancreas, while the endocrine portion was generally unaffected.

  13. Perturbations in the antioxidant metabolism during Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken. Protective role of vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, Kadiam C. Venkata; Raniprameela, D.; Visweswari, Gopalareddygari; Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Lokanatha, Valluru

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on pro/anti-oxidant status in the liver, brain and heart of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infected chickens. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione- S-transferase (GST) and the levels of reduced glutathione and malonaldehyde were estimated in selected tissues of uninfected, NDV-infected and NDV + vit. E-treated chickens. A significant increase in MDA levels in brain and liver ( p < 0.05) was observed in NDV-infected chickens when compared to controls. The activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST and levels of GSH were significantly ( p < 0.05) decreased in brain and liver of NDV-infected chickens over controls. On the other hand, a significant decreased MDA levels and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity levels were observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals compared to NDV-infected chickens. Histopathological studies revealed that liver of NDV infected chicken shows focal coagulation and infiltration of hepatocytes, whereas neuronal necrosis and degeneration of Purkinje cells were observed in brain and moderate infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in heart. However such histological alterations were not observed in NDV + vit. E-treated animals. The results of the present study, thus demonstrated that antioxidant defense mechanism is impaired after the induction of NDV, suggesting its critical role in cellular injury in brain and liver. Further, the results also suggest that vitamin E treatment will ameliorate the antioxidant status in the infected animals. The findings could be beneficial to understand the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of NDV and therapeutic interventions of antioxidants.

  14. Construction and anti-tumor effects of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuramidinase gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao; JIN Ningyi; LIAN Hai; GUAN Goufang; SUN Lili; LI Xuemei; ZHENG Hongling

    2006-01-01

    Hemagglutinin-neuramidinase (HN), aNewcastle disease virus-derived protein, not only mediates receptor recognition but also possesses neuraminidase (NA) activity, the ability to cleave a component of those receptors, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NAcneu, sialic acid). It is known that this protein in mammalian species, including human beings, has interesting anti-neoplastic as well as immune stimulating properties. To explore the use of the HN gene in cancer gene therapy, we constructed a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing the HN protein (vFV-HN) and compared the anti-tumor activity of the recombinant virus with that of wild-type fowlpox virus (FPV) in vivo and in vitro. Here we found that although B16 cells were somewhat resistant to the basal cytotoxic effect of wild-type fowlpox virus, infection with vFV-HN caused a pronounced cytotoxic effect and, the survival of tumor-bearing mice immunized with vFV-HN was significantly increased compared with the survival of mice immunized with the FPV alone. Furthermore, the immunization of mice with vFV-HN elicited a B16 tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and clonal expansion of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in vivo. In addition, T cells from lymph nodes of mice vaccinated with vFV-HN secreted high levels of the Th1 cytokine IL-2 and IFN-y, indicating that the regression of tumor cells is related to a Th1-type dominant immune response. These results demonstrate that vaccination with vFV-HN may be a potential strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  15. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009–2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, Naila, E-mail: naila.nrlpd@gmail.com [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan); Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul [National Reference Laboratory for Poultry Diseases, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-09-15

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011–2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009–2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic {sup 112}GRQGRL{sup 117} and velogenic {sup 112}RRQKRF{sup 117} along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks. - Highlights: • The first report of isolation of new genotype VII-f of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in Pakistan. • We report the partial Fusion gene sequences of new genotype VII-f of virulent NDV from Pakistan. • We report the phylogenetic relationship of new NDV strains with reported NDV strains. • Provide outbreak history of new virulent NDV strain in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan. • We provide possible evidence for the role of backyard poultry in NDV outbreaks.

  16. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Kongroi, K; Kuadsantia, P; Poompramun, C; Likitdecharote, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study.

  17. Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning

    2016-05-01

    Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.

  18. Characteristics of commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Traoré, Idrissa; Kamissoko, Badian; Diakité, Adama; Sidibé, Maimouna Sanogo; Sissoko, Kadiatou Diarra; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2015-10-01

    We aimed at characterizing commercial and traditional village poultry farming in Mali, with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Surveys were conducted in 2009-2011 in a study area covering approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population. Among the 282 commercial farms investigated, of which 64 had not been known by the government authorities, 83% were located within a 50km radius from the capitals of the country and regions and 54% had low biosecurity standard. Among the 152 randomly selected village household flocks investigated, characteristics were overall similar to those in other African countries but some differences were notable including a large flock size (median 44 poultry), a low presence of ducks and geese (11% and 1.1% of flocks, respectively), vaccination against Newcastle disease being common (49% of flocks), a low proportion of households selling sick and dead birds (0.7% and 0%, respectively) and limited cohabitation between poultry and humans at night. Our recommendations to limit the risk of disease transmission include (1) for commercial farms, to introduce compulsory farm registration and accreditation, to increase technical proficiency and access to credit for farms with low biosecurity, and to support poultry producer associations; (2) for village poultry, to promote better quarantine and management of sick and dead birds. Such detailed knowledge of country-specific characteristics of poultry production systems is essential to be able to develop more efficient disease risk management policies.

  19. Sero-surveillance and risk factors for avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekaili, Thunai Al; Clough, Helen; Ganapathy, Kannan; Baylis, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are the most important reportable poultry diseases worldwide. Low pathogenic AI (H9N2) and ND viruses are known to have been circulating in the Middle East, including in Oman, for many decades. However, detailed information on the occurrence of these pathogens is almost completely lacking in Oman. As backyard poultry are not vaccinated against either virus in Oman, this sector is likely to be the most affected poultry production sector for both diseases. Here, in the first survey of AI and ND viruses in backyard poultry in Oman, we report high flock-level seroprevalences of both viruses. Serum and oropharyngeal swabs were taken from 2350 birds in 243 backyard flocks from all regions and governorates of Oman. Information was recorded on location, type of bird and housing type for each sampled farm. Individual bird serum samples were tested using commercial indirect antibody detection ELISA kits. Pooled oropharyngeal samples from each flock were inoculated onto FTA cards and tested by RT-PCR. Samples came from chickens (90.5%), turkeys (2.1%), ducks (6.2%), guinea fowl (0.8%) and geese (0.4%). The bird-level seroprevalence of antibody to AI and ND viruses was 37.5% and 42.1% respectively, and at the flock level it was 84% and 90% respectively. There were statistically significant differences between some different regions of Oman in the seroprevalence of both viruses. Flock-level NDV seropositivity in chickens was significantly associated with AIV seropositivity, and marginally negatively associated with flock size. AIV seropositivity in chickens was marginally negatively associated with altitude. All oropharyngeal samples were negative for both viruses by RT-PCR, consistent with a short duration of infection. This study demonstrates that eight or nine out of ten backyard poultry flocks in Oman are exposed to AI and ND viruses, and may present a risk for infection for the commercial poultry sector in Oman, or wild birds

  20. Targeted survey of Newcastle disease virus in backyard poultry flocks located in wintering site for migratory birds from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Fernanda S; Rodenbusch, Carla R; Okino, Cíntia H; Hein, Héber E; Costa, Eduardo F; Machado, Gustavo; Canal, Cláudio W; Brentano, Liana; Corbellini, Luís G

    2014-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes a fast-spreading, highly contagious infectious disease in several bird species. Commercial poultry farms in Brazil were considered free of virulent NDV. Data on NDV infection levels in backyard poultry flocks and the epidemiology of the disease are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a NDV survey in backyard poultry from households flocks located around one of the main wintering sites for migratory wild birds in Brazil, and to identify potential risk factors associated with NDV. Backyard poultry may be sentinels and a source of infection for commercial poultry, since they may have as much contact with these birds as with migratory wild birds. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households using an epidemiological questionnaire. Serum samples from poultry were tested for NDV antibodies using an ELISA, and tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected for NDV molecular detection. The risk factors were assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. The ELISA showed that 33.8% of the serum samples were positive for anti-NDV antibodies and in 42 households (87.5%) at least one NDV-positive bird was found. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were negative for NDV by real time RT-PCR, possible because within this region there might flow a low pathogenicity NDV strain, which can induce seroconversion with innaparent clinical findings. The prevalence ratio (PR) increased when farmers used their own replacement poultry to restock their flock (PR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.42). Furthermore, the increasing distance of the household flock from the "Laguna do Peixe" estuary was associated with decreasing NDV seropositivity (PR=0.94; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99). This is the first study in Brazil evaluating the presence of NDV and the associated risk factors in households with backyard poultry flocks. The great number of farms with seropositive birds indicates that the virus circulates in backyard flocks, and this breeding

  1. Analysis of Clinical Cases of Newcastle Disease Virus Mixed Infections Based on Wanfang Database%基于万方数据库的新城疫混合感染文献分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰峰; 谢春伏; 李庆锁; 魏忠华; 王学静

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus mixed infections were retrieved based on Wanfang database.The endemic distribution,poultry species of clinical cases and disease types of Newcastle disease virus mixed infections were analyzed.The results showed that clinical cases of Newcastle disease virus mixed infections were more common than other pathogen mixed infections;Newcastle disease virus mixed infections conformed to the endemic distribution of the extant quantity of domestic poultry in China;Chicken was the major target of Newcastle disease virus mixed infections,in which the susceptibility in layers was higher than that in broil-ers;the maj or pathogens coinfected with Newcastle disease virus were bacteria,followed by viruses.The pa-per revealed the basic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus mixed infections,which would provide evi-dence for realizing the problems and studying corresponding measures in Newcastle disease protection.%以《万方数据库》作为数据统计源,检索新城疫病毒混合感染案例,对混合感染案例的地区分布、发病禽种类和新城疫病毒混合感染疾病类型进行分析。结果表明,新城疫病毒混合感染案例远多于其他疫病病原混合感染;新城疫病毒混合感染与我国家禽存栏量地区分布现状相符;发生新城疫病毒混合感染的主要是鸡,其中蛋鸡多于肉鸡;新城疫病毒混合感染的主要病原是细菌,其次是病毒。论文揭示出新城疫病毒混合感染的基本特征,为认识新城疫防控存在问题和研究对应的防控措施提供了依据。

  2. Effects of chicken interferon Gamma on Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...

  3. Detection of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, goblet cells and secretory IgA in the intestinal mucosa during Newcastle disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Quan; Shang, Yunlian; She, Ruiping; Jiang, Taozhen; Wang, Decheng; Ding, Ye; Yin, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Newcastle disease, which is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a highly contagious viral disease of poultry and other bird species. The mucosa is the first line of defence to invading pathogens, including NDV, and it has been confirmed that the mucosa can contribute to host protection. This study was conducted to evaluate the intestinal mucosal immunology in NDV infection. Forty specific-pathogen-free chickens were divided into two groups, 20 birds in each group. Group 1 was inoculated with NDV by the intravenous route. Group 2 was used as the control group and was given sterile phosphate-buffered saline by the same route. At 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post infection (h.p.i.), five chickens from each treatment were killed. Samples of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were collected to quantify intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), goblet cells and secretory IgA (sIgA) by cytochemistry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The results indicated that IEL were increased from 24 to 72 h.p.i. in the infected tissues, and were significantly higher than in the control group at 48 h.p.i. (P lining of the intestinal mucosa. These data suggest that IEL, goblet cells, and sIgA were involved in the intestinal mucosal immunity against NDV infection.

  4. Generation and evaluation of a recombinant genotype VII Newcastle disease virus expressing VP3 protein of Goose parvovirus as a bivalent vaccine in goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianzhong; Cong, Yanlong; Yin, Renfu; Feng, Na; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Xiao, Yueqiang; Wang, Wenxiu; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Wang, Chunfeng; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-05-04

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and Goose parvovirus (GPV) are considered to be two of the most important and widespread viruses infecting geese. In this study, we generated a recombinant rmNA-VP3, expressing GPV VP3 using a modified goose-origin NDV NA-1 by changing the multi-basic cleavage site motif RRQKR↓F of the F protein to the dibasic motif GRQGR↓L as that of the avirulent strain LaSota as a vaccine vector. Expression of the VP3 protein in rmNA-VP3 infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot assay. The genetic stability was examined by serially passaging 10 times in 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs. Goslings were inoculated with rmNA-VP3 showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong GPV and NDV neutralizing antibodies response. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant NDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against Goose parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus infection in birds.

  5. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Northeastern China from 2013 to 2015 Reveals Potential Epidemic Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingze; Xie, Guangyao; Liu, Xinxin; Ai, Lili; Chen, Yanyu; Meng, Xin; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Jianjun; Sun, Yuzhang; Stoeger, Tobias; Ding, Zhuang; Yin, Renfu

    2015-12-28

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by the virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is one of the most important viral diseases of birds globally, but little is currently known regarding enzootic trends of NDV in northeastern China, especially for class I viruses. Thus, we performed a surveillance study for NDV in northeastern China from 2013 to 2015. A total 755 samples from wild and domestic birds in wetlands and live bird markets (LBMs) were collected, and 10 isolates of NDV were identified. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses showed that five isolates from LBMs belong to class I subgenotype 1b, two (one from wild birds and one from LBMs) belong to the vaccine-like class II genotype II, and three (all from wild birds) belong to class II subgenotype Ib. Interestingly, the five class I isolates had epidemiological connections with viruses from southern, eastern, and southeastern China. Our findings, together with recent prevalence trends of class I and virulent class II NDV in China, suggest possible virus transmission between wild and domestic birds and the potential for an NDV epidemic in the future.

  6. Genomic and biological characterization of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from a healthy backyard poultry flock in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newcastle disease virus (NDV causes severe and economically important disease in poultry around the globe. None of NDV strains in Pakistan have been completely characterized and the role of rural poultry in harbouring NDV is unclear. Since they have a very important role for long-term circulation of the virus, samples were collected from apparently healthy backyard poultry (BYP flocks. These samples were biologically analyzed using mean death time (MDT and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI, whereas genotypically characterized by the real-time PCRs coupled with sequencing of the complete genome. Findings Despite of being non-pathogenic for BYP, the isolate exhibited MDT of 49.6 h in embryonated chicken eggs and an ICPI value of 1.5. The F gene based real-time PCR was positive, whereas M-gene based was negative due to substantial changes in the probe-binding site. The entire genome of the isolate was found to be 15192 nucleotides long and encodes for six genes with an order of 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The F protein cleavage site, an indicative of pathogenicity, was 112RRQKRF117. Complete genome comparison indicated that the RNA dependent RNA polymerase gene was the most and the phosphoprotein was least conserved gene, among all the genes. The isolate showed an Y526Q substitution in the HN protein, which determines neuraminidase receptor binding and fusion activity of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis, based on F and HN genes, classified this isolate into genotype VII, a predominant genotype responsible for ND outbreaks in Asian countries. However, it clustered well apart from other isolates in this genotype to be considered a new subgenotype (VII-f. Conclusions These results revealed that this isolate was similar to virulent strains of NDV and was avirulent in BYP either due to resistance of local breeds or due to other factors such as substantial mutations in the HN protein. Furthermore, we have characterized the first isolate of

  7. In vivo transcriptional cytokine responses and association with clinical and pathological outcomes in chickens infected with different Newcastle disease virus isolates using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the host response to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) infection in chickens and the relationship between the innate immune response and the severity of clinical disease. Innate responses are considered important during the earliest phases of microbial invasion because they can lim...

  8. Antiviral activity of bovine uterus and placenta induced by Newcastle disease virus Atividade antiviral do útero e da placenta bovina induzida pelo vírus da doença de Newcastle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Barreto Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral activity profile of the uterus and fetal membranes from bovine placenta, induced by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV throughout gestation, was investigated. Explants of the endometrium and caruncles were collected from the uterus, and amniochorion, allantochorion and cotyledons, from fetal placenta. Tissue cultures were induced with ~6.0 hemagglutinating units (HU of NDV. Supernatants were concentrated 20 fold, filtered in 100kDa cut-off membranes and antiviral activity was titrated in MDBK x VSV system. Tissues of the uterus did not exhibit antiviral activity, while allantochorion and amniochorion produced antiviral factors throughout gestation. Antiviral factors were not related with IFN-alpha, gamma, tau or TNF-alpha. The antiviral activity pattern observed showed to be related with the development of fetal membranes and increased at the end of pregnancy. Such data suggest that IFN genes inducible by virus are present in fetal membranes of the cow placenta and their expression is dependent on the age of gestation.Investigou-se a atividade antiviral do útero e da placenta bovina, ao longo da gestação, induzidos pelo vírus da doença de Newcastle (NDV. Explantes do endométrio e carúnculas foram colhidos do útero. Os tecidos corioamniótico, corioalantóide e cotilédones foram dissecados da placenta fetal. Os cultivos celulares foram induzidos com aproximadamente 6,0 unidades hemaglutinantes do NDV. Os sobrenadantes foram concentrados 20 vezes, filtrados em dispositivos com superfície de separação de 100kDa e a atividade antiviral foi titulada em células MDBK e vírus da estomatite vesicular (VSV. Endométrio, carúnculas e cotilédones não apresentaram atividade antiviral. Corioamniótico e corioalantóide produziram fatores antivirais ao longo da gestação. Estes fatores não foram relacionados aos IFN - alfa, gama ou tau e nem ao TNF - alfa. O padrão de produção de fatores antivirais acompanhou o desenvolvimento

  9. The latest progress on Newcastle disease vaccine%新城疫疫苗的最新研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文

    2008-01-01

    新城疫(Newcastle disease,ND)是由新城疫病毒(NDV)引起的一种烈性病毒性传染病,是当今全球范围内最严重的家禽传染病之一,也是我国所有鸡病中危害最大的一种,被国际兽疫局列为A类传染病。

  10. Phylogenetic characterization of the fusion genes of the Newcastle disease viruses isolated in Fars province poultry farms during 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabanpour, Mohammad Javad; Khoobyar, Setareh; Rahimian, Abdollah; Nazari, Mohammad Bagher; Keshtkar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Despite routine vaccination programs against Newcastle disease (ND), sporadic cases have occasionally occurred that remain a constant threat to commercial poultry. Ten isolates of Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) from infected broiler chicken cases were obtained from various locations in Fars province during 2009-2011 and genetically analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) with primers specific to the viral fusion (F) protein- gene. The viruses were confirmed as NDV by hemagglutination inhibition assay and RT- PCR. The isolates based on the sequence and phylogenetic analyses of partial F gene were genotypically analyzed by RT PCR. In the present investigation, the pathogenicity of NDV strains was determined by internationally recognized test mean death time (MDT). Analysis based on F gene showed that characterized isolates possess three different types of protease cleavage site motifs and appear to show maximum identities with isolates in the region. The subsequent phylogenetic analysis was implemented using MEGA and the phylogenetic tree. The results of RT-PCR and MDT showed that 10 isolates were positive for NDV, (60% velogenic, 30% mesogenic and 10% lentogenic). The results of the phylogenetic analysis showed that 10 NDV isolates from Iran belong to the class II, genotype III viruses. This information is fundamental to improve the efficacy of controlling strategies and vaccine development for NDV.

  11. 厦门市同安区规模养鸡场新城疫调查%Investigation of newcastle disease in chicken farms in Tongan, Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谓娟

    2015-01-01

    为了了解厦门市同安区规模养鸡场新城疫病原感染状况和抗体合格率,随机调查19个规模养鸡场,共采集760份咽喉-泄殖腔拭子和379份血清样品,分别采用荧光RT-PCR 方法和血凝抑制试验检测新城疫病原和抗体。结果显示:调查的规模养鸡场中未检测到病原学阳性样本,鸡群新城疫抗体合格率为50.1%。%A random investigation to 19 chicken farms has carried to understand the infection status and the qualified rate of antibody of Newcastle disease in chicken farms in Tong'an, Xiamen. 760 throat-cloaca swabs and 379 serum samples were sampled and tested for the antigen and antibody of Newcastle disease by real-time RT-PCR and haemagglutination inhibition assay. Result: No antigen positive sample was tested on chicken farms in this investigation. The qualified rate of antibody of chicken samples is 50.1%.

  12. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses of sub-genotype VIId from backyard chickens in Bulgaria and Ukraine between 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Bolotin, Vitaliy; Muzyka, Denys; Goraichuk, Iryna V; Solodiankin, Olexii; Gerilovych, Anton; Stegniy, Borys; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Silko, Nikita Y; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Miller, Patti J; Afonso, Claudio L

    2016-12-01

    Here, we report the circulation of highly related virulent Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) in Bulgaria and Ukraine from 2002 until 2013. All of these NDV isolates have the same virulence-associated cleavage site ("113RQKR↓F117"), and selected ones have intracerebral pathogenicity index values ranging from 1.61 to 1.96. These isolates are most closely related to viruses circulating in Eastern Europe, followed by viruses isolated in Asia during the same period of time. Interestingly, the majority of the viruses were isolated from backyard poultry, suggesting the possibility of a "domestic" or "urban" cycle of maintenance. The molecular characterization of the nucleotide sequence of the complete fusion protein gene of the studied viruses suggests continued circulation of virulent NDV of sub-genotype VIId in Eastern Europe, with occasional introductions from Asia. Furthermore, the high level of genetic similarity among those isolates suggests that the NDV isolates of sub-genotype VIId from Bulgaria and Ukraine may have been part of a broader epizootic process in Eastern Europe rather than separate introductions from Asia or Africa. The continuous monitoring of backyard poultry flocks for the presence of circulating virulent NDV strains will allow early identification of Newcastle disease outbreaks.

  13. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of virulent Newcastle disease virus isolates from Pakistan during 2009-2013 reveals circulation of new sub genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Naila; Naeem, Khalid; Abbas, Muhammad Athar; Ali Malik, Akbar; Rashid, Farooq; Rafique, Saba; Ghafar, Abdul; Rehman, Abdul

    2013-09-01

    Despite observing the standard bio-security measures at commercial poultry farms and extensive use of Newcastle disease vaccines, a new genotype VII-f of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) got introduced in Pakistan during 2011. In this regard 300 ND outbreaks recorded so far have resulted into huge losses of approximately USD 200 million during 2011-2013. A total of 33 NDV isolates recovered during 2009-2013 throughout Pakistan were characterized biologically and phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a new velogenic sub genotype VII-f circulating in commercial and domestic poultry along with the earlier reported sub genotype VII-b. Partial sequencing of Fusion gene revealed two types of cleavage site motifs; lentogenic (112)GRQGRL(117) and velogenic (112)RRQKRF(117) along with some point mutations indicative of genetic diversity. We report here a new sub genotype of virulent NDV circulating in commercial and backyard poultry in Pakistan and provide evidence for the possible genetic diversity which may be causing new NDV out breaks.

  14. Preparation, characterization, and in ovo vaccination of dextran-spermine nanoparticle DNA vaccine coexpressing the fusion and hemagglutinin genes against Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Webster, Thomas J; Ideris, Aini

    2016-01-01

    Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND). Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM), a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 μg pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P0.05). Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 μg pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 μg pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection to the chickens from lethal viral challenge. In addition, vaccination with pDNA/D-SPM complex did not induce high antibody titer when compared with naked pDNA. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA vaccination with plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F can be suitable for in ovo application against ND, whereas D-SPM is not recommended for in ovo gene delivery.

  15. Field vaccinated chickens with low antibody titres show equally insufficient protection against matching and non-matching genotypes of virulent Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortmans, J C F M; Venema-Kemper, S; Peeters, B P H; Koch, G

    2014-08-06

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many countries maintain a vaccination policy, but NDV is rapidly evolving as shown by the discovery of several new genotypes in the last decades. We tested the efficacy of the currently used classical commercial ND vaccine based on the genotype II strain VG/GA, applied under standard field conditions, against outbreak strains. Field vaccinated broilers were challenged with four different viruses belonging to genotype II, V or VII. A large proportion of field vaccinated broilers showed suboptimal immunity and the protection level against early and recent NDV isolates was dramatically low. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in protection afforded by a genotype II vaccine against a genotype II virus challenge compared to a challenge with viruses belonging to the other genotypes. This study suggests that the susceptibility of vaccinated poultry to NDV infection is not the result of vaccine mismatch, but rather of poor vaccination practices.

  16. Use of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Rodrigues, Juliana Nogueira Martins; Seki, Meire Christina; de Moraes, Fabricio Edgar; Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; Durigon, Edison Luis; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple molecular method of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to differentiate Newcastle disease virus strains according to their pathogenicity, in order to use it in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations. Specific primers were developed to differentiate LaSota--LS--(vaccine strain) and Sao Joao do Meriti--SJM--strain (highly pathogenic strain). Chickens and pigeons were experimentally vaccinated/infected for an in vivo study to determine virus shedding in feces. Validation of sensitivity and specificity of the primers (SJM and LS) by experimental models used in the present study and results obtained in the molecular analysis of the primers by BLAST made it possible to generalize results. The development of primers that differentiate the level of pathogenicity of NDV stains is very important, mainly in countries where real-time RT-PCR is still not used as a routine test. These primers were able to determine the presence of the agent and to differentiate it according to its pathogenicity.

  17. In ovo delivery of Newcastle disease virus conjugated hybrid calcium phosphate nanoparticle and to study the cytokine profile induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal [Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India); Rathish, P.; Gopinath, V.P.; Janice, R. [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Dhinakar Raj, G., E-mail: dhinakarrajg@tanuvas.org.in [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 007 (India); Translational Research Platform for Veterinary Biologicals (TRPVB), Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Chennai 600 051, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-01

    In this report, the hybrid calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). These nanoparticles were synthesized by a combination of co-precipitation and polymerization process and functionalized with amino propyl triethoxy silane before coupling to NDV. The 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay of chicken spleen cells incubated with these nanoparticles indicated that, these particles did not exert any significant cytotoxicity. The effects of hybrid CaP nanoparticles on cell cycle were assayed using a flow cytometer. The results demonstrated that the cell viability and proliferation capacity of spleen cells were not affected by hybrid CaP nanoparticles compared with their control cells. The hybrid CaP nanoparticles were characterized by scanning/transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM); Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). These methods revealed that NDV was successfully conjugated on nanoparticles. The ability of the hybrid CaP nanoparticles to induce different cytokine mRNAs in the spleen cells of 18-day old embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). NDV conjugated particles induced a high expression of Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α of and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10. Uncoupled NDV induced only Th1 cytokines, IFN-α, INF-γ and TNF-α. The hybrid particles alone did not induce any cytokines. This confirmed that nanoparticle coupling could induce differential cytokine profiles and hence can be used as an alternate strategy to direct favorable immune responses in animals or chickens using appropriate vaccination carrier. - Highlights: • NDV conjugated hybrid CaP NP induced differential cytokine profiles in embryonated chicken eggs.

  18. Immunoadjuvant activities of a recombinant chicken IL-12 in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus recombinant HN protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bor Sheu; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Hung, Li Hsiang; Huang, Ji Ping; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw

    2011-08-05

    Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge.

  19. Strong innate immune response and cell death in chicken splenocytes infected with genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus

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    Hu Zenglei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates induce more severe damage to lymphoid tissues, especially to the spleen, when compared to virulent viruses of other genotypes. However, the biological basis of the unusual pathological changes remains largely unknown. Methods Virus replication, cytokine gene expression profile and cell death response in chicken splenocytes infected with two genotype VIId NDV strains (JS5/05 and JS3/05, genotype IX NDV strain F48E8 and genotype IV NDV strain Herts/33 were evaluated. Statistical significance of differences between experimental groups was determined using the Independent-Samples T test. Results JS5/05 and JS3/05 caused hyperinduction of type I interferons (IFNs (IFN-α and -β during detection period compared to F48E8 and Herts/33. JS5/05 increased expression level of IFN-γ gene at 6 h post-inoculation (pi and JS3/05 initiated sustained activation of IFN-γ within 24 h pi, whereas transcriptional levels of IFN-γ remained unchanged at any of the time points during infection of F48E8 and Herts/33. In addition, compared to F48E8 and Herts/33, JS3/05 and JS5/05 significantly increased the amount of free nucleosomal DNA in splenocytes at 6 and 24 h pi respectively. Annexin-V and Proidium iodid (PI double staining of infected cells showed that cell death induced by JS3/05 and JS5/05 was characterized by marked necrosis compared to F48E8 and Herts/33 at 24 h pi. These results indicate that genotype VIId NDV strains JS3/05 and JS5/05 elicited stronger innate immune and cell death responses in chicken splenocytes than F48E8 and Herts/33. JS5/05 replicated at a significantly higher efficiency in splenocytes than F48E8 and Herts/33. Early excessive cell death induced by JS3/05 infection partially impaired virus replication. Conclusions Viral dysregulaiton of host response may be relevant to the severe pathological manifestation in the spleen following genotype VIId NDV infection.

  20. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rL-RVG) triggers autophagy and apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells by inducing ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yinghai; Zhang, Zhijian; Wang, Mubin; Li, Mi; Yan, Yulan

    2016-01-01

    We have reported that the recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rL-RVG) could induce autophagy and apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells. In the present study, we explored the upstream regulators, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that induce autophagy and apoptosis and the relationships among them. For this purpose, SGC-7901 and HGC cells were infected with rL-RVG. NDV LaSota strain and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were treated as the control groups. Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to detect the expression of the ER stress-related proteins glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and the transcription factor GADD153 (CHOP), among others. The expression of beclin-1 and the conversion of light chain (LC) 3-I were used to determine the occurrence of autophagy, and flow cytometry (FCM) and western blotting were used to examine apoptosis-related protein expression. Transmission electron microscopy was also performed to monitor the ultrastructure of the cells. Moreover, small interfering (si) RNA was used to knock down CHOP expression. rL-RVG treatment increased the expression of ER stress-related proteins, such as GRP78, CHOP, activating transcriptional factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP-1), and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2α), in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and knockdown of CHOP reduced LC3-II conversion and beclin-1 expression. When ER stress was inhibited with 4-PBA, the expression of both autophagy-related proteins and apoptosis-related proteins markedly decreased. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) decreased not only apoptosis-related protein expression but also ER stress-related protein expression. Moreover, we found that downregulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway by SP600125 reduced LC3-II conversion, beclin-1 expression and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, the

  1. Research Progresses on Genetically Engineering Vaccine of the Newcastle Disease Virus Fusion Protein%新城疫F蛋白基因工程疫苗的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶静; 叶红

    2011-01-01

    新城疫(Newcastle disease,NDV)是当今世界上最严重的禽类传染病之一,被世界动物卫生组织(OIE)列为必须报告的传染病.同预防其他传染病一样,新城疫的主要防控手段仍是免疫接种.F蛋白是构成新城疫病毒(NDV)致病性的分子基础之一.综述了国内外新城疫F蛋白基因工程疫苗的研究进展.%Newcastle disease is one of the most serious poultry diseases, especially in the field of poultry raising. It could bring great economic loss and it was defined as a rank A infectious disease by the OIE. Now the main method to prevent Newcastle disease is still the vaccine inoculation. NDV F protein constituted one of the molecular bases of pathogenicity. The research progresses on genetically engineering vaccine of the F protein of Newcastle disease virus were expounded.

  2. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins gB and gD protect chickens against ILTV and NDV challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Spatz, Stephen; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wen, Guoyuan; Garcia, Maricarmen; Zsak, Laszlo; Yu, Qingzhong

    2014-08-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is controlled mainly through biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated strains of ILTV and vectored vaccines based on turkey herpesvirus (HVT) and fowlpox virus (FPV). The current live attenuated vaccines (chicken embryo origin [CEO] and tissue culture origin [TCO]), although effective, can regain virulence, whereas HVT- and FPV-vectored ILTV vaccines are less efficacious than live attenuated vaccines. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop safer and more efficacious ILTV vaccines. In the present study, we generated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants, based on the LaSota vaccine strain, expressing glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) of ILTV using reverse genetics technology. These recombinant viruses, rLS/ILTV-gB and rLS/ILTV-gD, were slightly attenuated in vivo yet retained growth dynamics, stability, and virus titers in vitro that were similar to those of the parental LaSota virus. Expression of ILTV gB and gD proteins in the recombinant virus-infected cells was detected by immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination of specific-pathogen-free chickens with these recombinant viruses conferred significant protection against virulent ILTV and velogenic NDV challenges. Immunization of commercial broilers with rLS/ILTV-gB provided a level of protection against clinical disease similar to that provided by the live attenuated commercial vaccines, with no decrease in body weight gains. The results of the study suggested that the rLS/ILTV-gB and -gD viruses are safe, stable, and effective bivalent vaccines that can be mass administered via aerosol or drinking water to large chicken populations. This paper describes the development and evaluation of novel bivalent vaccines against chicken infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and Newcastle disease (ND), two of the most economically important infectious

  3. Molecular characterization, isolation, pathology and pathotyping of peafowl (Pavo cristatus) origin Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered from disease outbreaks in three states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desingu, Perumal Arumugam; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Dhama, Kuldeep; Vinodhkumar, Obli Rajendran; Barathidasan, Rajamani; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Disease outbreak investigations were carried out in three states of Northern India namely Haryana (Rewari), Uttar Pradesh (Noida) and Delhi, where a total of 110 Indian peafowls (Pavo cristatus) showed sudden onset of nervous signs and died within a period of two weeks during June, 2012. The F (fusion) gene-based RT-PCR detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in affected tissues confirmed the presence of the virus. Three NDV isolates were selected (one from each area under investigation) and further characterized. They were found to be of virulent pathotype (velogenic NDV) based on both pathogenicity assays (MDT, ICPI and IVPI) and partial F gene sequence analysis. Additionally, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to the genotype VIIi and XIII of class II avian Paramyxovirus serotype1 (APMV-1) and related closely to new emerging sub-genotypes. This is the first report regarding the presence of the fifth panzootic vNDV genotype VIIi from India. In this scenario, extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for surveillance of NDV genotypes in wild birds and poultry flocks of the country along with adopting suitable prevention and control measures.

  4. Seroprevalence of the Newcastle disease In fighting cocks (Gallus gallus from the Municipality of Saboyá, Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Briceño Cruspoca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Along the time, the poultry industry has become one of the pillars of the Colombian economy, as a result of its extensive influence in the national gross domestic product and in the livestock field. In fact, the poultry industry significantly contributes to the food security, due to the affordability of poultry and eggs in relation to other protein sources. Due to the current reality of greater economic integration and globalization, it is required to pursue the removal or reduction of barriers such as the health related ones, that could be an obstacle for free trade. The industrial-type poultry industry (broilers, layers, breeders, grandmothers, turkey is one of the leading sectors of the country’s livestock production. Other types of exploitation such as the breeding of fighting cocks, backyard poultry, farm ostrich and quail, among others, represent another important part of this sector. However, a big concern related to these types of practices is the movement of birds and the potential risk of these as distributors of diseases that could potentially affect the national poultry industry.The Newcastle (ENC is among the most important diseases. This is one of the easily transmitted pathologies that causes great economic impact to the poultry industry due to its costs associated to high morbidity and mortality, low in production, high costs of treatment of secondary infections and significant investments in programs targeting its control and eradication. Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies of the disease in fighting cocks (Gallus gallus in Saboyá, Boyacá. The technique of hemagglutination inhibition was used for this matter. Prior to the study, a census was conducted to determine the population of (N = 1.500 animals. The health, manipulation and biosecurity standards of the subject population were assessed through the use of an epidemiological survey. The size of the study sample which was n

  5. 鸭源新城疫病毒单克隆抗体的研制%Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 徐向明

    2010-01-01

    @@ 新城疫(Newcastle disease,ND)是由新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease、virus,NDV)引起的禽类的一种高度接触性、烈性传染病,给世界养禽业造成严重的经济损失和危害.以往文献报道水禽为NDV的自然贮存宿主,可以感染但不发病[1].然而,1997年以来鹅群出现了新城疫的暴发,造成了很大损失.鸭源新城疫病毒的研究主要是针对基因组和基因型的研究[2],单克隆抗体的研制及其在病原特性上的研究还未见报道.本文应用杂交瘤技术制备鸭源NDV单抗并对其进行特异性分析.

  6. Description and analysis of the poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region, Madagascar: implications for the surveillance and control of Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Duboz, R; Lancelot, R; Maminiaina, O F; Jourdan, M; Rakotondramaro, T M C; Rakotonjanahary, S N; de Almeida, R Servan; Rakotondravao; Durand, B; Chevalier, V

    2014-07-01

    Madagascar's 36.5-million-head poultry industry holds a foremost place in its economy and the livelihood of its people. Unfortunately, regular Newcastle disease outbreaks associated with high mortality causes high losses for smallholders and threatens their livelihood. Therefore, Madagascar is seeking concrete, achievable and sustainable methods for the surveillance and the control of Newcastle disease. In this paper, we present and analyze the results of a field study conducted in Madagascar between December 2009 and December 2010. The study area was the Lac Alaotra region, a landlocked area in the north-eastern part of the country's center. Poultry trading is suspected of playing a major role in the spread of avian diseases, especially in developing countries characterized by many live-bird markets and middlemen. Therefore, the goals of our study were to: (i) describe and analyze smallholders' poultry trading network in the Lake Alaotra region using social network analysis; (ii) assess the role of the network in the spread of Newcastle disease; and (iii) propose the implementation of a targeted disease surveillance based on the characteristics of the poultry trading network. We focused our field study on the harvesting of two data sets. The first is a complete description of the poultry trading network in the landlocked area of Lac Alaotra, including a description of the poultry movements between groups of villages. The second set of data measures the occurrence of outbreaks in the same area by combining a participatory approach with an event-based surveillance method. These data were used to determine the attributes of the network, and to statistically assess the association between the position of nodes and the occurrence of outbreaks. By using social network analysis techniques combined with a classification method and a logistic model, we finally identified 3 nodes (set of villages), of the 387 in the initial network, to focus on for surveillance and control

  7. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT VACCINATION PROGRAMS AGAINST A VIRULENT FIELD STRAIN OF THE NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sarcheshmei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite the intensive vaccination programs used for controlling Newcastle disease (ND in the Iranian poultry industry, outbreaks of ND have been reported in poultry farms. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines for the protection against ND infection and virus-shedding period of velogenic Newcastle disease virus (vNDV field strain after different immunization schemes. Eight groups of commercial broiler chickens were used. Six groups were vaccinated with different vaccination programs using commercial live and inactivated ND vaccines. All groups, except for group 8, were challenged with a virulent field isolate (104EID50/bird at 28 days of age. Clinical signs, mortality rate and gross lesions were investigated. Antibody titers were assayed by hemagglutination inhibition test and fecal virus shedding was determined for 14 days post challenge (dpc with 3-day intervals by the RT-PCR method. All unvaccinated-challenged control birds died. Vaccination with these ND vaccines protected chickens from clinical disease. The mortality rate in the vaccinated groups was significantly lower than in the positive control group. However, vaccinated chickens shed the challenge virus in fecal samples. Although the different vaccination regimens displayed close degrees of protection against the disease, the best protection was observed in broilers primed with the live B1 vaccine via eye drop simultaneously with inactivated vaccine at 8 days of age and boosted with B1 or LaSota via drinking water on day 18. In conclusion, the currently used vaccines with different vaccination schemes can protect chickens against the disease in areas where ND is endemic, while the spread of the field virus to other flocks cannot be prevented.

  8. Prevalence of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus in avian influenza negative birds from live bird markets and backyard and commercial farms in Ivory-Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouakou, A V; Kouakou, V; Kouakou, C; Godji, P; Kouassi, A L; Krou, H A; Langeois, Q; Webby, R J; Ducatez, M F; Couacy-Hymann, E

    2015-10-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are two major viral diseases affecting the respiratory tracts of birds and whose impact on African poultry is still poorly known. In the present study we aimed at assessing NDV and IBV prevalences in Ivory-Coast by molecular screening of >22,000 avian swabs by nested PCR and by serology testing of close to 2000 avian sera from 2010 through 2012. The NDV and IBV seroprevalences over the study period reached 22% and 72%, respectively. We found 14.7% pooled swabs positive by PCR for NDV and 14.6% for IBV. Both pathogens are therefore endemic in Ivory-Coast. Economic losses associated with NDV and IBV infections still need to be evaluated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Molecular surveillance of the Newcastle disease virus in domestic and wild birds on the North Eastern Coast and Amazon biome of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Thomazelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the world's largest countries with a rich diversity of wildlife, including resident and migratory wild birds, which may be natural reservoirs of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Because Brazil is a major global exporter of chicken meat, the emergence of such a disease may have a huge negative impact not only on the economy due to trade restrictions and embargoes, but also on the quality of life of the population. Samples were collected from 1,022 asymptomatic domestic and wild birds from the Brazilian coast and the Amazon region using tracheal/cloacal swabs and tested by RT-qPCR. The results showed 7 (0.7% birds were positive for NDV. The positive samples were then isolated in embryonated chicken eggs and their matrix protein genes were partially sequenced, revealing a low-pathogenicity NDV. This study confirms the maintenance of the velogenic-NDV free status of Brazil.

  10. Development of a reliable assay protocol for identification of diseases (RAPID)-bioactive amplification with probing (BAP) for detection of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Young; Hsu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Heng-Ju; Chulu, Julius L C; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2008-07-27

    Due to appearance of new genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with no cross-protection and with vaccine strains, some outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan that caused significant damage to the poultry industry. A reliable assay protocol, (RAPID)-bioactive amplification with probing (BAP), for detection of NDV that uses a nested PCR and magnetic bead-based probe to increase sensitivity and specificity, was developed. Primers and probes were designed based on the conserved region of the F protein-encoding gene sequences of all NDV Taiwan isolates. The optimal annealing temperature for nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify the gene was 61 degrees C and optimal hybridization occurred when buffer 1x SSC and 0.5% SDS were used at 50 degrees C. The sensitivity of RAPID-BAP was 1 copy/microl for standard plasmids and 10 copy/mul for transcribed F protein-encoding gene of NDV with comparable linearity (R(2)=0.984 versus R(2)=0.99). This sensitivity was superior to that of other techniques currently used. The assay was also highly specific because the negative controls, including classical swine fever virus, avian influenza virus, avian reovirus, and infectious bursa disease virus could not be detected. Thirty-four field samples were tested using conventional RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and RAPID-BAP assay and the positive rates were 24%, 30%, 41%, and 53%, respectively. The developed assay allows for rapid, correct, and sensitive detection of NDV and fulfils all of the key requirements for clinical applicability. It could reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays and also facilitate a rapid diagnosis in the early phase of the disease for emergency quarantine that may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.

  11. Previous infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus reduces highly pathogenic avian influenza virus replication, disease, and mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Afonso, Claudio L; Miller, Patti J; Shepherd, Eric; Cha, Ra Mi; Smith, Diane; Spackman, Erica; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J

    2015-09-23

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide and produce co-infections especially in areas of the world where both viruses are endemic; but little is known about the interactions between these two viruses. The objective of this study was to determine if co-infection with NDV affects HPAIV replication in chickens. Only infections with virulent NDV strains (mesogenic Pigeon/1984 or velogenic CA/2002), and not a lentogenic NDV strain (LaSota), interfered with the replication of HPAIV A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) when the H5N2 was given at a high dose (10(6.9) EID50) two days after the NDV inoculation, but despite this interference, mortality was still observed. However, chickens infected with the less virulent mesogenic NDV Pigeon/1984 strain three days prior to being infected with a lower dose (10(5.3-5.5) EID50) of the same or a different HPAIV, A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA-12283-12/2012 (H7N3), had reduced HPAIV replication and increased survival rates. In conclusion, previous infection of chickens with virulent NDV strains can reduce HPAIV replication, and consequently disease and mortality. This interference depends on the titer of the viruses used, the virulence of the NDV, and the timing of the infections. The information obtained from these studies helps to understand the possible interactions and outcomes of infection (disease and virus shedding) when HPAIV and NDV co-infect chickens in the field.

  12. 多巴胺对鸡新城疫疫苗抗体效价的影响%Effect of Dopamine on Antibody Titer of Newcastle Disease Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江青东; 王慧杰; 刘梅

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 10 - day - old roosters were randomly divided into 9 groups. The weak - poisonous vaccine of Newcastle disease LaSota (ND) was used to inoculate every group by eye -drop and intranasal immunization. At the same time, the three experimental groups were injected respectively with high, medium and low doses of dopamine agonist and antagonist solutions once a day for continuous three times. The control group was injected with physiological brine. On the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after immunity, the blood of each group was respectively sampled from the underwing vein, the serum was isolated, and trace blood clots inhibit (HI) was used to determine the antibody titer of Newcastle disease vaccine. The results showed that HI antibody titer in the middle - dose dopamine receptor agonist group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and presented an ascending trend; the antibody titer in the high - dose dopamine receptor antagonist group was significantly lower than that of the control group, and presented a declining trend. The results indicated that dopamine had a significant regulatory role on the antibody titer of Newcastle disease vaccine.%将180只10日龄公鸡随机均分成9组,用新城疫LaSota弱毒疫苗(ND)点眼滴鼻免疫的同时,3个实验组分别肌肉注射高、中、低剂量的多巴胺激动剂和拮抗剂溶液,注射1次/d,连续注射3次,对照组注射生理盐水.各组分别于免疫后7、14、21、28 d翼下静脉采血,分离血清,用微量血凝抑制(HI)测定新城疫抗体效价.结果表明,多巴胺(DA)受体激动剂中剂量组的HI抗体效价明显高于对照组,且呈现一直上升趋势;多巴胺(DA)受体拮抗剂的高剂量组抗体效价明显低于对照组,且呈现一直下降趋势;表明DA对新城疫疫苗的抗体效价有明显的调节作用.

  13. The role of indigenous wild, semidomestic, and exotic birds in the epizootiology of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease in southern California, 1972-1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; McCann, M.K.

    1975-01-01

    During an epornitic of velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease (VVND) in southern California, free-flying wild birds, captive and free-ranging semidomestic birds, and exotic birds were collected from the quarantine area to determine their role in the epizootiology of the disease. The VVND virus was isolated from 0.04% of 9,446 free-flying wild birds, 0.76% of 4,367 semidomestic birds, and 1.01% of 3,780 exotic birds examined. Three house sparrows and 1 crow directly associated with infected poultry flocks were the only free-flying wild birds from which VVND virus was isolated. Among semidomestic species, ducks, quail, chukars, pheasants, peafowl, pigeons, and doves were found to be infected. Psittacines, pittas, and toucans accounted for 92% of the VVND virus isolations from exotic birds. In addition, domestic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from 0.29% of the free-flying wild birds, from 1.65% of the semidomestic birds, and from 0.19% of the exotic birds collected. Hemagglutination-inhibition against domestic NDV was demonstrated in 0.24% of 3,796 wild bird serums, 8.28% of 2,004 semidomestic bird serums, and 3.90% of 231 exotic bird serums tested.Although few free-flying wild birds were infected with VVND virus in this epornitic, the isolation of domestic NDV strains from free-flying wild ducks and mourning doves suggests the potential for transportation of NDV over long distances by migratory birds.

  14. Diagnostic findings in the 1992 epornitic of neurotropic velogenic Newcastle disease in double-crested cormorants from the upper midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Glaser, Linda C.; Franson, J.C.; Senne, Dennis A.; Duncan, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Neurotropic velogenic Newcastle disease (NVND) occurred in juvenile double-crested cormorants,Phalacrocorax auritus, simultaneously in nesting colonies in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska and in Lakes Michigan, Superior, Huron, and Ontario during the summer of 1992. Mortality as high as 80%-90% was estimated in some of the nesting colonies. Clinical signs observed in 4- to -6wk-old cormorants included torticollis, tremors, ataxia, curled toes, and paresis or weakness of legs, wings or both, which was sometimes unilateral. No significant mortality or unusual clinical signs were seen in adult cormorants. Necropsy of 88 cormorants yielded no consistent gross observations. Microscopic lesions in the brain and spinal cord were consistently present in all cormorants from which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated. Characteristic brain lesions provided rapid identification of new suspect sites of NVND. Lesions were also present in the heart, kidney, proventriculus, spleen, and pancreas but were less consistent or nonspecific. NDV was isolated at the National Wildlife Health Center from 27 of 93 cormorants tested. Virus was most frequently isolated from intestine or brain tissue of cormorants submitted within the first 4wk of the epornitic. Sera collected from cormorants with neurologic signs were consistently positive for NDV antibody.The NDV isolate from cormorants was characterized as NVND virus at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories Ames, Iowa. The NVND virus was also identified as the cause of neurologic disease in a North Dakota turkey flock during the summer of 1992. Although no virus was isolated from cormorants tested after the first month of submissions, brain and spinal cord lesions characteristic of NVND were observed in cormorants from affected sites for 2 mo, at which time nesting colonies dispersed and no more submissions were received. Risk to susceptible populations of both wild avian species and domestic poultry makes

  15. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization based on the complete genome of a virulent pathotype of Newcastle disease virus isolated in the 1970s in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Camila C; Varani, Alessandro M; Lemos, Eliana G M; de Miranda, Vitor Fernandes O; Silva, Ketherson R; Fernando, Filipe S; Montassier, Maria F S; Montassier, Helio J

    2014-08-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is caused by the avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that comprises a diverse group of viruses with a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome. ND is one of the most important diseases of chickens, because it severely affects poultry production worldwide. In the 1970s, outbreaks of virulent ND were recorded in Brazil, and the strain APMV-1/Chicken/Brazil/SJM/75 (SJM) of NDV was isolated. This strain was characterized as highly pathogenic for chickens but not pathogenic for other bird species. Here we present the complete genome of NDV strain SJM and investigate the phylogenetic relationships of this virus with other NDV strains in terms of genome and proteins composition, as well as characterizing its evolution process. The NDV strain SJM is categorized as a velogenic virus and the complete genome is 15,192 nucleotides in length, consisting of six genes in the order 3'-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5'. The presence of the major pathogenic determinant of NDV strains ((112)R-R-Q-K-R↓F(117)) was identified in the Fusion protein of the NDV strain SJM. In addition, phylogenetic analysis classified the NDV strain SJM as a member of class II, genotype V, and indicates that this virus help us in the understanding of the evolutionary process of strains belonging to this genotype. This study contributes to the growing interest involving the characterization of NDV isolates to improve our current understanding about the epidemiology, surveillance and evolution of the pathogenic strains.

  16. Heat shock protein 90 and its co-chaperone protein phosphatase 5 interact with distinct regions of the tomato I-2 disease resistance protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Fuente van Bentem, S.; Vossen, J.H.; de Vries, K.J.; van Wees, A.C.M.; Tameling, W.I.L.; Dekker, H.L.; de Koster, C.G.; Haring, M.A.; Takken, F.L.W.; Cornelissen, B.J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Recent data suggest that plant disease resistance (R) proteins are present in multi-protein complexes. Tomato R protein I-2 confers resistance against the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. To identify components of the I-2 complex, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using the I-2 leucine-rich

  17. A cross sectional study of Infectious Bursal Disease and Newcastle Disease in poultry in Narsingdi district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariful Islam

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: IBD and ND are highly prevalent in the study area. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct effective control measures to reduce the prevalence of these diseases. This study can help in designing appropriate control measures considering risk factors of these diseases. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 406-412

  18. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with Newcastle Disease Virus and human Respiratory Syncytial Virus by a two-dimensional virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holguera, Javier; Villar, Enrique; Muñoz-Barroso, Isabel

    2014-10-13

    Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and electrotransferred to PVDF membranes, after which they were probed with high viral concentrations. NDV interacted with a Protein Disulfide Isomerase from chicken fibroblasts. In the case of RSV, we detected 15 reactive spots, which were identified as six different proteins, of which nucleolin was outstanding. We discuss the possible role of PDI and nucleolin in NDV and RSV entry, respectively.

  19. Newcastle disease in a zoo affecting demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J

    1981-07-01

    Newcastle disease virus could be isolated from demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) and a pied imperial pigeon (Ducula bicolor) in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. All of these birds died without prominent symptoms and had no typical pathological lesions. Identification and characterisation studies of the viruses were performed in CEF cultures and embryos. Serological cross reactions could be detected between NDV strain B1 and the new isolates by haemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction tests. Electron microscopic examination revealed particles with paramyxovirus morphology. Inoculation of susceptible cockerels resulted in severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The distribution of lesions in the digestive tract indicates that the isolated viruses are of the velogenic viscerotropic type.

  20. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  1. 鹧鸪新城疫的疫苗疗法%Control of Newcastle disease in partridges by the chicken ND Clone 30 attenuatted vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓松; 廖增鸿; 李俊欣

    2003-01-01

    @@ 新城疫(Newcastle disease, ND)是由NDV引起的高度接触性、急性烈性传染病,具毁灭性,无特效治疗药.ND对鹧鸪养殖业危害极大,鹧鸪一旦感染,多以死亡告终.2002年5月下旬,在广东省揭阳市某鹧鸪养殖场发生ND,笔者试用大剂量的鸡ND Clone 30弱毒疫苗,对274只感染鹧鸪进行救治,取得了显著疗效.

  2. 鸡非典型新城疫研究进展%The research progress of chicken non-typical Newcastle disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康文彪

    2001-01-01

    @@ 鸡新城疫(Newcastle Disease)是危害养鸡业的主要鸡病之一.20世纪80年代末,该病的发生出现了新的变化:多发生于有母源抗体的雏鸡和免疫鸡群;临床症状不典型;发病季节不明显;发病鸡有较高的抗体水平.因此容易被忽视和引起误诊而造成较大的经济损失.本文就鸡非典型新城疫的流行、发病原因、临床症状、病理变化、诊断及防制措施作一简述.

  3. 新城疫病毒分子生物学研究进展%Advance in Molecular Biology of Newcastle Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺奋义

    2013-01-01

    新城疫(Newcastle Disease,ND)是由新城疫病毒(NDV)引起的一种急性、高度接触性禽类传染病,被世界动物卫生组织(OIE)定为法定必报传染病,我国也将其列为一类动物疫病,本文从新城疫病毒的形态及分子结构、致病力的分子基础、分子流行病学特征和基因工程疫苗等分子生物学相关研究进展进行了综述.

  4. Antibody response and risk factors for seropositivity in backyard poultry following mass vaccination against highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLAWS, M; Priyono, W; Bett, B; Al-Qamar, S; Claassen, I; Widiastuti, T; Poole, J; Schoonman, L; Jost, C; Mariner, J

    2015-06-01

    A large-scale mass vaccination campaign was carried out in Java, Indonesia in an attempt to control outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in backyard flocks and commercial smallholder poultry. Sero-monitoring was conducted in mass vaccination and control areas to assess the proportion of the target population with antibodies against HPAI and Newcastle disease (ND). There were four rounds of vaccination, and samples were collected after each round resulting in a total of 27 293 samples. Sampling was performed irrespective of vaccination status. In the mass vaccination areas, 20-45% of poultry sampled had a positive titre to H5 after each round of vaccination, compared to 2-3% in the control group. In the HPAI + ND vaccination group, 12-25% of the population had positive ND titres, compared to 5-13% in the areas without ND vaccination. The level of seropositivity varied by district, age of the bird, and species (ducks vs. chickens).

  5. SURVEILLANCE FOR NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS, AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS AND MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM IN WILD BIRDS NEAR COMMERCIAL POULTRY FARMS SURROUNDED BY ATLANTIC RAINFOREST REMNANTS, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Guimarães

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geographic overlap between areas of Atlantic rainforest and human activities allows interactions to occur between humans and wild and domestic animals. Despite the great importance of the domestic animal-wildlife-human interface that occurs at poultry farms in terms of public health, economic production and wildlife conservation, there are few studies in Brazil examining the distribution and health of wild birds that interact with poultry farms. From January to December 2010, mist nets were used to capture 166 free-ranging birds that were within close proximity to three poultry farms in Atlantic rainforest remnants in south-eastern Brazil. The species composition was examined, and molecular methods were used to test for avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The avian communities near the poultry farms were dominated by three synanthropic species, which corresponded to 70% of all captured individuals: house sparrows Passer domesticus (33%, saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola (22%, and ruddy ground-doves (Columbina talpacoti (15%. These predominant bird species were in poor body condition (27%, were infested with feather mites (43%, or presented both conditions (23%. No evidence of infection by avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus or M. gallisepticum was identified in any of the studied birds. Although no evidence of the studied pathogens was, our findings demonstrate that differences in the environmental characteristics and biosecurity practices influence the wild bird community near poultry farms, which in turn may affect the health status of these synanthropic birds and strengthen their role in the transmission of pathogens.

  6. Biological evaluation of N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan as a carrier for the delivery of live Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Sun, Yanwei; Chen, Gang; Rong, Guangyu; Kang, Hong; Jin, Zheng; Wang, Xiaohua

    2016-09-20

    Mucosal immune system plays a very important role in antiviral immune response. We prepared Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) encapsulated in N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (N-2-HACC) nanoparticles (NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs) by an ionic cross linking method, and assessed the potential of N-2-HACC-NPs as a mucosal immune delivery carrier. The properties of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy, Zeta potential and particle size analysis, encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity. NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs have regular spherical morphologies and high stability; with 303.88±49.8nm mean diameter, 45.77±0.75mV Zeta potential, 94.26±0.42% encapsulation efficiency and 54.06±0.21% loading capacity. In vitro release assay indicated that the release of NDV from NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs is slow. The NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs have good biological characteristics, very low toxicity and high level of safety. Additionally, specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs showed much stronger cellular, humoral and mucosal immune responses than commercial attenuated live Newcastle disease vaccine, and NDV/La Sota-N-2-HACC-NPs reached the sustainable release effect. Our study here provides a foundation for the further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs, and the N-2-HACC-NPs should be a potential drug delivery carrier with immense potential in medical applications.

  7. Causes and control of atypical newcastle disease in free-range chicken%放养土鸡非典型新城疫的病因分析及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婷; 周五朵; 吴异健

    2015-01-01

    低发病率、低死亡率、高淘汰率、散发性的非典型新城疫是放养土鸡的主要疫病之一,其流行病学、临床症状、剖检病变等不同于传统典型新城疫,易被误诊,给土鸡养殖业造成巨大的经济损失。文中对放养土鸡非典型新城疫的流行特点、成因及防控措施等进行概述,以期为土鸡养殖业者提供参考。%The atypical Newcastle disease is one of the main diseases in free-range chickens with low morbidity and mortality and high attrition rate, and has caused huge economic losses in free-range chicken production. It is usually sporadic and different from typical Newcastle disease in epidemiology, clinical symptoms and pathological lesions. Here we summarized epidemic characteristics, causes, and control measures of atypical Newcastle disease to provide references for free-range chicken breeders.

  8. 鸡大肠杆菌病和新城疫混合感染的诊断与防治%Diagnosis and Treatment on Escherichia coli and Newcastle Disease Mixed Infection in Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜风兰; 许国宾

    2014-01-01

    通过对新疆哈密地区某养鸡场发生的大肠杆菌病与新城疫混合感染疫情的诊治,笔者从该病的发病情况、临床症状、病理变化、实验室诊断、治疗、预防等方面对鸡大肠杆菌病与新城疫混合感染疫病进行了较全面的介绍。%Chicken Escherichia coli and newcastle disease mixed infection epidemic in one chicken field in Hami region in Xinjiang was diagnosed,the author introduced morbidity situation,clinical symptoms,pathological symptoms,laboratory diagnosis,treatment and preventive measures about the chicken Escherichia coil and newcastle disease.

  9. Research on Compound Chinese Herbal Medicine against Newcastle Disease Virus Activity in vitro%复方中药体外抗新城疫病毒活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵增成; 林树乾; 傅剑; 黄中利

    2013-01-01

    In order to screen efficient Chinese herbal medicine against Newcastle disease virus, 8 kinds of compound Chinese herbal medicine against Newcastle disease virus were determined by chick embryo test. The result showed that some compound Chinese herbal medicine had better inhibition effect, including jingfang baidu powder, yinqiao powder,baitouweng decoction and shuanghuanlian oral liquid.%为了筛选出高效的抗新城疫病毒中药,采用鸡胚接种试验,对8种经典清热解毒复方中药的抗新城疫病毒效果进行了测定.结果表明,荆防败毒散、银翘散、白头翁汤、双黄连口服液在体外对新城疫病毒具有较好的抑制作用.

  10. Study on resistance of egg inoculation with radix hedysari injection to Newcastle disease virus%红芪注射液鸡胚接种抗鸡新城疫病毒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广生; 周新民; 王涛; 王永娟

    2011-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of the traditional Chinese medicine-radix hedysari injection on Newcastle disease virus was evaluated by chick embryo culture and hemagglutination test.The results showed that the radix hedysari injection had no toxic effect on chick embryos, and egg inoculation with the mixture of both radix hedysari injection and virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit reproduction of Newcastle disease virus in chick embryos.%采用鸡胚培养法和红血球凝集(HA)试验,测定中药红芪注射液对鸡新城疫病毒的抑制作用.结果表明:中药红芪注射液对鸡胚无毒性作用,红芪注射液与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城病毒在鸡胚中增殖.

  11. Empirical analysis suggests continuous and homogeneous circulation of Newcastle disease virus in a wide range of wild bird species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, J; Caron, A; Servan De Almeida, R; Gil, P; Pedrono, M; Mundava, J; Fofana, B; Balança, G; Dakouo, M; Ould El Mamy, A B; Abolnik, C; Maminiaina, O F; Cumming, G S; De Visscher, M-N; Albina, E; Chevalier, V; Gaidet, N

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the most important poultry diseases worldwide and can lead to annual losses of up to 80% of backyard chickens in Africa. All bird species are considered susceptible to ND virus (NDV) infection but little is known about the role that wild birds play in the epidemiology of the virus. We present a long-term monitoring of 9000 wild birds in four African countries. Overall, 3·06% of the birds were PCR-positive for NDV infection, with prevalence ranging from 0% to 10% depending on the season, the site and the species considered. Our study shows that ND is circulating continuously and homogeneously in a large range of wild bird species. Several genotypes of NDV circulate concurrently in different species and are phylogenetically closely related to strains circulating in local domestic poultry, suggesting that wild birds may play several roles in the epidemiology of different NDV strains in Africa. We recommend that any strategic plan aiming at controlling ND in Africa should take into account the potential role of the local wild bird community in the transmission of the disease.

  12. The Newcastle meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Colin

    1987-01-01

    A brief history and development of the Newcastle Meteor Radar system is given. Also described are its geographical coordinates and its method of operation. The initial objective when the project was commenced was to develop an entirely digital analyzer capable of recognizing meteor echo signals and recording as many of their parameters as possible. This objective was achieved.

  13. Chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles as an efficient delivery system for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,* Yang Zhang,1,2,* Xiaoyan Zhang,1,* Ci Shi,1,2 Xin Wang,1 Xiaohua Wang,1 Zheng Jin,3 Shangjin Cui2 1Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, 2Division of Swine Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, 3Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We determined the efficacy and safety of chitosan (CS-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs as a delivery system for a vaccine to protect chickens against Newcastle disease virus (NDV. The newly constructed vaccine contained DNA (the F gene of NDV. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA plasmid (pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs were spherical (diameter =699.1±5.21 nm [mean ± ­standard deviation] and smooth, with an encapsulation efficiency of 98.1% and a Zeta potential of +6.35 mV. An in vitro release assay indicated that CS controlled the burst release of plasmid DNA, such that up to 67.4% of the entire quantity of plasmid DNA was steadily released from the pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs. An in vitro expression assay indicated that the expression of nanoparticles (NPs was maintained in the NPs. In an immunization test with specific pathogen-free chickens, the pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses than the plasmid DNA vaccine alone. The pFDNA-CS/PLGA-NPs did not harm 293T cells in an in vitro assay and did not harm chickens in an in vivo assay. Overall, the results indicated that CS-coated PLGA NPs can serve as an efficient and safe mucosal immune delivery system for NDV DNA vaccine.Keywords: mucosal immune delivery system, immune effect

  14. Antiviral effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the liver homogenate indices of poultry fowls infected with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV

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    Ayodele P. O,

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the preliminary investigation of the antiviral effect of Anthocleista nobilis root extract on the liver homogenate indices of poultry fowls treated for Newcastle Disease (ND. Eighteen (18 weeks-old fowls were used for this study. These were divided into 3 groups, A (infected and with treatment, B (infected and without treatment and C (control. Groups A and B were challenged with Newcastle disease virus (NDV. Group A and C were given ethanolic root extract of A. nobilis orally at intervals of 6 h at 0.5 mg per 100 g of body weight for 28 days. All the fowls were also given tetracycline antibiotic to eliminate bacterial infections. The average body weight and the temperature were monitored. The cytological examination of the fowls in group B showed that there was ulceration in the intestinal lining. There was increase in the average body temperature of the fowls in group B (41.9+0.2oC. There was also a drop in their average body weight from 510+0.2g to 508+0.2g between days 1 to 6. The liver homogenate values obtained before challenging the fowls with NDV indicated that all the fowls were healthy and no physiological abnormalities were traced in them. The values obtained at day 7 of treatment with the extract indicated a drastic drop in the mean total protein and protein fractions of the fowls in group B (8.20g/l, 4.30g/l, and 3.90g/l, followed by those of group A (7.15g/l, 2.95g/l, and 4.20g/l and C tended toward normal ranges (51.48g/l, 22.83g/l, and 28.65g/l. At day 28, the result showed that fowls in group A tended toward normal mean values of total protein (29.35g/l, albumin (11.70g/l, and globulin (17.65g/l, followed by group C total protein (52.80g/l, albumin (24.10g/l, and globulin (28.70g/l. The study showed physiological evidence that the treatment of ND with the extract is equally effective at day 28. After day 28, there were no survivors among the fowls in group B. No ulceration was observed in group A fowls. The

  15. Study on Injection of Zedoary Turmeric Volatile Oil against Newcastle Disease Virus in SPF Chicken Embryo Inoculation%莪术油注射液鸡胚接种抗新城疫病毒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学理; 鄢长庆; 刘珂飞; 杨明; 杨明霞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the inhibiting and killing effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the newcastle disease virus. [ Method] The inhibitory effect of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil on the multiplication of the newcastle disease virus was determined by the SPF chicken embryo culture and hemagglutination test. [ Result] The zedoary turmeric volatile oil had no toxicity effect on the SPF chicken embryo. Inoculating SPF chicken embryo synchronously with the zedoary turmeric volatile oil and the virus allantoic fluid could completely inhibit the reproduction of the newcastle disease virus in the SPF chicken embryo. [Conclusion] The study provided the theoretical basis for the application of the zedoary turmeric volatile oil in the Veterinary Clinical.%[目的]探讨莪术油对新城疫病毒的抑制和杀灭作用.[方法]用鸡胚培养法和血凝试验,测定莪术油对鸡新城疫病毒增殖的抑制作用.[结果]莪术油对鸡胚无毒性作用;莪术油与病毒同时接种鸡胚,能完全抑制鸡新城疫病毒在鸡胚中的增殖.[结论]结果为莪术油在兽医临床上的应用提供了理论依据.

  16. 冬虫夏草菌丝体水提物的抗新城疫病毒作用%Effects of water extract from Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on anti- newcastle disease virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦威; 王斌; 刘娜; 刘利强; 林燕

    2011-01-01

    The water extract was obtained by aqueous leaching in low - temperature from Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. The toxicity and antiviral activity of water extract were investigated by using MTr method and observing cytopathic (CPE), respectively. The results showed that the concentration of water extract≤ 0.5mg/ml was no toxicity on Vero cells. Either pre - mixed the water extract with newcastle disease virus or with Vero cells for 1 hour before cell cultivation assay was able to inhibit cytopathic effect of newcastle disease virus significantly. The research indicates that the water extract has direct and preventive effect against newcastle disease virus infection.%通过低温水浸提取方法,获取冬虫夏草菌丝体水提物.采用MTT的方法和观察细胞病变(CPE)的方法分别研究了水提物毒性和抗病毒作用.结果显示水提物浓度≤0.5mg/mL时,对Vero细胞无毒性,0.5mg/mL水提物与新城疫病毒作用,或预处理Vero细胞,均能抑制新城疫病毒在细胞上病变的形成.提示水提物具有直接抗新城疫病毒和预防新城疫病毒感染的作用.

  17. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a haemagglutination inhibition tests for the detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in village chickens using a Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, H; Thompson, P N; Goutard, F; Grosbois, V

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an endemic disease in village chickens in Ethiopia with substantial economic importance. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA, Svanova Biotech), indirect ELISA (iELISA, Laboratoire Service International) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for ND virus (NDV) antibody detection were evaluated in a Bayesian framework in the absence of a gold standard test, on sera collected from unvaccinated chickens kept under the village production system in household flocks and at markets in two woredas (i.e. districts) of the Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. The outcomes of the iELISA test differed dramatically from those of the two other tests with 92% of the samples testing positive as compared with less than 15% for bELISA and HI. iELISA results were also inconsistent with previous estimations of Newcastle serological prevalence. The information provided by the iELISA test was thus considered as highly unreliable, probably due to an extremely low specificity, and thus not considered in the Bayesian models aiming at estimating serological prevalence and test performance parameters. Bayesian modelling of HI and bELISA test results suggested that bELISA had both the highest Se (86.6%; 95% posterior credible interval (PCI): 61.8%; 98.5%), and the highest Sp (98.3%; 95% PCI: 97.2%; 99.5%), while HI had a Se of 80.2% (95% PCI: 59.1%; 94.3%), and a Sp of 96.1% (95% PCI: 95.1%; 97.4%). Model selection and the range of the posterior distribution of the correlation between bELISA and HI test outcomes for truly seropositive animals (median at 0.461; PCI: -0.055; 0.894) suggested a tendency for bELISA and HI to detect the same truly positive animals and to fail to detect the same truly positive animals. The use of bELISA in screening and surveillance for NDV antibodies is indicated given its high Se and Sp, in addition to its ease of automation to handle large numbers of samples compared to HI. The

  18. Evaluation of the application of a thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine by community volunteers in the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research on vaccination of village poultry against Newcastle disease (ND was carried out in the village of Disaneng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Three application methods for ND Inkukhu(R vaccine were shown to induce sufficient levels of immunity in back-yard poultry when correctly administered. These are eye-droplet administration to individual fowls, in-feed and in-water administration to small flocks. After a community meeting and group discussion to select methods of vaccination, only 2 of the 3 methods were chosen; the individual administration of droplets into the eyes was considered to be too impractical because back-yard fowls are difficult to catch. Visual and practical training material was prepared and presented to volunteer vaccinators (n = 23. Vaccinators were then required to register all the poultry owners in their ward who wished to have poultry vaccinated. Once an indication of the number of chickens to be vaccinated had been made available, ND Nobilis Inkukhu(R vaccine was supplied to vaccinators free of charge. Community vaccinators were responsible for the organisation of the vaccination campaign, including storage and preparation of vaccine for application. All 9 wards in the village were initially involved with a total of 482 households, owning 6141 chickens, participating. This represented slightly in excess of 60%of the fowls in the area. Involvement in a 2nd round of vaccinations, 1 month later, was far poorer with only 211 households owning a total of 1636 chickens participating. Serum samples were collected from vaccinated fowls using systematic random sampling and tested for circulating antibodies. The levels of protection varied, with no significant difference found between in-feed and in-water vaccine administration. Volunteer vaccinators were found to be unreliable, easily demotivated, did not keep good records and left the project when offered permanent employment. Contacting them to

  19. Comparative proteome analysis of tracheal tissues in response to infectious bronchitis coronavirus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian influenza virus H9 subtype virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junfeng; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Cao, Zhongzan; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2014-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV) H9 subtype are major pathogens of chickens causing serious respiratory tract disease and heavy economic losses. To better understand the replication features of these viruses in their target organs and molecular pathogenesis of these different viruses, comparative proteomic analysis was performed to investigate the proteome changes of primary target organ during IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 infections, using 2D-DIGE followed MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. In total, 44, 39, 41, 48, and 38 proteins were identified in the tracheal tissues of the chickens inoculated with IBV (ck/CH/LDL/97I, H120), NDV (La Sota), and AIV H9, and between ck/CH/LDL/97I and H120, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 induced similar core host responses involved in biosynthetic, catabolic, metabolic, signal transduction, transport, cytoskeleton organization, macromolecular complex assembly, cell death, response to stress, and immune system process. Comparative analysis of host response induced by different viruses indicated differences in protein expression changes induced by IBV, NDV, and AIV H9 may be responsible for the specific pathogenesis of these different viruses. Our result reveals specific host response to IBV, NDV, and AIVH9 infections and provides insights into the distinct pathogenic mechanisms of these avian respiratory viruses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. IgA response and protection following nasal vaccination of chickens with Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine nanoencapsulated with Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Hao, Yan; Yu, Lu; Kang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Zejun

    2016-05-01

    Newcastle disease caused by ND virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease of birds. Vaccine for effective protection of poultry animals from NDV infection is urgently needed. Mucosal immunity plays a very important role in the antiviral immune response. In this study, a NDV F gene-containing DNA vaccine encapsulated in Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles (pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs) with an average diameter of 500 nm were prepared to assess the mucosal immune response. These nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity and did not destroy the bioactivity of plasmid DNA, which could be expressed in vitro. The plasmid DNA was sustainably released after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization showed that the intranasal immunization of chickens with pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs induced high titers of serum antibody, significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles could serve as an efficient and safe delivery carrier for NDV DNA vaccine to induce mucosal immunity. This study has provided promising results for the further development of mucosal vaccines encapsulated in inorganic nanoparticles.

  1. NDV HN蛋白结构变化对功能影响的研究进展%Research Advance in the Structure change to the function effect of the Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein of Newcastle Disease Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀芬; 于运峰; 杨焕民; 李士泽

    2009-01-01

    鸡新城疫(Newcastle disease.ND)是由新城疫病毒(Newcastle Disease Virus,NDV)引起的一种烈性、高度接触性传染病。国际兽医局(OIE)将此列为A类传染病。目前,鸡新城疫在世界范围内依然广泛存在,每年因鸡新城疫所造成的经济损失以数亿元计算,该病仍是危害世界养鸡业的最重要传染病之一。

  2. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  3. Two single mutations in the fusion protein of Newcastle disease virus confer hemagglutinin-neuraminidase independent fusion promotion and attenuate the pathogenicity in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanhong; Liu, Tao; Jia, Yane; Liu, Bin; Yu, Qingzhong; Cui, Xiaole; Guo, Fengfeng; Chang, Huiyun; Zhu, Qiyun

    2017-09-01

    The fusion (F) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) affects viral infection and pathogenicity through mediating membrane fusion. Previously, we found NDV with increased fusogenic activity in which contained T458D or G459D mutation in the F protein. Here, we investigated the effects of these two mutations on viral infection, fusogenicity and pathogenicity. Syncytium formation assays indicated that T458D or G459D increased the F protein cleavage activity and enhanced cell fusion with or without the presence of HN protein. The T458D- or G459D-mutated NDV resulted in a decrease in virus replication or release from cells. The animal study showed that the pathogenicity of the mutated NDVs was attenuated in chickens. These results indicate that these two single mutations in F altered or diminished the requirement of HN for promoting membrane fusion. The increased fusogenic activity may disrupt the cellular machinery and consequently decrease the virus replication and pathogenicity in chickens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pelacakan Secara Imunohistokimiawi Antigen Virus pada Ayam yang Diinfeksi dengan Virus Penyakit Tetelo (IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF VIRAL ANTIGEN IN TISSUE OF CHICKENS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the distribution of Newcastle disease virus (NDV following infection, chickenswere experimentally infected with visceretropic velogenic NDV isolate. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbsagainst the NDV LaSota vaccine strain were then produced to detect viral antigen in the infectedorgans. The mAbs were firstly tested for their specificity by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA using NDV and normal allantoic fluids as antigens. Eight mAbs specific against NDVwere isolated and two mAbs were used for immunodetection of NDV antigen in chicken’s tissues.By immunohistochemistry labeled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB staining NDV–antigen was detectedin paraffin embedded tissues of NDV-infected chickens. NDV antigen was not detected in noninfected chickens. In the infected chickens, high intensity of NDV antigen was detected in thelymphoid tissues, lung and intestine. The NDV antigen with a lesser intensity was detected in thebrain, trachea, liver and myocardium. This study shows that although viscerotropic velogenicNDV isolate can infect almost all organs, the main target of infection are lung, intestine andlymphoids tissues

  5. Pathologic characterization of genotypes XIV and XVII Newcastle disease viruses and efficacy of classical vaccination on specific pathogen-free birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, L; Jones, M E B; Cattoli, G; Cardenas-Garcia, S; Miller, P J; Brown, C C; Afonso, C L

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the clinicopathologic features of recently described genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), 1 representative strain of genotype XIV and 2 of genotype XVII, all isolated from West Africa, were used to infect groups of ten 4-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens. The pathobiology of these 3 strains was compared to a South African NDV strain classified within genotype VII. All chickens infected with the 4 viruses died or were euthanized by day 4 postinfection due to the severity of clinical signs. Gross and histologic lesions in all infected chickens included extensive necrosis of lymphoid tissues (thymus, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils, gut-associated lymphoid tissue), gastrointestinal necrosis and hemorrhages, and severe hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed systemic viral distribution, and the most intense staining was in the lymphoid organs. Results demonstrate that the 3 West African strains from the previously uncharacterized genotypes XIV and XVII are typical velogenic viscerotropic NDV strains with lesions similar to the South African strain. Under experimental conditions, QV4 and LaSota NDV vaccine strains successfully protected chickens from morbidity and mortality against the genotype VII and one genotype XVII NDV strain, with no significant differences in the amount of virus shed when 2 vaccine schemes were compared.

  6. Comprehensive Analysis and Characterization of Linear Antigenic Domains on HN Protein from Genotype VII Newcastle Disease Virus Using Yeast Surface Display System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Gaoling; Shi, Bingtian; Liu, Peixin; Si, Wei; Wang, Bin; Jiang, Li; Zhou, Lunjiang; Xiu, Jinsheng; Liu, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Circulation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed a great threat for the poultry industry worldwide. Antibodies against Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), a membrane protein of NDV with critical roles in NDV infection, have been reported to provide chickens protection from NDV infection. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the in vivo antibody responses against the linear antigenic domains of the HN protein from genotype VII NDV using a yeast surface display system. The results revealed four distinct regions of HN, P1 (1-52aa), P2 (53-192aa), P3 (193-302aa) and P4 (303-571aa), respectively, according to their antigenic potency. Analysis by FACS and ELISA assay indicated P2 to be the dominant linear antigenic domain, with the immunogenic potency to protect the majority of chickens from NDV challenge. In contrast, the P1, P3 and P4 domains showed weak antigenicity in vivo and could not protect chickens from NDV challenge. These results provide important insight into the characteristic of humoral immune responses elicited by HN of NDV in vivo.

  7. Preparation and diagnostic utility of a hemagglutination inhibition test antigen derived from the baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein gene of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Jin; Park, Mi-Ja; Kim, Saeromi; Seul, Hee-Jung; Kwon, Jun-Hun

    2013-01-01

    A recombinant hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (rHN) protein from Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with hemagglutination (HA) activity was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells using a baculovirus expression system. The rHN protein extracted from infected cells was used as an antigen in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection and titration of NDV-specific antibodies present in chicken sera. The rHN antigen produced high HA titers of 2(13) per 25 μL, which were similar to those of the NDV antigen produced using chicken eggs, and it remained stable without significant loss of the HA activity for at least 12 weeks at 4°C. The rHN-based HI assay specifically detected NDV antibodies, but not the sera of other avian pathogens, with a specificity and sensitivity of 100% and 98.0%, respectively, in known positive and negative chicken sera (n = 430). Compared with an NDV-based HI assay, the rHN-based HI assay had a relative sensitivity and specificity of 96.1% and 95.5%, respectively, when applied to field chicken sera. The HI titers of the rHN-based HI assay were highly correlated with those in an NDV-based HI assay (r = 0.927). Overall, these results indicate that rHN protein provides a useful alternative to NDV antigen in HI assays.

  8. Comparative study on the pathogenesis of the generated 9a5b Newcastle disease virus mutant isolate between chickens and waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

    2013-07-01

    Lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), circulating among waterfowl, have the potential to become highly pathogenic by replication in chickens. The pathological studies that compare NDV infections in chickens and waterfowl are rare. The virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was generated by passaging the lentogenic Goose/Alaska/415/91 NDV isolate in chickens. The pathogenesis of the virulent 9a5b mutant isolate is unknown in both chickens and waterfowl. In this study, the virulent 9a5b mutant NDV isolate was inoculated intranasally in 32-day-old specific pathogen-free white Leghorn chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. Unlike ducks, which remained clinically normal throughout the study, chickens had depression, gasping, oral discharges, and greenish-white soft feces. Gross and histologic lesion patterns as well as viral replication supported the differing clinical outcome. Ducks had slight inflammation mainly in respiratory and digestive tracts, whereas slight nonpurulent encephalitis, necrotizing pancreatitis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and mild inflammation in respiratory and digestive tracts were detected in chickens. In agreement, interferon-beta (IFN-β)-immunopositive signals were more intense in lung tissue of ducks than that of chickens, and NDV replications were detected intensively in chicken tissues. These results suggest that the 9a5b mutant NDV isolate is more virulent in chickens, and slight histological lesions were induced in ducks even with virulent NDVs.

  9. Development and field application of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Newcastle disease virus antibodies in chickens and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, L V; Park, M-J; Kye, S-J; Kim, J-Y; Lee, H-S; Choi, K-S

    2013-08-01

    A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) using a baculovirus-expressed recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigen (rNDV-N) and an rNDV-N-specific monoclonal antibody (5B3) was developed for the detection of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies, and its diagnostic performance was evaluated. The specificity and sensitivity of the C-ELISA was found to be 98.4 and 98.9%, respectively, for chickens, and 98.2 and 97.9% for ducks. However, the C-ELISA showed weak cross-reaction with hyperimmune antisera to some other avian paramyxovirus serotypes. In all experimentally vaccinated chickens, seroconversion rates at 7 d postinoculation were 100 and 40% when measured by C-ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI), respectively. In field trials, the C-ELISA showed positive results in 98.9% of HI-positive sera and 40.8% of HI-negative sera from NDV-vaccinated chickens (n = 705). In domestic ducks (n = 158) from NDV-positive duck farms (n = 8), the positive rates according to C-ELISA were significantly higher than those according to the HI test. At the same time, 98.1% of ducks (n = 209) from NDV-negative duck farms (n = 11) were also negative by C-ELISA. Our results indicate that C-ELISA could be a useful alternative to HI testing for detecting NDV antibodies in different avian species such as chickens and ducks.

  10. A liquid-phase-blocking concanavalin A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus in serum of free-ranging pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Elisabete Schirato; Silva, Ketherson Rodrigues; Fernando, Filipe Santos; Gonçalves, Mariana Costa Mello; Fernandes, Camila Cesário; Borzi, Mariana Monezi; dos Santos, Romeu Moreira; Tamanini, Maria de Lourdes Feres; Montassier, Maria de Fátima da Silva; Montassier, Helio José

    2013-11-01

    A competitive liquid-phase-blocking concanavalin A enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-ConA-ELISA) was developed in the current study. The assay used ConA as a capture reagent, and the sera of specific pathogen-free chickens immunized with nonpurified Newcastle disease virus (NDV) suspension as detector antibodies, to detect and quantify specific antiviral antibodies in serum samples from free-ranging pigeons. The comparison between the LPB-ConA-ELISA and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for the detection of antibodies in serum samples from 107 pigeons showed significant correlation between the assays (r = 0.875), a high sensitivity (100%), specificity (95.8%), accuracy (96.3%) for the ELISA, and good agreement (κ = 0.83) between the 2 assays. The results of this study suggest that the LPB-ConA-ELISA could be a useful alternative to HI test in the serodiagnosis of NDV in pigeons, or other species of birds.

  11. Exchange of Newcastle disease viruses in Korea: the relatedness of isolates between wild birds, live bird markets, poultry farms and neighboring countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Yoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Myeong-Seob; Jang, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2012-03-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has a worldwide distribution and is often carried by wild ducks, which may represent one of the natural reservoirs. However, the epidemiological relatedness of NDV between wild ducks and domestic poultry is unclear. A total of 14 isolates were obtained from 8439 samples from live bird markets (LBMs) and wild bird populations in Korea during from 2007 to 2010. These isolates were characterized genetically and phylogenetic analysis was conducted to investigate the relatedness between isolates from wild birds, LBM and poultry farms. In phylogenetic analysis, all 14 isolates belonged to genotype I virus within class II. Of these, nine isolates from wild birds were most closely related to the Aomori-like cluster. The five LBM isolates were most closely related to the V4-like cluster. All isolates in this study were closely related to isolates from domestic duck farms in Korea and Chinese LBM isolates. The results indicate that NDV exchange occurs between wild birds, poultry farms, LBMs and neighboring countries. Enhanced NDV surveillance is required to monitor the introduction of variant NDV in consequence of evolution in LBMs and to investigate NDV epidemiology in various species of putative hosts.

  12. Modification of the full-length cDNA clone of Newcastle disease virus Isolated from an outbreak In the goose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yuliang; HU Shunli; ZHANG Yanmei; WU Yantao; LIU Xiufan; R(o)emer-Oberdoerfer Angela; Veits Jutta; Lange Martina

    2006-01-01

    A 6.5-kb specific fragment containing the T7 promoter and the transcription vector was excised from the full-length eDNA clone of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain ZJI of goose origin,and thereafter it was self-ligated to form a high quality plasmid for mutagenesis.Site-directed mutagenesis was used for inserting three additional G nucleotides (nts) into the region between the T7 promoter and the leader sequence of the NDV genome.RT-PCR was employed to amplify the F/HN gene fragments,and then they were ligated by the shared restriction enzyme BsmBI.Finally,the corresponding fragment in the mutant full-length eDNA was substituted with the new one.The sequencing results showed that the three additional Gnts were successfully inserted and the mutant nts in the full-length eDNA were corrected.This study lays a good foundation for research on the reverse genetics of NDV strain ZJI.

  13. HN protein of Newcastle disease virus sensitizes HeLa cells to TNF-α-induced apoptosis by downregulating NF-κB expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmani, R S; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2016-09-01

    Hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) is a membrane protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with the ability to induce apoptosis in many transformed cell lines. TNF-α is a multi-factorial protein that regulates cell survival, differentiation and apoptosis. In a previous study, we reported that HN protein induces apoptosis by downregulating NF-κB expression. Further, we speculated that downregulation of NF-κB expression might sensitize HeLa cells to TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate if HN protein could sensitize HeLa cells to TNF-α and to examine the apoptotic potential of the HN protein and TNF-α in combination. The results revealed that the pro-apoptotic effects were more pronounced with the combination of HN and TNF-α than with HN or TNF-α alone, which indicates that the HN protein indeed sensitized the HeLa cells to TNF-α-induced cell death. The results of the study provide a mechanistic insight into the apoptotic action of HN protein along with TNF-α, which could be valuable in treating tumor types that are naturally resistant to TNF-α.

  14. Development of a low-dose fast-dissolving tablet formulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for low-cost backyard poultry immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Zhu, C; McClurkan, C; Koelle, D M; Miller, P; Afonso, C; Donadeu, M; Dungu, B; Chen, D

    2014-05-17

    The immunisation of backyard poultry is critical for maintaining healthy flocks to provide nutrition and income for low-resource farmers worldwide. A vaccine presentation for flocks of less than 50 birds could make it more affordable and accessible, increasing uptake and impact. Fast-dissolving tablets (FDT) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine were produced by freeze drying the LaSota NDV strain combined with excipients into tablets containing a small number of doses and packaged in polymer blister sheets. The NDV-FDT vaccine maintained virus stability for more than six months at 4°C, based on plaque assay and egg infectivity dose data. Stability was further confirmed in a challenge study, where the tablet vaccine elicited a strong immune response and provided 100 per cent protection to vaccinated chickens infected with a virulent strain of NDV. The vaccine tablet can be diluted in water (no needle or syringe required) and administered either in drinking water or with a dropper via an intraocular and/or intransal route. Results indicate that FDTs containing a small number of doses are a feasible presentation for backyard poultry farmers. The compact packaging of the FDTs will also provide cost savings in storing and distributing the vaccine in the cold chain.

  15. Surveillance for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in backyard poultry flocks in Côte d'Ivoire, 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Kouakou, A V; Kouamé, C K; Kouassi, A L; Koffi, Y M; Godji, P; Nana, P; Tarnagda, Z; Akoua-Koffi, C

    2012-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, active surveys were conducted on backyard poultry (chickens, guinea fowls and ducks) in four areas of Côte d'Ivoire, including two areas where avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks occurred in 2006. Each bird underwent clinical examination. In total, 5,578 sera, 4,580 tracheal swabs and 5,120 cloacal swabs were collected, plus tissues from 35 sick chickens. Using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, 277 and 36 serum samples were positive for H5 and H7, respectively; all were negative for H9. All samples were negative by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the circulation of H5 and H7 influenza subtypes in backyard poultry in Côte d'Ivoire. Given that the seropositive birds were healthy, the circulating subtypes may be low pathogenicity avian influenza strains. Half (2,680) of the sera collected from chickens were tested by HI for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody: 531 were positive. The seroprevalence of 19.8% confirms the endemic status of NDV, but may underestimate its true prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes Mutants Carrying Newcastle Disease Virus F Gene Fused to its actA and plcB: In vitro Expression and Immunogenicity in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli JIANG; Chunlin KE; Jingjing XU; Jianshun CHEN; Xueyan CHEN; Ning CHEN; Jiangbing SHUAI; Weihuan FANG

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant Listeria monocytogenes mutants carrying Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein gene F were constructed by homologous recombination. NDV F or its truncated fragment Fa was used as the model heterologous gene to be integrated into actA or plcB downstream of their signal sequences.Correct orientation of the inserted genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of F or Fa.The inserted F and Fa were expressed in the two recombinants Lm-ΔactA-F and Lm-ΔplcB-Fa as shown by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Both recombinants exhibited reduced virulence to embryonated eggs and mice by about 1.5-2.5 logs as compared with the parent wild strain 10403S. They were also less invasive than strain 10403S (P<0.05). Chickens receiving the recombinant strains orally or intraperitoneally were partially protected from virulent NDV challenge possibly due to enhancement of non-specific immunity because the antibody titers against the homologous virus strain or the recombinant truncated fusion protein were marginal. Further research is needed in other animal models to see if the low antibody response results from insufficient expression of the heterologous genes as a result of failure of L. monocytogenes or its recombinants to persist or replicate in chickens.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  18. Therapeutic targeting of liver cancer with a recombinant DNA vaccine containing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus via apoptotic-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Gang; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Zheng, Tang-Hui; Chen, Xu; Li, Ping; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2016-11-01

    A total of ~38.6 million mortalities occur due to liver cancer annually, worldwide. Although a variety of therapeutic methods are available, the efficacy of treatment at present is extremely limited due to an increased risk of malignancy and inherently poor prognosis of liver cancer. Gene therapy is considered a promising option, and has shown notable potential for the comprehensive therapy of liver cancer, in keeping with advances that have been made in the development of cancer molecular biology. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of the abilities of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the pro-apoptotic factor apoptin from chicken anaemia virus, and the interferon-γ inducer interleukin-18 (IL-18) in antagonizing liver cancer. Therefore, a recombinant DNA plasmid expressing the three exogenous genes, VP3, IL-18 and hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN), was constructed. Flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and analysis of caspase-3 activity were performed in H22 cell lines transfected with the recombinant DNA plasmid. In addition, 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a H22 hepatoma-bearing mouse model. Mice tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the present study revealed that the recombinant DNA vaccine containing the VP3, IL-18 and HN genes inhibited cell proliferation and induced autophagy via the mitochondrial pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  19. A skim milk stabilized water vaccine for Newcastle disease (B1-type LaSota): its effectiveness under modern commercial cage layer methods of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, H L; Tudor, D C

    1975-05-01

    For flock vaccination, B1-type LaSota Newcastle disease water vaccine was used in chicken under commercial cage layer conditions using two different methods, Swish Corporation pipes and cups, and stainless stell troughs, in an effort to determine their effectiveness. The concentration of virus in trough and cup samples collected at the beginning and the end of the lines were the same except in one instance where little or no virus was transported to the end of the trough. Satisfactory results were obtained when the test was repeated a year later. Serum HI titers determined before and after vaccination demonstrated adequate flock serum titers and indicated that both methods of application were reasonably effective. In laboratory trials, different water pipes (black, polyvinyl chloride pipe and Hart cups, green, polyvinyl chloride pipe and Swish cups, and old, rusty, galvanized pipe) normally used in cage operations were tested. Our findings indicated that dried skim milk powder (DSMP) was essential in stabilizing vaccine virus in the containers tested and that an adequate vaccine virus concentration was maintained in the three types of pipe tested when DSMP was used. Without DSMP the vaccine titers were adversely affected.

  20. Enhanced reliability of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho Bin; Sung, Haan Woo; Nho, Seong Won; Park, Seong Bin; Cha, In Seok; Aoki, Takashi; Jung, Tae Sung

    2011-03-01

    In-solution enzymatic and nonenzymatic digestion methods have been successfully implemented in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)-based virus identification, extending to typing/subtyping of deadly influenza viruses. However, these methods are inefficient in obtaining more precise information on surface proteins of myxovirus particles, not only the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza virus but also the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Imbalances in viral protein composition cause ion suppression of tryptic fragments from low-abundant target proteins (surface proteins), adversely affecting reproducibility of mass spectra. Additionally, the coexistence of tryptic peptides from several proteins requires sophisticated statistical solutions for precise result interpretations. To circumvent these, we apply detergent-based (gel-free) partitioning of whole viruses into soluble surface proteins and insoluble virus materials, using differential centrifugation. MALDI-TOF or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was applied to analyze tryptic peptides from separated viral proteins. In this study, we achieved type/subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) within 5 h, based on 4 major proteins, by significantly reducing ion suppression and signal overlap from various protein sources. Hence, our approach can both yield dependable results and allow Web-based search engines to be directly employed, obviating the need for additional statistical strategy. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of the method using NDV.

  1. Live bird markets characterization and trading network analysis in Mali: Implications for the surveillance and control of avian influenza and Newcastle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molia, Sophie; Boly, Ismaël Ardho; Duboz, Raphaël; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Guitian, Javier; Grosbois, Vladimir; Fournié, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2016-03-01

    Live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in poultry. Our study had two objectives: (1) characterizing LBMs in Mali with a focus on practices influencing the risk of transmission of AI and ND, and (2) identifying which LBMs should be targeted for surveillance and control based on properties of the live poultry trade network. Two surveys were conducted in 2009-2010: a descriptive study in all 96 LBMs of an area encompassing approximately 98% of the Malian poultry population and a network analysis study in Sikasso county, the main poultry supplying county for the capital city Bamako. Regarding LBMs' characteristics, risk factors for the presence of AI and ND viruses (being open every day, more than 2 days before a bird is sold, absence of zoning to segregate poultry-related work flow areas, waste removal or cleaning and disinfecting less frequently than on a daily basis, trash disposal of dead birds and absence of manure processing) were present in 80-100% of the LBMs. Furthermore, LBMs tended to have wide catchment areas because of consumers' preference for village poultry meat, thereby involving a large number of villages in their supply chain. In the poultry trade network from/to Sikasso county, 182 traders were involved and 685 links were recorded among 159 locations. The network had a heterogeneous degree distribution and four hubs were identified based on measures of in-degrees, out-degrees and betweenness: the markets of Medine and Wayerma and the fairs of Farakala and Niena. These results can be used to design biosecurity-improvement interventions and to optimize the prevention, surveillance and control of transmissible poultry diseases in Malian LBMs. Further studies should investigate potential drivers (seasonality, prices) of the poultry trade network and the acceptability of biosecurity and behavior-change recommendations in the Malian socio-cultural context.

  2. Regulation of de novo translation of host cells by manipulation of PERK/PKR and GADD34-PP1 activity during Newcastle disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ying; Gu, Feng; Mao, Xiang; Niu, Qiaona; Wang, Huaxia; Sun, Yingjie; Song, Cuiping; Qiu, Xusheng; Tan, Lei; Ding, Chan

    2016-04-01

    Viral infections result in cellular stress responses, which can trigger protein translation shutoff via phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α). Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe disease in poultry and selectively kills human tumour cells. In this report, we determined that infection of HeLa human cervical cancer cells and DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells with NDV maintained protein at early infection times, 0-12 h post-infection (p.i.), and gradually inhibited global protein translation at late infection times, 12-24 h p.i. Mechanistic studies showed that translation inhibition at late infection times was accompanied by phosphorylation of eIF2α, a checkpoint of translation initiation. Meanwhile, the eIF2α kinase, PKR, was upregulated and activated by phosphorylation and another eIF2α kinase, PERK, was phosphorylated and cleaved into two fragments. Pharmacological inhibition experiments revealed that only PKR activity was required for eIF2α phosphorylation, suggesting that recognition of viral dsRNA by PKR was responsible for translation shutoff. High levels of phospho-eIF2α led to preferential translation of the transcription factor ATF4 and an increase in GADD34 expression. Functionally, GADD34, in conjunction with PP1, dephosphorylated eIF2a and restored protein translation, benefiting virus protein synthesis. However, PP1 was degraded at late infection times, functionally counteracting the upregulation of GADD34. Taken together, our data support that NDV-induced translation shutoff at late infection times was attributed to sustaining phosphorylation of eIF2α, which is mediated by continual activation of PKR and degradation of PP1.

  3. The Contribution of Diseases to the Male-Female Disability-Survival Paradox in the Very Old: Results from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Andrew; Davies, Karen; Collerton, Joanna; Robinson, Louise; Duncan, Rachel; Bond, John; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; Jagger, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Explanations for the male-female disability-survival paradox - that woman live longer than men but with more disability - include sex differences in diseases and their impact on disability and death. Less is known about the paradox in the very old. We examine sex differences in the presence and impact of disabling and fatal diseases accounting for the male-female disability-survival paradox in very late life. Methods We use data from the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort of people born in 1921 and all recruited at age 85 in 2006. Participants underwent a health assessment (HA) at baseline, 18 months, 36 months, 60 months, and a review of their GP records (GPRR) at baseline and 36 months. We used multi-state modelling to assess the impact of specific diseases on disability and death. Disability (measured via ADLs/IADLs) was categorised as no disability (difficulty with 0 activities), or disabled (difficulty with one or more activities). Diseases were ascertained from review of general practice records and cognitive impairment which was defined as an sMMSE of 21 or less (from health assessment). Results In participants who had complete HA and GPRR, women had more arthritis (RR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1–1.3) and hypertension (RR = 1.2, 95%CI 1.0–1.3), more disability, and were more likely disabled at all follow-ups. From multistate models, women with cerebrovascular disease (HR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.1–3.4) or respiratory disease (HR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–3.0) were more likely to become disabled than those without but this did not hold for men (sex difference pwomen (p = 0.002). Conclusion The disability-survival paradox was still evident at age 85 and appears due to sex differences in the types of diseases and their impact on the disability pathway. PMID:24516578

  4. Isolasi, Identifikasi, Sifat Fisik, dan Biologi Virus Tetelo yang Diisolasi dari Kasus di Lapangan (ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, PHISICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATED FROM FIELD CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available native chicken farm suspected to Newcastle disease (ND virus infection. Specimens were taken andcollected from the lung was further processed. Suspected materials were inoculated into allantoic sacc inspecific pathogenic free of 10 days embryonating egg chicken. The growth of the virus was determined withthe ability to agglutinate the chicken red blood cells or hemaglutination test. Positive hemaglutinationwas performed with hemaglutinatin inhibition test using specific antibody against ND virus. Method forND virus isolation, propagation and identification were based on the standard procedure of serologicalidentification for ND virus serological identification. 13 out of 34 samples were identified as ND viruses.Observation on the course and time of the virus to kill the chicken embryo could be differentiated intomoderate virus patho-type were 10 isolates and a virulent strains were 3 isolates. Further characterizationbased on the elution time observation indicated 11 isolates were not pathogenic strain and 2 isolates werenot virulent strain. Hemagglutinin stability study revealed that 11 isolates were sensitive being heated at560C for 30 minutes while 2 isolates were resistant. Biological characteristic of ND virus to hemagglutinateon various mammalian red blood cells indicating that most isolates were HA negative. Two isolates wereHA positive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell, and one isolate indicated positive HA test by usingsheep red blood cell. Control virus was lentogenic patho-type of La Sota strain showed HA and HI testpositive, elution time was 29 minutes, stability on the hemagglutinin after heating was 2 minutes and HApositive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell.

  5. Newcastle disease virus infection in chicken embryonic fibroblasts but not duck embryonic fibroblasts is associated with elevated host innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Feng, Minsha; Zhao, Xiaqiong; Dai, Xu; Xiang, Bin; Gao, Pei; Li, Yulian; Li, Yanling; Ren, Tao

    2016-03-15

    Chickens and ducks are major hosts of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with distinct responses to infection. However, whereas ducks are generally asymptomatic or exhibit only mild symptoms following NDV infection and are thus regarded as potential long-term reservoirs of the virus, chickens exhibit severe clinical lesions, transient infections and even death due to NDV infection. These differences may in part result from the host innate immune response to NDV infection. To better understand the host innate immune response to NDV infection in avian species, by using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method we examined the messenger RNA expression levels of immune-related genes in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) when infected with NDV of different pathogenicities. Gene expression profiles showed that the expression of IL-1beta, TNF-α-like factor (LITAF) and interferon (IFN)-beta was upregulated in both CEFs and DEFs infected with SS-10 and NH-10 viruses or treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], as well as that expression levels were greater in CEFs than in DEFs. The expression of TLR3, TLR7, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, MHC-I and MHC-II, except for IL-8, were also greater in CEFs than in DEFs in response to infection to both viruses or treatment with poly(I:C). However, unlike moderate virulent NH-10, highly virulent SS-10 induced greater pattern recognition receptors and cytokines, except for IFNs, in CEFs and DEFs. Results show distinct expression patterns of cytokines, Toll-like receptors and IFNs associated with inflammatory immune responses to NDV between species and by virulence.

  6. Effects of Dietary Supplemental Vitamins and Periods of Administration on Growth Performance and Antibody Titre of Broiler Chickens Vaccinated against Newcastle Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odutayo, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of supplemental vitamins and varying administration periods on growth performance and antibody titre of broiler chickens vaccinated against Newcastle Disease (ND. A total of 300 unvaccinated against ND Arbor Acre day-old chicks were used for the study for 8 wk. Birds were brooded together on day 1 of age, and 30 chicks were selected randomly for evaluating the maternally derived antibody titre against ND. At 2 days of age, the remaining 270 chicks were divided based on weight equalization into 9 treatment groups and replicated thrice. The 9 treatments consisted of a factorial arrangement of 4 supplemental vitamins (A, C, E and combination of A, C, E and 2 periods of administration (3 days pre- and post-ND vaccinations with a control. The birds were managed intensively throughout the experimental period, ND vaccines were administered on the 5th (i/o and 24th (Lasota day of age, respectively. Supplemental combined vitamins A, C and E at 0.15, 16.67 and 3.03 mg/kg, respectively, resulted in higher (P < 0.05 final body weight of 1785.00 g/bird and better feed conversion ratio (FCR of 2.89. Also, birds fed vitamin A supplemented diet 3 d pre-i/o vaccine had higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (75.20 against ND while higher (p<0.05 serum antibody titre (741.33 was also obtained in birds fed diet supplemented with vitamin E 3 d post-Lasota vaccination. Conclusively, broiler chickens diets can be supplemented with combined vitamins A, C, and E for better growth performance measured as final body weight and FCR, in addition, vitamins A (0.45mg/kg and E (9.1mg/kg dietary supplementation at 3 d pre-i/o and 3 d post-Lasota vaccines, respectively, can be adopted for improved antibody production.

  7. Generation and characterization of a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the red fluorescent protein for use in co-infection studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jinnan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many viruses have evolved multiple strategies to prevent super infection of host cells by more than one virion. This phenomenon, known as super infection exclusion, may play an important role on virus evolution because it can affect the frequency of reassortment and/or recombination. Newcastle disease virus (NDV, a negative sense single-stranded RNA virus, is characterized by its continuous evolutionary dynamics and by a low frequency of recombination events. However, the mechanisms that contribute to the low recombination rates on NDV are still not completely understood. Methods In this study we assessed the ability of two NDV strains (LaSota and B1 to super infect host cells in vitro. We generated a recombinant NDV strain LaSota expressing the red fluorescent protein (RFP and used it in co-infection assays with a related NDV strain B1 expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP. DF-1 cells were inoculated with both viruses at the same time or at different intervals between primary infection and super infection. Results When both viruses were inoculated at the same time point, a 27% co-infection rate was observed, whereas when they were inoculated at different time points the super infection rates decreased to levels as low as 1.4%. Conclusions These results indicate that although different NDV strains can co-infect host cells in vitro, the super infection rates are low, specially as the time between the primary infection and super infection increases. These results confirm the occurrence of super infection exclusion between different strains of NDV.

  8. Important role of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 in the interferon response of mouse macrophages upon infection by Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilden, Holger; Schirrmacher, Volker; Fournier, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an interesting agent for activating innate immune activity in macrophages including secretion of TNF-α and IFN-α, upregulation of TRAIL and activation of NF-κB and iNOS. However, the molecular mechanism of such cellular activities remains largely unknown. Tumor selectivity of replication of NDV has been described to be linked to deviations in tumor cells of the type I interferon response. We therefore focused on the interferon response to NDV of macrophages as part of innate anti-viral and anti-tumor activity. In particular, we investigated the functional significance of the interferon regulatory factor genes (IRF)-3 and IRF-7. Deletion of the IRF-3 or IRF-7 gene was found to increase susceptibility of mouse macrophages to virus infection. Surprisingly, NDV replicated better in IRF-3 KO than in IRF-7 KO macrophages. Further analysis showed that IRF-3 KO macrophages have a lower basal and NDV-induced RIG-I expression in comparison to IRF-7 KO macrophages. This might explain why, in IRF-3 KO macrophages, the secretion of type I interferons after NDV infection is delayed, when compared to IRF-7 KO and wild-type macrophages. In addition, IRF-3 KO cells showed reduced NDV-induced levels of IRF-7. This effect could be prevented by priming the cells first by interferon-α. Further results indicated that an early production of type I interferon rather than high maximal levels at later time points are important for resistance to infection by NDV. In conclusion, these results demonstrate an important role of IRF-3 for the innate anti-viral response to NDV of mouse macrophages.

  9. Isolation, identification, and gp85 characterization of a subgroup A avian leukosis virus from a contaminated live Newcastle Disease virus vaccine, first report in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Dong, Xuan; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-09-01

    To identify if any exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) exists in a live vaccine of poultry according to the directives of the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, a live vaccine strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was neutralized using an anti-NDV antibody, and was subsequently used to inoculate DF-1 cells to investigate the presence of exogenous ALV. The DF-1 cells were cultured for 21 d and subsequently screened using an ELISA for the p27 antigen of the ALV. An exogenous ALV, designated ALV-NDVP4, was identified. The nucleotide sequence of the gp85 gene of the ALV-NDVP4 was compared with those of the various subgroups of the ALV. The amino acid sequence identities for the predicted gp85 of the ALV-NDVP4 and those of the ALV reference strains ranged from 88.2 to 99.5% for the 12 of the subgroup A strains of ALV (ALV-A) and from 82.7 to 87.4% for the B, C, D, and E subgroup strains. The amino acid sequence identities for the gp85 of the ALV-NDVP4 and those of the subgroup J reference strains ranged from 48.7 to 49.9%. The ALV-NDVP4 shared the highest level of homology with the SDAU09C3 strain of ALV-A, which was isolated in China, suggesting a common origin. This is the first report of ALV-A contamination in a live vaccine for poultry in China. Our findings highlight the need for improved monitoring methods for poultry vaccine production.

  10. Autophagy is involved in recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rL-RVG)-induced cell death of stomach adenocarcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xu-Feng; Wang, Mu-Bing; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Zhao, Ying-Hai; Li, Mi; Yan, Yu-Lan

    2015-08-01

    Oncolytic viruses can kill malignant cells while sparing normal cells. Multiple pathways are involved in this action. The antitumor effects of viral infection on SGC-7901 and AGS cells were investigated. We measured endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy caused by the recombinant avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rL-RVG) and the NDV wild-type strain. The dose-response curves were analyzed using the MTT assay. The expression of RVG was detected by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses. Cell death and autophagy were observed using transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL and western blotting. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the mitochondrial transmembrane potential were detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Immunofluorescence, western blot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that RVG gene and protein were expressed in SGC-7901 and AGS cells infected by rL-RVG. MTT and TUNEL analyses showed that the growth of SGC-7901 and AGS cells in the rL-RVG-infected group was significantly inhibited compared with the wild-type NDV-infected group (prL-RVG and NDV induced increases in apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy in the SGC-7901 and AGS cells. However, apoptosis and autophagy decreased in these cells after the application of the autophagy pathway inhibitor 3-MA or ATG-5-specific siRNA. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed. Taken together, these results indicate that the rL-RVG virus group is much more powerful compared with the NDV-infected group (prL-RVG and NDV are potent antitumor agents that induce autophagy.

  11. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in poultry and captive non-poultry avian species in Pakistan from 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virulent viruses of the panzootic Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) of sub-genotype VIIi were repeatedly isolated (2011–2016) from commercial chickens and from multiple non-poultry avian species in Pakistan. These findings provide evidence for the existence of epidemiological links between Newcastle disea...

  12. Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored H7 and H5 Live Vaccines Protect Chickens from Challenge with H7N9 or H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinfang; Mena, Ignacio; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Krammer, Florian; Lyoo, Young S; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Mahardika, Gusti Ngurah; Ma, Wenjun; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A

    2015-07-01

    Sporadic human infections by a novel H7N9 virus occurred over a large geographic region in China. In this study, we show that Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7 (NDV-H7) and NDV-H5 vaccines are able to induce antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and completely protect chickens from challenge with the novel H7N9 or highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, respectively. Notably, a baculovirus-expressed H7 protein failed to protect chickens from H7N9 virus infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. ELISA indireto para detecção de IgG antivírus da doença de Newcastle em soro de codorna Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

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    D.D. Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was observed between the ELISA and the HI, being the ELISA efficient in the identification of positive and negative sera, with high sensitivity and specificity (100%. These results validate the use of the indirect ELISA as an alternative for the detection of NDV-specific IgG in japanese quail sera, with the advantage of high sensitivity and automation.

  14. Assessment of Preparation of Samples Under the Field Conditions and a Portable Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Rapid On-Site Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Benyeda, Z; Zohari, S; Yacoub, A; Isaksson, M; Leijon, M; LeBlanc, N; Benyeda, J; Belák, S

    2016-04-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also known as virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (AMPV-1), is the causative agent of Newcastle disease affecting many species of birds and causing heavy losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Early, rapid and sensitive detection of the viruses or the viral nucleic acids is very important for disease diagnosis and control. This study aimed to evaluate sample preparation under field conditions and the application of a real-time RT-PCR method in the portable T-COR4 platform for the rapid, on-site detection of NDV on a farm. In the laboratory setting, the portable real-time RT-PCR assay had a similar performance compared with that obtained with a larger, stationary Rotor Gene real-time thermocycler. In the field conditions, viral nucleic acids were manually extracted just outside of animal units with minimal equipment and real-time RT-PCR detection was performed with the portable thermocycler T-COR4 placed in a nearby room. The portable assay at the farm detected viral RNA in 15 samples and reached an agreement of 83% (39/47) when the same RNA preparations were tested in the Rotor Gene thermocycler under the laboratory setting. The results demonstrated the feasibility of performing field detection but also the need to improve and further simplify sample preparation procedures.

  15. How the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort study has contributed to the understanding of the impact of birth weight and early life socioeconomic position on disease in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Relton, Caroline L; Francis, Roger M; Steele, James G; Craft, Alan W; Parker, Louise

    2012-05-01

    Much has been made of the potential influence of birth weight and early socioeconomic disadvantage in influencing adult health, but little has been published in terms of how important these associations may be with respect to exposures throughout the lifecourse. The objective of this review is to describe the contributions of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study in understanding the relative impacts of factors in early life, particularly birth weight and socio-economic position at birth, in influencing health in later life. The Newcastle Thousand Families Study is a prospective birth cohort established in 1947. It originally included all births to mothers resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, in northern England, in May and June of that year. Study members were followed extensively throughout childhood and intermittently in adulthood. At the age of 49-51 years, study members underwent a large-scale follow-up phase enabling an assessment of how early life may influence their later health, and also incorporating adult risk factors which enabled the relative contributions of factors at different stages of life to be assessed. While some findings from the study do support birth weight and early socio-economic position having influences on adult health status, the associations are generally small when compared to risk factors later in life. Using path analyses on longitudinal data of this nature enables mediating pathways between early life and later health to be assessed and if more studies were to take this approach, the relative importance of early life on adult disease risk could be better understood.

  16. Efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid against Newcastle disease in chickens%中药口服液防治鸡新城疫临床效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继红; 常英

    2012-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine with antiviral activity, such as Radix Scutellariae. Rcutix Astragali, Rodix lsatidis. Radix Forsythiae, etc., were screened to make into oral liquid, then was given to chickens naturally injected with Newcastle disease for 5-7 days. After treatment, the clinical curative rate was delermined. The resutls showed that traditional Chinese medicine oral liquid was effective for the prevention and trealment of Newcastle disease in chickens.%将筛选出具有抗病毒作用的黄芪、黄芩、板蓝根等中药制成口服液,用于鸡新城疫防治试验。结果表明,中药口服液防治鸡新城疫具有较好疗效,中药治疗组鸡死亡率极显著低于对照组,且以中药口服液疗效最佳。同时,中药治疗组可提高蛋鸡生产性能。

  17. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  18. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalala eZeynalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR. Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in the

  19. Biosurveillance of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in the Barda region of Azerbaijan using real time RT-PCR and hemagglutination inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynalova, Shalala; Guliyev, Fizuli; Vatani, Mahira; Abbasov, Bahruz

    2015-01-01

    The Azerbaijan State Veterinary Control Service (SVCS) has conducted active serological surveillance for avian influenza (AI) in poultry since 2006, when the first outbreak of AI H5N1 occurred in Azerbaijan. Samples are collected from September to May annually and tested using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay to detect antibodies against H5 AI viruses. HI testing is also performed for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) upon request, but since this method cannot distinguish between natural infections and immune responses to vaccination, all positive results require follow-up epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, blood collection for the surveillance program is time-intensive and can be stressful to birds. In order to improve the national surveillance program, alternative sampling and testing methodologies were applied among a population of birds in the Barda region and compared with results of the national surveillance program. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected instead of blood. Rather than testing individual samples, RNA was pooled to conserve resources and time, and pools were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Environmental sampling at a live bird market was also introduced as another surveillance mechanism. A total of 1,030 swabs were collected, comprising tracheal, and cloacal samples from 441 birds and 148 environmental surface samples from farms or the live bird market. During the same time, 3,890 blood samples were collected nationally for the surveillance program; 400 of these samples originated in the Barda region. Birds sampled for rRT-PCR were likely different than those tested as part of national surveillance. All swab samples tested negative by rRT-PCR for both AI and NDV. All blood samples tested negative for H5 by HI, while 6.2% of all samples and 5% of the Barda samples tested positive for exposure to NDV. Follow-up investigations found that positive samples were from birds vaccinated in

  20. Apoptotic induction of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells infected by recombinant RVG Newcastle disease virus (rL-RVG) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yulan; Liang, Bing; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Bu, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a member of the genus Avulavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family and its antitumor properties depend on its ability to kill malignant cells while not affecting normal cells. The present study investigated a recombinant avirulent NDV LaSota strain (wild-type NDV strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (rL-RVG), examined its oncolytic effect on the lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line and evaluated its potential to serve as a vaccine against lung cancer. A549 cells were infected with the rL-RVG virus and analyzed by MTT, western blot, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and flow-cytometric analyses. PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence showed that the RVG gene and protein were stably expressed in A549 cells following infection with rL-RVG. The growth of A549 cells in the rL-RVG group was inhibited more effectively compared to those infected with the wild-type NDV strain. MTT results showed that cell growth inhibition rates in the rL-RVG group were significantly higher than those in the NDV group (PrL-RVG group was also more evident, with the apoptotic index being increased in rL-RVG group. The expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins caspase-3, -8 and -9 increased. The expression of caspase-3 decreased following application of the broad-specificity caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. However, the expression of the inhibitory apoptosis protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) did not change, but bcl-2-associated X/bcl-2 ratio was higher in the rL-RVG group than that in the NDV group. The rL-RVG strain was able to suppress lung cancer cell growth and promote lung cancer cell apoptosis to a greater extent than the wild-type NDV strain. Therefore, the rL-RVG strain is a potent antitumor agent.

  1. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease virus in three different poultry management systems located in Feira de Santana – Bahia Títulos de anticorpos contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em três diferentes sistemas de criação avícola na região de Feira de Santana-Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Sousa da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from poultry bred in integrated, independent and backyard production system, in Feira de Santana – Bahia, for evaluation of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus. Samples were obtained from day-old chicks, slaughter poultry and backyard chickens ranging from four months to three years of age. Serum was analyzed by a commercial indirect ELISA. Results demonstrated that one day old chicks presented high antibodies titers with coefficient of variation of 33.03%, because their mothers were vaccinated. Poultry from integrated and independent producers presented higher variation coefficient, 99.07% and 97.01%, respectively, demonstrating no uniformity in titers, due to the lack of a good vaccinal response against Newcastle disease virus. The occurrence of high antibody titers was observed in backyard chickens, and coefficient of variation of 146.41%, demonstrating the lack of vaccinal response. This data suggest that the studied commercial poultry is not well immunised by vaccination. Moreover, the presence of backyard chickens with evidence of high antibodies titers, suggests that they can become a threat to industrial poultry.Amostras de soro foram coletadas de aves criadas em sistema de produção integrado, sistema independente e de galinhas de fundo de quintal, na região de Feira de Santana – Bahia, para avaliação dos títulos de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle. Foram obtidas amostras de pintos de um dia, frangos de corte em idade de abate e galinhas de fundo de quintal com idades variando de quatro meses até três anos. Os soros foram analisados por meio de ELISA indireto, utilizando-se kit comercial. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pintos de um dia apresentaram alto título de anticorpos maternos, provenientes das matrizes vacinadas, com coeficiente de variação de 33,03%. Os frangos de corte dos integrados e dos produtores independentes apresentaram um coeficiente de varia

  2. Análisis molecular de una cepa de virus de Newcastle de origen vacunal aislada a partir de un hisopado cloacal de aves sanas en Costa Rica - Molecular analysis of an isolated Newcastle disease virus strain obtained from cloacal swabs in healthy poultry farm in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Rodríguez, Bernal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl virus de Newcastle (VNC es un paramyxovirus tipo 1 (APMV-1 quepertenece a la familia Paramyxoviridae, género Avulavirus, los cualesson virus de ARN no segmentados de una sola hebra de polaridadnegativa. En Costa Rica, se vacuna con cepas de baja patogenicidad y nunca se ha detectado brotes de cepas de alta patogenicidad. En el artículo se informa sobre el aislamiento de una cepa de VNC la cual se hizo a partir de un huevo embrionado inoculado con un hisopado cloacal de una muestra de una parvada de aves que no presentó signos clínicos de la enfermedad. La cepa fue identificada por la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación y confirmada por PCR. posteriormente, se secuenció un fragmento de 310 pares de bases que incluyó el dominio de corte del gen F0 (posición 112 a 117 de la proteína, se demostró por análisis filogenéticos que la cepa aislada era de baja patogenicidad y de origen vacunal.SummaryA Newcastle Disease Virus was isolated from an embryonated egginoculated with a cloacal swab specimen fluid received for testing from a poultry flock without clinical signs. The sample was identify by the Hemagglutination-Inhibition Assay and confirmed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR. Subsequently, a region of the fusion protein gene F0 of 310 base pairs (that included the cut site at position 112 to 117 of the protein was sequenced and was demonstrated by phylogenetic and molecular analysis that the isolated strain was low pathogenic and vaccine origin.

  3. 不同日龄免疫新流灭活疫苗免疫效果评价%Study on The Inactivated Combined Vaccine against Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza for Laying Hens of Different Ages Effect Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛秋实; 胡瑞鸿; 郭兆成; 李淑伟

    2016-01-01

    In this study, laying hens respectively in 1 day, 7 day old immunization with the same dose of Newcastle disease and avian influenza inactivated vaccine, immunization 0 d\\7 d\\14 d\\21 d measured New-castle and avian influenza antibody titers, and calculate the average of the antibody and found 1-day-old chickens immunized antibody titers less than 7 day old chickens immunized, immune antibodies higher than 0.3 mL 0.1 mL immune antibodies.%本实验采用田间蛋鸡,分别在1日龄、7日龄以相同剂量免疫接种新城疫、禽流感二联灭活疫苗,在免疫0d、7d、14d、21d测定新城疫和禽流感抗体滴度,并计算抗体平均值,发现1日龄免疫的鸡群抗体滴度低于7日龄免疫的鸡群,免疫0.3 mL抗体高于免疫0.1 mL的抗体。

  4. 鸭新城疫病毒和鸭圆环病毒二重PCR检测方法的建立%Development of a Duplex PCR Assay for Detection of Duck Newcastle Disease Virus and Duck Circovirus in Duck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许宗丽; 谢芝勋; 谢丽基; 刘加波; 谢志勤; 邓显文; 范晴

    2012-01-01

    According to the sequences of duck NDV F gene and DuCV V1/rep gene in GenBank, two pairs of specific primers were designed, and the reaction conditions were optimized, and then a duplex PCR assay was developed for detection of Newcastle disease virus and circovirus in ducks. All samples containing Newcastle disease virus and circovirus could be amplified into two specific bands, 493 bp for duck Newcastle disease virus and 218 bp for duck circovirus by this duplex PCR, but no specific bands of the same sizes were amplified from other duck pathogens, such as Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck plague virus, duck hepatitis virus, gosling plague virus, duck H9 subtype avian influenza virus, Riemerella anatipestifer, E.coli, avian Pasteurella multocida. As little as 40 fg of duck NDV and 20 fg ofDuCV DNA could be detected.%本研究根据GenBank中鸭新城疫病毒(NDV)的F基因和鸭圆环病毒(DuCV)的V1/rep基因的保守序列,各设计一对特异性引物,并对二重PCR的扩增条件进行优化,建立了鸭NDV和DuCV的二重PCR检测方法。对混合样品进行扩增,得到2条大小为493bp(鸭NDV)和218bp(DuCV)的特异性条带,与预扩增片段相符。而对番鸭细小病毒、鸭瘟病毒、鸭肝炎病毒、鸭源小鹅瘟病毒、鸭H9亚型流感病毒、鸭疫里氏杆菌、大肠杆菌、禽多杀性巴氏杆菌等病原检测,结果为阴性。该方法的敏感性试验表明,鸭NDV的核酸最小量为40fg,DuCV为20龟。

  5. An active serological survey of antibodies to newcastle disease and avian influenza (H9N2) viruses in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province,Iran, 2012-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousef Saadat; Seyed Ali Ghafouri; Farshad Tehrani; Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To test the antibodies against newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: A total of 1 530 blood samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens in Bushehr province, south of Iran, were tested for antibodies against NDV and AIV (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to International Epizootic Office (OIE) recommendation.Results:Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2) were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program. Of these, 614 (40.13%) and 595 (39.00%) were positive for NDV and AIV (H9N2) respectively.

  6. Effect of Newcastle Disease Virus Losota-4 on BT325 Multicellular Spheroids%新城鸡瘟病毒弱毒株对BT325细胞系多细胞球体的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱华; 潘李珍; 马鸿儒

    1999-01-01

    为研究新城鸡瘟病毒(Newcastle disease virus, NDV)的抗肿瘤作用,观察了NDV Losota-4弱毒株对人脑多形胶质母细胞瘤细胞系BT325多细胞球体的杀伤效应.发现:随着培养时间延长,与对照组球体直径相比,各滴度试验组球体平均直径增长数明显减少(P <0.01);克隆率分析结果进一步证明,NDV Losota-4弱毒株能有效杀伤BT325肿瘤细胞(P<0.01).

  7. Amino Acid Sequence of F and HN Glycoprotein of Newcastle Disease Virus on Effect of Virulence%新城疫病毒F和HN蛋白的氨基酸序列对其毒力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈咏舟; 郑新勇

    2000-01-01

    @@ 新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)属副粘病毒科副粘病毒属,为不分节的负极性单股RNA病毒,有囊膜.它虽只有一个血清型,但不同毒株的致病力差异较大,有强毒株、中毒株和弱毒株之分.业已证明,NDV不存在先天性控制病毒致病性基因,不同的毒株都含有相同的基因组和结构蛋白质组分.

  8. 新城疫病毒囊膜糖蛋白七肽重复区的融合作用%The fusion role of heptad repeat regions of Newcastle disease virus glycoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小远

    2010-01-01

    在新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease vires,NDV)膜融合的过程中融合糖蛋白(Fusion protein,F)的两段七肽重复区(Heptad repeat,HR)发挥着重要作用.这两段七肽重复区能够形成反相平行的六螺旋束结构,这被认为是融合蛋白融合后构象的核心结构.对融合作用的深入系统研究将有助于膜融合病毒的防控.

  9. The combined effects of oncolytic reovirus plus Newcastle disease virus and reovirus plus parvovirus on U87 and U373 cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassar, Muhannad; Gärtner, Barbara; Roemer, Klaus; Graesser, Friedrich; Rommelaere, Jean; Kaestner, Lars; Haeckel, Isabelle; Graf, Norbert

    2011-09-01

    Previous results had documented oncolytic capacity of reovirus, parvovirus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) on several tumor cell types. To test whether combinations of these viruses may increase this capacity, human U87- and U373-glioblastoma cells, in vitro or xenografted into immuno-compromised mice, were subjected to simultaneous double infections and analyzed. Our results show that reovirus (serotype-3) plus NDV (Hitcher-B1) and reovirus plus parvovirus-H1 lead to a significant increase in tumor cell killing in vitro in both cell lines (Kruskal-Wallis test, P 95%) after combined infection. These data thus indicate that a synergistic anti-tumor effect can be achieved by the combined infection with oncolytic viruses.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and immune efficacy of layered double hydroxide@SiO2 nanoparticles with shell-core structure as a delivery carrier for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Guo, Chen; Luo, Xiaomei; Kang, Hong; Sun, Yanwei; Dai, Chunxiao; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xin; Jin, Zheng; Cui, Shangjin; Sun, Qingshen

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH)@SiO2 nanoparticles were developed as a delivery carrier for the plasmid DNA expressing the Newcastle disease virus F gene. The LDH was hydrotalcite-like materials. The plasmid DNA encapsulated in the LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles (pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs) was prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the properties of pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results demonstrated that the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs had a regular morphology and high stability with a mean diameter of 371.93 nm, loading capacity of 39.66%±0.45%, and a zeta potential of +31.63 mV. A release assay in vitro showed that up to 91.36% of the total plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs within 288 hours. The LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles had very low toxicity. Additionally, their high transfection efficiency in vitro was detected by fluorescent microscopy. Intranasal immunization of specific pathogen-free chickens with pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs induced stronger cellular, humoral, and mucosal immune responses and achieved a greater sustained release effect than intramuscular naked plasmid DNA, and the protective efficacy after challenge with the strain F48E9 with highly virulent (mean death time of chicken embryos ≤60 hours, intracerebral pathogenicity index in 1 -day-old chickens >1.6) was 100%. Based on the results, LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles can be used as a delivery carrier for mucosal immunity of Newcastle disease DNA vaccine, and have great application potential in the future.

  11. Letter From Newcastle Upon Tyne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Justine

    1976-01-01

    A critical description by an American exchange teacher of Newcastle Upon Tyne College of Arts and Technology, a British "polytechnic" college serving apprentices in the skilled trades who attend classes on release-time. The author finds that the General Studies curriculum he is assigned to teach receives short shrift by both the students…

  12. Avaliação de diferentes vias vacinais para vacinação contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves de fundo de quintal Assessment of different vaccination approaches against Newcastle disease virus in domestic backyard poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Câmara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três vias de aplicação vacinal contra o vírus da doença de Newcastle em aves de criatório de fundo de quintal (AFQ jovens e adultas. Um total de 135 AFQ foram distribuídas em tratamentos distintos de acordo com a via vacinal: via ocular (VO, água de bebida (VAB e alimentar (VA. Cada tratamento foi representado por 40 aves (20 jovens e 20 adultas e utilizou-se um grupo-controle de 15 aves não vacinadas. O programa de vacinação estabelecido constou de uma primovacinação e dois reforços vacinais, utilizando-se a cepa La Sota. Para aves jovens, os títulos obtidos pelas VO e VAB não diferiram aos 15, 45 e 140 dias, mas houve diferenças nos títulos das aves vacinadas pela VA. Nas aves adultas, a vacinação pela VO apresentou resultados mais elevados que as vacinações pelas VAB e VA na primeira resposta, aos 15 dias. Aos 45 dias, os títulos obtidos pela VAB foram mais baixos que os obtidos pela VO, e, aos 140 dias, não houve diferença entre as três vias avaliadas. Concluiu-se que as vacinações pelas VO e VAB constituem alternativas eficazes para vacinação de AFQ jovens e adultas.Three ways of vaccination against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV were evaluated in young and adults domestic backyard poultry (DBP. A total of 135 DBP was submitted to three different administration routes of ND vaccine: eye-drop, drinking water, and feed. Each treatment consisted of 40 birds (20 young and 20 adult and a control group of 15 unvaccinated birds. The treatment consisted of a first vaccination and two boosters, using La Sota strain. For young birds, the eye-drop and drinking water vaccinations presented no differences at 15, 45, and 140 days, differing from the titers obtained by birds treated by feed vaccination method. In the adult birds, the eye-drop administration presented higher titers than by drinking water and feed approaches in the first response to the vaccination at 15 days. At 45 days, the results obtained by

  13. Emprego da microscopia eletrônica na avaliação pós-vacinal de epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle The use of scanning electron microscopy in post-vaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos imunized against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Franzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o emprego da microscopia eletrônica de varredura no estudo da reação respiratória pós-vacinal em epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle. Foram utilizadas 48 aves, distribuídas em quatro grupos: T1 - grupo de aves-controle (não vacinadas, T2 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe Ulster 2C, T3 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe B1 e T4 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe LaSota. Independente do grupo experimental, as aves não apresentaram sinais clínicos detectáveis de reação respiratória pós-vacinal. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, observou-se que os animais vacinados com as estirpes B1 e LaSota desenvolveram descamação epitelial da traqueia, enquanto os vacinados com a estirpe Ulster 2C não, mostrando um epitélio traqueal íntegro, semelhante ao do grupo-controle. Os patos vacinados com a estirpe B1 mostraram evidências de regeneração epitelial da traqueia decorridos 21 dias pós-vacinação, o que não ocorreu com os vacinados com a amostra LaSota.Scanning electron microscopy was used in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos immunized against Newcastle disease. Forty-eight ducks were distributed into four groups: T1 - control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 - birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 - birds vaccinated with B1 strain; and t4 - birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. Scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, showing intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group. However, the birds vaccinated with B1 strain showed evidences of regeneration of tracheal epithelium 21 days post

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and immune efficacy of layered double hydroxide@SiO2 nanoparticles with shell-core structure as a delivery carrier for Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kai Zhao,1,* Guangyu Rong,1,2,* Chen Guo,1 Xiaomei Luo,1 Hong Kang,1 Yanwei Sun,1,3 Chunxiao Dai,4 Xiaohua Wang,1 Xin Wang,1 Zheng Jin,4 Shangjin Cui,3 Qingshen Sun1 1Key Laboratory of Microbiology, School of Life Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Avian Infectious Disease, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Division of Swine Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, Heilongjiang University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Layered double hydroxide (LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles were developed as a delivery carrier for the plasmid DNA expressing the Newcastle disease virus F gene. The LDH was hydrotalcite-like materials. The plasmid DNA encapsulated in the LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles (pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs was prepared by the coprecipitation method, and the properties of pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results demonstrated that the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs had a regular morphology and high stability with a mean diameter of 371.93 nm, loading capacity of 39.66%±0.45%, and a zeta potential of +31.63 mV. A release assay in vitro showed that up to 91.36% of the total plasmid DNA could be sustainably released from the pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs within 288 hours. The LDH@SiO2 nanoparticles had very low toxicity. Additionally, their high transfection efficiency in vitro was detected by fluorescent microscopy. Intranasal immunization of specific pathogen-free chickens with pFDNA-LDH@SiO2-NPs

  15. In vitro responses of chicken macrophage-like monocytes following exposure to pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli ghosts loaded with a rational design of conserved genetic materials of influenza and Newcastle disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzian, Milad; Bassami, Mohammad Reza; Dehghani, Hesam

    2016-08-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two important viral diseases in the poultry industry. Therefore, new disease-fighting strategies, especially effective genetic vaccination, are in high demand. Bacterial Ghost (BG) is a promising platform for delivering genetic materials to macrophages, cells that are among the first to encounter these viruses. However, there is no investigation on the immune response of these macrophage-targeted treatments. Here, we investigated the effect of genetic materials of AIV and NDV on the gene expression profile of important pro-inflammatory cytokines, a chemokine, a transcription factor, major histocompatibility complexes, and the viability of the chicken macrophage-like monocyte cells (CMM). Our genetic construct contained the external domain of matrix protein 2 and nucleoprotein gene of AIV, and immunodominant epitopes of fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of NDV (hereinafter referred to as pAIV-Vax), delivered via the pathogenic and non-pathogenic BGs (Escherichia coli O78K80 and E. coli TOP10 respectively). The results demonstrated that both types of BGs were able to efficiently deliver the construct to the CMM, although the pathogenic strain derived BG was a significantly better stimulant and delivery vehicle. Both BGs were safe regarding LPS toxicity and did not induce any cell death. Furthermore, the loaded BGs were more powerful in modulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines' responses and antigen presentation systems in comparison to the unloaded BGs. Nitric oxide production of the BG-stimulated cells was also comparable to those challenged by the live bacteria. According to the results, the combination of pAIV-Vax construct and E. coli O78K80 BG is promising in inducing a considerable innate and adaptive immune response against AIV-NDV and perhaps the pathogenic E. coli, provided that the current combination be a potential candidate for in vivo testing regarding the development of an

  16. Inhibitory effects of Lentinus C91-3 fermentative liquid on hemadsorption of Parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus%香菇C91-3菌株发酵液对副流感病毒和新城疫病毒血细胞吸附的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹婧; 宁安红; 黄敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨香菇C91-3菌株发酵液的抗病毒作用.方法 应用香菇C91-3菌株发酵液不同稀释度分别作用于副流感病毒和新城疫病毒,观察其对血细胞吸附作用的影响.结果 香菇C91-3菌株发酵液原液组和1∶2稀释组对副流感病毒和新城疫病毒的血细胞吸附均有抑制作用.结论 香菇C91-3菌株发酵液有明显的抗病毒作用.%Objective To investigate the anti-virus effects of Lentinus C91-3 fermentative liquid. Method Lenti-nus C91-3 fermentative liquid was diluted by NS in different groups and mixed with Parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus respectively. The inhibitory effects of Lentinus C91 -3 fermentative liquid on the hemadsorption of Parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus were observed. Result Lentinus C91-3 fermentative liquid obviously inhibited the hemadsorption of Parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus. Conclusion Lentinus C91-3 fermentative liquid have significant anti-virus effects.

  17. 左旋咪唑对新城疫活疫苗免疫效果的影响%Effect of Levamisole on Immunity Effects of Newcastle Disease Active Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓磊; 涂军; 余明华; 邓娟娟; 曹皖

    2014-01-01

    为观察免疫佐剂左旋咪唑对新城疫活疫苗免疫效果的影响,该研究将40只鸡随机分为A、B、C、CK组(每组10只),A、B、C组分别使用加入高、中、低剂量左旋咪唑无菌稀释液的新城疫活疫苗1羽份/只,分别于7日龄、28日龄滴鼻、点眼免疫。以生理盐水作对照组。免疫后的7、14、21、28日翅下静脉采血测抗新城疫病毒(NDV)抗体滴度。结果表明:给药组抗体水平都高于生理盐水对照组(p<0.05),不同给药剂量组别的抗体水平无明显变化。%To investigate the effect of levamisole on immune effects of newcastle disease vaccine ,the testing chickens were divided into four groups named group A,B,C and CK,10 chickens every group.A,B and C group were treated with high,medium and low dose of levamisole sterile diluent and newcastle disease active vaccine ,by nose and eye drops at 7 days age and 28 days age.A normal saline was took as control group.The blood samples were collected at 7 d , 14 d , 21 d , 28 d after inoculation , antibody titer were analyzed by hem-agglutination inhibition ( HI ) . The results showed that the level of antibodies of 3 treat groups was significantly higher than that of controt group (p<0.05).And there was a little variation among experimental group with different dosage of levamisole at the same stage.

  18. The role of Nicotiana gluca Graham (paraguayan herbs as an adjuvant in immunomodulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for broilers Estudo da ação de Nicotiana glauca Graham (erva paraguaia como coadjuvante em vacina contra a doença de Newcastle em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nicotiana glauca is a native plant species from Argentina, but found all over South América, being used against headaches, rheumatism, injuries, ulcers, and so on. Researchers have considered it as having immunomodulation effect. This study was conducted to investigate the use of a aqueous extract of Nicotiana glauca Graham as an immunomodulator (adjuvant of a Newcastle disease vaccine.. A total of 56 broilers were distributed into 4 experimental groups. Each one of them received 3 dosages of this vaccine with or without the addition of different concentrations of the extract Using hemmoaglutination inhibition techniques , the results have shown differences (P<0.05 in the third sera collection. An increase in the antibody titer with the inclusion of 5 mg/dosage of the extract (Treatment 3 as compared to 1 mg/dosage (Treatment 2 and 10 mg/dosage of the extract (Treatment 4 was observed, However, birds from Treatment 3 did not differ (P> 0.05 from Treatment 1. These results indicated that further investigations are required, including the use of cytotoxicity tests in vitro, to evaluate the immunomodulation effect of this extract.

     

    KEY WORDS: Immunomodulation effect, Nicotiana glauca Graham, vaccine.

    A Nicotiana glauca Graham é uma espécie nativa da Argentina, bem distribuída na América do Sul, sendo empregada, popularmente, contra dores de cabeça, dores reumáticas, cicatrização de feridas e úlceras, entre outros. Pesquisas têm avaliado a sua ação na potencialização da resposta imune. Assim, com este estudo, buscou-se avaliar a ação de um extrato aquoso de Nicotiana glauca Graham como coadjuvante imunológico em uma vacina contra a doença de Newcastle (DNC. Utilizaram-se 56 frangos de corte, distribuídos em quatro grupos experimentais, que receberam tr

  19. Studies on Combined Infectious Coryza and Newcastle Disease Inactivated Vaccines%鸡传染性鼻炎和新城疫二联灭活疫苗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚玉梅; 张培君; 朱文革; 贺云霞; 王宏俊; 张瑜; 邵庆红

    2015-01-01

    A combined infectious coryza and newcastle disease inactivated vaccine was developed using page's serovar A ,B and C of Avibacterium paragallinarum (Avpg) and La Sota strain of NDV .Three batch of vaccines were used for safety test ,The Chicken were injected 0 .5 mL/chicken at a time for three times and 2 .0 mL/chicken at a time .We carry out vaccine efficacy experiment with three batches of vaccines for SPF chicken ,30 days after immunization ,the chickens were challenged with Page's serovar A ,B and C of Avpg .The immune duration test of the conventional chickens which were immunized at 42 days‐old and 110 days‐old .Nine months after second immunization ,the chickens were challenged with Page's A ,B ,C of Avpg and virulent Newcastle Disease virus .The effect of storage on the vaccine was evaluated in SPF chickens using three batches of vaccine stored at 4 ℃‐8 ℃ for 12 and 15 months .The result show that the vaccines is very safe ,and challenged protection rate of immunized SPF chickens is ≥ 80% for Page's sero‐var A ,B and C of Avpg .HI titer of ND is great than 24 for immunized SPF chickens using 20 μL vaccine . The conventional chickens were challenged at 9 months post second vaccination and the protection rate ≥70% for all three serovars ,and 100% against the virulent Newcastle Disease virus .The protection rate of immunized chickens using the vaccine stored at 4 ℃‐8 ℃ for 12 and 15 months is ≥70% for Page's serovar A ,B and C of Avpg .,HI titer is great than 24 and 7/10 against the virulent Newcastle Disease virus .The vaccine is safe and effective .%利用Page A型、B型、C型副鸡禽杆菌和新城疫病毒La Sota株,研制鸡传染性鼻炎(三价)和新城疫二联油乳剂灭活疫苗。用3个批次疫苗进行单剂量(0.5mL/次)3次接种和大剂量(2.0mL)单次接种的安全性试验、SPF鸡的免疫效力试验、商品鸡的免疫持续期试验和疫苗的保存期试验。结果表明,3批疫

  20. Characterisation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from NDV vaccinated chickens, and the efficacy of LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines against challenge with velogenic NDV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohani, Kiarash; Tan, Sheau Wei; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ideris, Aini; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate designated IBS002 was isolated from a commercial broiler farm in Malaysia. The virus was characterised as a virulent strain based on the multiple basic amino acid motif of the fusion (F) cleavage site (112)RRRKGF(117) and length of the C-terminus extension of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Furthermore, IBS002 was classified as a velogenic NDV with mean death time (MDT) of 51.2 h and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.76. A genetic distance analysis based on the full-length F and HN genes showed that both velogenic viruses used in this study, genotype VII NDV isolate IBS002 and genotype VIII NDV isolate AF2240-I, had high genetic variations with genotype II LaSota vaccine. In this study, the protection efficacy of the recombinant genotype VII NDV inactivated vaccine was also evaluated when added to an existing commercial vaccination program against challenge with velogenic NDV IBS002 and NDV AF2240-I in commercial broilers. The results indicated that both LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines offered full protection against challenge with AF2240-I. However, the LaSota vaccine only conferred partial protection against IBS002. In addition, significantly reduced viral shedding was observed in the recombinant genotype VII-vaccinated chickens compared to LaSota-vaccinated chickens.

  1. The combination of attenuated Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine with rHVT-ND vaccine at 1 day old is more protective against ND virus challenge than when combined with inactivated ND vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauw, F; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; van den Berg, T; Lambrecht, B

    2014-01-01

    The recurrent outbreaks of fatal Newcastle disease (ND) in commercial poultry flocks throughout the world indicate that routine vaccinations are failing to sufficiently induce the high levels of immunity necessary to control ND. There is a need for vaccination programmes that could be initiated at 1-day-old for mass application and which would induce a long-lasting immunity, with no need for a booster vaccination at a later age. In this context, the duration of immunity delivered by a vaccination programme including a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys expressing the F gene of ND virus (rHVT-ND) and live ND vaccine at 1-day-old was compared with a classical programme that included a conventional live and an inactivated ND vaccine at the same age in commercial layer chickens. The humoral, cell-mediated and local immunity were followed weekly and birds were challenged with a viscerotropic velogenic ND virus strain at 6 and 10 weeks of age. We determined that immunity induced by the vaccination programme involving the rHVT-ND vaccine was more protective than that provided by the conventional vaccine-based regime. This might be related to a T-helper type 1 (Th1) cellular-driven immunological response, in contrast to the T-helper type 2 (Th2) humoral-oriented immune response provided by the current conventional vaccine-based vaccination programmes.

  2. 狂犬病毒糖蛋白重组的新城疫病毒诱导人胃癌 SGC 细胞自噬%The rabies virus glycoprotein recombinated Newcastle disease virus induce the human stomachal adenocarcinoma autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王穆彬; 严玉兰; 张志坚; 赵英海; 李米; 步雪峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察狂犬病毒糖蛋白重组的新城疫病毒(rabies virus glycoprotein recombinated Newcastle disease vi-rus,rL-RVG)及野生型新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)对胃癌 SGC 细胞自噬的影响。方法:将 SGC 细胞随机分为3组,rl-RVG 组(转染 rl-RVG)、NDV 组(转染 NDV)、对照组(转染 PBS),24 h 后观察细胞的形态变化,评价病毒对细胞的影响。用免疫双标记和免疫印迹法鉴定病毒感染是否成功;蛋白质印迹检测各组细胞自噬相关蛋白 LC3及 Beclin1的表达;透射电镜观察细胞内超微结构的变化和自噬体的形成。结果:病毒感染细胞24 h 后, rl-RVG 组及 NDV 组细胞皱缩明显,且 rl-RVG 组较 NDV 组变化明显,对照组无明显变化;rl-RVG 组和 NDV 组细胞LC3及 Beclin1蛋白表达较对照组明显升高(P <0.05),且 rl-RVG 组明显高于 NDV 组(P <0.05);rl-RVG 组及NDV 组出现的自噬体明显多于对照组,且 rl-RVG 组较 NDV 组明显增多(P <0.05)。结论:rL-RVG 较 NDV 更易引起胃癌 SGC 细胞的自噬。%Objective:To observe the autophagy of the human gastric cancer SGC infected by rabies virus glycoprotein recombinated Newcastle disease virus(rL-RVG)or wild type Newcastle disease virus (NDV).Methods:The cells were divided into three groups at random,the rL-RVG group(infected with rL-RVG),the NDV group(infected with NDV),and the control group(infected with PBS).The mor-phology of SGC cells after infected 24 hours were monitored by microscope.The infected cells were ana-lysed with immunofluorescence,the total proteins get from the cells infected with or without virus were analysed with western blotting,and the ultrastructural of SGC was observed by transmission electron mi-croscope.Results:After infected 24 hours,there was a significantly morphologic changes in the rL-RVG group and the NDV group,and the cells were shrink,the rL-RVG group changes

  3. Intersection I-2

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Intersection I-2 of the ISR during the installation of experiments. On the left to the crossing region can be seen the massive iron plate structure of the muon detector being used by a British collaboration in a search for the intermediate vector boson. The magnet and hodoscopes on the right are part of the spectrometer arm of the Bristish-Scandinavian Collaration.

  4. Effects of heat stress on peripheral T and B lymphocyte profiles and IgG and IgM serum levels in broiler chickens vaccinated for Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; de Paula, Viviane Ferraz; Palermo-Neto, João

    2015-10-01

    Multiple factors, such as environment, nutritional status, and disease, induce stress in animals during livestock production. It has been shown that poultry exposed to stressors for prolonged periods had decreases in their performance parameters, mortality and decreased host resistance to pathogenic agents. It seems that early age stress may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify the expression of their genetic potential on growth performance and immunity. This study aimed to discuss the effects of early-age heat stress on the blood lymphocyte phenotypes (B and T lymphocytes) and plasma immunoglobulin levels (IgM and IgG) in chickens vaccinated against paramixovirus of the Newcastle (NC) disease (LaSota strain). For this purpose, 96 male chickens (Cobb) were divided into 4 groups: 1) control (C), 2) heat-stressed (HS), 3) control vaccinated (C/V), and 4) heat-stressed and Vaccinated (HS/V). The NC vaccine was administered twice on experimental day (ED) 7 and ED14, and the heat stress (38 ± 1°C) was applied from ED2 to ED6. The data showed that HS increased the corticosterone serum levels in the HS group compared with the control groups (C and C/V groups). At ED7, increased concentrations of IgM were observed in birds in the HS and HS/V groups compared with C and C/V animals; chickens from the HS/V group presented increased IgG levels compared with those in the birds of the C group. The heat stress shifted the immune cell profile from B-lymphocyte to a T-cytotoxic and T-helper lymphocyte profile, and this immune cell pattern persisted until the end of the study period. It was concluded that heat stress immunomodulated the immune function response of the chickens to the NC disease vaccine challenge. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity against an inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus by oral co-administration of live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interleukin-18 and interferon-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Masudur; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Han, Young Woo; Hur, Jin; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John Hwa; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2015-04-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of chickens causing significant economic losses worldwide. Due to limitations in the efficacy against currently circulating ND viruses, existing vaccination strategies require improvements, and incorporating immunomodulatory cytokines with existing vaccines might be a novel approach. Here, we investigated the systemic and mucosal immunomodulatory properties of oral co-administration of chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) and chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α) using attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on an inactivated ND vaccine. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α provided enhanced systemic and mucosal immune responses, as determined by serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody and NDV Ag-specific IgG as well as NDV Ag-specific IgA in lung and duodenal lavages of chickens immunized with inactivated ND vaccine via the intramuscular or intranasal route. Notably, combined oral administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α significantly enhanced systemic and mucosal immunity in ND-vaccinated chickens, compared to single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 or chIFN-α. In addition, oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIL-18 and chIFN-α provided enhanced NDV Ag-specific proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to single administration of either construct. Therefore, our results provide valuable insight into the modulation of systemic and mucosal immunity by incorporation of immunomodulatory chIL-18 and chIFN-α using Salmonella vaccines into existing ND vaccines.

  6. Study on Inactivated Vaccine in Oil Emulsion Against Newcastle Disease and Fowl Cholera IV——Field Test of Vaccine%禽霍乱-新城疫二联油乳剂灭活疫苗研究 (Ⅳ报)——疫苗的田间试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红琳; 杨峻; 邵华斌; 温国元; 艾地云; 罗玲; 罗青平; 张蓉蓉; 张琳

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect of the inactivated vaccine in oil emulsion against Newcastle disease and Fowl cholera, and provide conditions for combined prevention and control of Newcastle disease and Fowl cholera. [Method] The mixture of avian pasteurella multocida (type A) virulent strain 1502 and Newcastle disease virus attenuated strain La Sota was prepared into five batches of the inactivated vaccine in oil emulsion to use in the field test for assessing its safety and effects on immune protection of chicken, duck and goose. [Result] The field safety test showed that there was no adverse reaction in the vaccinated chickens, ducks and geese. The field test of immune effect for chickens suggested that the titers of hemagglutination inhibition antibody for Nescastle disease virus (ND-HI) in 7-14 day-old chickens and 60-90 day-old young chickens were 2-3 log2 higher than the control group after being vaccinated for 3 weeks, which could last for more than 4 months. The protection rate against avian pasteurella multocida was over 75.0% and its immune effect could last for 6 months. The field test of immune effect for duck and goose indicated that the titers of ND-HI antibody were all higher than 4.2 log2 in vaccinated ducks and geese while lower than 2 log2 in the control group after being vaccinated for 3 weeks. The protection rate against avian pasteurella multocida in vaccinated ducks and geese was higher than 75.0% and 62.5% respectively. [Conclusion] The binary vaccine is safe for poultry and has good immune effects.

  7. Recombination of Plasmid pGAPZα and F Gene of Newcastle Disease Virus%新城疫病毒JZ05株F基因重组pGAPZα的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程太平; 刘超; 荣俊

    2009-01-01

    The F1 and F2 of F gene of Newcastle disease virus isolation JZ05 were amplified with reverse transcription-poly-merase chain reaction, the goal gene pieces and plasmid pGAPZαA were digested with Kpn Ⅰ and Xba Ⅰ .digested pieces were linked with DNA ligase,Eacterium coli DH5α were transformed by the linked outcomes.Positive recombinants were distinguished with polymerase chain reaction.and recombinants of 2 colonies of JZ05 F1 were positive,recombinants of 4colonies of JZ05 F2 were positive.Positive recombinants were identified with endonuclease digesting and DNA sequence analysis.Recombinant plasmid pGAPZαA-F1,pGAPZαA-F2 and plasmid pGAPZαA were digested with Kpn Ⅰ and Xba Ⅰ,the positions of their bands in agarose gel after eleetrophoresis corresponded to the test design.F1 sequence and F2 se-quence were 1198 bp and 269 bp respectively in recombinant plasmid pGAPZαA-F1 and pGAPZαA-F2,their sequences were no difference in gene length and nucleotide sequences with F gene of Newcastle disease virus strain JZ05 by contrast-ing.These results indicated that the nucleotide sequence,size,inserted sites of the fragment of F1 and F2 were correct in recombinant plasmid pGAPZαA-F1 and pGAPZαA-F2,as the base of expressing F1 and F2 with Pichia pastoris,researching antigenic difference of F protein between virulent strains and avirulent strains and preparing recombinant subunit vaccine.%以RT-PCR扩增新城疫病毒JZ05株,基因F1片段和F2片段,以核酸内切酶κpnI和XbaI对目的基因片段及质粒pGAPZαA进行酶切,连接酶切产物,转化Eacterium coli DH5α.以PCR方法确定JZ05 F1的阳性重组子为2个,JZ05 F2的阳性重组子为4个.对阳性重组子进行酶切鉴定及序列分析,结果发现,重组质粒pGAPZαA-F1、pGAPZαA-F2及质粒pGAPZαA的酶切电泳条带与试验设计大小相符;基因测序得到的重组子中F1和F2序列长度分别为1198bp、269bp,与新域疫病毒JZ05株F基因序列比对,其序列长度和

  8. The Influence of Wolfberry Polysaccharide on the Immune Effect of Chicks against Newcastle Disease Virus%枸杞多糖对雏鸡新城疫免疫效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志新

    2015-01-01

    为了研究枸杞多糖对雏鸡的免疫调节作用,将400羽1日龄雏鸡随机分为A、B、C、D共4组。7日龄时,分别给予A、B组雏鸡灌服10 mg/kg和20 mg/kg的枸杞多糖各5 mL,C、D组灌服同等剂量的生理盐水。给药的同时,A、B、C组滴鼻和点眼免疫新城疫Ⅳ系疫苗,D组不作处理。分别于7、14、21、28和35日龄时,采用微量法HI试验测定各组雏鸡新城疫抗体效价。分别于免疫后的第7、14、21、28和35天,计算各组雏鸡的免疫器官指数。试验结果显示,A、B组的新城疫抗体效价和各免疫器官指数明显高于C、D组,提示枸杞多糖对鸡新城疫疫苗的免疫效果具有明显的增强作用,且能够促进雏鸡中枢及外周免疫器官的发育。%In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of wolfberry polysaccharide on chicks, a total of 400 1 day old chicks were randomly divided into four groups (A, B, C, D). When the chicks were 7 days old, the group A and B were gavaged with 5 mL of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of wolfberry polysaccharide respectively, the group C and D were gavaged with the same volume of saline. Meanwhile, the group A, B and C were vaccinated with Newcastle Disease virus Ⅳ strain vaccine by intraocular-nasal route, the group D were not vaccinated. The micro hemagglutination inhibition test was used to determine the antibody titer of blood serum of the four tested groups in 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days old, respectively, and the immune organ index of the four tested groups were calculated at the 7th, 14th, 21th, 28th and 35th day after vaccination, respectively. The results showed that the antibody titer of blood serum of the group A and B were higher than that of group C and D, indicating that the wolfberry polysaccharide could enhance the immune effect of chicks against Newcastle Disease virus.

  9. 新城疫病毒7793株HN基因片段原核表达及功能鉴定%The Prokaryotic Expression and Identification of HN Gene Fragment of Newcastle Disease Virus Strain 7793

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莹; 刘金颖; 樊晓晖; 宋德志; 肖庆; 殷君; 冯安林; 杨利; 周丹旎

    2013-01-01

    HN蛋白是新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)的血凝素神经氨酸酶蛋白(hemagglutinin-neuraminidase,HN),是NDV识别宿主细胞的包膜蛋白.NDV-HN能与NK细胞的NKp46受体结合,活化NK细胞上调TNF-α和IFN-γ发挥抗瘤效应[1].然而HN蛋白是否能直接活化NK细胞上调TNF相关凋亡诱导配体(TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand,TRAIL)尚待阐明.因此对新城疫病毒7793株(NDV 7793) HN基因主要抗原表位区域进行克隆和原核表达,并对重组HN(recombinant HN,rnN)蛋白是否能活化NK细胞上调TRAIL进行研究.流式细胞分析表明rHN蛋白的纯化产物能与小鼠胸腺的NK细胞膜分子NKp46结合,并上调NK细胞TRAIL的表达.HN抗体阻断试验能部分抑制HN-NKp46结合及NK细胞TRAIL上调的效应.这一结果将为进一步研究NDV-HN直接活化NK细胞增强抗肿瘤效应的胞内信号传导提供依据.%The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN)protein,which is an important spike on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) envelope.It not only has function binding the cell to initiate infection,but also involves in NDV oncolytic effects.HN of NDV serves as a ligand structure for NKp46.NDV-infected tumor cells stimulated NK calls to produce increased amounts of the effector IFN-γand TNF-α.However,the mechanism about whether HN protein can bind to NKp46 receptor on NK cells and cause TRAIL up-regulation has not yet been clear.The purpose is to obtain HN recombinant protein for further signal transduction researches in NDV oncolytic mechanism.According to the sequence of NDV HN gene available in GenBank,a pair of primers is designed.The target sequence,coding for major antigenic determinants,was amplified by RT-PCR,and was ligated to prokaryotic expression vector pET30a to construct a recombinant expression plasmid pET-HNa.The pET-HNa was transformed to E.coli strain BL21 (DE3),and the recombinant HN protein was induced and expressed by IPTG induction.The results of FCM showed that HN not

  10. Effects of the Secondary Metabolites of Metarhizium anisopliae on Newcastle Disease Vaccine%苦马豆素对新城疫疫苗免疫效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴延磊; 杨鸣琦; 商育锦; 施珊珊; 吴小胜

    2011-01-01

    研究金龟子绿僵菌次级代谢产物对鸡新城疫疫苗免疫效果的影响.将100只14日龄健康无免疫雏公鸡随机分为5组,第Ⅰ~Ⅲ组分别注射高、中、低(4、2、1 mg/kg)3种剂量的金龟子绿僵菌次级代谢产物;Ⅳ组和Ⅴ组分别为无佐剂组对照组(No Adjuvant,NA)和空白对照组.第Ⅰ~Ⅳ组动物于14日龄以新城疫病毒(NDV) LaSota株弱毒活疫苗滴鼻进行第1次免疫,2周后加强免疫1次.分别于首免前和首免后连续6周在各免疫组随机抽取10只鸡检测血清中ND-HI抗体效价;于每次免疫后24 h检测外周血中白细胞数;于免疫后42日龄检测免疫器官指数;用MTT法检测脾脏淋巴细胞的增殖活性.金龟子绿僵菌次级代谢产物剂量为1~2mg/kg,大多数试验组鸡的抗体效价与雏鸡脏器(胸腺,脾脏,法氏囊)指数及外周血中白细胞数都显著高于对照组.金龟子次级代谢产物单独或其协同脂多糖(LPS),植物血凝素P(PHA-P)刺激时,鸡脾脏淋巴细胞的增殖活性增强.金龟子绿僵菌次级代谢产物剂量为4mg/kg时,试验组鸡的抗体效价、免疫器官指数和外周血中的白细胞数均减少;鸡脾脏淋巴细胞的增殖活性降低.%The trial was to study the effect of the secondary metabolites of Metarhizium anisopliae on newcastle disease vaccine. 100 14-day-old chickens were randomly assigned into equal five groups. The chickens in three experimental groups were intramuscularly injected respectively with secondary metabolites of Metsrhizium anisopliae at high, medium, and low dose and vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine. Two control groups were administrated with no adjuvant (NA) and normal group. Four groups (group Ⅰ to Ⅳ) were immunized with the LaSota live vaccine against Newcastle disease virus(NDV)for two times with 14 days interval. In continuous 6 weeks before and after vaccination, 10 chickens were sampled randomly from each group for the determination of

  11. 76 FR 36286 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY AGENCY... airspace at Newcastle, WY, to accommodate aircraft using the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... amend controlled airspace at Newcastle, WY (76 FR 20281). Interested parties were invited to...

  12. Ascaridia galli infection influences the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity after Newcastle Disease vaccination in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne; Dalgaard, Tina S.; Norup, Liselotte R.

    2014-01-01

    Potent vaccine efficiency is crucial for disease control in both human and livestock vaccination programmes. Free range chickens and chickens with access to outdoor areas have a high risk of infection with parasites including Ascaridia galli, a gastrointestinal nematode with a potential influence...

  13. 对贵州某养鸽户鸽新城疫的分子生物学诊断%The molecular biological diagnosis of newcastle disease of pigeons occurred in an individual farmer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温贵兰; 瞿继红; 周碧君; 文明

    2007-01-01

    鸽新城疫(Newcastle disease,ND)是由新城疫病毒(Newcastle diseasevirus,NDV)引起的鸽的一种高度接触性、急性败血性传染病。其起源于20世纪70年代末的中东,80年代在欧洲、非洲、北美等地流行。我国20世纪80年代初期出现鸽新城疫病,现已广泛流行于各省区,成为养鸽业的主要疫病之一。

  14. 一株基因Ⅶb亚型新城疫病毒F和HN基因的序列分析%Sequence analysis of the F and HN genes of a Newcastle disease virus belonged to subgenotype Ⅶb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敏华; 董嘉文; 李林林; 袁建丰; 胡奇林

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was isolated from goose in Sanshui district, Foshan, designated Goose/Foshan/2010. The ORF sequences of F and HN gene of the isolate were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. The aligning analysis results showed that the isolate was placed into genotype Ⅶb of NDV with a F protein cleavage motif of 112R-RQKR-F117 which was the molecular character of the virulent NDV. Two point mutations of E347D and K495E occurred in neutralizing epitopes of in HN protein. Furthermore, a glycosylation site was deleted in HN protein at aa 538-aa 540. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Goose/Foshan/2010 was closely related to the early isolates of genotype Ⅶb from Peru and Malaysia. While, it is the first report of genotype Ⅶb NDV isolated from goose in China.%为分析从某鹅病料样品中分离鉴定的一株新城疫病毒(NDV) (Goose/Foshan/2010)F和HN基因的序列特征,本研究采用RT-PCR方法扩增该病毒的F和HN基因的ORF序列,并进行序列测定.经序列比对、进化分析表明,Goose/Foshan/2010株属于基因Ⅶb亚型病毒株,F蛋白裂解位点序列为112RRQKRF117,-HN蛋白由571个氨基酸残基组成,具有强毒株分子特征.对F和HN蛋白分析表明,其HN蛋白存在E347D和K495E两个点突变;此外,HN蛋白缺失了538位~540位的糖基化位点.该分离株为我国首次报道的鹅源基因Ⅶb亚型NDV分离株,与秘鲁及马来西亚早期基因Ⅶb亚型分离株进化关系密切,表明我国目前新城疫的流行情况十分复杂.

  15. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  16. Respons Antibodi terhadap Penyakit Tetelo pada Ayam yang Divaksin Tetelo dan Tetelo-Flu Burung (NEWCASTLE DISEASE/ND ANTIBODY RESPONSE OF CHICKENS VACCINATED WITH ND SINGLE AND COMBINED ND AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antibody response of specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens vaccinatedwith single inactivated Newcastle disease (ND vaccine and combined inactive ND and avian influenza(AI vaccines and to known the efficacy of both vaccines. The vaccines used were killed ND vaccine andkilled ND-AI vaccine produced by PT. Sanbio Laboratories Bogor, West Java. SPF chickens were vaccinatedwith 3 different doses. Antibody titer of SPF chickens against ND virus were determined byhaemagglutination inhibition (HI test. As many as 130 two week old SPF chickens were used and theywere divided into 2 groups (A and B consisting of 60 chickens and 10 chickens were used as control withoutvaccine. Group A chickens were vaccinated with ND-K vaccine and group B were vaccinated with combinedkilled ND-AI vaccines. Each group was further divided into 3 subsgroups (1, 2 and 3 consisting 20 chickens.Subgroups 1, 2 and 3 were vaccinated intramuscularly respectively with intramuskular 1, 1/10 and 1/100doses of each vaccines. Antibody response of chickens against ND virus was examined before vaccinationand every three week after vaccination and was expresses as geometric mean titre (GMT HI units. Theresult showed that the titre antibody against ND increased at the second week following the vaccination.The antibody titer against ND virus of chickens vaccinated single killed ND at the second week in eachdose were 6.05 GMT HI unit, 4.05 GMT HI unit, and 0.9 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre at the third week were 7.90 GMT HI unit ,5.40 GMT HI unit and 2.20 GMT HI unit. The antibody titre against ND virus ofchickens vaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine at the second week were 6.30 GMT HI unit , 4.15 GMTHI unit , and 2.05 GMT HI unit. At the third week, the antibody titre against ND virus of chickensvaccinated with combined ND-AI vaccine in each subgroup were 7.45 GMT HI unit, 5.60 GMT HI unit , and2.40 GMT HI unit . It showed that the antibody titers

  17. Experimental infection of sheeps with Newcastle disease virus induces immune response%新城疫病毒感染绵羊诱导免疫应答反应的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王善辉; 池贤凤; 李安; 高三阳; 李书光; 王文秀; 沈志强

    2011-01-01

    To test the possibility of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as NDV associated vaccine vactor in sheep, two groups of sheep were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with NDV-30 strain, respectively, and the clinical signs and viral replication were evaluated, for detection of anti-HN antibodies, neutralizing antibodies and NDV-specific IgG antibodies in serum were dectected by HI test, microneutralization test and ELISA test, respectively. The results showed that NDV-30 was attenuated in this unnatural host. Anti-HN antibodies, NDV specific antibodies and neutralizing antibodies were produced by both intranasal and intratracheal infection. That suggested NDV could be used as a host-range-restricted vaccine vector in sheep, and it might be more safety for sheep inoculated intratracheally compared to that of intranasal inoculation.%为探索新城疫病毒(NDV)作为羊病毒病疫苗载体的可行性,验证NDV感染绵羊的可能性,本研究采用NDV Clone-30株分别通过滴鼻和气管灌注两种途径接种绵羊,接种后观察临床症状,检测接种动物排毒情况,通过血凝抑制试验检测接种绵羊特异性血凝抑制抗体,ELISA试验检测接种绵羊血清特异性IgG抗体,微量中和试验检测接种绵羊血清中和抗体.研究结果表明,NDV在绵羊体内是非致病性的,并且通过两种接种途径在绵羊体内均可以产生血凝抑制抗体、NDV特异性IgG抗体和中和抗体反应.本研究结果表明NDV有可能作为宿主限制性疫苗载体用于预防无特效疫苗的羊类疾病,且与气管灌注接种途径比,滴鼻接种途径相对安全.

  18. Biological characteristics of a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing Newcastle disease virus HN gene%表达NDV HN基因的重组鸡痘病毒的部分生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘军纪; 刘武杰; 彭大新; 吴艳涛; 刘秀梵

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of transferring gene on biological characteristics of fowlpox virus ( FPV) , a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing newcastle disease virus ( NDV) HN gene ( rFPV-12LSHN) was subjected to ultrastructural analysis. The result demonstrated that the morphology of mature virions. replication pattern. and production of rFPV-12LSHN in infected cells were similar to those of FPV. When ll-day-old chicken embryonated eggs were inoculated with rFPV by chonoallantoic membrane ( CAM) route, typical pock lesions were found on the CAM. and the chicken embryo minimal infecting dose was less than 100 PFU. The expression of NDV HN gene in rFPV could be stably detected by immunofluorescence assay when rFPV was passaged in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF) cells. The SPF chickens inoculated with 103 PFU of rFPV-12LSHN were completely protected from the virulent NDV strain at 3 weeks after vaccination.%为了评价转基因对鸡痘病毒(FPV)生物学特性的影响,通过电镜观察表达新城疫病毒(NDV)血凝素-神经氨酸酶蛋白(HN)基因重组鸡痘病毒(rFPV-12LSHN)感染的鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF).结果表明:在FPV中插入NDV HN基因后,不改变rFPV的形态、病毒成熟过程;rFPV-12LSHN与FPV在CEF上的产量无显著差异(P>0.05);rFPV-12LSHN接种11日龄鸡胚,在尿囊膜(CAM)上观察到典型痘斑或水肿,鸡胚最小感染量≤100PFU.免疫荧光试验证明,rFPV-12LSHN在CEF上传代能稳定表达NDV HN抗原;rFPV(103PFU/羽)接种SPF鸡快速诱导NDV HI抗体应答,免疫3周后完全保护NDV强毒攻击.

  19. Entire genome sequence analysis of genotype IX Newcastle disease viruses reveals their early-genotype phylogenetic position and recent-genotype genome size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Shunling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six nucleotide (nt insertion in the 5'-noncoding region (NCR of the nucleoprotein (NP gene of Newcaslte disease virus (NDV is considered to be a genetic marker for recent genotypes of NDV, which emerged after 1960. However, F48-like NDVs from China, identified a 6-nt insert in the NP gene, have been previously classified into genotype III or genotype IX. Results In order to clarify their phylogenetic position and explore the origin of NDVs with the 6-nt insert and its significance in NDV evolution, we determined the entire genome sequences of five F48-like viruses isolated in China between 1946 and 2002 by RT-PCR amplification of overlapping fragments of full-length genome and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. All the five NDV isolates shared the same genome size of 15,192-nt with the recent genotype V-VIII viruses whereas they had the highest homology with early genotype III and IV isolates. Conclusions The unique characteristic of the genome size and phylogenetic position of F48-like viruses warrants placing them in a separate geno-group, genotype IX. Results in this study also suggest that genotype IX viruses most likely originate from a genotype III virus by insertion of a 6-nt motif in the 5'-NCR of the NP gene which had occurred as early as in 1940 s, and might be the common origin of genotype V-VIII viruses.

  20. ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND BIOINFORMATICS ANALYSIS OF SIX NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES OF PIGEON ORIGIN%六株鸽源新城疫病毒的分离、鉴定及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕超; 刘佩红; 丁铲; 仇旭升; 刘开春; 周锦萍; 刘健; 鞠厚斌; 谭磊; 孙英杰; 宋翠萍

    2014-01-01

    新城疫是严重危害世界养禽业的一种禽类传染病。近年来,鸽新城疫的流行越来越严重,引起了养殖户和兽医工作者的广泛关注。本研究在4批发病鸽组织病料中分离到了4株鸽源新城疫强毒株和2株鸽源弱毒株。病毒分离株经鸡胚有限稀释法纯化5次后,新鲜尿囊液用于提取病毒RNA。经RT-PCR扩增、测序得到分离株的F基因和HN基因序列。通过对F基因的遗传进化分析发现,4株鸽源强毒株属于ClassⅡ基因Ⅵb亚型,2株鸽源弱毒株与Class II基因II型疫苗株La Sota高度同源。进一步遗传进化分析结果显示,4株鸽源新城疫病毒强毒株与目前国内流行株属于同一遗传分支,这些毒株与欧洲流行株亲缘关系十分相近,而与中国20世纪90年代鸽源分离株遗传距离稍远,因此推测当前鸽源流行强毒株可能源自欧洲。生物信息学分析显示鸽源毒株HN蛋白345~353位的一个线性抗原表位发生了改变,而血清学实验显示La Sota疫苗株和鸽源毒株的交叉血凝抑制存在明显差异,暗示鸽源毒株已经发生了抗原性变异。因此,使用鸡疫苗株La Sota免疫鸽存在免疫失败的风险,需要研发鸽专用新城疫病毒疫苗用于鸽新城疫的防疫工作。%Newcastle disease is a severe infectious disease in birds, threatening poultry industry worldwide. Pigeons are very susceptible to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection, which causes high morbidity and mortality. In this study, six NDV strains were isolated from the pigeon tissue samples, four of which were highly virulent and two were low virulent. These pigeon viruses were cloned 5 times in embroynated SPF chicken eggs via limited dilution method. The fresh allantoic fluids were collected for RNA extraction. The resulting RNA samples were converted to cDNAs followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of F and HN genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on F gene sequences