Sample records for newborns exhibits unique

  1. Athletes who train on unstable compared to stable surfaces exhibit unique postural control strategies in response to balance perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Blaise Williams, III


    Conclusion: USA exhibit unique postural strategies compared to SSA. These unique strategies seemingly exhibit a direction-specific attribute and may be associated with divergent motor control strategies.

  2. Spirulina exhibits hepatoprotective effects against lead induced oxidative injury in newborn rats. (United States)

    Gargouri, M; Ben Saad, H; Ben Amara, I; Magné, C; El Feki, A


    Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of biochemical and physiological effects. The present investigation was designed at evaluating the toxic effects of a prenatal exposure to lead of mothers on hepatic tissue of newborn rats, and potent protective effects of spirulina. Female rats were randomly divided into 4 groups which were given a normal diet (control),a diet enriched with spirulina (S), lead acetate administered through drinking water (Pb), or a diet enriched with spirulina and lead contaminated water (S Pb), respectively. The duration of treatments was from the 5th day of gestation to 14 days postpartum. Lead toxicity was assessed by measuring body and liver weights, blood and stomach lead levels, hepatic DNA, RNA and protein amounts, blood enzyme activities (AST and ALT), as well as lipid peroxidation level and activities of antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissues of neonates. Lead intoxication of mothers caused reduction of liver weight as well as of hepatic DNA, mRNA and protein levels in newborns. Moreover, oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant enzyme activities were recorded. Conversely, supplementation of mothers with spirulina mitigated these effects induced by lead. These results substantiated the potential hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of spirulina.

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : | T&eacu...

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  6. Characterization of the yam tuber storage proteins from Dioscorea batatas exhibiting unique lectin activities. (United States)

    Gaidamashvili, Mariam; Ohizumi, Yuki; Iijima, Shinichiro; Takayama, Tomo; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji


    anhydrase, amylase, or trypsin inhibitor activity. These results show that two of the four major proteins isolated from the yam tubers D. batatas have unique lectin activities.

  7. Mandibular second molar exhibiting a unique "Y-" and "J-" "shaped" root canal anatomy diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomographic scanning: A case report. (United States)

    Parashar, Saumya-Rajesh; Kowsky, R Dinesh; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan


    This article aims to report a unique case with aberrant root canal anatomy exhibiting "Y-" and "J"-shaped canal pattern in a mandibular second molar. Anatomic complexities may pose challenges for endodontic treatment. Before performing endodontic treatment, the clinician should be aware of the internal anatomy of the tooth being treated and should recognize anatomic aberrations if present. Presence of unusual anatomy may call for modifications in treatment planning. This report describes in detail about a mandibular second molar tooth associated with two paramolar tubercles having a peculiar "Y-" and "J-"shaped canal anatomy detected with the aid of cone beam computed tomography, which has never been reported in the dental literature. The proposed treatment protocol for the endodontic management of the same has also been discussed.

  8. Newborn jaundice (United States)

    Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... newborns have some yellowing of the skin, or jaundice. This is called physiological jaundice. It is often ...

  9. Forced swimming sabotages the morphological and synaptic maturation of newborn granule neurons and triggers a unique pro-inflammatory milieu in the hippocampus. (United States)

    Llorens-Martín, María; Jurado-Arjona, Jerónimo; Bolós, Marta; Pallas-Bazarra, Noemí; Ávila, Jesús


    Recent experimental data suggest that mood disorders are related to inflammatory phenomena and have led to the "inflammatory hypothesis of depression". Given that the hippocampus is one of the most affected areas in these disorders, we used a model of acute stress (the Porsolt test) to evaluate the consequences of forced swimming on two crucial events related to the pathophysiology of major depression: the functional maturation of newborn granule neurons; and the hippocampal inflammatory milieu. Using PSD95:GFP-expressing retroviruses, we found that forced swimming selectively alters the dendritic morphology of newborn neurons and impairs their connectivity by reducing the number and volume of their postsynaptic densities. In addition, acute stress triggered a series of morphological changes in microglial cells, together with an increase in microglial CD68 expression, thus suggesting the functional and morphological activation of this cell population. Furthermore, we observed an intriguing change in the hippocampal inflammatory milieu in response to forced swimming. Importantly, the levels of several molecules affected by acute stress (such as Interleukin-6 and eotaxin) have been described to also be altered in patients with depression and other mood disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Newborn Jaundice (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Jaundice In Newborns Back ...

  11. Sleep and Newborns (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  12. Thrush in newborns (United States)

    Candidiasis - oral - newborn; Oral thrush - newborn; Fungal infection - mouth - newborn; Candida - oral - newborn ... thrush. You paint this medicine on your baby's mouth and tongue. If you have a yeast infection on your nipples, your provider may recommend an ...

  13. Communication and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... your doctor, especially if the baby has a temperature of 100.4°F (38°C) or more. ... and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Learning, Play, and Your Newborn Your Newborn's Hearing, Vision, ...

  14. Anemia in the Newborn (United States)

    ... Overview of Horseshoe Kidney Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Andrew W. Walter, MS ... for the Professional Version Blood Problems in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn ...

  15. Newborn jaundice - discharge (United States)

    ... Biliary atresia Bili lights Bilirubin blood test Bilirubin encephalopathy Exchange transfusion Jaundice and breastfeeding Newborn jaundice Premature infant Rh incompatibility Patient Instructions Newborn ...

  16. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  17. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne


    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  18. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  19. Low blood sugar - newborns (United States)

    ... this page: // Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  20. Senses and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... will fully satisfy your baby. Why Is Touch Important? Touch is very important to a newborn. With ... your baby react to soft lullabies or other music? Even if your child passed the newborn hearing ...

  1. Hormonal effects in newborns (United States)

    ... page: // Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  2. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  3. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.


    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  4. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  5. Resuscitation of the Newborn (United States)

    Kilduff, C. J.


    All infants have some degree of hypoxia and respiratory acidosis at birth, but these conditions are more profound in the asphyxiated newborn. The newborn infant is very susceptible to cooling and may require warming. Skin temperature should be maintained between 36-36.5°.2 Resuscitation of the asphyxiated newborn must include both ventilatory and metabolic correction. Newborn infants may have cardiorespiratory problems due to asphyxia, drugs given to the mother, intrathoracic disease, anemia, hypovolemia (due to antepartum hemorrhage), hypotension, etc. There is no substitute for oxygen which is the drug of choice in respiratory depression of the newborn. The use of stimulating drugs like Coramine, picrotoxin, alphalobectine, and Megamide has no place in the resuscitation of the asphyxiated newborn. Imagesp74-ap74-bp74-cp74-d PMID:20469196

  6. Distinct DNA methylomes of newborns and centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyn, Holger; Li, Ning; Ferreira, Humberto J.


    Human aging cannot be fully understood in terms of the constrained genetic setting. Epigenetic drift is an alternative means of explaining age-associated alterations. To address this issue, we performed whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of newborn and centenarian genomes. The centenarian DNA......-age individuals demonstrated DNA methylomes in the crossroad between the newborn and the nonagenarian/centenarian groups. Our study constitutes a unique DNA methylation analysis of the extreme points of human life at a single-nucleotide resolution level....

  7. Hemothorax in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, H.C.; Wille, L.


    Twenty cases of hemothorax in newborns are reviewed in detail. This unusual cause of acute respiratory distress within the neonatal period was observed in 14 males and 6 females. Most of the patients were fullterm newborns. As causal factors hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (vitamin K deficiency), disseminated intravascular coagulation, arteriovenous malformations and pleural/vascular rupture are considered. The time of occurrence of bleeding symptoms ranged from 1 to 28 days of life. Sixteen out of 20 patients survived without sequelae, but in 4 cases the outcome was lethal. (orig.) [de

  8. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jaundice in Healthy Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Jaundice in ... within a few days of birth. Types of Jaundice The most common types of jaundice are: Physiological ( ...

  9. Growth and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... drink alcohol, or use illegal drugs during pregnancy. Nutrition during pregnancy . Good nutrition is essential for a baby's growth in the uterus and beyond. A poor diet during pregnancy can affect how much a newborn weighs and ...

  10. Urine Blockage in Newborns (United States)

    ... the ureter joins the kidney. Bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). BOO describes any blockage in the urethra or at ... urethral valves (PUV), the most common form of BOO seen in newborns and during prenatal ultrasound exams, ...

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn (United States)

    ... Your Child's Development: Newborn Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: recién nacido From the moment ... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice ...

  12. Newborn ankyloglossia and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Felc


    Full Text Available Background: Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia is a relatively common finding in the newborn population and represents a significant proportion of breastfeeding problems. Ankyloglossia may result in difficulty with suckling and can lead to poor weight gain, sore nipples, low milk supply, maternal fatigue and frustration.Conclusions: By recognizing ankyloglossia early, the health care team is able to treat breastfeeding problems promptly and proactively. The pediatrician, oral-maxillofacial surgeon, and parents should work together as a team from the time of birth to determine a coordinated plan of treatment. Careful assessment of lingual function is important in selecting the correct treatment. Frenulotomy is indicated in newborns with a short and/or thick frenulum and limited lingual mobility. In newborn infants with ankyloglossia this minimal surgical procedure is an effective therapy for breastfeeding difficulties.

  13. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth / For Parents / Learning, ... Some Other Ideas Print What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  14. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn (United States)

    ... page: // Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Yatsyk


    Full Text Available Galactosemia is a hereditary disease, the pathogenetic treatment of which is based on dietotherapy. Early diagnosing and the adequate choice of the diet improve the development forecasts for the ill child. The article describes a classical galactosemia case in a newborn. It is shown that despite diagnosing the disease on the second month of life, the adequate selection of etiopathogenetic dietotherapy and etiotropic therapy of the concurrent diseases helped compensate the inborn galactose metabolism defect and optimize the long-term forecast for the child.Key words: inborn metabolism dysfunctions, alactosemia, dietotherapy, newborn children.

  16. Newborn Black Holes (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005


    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  17. Gingival Cyst of Newborn. (United States)

    Moda, Aman


    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  18. Newborn screening for galactosaemia. (United States)

    Lak, Rohollah; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Davari, Majid; Nouhi, Mojtaba; Kelishadi, Roya


    Classical galactosaemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. This is a rare and potentially lethal condition that classically presents in the first week of life once milk feeds have commenced. Affected babies may present with any or all of the following: cataracts; fulminant liver failure; prolonged jaundice; or Escherichia coli sepsis. Once the diagnosis is suspected, feeds containing galactose must be stopped immediately and replaced with a soya-based formula. The majority of babies will recover, however a number will not survive. There are long-term complications of galactosaemia, despite treatment, including learning disabilities and female infertility. It has been postulated that galactosaemia could be detected on newborn screening and this would prevent the immediate severe liver dysfunction and sepsis. To assess whether there is evidence that newborn screening for galactosaemia prevents or reduces mortality and morbidity and improves clinical outcomes in affected neonates and the quality of life in older children. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and conference abstract books. We also searched online trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of the most recent search of Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Group's Trials Register: 18 December 2017.Date of the most recent search of additional resources: 11 October 2017. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies, published or unpublished comparing the use of any newborn screening test to diagnose infants with galactosaemia and presenting a comparison between a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies of newborn screening for galactosaemia were found. No studies were identified for inclusion in the

  19. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab


    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  20. A newborn with multiple fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantorova, E.; Kratky, L.; Nevsimal, I.; Marik, K.; Kozlowski, K.


    Sometimes newborns with multiple fractures are diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta in spite of absence of radiographic findings supporting this diagnosis. A newborn with multiple fractures was diagnosed as osteogenesis imperfecta. Analysis of the structure of the long bones, pattern of fractures and poorly developed muscles suggested the diagnosis of fetal akinesia deformation syndrome. This was confirmed by pregnancy history and clinical findings. Multiple fractures in a newborn may present with diagnostic radiographic features as in osteogenesis imperfecta, or as in lethal gracile bone dysplasias or achondrogenesis type IA. If those features are absent, other diseases should be considered. Radiographs should be compared with pregnancy history and clinical findings in the newborn. (authors)

  1. Optical coherence tomography of the newborn airway. (United States)

    Ridgway, James M; Su, Jianping; Wright, Ryan; Guo, Shuguang; Kim, David C; Barretto, Roberto; Ahuja, Gurpreet; Sepehr, Ali; Perez, Jorge; Sills, Jack H; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J F


    Acquired subglottic stenosis in a newborn is often associated with prolonged endotracheal intubation. This condition is generally diagnosed during operative endoscopy after airway injury has occurred. Unfortunately, endoscopy is unable to characterize the submucosal changes observed in such airway injuries. Other modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound, do not possess the necessary level of resolution to differentiate scar, neocartilage, and edema. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality that produces high-resolution, cross-sectional images of living tissue (8 to 20 microm). We examined the ability of this noninvasive technique to characterize the newborn airway in a prospective clinical trial. Twelve newborn patients who required ventilatory support underwent OCT airway imaging. Comparative analysis of intubated and non-intubated states was performed. Imaging of the supraglottis, glottis, subglottis, and trachea was performed in 12 patients, revealing unique tissue characteristics as related to turbidity, signal backscattering, and architecture. Multiple structures were identified, including the vocal folds, cricoid cartilage, tracheal rings, ducts, glands, and vessels. Optical coherence tomography clearly identifies in vivo tissue layers and regional architecture while offering detailed information concerning tissue microstructures. The diagnostic potential of this technology makes OCT a promising modality in the study and surveillance of the neonatal airway.

  2. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions


    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović


    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  3. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor (United States)

    Jaundice - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice ... What causes jaundice in a newborn child? How common is newborn jaundice? Will the jaundice harm my child? What are the ...

  4. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... more articles Reference Desk Glossary (National Center for Biotechnology Information) Find an Expert Eunice Kennedy Shriver National ... other than English on Newborn Screening NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns Screening Newborns' Hearing Now ...

  5. Newborn hearing screening. (United States)

    Stewart, D L; Pearlman, A


    Congenital deafness is a relatively common problem with an incidence of 1/300 to 1/1000. Most states have no mass screening program for hearing loss, but the state of Kentucky compiles a High Risk Registry which is a historical survey of parents relating to risk factors for hearing loss. Unfortunately this survey can miss 50% of those who have a hearing deficit. If not detected prior to discharge, there is often a delay in diagnosis of deafness which prevents early intervention. We report 2 years' experience at Kosair Children's Hospital where 1,987 infants admitted to well baby, intermediate, or intensive care nurseries were screened using the ALGO-1 screener (Natus Medical Inc, Foster City, CA) which is a modified auditory brain stem evoked response (ABR). Our screening of this population led to an 11% incidence of referral for complete audiological evaluation. There were no significant complications. Forty-eight infants were found to have nonspecified, sensorineural, or conductive hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the test was 96%. Therefore, we feel that the use of the modified ABR in the newborn is a timely, cost efficient method of screening for hearing loss and should be used for mass screening of all newborns.

  6. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan


    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  7. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin


    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  8. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters


    Jakimovska, Jana


    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  9. Newborn Screening for Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. C. Borrajo PhD


    Full Text Available Newborn screening (NBS for phenylketonuria in Latin America gave its first step in an organized way 3 decades ago when the first national NBS program was implemented in Cuba. From then onward, it experienced a slow but continuous growing, being currently possible to find from countries where no NBS activity is known to several countries with consolidated NBS programs. This complex scenario gave rise to a great diversity in the criteria used for sample collection, selection of analytical methods, and definition of cutoff values. Considering this context, a consensus meeting was held in order to unify such criteria, focusing the discussion in the following aspects—recommended blood specimens and sample collection time; influence of early discharge, fasting, parenteral nutrition, blood transfusions, extracorporeal life support, and antibiotics; main causes of transient hyperphenylalaninemias; required characteristics for methods used in phenylalanine measurement; and finally, criteria to define the more appropriate cutoff values.

  10. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail


    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  11. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić


    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  12. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  13. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia


    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  14. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.


    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  15. Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (United States)

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn (VKDB) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often ... A lack of vitamin K may cause severe bleeding in newborn babies. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting. Babies often ...

  16. Looking at Your Newborn: What's Normal (United States)

    ... features that may make a normal newborn look strange are temporary. After all, babies develop while immersed ... sleepy during the first day or two of life. Many new parents become concerned about their newborn's ...

  17. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli. (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others


    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  18. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01 An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  19. 42 CFR 435.117 - Newborn children. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public..., Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  20. International Space Station exhibit (United States)


    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  1. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  2. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.


    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  3. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps (United States)

    Douma, M.


    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum ( and SpicyNodes information visualization tool ( as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addington Children's Hospital, Durban. In 1951, the Director of the ... 10 assess, since the number of cases diagnosed in these districts is ... Rhesus antibodies develop admission to hospital is advised in the 38th ... laboratory the newborn infant is subjected to a careful ..... is now gross mental defect and blindness. A happy.

  5. Heart rate variability in newborns. (United States)

    Javorka, K; Lehotska, Z; Kozar, M; Uhrikova, Z; Kolarovszki, B; Javorka, M; Zibolen, M


    Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in newborns is influenced by genetic determinants, gestational and postnatal age, and other variables. Premature infants have a reduced HRV. In neonatal HRV evaluated by spectral analysis, a dominant activity can be found in low frequency (LF) band (combined parasympathetic and sympathetic component). During the first postnatal days the activity in the high frequency (HF) band (parasympathetic component) rises, together with an increase in LF band and total HRV. Hypotrophy in newborn can cause less mature autonomic cardiac control with a higher contribution of sympathetic activity to HRV as demonstrated by sequence plot analysis. During quiet sleep (QS) in newborns HF oscillations increase - a phenomenon less expressed or missing in premature infants. In active sleep (AS), HRV is enhanced in contrast to reduced activity in HF band due to the rise of spectral activity in LF band. Comparison of the HR and HRV in newborns born by physiological vaginal delivery, without (VD) and with epidural anesthesia (EDA) and via sectio cesarea (SC) showed no significant differences in HR and in HRV time domain parameters. Analysis in the frequency domain revealed, that the lowest sympathetic activity in chronotropic cardiac chronotropic regulation is in the VD group. Different neonatal pathological states can be associated with a reduction of HRV and an improvement in the health conditions is followed by changes in HRV what can be use as a possible prognostic marker. Examination of heart rate variability in neonatology can provide information on the maturity of the cardiac chronotropic regulation in early postnatal life, on postnatal adaptation and in pathological conditions about the potential dysregulation of cardiac function in newborns, especially in preterm infants.

  6. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  7. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  8. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -


    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  9. Increasing Need for Uniqueness in Contemporary China: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Cai


    Full Text Available Past research has documented various cultural and psychological changes in contemporary China. In two studies, we examine how Chinese people’s need for uniqueness (NFU also has changed. In Study 1, we found a significant cross-generational increase in Chinese participants’ self-reported NFU. In Study 2, we sampled the names of Chinese newborn babies over the last five decades and found that parents have been increasingly likely to use unique characters to name their children. These findings suggest that the NFU has been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings were discussed.

  10. Market mechanisms for newborn health in Nepal. (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Dawkins, Rosie; Tapia, Abeezer; Anand, Sidharth; Chu, Michael; Bloom, David E


    In Nepal, hypothermia is a major risk factor for newborn survival, but the country's public health care sector has insufficient capacity to improve newborn survival given the burden imposed by distance to health facilities and cost. Low-cost technology to provide newborn thermal care in resource-limited environments exists, but lacks effective distribution channels. This study aims to develop a private sector distribution model for dedicated newborn thermal care technology to ensure equitable access to thermal protection and ultimately improve newborn health in Nepal. We conducted a document analysis of newborn health policy in Nepal and a scoping literature review of approaches to newborn hypothermia in the region, followed by qualitative interviews with key stakeholders of newborn health in Nepal. Current solutions addressing newborn hypothermia range from high-technology, high-cost incubators to low-cost behavioral interventions such as skin-to-skin care. However, none of these interventions  are currently implemented at scale. A distribution model that provides incentives for community health volunteers and existing public health services in Nepal can deliver existing low-cost infant warmers to disadvantaged mothers where and when needed. Newborn technology can serve as an adjunct to skin-to-skin care and potentially create demand for newborn care practices. Harnessing market forces could promote public health by raising awareness of newborn challenges, such as newborn hypothermia, and triggering demand for appropriate health technology and related health promotion behaviors. Market approaches to promoting public health have been somewhat neglected, especially in economically disadvantaged and vulnerable populations, and deserve greater attention in Nepal and other settings with limited public health service delivery capacity.

  11. Bone photon absorptiometry in newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoni, R; Tosca, L; Bertoli, L; Ferliga, A; Pivi, M; Marini, A


    In oreder to achieve parameters to evaluate mineralization of premature infants, bone mineral content at the midshaft of the radius was measured in 173 normal newborns. Data were correlated with the following factors: gestional age, postnatal age, sex and weight at birth. In spite of the wide range of variation of individual values, there was a statistically significant correlation between gestational age, sex and BMC.

  12. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning. (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward


    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hip sonography in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboni, G.; Serantoni, S.; De Simoni, M.; Bascape', P.; Facchini, R.; Pirovano, G.


    The authors report the data relative to 1507 cases studied with clinical and US examinations, in the neonatal period, in order to exclude hip dysplasia dislocation. US examination was carried out according to Graf's technique and the newborns were classified according to US hip type, to clinical examination and to possible risk factors. The patients were included in a protocol including orthopedic and US controls. Seventeen treated infants were considered as pathologic. Ten of them had IIc or D hips ar birth; the other 7, with IIa hips at birth, presented a X-ray pathologic hip after the 4th months of life. At about one year of age all infants could normally walk, excpet for one who was being treated with herness. No statistically significant differences were observed between the number of pathologic infants in the risk group (1.7%) and that in the no-risk group (0.8%). Clinical examination of the newborn has low sensitivity in detecting pathologic hips. On the basis of their results, thw authors belive US examination of the newborn to be a valuable screening method to diagnose hip dysplasia/dislocation. Moreover, Graf's morphologic method is the best one for US screening of the hip in the neonatal period

  14. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N


    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  15. Is Life Unique? (United States)

    Abel, David L.


    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  16. Isolated penile torsion in newborns. (United States)

    Eroglu, Egemen; Gundogdu, Gokhan


    We reported on the incidence of isolated penile torsion among our healthy children and our approach to this anomaly. Between 2011 and 2014, newborn babies with penile torsion were classified according to the angle of torsion. Surgical correction (penile degloving and reattachment for moderate cases and dorsal dartos flap technique in case of resistance) after 6 months was advised to the babies with rotations more than 45°. Among 1000 newborn babies, 200 isolated penile torsions were found, and among these, 43 had torsions more than 45°, and 4 of these had angles greater than 90°. The mean angle of the rotations was found 30.45° (median: 20°). In total, 8 children with 60° torsions were previously circumcised. Surgery was performed on 19 patients, with a mean patient age of 12 ± 2 months. Of these 19, 13 babies were corrected with degloving and reattachment. This technique was not enough on the remaining 6 patients; therefore, derotational dorsal dartos flap was added to correct the torsion. After a mean of 15.6 ± 9.8 months, residual penile rotation, less than 15°, was found only in 2 children. The incidence of isolated penile torsion is 20% in newborns. However, rotation more than 45° angles are seen in 4.3% of male babies. Correction is not necessary in mild degrees, and penile degloving with reattachment is enough in most cases. If the initial correction is insufficient, dorsal dartos flap rotation is easy and effective. Prior circumcision neither disturbs the operative procedure nor affects the outcomes.

  17. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs. (United States)

    White, R D


    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  18. Unusual osteopathy in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jequier, S.; Nogrady, M.B.; Wesenberg, R.L.


    A newborn baby presented with hyaline membrane disease, interstitial pneumonia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual bone manifestations with lytic and sclerotic bone lesions and virtually absent periosteal reaction. He subsequently developed intracranial calcifications and mental retardation. The pneumonia and hepatosplenomegaly resolved. At the time of the delivery, a sibling was suffering from a severe undetermined viral infection. The clinical evolution of the disease and the radiologic findings led us to believe that this patient has a prenatal viral infection. The laboratory tests and the histologic picture of the bone biopsy supported the diagnosis.

  19. Unusual osteopathy in a newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jequier, S.; Nogrady, M.B.; Wesenberg, R.L.


    A newborn baby presented with hyaline membrane disease, interstitial pneumonia, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, and unusual bone manifestations with lytic and sclerotic bone lesions and virtually absent periosteal reaction. He subsequently developed intracranial calcifications and mental retardation. The pneumonia and hepatosplenomegaly resolved. At the time of the delivery, a sibling was suffering from a severe undetermined viral infection. The clinical evolution of the disease and the radiologic findings led us to believe that this patient has a prenatal viral infection. The laboratory tests and the histologic picture of the bone biopsy supported the diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Changes in the newborn at birth (United States)

    ... baby's body creates heat by burning stores of brown fat, a type of fat found only in fetuses and newborns. Newborns are rarely seen to shiver. LIVER In the baby, the liver acts as a storage site for sugar (glycogen) and iron. When the baby is born, ...

  1. Caring for a critically ill Amish newborn. (United States)

    Gibson, Elizabeth A


    This article describes a neonatal nurse's personal experience in working with a critically ill newborn and his Amish family in a newborn intensive care unit in Montana. The description includes a cultural experience with an Amish family with application to Madeleine Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality.

  2. 42 CFR 436.124 - Newborn children. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 436.124 Section 436.124 Public... the Categorically Needy § 436.124 Newborn children. (a) The agency must provide Medicaid eligibility to a child born to a woman who has applied for, has been determined eligible and is receiving...

  3. [Recent advances in newborn MRI]. (United States)

    Morel, B; Hornoy, P; Husson, B; Bloch, I; Adamsbaum, C


    The accurate morphological exploration of the brain is a major challenge in neonatology that advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can now provide. MRI is the gold standard if an hypoxic ischemic pathology is suspected in a full term neonate. In prematures, the specific role of MRI remains to be defined, secondary to US in any case. We present a state of the art of hardware and software technical developments in MRI. The increase in magnetic field strength (3 tesla) and the emergence of new MRI sequences provide access to new information. They both have positive and negative consequences on the daily clinical data acquisition use. The semiology of brain imaging in full term newborns and prematures is more extensive and complex and thereby more difficult to interpret. The segmentation of different brain structures in the newborn, even very premature, is now available. It is now possible to dissociate the cortex and basal ganglia from the cerebral white matter, to calculate the volume of anatomical structures, which improves the morphometric quantification and the understanding of the normal and abnormal brain development. MRI is a powerful tool to analyze the neonatal brain. The relevance of the diagnostic contribution requires an adaptation of the parameters of the sequences to acquire and of the image processing methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  5. Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (United States)

    Stayer, Stephen A; Liu, Yang


    Pulmonary hypertension presenting in the neonatal period can be due to congenital heart malformations (most commonly associated with obstruction to pulmonary venous drainage), high output cardiac failure from large arteriovenous malformations and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Of these, the most common cause is PPHN. PPHN develops when pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) remains elevated after birth, resulting in right-to-left shunting of blood through foetal circulatory pathways. The PVR may remain elevated due to pulmonary hypoplasia, like that seen with congenital diaphragmatic hernia; maldevelopment of the pulmonary arteries, seen in meconium aspiration syndrome; and maladaption of the pulmonary vascular bed as occurs with perinatal asphyxia. These newborn patients typically require mechanical ventilatory support and those with underlying lung disease may benefit from high-frequency oscillatory ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Direct pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled nitric oxide, have been shown to improve the outcome and reduce the need for ECMO. However, there is very limited experience with other pulmonary vasodilators. The goals for anaesthetic management are (1) to provide an adequate depth of anaesthesia to ablate the rise in PVR associated with surgical stimuli; (2) to maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation; and (3) to be prepared to treat a pulmonary hypertensive crisis--an acute rise in PVR with associated cardiovascular collapse.

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : | T&eacut...

  4. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  5. Cytogenetic studies on newborns from high level natural background radiation areas of Kerala coast, South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, V.D.; Kurien, C.J.; Das, Birajalaxmi


    The human population residing in the monazite bearing high level natural background radiation (HLNBR) areas of Kerala, along the South-West coast of India provides unique opportunities of assessing directly in man, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure. The per capita dose received by this population is nearly four times the normal background radiation level. While this is the average dose, the radiation levels prevailing in these HLNBR areas are in the range of 1 to over 35 mGy per year. Chromosomal aberration studies in the lymphocytes of newborns and adults from these areas have been in progress for two decades. So far, 4156 newborn babies from HLNBR and 7321 from normal background radiation (NBR) areas have been screened for the incidence of chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics and rings). The mean frequency of dicentrics and rings did not show any significant difference between the newborns in the control and the HLNBRA population. Assessment of the frequency of micronuclei in cytochalasin-B blocked binucleated lymphocytes of 49 newborns from control areas and 131 newborns from radioactive areas also showed similar values. While an age-dependent increase in chromosome aberration frequency was observed in the adult samples from control and the study areas, the regression analysis of the data indicated a marginally higher slope for the samples from HLNBRA. Karyotype anomalies recorded so far among the newborns have not revealed any significant difference in the incidence of numerical (including Down syndrome) and structural alterations between the control and the exposed populations. A noteworthy observation, herein reported for the first time from any HLNBR area is that there is no discernible increase in the incidence of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral lymphocytes of newborn babies hailing from HLNBR areas, where their ancestral generations have lived for several hundreds of years. (author)

  6. Immobility reaction at birth in newborn infant. (United States)

    Rousseau, Pierre Victor; Francotte, Jacques; Fabbricatore, Maria; Frischen, Caroline; Duchateau, Delphine; Perin, Marie; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Lahaye, Willy


    To describe an immobility reaction (IR) that was not previously reported at or immediately after birth in human newborns. We analyzed 31 videos of normal term vaginal deliveries recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant. We searched for perinatal factors associated with newborn's IR. IR at birth was observed in 8 of the 31 newborns. The main features of their behavior were immobilization, frozen face, shallow breathing and bradycardia. One of the 8 newborns had sudden collapse 2h after birth. We found significant relationships between maternal prenatal stress (PS) and IR (p=.037), and a close to significant one between infants' lividness at Time 0 and IR (p=.053). The first breath of the 31 newborns occurred before and was not associated with the first cry (psyndrome. This first report of an IR reaction at birth in human infants could open up new paths for improving early neonatal care. Further research is needed for maternal PS, stress hormones, umbilical cord blood pH measurements in IR newborns. The challenge of education and support for parents of IR newborns is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detection of phenylketonuria for newborn screening (United States)

    Javanmard, M.; Davis, R. W.


    Diagnosis of Phenylketonuria (PKU) in newborns is important because it can potentially help prevent mental retardation since it is treatable by dietary means. PKU results in phenylketonurics having phenylalanine levels as high as 2 mM whereas the normal upper limit in healthy newborns is 120 uM. To this end, we are developing a microfluidic platform integrated with a SERS substrate for detection of high levels of phenylalanine. We have successfully demonstrated SERS detection of phenylalanine using various SERS substrates fabricated using nanosphere lithography, which exhibit high levels of field enhancement. We show detection of SERS at clinically relevant levels.

  8. Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen


    A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

  9. Thoracic trauma in newborn foals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, D.; Laverty, S.; Halley, J.; Hannigan, D.; Leveille, R.


    In a report describing life ending fractures (255 horses) from the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, Kentucky (1993 and 1994), 32 foals had rib fractures. The purpose of our study was to examine the incidence of rib fractures in newborn foals on a Thoroughbred studfarm by physical and radiographic examination, to determine factors which may contribute to the problem and to document any clinical consequences. All foals (263) included were examined within 3 days of birth. The thoracic cage was palpated externally for abnormalities and all foals were placed in dorsal recumbency to evaluate thoracic cage symmetry. Radiographs were used to diagnose foals with thoraciccage asymmetry (TCA) and rib fracture (RF). A diagnosis of costochondral dislocation (CD) was made when no radiographic evidence of fracture was present but there was severe TCA, Fifty-five foals (20.1%) had TCA (9 RF), One to 5 ribs were fractured on 9 of 40 radiographic studies. No consequences of the thoracic trauma was detected clinically, radiographically or ultrasonographically in this group of foals or at a 2- and 4-week follow-up examination. The percentage of foals with a history of abnormal parturition was higher in the TCA foals (15%) compared to the normal foals (6.8%). There weremore primiparous dams in the TCA group than in the normal foal group. Fillies (56.6%) had a higher incidence of birth trauma than colts (43.4%), Thisstudy demonstrates that thoracic trauma is often present in newborn foals and may not always be of clinical significance. Dystocia foals and foals from primiparous mares should be considered high risk for thoracic trauma

  10. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani


    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  11. Camellia sinensis Prevents Perinatal Nicotine-Induced Neurobehavioral Alterations, Tissue Injury, and Oxidative Stress in Male and Female Mice Newborns (United States)

    Ajarem, Jamaan S.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Allam, Ahmed A.


    Nicotine exposure during pregnancy induces oxidative stress and leads to behavioral alterations in early childhood and young adulthood. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against perinatal nicotine-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice newborns. Pregnant mice received 50 mg/kg C. sinensis on gestational day 1 (PD1) to postnatal day 15 (D15) and were subcutaneously injected with 0.25 mg/kg nicotine from PD12 to D15. Nicotine-exposed newborns showed significant delay in eye opening and hair appearance and declined body weight at birth and at D21. Nicotine induced neuromotor alterations in both male and female newborns evidenced by the suppressed righting, rotating, and cliff avoidance reflexes. Nicotine-exposed newborns exhibited declined memory, learning, and equilibrium capabilities, as well as marked anxiety behavior. C. sinensis significantly improved the physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavioral performance in nicotine-exposed male and female newborns. In addition, C. sinensis prevented nicotine-induced tissue injury and lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant defenses in the cerebellum and medulla oblongata of male and female newborns. In conclusion, this study shows that C. sinensis confers protective effects against perinatal nicotine-induced neurobehavioral alterations, tissue injury, and oxidative stress in mice newborns. PMID:28588748

  12. Preventing herpes simplex virus in the newborn. (United States)

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W


    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide. Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected genitally with HSV, and most of them are unaware of this. The most devastating consequence of maternal genital herpes is HSV disease in the newborn. Although neonatal HSV infections remain uncommon, due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the infection, HSV infection in the newborn is often considered in the differential diagnosis of ill neonates. This review summarizes the epidemiology and management of neonatal HSV infections and discusses strategies to prevent HSV infection in the newborn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  14. Safety of Reiki Therapy for Newborns at Risk for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (United States)

    Wright-Esber, Sandra; Zupancic, Julie; Gargiulo, Deb; Woodall, Patricia


    The incidence of opioid abuse and subsequent drug withdrawal is exponentially on the rise in the United States for many populations including newborns who are born to drug-addicted mothers. These newborns often exhibit symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) within 24 to 72 hours of birth. Treatment of NAS includes monitoring of withdrawal symptoms, managing physiological parameters, and the use of supportive and pharmacologic treatments. Although a few randomized controlled trials exist, studies on supportive intervention are generally limited by small sample sizes, case study reports, expert opinions, and descriptive design. Few studies address the safety of Reiki for newborns at risk for NAS using neonatal parameters. This pilot study addresses feasibility and demonstrates that Reiki is safe when administered to this high-risk population. Considerations for future studies are discussed. PMID:29315084

  15. Maternal and newborn outcomes in planned home birth vs planned hospital births: a metaanalysis. (United States)

    Wax, Joseph R; Lucas, F Lee; Lamont, Maryanne; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn


    We sought to systematically review the medical literature on the maternal and newborn safety of planned home vs planned hospital birth. We included English-language peer-reviewed publications from developed Western nations reporting maternal and newborn outcomes by planned delivery location. Outcomes' summary odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Planned home births were associated with fewer maternal interventions including epidural analgesia, electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, episiotomy, and operative delivery. These women were less likely to experience lacerations, hemorrhage, and infections. Neonatal outcomes of planned home births revealed less frequent prematurity, low birthweight, and assisted newborn ventilation. Although planned home and hospital births exhibited similar perinatal mortality rates, planned home births were associated with significantly elevated neonatal mortality rates. Less medical intervention during planned home birth is associated with a tripling of the neonatal mortality rate. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amygdala nuclei critical for emotional learning exhibit unique gene expression patterns. (United States)

    Partin, Alexander C; Hosek, Matthew P; Luong, Jonathan A; Lella, Srihari K; Sharma, Sachein A R; Ploski, Jonathan E


    The amygdala is a heterogeneous, medial temporal lobe structure that has been implicated in the formation, expression and extinction of emotional memories. This structure is composed of numerous nuclei that vary in cytoarchitectonics and neural connections. In particular the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the basal (B) nucleus contribute an essential role to emotional learning. However, to date it is still unclear to what extent these nuclei differ at the molecular level. Therefore we have performed whole genome gene expression analysis on these nuclei to gain a better understanding of the molecular differences and similarities among these nuclei. Specifically the LA, CeA and B nuclei were laser microdissected from the rat brain, and total RNA was isolated from these nuclei and subjected to RNA amplification. Amplified RNA was analyzed by whole genome microarray analysis which revealed that 129 genes are differentially expressed among these nuclei. Notably gene expression patterns differed between the CeA nucleus and the LA and B nuclei. However gene expression differences were not considerably different between the LA and B nuclei. Secondary confirmation of numerous genes was performed by in situ hybridization to validate the microarray findings, which also revealed that for many genes, expression differences among these nuclei were consistent with the embryological origins of these nuclei. Knowing the stable gene expression differences among these nuclei will provide novel avenues of investigation into how these nuclei contribute to emotional arousal and emotional learning, and potentially offer new genetic targets to manipulate emotional learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt


    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  18. Massive congenital tricuspid insufficiency in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogren, H.G.; Ikeda, R.; Riemenschneider, T.A.; Merten, D.F.; Janos, G.G.


    Three cases of massive congenital tricuspid incompetence in the newborn are reported and discussed from diagnostic, pathologic and etiologic points of view. The diagnosis is important as cases have been reported with spontaneous resolution. (Auth.)

  19. Group B Strep Infection in Newborns (United States)

    ... Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs) CDC Streptococcus Laboratory Sepsis Group B Strep Infection in Newborns Language: English Español ( ... Explains the difference between early- and late-onset group B strep diseases in newborns… How it Spreads ...

  20. Complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Spadola


    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of complete albinism in a Podarcis muralis newborn, from Chieti (Abruzzo, central Italy in September 2004. This is the first complete albinism case in a Podarcis spp. In the world.

  1. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm


    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  2. Panniculitis in the newborn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bastos


    Full Text Available The authors present a case of panniculitis in a newborn, a rare disease in the neonatal period discussing its causes and differential diagnosis, emphasizing a possible diagnosis of erythema nodosum.

  3. Amplitude-Integrated EEG in the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available Th value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG in the newborn is explored by researchers at Washington University, St Louis; Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands; and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

  4. Newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Lidija


    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of epidural anaesthesia in delivery with the purpose to reduce pain and fear in a pregnant woman has the influence on the physiological status of the woman in childbirth and the course of delivery. From the epidural space of the pregnant woman, one part of free anaesthetic comes in the foetal circulation through the mother's circulation and placenta and connects with the foetal proteins. A lower value of albumins and serum proteins in the foetal circulation give bigger free fraction of anaesthetic which is accumulated in the foetal liver, brain and heart full of blood. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of epidural anaesthesia on the newborn. Methods. Retrospective study of 6,398 documents of newborns was performed in our Clinic of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 'Narodni front' during 2006. The first group was made of 455 newborns from deliveries with epidural anaesthesia and the second was the control group of 5,943 remaining newborns. In both groups we analysed the following: sex, week of gestation, weight, Apgar score, measure of care and resuscitation, perinatal morbidity and then the obtained results were compared. Results. Most of deliveries were vaginal without obstetric intervention (86.6%. The number of deliveries finished with vacuum extractor (4.6% was statistically significantly bigger in the group with epidural anaesthesia than in the control group. Most of the newborns in the first group were born on time (96.5% in 39.0±1.0 week of gestation and with foetal weight 3448±412 grammes. There was no statistical significance in Apgar score between both groups. Epidural anaesthesia does not increase the degree of the newborn's injury. Lower pH of blood was found in the newborns from deliveries with vacuum extractor or operated on (the Ceasarean section. Conclusion. Application of epidural anaesthesia decreases duration of delivery and has no adverse effects on the newborn and hypoxic

  5. Craniofacial anthropometry in newborns of Sikkimese origin. (United States)

    Sinha, P; Tamang, B K; Chakraborty, S


    Head and face dimensions vary according to race and geographical zone. Hereditary factors also greatly affect the size and shape of the head. There are important medical applications of craniofacial data specific to different racial and ethnic groups. Various cranial and facial anthropometric parameters were assessed in singleton, healthy, full-term newborns of Sikkimese origin in a tertiary care hospital in Sikkim, India. The data were then analysed to determine statistically significant differences between sexes. Forty-five newborns were included in the study. Both male and female newborns were observed to be hyperbrachycephalic and hyperleptoprosopic. The only significant difference between the sexes was in commissural length, which was observed to be greater in male newborns. Craniofacial parameters in Sikkimese newborns vary in comparison with those of other newborns from around the world. Larger studies are needed in order to reveal sex-related variations. Similar studies on various racial groups in North-East India are needed to establish standards for populations with East Asian features.

  6. Resuscitation of newborn in high risk deliveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, U.F.; Hayat, S.


    High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)

  7. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) efficacy and safety in the newborn. (United States)

    Cuzzolin, Laura; Antonucci, Roberto; Fanos, Vassilios


    Neonates can perceive pain, therefore an adequate analgesic therapy is a major issue not only from an ethical perspective but also to improve short- and long-term outcome. Fever during the neonatal period requires hospitalization and needs a treatment with an antipyretic agent because of the high risk of severe complications. Paracetamol (acetaminophen), the most commonly prescribed drug in paediatric patients for its analgesic and antipyretic effects, is the only agent recommended for use as an antipyretic in the newborn and has been recently proposed as a supplement therapy to opioids for postoperative analgesia. This article aims to give an updated overview on the use of paracetamol in newborns by presenting its pharmacological profile (mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics), recommendations for dosing regimens (oral or rectal administration: 25-30 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/day in preterm neonates of 34 weeks' gestation, 60 mg/kg/day in term neonates; i.v. administration: indicatively 20-40 mg/kg/day depending on gestational age, with some differences among various guidelines) and clinical uses (more commonly as analgesic/antipyretic by oral or rectal route, but also i.v. in anaesthesia for postoperative analgesia and painful procedures in Neonatal Intensive Care Units). Moreover, drug tolerability is discussed in the light of its potential hepatotoxicity and the unique characteristics of the newborn patient. By analyzing the available literature and the dosing guidelines, a mismatch exists between the current clinical use of paracetamol and the recommendations, suggesting a cautious approach particularly in extremely preterm neonates.

  8. Sonographic findings of normal newborn spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Kim, Dong Gyu


    The authors performed spinal cord ultrasonography of 21 healthy newborn infants in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Normal spinal cord revealed low echogenecity at that of cerebrospinal fluid and was demarcated by intense reflections from its dorsal and ventral surfaces. The central canal was routinely seen as a thin linear reflection in the center of the cord. The nerve roots making up the cauda equina formed a poorly defined collection of intense linear echoes extending from the conus. On real time image, the normal spinal cord exhibited rather slow and rhythmical anteroposterior movement within the subarachnoid fluid. A distinct and rapid vascular pulsation of the spinal cord was usually recognizable. The approximate level of vertebral bodies was determined as follows; most ventrally located vertebral body was thought to be L5 and S1 was seen slightly posterior to the L5 directed inferoposteriorly. According to the above criteria terminal portions of spinal cord were seen around the L2 body in 5 MHz and pointed termination of conus medullaris was clearly seen at L2-3 junction and in upper body of L3 by 7.5 MHz. So it would be better to examine by 5 MHz for spatial orientation and then by 7.5 MHz for more accurate examination. High-resolution, real-time ultrasonography was a safe, rapid screening technique for evaluation of the spinal cord in infants. Additional applications of spinal sonography may be possible in the evaluation of neonatal syringohydromyelia and meningocele as well as intraspinal cyst localization for possible percutaneous puncture by ultrasound guidance

  9. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  10. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  11. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.


    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  12. Attitudes toward newborn screening for cytomegalovirus infection. (United States)

    Din, Erica S; Brown, Cedric J; Grosse, Scott D; Wang, Chengbin; Bialek, Stephanie R; Ross, Danielle S; Cannon, Michael J


    Newborns are not routinely screened for cytomegalovirus (CMV), the leading infectious cause of developmental disability. Congenital CMV satisfies a number of criteria for inclusion in newborn screening, and screening potentially offers benefits. Screening could also introduce harms such as anxiety and unnecessary costs for the families of the substantial proportion of CMV-infected children who never develop CMV-related disabilities. Our objective was to assess attitudes toward newborn screening for CMV. We analyzed responses to 5 statements about CMV and newborn screening from 3922 participants in the 2009 HealthStyles survey, a national mail survey designed to include a group similar to the US population with respect to gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, and household size. Two-step cluster analysis was performed to identify clusters of parental attitudes. The majority of respondents strongly or somewhat agreed that they would want to have their newborn tested for CMV even if it was not performed routinely (84%), they had to pay $20 (87%), or CMV-related problems never developed (84%). Nearly half (47%) of them "would worry that the CMV test would lead to unneeded doctor visits and expenses," and 32% "think CMV problems are too rare to worry about." Three clusters of parent respondents were identified on the basis of their attitudes toward CMV screening: "strongly in favor" (31%), "moderately in favor" (49%), and "weakly opposed" (20%). Among most parents, costs, worry, and anxiety associated with newborn screening for CMV would be acceptable. Although attitudes were generally favorable, a minority of the parents were weakly opposed to newborn screening for CMV.

  13. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek


    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  14. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference newborn-internal electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafundi, Deanna; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rajon, Didier [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Jokisch, Derek [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Francis Marion University, Florence, SC (United States)], E-mail:


    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of newborn skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida newborn hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 3309-33), the newborn skeletal tissue model of Pafundi et al (2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 4497-531) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow (surrogate tissue for hematopoietic stem cells), shallow marrow (surrogate tissue for osteoprogenitor cells) and unossified cartilage (surrogate tissue for chondrocytes). Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following source tissues: active marrow, trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), cortical bone (surfaces and volumes) and cartilage. Transport results are reported as specific absorbed fractions according to the MIRD schema and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with bone-specific values reported in both tabular and graphic format as electronic annexes (supplementary data). The method utilized in this work uniquely includes (1) explicit accounting for the finite size and shape of newborn ossification centers (spongiosa regions), (2) explicit accounting for active and shallow marrow dose from electron emissions in cortical bone as well as sites of unossified cartilage, (3) proper accounting of the distribution of trabecular and cortical volumes and surfaces in the newborn skeleton when considering mineral bone sources and (4) explicit consideration of the marrow cellularity changes for active marrow self-irradiation as applicable to radionuclide therapy of diseased marrow in the newborn child.

  15. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  16. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain


    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  17. Newborn Analgesia Mediated by Oxytocin during Delivery (United States)

    Mazzuca, Michel; Minlebaev, Marat; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Tyzio, Roman; Taccola, Giuliano; Janackova, Sona; Gataullina, Svetlana; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Giniatullin, Rashid; Khazipov, Rustem


    The mechanisms controlling pain in newborns during delivery are poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that oxytocin, an essential hormone for labor and a powerful neuromodulator, exerts analgesic actions on newborns during delivery. Using a thermal tail-flick assay, we report that pain sensitivity is two-fold lower in rat pups immediately after birth than 2 days later. Oxytocin receptor antagonists strongly enhanced pain sensitivity in newborn, but not in 2-day-old rats, whereas oxytocin reduced pain at both ages suggesting an endogenous analgesia by oxytocin during delivery. Similar analgesic effects of oxytocin, measured as attenuation of pain-vocalization induced by electrical whisker pad stimulation, were also observed in decerebrated newborns. Oxytocin reduced GABA-evoked calcium responses and depolarizing GABA driving force in isolated neonatal trigeminal neurons suggesting that oxytocin effects are mediated by alterations of intracellular chloride. Unlike GABA signaling, oxytocin did not affect responses mediated by P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors. In keeping with a GABAergic mechanism, reduction of intracellular chloride by the diuretic NKCC1 chloride co-transporter antagonist bumetanide mimicked the analgesic actions of oxytocin and its effects on GABA responses in nociceptive neurons. Therefore, endogenous oxytocin exerts an analgesic action in newborn pups that involves a reduction of the depolarizing action of GABA on nociceptive neurons. Therefore, the same hormone that triggers delivery also acts as a natural pain killer revealing a novel facet of the protective actions of oxytocin in the fetus at birth. PMID:21519396

  18. Xe enhanced CT in the human newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuse, Yozen; Nemoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Mitsumasa; Uga, Naoki; Tada, Hiroshi; Fujii, Toshi; Machida, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hideo; Izumi, Shigemitsu.


    With a cranial computed tomography (CT) using stable xenon gas as a diffusible tracer, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 newborn infants with a variety of neurological abnormalities. Gestational ages and birthweights were 35 to 43 weeks and 2436 to 3540 g, respectively. Four infants exhibited hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), one infant had subdural hemorrhage and the other one was the infant with hyponatremia. A baseline CT was done during denitrogenation by 100% oxygen breathing and then a mixture of 35% xenon and 65% oxygen was breathed for 6 minutes. Six scans were obtained during the inhalation period then the infant was returned to breathing 100% oxygen and additional 7 scans were taken. Four samples of arterial blood were collected every 2 minutes before and during inhalation of the xenon gas. A rCBF was calculated with the changes of Hounsfield units in brain tissue and arterial blood. Relatively high blood flows in the region of the basal nuclei as well as decreased flows in the occipital white matter were observed in the infants with HIE. In an infant with subdural hemorrhage, the blood flows were markedly reduced in the areas adjacent to the lesion, including the basal nuclei, and frontal white matter in the opposite hemisphere. Xenon-enhanced CT by inhaling low concentration of the xenon gas enables to measure rCBF in the human newborn infants without no obvious side effect. (author)

  19. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia


    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  20. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells from Newborns with Spina Bifida Aperta. (United States)

    Bamba, Yohei; Nonaka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Natsu; Shofuda, Tomoko; Kanematsu, Daisuke; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Yuichiro; Pooh, Ritsuko K; Kanemura, Yonehiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Yamasaki, Mami


    We established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from three newborns with spina bifida aperta (SBa) using clinically practical methods. We aimed to develop stem cell lines derived from newborns with SBa for future therapeutic use. SBa is a common congenital spinal cord abnormality that causes defects in neurological and urological functions. Stem cell transplantation therapies are predicted to provide beneficial effects for patients with SBa. However, the availability of appropriate cell sources is inadequate for clinical use because of their limited accessibility and expandability, as well as ethical issues. Fibroblast cultures were established from small fragments of skin obtained from newborns with SBa during SBa repair surgery. The cultured cells were transfected with episomal plasmid vectors encoding reprogramming factors necessary for generating iPSCs. These cells were then differentiated into NSPCs by chemical compound treatment, and NSPCs were expanded using neurosphere technology. We successfully generated iPSC lines from the neonatal dermal fibroblasts of three newborns with SBa. We confirmed that these lines exhibited the characteristics of human pluripotent stem cells. We successfully generated NSPCs from all SBa newborn-derived iPSCs with a combination of neural induction and neurosphere technology. We successfully generated iPSCs and iPSC-NSPCs from surgical samples obtained from newborns with SBa with the goal of future clinical use in patients with SBa.

  1. Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.


    Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for 3 H-glycine, 3 H-dopamine, and 3 H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these 3 H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of 3 H-glutamate and 3 H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally

  2. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close. (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.


    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  3. Quality Improvement for Maternal and Newborn Health in Mtwara ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maternal and newborn health outcomes in southern Tanzania's Mtwara region are poor ... rates were similar when comparing home births with health facility births. ... and newborn health care services, better care-seeking, and improved health ...

  4. Failure of the Nemo trial: bumetanide is a promising agent to treat many brain disorders but not newborn seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehezkel eBen-Ari


    Full Text Available The diuretic bumetanide failed to treat acute seizures due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE in newborn babies and was associated with hearing loss (NEMO trial; 1. On the other hand, clinical and experimental observations suggest that the diuretic might provide novel therapy for many brain disorders including autistic spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, Rett syndrome and Parkinson disease. Here, we discuss the differences between the pathophysiology of severe recurrent seizures in the neonates and neurological and psychiatric disorders stressing the uniqueness of severe seizures in newborn in comparison to other disorders.

  5. Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Inhibits Gastroesophageal Reflux in Newborn Lambs (United States)

    Djeddi, Djamal; Cantin, Danny; Samson, Nathalie; Praud, Jean-Paul


    Background Using esophageal pHmetry, nasal CPAP (nCPAP) has been shown to decrease acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adult humans. Although both GER (mainly non-acid) and nCPAP use are very frequent in newborns, the effect of nCPAP on GER in early life is unknown. Having recently shown that the newborn lamb is a unique model for studying neonatal GER, our main objective was to assess the effect of nCPAP on GER in newborn lambs. Methods Eight newborn lambs, aged 2–3 days, were studied. Continuous esophageal pH-Impedance monitoring and polysomnography were performed for six hours during both spontaneous breathing and nCPAP application at 6 cmH2O (nCPAP6), in a randomized order. Results were compared in the two experimental conditions, as well as without CPAP during the following 6 hours. Results i) nCPAP6 virtually abolished GER [mean ±SD reflux number for 6 h = 9.1±8.6 without nCPAP6 vs. 0.6±1 with nCPAP6, PCPAP are needed to confirm this result in human infants. PMID:25226514

  6. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth. (United States)

    Scholtens, Denise M; Bain, James R; Reisetter, Anna C; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P; Metzger, Boyd E; Newgard, Christopher B; Lowe, William L


    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ∼28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study. Amino acids, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and products of lipid metabolism decreased and triglycerides increased during the OGTT. Analyses of individual metabolites indicated limited maternal glucose associations at fasting, but broader associations, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, were found at 1 h. Network analyses modeling metabolite correlations provided context for individual metabolite associations and elucidated collective associations of multiple classes of metabolic fuels with newborn size and adiposity, including acylcarnitines, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Random forest analyses indicated an improved ability to predict newborn size outcomes by using maternal metabolomics data beyond traditional risk factors, including maternal glucose. Broad-scale association of fuel metabolites with maternal glucose is evident during pregnancy, with unique maternal metabolites potentially contributing specifically to newborn birth weight and adiposity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn


    Khatami S.F; Behjati SH.


    Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newbor...



    Елена Николаевна Никулина; Светлана Ивановна Елгина; Юлия Александровна Липкова; Сергей Викторович Липков


    Objective – to determine the main health indicators in preterm newborns. Materials and Methods: Premature newborns and full-term newborns (160 and 1408, respectively) were investigated with clinical, instrumental, and statistical methods. Anthropometric parameters, somatic health, vulvar anatomy were considered to be the main criteria for general health. Results: The indicators of general health (physical development, somatic health, vulvar anatomy) in premature and full-term newborns...

  9. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  10. A unique case of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome presenting with congenital hypopituitarism. (United States)

    Jivani, Nurin; Torrado-Jule, Carmen; Vaiselbuh, Sarah; Romanos-Sirakis, Eleny


    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive bone marrow failure syndrome typically characterized by neutropenia and pancreatic dysfunction, although phenotypic presentations vary, and the endocrine phenotype is not well-described. We report a unique case of a patient with SDS who initially presented with hypoglycemia and micropenis in the newborn period and was diagnosed with congenital hypopituitarism. We are not aware of any other cases of SDS documented with this combination of complex endocrinopathies.

  11. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server


    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  12. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  13. Application of Glass Fiber Reinforced Cement in Exhibition Decoration Project (United States)

    Wang, Yao


    Through the study of GRC material and its application field, the aesthetic characteristics and functional characteristics of GRC materials are demonstrated. The decorative application and technology of GRC material in an art exhibition center are highlighted. The design, application and construction technology of GRC curtain wall and ceiling board in the interior and exterior decoration of art exhibition hall are discussed in detail. The unique advantages of GRC materials in exhibition engineering decoration are fully reflected. In practical design application, the application principle and method are summarized, and an application procedure is formed. The research proves that GRC materials in the art of building decoration engineering has an underrated advantage.

  14. Macromastia in a newborn with Alagille syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn, H.L.; Haller, J.O.; Kedia, S.


    We present a case of macromastia in a newborn with Alagille syndrome. A review of the literature failed to find any prior reports of this finding in Alagille syndrome patients. We propose that this patient's macromastia may be related to her liver failure and abnormal estrogen metabolism. (orig.)

  15. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  16. Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Infant and Newborn Development - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) ( ...

  17. Preventing newborn deaths due to prematurity. (United States)

    Azad, Kishwar; Mathews, Jiji


    Preterm births (PTBs), defined as births before 37 weeks of gestation account for the majority of deaths in the newborn period. Prediction and prevention of PTB is challenging. A history of preterm labour or second trimester losses and accurate measurement of cervical length help to identify women who would benefit from progesterone and cerclage. Fibronectin estimation in the cervicovaginal secretions of a symptomatic woman with an undilated cervix can predict PTB within 10 days of testing. Antibiotics should be given to women with preterm prelabour rupture of membranes but tocolysis has a limited role in the management of preterm labour. Antenatal corticosteroids to prevent complications in the neonate should be given only when gestational age assessment is accurate PTB is considered imminent, maternal infection and the preterm newborn can receive adequate care. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection should be given when delivery is imminent. After birth, most babies respond to simple interventions essential newborn care, basic care for feeding support, infections and breathing difficulties. Newborns weighing 2000 g or less, benefit from KMC. Babies, who are clinically unstable or cannot be given KMC may be nursed in an incubator or under a radiant warmer. Treatment modalities include oxygen therapy, CPAP, surfactant and assisted ventilation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Management of Newborn Infants with Phenylketonuria. (United States)

    Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Community Health Services.

    The booklet covers the identification, diagnosis, and clinical treatment of newborns with Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn error of metabolism, which, if untreated, can lead to mental retardation. An initial section considers biochemical and genetic factors of PKU including a diagram of aromatic amino acid hydroxylation systems. Screening…

  19. Reproductive, maternal, newborn, child & adolescent health in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will contribute to evidence from four country case studies in Syria, South Sudan, Mali, and Colombia or the Democratic Republic of Congo as part of a global project to inform developing operational guidance on interventions related to reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health ...

  20. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ


    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  1. Congenital malformations among newborns in Kenya | Muga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, a study was conducted to determine the patterns and incidence of congenital malformations at birth in newborns in Kenya and thereby analyze associated predisposing factors in their mothers. This single cross-sectional ... followed by malformations of the central nervous system (28.6%). Polydactyl was the most ...

  2. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah


    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  3. Diuretics for transient tachypnoea of the newborn. (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Khriesat, Wadah M; Anabrees, Jasim


    Transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) results from delayed clearance of lung liquid and is a common cause of admission of full-term infants to neonatal intensive care units. The condition is particularly common after elective caesarean section. Conventional treatment involves appropriate oxygen administration and continuous positive airway pressure in some cases. Most infants receive antibiotic therapy. Hastening the clearance of lung liquid may shorten the duration of the symptoms and reduce complications. To determine whether diuretic administration reduces the duration of oxygen therapy and respiratory symptoms and shortens hospital stay in term infants presenting with transient tachypnoea of the newborn. An updated search was carried out in September 2015 of the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL via OVID. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of diuretics administration versus placebo or no treatment in infants of less than seven days of age, born at 37 or more weeks of gestation with the clinical picture of transient tachypnoea of the newborn. We extracted and analysed data according to the methods outlined in the latest Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two review authors assessed trial quality in each potentially eligible manuscript and two review authors extracted data. Our previous systematic review included two trials enrolling a total of 100 infants with transient tachypnoea of the newborn (Wiswell 1985; Karabayir 2006). The updated search revealed no new trials. Wiswell 1985 randomised 50 infants to receive either oral furosemide (2 mg/kg body weight at time of diagnosis followed by a 1 mg/kg dose 12 hours later if the tachypnoea persisted) or placebo. Karabayir 2006 randomised 50 infants to receive either intravenous furosemide (2 mg/kg body

  4. Newborn care practices in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MT


    Full Text Available Mohammad Tajul Islam,1 Nazrul Islam,2 Yukie Yoshimura,1 Monjura Khatun Nisha,3 Nawzia Yasmin4 1Safe Motherhood Promotion Project, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b; 4Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh Background: Neonatal mortality is high in Bangladesh. Most of the neonatal deaths are preventable through simple and cost-effective essential newborn care interventions. Studies to document the determinants of unhealthy newborn care practices are scarce. Objective: The objective of this study is to describe the pattern of neonatal care practices and their determinants in rural Bangladesh. Methodology: This study is based on baseline data of a community-based intervention to assess impact of limited postnatal care services on maternal and neonatal health-seeking behavior. Data from 510 women, who had a live birth at home 1 year prior to survey, of six randomly selected unions of an Upazila (subdistrict were analyzed. Results: Majority of the respondents were at an age group of 20–34 years. Only 6% had delivery by skilled providers. Immediate drying and wrapping, and giving colostrums to newborns were almost universal. Unhealthy practices, like unclean cord care (42%, delayed initiation of breastfeeding (60%, use of prelacteals (36%, and early bathing (71% were very common. Muslims were more likely to give early bath (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13–3.59; P=0.018 and delay in initiating breastfeeding (adjusted OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.18–1.78; P<0.001 to newborns. Practice of giving prelacteals was associated with teenage mothers (adjusted OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.19–4.28; P=0.013 and women’s lack of education (adjusted OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46–4.77; P=0


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunovskaya L. M.


    Full Text Available The role and value of the bacterial factor in development pre-natal infection of newborns is studied. It is considered microflora of patrimonial ways of pregnant women, as basic pathogenesis factor of an ascending way infection of newborns. On an example of the spent bacteriological researches correlation communication between microflora of patrimonial ways, placenta and an ascending way infection of newborns is shown. At crops gastric swallowing at newborn children with pre-natal infection of newborns it is ascertained growth aerobic and аanaerobic microflora in the majority (87,7 % supervision in the form of microbes associations gramme-positive coccus Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus and Candida. The inclusion in the treatment of Saccharomyces boulardіi contributes to the restoration of intesti­nal microflora in 90 % of newborns. Found significant growth of the colonies of Bifidobacterium spp. (3.7-4,9 lg CFU/ml and Lactobacillus spp. (7.2 lg CFU/ml.

  6. Newborn hearing screening protocol in tuscany region. (United States)

    Berrettini, Stefano; Ghirri, Paolo; Lazzerini, Francesco; Lenzi, Giovanni; Forli, Francesca


    Newborn hearing screening has to be considered the first step of a program for the identification, diagnosis, treatment and habilitation/rehabilitation of children with hearing impairment. In Tuscany Region of Italy, the universal newborn hearing screening is mandatory since november 2007. The first guidelines for the execution of the screening have been released in June 2008; then many other Italian regions partially or totally adopted these guidelines. On the basis of the experience from 2008 and according to the recent evidences in the scientific literature, a new screening protocol was released in Tuscany region. The new protocol is an evolution of the previous one. Some issues reported in the previous protocol and in the Joint Committee on Infant Hearing statement published in 2007 were revised, such as the risk factors for auditory neuropathy and for late onset, progressive or acquired hearing loss. The new updated guidelines were submitted to the Sanitary Regional Council and then they have been approved in August 2016. The updated screening protocol is mainly aimed to identify newborns with a congenital moderate-to-profound hearing loss, but it also provides indications for the audiological follow-up of children with risk's factor for progressive or late onset hearing loss; further it provides indications for the audiological surveillance of children at risk for acquired hearing impairment. Then, in the new guidelines the role of the family paediatrician in the newborn hearing screening and audiological follow-up and surveillance is underscored. Finally the new guidelines provide indications for the treatment with hearing aids and cochlear implant, in accordance with the recent Italian Health Technology Assessment (HTA) guidelines. In the paper we report the modality of execution of the universal newborn hearing screening in the Tuscany Region, according to the recently updated protocol. The main features of the protocol and the critical issues are

  7. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition


    Hanson, Stuart


    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  8. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure inhibits gastroesophageal reflux in newborn lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamal Djeddi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using esophageal pHmetry, nasal CPAP (nCPAP has been shown to decrease acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER in adult humans. Although both GER (mainly non-acid and nCPAP use are very frequent in newborns, the effect of nCPAP on GER in early life is unknown. Having recently shown that the newborn lamb is a unique model for studying neonatal GER, our main objective was to assess the effect of nCPAP on GER in newborn lambs. METHODS: Eight newborn lambs, aged 2-3 days, were studied. Continuous esophageal pH-Impedance monitoring and polysomnography were performed for six hours during both spontaneous breathing and nCPAP application at 6 cmH2O (nCPAP(6, in a randomized order. Results were compared in the two experimental conditions, as well as without CPAP during the following 6 hours. RESULTS: i nCPAP(6 virtually abolished GER [mean ± SD reflux number for 6 h = 9.1 ± 8.6 without nCPAP(6 vs. 0.6 ± 1 with nCPAP(6, P<0.05]; ii GER number was also reduced during the 6 h-period following nCPAP(6 application (18 ± 16 without nCPAP(6 vs. 7 ± 8.1 with nCPAP(6, P<0.05; iii nCPAP(6 decreased the depth and duration of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. CONCLUSIONS: nCPAP inhibits GER in the newborn lamb. Further clinical studies using different levels of nasal CPAP are needed to confirm this result in human infants.

  9. The liberal illusion of uniqueness. (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G


    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  10. Creating National Narrative: The Red Guard Art Exhibitions and the National Exhibitions in the Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966 - 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Tsang


    Full Text Available The artistic development in China experienced drastic changes during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976. Traditional Chinese art was denounced, whereas propaganda art became predominant in shaping the public’s loyalty towards the Communist Party and the country. Two major groups of art exhibitions emerged during the Revolution—the unofficial Red Guard art exhibitions organized by student activists in collaboration with local communes and art schools between 1966 and 1968, and the state-run national exhibitions from 1972 to 1975. These exhibitions were significant to this period because they were held frequently in the capital city Beijing and occasionally elsewhere, and through art they presented unique revolutionary beliefs to the Chinese people in a public setting. While the Red Guard art exhibitions and the national exhibitions certainly created different national narratives, I argue that the national exhibitions were in fact an attempt to revise the national narrative created by the Red Guard art exhibitions in order to re-establish a more utopian, consistent, and official national narrative. This paper unravels the intricate relationship between the two groups of exhibitions by comparing their exhibition venues, ideological focuses, work selection and quality editing. 

  11. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria


    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  12. Passive cooling during transport of asphyxiated term newborns (United States)

    O’Reilly, Deirdre; Labrecque, Michelle; O’Melia, Michael; Bacic, Janine; Hansen, Anne; Soul, Janet S


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of passive cooling during transport of asphyxiated newborns. Study Design Retrospective medical record review of newborns with perinatal asphyxia transported for hypothermia between July 2007 and June 2010. Results Forty-three newborns were transported, 27 of whom were passively cooled. Twenty (74%) passively cooled newborns arrived with axillary temperature between 32.5 and 34.5 °C. One newborn (4%) arrived with a subtherapeutic temperature, and 6 (22%) had temperatures >34.5 °C. Time from birth to hypothermia was significantly shorter among passively cooled newborns compared with newborns not cooled (215 vs. 327 minutes, pencephalopathy results in significantly earlier achievement of effective therapeutic hypothermia without significant adverse events. PMID:23154670

  13. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  14. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins. (United States)

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Maria, Arti; Kotwal, Urvershi; Goyal, Saurabh


    Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG) component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT), antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2) had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia) due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  15. Maternal anti-M induced hemolytic disease of newborn followed by prolonged anemia in newborn twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora


    Full Text Available Allo-anti-M often has an immunoglobulin G (IgG component but is rarely clinically significant. We report a case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn along with prolonged anemia in newborn twins that persisted for up to 70 days postbirth. The aim was to diagnose and successfully manage hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN due to maternal alloimmunization. Direct antiglobulin test (DAT, antigen typing, irregular antibody screening and identification were done by polyspecific antihuman globulin cards and standard tube method. At presentation, the newborn twins (T1, T2 had HDN with resultant low reticulocyte count and prolonged anemia, which continued for up to 70 days of life. Blood group of the twins and the mother was O RhD positive. DAT of the both newborns at birth was negative. Anti-M was detected in mothers as well as newborns. Type of antibody in mother was IgG and IgM type whereas in twins it was IgG type only. M antigen negative blood was transfused thrice to twin-1 and twice to twin-2. Recurring reduction of the hematocrit along with low reticulocyte count and normal other cell line indicated a pure red cell aplastic state. Anti-M is capable of causing HDN as well as prolonged anemia (red cell aplasia due to its ability to destroy the erythroid precursor cells. Newborns with anemia should be evaluated for all the possible causes to establish a diagnosis and its efficient management. Mother should be closely monitored for future pregnancies as well.

  16. Improving Newborn Survival in Southern Tanzania (INSIST) trial; community-based maternal and newborn care economic analysis. (United States)

    Manzi, Fatuma; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Schellenberg, Joanna; Lawn, Joy E; John, Theopista; Msemo, Georgina; Owen, Helen; Barger, Diana; Hanson, Claudia; Borghi, Josephine


    Despite health systems improvements in Tanzania, gaps in the continuum of care for maternal, newborn and child health persist. Recent improvements have largely benefited those over one month of age, leading to a greater proportion of under-five mortality in newborns. Community health workers providing home-based counselling have been championed as uniquely qualified to reach the poorest. We provide financial and economic costs of a volunteer home-based counselling programme in southern Tanzania. Financial costs of the programme were extracted from project accounts. Ministry of Health and Social Welfare costs associated with programme implementation were collected based on staff and project monthly activity plans. Household costs associated with facility-based delivery were also estimated based on exit interviews with post-natal women. Time spent on the programme by implementers was assessed by interviews conducted with volunteers and health staff. The programme involved substantial design and set-up costs. The main drivers of set-up costs were activities related to volunteer training. Total annualized costs (design, set-up and implementation) amounted to nearly US$300 000 for financial costs and just over US$400 000 for economic costs. Volunteers (n = 842) spent just under 14 hours per month on programme-related activities. When volunteer time was valued under economic costs, this input amounted to just under half of the costs of implementation. The economic consequences of increased service use to households were estimated at US$36 985. The intervention cost per mother-newborn pair visited was between US$12.60 and US$19.50, and the incremental cost per additional facility-based delivery ranged from US$85.50 to US$137.20 for financial and economic costs (with household costs). Three scale-up scenarios were considered, with the financial cost per home visit respectively varying from $1.44 to $3.21 across scenarios. Cost-effectiveness compares well with supply

  17. [The role of lactoferrin in the proper development of newborns]. (United States)

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał


    Colostrum and milk contain, in addition to nutritional constituents, also proteins crucial for the normal development of the offspring. Lactoferrin (LF) belongs to the family of iron-binding proteins and exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial and immunotropic properties. LF is particularly resistant to proteolytic degradation in alimentary tract, in contrast to other milk proteins, e.g. casein. In any case, LF-derived peptides also possess potent antibacterial activities. LF is absorbed from the intestine by means of specific receptors located on brush border cells. Administered orally, LF stimulates both local and systemic immune response. LF plays a role in the absorption of nutrients. The protein can deliver such metal ions as iron, manganese, and zinc and facilitate the absorption of sugars. LF stimulates the proliferation of gut endothelial cells and the growth of gut-associated lymphatic follicles. This property suggests the possibility of applying LF in premature infants and patients with damaged intestinal mucus. LF controls the proper composition of the gut microflora. It suppresses the growth of pathogenic bacteria while promoting the multiplication of nonpathogenic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Newborns fed an artificial diet develop harmful microflora (Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, Escherichia). The non-pathogenic microflora ensures low pH, produces some vitamins, increases the activity of NK cells, T lymphocytes, and macrophages, promotes the production of protective immunoglobulins, and lowers the risk of allergies. In studies on mice, LF was found to be protective in bacteremia and endotoxemia. The protein stimulates the activity of reticulo-endothelial system cells and elicits myelopoiesis, thus increasing the killing and clearance of bacteria. In the model of experimental endotoxemia, LF inhibits the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and reactive forms of oxygen. LF can also promote the differentiation of T

  18. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila


    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  19. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John


    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  20. [Newborn children under phototherapy: the mother's perception]. (United States)

    Campos, Antonia do Carmo Soares; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão


    Since 1958, phototherapy has been used as a method to cure jaundice, which is still an important disease in newborn children. Supported by a phenomenological and qualitative approach, this study aims to investigate the mothers' perception of the phototherapy treatment their children are submitted to. Research subjects were ten mothers of newborns under phototherapy treatment at the Neonatological Hospitalization Unit of a public maternity in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Data were collected between May and July 2002. We used group meetings with the mothers as suggested by Carl Rogers. Discourse was organized into categories according to Bardin, which revealed themes that were analyzed in view of Paterson's and Zderad's humanistic nursing theory, as follows: mothers' knowledge on phototherapy and concerns about the treatment. We concluded that the analyzed mothers' major concern is related to the babies' vision.

  1. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  2. Uvula Abscess in a Newborn Infant. (United States)

    Tuncer, Erkun; Ors, Rahmi


    Abscesses can be found in several places in the oral cavity, most commonly occurring in peritonsillar and periodontal regions. In this report, the authors described a uvula abscess in a 1-month-old term newborn who was brought to the pediatric outpatient clinic with the complaints of difficulty in sucking-swallowing and refusal to suck at the breast. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a uvula abscess in the literature.

  3. Diabetes mellitus in newborns and infants. (United States)

    Menon, P S; Khatwa, U A


    Diabetes mellitus is uncommon in infancy and newborn period. The two common forms seen are the transient and permanent forms of diabetes mellitus of the newborn. They have to be differentiated from the transient hyperglycemic states (Blood sugar > 125 mg/dl) seen in newborns who receive parenteral glucose infusions and in those with septicemia and CNS disorders. Transient diabetes mellitus of the newborn (TDNB) is defined as hyperglycemia occurring within the first month of life lasting at least 2 weeks and requiring insulin therapy. Most of these cases resolve spontaneously by 4 months. It has a reported incidence of 1 in 45,000 to 60,000 live births. The most likely etiology is a maturational delay of cAMP mediated insulin release. The clinical features include small for datedness, proneness for birth asphyxia, open-eye alert facies, dehydration, emaciation, polyuria and poydipsia. These children are prone to septicemia and urinary tract infections. They have hyperglycemia, glucosuria, absent or mild ketonuria, low basal insulin, C-peptide and IGF-1 levels. Treatment consists of hydration and judicious administration of insulin with close monitoring. Thirty percent of these children are likely to develop permanent neonatal diabetes. Compared to transient form, permanent diabetes mellitus is uncommon. It is usually due to pancreatic dysgenesis often associated with other malformations and rarely due to type 1 diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis is based on the demonstration of both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic dysfunction. These children are managed as type 1 diabetes mellitus. They are prone to develop the vascular complications of diabetes at an earlier date.

  4. Anaesthetic management of nesidioblastosis in a newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares A


    Full Text Available This report details the management of a newborn with nesidioblastosis who underwent a 95% pancreatectomy under general anaesthesia. The baby presented with hypoglycemic convulsions, due to hyperinsulinism, and was treated with 12.5% dextrose infusions, glucagon and anticonvulsants. Intraoperatively and postoperatively the baby remained hyperglycemic. A postoperative osmotic diuresis necessitated the use of insulin for brief period. The infant remained euglycemic and convulsion free, following discontinuation of the dextrose infusions and starting of oral feeds. Recovery was uneventful.

  5. Nursing Care of a Newborn with hyperbilirubinemia


    Kaštánková, Pavla


    The thesis deals with the nursing care of newborns with hyperbilirubinemia. It is processed in the form of case study. It consists of a theoretical and a practical part. There are described hyperbilirubinemia, its occurrence, incidence, symptoms and causes in theoretical part. Furthermore the work describes the pathophysiology of hyperbilirubinemia, where is mentioned the metabolism of bilirubin and its toxicity. The thesis continues by hyperbilirubinemia splitting, describes the most common ...

  6. Congenital cystic adenomatoid lung malformation of newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reither, M.; Peltner, H.U.; Weigel, W.; Braune, M.; Heiming, E.


    The congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) of the newborn is a particular form among the cystic disorders of the lung. The clinical findings, illustrated by four cases, and especially the roentgenographic symptoms are typical. Different radiologic examinations, including the computertomography, are discussed. The differential diagnosis of the disease is various, and therefore a correct and on time diagnosis is necessary, because the prognosis of the patient depends on an adequate therapy. (orig.) [de

  7. Body composition of term healthy Indian newborns. (United States)

    Jain, V; Kurpad, A V; Kumar, B; Devi, S; Sreenivas, V; Paul, V K


    Previous anthropometry-based studies have suggested that in Indian newborns fat mass is conserved at the expense of lean tissue. This study was undertaken to assess the body composition of Indian newborns and to evaluate its relation with parents' anthropometry, birth weight and early postnatal weight gain. Body composition of healthy term singleton newborns was assessed by the deuterium dilution method in the second week of life. Anthropometry was carried out at birth and on the day of study. Data from 127 babies were analyzed. Birth weight was 2969±383 g. Body composition was assessed at a mean age of 12.7±3.1 days. Fat and fat-free mass were 354±246 and 2764±402 g, respectively, and fat mass percentage (FM%) was 11.3±7.3%. Birth weight and fat-free mass were higher among boys, but no gender difference was noted in FM%. Birth weight was positively correlated with fat as well as fat-free mass but not FM%. FM% showed positive correlation with gain in weight from birth to the day of assessment. This is the first study from India to report body composition in newborns using deuterium dilution. FM% was comparable to that reported for Western populations for babies of similar age. Our results suggest that the percentage of fat and fat-free mass is relatively constant over the range of birth weights included in this study, and greater weight gain during early postnatal period results in greater increase in FM%.

  8. Radiation absorption of newborns at cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Lingenfelder, B.; Wolf, R.; Eissner, D.


    The cholescintigraphy with 99m Tc-IDA has become essential to diagnose the presence of biliary atresia early in its clinical course. With this wider clinical application it is essential to have data about the radiation dose of these substances. While the radiation dose of 99m Tc-IDA has been calculated for adults there are in the literature no radiation dose calculations for newborns and young children. In this work the cumulated activity of 99m Tc-diaethyl-IDA in the organs of young pigs was measured 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. and 24 hours after injection of the radiopharmaceutical. The radiation dose calculation for newborns and youngchildren was performed on these animal biokinetic data using a biological approach including the absorbed-fraction concept. The results show that the radiation dose absorbed by the gonads as well as by the critical organs (thyroid, gallbladder, liver, upper and lower large intestine) are significantlyl lower than those of the cholescintigraphy with J-131 rose bengal. Therefore 99m Tc-IDA can be safely applied to newborns and young children. (Author)

  9. Ventilatory response of the newborn infant to mild hypoxia. (United States)

    Cohen, G; Malcolm, G; Henderson-Smart, D


    The transition from an immature (biphasic) to a mature (sustained hyperpneic) response to a brief period of sustained hypoxia is believed to be well advanced by postnatal day 10 for newborn infants. However, a review of the supporting evidence convinced us that this issue warranted further, more systematic investigation. Seven healthy term infants aged 2 days to 8 weeks were studied. The ventilatory response (VR) elicited by 5 min breathing of 15% O2 was measured during quiet sleep. Arterial SaO2 (pulse oximeter) and minute ventilation (expressed as a change from control, delta V'i) were measured continuously. Infants were wrapped in their usual bedding and slept in open cots at room temperature (23 degrees-25 degrees). Infants aged 2-3 days exhibited predominantely a sustained hypopnea during the period of hypoxia (delta V'i = -2% at 1 min, -13% at 5 min). At 8 weeks of age, the mean response was typically biphasic (delta V'i = +9% at 1 min, -4% at 5 min). This age-related difference between responses was statistically significant (two-way ANOVA by time and age-group; interaction P < 0.05). These data reveal that term infants studied under ambient conditions during defined quiet sleep may exhibit an immature VR to mild, sustained hypoxia for at least 2 months after birth. This suggests that postnatal development of the O2 chemoreflex is slower than previously thought.

  10. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur


    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  11. Low-cost near-infrared measurement of subcutaneous fat for newborn malnutrition (United States)

    McEwan, A. L.; Bian, S.; Gargiulo, G. D.; Morhard, R.; Jones, P.; Mustafa, F. H.; Bek, B. Emily; Jeffery, H. E.


    Low fat composition in newborns exposes them to an immediate risk of increased mortality and morbidity, inhibited physical and cognitive development and to diabetes and obesity diseases in later life. Information about nutritional and dietary status of newborns can be accessed by measuring the amount of fat composition in the body. The functions of subcutaneous fat involve energy storage, thermo-insulation and a physical buffer. Current technologies for newborn body fat monitoring are: a device based on air displacement plethesmography (PeaPod), dual-energy Xray, and underwater weighting. However they are bulky, expensive, immobile, and require technical expertise. We propose an alternative portable measurement system of in-vitro for subcutaneous fat that uses diffuse near-infrared light reflectance measurement system. We also introduce an in-vitro three-layered tissue model mimicking the subcutaneous fat layer in newborns together with a preliminary study to measure fat using dual-wavelength nearinfrared light. Based on the output data from these measurements, we have proposed a suitable transmission and scattering model. This model estimated the amount of reflected light collected by a photodetector after incident light is scattered in several fat layers. Our portable sensor is low cost and does not require training hence it is suitable for mass use in the developing world. It consists of a single LED and two photodetectors (900 nm and 1000 nm). The photodetectors wavelengths were chosen to be sensitive to fat as it exhibits a peak in the wavelength at 930 nm and to water at which exhibits a peak at 980 nm; the latter is used, to remove hydration bias. Results on a porcine tissue model demonstrate differentiation as low as 2 mm fat which is a relevant screening thickness to indicate low percentage body fat.

  12. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman


    J. Daniel Hammond


    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  13. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins. (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao


    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  14. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.


    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  15. Angiogenesis dysregulation in term asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Shaikh

    Full Text Available Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns.This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns.Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns.Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns.These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery.

  16. Monitoring of newborns at high risk for brain injury


    Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta


    Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...

  17. Angiogenesis Dysregulation in Term Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia (United States)

    Shaikh, Henna; Boudes, Elodie; Khoja, Zehra; Shevell, Michael; Wintermark, Pia


    Background Neonatal encephalopathy following birth asphyxia is a major predictor of long-term neurological impairment. Therapeutic hypothermia is currently the standard of care to prevent brain injury in asphyxiated newborns but is not protective in all cases. More robust and versatile treatment options are needed. Angiogenesis is a demonstrated therapeutic target in adult stroke. However, no systematic study examines the expression of angiogenesis-related markers following birth asphyxia in human newborns. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the expression of angiogenesis-related protein markers in asphyxiated newborns developing and not developing brain injury compared to healthy control newborns. Design/Methods Twelve asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were prospectively enrolled; six developed eventual brain injury and six did not. Four healthy control newborns were also included. We used Rules-Based Medicine multi-analyte profiling and protein array technologies to study the plasma concentration of 49 angiogenesis-related proteins. Mean protein concentrations were compared between each group of newborns. Results Compared to healthy newborns, asphyxiated newborns not developing brain injury showed up-regulation of pro-angiogenic proteins, including fatty acid binding protein-4, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, neuropilin-1, and receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3; this up-regulation was not evident in asphyxiated newborns eventually developing brain injury. Also, asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury showed a decreased expression of anti-angiogenic proteins, including insulin-growth factor binding proteins -1, -4, and -6, compared to healthy newborns. Conclusions These findings suggest that angiogenesis pathways are dysregulated following birth asphyxia and are putatively involved in brain injury pathology and recovery. PMID:25996847

  18. Nurses' role in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns in the concept of Family-Centered Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Jakšová


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following review is to analyze the role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care. Design: The type of study – review. Methods: Both licensed and free-access electronic databases were used to search relevant studies from Czech and foreign sources for the period 2000–2015: CINAHL EBSCOhost, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline. The selection criteria for the studies to be analyzed were as follows: both quantitative and qualitative studies taking into account parents aged 19–44 with premature newborns from 24–36 weeks of gestation. Experimental studies and imprecisely defined studies were eliminated. Only 21 of the 49 research studies considered met the selection criteria. This review involves seven of the studies: three quantitative studies – one randomized study, two cross-sectional studies, and four case studies. Results: Based on analysis of the studies, it appears that Family-Centered Care should be considered an essential means of support for parents of premature newborns. The role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and their premature newborns was highly appreciated in the areas of therapeutic communication, efficient work organization and choice of appropriate interventions. Conclusion: Studies focusing on the application of the principles of Family-Centered Care stress its advantages for parents, premature newborns, and medical staff. The conclusion of most of the studies is that nurses play a unique role in eliminating the degree of trauma experienced by parents, and in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care.

  19. White matter injury in term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. (United States)

    Li, Amanda M; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Sargent, Michael A; Lupton, Brian A; Hill, Alan; Roland, Elke; Miller, Steven P


    White matter injury (WMI) is the characteristic pattern of brain injury detected on magnetic resonance imaging in the premature newborn. Focal noncystic WMI is increasingly recognized in populations of term newborns. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of focal noncystic WMI in a cohort of 48 term newborns with encephalopathy studied with magnetic resonance imaging at 72 +/- 12 h of life, and to identify clinical risk factors for this pattern of injury. Eleven newborns (23%; 95% CI 11-35) were found to have WMI (four minimal, three moderate, and four severe). In 10 of the 11 newborns, the WMI was associated with restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps. An increasing severity of WMI was associated with lower gestational age at birth (p = 0.05), but not lower birth weight. Newborns with WMI had milder encephalopathy and fewer clinical seizures relative to other newborns in the cohort. Other brain injuries were seen in three of the 11 newborns: basal nuclei predominant pattern of injury in one and cortical strokes in two. These findings suggest that WMI in the term newborn is acquired near birth and that the state of brain maturation is an important determinant of this pattern of brain injury.

  20. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho


    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  1. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.


    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  2. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  3. Quality maternal and newborn care to ensure a healthy start for every newborn in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. (United States)

    Obara, H; Sobel, H


    In the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, the high rates of births attended by skilled health personnel (SHP) do not equal access to quality maternal or newborn care. 'A healthy start for every newborn' for 23 million annual births in the region means that SHP and newborn care providers give quality intrapartum, postpartum and newborn care. WHO and the UNICEF Regional Action Plan for Healthy Newborn Infants provide a platform for countries to scale-up Early Essential Newborn Care (EENC). The plan emphasises the creation of an enabling environment for the practice of EENC; thereby, preventing 50,000 newborn deaths annually. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Prospective study on quality of newborn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Khanam


    Full Text Available Background: Quality of services provided by health care provider, the closest health functionary to the community has impact on neonatal mortality. Aims: Study on quality of newborn care in rural areas.  Settings and Design: This is a prospective study in the field practice areas of J.N. Medical College and areas under primary health centre of public health care system in Wardha district.  Methods and Material: Modified quality check list on the basis of PHC MAP module guidelines for assessing the quality of service-module 6-user’s guide was prepared. Face to face interview with 205 (group-A/104 nos + group-B/101 nos mother of newborn was method to collected information in three postnatal visits.  Statistical analysis: Quality (verbal response of each service was quantified as acceptable, average and worst.  Quality of both the groups was compared by calculating P-value after utilizing Z-test.  Results: Over all acceptable quality of medical history was 30.03%, physical examination was 21.73%, preventive service was 91.17% and counseling was 24.83%. Significant difference between two groups were found on history taking for (cry, breathing and body movement of baby, recording weight and counseling regarding exclusive breast feeding for first 6 month of life. Worst quality in this study were observed in history for anything applying to eyes, umbilical cord stump and complication of baby for which appropriate management was taken. Except for weight recording and examination of head and fontanels all other variables under physical examination were not acceptable. Counseling regarding high risk condition of baby was only 13.66%. Conclusion: Existing newborn services except immunization is inadequate and needs to be strengthened especially physical examination and counseling services. 

  5. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease following exchange transfusion 96 newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatami S.F


    Full Text Available Background: ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease of the newborn is a common cause of clinical jaundice and causes two-thirds of the hemolytic disease in newborns. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease and its complications in newborns undergoing exchange transfusion.Methods: This prospective and descriptive study was performed in jaundiced newborn infants during a three-year period. Inclusion criteria were: maternal blood type O, newborn blood type A or B, rising indirect hyperbilirubinemia in the first two days of life, positive immunohematologic test for newborns and exchange transfusion. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete information, other accompanying diseases that induce hyperbilirubinemia. All newborn infants received phototherapy before and after exchange transfusion. We did not use intravenous immunoglobulin, hemoxygenase inhibitor drugs and blood products before exchange transfusion.Results: Double-volume exchange transfusion via umbilical cord catheter was performed in 96 patients, 19 (20% of whom suffered from ABO incompatibility. Of these 19 newborns, two-thirds (13 were preterm infants. The minimum level of serum bilirubin was 10 mg/dl and the maximum serum bilirubin level was 35 mg/dl. In six patients (32% serum bilirubin levels were >25mg/dl. The most common blood group was type A for newborns. Immunohematologic tests were positive in 84% of the mothers. ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease was the fourth and second most common reasons for blood exchange transfusion in preterm and term infants, respectively. Laboratory complications were more common than clinical complications. The etiology of 48% of the alloimmunization and 42% of the hemolytic disease in these newborns was ABO incompatibility.Conclusions: Mothers with blood group O and newborns with blood group A or B with positive immunohematologic tests in first hours of life are at high risk for hemolytic disease

  6. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women. (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A


    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  7. Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn. (United States)

    Oswalt, G C; Montes, L F; Cassady, G


    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SFNN) developed in a 1-week-old black boy. His mother had received numerous medications for eclampsia. Birth was by Caesarean section and complicated by meconium aspiration. There were numerous nodules over the back, buttocks and extremities that yielded a caseous-like material. Microscopically, these nodules showed crystallization and necrosis of the fat. Hypoglycemia, pneumonia, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, seizures and urinary infection were associated with the cutaneous problem and led to a fatal outcome 2 weeks after birth.

  8. Birth order and health of newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona


    We examine birth order differences in health of newborns and follow the children throughout childhood using high-quality administrative data on individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Family fixed effects models show a positive and robust effect of birth order on health at birth......; firstborn children are less healthy at birth. During earlier pregnancies, women are more likely to smoke, receive more prenatal care, and are more likely to suffer a medical pregnancy complication, suggesting worse maternal health. We further show that the health disadvantage of firstborns persists...

  9. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application (United States)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.


    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  10. Research results: preserving newborn blood samples. (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Scheurer, Michael E; Green, Robert C; McGuire, Amy L


    Retention and use, without explicit parental permission, of residual dried blood samples from newborn screening has generated public controversy over concerns about violations of family privacy rights and loss of parental autonomy. The public debate about this issue has included little discussion about the destruction of a potentially valuable public resource that can be used for research that may yield improvements in public health. The research community must advocate for policies and infrastructure that promote retention of residual dried blood samples and their use in biomedical research.

  11. Newborn care practices and home-based postnatal newborn care programme – Mewat, Haryana, India, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Nath Sinha


    Full Text Available Background: In India, the Home Based Postnatal Newborn Care programme by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs under the National Rural Health Mission was initiated in 2011 to reduce neonatal mortality rates (NMRs. ASHAs get cash incentives for six postnatal home visits for newborn care. We studied newborn care practices among mothers in Mewat, Haryana, having a high NMR and determined risk factors for unsafe practices and described the knowledge and skills of ASHAs during home visits. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers who had delivered a child during the previous seven months using cluster sampling. We interviewed mothers and ASHAs in the selected subcentres using semi–structured questionnaires on the six safe newborn care practices, namely safe breastfeeding, keeping cord and eyes clean, wrapping baby, kangaroo care, delayed bathing and hand washing. Results: We interviewed 320 mothers, 61 ASHAs and observed 19 home visits. Overall, 60% of mothers adopted less than three safe practices. Wrapping newborns (96% and delayed bathing (64% were better adopted than cord care (49%, safe breastfeeding (48%, hand washing (30%, kangaroo care (20% and eye care (9%. Cultural beliefs and traditional birth attendants influenced the mother’s practices. The lack of supervision by auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM, delayed referral and transportation were the other challenges. Conclusion: Knowledge–practice gaps existed among mothers counselled by ASHAs. Poor utilization of reproductive and child health services decreased opportunities for ASHA–mother dialogue on safe practices. Recommendations included training ANMs, training TBAs as ASHAs, innovative communication strategies for ASHAs and improved referral system.

  12. Abcc9 is required for the transition to oxidative metabolism in the newborn heart. (United States)

    Fahrenbach, John P; Stoller, Douglas; Kim, Gene; Aggarwal, Nitin; Yerokun, Babatunde; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C; McNally, Elizabeth M


    The newborn heart adapts to postnatal life by shifting from a fetal glycolytic metabolism to a mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Abcc9, an ATP-binding cassette family member, increases expression concomitant with this metabolic shift. Abcc9 encodes a membrane-associated receptor that partners with a potassium channel to become the major potassium-sensitive ATP channel in the heart. Abcc9 also encodes a smaller protein enriched in the mitochondria. We now deleted exon 5 of Abcc9 to ablate expression of both plasma membrane and mitochondria-associated Abcc9-encoded proteins, and found that the myocardium failed to acquire normal mature metabolism, resulting in neonatal cardiomyopathy. Unlike wild-type neonatal cardiomyocytes, mitochondria from Ex5 cardiomyocytes were unresponsive to the KATP agonist diazoxide, consistent with loss of KATP activity. When exposed to hydrogen peroxide to induce cell stress, Ex5 neonatal cardiomyocytes displayed a rapid collapse of mitochondria membrane potential, distinct from wild-type cardiomyocytes. Ex5 cardiomyocytes had reduced fatty acid oxidation, reduced oxygen consumption and reserve. Morphologically, Ex5 cardiac mitochondria exhibited an immature pattern with reduced cross-sectional area and intermitochondrial contacts. In the absence of Abcc9, the newborn heart fails to transition normally from fetal to mature myocardial metabolism.-Fahrenbach, J. P., Stoller, D., Kim, G., Aggarwal, N., Yerokun, B., Earley, J. U., Hadhazy, M., Shi, N.-Q., Makielski, J. C., McNally, E. M. Abcc9 is required for the transition to oxidative metabolism in the newborn heart. © FASEB.

  13. Maternal, newborn and child health needs, opportunities and preferred futures in Arusha and Ngorongoro: hearing women's voices. (United States)

    Petrucka, Pammla; Bassendowski, Sandra; Dietrich-Leurer, Marie; Spence-Gress, Cara; Athuman, Zenath; Buza, Joram


    With the approaching sunset on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Tanzania continues with its final national push towards achievement of MDG #4 and MDG #5. The Mama Kwanza Socio-economic Health Initiative (MKSHI) was introduced in the hope of contributing to improving maternal, newborn, and child health in Arusha and Ngorongoro. The MKSHI project is a holistic, inter-sectoral approach to maternal, newborn, and child health which aligns with the Government of Tanzania's Vision 2025. At the project onset, a baseline assessment was conducted to launch ongoing benchmarking, monitoring, and evaluation of the project's impacts and implications. The aim of this baseline assessment was twofold. First it was to determine the state of maternal, newborn, and child health in the two project sites. Second it was to ensure that a baseline of key indicators was established as well as identification of unique indicators relevant to the populations of interest. The baseline study was a mixed methods approach to identify maternal, newborn, and child risk factors and indicators in the two target sites. This paper focuses on the qualitative methods and findings. The qualitative component included a series of five community dialogue meetings and thirty-seven individual/dyad interviews with women, providers, and stakeholders. Initially, community meetings were held as open dialogues on maternal, newborn, and child health issues, opportunities, and preferred futures. Individual/dyad interviews were held with women, providers, and stakeholders who held unique information or experiences. Both community dialogue and interview data was analysed for themes and guiding or critical comments. Three over-arching findings emerged: What took you so long to come? How do we know what you know? and How will it change for our daughters? Participant voices are vital in ensuring the achievement of local and global efforts and preferred futures for maternal, newborn, and child health services. This

  14. Cleopatra's Egypt. A Museum Exhibition Explores Egypt during the Age of the Ptolemies. (United States)

    Bianchi, Robert S.


    Describes the historical premises behind a traveling exhibit of Egyptian Hellenistic art from the Ptolemic Period. Focuses on the uniquely Egyptian characteristics of this art, including religious symbolism, costume elements, and characteristics of craftsmanship. (LS)

  15. Developmental Stage-Specific Manifestations of Absent TPO/c-MPL Signalling in Newborn Mice. (United States)

    Lorenz, Viola; Ramsey, Haley; Liu, Zhi-Jian; Italiano, Joseph; Hoffmeister, Karin; Bihorel, Sihem; Mager, Donald; Hu, Zhongbo; Slayton, William B; Kile, Benjamin T; Sola-Visner, Martha; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca


    Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopaenia (CAMT) is a disorder caused by c-MPL mutations that impair thrombopoietin (TPO) signalling, resulting in a near absence of megakaryocytes (MKs). While this phenotype is consistent in adults, neonates with CAMT can present with severe thrombocytopaenia despite normal MK numbers. To investigate this, we characterized MKs and platelets in newborn c-MPL –/– mice. Liver MKs in c-MPL –/– neonates were reduced in number and size compared with wild-type (WT) age-matched MKs, and exhibited ultrastructural abnormalities not found in adult c-MPL –/– MKs. Platelet counts were lower in c-MPL –/– compared with WT mice at birth and did not increase over the first 2 weeks of life. In vivo biotinylation revealed a significant reduction in the platelet half-life of c-MPL –/– newborn mice (P2) compared with age-matched WT pups, which was not associated with ultrastructural abnormalities. Genetic deletion of the pro-apoptotic Bak did not rescue the severely reduced platelet half-life of c-MPL –/– newborn mice, suggesting that it was due to factors other than platelets entering apoptosis early. Indeed, adult GFP+ (green fluorescent protein transgenic) platelets transfused into thrombocytopenic c-MPL –/– P2 pups also had a shortened lifespan, indicating the importance of cell-extrinsic factors. In addition, neonatal platelets from WT and c-MPL –/– mice exhibited reduced P-selectin surface expression following stimulation compared with adult platelets of either genotype, and platelets from c-MPL –/– neonates exhibited reduced glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) activation in response to thrombin compared with age-matched WT platelets. Taken together, our findings indicate that c-MPL deficiency is associated with abnormal maturation of neonatal MKs and developmental stage-specific defects in platelet function.

  16. The Newborn Screening Paradox: Sensitivity vs. Overdiagnosis in VLCAD Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique; Waterham, Hans; Kluijtmans, Leo; Schielen, Peter; van Veen, Evert Ben; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wijburg, Frits; Visser, Gepke


    To improve the efficacy of newborn screening (NBS) for very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD). Data on all dried blood spots collected by the Dutch NBS from October 2007 to 2010 (742.728) were included. Based solely on the C14:1 levels (cutoff ≥0.8 μmol/L), six newborns with

  17. Measurement of penile size in healthy Nigerian newborns using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    newborn male infants. J Pediatr 1975; 86:395–398. 6 Flatau E, Josefsberg Z, Reisner SH, Bialik O, Iaron Z. Letter: penile size in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 1975; 87:663–664. 7 Boas M, Boisen KA, Virtanen HE, Kaleva M, Suomi AM, Schmidt IM, et al. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis in the newborn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial meningitis in the newborn is globally renowned for high mortality. The associated morbidities also include audiologic, motor, visual and mental deficits. Objective: To highlight the peculiarities in the current diagnostic and management strategies in newborn meningitis. Methods: Relevant literature on ...

  19. Newborn care seeking practices in Central and Southern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Objective: To investigate local perspectives and practices related to newborn care-seeking and the factors affecting them. .... In Arbe Gonna, they rub the newborn with a herb called hamessa, or take the baby to a health facility like many mothers in the other communities. Sore skin is .... Levels & Trends in Child Mortality.

  20. Low Incidence Of Extensor Plantar Reflex In Newborns In An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthy term newborns with Apgar score of 8 and above at one minute were recruited into the study consecutively in a maternity hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. The plantar reflex was elicited by stroking the lateral side of the sole with firm pressure, between 24 - 48 hours after delivery. Results Of 461 newborns, the plantar reflex ...

  1. Conference on Newborn Hearing Screening; Proceedings Summary and Recommendations. (United States)

    Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presented in the conference proceedings are schedule and list of participants, seven major papers, and the newborn hearing screening recommendations of the interdisciplinary conference on newborn hearing and early identification of hearing impairment. Neonatal auditory testing is reviewed by Sanford E. Gerber, and Sheldon B. Korones gives a…

  2. Newborns' Face Recognition: Role of Inner and Outer Facial Features (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Simion, Francesca; Leo, Irene


    Existing data indicate that newborns are able to recognize individual faces, but little is known about what perceptual cues drive this ability. The current study showed that either the inner or outer features of the face can act as sufficient cues for newborns' face recognition (Experiment 1), but the outer part of the face enjoys an advantage…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in pure culture from blood tracheal aspirate and lung tissue in a newborn infant, who died of a severe pneumonia within 48 h after birth. The clinical course was characterized by persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Post-mortem examination

  4. Screening of the hearing of newborns - Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Voß, Hubertus


    Full Text Available Introduction: Permanent congenital bilateral hearing loss (CHL of moderate or greater degree (≥40 dB HL is a rare disease, with a prevalence of about 1 to 3 per 1000 births. However, it is one of the most frequent congenital diseases. Reliance on physician observation and parental recognition has not been successful in the past in detecting significant hearing loss in the first year of life. With this strategy significant hearing losses have been detected in the second year of life. With two objective technologies based on physiologic response to sound, otoacoustic emissions (OAE and auditory brainstem response (ABR hearing screening in the first days of life is made possible. Objectives: The objective of this health technology assessment report is to update the evaluation on clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs. Universal newborn hearing screening (UHNS (i, selective screening of high risk newborns (ii, and the absence of a systematic screening program are compared for age at identification and age at hearing aid fitting of children with hearing loss. Secondly the potential benefits of early intervention are analysed. Costs and cost-effectiveness of newborn hearing screening programs are determined. This report is intended to make a contribution to the decision making whether and under which conditions a newborn hearing screening program should be reimbursed by the statutory sickness funds in Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment report updates a former health technology assessment (Kunze et al. 2004 [1]. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, based on a documented search and selection of the literature using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and a documented extraction and appraisal of the included studies. To assess the cost-effectiveness of the different screening strategies in Germany the decision analytic Markov state model which had been developed in

  5. The effects of alcohol in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria dos Anjos Mesquita


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to present a review of the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers on their newborn. Definitions, prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnostic criteria, follow-up, treatment and prevention were discussed. A search was performed in Medline, LILACS, and SciELO databases using the following terms: “fetus”, “newborn”, “pregnant woman”, “alcohol”, “alcoholism”, “fetal alcohol syndrome”, and “alcohol-related disorders”. Portuguese and English articles published from 2000 to 2009 were reviewed. The effects of alcohol consumed by pregnant women on newborns are extremely serious and occur frequently; it is a major issue in Public Health worldwide. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders cause harm to individuals, their families, and the entire society. Nevertheless, diagnostic difficulties and inexperience of healthcare professionals result in such damage, being remembered rarely or even remaining uncovered. Alcohol-related injury to the fetus is fully avoidable; all it takes is for women not to drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. Therefore, detecting women who consume alcohol during pregnancy is paramount, as are specific programs to educate people about the consequences of alcohol use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  6. Late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. (United States)

    Zengin, Emine; Sarper, Nazan; Türker, Gülcan; Corapçioğlu, Funda; Etuş, Volkan


    Late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur owing to a lack of vitamin K prophylaxis, as a manifestation of an underlying disorder or idiopatically from the 8th day to 12 weeks after birth. Eight infants admitted to Kocaeli University Hospital with nine episodes of late HDN between January 2002 and April 2005 were evaluated retrospectively from hospital records. The median age at presentation was 46 (26-111) days. All the infants were born at full-term to healthy mothers and were exclusively breast-fed. All had an uneventful perinatal history, except one who had meconium aspiration. Four patients had received no vitamin K prophylaxis and another three had uncertain histories. At presentation, six had intracranial bleeding and the remainder had bleeding either from the venepuncture site or the gastro-intestinal tract. The presenting signs and symptoms were irritability, vomiting, bulging or full fontanelle, convulsions and diminished or absent neonatal reflexes. Galactosaemia was detected in a 2-month-old infant with prolonged jaundice. There was no surgery-related mortality or complications but one survived for only 2 days on ventilatory support following surgery. Only one of the six survivors had severe neurological sequelae. Late HDN frequently presents with intracranial haemorrhage, leading to high morbidity and mortality. HDN can be the manifestation of an underlying metabolic disorder. Vitamin K prophylaxis of the newborn should be routine in developing countries.

  7. Radiological diagnostics of birth trauma in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Анатолійович Коломійченко


    Full Text Available Aim of the work. To analyze indices of the different radiological methods and to compare it.Materials and methods. The newborns with spinal trauma (n=33 were analyzed, the children who have been excluded this diagnosis (n=27 formed the control group. All children underwent the radiography of cervical spine, the part of them – MRT and USG. There was carried out the visual assessment and analysis of metrical indices.Results. Patients were separated into groups of heaviness, 16 patients with slight degree, 10 with middle one and 7 with heavy degree of injury. At all methods the width of the Cruveilhier joint fissure in children with an injury of upper cervical spine reliably (р<0,001 differs from the one in the control group, and was detected the moderate correlation (r>0,4.When using radiology and MRT in children with traumatic injures the width of prevertebral soft tissues was reliably more and the degree of reliability was higher at radiology (р<0,001, than at MRT (р<0,01. The correlations between the width of soft tissues and the degree of heaviness were detected at all levels at radiography and only at the level C1 at MRT.Conclusions. An analysis demonstrated the different degree of importance of some indices for detecting injuries of the upper cervical spine in newborns. There was also proved that the metrical data of the different methods not reliably differ

  8. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A.


    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with [3H]choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day

  9. Congenital abnormalities in newborns of consanguineous and nonconsanguineous parents. (United States)

    Naderi, S


    The aim of this study was to determine the types, patterns, and frequencies of congenital anomalies among newborns of both consanguineous and nonconsanguineous parents in southern Iran. From 9526 consecutive pregnancies observed, 9623 newborns resulted (9431 singleton and 95 sets of multiple gestation). There were 7261 newborns from nonconsanguineous parents and 2362 (24.5%) babies from consanguineous marriages. Of the total pregnancies, 1.54% resulted in malformed children (1.53% of singleton and 2.1% of multiple gestations). The incidence of congenital abnormalities in newborns of nonconsanguineous parents was 1.66% as compared to 4.02% for newborns of the consanguineous group. Major and multiple malformations were found to be slightly more common in the consanguinous group. Prematurity, prenatal mortality rate, and congenital abnormalities were more common in the consanguineous group. Probably the closer the familial relationship of the parents, the greater the chances of congenital abnormalities.

  10. Iatrogenic Skin Disorders and Related Factors in Newborn Infants. (United States)

    Csoma, Zsanett Renáta; Meszes, Angéla; Ábrahám, Rita; Kemény, Lajos; Tálosi, Gyula; Doró, Péter


    Recent technological advances and diagnostic and therapeutic innovations have resulted in an impressive improvement in the survival of newborn infants requiring intensive care. Consequently, with the use of modern invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the incidence of iatrogenic events has also increased. The aim of this study was to assess various iatrogenic complications in neonates requiring intensive care and determine possible contributing factors to the injuries. Our prospective cross-sectional cohort survey was conducted in a central regional level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Correlations between intensive therapeutic interventions, complications, factors influencing attendance and prognosis, and the prevalence of iatrogenic skin injuries (ISIs) were investigated over a 2-year study period. Between January 31, 2012, and January 31, 2014, 460 neonates were admitted to the NICU, 83 of whom exhibited some kind of ISI. The major risk factors for ISIs were low birthweight, young gestational age, long NICU stay, use of the intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) technique, surfactant use, mechanical ventilation, insertion of an umbilical arterial catheter, circulatory and cardiac support with dopamine or dobutamine, pulmonary hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage, patent ductus arteriosus, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and positive microbiology culture results. To prevent ISIs, careful consideration of risk factors and the creation of protocols ensuring efficient treatment of injuries are needed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Transfer of Maternal Immunity to Newborns of Diabetic Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luzía França


    Full Text Available This study was carried out with hyperglycemic pregnant women to investigate the transfer of antibody classes to newborns across the placenta or by colostrum and the functional activity of phagocytes in maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum from diabetes mothers. Samples from maternal blood, cord blood, and colostrum were collected from 20 normoglycemic and 20 hyperglycemic pregnant women. We determined antibodies levels, superoxide release, phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of phagocytes. We demonstrated that IgG levels in cord blood were higher in the hyperglycemic group. IgA and IgM levels were higher in maternal than in cord blood samples. Plasma antibody levels were lower in hyper- than in normoglycemic women. The colostrum of diabetic mothers had lower IgA and IgG levels. Colostrum and maternal blood phagocytes when exposed to EPEC increased the superoxide release. Cord blood phagocytes of hyperglycemic group, independently of bacteria, had higher superoxide release. Colostrum and blood phagocytes from diabetic group exhibited some phagocytic and microbicidal activity in response to EPEC. Mononuclear phagocytes from cord blood had the lowest phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity for EPEC, regardless of glycemic status. These data showed that hyperglycemia altered IgG transfer across the placenta and decreases immunoglobulin levels in maternal blood and colostrum.

  12. Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. (United States)

    Jacobs, Susan E; Berg, Marie; Hunt, Rod; Tarnow-Mordi, William O; Inder, Terrie E; Davis, Peter G


    Newborn animal studies and pilot studies in humans suggest that mild hypothermia following peripartum hypoxia-ischaemia in newborn infants may reduce neurological sequelae without adverse effects. To determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic asphyxiated newborn infants on mortality, long-term neurodevelopmental disability and clinically important side effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group as outlined in The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2007). Randomised controlled trials evaluating therapeutic hypothermia in term and late preterm newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were identified by searching the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2007), previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching. We updated this search in May 2012. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the use of therapeutic hypothermia with standard care in encephalopathic term or late preterm infants with evidence of peripartum asphyxia and without recognisable major congenital anomalies. The primary outcome measure was death or long-term major neurodevelopmental disability. Other outcomes included adverse effects of cooling and 'early' indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Four review authors independently selected, assessed the quality of and extracted data from the included studies. Study authors were contacted for further information. Meta-analyses were performed using risk ratios (RR) and risk differences (RD) for dichotomous data, and weighted mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 11 randomised controlled trials in this updated review, comprising 1505 term and late preterm infants with moderate/severe encephalopathy and evidence of intrapartum asphyxia

  13. Delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy by newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Balić


    Full Text Available Brachial plexus injuries represent a low percentage of delivery complications. Most newborns fully recover from the injury, very few retain a permanent neurological deficit whereas some remain unnoticed. An objective of this study was to establish delivery factors for brachial plexus palsy at the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics and relation between the deficits with length of delivery, the length of delivery periods, induction of delivery and surgical interventions at delivery. The analysed group involved 90 newborn babies with an injury of brachial plexus made at the delivery in the period between 01.01.1996 and 31.12.2005. The controlled group included 90 newborns randomly selected. The comparison was made using an χ2 test. The incidence of injuries of plexus brachialis was 1.72 per 1,000 newborns. Analysing the length of delivery there was no difference found between the analysed and controlled group (p > 0.05. In the group of newborns with the injury of brachial plexus it was found that the second delivery period was significantly shorter (p < 0.01. In the analysed group 89 (98.8% newborn babies were delivered vaginally and one (1.2% was delivered by the cesarean section. 13 newborns (14.4% from the analysed group were delivered with application of vacuum extractor and in the controlled group it was the case with one (1.2% newborn baby (p < 0.01. The delivery of 98.8% newborns from the analysed group started spontaneously and two deliveries (1.2% were induced. Risk factors for injuries of plexus brachialis in newborns at the Clinic for Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the University Clinical Centre Tuzla include shortened second delivery period and completion of deliveries applying the vacuum extractor.

  14. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  15. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha


    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  16. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gengbiao; Xiao Jin; Shi Xin; Chen Xuehong


    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  17. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum


    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs


    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  18. Uniqueness of Nash equilibria in a quantum Cournot duopoly game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yohei; Sakahara, Kiri; Sato, Takashi


    A quantum Cournot game whose classical form game has multiple Nash equilibria is examined. Although the classical equilibria fail to be Pareto optimal, the quantum equilibrium exhibits the following two properties: (i) if the measurement of entanglement between strategic variables chosen by the competing firms is sufficiently large, the multiplicity of equilibria vanishes, and (ii) the more strongly the strategic variables are entangled, the more closely the unique equilibrium approaches to the optimal one.

  19. Relations of Nosological Factors and Energy Expenditure in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shmakov


    Full Text Available Purpose. With the aid of indirect calorimetry, to evaluate whether the nosological factors affect energy exchange in severely ill newborns.Materials and methods. Indirect calorimetry was employed to determine the true energy expenditure in new borns under the mechanical ventilation because of intranatal postanoxia encephalopathy (n=19, severe sepsis (n=18, and urgent surgery (n=19. Energy expenditure at rest was estimated at the beginning of intensive therapy and in in 48 hours. Sedation in groups was similar.Results. At the first stage, the energy exchange in all newborns was characterized by hypometabolism. In cases of damage of the central nervous system the anaerobic metabolism was increased, and the principal used substrate was glucose; the most prolonged hypometabolism was revealed in newborns with sepsis, in which the utilization of lactate was decreased, and the main energetic substrate were lipids; in early postoperative period, the decrease in energy expenditure was not associated with preferential oxidation of glucose or lipids, and disappeared due to elimination of anesthetics.Conclusion. Energetic hypometabolism can be considered as a main reaction of the newborn organism to previous invasion. Acute posthypoxic brain damage in newborns is characterized by high activity of peroxidation associated with hypometabolism. For newborns with severe sepsis a slow recovery of aerobic metabolism and intensity of energy expenditure were evident. Early postoperative period in newborns was characterized by profound iatrogenic hypometabolism with fast normalization of energy expenditure.

  20. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  1. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar


    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  2. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (United States)

    Nair, P M C; Bataclan, Maria Flordeliz A


    This article attempts to define a complicated, yet not rare disease of the neonate, which presents with extreme hypoxemia due to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in diversion of the pulmonary venous blood through persistent fetal channels, namely ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pathophysiology, diagnostic approach and the various modalities of management are analyzed. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is multi-factorial, which is reflected in the management as well. These babies are extremely labile to hypoxia and should be stabilized with minimum handling. One hundred percent oxygen and ventilation are the mainstay of treatment. The role of hyperventilation, alkalinization, various non-specific vasodilators such as tolazoline, magnesium sulphate, selective vasodilators such as inhaled nitric oxide, adenosine and the role of high frequency oscillatory ventilation and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation are discussed. With the newer modalities of management, the outlook has improved with mortality of less than 20% and fewer long-term deficits.

  3. Jaundice in the full-term newborn. (United States)

    Cohen, Shannon Munro


    Jaundice is a common problem affecting over half of all full-term and most preterm infants. Jaundice describes the yellow orange hue of the skin caused by excessive circulating levels of bilirubin that accumulate in the skin. In most healthy full-term newborns, jaundice is noticed during the first week of life. Shortened hospital stays and inconsistent follow up, especially for first-time breastfeeding mothers, prompted the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to update management guidelines. Health care providers need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of jaundice to prevent brain, vision, and hearing damage. Treatment of choice for jaundice remains close observation and frequent feeding followed by phototherapy, and finally exchange transfusion for severe or refractory cases.

  4. Management of severe hypertension in the newborn. (United States)

    Dionne, Janis M; Flynn, Joseph T


    Blood pressure is considered a vital sign, as values too low or too high can be related with serious morbidity and mortality. In neonates, normal blood pressure values undergo rapid changes, especially in premature infants, making the recognition of abnormal blood pressures more challenging. Severe hypertension can occur in neonates and infants and is a medical emergency, often manifesting with congestive heart failure or other life-threatening complications. The cause or risk factors for the hypertension can usually be identified and may guide management. Most classes of antihypertensive medications have been used in the neonatal population. For severe hypertension, intravenous short-acting medications are preferred for a controlled reduction of blood pressure. In this article, we focus on identification, aetiology and management of severe hypertension in the newborn. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Newborn exoplanet eyed for moons and rings (United States)

    Clery, Daniel


    Astronomers are staring at a nearby star in hopes of seeing a giant baby of a planet—perhaps accompanied by dust clouds, rings, or newborn moons—pass across its face. Last week, the newest and tiniest telescope joined the vigil, when the French-built PicSat rode into orbit on an Indian rocket. It will be able to continuously monitor the star, β Pictoris, until chances of seeing the once-in-20-year transit event diminish in a few months' time. Astronomers are fascinated by β Pictoris, a bright star just 63 light-years away, because it is a natural laboratory for how solar systems form given its age of only 24 million years—an infant in stellar terms.

  6. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemine, Hisao


    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  7. Development of temperature regulation in newborn reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hissa


    Full Text Available Development of temperature regulation was investigated by determining the ability of newborn reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus to maintain a normal body temperature when exposed to an incrementially decreasing ambient temperature. Newborn calves (1 day old can maintain their body temperature even at -15 °C. They can increase their metabolic rate five- to sixfold. Heat production is primarily stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. The response to exogenous administration of noradrenaline and propranolol was investigated.Poronvasan låmmonsååtelyn syntymånjålkeinen kehittyminen.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Vastasyntyneiden poronvasojen kylmansietoa ja lammonsaatelya tutkittiin toukokuussa 1981 Inarin Kaamasessa Paliskuntain yhdistyksen koetarhassa. Tutkittavat vasat olivat 1-10 vuorokauden ikaisia. Vasa asetettiin jååhdytettåvaån mittauskammioon. Sen aineenvaihdunta, lampotilat niin ihon eri kohdista kuin perasuolesta, lihasvarina ja sydanfrekvenssi rekisteroitiin jatkuvasti. Tulosten mukaan nayttåa siltå kuin 1 vuorokauden ikaiselle vasalle -15 °C olisi ehdoton alaraja låmpotilan sååtelyssa. Se kykeni kohottamaan hapenkulutusta talloin 5-kertaisesti. Lihasvarinan merkitys on vahainen verrattuna kemialliseen låmmontuottoon kylmassa. Tama voitiin osoittaa injisoimalla vasaan sympaattisen hermoston valittajaainetta noradrenaliinia.Temperaturreguleringens utvikling hos nyfødte reinkalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Temperaturreguleringens utvikling er studert ved å bestemme nyfødte reinkalvers evne til å opprettholde normal kroppstemperatur under påvirkning av gradvis synkende omgivelsestemperatur. Nyfødte kalver (1 døgn gamle kan opprettholde sin kroppstemperatur selv ved -15 °C. De kan øke sin omsetningshastighet fem til seks ganger. I starten er varmeproduksjonen stimulert av det sympatiske nervesystem. Virkningen av tilført noradrenalin og propranolol ble studert og skjelving synes å spille

  8. Large number discrimination in newborn fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piffer

    Full Text Available Quantitative abilities have been reported in a wide range of species, including fish. Recent studies have shown that adult guppies (Poecilia reticulata can spontaneously select the larger number of conspecifics. In particular the evidence collected in literature suggest the existence of two distinct systems of number representation: a precise system up to 4 units, and an approximate system for larger numbers. Spontaneous numerical abilities, however, seem to be limited to 4 units at birth and it is currently unclear whether or not the large number system is absent during the first days of life. In the present study, we investigated whether newborn guppies can be trained to discriminate between large quantities. Subjects were required to discriminate between groups of dots with a 0.50 ratio (e.g., 7 vs. 14 in order to obtain a food reward. To dissociate the roles of number and continuous quantities that co-vary with numerical information (such as cumulative surface area, space and density, three different experiments were set up: in Exp. 1 number and continuous quantities were simultaneously available. In Exp. 2 we controlled for continuous quantities and only numerical information was available; in Exp. 3 numerical information was made irrelevant and only continuous quantities were available. Subjects successfully solved the tasks in Exp. 1 and 2, providing the first evidence of large number discrimination in newborn fish. No discrimination was found in experiment 3, meaning that number acuity is better than spatial acuity. A comparison with the onset of numerical abilities observed in shoal-choice tests suggests that training procedures can promote the development of numerical abilities in guppies.

  9. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture


    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie


    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  10. Cholestasis and hypercalcemia secondary to panhypopituitarism in a newborn. (United States)

    Dursun, Fatma; Gerenli, Nelgin; Kırmızıbekmez, Heves


    Dursun F, Gerenli N, Kırmızıbekmez H. Cholestasis and hypercalcemia secondary to panhypopituitarism in a newborn. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 100-103. Cholestatic hepatitis and hypercalcemia are rare features of hypopituitarism in newborns. So diagnosis of hypopituitarism is frequently delayed. The most frequent symptoms of congenital hypopituitarism are hypoglycemia, prolonged jaundince and micropenis. A patient with congenital hypopituitarism associated with cholestasis and hypercalcemia is reported here. Newborns with hypercalcemia and cholestasis should alert pediatricians to the possibility of congenital hypopituitarism and prompt endocrinological investigation.

  11. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit


    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  12. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.


    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  13. A novel stibacarbaborane cluster with adjacent antimony atoms exhibiting unique pnictogen bond formation that dominates its crystal packing. (United States)

    Holub, Josef; Melichar, Petr; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Wann, Derek A; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír; Růžička, Aleš


    We have prepared nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 , the first cluster with simultaneous Sb-B, Sb-C and Sb-Sb atom pairs with interatomic separations with magnitudes that approach the respective sums of covalent radii. However, the length of the Sb-Sb separation in this cluster is slightly less than the sum of the covalent radii. Quantum chemical analysis has revealed that the crystal packing of nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 is predominantly dictated by pnictogen (Pn) bonding, an unconventional σ-hole interaction. Indeed, the interaction energy of a very strong Sb 2 H-B Pn-bond in the nido-7,8,9,11-Sb 2 C 2 B 7 H 9 dimer exceeds -6.0 kcal mol -1 . This is a very large value and is comparable to the strengths of known Pn-bonds in Cl 3 Pnπ complexes (Pn = As, Sb).

  14. A novel stibacarbaborane cluster with adjacent antimony atoms exhibiting unique pnictogen bond formation that dominates its crystal packing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Josef; Melichar, Petr; Růžičková, Z.; Vrána, J.; Wann, D. A.; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír; Růžička, A.


    Roč. 46, č. 40 (2017), s. 13714-13719 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : adjusted pseudopotentials * derivates * halogen * carboranes * chalcogen Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.029, year: 2016

  15. Diblock copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) exhibiting unique three-phase microdomain morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Misichronis, Konstantinos


    The synthesis and molecular characterization of a series of conformationally asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PS-b-PCHD) diblock copolymers (PCHD: ∼90% 1,4 and ∼10% 1,2), by sequential anionic copolymerization high vacuum techniques, is reported. A wide range of volume fractions (0.27≤ϕPS≤0.91) was studied by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering in order to explore in detail the microphase separation behavior of these flexible/semiflexible diblock copolymers. Unusual morphologies, consisting of PCHD core(PCHD-1,4)-shell(PCHD-1,2) cylinders in PS matrix and three-phase (PS, PCHD-1,4, PCHD-1,2) four-layer lamellae, were observed suggesting that the chain stiffness of the PCHD block and the strong dependence of the interaction parameter χ on the PCHD microstructures are important factors for the formation of this unusual microphase separation behavior in PS-b-PCHD diblock copolymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Patients experiencing statin-induced myalgia exhibit a unique program of skeletal muscle gene expression following statin re-challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall B Elam

    Full Text Available Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of statin-treated patients experience myalgia symptoms, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK levels. Myalgia is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate changes in gene expression associated with statin myalgia, we compared profiles of gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with statin myalgia who were undergoing statin re-challenge (cases versus those of statin-tolerant controls. A robust separation of case and control cohorts was revealed by Principal Component Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. To identify putative gene expression and metabolic pathways that may be perturbed in skeletal muscles of patients with statin myalgia, we subjected DEGs to Ingenuity Pathways (IPA and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery analyses. The most prominent pathways altered by statins included cellular stress, apoptosis, cell senescence and DNA repair (TP53, BARD1, Mre11 and RAD51; activation of pro-inflammatory immune response (CXCL12, CST5, POU2F1; protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation and RAS-GTPase activation (FDFT1, LSS, TP53, UBD, ATF2, H-ras. Based on these data we tentatively conclude that persistent myalgia in response to statins may emanate from cellular stress underpinned by mechanisms of post-inflammatory repair and regeneration. We also posit that this subset of individuals is genetically predisposed to eliciting altered statin metabolism and/or increased end-organ susceptibility that lead to a range of statin-induced myopathies. This mechanistic scenario is further bolstered by the discovery that a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 and RYR2 associated with statin myalgia and myositis were observed with increased frequency among patients with statin myalgia.

  17. Patients experiencing statin-induced myalgia exhibit a unique program of skeletal muscle gene expression following statin re-challenge


    Elam, Marshall B.; Majumdar, Gipsy; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Gerling, Ivan C.; Vera, Santiago R.; Fish-Trotter, Hannah; Williams, Robert W.; Childress, Richard D.; Raghow, Rajendra


    Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of statin-treated patients experience myalgia symptoms, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Myalgia is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate change...

  18. Patients experiencing statin-induced myalgia exhibit a unique program of skeletal muscle gene expression following statin re-challenge. (United States)

    Elam, Marshall B; Majumdar, Gipsy; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Gerling, Ivan C; Vera, Santiago R; Fish-Trotter, Hannah; Williams, Robert W; Childress, Richard D; Raghow, Rajendra


    Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of statin-treated patients experience myalgia symptoms, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Myalgia is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate changes in gene expression associated with statin myalgia, we compared profiles of gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with statin myalgia who were undergoing statin re-challenge (cases) versus those of statin-tolerant controls. A robust separation of case and control cohorts was revealed by Principal Component Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). To identify putative gene expression and metabolic pathways that may be perturbed in skeletal muscles of patients with statin myalgia, we subjected DEGs to Ingenuity Pathways (IPA) and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) analyses. The most prominent pathways altered by statins included cellular stress, apoptosis, cell senescence and DNA repair (TP53, BARD1, Mre11 and RAD51); activation of pro-inflammatory immune response (CXCL12, CST5, POU2F1); protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation and RAS-GTPase activation (FDFT1, LSS, TP53, UBD, ATF2, H-ras). Based on these data we tentatively conclude that persistent myalgia in response to statins may emanate from cellular stress underpinned by mechanisms of post-inflammatory repair and regeneration. We also posit that this subset of individuals is genetically predisposed to eliciting altered statin metabolism and/or increased end-organ susceptibility that lead to a range of statin-induced myopathies. This mechanistic scenario is further bolstered by the discovery that a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 and RYR2) associated with statin myalgia and myositis were observed with increased frequency among patients with statin myalgia.

  19. A Eukaryote without Catalase-Containing Microbodies : Neurospora crassa Exhibits a Unique Cellular Distribution of Its Four Catalases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schliebs, Wolfgang; Würtz, Christian; Kunau, Wolf-Hubert; Veenhuis, Marten; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Wuertz, Christian


    Microbodies usually house catalase to decompose hydrogen peroxide generated within the organelle by the action of various oxidases. Here we have analyzed whether peroxisomes (i.e., catalase-containing microbodies) exist in Neurospora crassa. Three distinct catalase isoforms were identified by native

  20. Patients experiencing statin-induced myalgia exhibit a unique program of skeletal muscle gene expression following statin re-challenge (United States)

    Majumdar, Gipsy; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Gerling, Ivan C.; Vera, Santiago R.; Fish-Trotter, Hannah; Williams, Robert W.; Childress, Richard D.


    Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of statin-treated patients experience myalgia symptoms, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Myalgia is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate changes in gene expression associated with statin myalgia, we compared profiles of gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with statin myalgia who were undergoing statin re-challenge (cases) versus those of statin-tolerant controls. A robust separation of case and control cohorts was revealed by Principal Component Analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). To identify putative gene expression and metabolic pathways that may be perturbed in skeletal muscles of patients with statin myalgia, we subjected DEGs to Ingenuity Pathways (IPA) and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) analyses. The most prominent pathways altered by statins included cellular stress, apoptosis, cell senescence and DNA repair (TP53, BARD1, Mre11 and RAD51); activation of pro-inflammatory immune response (CXCL12, CST5, POU2F1); protein catabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, protein prenylation and RAS-GTPase activation (FDFT1, LSS, TP53, UBD, ATF2, H-ras). Based on these data we tentatively conclude that persistent myalgia in response to statins may emanate from cellular stress underpinned by mechanisms of post-inflammatory repair and regeneration. We also posit that this subset of individuals is genetically predisposed to eliciting altered statin metabolism and/or increased end-organ susceptibility that lead to a range of statin-induced myopathies. This mechanistic scenario is further bolstered by the discovery that a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1 and RYR2) associated with statin myalgia and myositis were observed with increased frequency among patients with statin myalgia. PMID:28771594

  1. Diblock copolymers of polystyrene-b-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) exhibiting unique three-phase microdomain morphologies

    KAUST Repository

    Misichronis, Konstantinos; Chen, Jihua; Kahk, Jong K.; Imel, Adam; Dadmun, Mark; Hong, Kunlun; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mays, Jimmy W.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos


    The synthesis and molecular characterization of a series of conformationally asymmetric polystyrene-block-poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PS-b-PCHD) diblock copolymers (PCHD: ∼90% 1,4 and ∼10% 1,2), by sequential anionic copolymerization high vacuum techniques, is reported. A wide range of volume fractions (0.27≤ϕPS≤0.91) was studied by transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering in order to explore in detail the microphase separation behavior of these flexible/semiflexible diblock copolymers. Unusual morphologies, consisting of PCHD core(PCHD-1,4)-shell(PCHD-1,2) cylinders in PS matrix and three-phase (PS, PCHD-1,4, PCHD-1,2) four-layer lamellae, were observed suggesting that the chain stiffness of the PCHD block and the strong dependence of the interaction parameter χ on the PCHD microstructures are important factors for the formation of this unusual microphase separation behavior in PS-b-PCHD diblock copolymers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Maternal-pup interaction disturbances induce long-lasting changes in the newborn rat pulmonary vasculature. (United States)

    Shifrin, Yulia; Sadeghi, Sina; Pan, Jingyi; Jain, Amish; Fajardo, Andres F; McNamara, Patrick J; Belik, Jaques


    The factors accounting for the pathological maintenance of a high pulmonary vascular (PV) resistance postnatally remain elusive, but neonatal stressors may play a role in this process. Cross-fostering in the immediate neonatal period is associated with adult-onset vascular and behavioral changes, likely triggered by early-in-life stressors. In hypothesizing that fostering newborn rats induces long-lasting PV changes, we evaluated them at 14 days of age during adulthood and compared the findings with animals raised by their biological mothers. Fostering resulted in reduced maternal-pup contact time when compared with control newborns. At 2 wk of age, fostered rats exhibited reduced pulmonary arterial endothelium-dependent relaxation secondary to downregulation of tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency-induced uncoupling. These changes were associated with neonatal onset-increased ANG II receptor type 1 expression, PV remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy that persisted into adulthood. The pulmonary arteries of adult-fostered rats exhibited a higher contraction dose response to ANG II and thromboxane A2, the latter of which was abrogated by the oxidant scavenger Tempol. In conclusion, fostering-induced neonatal stress induces long-standing PV changes modulated via the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Witnessing Each Other: An Intersubjective Stance for Exhibitions Relating to Substance Use and Abuse. (United States)

    Hennes, Tom


    Most exhibitions are conceived to convey information the experts making the exhibition believe other people need or want. But the notion that the intended exhibition public will cooperate with the exhibition organizers. intent disregards the reasons people come to exhibitions and the way they use them. While the author contends that an exhibition cannot use facts to convince someone to abstain from substances they crave, exhibitions can nonetheless make a difference in lives complicated by substance use by providing representation for voices that are rarely heard and building empathy between witness and witnessed. The purpose of such an endeavor is not to change attitudes or behaviors toward a pre-determined outcome, but to facilitate a witnessing of others. The uniquely intersubjective medium of exhibition can thus succeed in this field by opening the potential of mutual, humanizing recognition among people with varied life experience of substance use and abuse.

  4. Cardiac injury of the newborn mammalian heart accelerates cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebrowski, David C.; Jensen, Charlotte H.; Becker, Robert


    exhibited midbody formation consistent with successful abscission, whereas those from 3 day-old cardiomyocytes after apical resection exhibited midbody formation consistent with abscission failure. Lastly, injured hearts failed to fully regenerate as evidenced by persistent scarring and reduced wall motion......After birth cardiomyocytes undergo terminal differentiation, characterized by binucleation and centrosome disassembly, rendering the heart unable to regenerate. Yet, it has been suggested that newborn mammals regenerate their hearts after apical resection by cardiomyocyte proliferation. Thus, we...... increased rate of binucleation there was a nearly 2-fold increase in the number of cardiomyocytes in mitosis indicating that the majority of injury-induced cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity results in binucleation, not proliferation. Concurrently, cardiomyocytes undergoing cytokinesis from embryonic hearts...

  5. Prevention of Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihatsch, W. A.; Braegger, C P; Bronsky, J


    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence......, discuss current prophylaxis practices and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for the prevention of VKDB in healthy term newborns and infants. All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis and the date, dose, and mode of administration should be documented. Parental refusal of vitamin K...... prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K 1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3×2 mg vitamin K 1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K...

  6. Congenital giant epulis obstructing oral cavity: newborn emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Congenital giant epulis obstructing oral cavity: newborn emergency. Komla Gnassingbe, Komlan A Mihluedo-Agbolan, Harefetéguéna Bissa, Koffi Amegbor, Nguefack Blanchard Noumedem, Pilakimwe Egbohou, Wakatou Mama, Gamedzi K Akakpo-Numado, Hubert Tekou ...

  7. Trends In Complicated Newborn Hospital Stays and Costs.. (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The article, Trends In Complicated Newborn Hospital Stays and Costs, 2002-2009, Implications For the Future, published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of Medicare and Medicaid...

  8. What Disorders Are Newborns Screened for in the United States? (United States)

    ... core conditions and 26 secondary conditions. The committee’s recommendations are based on the Newborn Screening: Towards a Uniform Screening Panel and System (PDF - 975 KB) and on current research evidence, ...

  9. Thyroid function in healthy and unhealthy preterm newborns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 2, 2018 ... Thyroid function in healthy and unhealthy preterm newborns. Gökten Korkmaz1 ... disruptions of this system can cause permanent damage. Unrecognized early .... hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and malnutrition. Some rare.

  10. Nursing Care with the Skin of Hospitalized Newborns: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dulce Amorim Santos Soares


    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze the scientific collection on nursing care with the skin of hospitalized newborns. In order to reach the objective, an integrative review was conducted. The search for primary studies was performed in the databases LILACS, MEDLINE, BDENF and PUBMED. The included studies (n=10 were grouped into thematic categories: risk factors for skin lesions in hospitalized newborns and their consequences; and nursing care to promote the integrity of the skin of hospitalized newborns. The main care identified were lubrication with emollient agents, use of hydrocolloids and transparent film, changes in decubitus, hygiene techniques, phototherapy and invasive procedures. The results of the review offer guidance for the conduction of researches that investigate interventions that are more effective in the prevention and treatment of skin injuries and their consequences. Key words: Nursing Care, Newborn, Skin.

  11. Newborn birth weight in normal pregnancy in rural Telangana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta M Hota


    Conclusion: Abnormal birth weight leads to many complications, both immediate and remote. However, to predict and manage such complications, one must know the average newborn birth weight. This study is the first of its kind in rural Telangana.

  12. Prognostic Value of EEG in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia


    J Gordon Millichap


    Researchers at Children’s Hospitals in Milan, Italy, determined the prognostic value of electroencephalographic patterns in 23 newborns with severe perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, treated with hypothermia.

  13. Predictors on utilization of maternal, newborn and child health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors on utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services among rural women in Manicaland Zimbabwe. ... Central African Journal of Medicine ... The study targeted women of child bearing age (15-49 years) who were either ...

  14. Neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and large ovarian cyst in a newborn. (United States)

    Derinkuyu, Betul E; Boyunaga, Oznur; Unal, Sezin; Ucar, Murat; Ergenekon, Ebru


    We report a case of a newborn girl with neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and a large ovarian cyst. She also had melanocyte deposition in the filum terminale. The ultrasound and the magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed.

  15. Neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and large ovarian cyst in a newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derinkuyu, Betul E.; Boyunaga, Oznur; Unal, Sezin; Ergenekon, Ebru; Ucar, Murat


    We report a case of a newborn girl with neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and a large ovarian cyst. She also had melanocyte deposition in the filum terminale. The ultrasound and the magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and large ovarian cyst in a newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derinkuyu, Betul E.; Boyunaga, Oznur [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Sezin; Ergenekon, Ebru [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Ucar, Murat [Gazi University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)


    We report a case of a newborn girl with neurocutaneous melanocytosis, hemimegalencephaly and a large ovarian cyst. She also had melanocyte deposition in the filum terminale. The ultrasound and the magnetic resonance imaging findings are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Y.; Aleksandrova, V.


    The appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves were studied by means of radiotelemetry. Rumen contractions were registered right after birth. Their amplitude was growing gradually and that was observed best in the first month after birth

  18. Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn | Abdulkadir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accidental sulphuric acid poisoning in a newborn. I Abdulkadir, L Hassan, F Abdullahi, FD Akeredolu, S Purdue, M Okpe, AM Sobowale, OA Adewumi, U Abdullahi, MA Onadiran, TT Sholadoye, S Baba, WN Ogala ...

  19. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss


    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  20. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.


    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  1. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682


    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  2. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  3. Active sleep is associated with the face preference in the newborns who familiarized with a responsive face. (United States)

    Cecchini, Marco; Iannoni, Maria Elena; Aceto, Paola; Baroni, Eleonora; Di Vito, Cinzia; Lai, Carlo


    Aim of this study was to investigate the preferential looking behaviour, subsequent to a familiarization task (8-min) with a previously responsive or motionless face, before and after a sleep cycle. Moreover, the role of the active sleep in memory consolidation of the responsive or motionless faces was explored. Hypotheses were that the newborns undergoing a motionless familiarization will exhibit a novelty effect (preference for the novel face) whereas the newborns undergoing a responsive familiarization will show a familiarity effect (preference for the known face) before and after the sleep cycle; moreover, the amount of active sleep will be associated with the looking time at the known face after a sleep cycle. Forty-five healthy full-term newborns were randomly assigned to two groups (group 1: motionless-familiarization and group 2: responsive-familiarization); in both groups newborns were video-recorded during four post-familiarization face-preference tasks, two of them performed before and two after a sleep cycle. During the pre-sleep-trials, there was not a significant preference for one face in both groups. During the post-sleep trials, the newborns showed a clear preference for the novel face. This effect was more evident in group 1. Only in group 2 there was a significant positive correlation between the active sleep duration and the looking duration at the known-face during the post-sleep trials (r=0.41; p=0.040). Multiple regression confirmed that only in the group 2 the total duration of the active sleep was associated with the looking duration at the known-face during the post-sleep trials (Adjusted R 2 =0.13; β=0.41; t=2.2; p=0.040). Findings showed that in newborns the face representation can be recalled after a sleep cycle. Moreover, the amount of the active sleep predicted the post-sleep looking toward the known-face only in the newborns who interactively familiarized with the face. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Hyperlipidemias as a coronary risk factor in the newborn]. (United States)

    Hernández, A; De Tejada, A L; Espinoza, M; Karchmer, S


    This article reviews the risk factors of the coronariopathy in the newborn. The authors state that the early diagnosis of the risk factors is an important step in the prevention of ateromatous plaques. Some people are now in the investigation of the normal levels of cholesterol and triglicerides in the blood of the umbilical cord. This values seems similar in different places all over the world and have served to establish the possible interrelation between the newborn hiperlipidemia and the coronary risk.

  5. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas


    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  6. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  7. Antibacterial-induced nephrotoxicity in the newborn. (United States)

    Fanos, V; Cataldi, L


    Antibacterials are the primary cause of drug-induced kidney disease in all age groups and these agents bring about renal damage by 2 main mechanisms, namely, direct and immunologically mediated. For some antibacterials (aminoglycosides and vancomycin) nephrotoxicity is very frequent but generally reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. However, the development of acute renal failure with these agents is possible and its incidence in the newborn seems to be increasing. Antibacterials are very often used in the neonatal period especially in very low birthweight neonates. The role of neonatal age in developing nephrotoxicity has still to be defined. Since the traditional laboratory parameters of nephrotoxicity are abnormal only in the presence of substantial renal damage, the identification of early non-invasive markers of the renal damage (urinary microglobulins, enzymes and growth factors) is of importance. Aminoglycosides and glycopeptides are still frequently used, either alone or in combination, despite their low therapeutic index. Numerous factors intervene in bringing about the kidney damage induced by these 2 classes of antibacterials, such as factors related to the antibacterial itself and others related to the associated pathology as well as pharmacological factors. Nephrotoxicity can be caused by the beta-lactams and related compounds. Their potential to cause nephrotoxicity decreases in the order: carbapenems > cephalosporins > penicillins > monobactams. Third generation cephalosporins are frequently used in neonates. However, they are well tolerated compounds at the renal level. The nephrotoxicity of other classes of antibacterials is not discussed either because they are only used in neonates in exceptional circumstances, for example, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) or are not associated with significant nephrotoxicity, for example macrolides, clindamicin, quinolones, rifampicin (rifampin) and metronidazole

  8. Enhanced learning of natural visual sequences in newborn chicks. (United States)

    Wood, Justin N; Prasad, Aditya; Goldman, Jason G; Wood, Samantha M W


    To what extent are newborn brains designed to operate over natural visual input? To address this question, we used a high-throughput controlled-rearing method to examine whether newborn chicks (Gallus gallus) show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. We took the same set of images and grouped them into either natural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different viewpoints of the same real-world object) or unnatural sequences (i.e., sequences showing different images of different real-world objects). When raised in virtual worlds containing natural sequences, newborn chicks developed the ability to recognize familiar images of objects. Conversely, when raised in virtual worlds containing unnatural sequences, newborn chicks' object recognition abilities were severely impaired. In fact, the majority of the chicks raised with the unnatural sequences failed to recognize familiar images of objects despite acquiring over 100 h of visual experience with those images. Thus, newborn chicks show enhanced learning of natural visual sequences at the onset of vision. These results indicate that newborn brains are designed to operate over natural visual input.

  9. Immediate newborn care practices delay thermoregulation and breastfeeding initiation (United States)

    Sobel, Howard L; Silvestre, Maria Asuncion A; Mantaring, Jacinto Blas V; Oliveros, Yolanda E; Nyunt-U, Soe


    Aim A deadly nosocomial outbreak in a Philippine hospital drew nationwide attention to neonatal sepsis. Together with specific infection control measures, interventions that protect newborns against infection-related mortality include drying, skin-to-skin contact, delayed cord clamping, breastfeeding initiation and delayed bathing. This evaluation characterized hospital care in the first hours of life with the intent to drive policy change, strategic planning and hospital reform. Methods Trained physicians observed 481 consecutive deliveries in 51 hospitals using a standardized tool to record practices and timing of immediate newborn care procedures. Results Drying, weighing, eye care and vitamin K injections were performed in more than 90% of newborns. Only 9.6% were allowed skin-to-skin contact. Interventions were inappropriately sequenced, e.g. immediate cord clamping (median 12 sec), delayed drying (96.5%) and early bathing (90.0%). While 68.2% were put to the breast, they were separated two minutes later. Unnecessary suctioning was performed in 94.9%. Doctors trained in neonatal resuscitation were 2.5 (1.1–5.7) times more likely to unnecessarily suction vigorous newborns. Two per cent died and 5.7% developed sepsis/pneumonia. Conclusions This minute-by-minute observational assessment revealed that performance and timing of immediate newborn care interventions are below WHO standards and deprive newborns of basic protections against infection and death. PMID:21375583

  10. Hypothermia therapy for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. (United States)

    Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S


    Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Inborn Errors of Intermediary Metabolism in Critically Ill Mexican Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibarra-González Isabel MSc


    Full Text Available Inborn errors of intermediary metabolism (IEiM are complex diseases with high clinical heterogeneity, and some patients who have severe enzyme deficiencies or are subjected to stress (catabolism/infections actually decompensate in the neonatal period. In this study, we performed metabolic tests on 2025 newborns in Mexico admitted to 35 neonatal intensive care units or emergency wards (NICUs/EWs over a 6-year period, in whom a metabolic disorder was clinically suspected. Of these 2025 newborns with sickness, 11 had IEiM, revealing a prevalence of 1:184. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the newborns with confirmed IEiM are shown. Of these 11 patients, 4 had isolated methylmalonic acidemia, 3 had maple syrup urine disease, 2 had urea cycle disorders, 1 had 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acidemia, and 1 had isovaleric acidemia. During the first week of life (average 3 days, all of these newborns presented with impaired alertness, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and vomiting along with metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia. Of the 11 newborns with IEiM, 7 died, leading to a mortality rate of 64%. In conclusion, the differential diagnosis of newborns admitted to the NICU/EW must include IEiM, requiring systematic screening of this population.

  12. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  13. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  14. State of newborn health in India. (United States)

    Sankar, M J; Neogi, S B; Sharma, J; Chauhan, M; Srivastava, R; Prabhakar, P K; Khera, A; Kumar, R; Zodpey, S; Paul, V K


    About 0.75 million neonates die every year in India, the highest for any country in the world. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) declined from 52 per 1000 live births in 1990 to 28 per 1000 live births in 2013, but the rate of decline has been slow and lags behind that of infant and under-five child mortality rates. The slower decline has led to increasing contribution of neonatal mortality to infant and under-five mortality. Among neonatal deaths, the rate of decline in early neonatal mortality rate (ENMR) is much lower than that of late NMR. The high level and slow decline in early NMR are also reflected in a high and stagnant perinatal mortality rate. The rate of decline in NMR, and to an extent ENMR, has accelerated with the introduction of National Rural Health Mission in mid-2005. Almost all states have witnessed this phenomenon, but there is still a huge disparity in NMR between and even within the states. The disparity is further compounded by rural-urban, poor-rich and gender differentials. There is an interplay of different demographic, educational, socioeconomic, biological and care-seeking factors, which are responsible for the differentials and the high burden of neonatal mortality. Addressing inequity in India is an important cross-cutting action that will reduce newborn mortality.

  15. Radio transients from newborn black holes (United States)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Murase, Kohta


    We consider radio emission from a newborn black hole (BH), which is accompanied by a mini-disk with a mass of ≲ M⊙. Such a disk can be formed from an outer edge of the progenitor's envelope, especially for metal-poor massive stars and/or massive stars in close binaries. The disk accretion rate is typically super-Eddington and an ultrafast outflow with a velocity of ˜0.1-0.3 c will be launched into the circumstellar medium. The outflow forms a collisionless shock, and electrons are accelerated and emit synchrotron emission in radio bands with a flux of ˜ 10^{26-30} erg s^{-1} Hz^{-1} days to decades after the BH formation. The model predicts not only a fast UV/optical transient but also quasi-simultaneous inverse-Compton X-ray emission ˜ a few days after the BH formation, and the discovery of the radio counterpart with coordinated searches will enable us to identify this type of transients. The occurrence rate can be 0.1 - 10 % of the core-collapse supernova rate, which makes them a promising target of dedicated radio observations such as the Jansky VLA Sky Survey.

  16. Echocardiographic Diagnostics of Myocardial Infarction in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Revunenkov


    Full Text Available Early and correct diagnostics of myocardial infarction in newborns is impossible without modern instrumental methods, among which echocardiography is the leading one. Hypokinesia, akinesia or dyskinesia of local segments of the heart ventricular wall is determined with echocardiography. We examined a 3-days-old baby with circulatory failure requiring cardiotonic support. On auscultation there was a heart murmur. It was an intracardiac conduction disoder and infarction-like changes on ECG, however, a convincing evidence to interpret the patient’s condition as myocardial infarction has not been received. Therefore, it was decided to conduct echocardiography. According to the results of echocardiography the presence of hyperechogenic diskinetic locus in the apical segment of the right ventricle (post-infarction scar, a local pericardial effusion in the same projection, hyperechogenic movable mass (thrombus in the apical segment of the right ventricle were determined that together with the results of the ECG allowed us to set diagnosis myocardial infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography is one of highly informative methods; the data obtained allowed to correctly interpret the clinical picture of heart failure and to reveal the cause of the patien’st dependance on cardiotonic support.

  17. Health Literacy Among Parents of Newborn Infants (United States)

    Mackley, Amy; Winter, Michael; Guillen, Ursula; Paul, David A.; Locke, Robert


    BACKGROUND Health Literacy is the ability to obtain, process, and understand health information to make knowledgeable health decisions. PURPOSE To determine baseline health literacy of NICU parents at a tertiary care hospital during periods of crucial information exchange. METHODS Health Literacy of English speaking NICU parents was assessed using the Newest vital Sign (NVS) on admission (n=121) and discharge (n=59). A quasi-control group of well newborn (WBN) parents (n=24) and prenatal obstetric clinic (PRE) parents (n=18) were included. A single, Likert-style question measured nurse’s assessment of parental comprehension with discharge teaching. Suspected limited health literacy (SLHL) was defined as NVS score of ≤3. FINDINGS / RESULTS Forty-three percent of parents on NICU admission and 32% at NICU discharge had SLHL (pNICU parents and 25% of WBN parents with SLHL at time of admission/infant birth had a college education. Nurse subjective measurement of parental comprehension of discharge instructions was not correlated to the objective measurement of health literacy (p=0.26). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE SLHL is common during peak time periods of complex health discussion in the NICU, WBN, and PRE settings. NICU providers may not accurately gauge parent’s literacy status. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH Methods for improving health communication are needed. Studies should evaluate SLHL in a larger NICU population and across different languages and cultures. PMID:27391562

  18. Sonographic templates of newborn perforator stroke. (United States)

    Abels, Lyanne; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul


    Many paediatric strokes occur in the perinatal period. Improvement in neuroimaging has increased detection in newborns with neurological symptoms. To define sonographic templates of neonatal stroke in the territory of perforators of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. In 24 neonates with perforator stroke, we retrospectively studied antenatal and perinatal events. Brain sonography was performed with an 8.5-MHz probe. Only hyperechoic lesions in the thalamus and/or striatum and/or centrum semiovale were included. MRI was obtained using a 1.5-T machine. We detected 28 perforator strokes in 24 infants (6 preterm): 5 MCA medial striate, 8 MCA lateral striate, 3 MCA centrum semiovale, 4 ACA Heubner's, 5 PCA thalamic arteries, 1 AChA, and 2 hypothalamic perforators. We attributed clinical seizures to stroke in two infants only. Catheter-related embolism (certain in three, possible in six others) and birth trauma (two) were probable causes. Specific conditions were found in six others. Only one infant (in nine evaluated) had an increased prothrombotic risk (fII mutation). In describing the lesions, we focused on the templates of infarction as seen in a parasagittal US sweep. Infarcts were confirmed by MRI in 21 patients. Our study showed that infarct topography can be evaluated reliably with brain sonography. This is important given the asymptomatic character of most lesions.

  19. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary


    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  20. Expanded newborn screening: social and ethical issues. (United States)

    Dhondt, Jean-Louis


    Newborn screening and genetic testing have expanded rapidly in the last decade with the advent of multiplex (e.g., tandem mass spectrometry) and/or DNA technologies. However, screening panels include a large number of disorders, which may not meet all of the traditional screening criteria, established in late 1960s, and used for years to justify screening programs. After a period of expansion driven by technological advances, many reports have reconsidered the justification of expanded programs. Many factors have contributed to test-panel discrepancies between countries. The test-panel review methodology, the way health benefits are weighed against harms, and the socioeconomic-political environment all play a role. Expansion of screening also requires reconsideration of the infrastructure (ideally, in the context of national plans for rare diseases) to support testing, counselling, education, treatment, and follow-up. Consequently, economic aspects cannot be ignored and can be a limitation for expansion. New ethical questions have emerged: risks of discrimination or stigmatization, respect of the autonomy of persons to make decisions, parental anxiety resulting from a false positive test (especially when reporting to parents screening results for untreatable conditions identified as by-products of screening), etc. For disorders where there is not yet confirmation of benefit, it may be prudent to recommend pilot screening and to have a mechanism that can be used to adapt or even to stop a program.

  1. Dissociated cultures of newborn mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmann, U.N.; Hofmann, K.; Burkhart, T.; Herschkowitz, N.


    The metabolism of 35 SO 4 -sulfated lipids and mucopolysaccharides was studied in dissociated brain cell cultures from newborn albino mouse brains. The cultures were maintained under an atmosphere of 40% O 2 and 5% CO 2 in apparent good health up to 30 days. Early morphological examination of the dissociated cells demonstrated an initial partial reaggregation of the cells, which later settled and became confluent bilayered cultures. Cell proliferation measured by DNA and protein determination, morphological differentiation and biochemical differentiation took place in the dissociated brain cell cultures analogous in some respects to the in vivo situation. A timed increase in the synthesis of a myelin precursor, cerebroside 35 SO 4 , was observed after 6 to 8 days in culture (DIC). A peak of cerebroside sulfate was evident at 17 DIC. No stable sulfatide was observed at any time. Protein-bound macromolecular 35 SO 4 -MPS was synthetized and secreted from the cells into the culture medium. Maximal synthesis and secretion occurred at 8 DIC. This culture system proves to be a useful model for studying some aspects of differentiation of brain cells under external conditions. (author)

  2. Guidelines for procedural pain in the newborn (United States)

    Lago, Paola; Garetti, Elisabetta; Merazzi, Daniele; Pieragostini, Luisa; Ancora, Gina; Pirelli, Anna; Bellieni, Carlo Valerio


    Despite accumulating evidence that procedural pain experienced by newborn infants may have acute and even long-term detrimental effects on their subsequent behaviour and neurological outcome, pain control and prevention remain controversial issues. Our aim was to develop guidelines based on evidence and clinical practice for preventing and controlling neonatal procedural pain in the light of the evidence-based recommendations contained in the SIGN classification. A panel of expert neonatologists used systematic review, data synthesis and open discussion to reach a consensus on the level of evidence supported by the literature or customs in clinical practice and to describe a global analgesic management, considering pharmacological, non-pharmacological, behavioural and environmental measures for each invasive procedure. There is strong evidence to support some analgesic measures, e.g. sucrose or breast milk for minor invasive procedures, and combinations of drugs for tracheal intubation. Many other pain control measures used during chest tube placement and removal, screening and treatment for ROP, or for postoperative pain, are still based not on evidence, but on good practice or expert opinions. Conclusion: These guidelines should help improving the health care professional's awareness of the need to adequately manage procedural pain in neonates, based on the strongest evidence currently available. PMID:19484828

  3. Lessons learned in using realist evaluation to assess maternal and newborn health programming in rural Bangladesh. (United States)

    Adams, Alayne; Sedalia, Saroj; McNab, Shanon; Sarker, Malabika


    Realist evaluation furnishes valuable insight to public health practitioners and policy makers about how and why interventions work or don't work. Moving beyond binary measures of success or failure, it provides a systematic approach to understanding what goes on in the 'Black Box' and how implementation decisions in real life contexts can affect intervention effectiveness. This paper reflects on an experience in applying the tenets of realist evaluation to identify optimal implementation strategies for scale-up of Maternal and Newborn Health (MNH) programmes in rural Bangladesh. Supported by UNICEF, the three MNH programmes under consideration employed different implementation models to deliver similar services and meet similar MNH goals. Programme targets included adoption of recommended antenatal, post-natal and essential newborn care practices; health systems strengthening through improved referral, accountability and administrative systems, and increased community knowledge. Drawing on focused examples from this research, seven steps for operationalizing the realist evaluation approach are offered, while emphasizing the need to iterate and innovate in terms of methods and analysis strategies. The paper concludes by reflecting on lessons learned in applying realist evaluation, and the unique insights it yields regarding implementation strategies for successful MNH programming. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  4. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department


    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  5. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette


    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  6. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at

  7. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)


    Iskandar, Nurul Auni


    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  8. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.


    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  9. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine


    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  10. Lung matrix and vascular remodeling in mechanically ventilated elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (United States)

    Hilgendorff, Anne; Parai, Kakoli; Ertsey, Robert; Navarro, Edwin; Jain, Noopur; Carandang, Francis; Peterson, Joanna; Mokres, Lucia; Milla, Carlos; Preuss, Stefanie; Alcazar, Miguel Alejandre; Khan, Suleman; Masumi, Juliet; Ferreira-Tojais, Nancy; Mujahid, Sana; Starcher, Barry; Rabinovitch, Marlene


    Elastin plays a pivotal role in lung development. We therefore queried if elastin haploinsufficient newborn mice (Eln+/−) would exhibit abnormal lung structure and function related to modified extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. Because mechanical ventilation (MV) has been linked to dysregulated elastic fiber formation in the newborn lung, we also asked if elastin haploinsufficiency would accentuate lung growth arrest seen after prolonged MV of neonatal mice. We studied 5-day-old wild-type (Eln+/+) and Eln+/− littermates at baseline and after MV with air for 8–24 h. Lungs of unventilated Eln+/− mice contained ∼50% less elastin and ∼100% more collagen-1 and lysyl oxidase compared with Eln+/+ pups. Eln+/− lungs contained fewer capillaries than Eln+/+ lungs, without discernible differences in alveolar structure. In response to MV, lung tropoelastin and elastase activity increased in Eln+/+ neonates, whereas tropoelastin decreased and elastase activity was unchanged in Eln+/− mice. Fibrillin-1 protein increased in lungs of both groups during MV, more in Eln+/− than in Eln+/+ pups. In both groups, MV caused capillary loss, with larger and fewer alveoli compared with unventilated controls. Respiratory system elastance, which was less in unventilated Eln+/− compared with Eln+/+ mice, was similar in both groups after MV. These results suggest that elastin haploinsufficiency adversely impacts pulmonary angiogenesis and that MV dysregulates elastic fiber integrity, with further loss of lung capillaries, lung growth arrest, and impaired respiratory function in both Eln+/+ and Eln+/− mice. Paucity of lung capillaries in Eln+/− newborns might help explain subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension previously reported in adult Eln+/− mice. PMID:25539853

  11. Nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) permeability in newborn rat cortical collecting duct cells in primary culture. (United States)

    Valencia, L; Bidet, M; Martial, S; Sanchez, E; Melendez, E; Tauc, M; Poujeol, C; Martin, D; Namorado, M D; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P


    To characterize Ca(2+) transport in newborn rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, we used nifedipine, which in adult rat distal tubules inhibits the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase in response to hormonal activation. We found that the dihydropyridine (DHP) nifedipine (20 microM) produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) from 87.6 +/- 3.3 nM to 389.9 +/- 29.0 nM in 65% of the cells. Similar effects of other DHP (BAY K 8644, isradipine) were also observed. Conversely, DHPs did not induce any increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in cells obtained from proximal convoluted tubule. In CCD cells, neither verapamil nor diltiazem induced any rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Experiments in the presence of EGTA showed that external Ca(2+) was required for the nifedipine effect, while lanthanum (20 microM), gadolinium (100 microM), and diltiazem (20 microM) inhibited the effect. Experiments done in the presence of valinomycin resulted in the same nifedipine effect, showing that K(+) channels were not involved in the nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. H(2)O(2) also triggered [Ca(2+)](i) rise. However, nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was not affected by protamine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that 1) primary cultures of cells from terminal nephron of newborn rats are a useful tool for investigating Ca(2+) transport mechanisms during growth, and 2) newborn rat CCD cells in primary culture exhibit a new apical nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) channel of capacitive type (either transient receptor potential or leak channel).

  12. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.


    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  13. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.


    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  14. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.


    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency among Newborns in Amman, Jordan (United States)

    Khuri-Bulos, Najwa; Lang, Ryan D.; Blevins, Meridith; Kudyba, Katherine; Lawrence, Lindsey; Davidson, Mario; Faouri, Samir; Halasa, Natasha B.


    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in selected Middle Eastern countries, but neonatal vitamin D status is not well studied in Jordan and other nearby countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Jordanian newborns and risk factors associated with low levels. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of newborn infants who were delivered at the Al Bashir Government Hospital in Amman, Jordan, from January 31, 2010, to January 27, 2011. Heel stick blood samples for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were obtained within 96 hours of birth. Maternal dress pattern, vitamin supplementation, smoke exposure during pregnancy, mode of delivery, gestational age, and birth weight were documented. Results: Samples were obtained from 3,731 newborns. Median gestational age was 39 weeks, median birth weight was 3.1 kilograms, median maternal age was 27 years, and median newborn 25(OH)D level was 8.6nmol/L. A total of 3,512 newborns (94.1%) in this study were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L). Lower gestational age, maternal smoke exposure, and birth during winter months were associated with lower infant vitamin D levels, while vitamin D supplementation and time spent outside during pregnancy were associated with higher vitamin D levels. Conclusions: The prevalence of severely low vitamin D levels in newborn infants in Amman, Jordan, is substantial, even in newborns born during the spring and summer months. Vitamin D supplementation is needed in this population. PMID:24373276

  16. Resuscitation of the Newborn: AN IMPROVED NEONATAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This places a unique demand on a resuscitator which can be used safely at birth. It must be able to achieve such pressures without injuring the lungs; yet once the FRC has been established, it must be able to adapt itself to the differing ventilatory requirements, without altering the blood chemistry of the neonate. S. Afr. Med.

  17. Off-label drug in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin


    Full Text Available The lack of specific drugs and labelling recommendations for the neonatal population is a long-standing problem throughout the world. With the introduction of the Paediatric Regulation in 2007, in Europe tangible steps have been made to increase clinical research in children, but only a limited number of clinical trials included neonates that remain therapeutic orphans. This leads to a widespread use of medicines outside the terms indicated in the product license (off-label as regards dose, route of administration, indication, age group or in an unlicensed manner (formulations modified, extemporaneous preparations, imported medicines, chemicals used as drugs. This use, often made on the basis of a consolidated clinical experience in absence of other authorized options, does not imply that a drug is contraindicated or disapproved, but simply means that insufficient data are available to grant approval status and the risks and benefits of using a drug in a particular situation have not been examined. Given the importance that neonatal population not be denied of drugs that are clearly beneficial, an updated overview of the worldwide situation of off-label and unlicensed drug use in the newborn will be presented, by analyzing also the impact of recent legislative initiatives and the well recognized problems (increased risk of ineffective or toxic treatments, adverse drug reactions and medication errors. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  18. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Newborn Infants (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Signal, Mathew; Harris, Deborah L.; Weston, Philip J.; Harding, Jane E.; Shaw, Geoffrey M.


    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause serious brain injury. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing blood glucose (BG) measurements. Calibration algorithms use BG measurements to convert sensor signals into CGM data. Thus, inaccuracies in calibration BG measurements directly affect CGM values and any metrics calculated from them. The aim was to quantify the effect of timing delays and calibration BG measurement errors on hypoglycemia metrics in newborn infants. Data from 155 babies were used. Two timing and 3 BG meter error models (Abbott Optium Xceed, Roche Accu-Chek Inform II, Nova Statstrip) were created using empirical data. Monte-Carlo methods were employed, and each simulation was run 1000 times. Each set of patient data in each simulation had randomly selected timing and/or measurement error added to BG measurements before CGM data were calibrated. The number of hypoglycemic events, duration of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemic index were then calculated using the CGM data and compared to baseline values. Timing error alone had little effect on hypoglycemia metrics, but measurement error caused substantial variation. Abbott results underreported the number of hypoglycemic events by up to 8 and Roche overreported by up to 4 where the original number reported was 2. Nova results were closest to baseline. Similar trends were observed in the other hypoglycemia metrics. Errors in blood glucose concentration measurements used for calibration of CGM devices can have a clinically important impact on detection of hypoglycemia. If CGM devices are going to be used for assessing hypoglycemia it is important to understand of the impact of these errors on CGM data. PMID:24876618

  19. [2,3 diphosphoglycerate in preterm newborns]. (United States)

    Scopesi, F; Canini, S; Mazzella, M; Arioni, C; Lantieri, P; Serra, G


    It has been largely shown that during the first month of life, in the preterm neonate Hb levels and Hct percentages rapidly decrease, high HbF concentration persists and a high oxygen affinity occurs. Data are needed to establish the level at which 2,3 dyphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) interacts with the regulation of oxygen affinity. 24 samples, from eight uncomplicated preterm newborns (34.1 +/- 1.83 GW, 1869 +/- +/- 291 BW) obtained at the same time as those required for the clinical management of the infants, were collected on the 2nd, 7th and 14th day of life. Blood gases, total hemoglobin and hematocrit were obtained from 0.3 ml arterialised capillary blood. Assays of 2,3 DPG were made separately on 0.4 ml venous blood. As expected tHb concentration and Hct percentages significantly decreased from day 2 to day 14 in all eight cases. On the contrary 2,3 DPG and p50 values remained stable. Subsequently throughout the study period all neonates had an increased 2,3 DPG/Hb ratio that was significantly related with p50 at standard conditions (p < 0.05). Stable 2,3 DPG concentrations during all study period have been detected. The subsequent significant increased 2.3 DPG/Hb, ratio related to increased p50 values, could have a key role in a physiological mechanism aimed to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues and to counteract the higher oxygen affinity of fetal hemoglobin. A wider sample is needed to validate this hypothesis.

  20. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (United States)

    Teng, Ru-Jeng; Wu, Tzong-Jin


    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a severe pulmonary disorder which occurs one in every 500 live births. About 10–50% of the victims will die of the problem and 7–20% of the survivors develop long term impairments such as hearing deficit, chronic lung disease, and intracranial bleed. Most of the adult survivors show evidence of augmented pulmonary vasoreactivity suggesting a phenotypical change. Several animal models have been used to study the pathophysiology and help to develop new therapeutic modality for PPHN. The etiology of PPHN can be classified into three groups: [A] abnormally constricted pulmonary vasculature due to parenchymal diseases; [B] hypoplastic pulmonary vasculature; [C] normal parenchyma with remodeled pulmonary vasculature. Impaired vasorelaxation of pulmonary artery and reduced blood vessel density in lungs are two characteristic findings in PPHN. Medical treatment includes sedation, oxygen, mechanical ventilation, vasorelaxants (inhaled nitric oxide, inhaled or intravenous prostacyclin, intravenous prostaglandin E1, magnesium sulfate), and inotropic agents. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor has recently been studied as another therapeutic agent for PPHN. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibitor has been studied in animal and a case of premature infant with PPHN successfully treated with ET-I inhibitor has been reported in the literature. Surfactant has been reported as an adjunct treatment for PPHN as a complication of meconium aspiration syndrome. Even with the introduction of several new therapeutic modalities there has no significant change in survival rate. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator is used when medical treatment fails and patient is considered to have a recoverable cause of PPHN. PMID:23537863

  1. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker


    for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. METHODS: A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  2. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho


    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  3. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg


    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  4. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia


    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  5. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel


    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  6. Newborn Body Indices in Housewives and Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Torabizadeh


    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare newborns anthropometric indices of housewives and employed women.Materials and Methods: This case control study compared newborns’ anthropometric indices (weight, length, head circumference and first minute APGAR between working women and housewives. Two hundred consecutive term pregnant women during active phase of labor without any pregnancy complications were evaluated. For each participant a questionnaire was filled by the researcher. Employed women according to their standing position during work time were divided into three groups: heavy, light and moderate jobs.   Results: The mean weight, length and head circumference of the newborns were higher in employed women (p=0.018, p<0.001, p=0.010, respectively. After eliminating effect of the interfering variables by using a general linear model, it was observed that the mother’s job has a direct influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight was similar in two groups (p=0.340. The newborn's anthropometric indices and first minute APGAR had not significant difference in subgroups of job difficulty.Conclusion: Maternal job has a direct positive influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight is not related to maternal job.

  7. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adorno Elisângela Vitória


    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  8. Weight loss and low age are associated with intensity of rooting behaviours in newborn infants. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Jonas, Wibke; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit; Lidfors, Lena; Uvnäs Moberg, Kerstin; Nissen, Eva


    Little is known about the developing breastfeeding behaviour of newborn infants. This study describes infants' prebreastfeeding behaviour during the second day of life and explores possible associations with infant characteristics. We studied 13 mothers and healthy full-term infants after normal births. At 24-48 hours of life, the newborns were placed in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers for breastfeeding and were video-filmed. The order, frequency and duration of predefined infant prefeeding behaviours and suckling were coded and analysed using computer-based video software. Prefeeding behaviours occurred in the following order: rooting, hand to mouth movements, licking of the nipple and hand to breast to mouth movements. The infants started to suckle at a median of one to two minutes. Rooting was the most common behaviour, observed in 12 infants. The duration of rooting movements during the last minute before breastfeeding was inversely related to neonatal age (p ≤ 0.001) and positively related to neonatal weight loss (p = 0.02) after birth. Infants exhibited a distinct sequence of prefeeding behaviours during the second day of life, and our findings suggest that rooting movements were governed by mechanisms involved in the regulation of food intake and weight gain. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. CT measurement of indomethacin-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes in the newborn piglet (United States)

    Brown, Derek W.; Hadway, Jennifer; Lee, Ting-Yim


    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a common condition among preterm infants, increases the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and death in afflicted individuals. Current clinical treatment of PDA relies on use of the drug indomethacin to close the ductus arteriosus. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of indomethacin on cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral mean transit time (MTT) in newborn piglets using computed tomography (CT) perfusion. Twenty newborn piglets divided by age into two groups, less than 12 hours of age (n = 10) and greater than 12 hours of age (n = 10) were studied. Five piglets in each group received indomethacin treatment (0.2 mg/kg infused over 30 min) while remaining piglets served as controls. No significant changes in CBF were observed in control groups. In both indomethacin treated groups, average CBF decreased 32.3% and 34.3% (P > 0.05) below baseline immediately post infusion in piglets less than and greater than 12 hours of age respectively. Piglets less than 12hours of age treated with indomethacin also exhibited a delayed increase in CBF, maximum average increase of 41.7% (P > 0.05) above baseline at 210 min post infusion, a response not observed in the corresponding group of piglets greater than 12 hours of age. The observed age dependent response may be due to functional/anatomical closure of the PDA.

  10. Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in dried blood spots of Minnesota infants who do not pass newborn hearing screening. (United States)

    Choi, K Yeon; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Jurek, Anne M; Sharon, Bazak; Daly, Kathy; Khan, Cindy; McCann, Mark; Schleiss, Mark R


    Up to 15% of infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection will experience some degree of sensorineural hearing loss. Many infants who fail newborn hearing screening (NHS) are likely to have congenital CMV infection, but may escape definitive virologic identification because diagnostic evaluation may not commence until several weeks or months of age, making differentiation between congenital and postnatal CMV infection difficult. Early diagnosis linking virologic identification of congenital CMV infection to infants failing NHS may improve diagnostic precision and enhance opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The goal of this study was to compare newborn dried blood spots from Minnesota infants who had failed NHS, and were designated for referral, with control infants who passed NHS, for the presence of CMV DNA by real-time PCR, using hybridization probes for the CMV gene UL54. Of 479 infants with a failed NHS (bilateral failure), 13 had CMV DNA present in the blood spot (2.7%). This compared with only 2/479 positive results from a control group of infants who passed the NHS (0.4%; P = 0.007, Fisher exact test). Comparisons of the glycoprotein B (gB) genotype as well as direct DNA sequencing of selected positives revealed that PCR positive samples represented unique clinical isolates. The mean viral load among the 15 positive samples was 1.6 x 10(3) genomes/microgram of total DNA. Newborn bloodspot CMV screening by real-time PCR may be a useful and rapid adjunct to functional NHS and may enable more rapid etiologic diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss in newborns.

  11. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.


    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  12. The exploration of the exhibition informatization (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang


    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  13. Newborn hearing screening programme in Belgium: a consensus recommendation on risk factors. (United States)

    Vos, Bénédicte; Senterre, Christelle; Lagasse, Raphaël; Levêque, Alain


    of risk factors for hearing loss. We revised the recommendations for the clinical management and follow-up of newborns exhibiting neonatal risk factors for hearing loss on the basis of the aforementioned evidence-based approach and clinical experience from experts. The next step is the implementation of these findings in the Belgian screening programme.

  14. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E


    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  15. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness? (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A


    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  17. A DTI-based tractography study of effects on brain structure associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in newborns (United States)

    Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.


    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535

  18. Growth hormone in intra-uterine growth retarded newborns. (United States)

    Setia, Sajita; Sridhar, M G; Bhat, Vishnu; Chaturvedula, Latha


    To study growth hormone levels in IUGR and healthy controls and its association with birth weight and ponderal index. We studied 50 Intra uterine growth retarded (IUGR) and 50 healthy newborns born at term by vaginal delivery in JIPMER, Pondicherry, India. Cord blood was collected at the time of delivery for measurement of growth hormone. When compared with healthy newborns, IUGR newborns had higher growth hormone levels (mean +/- SD, 23.5 +/- 15.6 vs 16.2 +/- 7.61 ngm/ml, P = 0.019). A negative correlation was identified between growth hormone levels and birth weight (r2 = - 0.22, P = 0.03) and ponderal index (r2 = - 0.36, P = 0.008). Correlation of growth hormone levels was much more confident with ponderal index than with birth weight. At birth IUGR infants display increased growth hormone levels which correlate with ponderal index much more confidently than with birth weight.

  19. Newborn screening for proximal urea cycle disorders: Current evidence supporting recommendations for newborn screening. (United States)

    Merritt, J Lawrence; Brody, Linnea L; Pino, Gisele; Rinaldo, Piero


    Current newborn screening (NBS) for urea cycle disorders (UCD) is incomplete as only distal UCDs are included in most NBS programs by measuring elevated amino acid concentrations. NBS for the proximal UCDs involves the detection in NBS spots of low citrulline values, a finding which is often overlooked because it is considered to be inadequate. We retrospectively analyzed NBS blood spots from known UCD patients comparing the utility of the Region 4 Stork (R4S) interpretive tools to conventional cutoff based interpretation. This study shows the utility of R4S tools in detecting all UCDs, and provides evidence to support the nomination to add proximal UCDs to the recommended uniform screening panel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: managing the mother, fetus, and newborn. (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Matthews, Dana C


    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) affects 3/100 000 to 80/100 000 patients per year. It is due to maternal blood group antibodies that cause fetal red cell destruction and in some cases, marrow suppression. This process leads to fetal anemia, and in severe cases can progress to edema, ascites, heart failure, and death. Infants affected with HDFN can have hyperbilirubinemia in the acute phase and hyporegenerative anemia for weeks to months after birth. The diagnosis and management of pregnant women with HDFN is based on laboratory and radiographic monitoring. Fetuses with marked anemia may require intervention with intrauterine transfusion. HDFN due to RhD can be prevented by RhIg administration. Prevention for other causal blood group specificities is less studied. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  1. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter


    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  2. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler


    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  3. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits. (United States)


    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  4. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  5. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  6. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk


    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  7. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits. (United States)


    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  8. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression in Newborns with Differential Birth Weight Using Newborn Screening Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodil-Garcia


    Full Text Available Birth weight is an early predictor for metabolic diseases and microRNAs (miRNAs are proposed as fetal programming participants. To evaluate the use of dried blood spots (DBS on newborn screening cards (NSC as a source of analyzable miRNAs, we optimized a commercial protocol to recover total miRNA from normal birth weight (NBW, n = 17–20, low birth weight (LBW, n = 17–20 and high birth weight (macrosomia, n = 17–20 newborns and analyzed the relative expression of selected miRNAs by stem-loop RT-qPCR. The possible role of miRNAs on the fetal programming of metabolic diseases was explored by bioinformatic tools. The optimized extraction of RNA resulted in a 1.2-fold enrichment of miRNAs respect to the commercial kit. miR-33b and miR-375 were overexpressed in macrosomia 9.8-fold (p < 0.001 and 1.7-fold, (p < 0.05, respectively and miR-454-3p was overexpressed in both LBW and macrosomia (19.7-fold, p < 0.001 and 10.8-fold, p < 0.001, respectively, as compared to NBW. Potential target genes for these miRNAs are associated to cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, type 2 diabetes, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βand Forkhead box O protein (FoxO pathways. In summary, we improved a protocol for analyzing miRNAs from NSC and provide the first evidence that birth weight modifies the expression of miRNAs associated to adult metabolic dysfunctions. Our work suggests archived NSC are an invaluable resource in the search for fetal programming biomarkers.

  9. Midwives' Experiences, Education, and Support Needs Regarding Basic Newborn Resuscitation in Jordan. (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Alnuaimi, Karimeh; Mohammad, Khitam; Creedy, Debra; Hamadneh, Shereen


    Newborns who are compromised at birth require rapid attention to stabilize their respiration attempts. Lack of knowledge regarding basic newborn resuscitation is a contributing factor to poor newborn health outcomes and increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore Jordanian midwives' experiences, education, and support needs to competently perform basic newborn resuscitation. Qualitative descriptive methodology was used to analyze a convenience sample of 20 midwives. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Participants discussed their experiences of basic newborn resuscitation including knowledge, skills, and barriers and suggested solutions to improve practice. Four themes were revealed: lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints, inadequate teamwork, and educational needs. The midwives perceived that their ability to perform newborn resuscitation was hindered by lack of knowledge and skills in newborn resuscitation, organizational constraints (such as lack of equipment), and poor co-ordination and communication among team members. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness. (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J


    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  11. The effect of maternal anemia on anthropometric measurements of newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telatar, Berrin; Comert, Serdar; Vitrinel, Ayca; Akin, Yasemin; Erginoz, Ethem


    To evaluate the relation between maternal prenatal hemoglobin concentration and neonatal anthropometric measurements. All pregnant women who gave birth at the Obstetrics Department of Dr. LK Kartal Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006, and their newborns were included in this prospective, cross-sectional study. The newborns weight, height, head, and chest circumference were recorded. Mothers with hemoglobin concentration less than 11g/dl were evaluated as anemic. The anemic mothers were then grouped into 3 categories according to the corresponding hemoglobin concentration: mild (10.9-9.0g/dl), moderate (8.9-7.0 g/dl), and severe anemic (less than 7 g/dl). The anthropometric measurements of newborns from non-anemic and anemic mother groups were compared. Of the 3688 pregnant women, 1588 (43%) were found to be anemic. Among the anemic mothers, 1245 had mild (78.5%), 311 had moderate (19.5%), and 32 (2%) had severe anemia. The anthropometric measurements (height, weight, head and chest circumference) of newborns of anemic and non-anemic mother groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.036, p=0.044, p=0.013, and p=0.0002). There was a statistically significant difference in height, weight, and chest circumference of newborns of severe anemic and mild anemic mothers (p=0.017, p=0.008 and p=0.02). The height (1.1 cm), weight (260 g), head (0.42 cm), and chest (1 cm) circumference of neonates in the severe anemic group is less than the mild anemic group. Anemia during pregnancy affect the anthropometric measurements of a newborn. Severe anemia had significant negative effect on neonatal anthropometric measurements. (author)

  12. [Maternal autoimmune thyroid disease: relevance for the newborn]. (United States)

    Temboury Molina, M Carmen; Rivero Martín, M José; de Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Ares Segura, Susana


    Autoimmune thyroid disease is amongst the most frequent endocrine disorders during pregnancy. It is associated with an increase in perinatal morbidity, congenital defects, neurological damage, fetal and neonatal thyroid dysfunction. Maternal thyroid hormones play a key role in child neurodevelopment. We aimed to evaluate the thyroid function and the clinical course of neonates born from mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease during the first months of life in order to define the follow-up. We monitored thyroid function and clinical status during the first months in 81 newborns of mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease; 16 had Graves disease and 65 autoimmune thyroiditis. A percentage of 4.93 newborns had congenital defects, and 8.64% neonates showed an increase in thyrotropin (TSH) (>9.5 μUI/mL 2 times) and required thyroxin within the first month of life. A 85.7% of these showed a negative newborn screening (due to a later increase of TSH). A higher TSH value in the newborn was related to an older age of the mother, higher levels of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody during pregnancy and lower birth weight. A higher free thyroxine (FT4) value in the newborn was related to fewer days of life and mothers with Graves disease. We recommend the evaluation of TSH, T4 and TPO antibodies before 10 weeks in all pregnant women with follow-up if maternal thyroid autoimmunity or disorders is detected. It is also recommended to test children's serum TSH and FT4 at 48 h of life in newborns of mothers with autoimmune thyroid disease and repeat them between the 2nd and 4th week in children with TSH>6 μUI/mL. Careful endocrine follow-up is advised in pregnant women and children if hyperthyroidism is detected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing radiation exposure in newborns with birth head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kriukova


    Full Text Available Background. Birth head trauma causing intracranial injury is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In case of suspected cranial fractures and intracranial hematomas, diagnostic methods involving radiation, such as x-ray radiography and computed tomography, are recommended. Recently, an increasing number of studies have highlighted the risk of cancer complications associated with computed tomography in infants. Therefore, diagnostic methods that reduce radiation exposure in neonates are important. One such method is ultrasonography (US. Aim. We evaluated US as a non-ionizing radiation method for diagnosis of cranial bone fractures and epidural hematomas in newborns with cephalohematomas or other birth head traumas. Material and methods. The study group included 449 newborns with the most common variant of birth head trauma: cephalohematomas. All newborns underwent transcranial-transfontanelle US for detection of intracranial changes and cranial US for visualization of bone structure in the cephalohematoma region. Children with ultrasonic signs of cranial fractures and epidural hematomas were further examined at a children’s hospital by x-ray radiography and/or computed tomography. Results and discussion. We found that cranial US for diagnosis of cranial fractures and transcranial-transfontanelle US for diagnosis of epidural hematomas in newborns were highly effective. In newborns with parietal cephalohematomas (444 children, 17 (3.8% had US signs of linear fracture of the parietal bone, and 5 (1.1% had signs of ipsilateral epidural hematoma. Epidural hematomas were visualized only when US was performed through the temporal bone and not by using the transfontanelle approach. Sixteen cases of linear fractures and all epidural hematomas were confirmed by computed tomography. Conclusion. The use of US diagnostic methods reduced radiation exposure in newborns with birth head trauma. US methods (transcranial

  14. Weaning newborn infants from mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Biban


    Full Text Available Invasive mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure which is largely used in neonatal intensive care units, particularly in very premature newborn infants. However, this essential treatment may increase mortality and cause substantial morbidity, including lung or airway injuries, unplanned extubations, adverse hemodynamic effects, analgosedative dependency and severe infectious complications, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, limiting the duration of airway intubation and mechanical ventilator support is crucial for the neonatologist, who should aim to a shorter process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation as well as an earlier appreciation of readiness for spontaneous breathing trials. Unfortunately, there is scarce information about the best ways to perform an effective weaning process in infants undergoing mechanical ventilation, thus in most cases the weaning course is still based upon the individual judgment of the attending clinician. Nonetheless, some evidence indicate that volume targeted ventilation modes are more effective in reducing the duration of mechanical ventilation than traditional pressure limited ventilation modes, particularly in very preterm babies. Weaning and extubation directly from high frequency ventilation could be another option, even though its effectiveness, when compared to switching and subsequent weaning and extubating from conventional ventilation, is yet to be adequately investigated. Some data suggest the use of weaning protocols could reduce the weaning time and duration of mechanical ventilation, but better designed prospective studies are still needed to confirm these preliminary observations. Finally, the implementation of short spontaneous breathing tests in preterm infants has been shown to be beneficial in some centres, favoring an earlier extubation at higher ventilatory settings compared with historical controls, without worsening the extubation failure rate. Further

  15. Transplantation of embryonic porcine neocortical tissue into newborn rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Anthony J; Meyer, Morten; Møller Dall, Annette


    cavities made in newborn rats. Sacrifice at 3-12.5 weeks posttransplantation revealed healthy looking grafts in several animals. Apparent graft rejection evidenced by areas of necrosis and OX1 reactivity was observed in some of the older transplants. Treatment of nursing mothers or of postweaning newborns...... with cyclosporin A did not appear to promote graft survival. Some transplants grew to extremely large proportions and were characterized by bands of cells and bundles of axons as observed using immunohistochemical staining for pig neurofilament. Neurofilament-positive axons projected from several of the grafts...

  16. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  17. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory. (United States)

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou


    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures.

  18. Mannose-binding lectin and infection risk in newborns: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israëls, J.; Frakking, F. N. J.; Kremer, L. C. M.; Offringa, M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; van de Wetering, M. D.


    The authors systematically reviewed the literature on mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and infections in newborns to determine whether infection risk is increased in MBL-deficient newborns. All original reports on MBL and infections in newborns were retrieved from Embase, Medline and CENTRAL from 1966

  19. Incidence of severe combined immunodeficiency through newborn screening in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Hsiu Chien


    Conclusion: Newborn screening to measure the number of TREC copies successfully identifies newborns with T-cell lymphopenia, 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome, and other high-risk conditions. Taken together, the incidence of T-cell lymphopenia in apparently healthy newborns is more than 1 in 11,821, and further attention to their immune functions is warranted.

  20. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia


    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  1. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info


    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  2. Kuala Namu Convention And Exhibition Centre


    Gustriana, Trisna


    Aerotropolis area development that is expected to accommodate the development of business and commercial appeal and this is the chance for the designer to be able to take advantage of the situation and condition of land as well as possible. So that the revolutionary changes but is able to embrace all stakeholders is the solution needed to development Aerotropolis. Kuala Namu's Convention and Exhibition Center is expected to be a solution for regional development of Kuala Namu a...

  3. 22nd Annual Logistics Conference and Exhibition (United States)


    Bill” Kenwell, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Maersk 5:30pm-7:30pm Reception in Exhibit Hall Wednesday, April 19, 2006 7:00am-5:30pm...some commercial sales of our products, services and platforms. We provide surface, air, and undersea applications on more than 460 programs for US...diagnostic system & process • Seamless B2B integration with maintenance systems Enabled By… EOATM Overview Sensor Data Maintenance Logs Repair Data Expert

  4. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition


    Dean, Lionel T.


    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  5. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness. (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães


    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  6. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance (United States)


    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  7. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit (United States)


    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  8. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server


    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  9. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server


    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  10. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.


    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  11. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia


    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  12. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  13. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development. (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian


    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit. (United States)

    Cardoso, Sandra Maria Schefer; Kozlowski, Lorena de Cássia; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Marques, Jair Mendes; Ribas, Angela


    The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal knowledge and care.seeking behaviors for newborn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Delay in the presentation of infants with jaundice at the hospital is a reason for the persistence of the severe forms of jaundice. Objective: The aim was to determine the influence of maternal knowledge on newborn jaundice on their care-seeking practices. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, mothers whose ...

  16. Normal anterior fontanelle sizes in newborn Igbo babies in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. Background. Several factors, including gestational age (GA), gender, race and geographical/regional area, contribute to variations in the ... While the impact of GA and gender are clearly established, the influences of region and ethnicity vary ... in the lying-in ward and babies in the Newborn Special Care Unit.

  17. Acute gastric dilatation secondary to septicemia in newborn: A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... case of acute gastric dilatation that developed in a two-days old child who was born premature and was suffering from septicemia and respiratory distress. The causes and the differential diagnosis of the rare condition are discussed. Keywords: Acute, dilatation, gastric, newborn. African Journal of Paediatric Surgery Vol.

  18. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.


    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  19. Ventilatory support of the newborn | Ahmed | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mechanical ventilation may be required to treat metabolic abnormalities. There is the need for continuous monitoring and re- evaluation. This article is intended to present an overview of the embryology of the respiratory system, pulmonary physiology in the newborn, the principles of oxygen therapy and mechanical ...

  20. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss. (United States)

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha


    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  1. Histological analysis of trachea and lung of newborn dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares da Silva


    Full Text Available The neonatology science is, in Veterinary Medicine, studying the post-birth to the development of certain characteristics of resistance, which for canines occurs until the second week of life. The newborn requires a precise approach given the particularities of their physiology and immunology extremely immature. The histological study elucidates problems morphological and functional abnormalities, as it provides a reliable and microscopic analysis. Aimed to analyze trachea and lung of newborn dogs through techniques of basic histology. We used five neonates that died postpartum. These were weighed, measured and dissected. Proceeded to the extraction of the trachea, bronchus and lung for submitting these samples to histological routine. The tracheal tissue presents a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with globet cells, a small amount of glands in the lamina propria and hyaline cartilage not fully developed. As regards the bronchial tissue may be observed well defined layers, pulmonary pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells in the lamina propria several bundles of smooth muscle and thick vascularized tissue. Likewise, the signs of bronchial cartilage present under development. The bronchioles also feature the common pulmonary epithelium and lamina propria also normal pens without smooth muscle. The bags alveolar lung cells showed typical. The lung tissues of newborn dogs present is still in development stage. It is possible to understand patterns of histogenesis and morphogenesis in newborn dogs.

  2. Construction requirements for full-term newborn simulation manikin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielen, M.W.H.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Neto Fonseca, L.T.; van der Hout-van der Jagt, M.B.


    Introduction In the Netherlands, approximately 4500 newborns are admitted each year in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In order to determine and practice optimal treatment for these fragile patients, clinicians increasingly use educative simulation. However, a high-fidelity simulation of

  3. Mothers' knowledge on essential newborn care at Juba Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 3, 2017 ... Objective: To identify the gaps in the knowledge and practices of essential newborn care among postnatal mothers at Juba. Teaching Hospital .... Baby is kept warm after delivery by: -Skin to skin contact. 128. 33.3. -Wrapping baby in a cloth. 347. 90.4. Duration between birth and first bath: -Hours. 169. 44.1.

  4. Knowledge and perceptions of quality of obstetric and newborn care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim Quality of service delivery for maternal and newborn health in Malawi is influenced by human resource shortages and knowledge and care practices of the existing service providers. We assessed Malawian healthcare providers' knowledge of management of routine labour, emergency obstetric care and emergency ...

  5. Intersensory Function in Newborns: Effect of Sound on Visual Preferences. (United States)

    Lawson, Katharine Rieke; Turkewitz, Gerald


    Newborn infants' fixation of a graduated series of visual stimuli significantly differed in the absence and presence of white-noise bursts. Relative to the no-sound condition, sound resulted in the infants' tendency to look more at the low-intensity visual stimulus and less at the high- intensity visual stimulus. (Author/DB)

  6. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...

  7. Fuzzy object models for newborn brain MR image segmentation (United States)

    Kobashi, Syoji; Udupa, Jayaram K.


    Newborn brain MR image segmentation is a challenging problem because of variety of size, shape and MR signal although it is the fundamental study for quantitative radiology in brain MR images. Because of the large difference between the adult brain and the newborn brain, it is difficult to directly apply the conventional methods for the newborn brain. Inspired by the original fuzzy object model introduced by Udupa et al. at SPIE Medical Imaging 2011, called fuzzy shape object model (FSOM) here, this paper introduces fuzzy intensity object model (FIOM), and proposes a new image segmentation method which combines the FSOM and FIOM into fuzzy connected (FC) image segmentation. The fuzzy object models are built from training datasets in which the cerebral parenchyma is delineated by experts. After registering FSOM with the evaluating image, the proposed method roughly recognizes the cerebral parenchyma region based on a prior knowledge of location, shape, and the MR signal given by the registered FSOM and FIOM. Then, FC image segmentation delineates the cerebral parenchyma using the fuzzy object models. The proposed method has been evaluated using 9 newborn brain MR images using the leave-one-out strategy. The revised age was between -1 and 2 months. Quantitative evaluation using false positive volume fraction (FPVF) and false negative volume fraction (FNVF) has been conducted. Using the evaluation data, a FPVF of 0.75% and FNVF of 3.75% were achieved. More data collection and testing are underway.

  8. Students as Technicians: Screening Newborns for Cystic Fibrosis (United States)

    Gusky, Sharon


    In this activity, freshman college students learn biotechnology techniques while playing the role of a laboratory technician. They perform simulations of three diagnostic tests used to screen newborns for cystic fibrosis. By performing an ELISA, a PCR analysis, and a conductivity test, students learn how biotechnology techniques can be used to…

  9. Prevalence and etiology of respiratory distress in newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, S.; Goheer, L.; Riaz, H.


    Objective: To determine the prevalence and etiology of respiratory distress in the newborns delivered over the period of one year from 1st January 2008 to 31st Dec 2008. Study Design: A descriptive study Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Armed Forces Hospital Sharurah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over a period of one year from January 2008 to Dec 2008 Patients and methods: All live newborns delivered at Armed Forces Hospital Sharurah during the study period were included and observed for development of respiratory distress. Results: All newborns (n=659), delivered at this hospital over the period of 12 months, were observed for respiratory distress. The overall prevalence of respiratory distress (RD) was 4.24%. Prevalence was 19.7% in preterm and 2.3% in full term. Transient tachypnea of newborn(TTN) was found to be the commonest 35.7% cause of Respiratory Distress (RD) followed by Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) 25%, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) 17.9%, congenital pneumonia 7.1% and other congenital anomalies 14.3%. TTN was found to be common among both term and preterm babies, while hyaline membrane disease was seen among preterm, and meconium aspiration syndrome among term and post term babies. Conclusion: Respiratory distress is a common neonatal problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Majority of cases are due to TTN followed by hyaline membrane disease and meconium aspiration syndrome. (author)

  10. Newborn screening for classic galactosemia and primary congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The main objective of this work was to establish the incidence of classic galactosaemia and primary congenital hypothyroidism in newborns in the Nkangala district of Mpumalanga. In the process a cost-effective protocol for neonatal screening of both diseases was developed. Study design and setting.

  11. Oxidative stress in newborns by different modes of delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veleminský Jr., M.; Ambrož, Antonín; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Dostál, Miroslav; Pastorková, Anna; Pulkrabová, J.; Hajslová, J.; Solanský, Ivo; Hanzl, M.; Šrám, Radim


    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2016), s. 445-451 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : vaginal delivery * Cesarean section * newborns Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  12. Financing state newborn screening programs: sources and uses of funds. (United States)

    Johnson, Kay; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Mann, Marie Y; Ramos, Lauren Raskin; Therrell, Bradford L


    Financing for newborn screening is different from virtually all other public health programs. All except 5 screening programs collect fees as the primary source of program funding. A fee-based approach to financing newborn screening has been adopted by most states, to ensure consistent funding for this critical public health activity. Two types of data are reported here, ie, primary data from a survey of 37 state public health agencies and findings from exploratory case studies from 7 states. Most of the programs that participated in this survey (73%) reported that their newborn screening funding increased between 2002 and 2005, typically through increased fees and to a lesser extent through Medicaid, Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant, and state general revenue funding. All of the responding states that collect fees (n = 31) use such funds to support laboratory expenses, and most (70%) finance short-term follow-up services and program management. Nearly one half (47%) finance longer-term follow-up services, case management, or family support beyond diagnosis. Other states (43%) finance genetic or nutritional counseling and formula foods or treatment. Regardless of the source of funds, the available evidence indicates that states are committed to maintaining their programs and securing the necessary financing for the initial screening through diagnosis. Use of federal funding is currently limited; however, pressure to provide dedicated federal funding would likely increase if national recommendations for a uniform newborn screening panel were issued.

  13. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU


    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh; Mohammad-Kazem Sabzehei; Seyyed-Ali-Reza Fahimzad; Farideh Shiva; Ahmad-Reza Shamshiri; Fatemeh Esmaili


    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. ...

  14. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3 with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84 and shower (n=100. Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath. Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

  15. Evaluation by computed tomography in premature and newborn infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckein, D.


    By means of cranio-cerebral computed tomography hypoxic brain damage of varying degrees and different types may be demonstrated in premature infants and high-risk newborns. Paraventricular leucomalacia of varying extent up to porencephalic defects are found, as well as cortical infarctions, hemorrhage into brain tissue or ventricles, cerebral atrophy, developing hydrocephalus and congenital anomalies. (orig.) [de

  16. The Profile Of Congenital Malformation Among Newborn Infants In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study pattern of congenital malformations (CM) among newborn infants in Calabar, South-south Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Medical records of all inborn and out-born neonates who were admitted and treated for CM in University of Calabar teaching Hospital (UCTH) from 1997 to 2006 (10 years) were ...

  17. Transient acute tubular dysfunction in the newborn: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, M.G.; Schwartz, J.R.; Swayne, L.C.; Columbia Univ., New York; Rubenstein, J.B.; University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ; Block, D.C.


    We report the CT and sonographic findings of transient acute tubular disease in a newborn infant, who was dehydrated at birth. The initial CT scan demonstrated focal areas of increased attenuation within the central portions of both kidneys, and sonography showed echogenic medullary pyramids. After adequate hydration, a follow-up examination demonstrated complete spontaneous resolution. (orig.)

  18. Genetic susceptibility of newborn daughters to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decordier, Ilse; De Bont, Kelly; De Bock, Kirsten


    A central question in risk assessment is whether newborns' susceptibility to mutagens is different from that of adults. Therefore we investigated whether genotype and/or the DNA strand break repair phenotype in combination with the MN assay would allow estimation of the relative sensitivity of a ...

  19. Change of blood rheology in newborn and its cerebrovascular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Chen


    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage in newborn whose hematocritg (HCT are among 60%-65%. Methods: A total of 100 cases newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% with blood routine examination were set as observation group, 100 cases newborn whose HCT <60% were set as control group, compared the blood rheology, changes in myocardial enzyme spectrum and brain damage between two groups. Results: The HCT, whole blood viscosity (high, whole blood viscosity (low shear, erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index, aspertate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, Vs, Vs and the abnormal rate of aEEG examination in observation group were significantly higher than the control group, the difference had statistical significance, RI in observation group were significantly lower than the control group, the difference had statistical significance. Conclusions: newborn whose HCT among 60%-65% but not with polycythemia have appeared and cerebrovascular lesions, it should cause clinical positive value.

  20. Protecting the newborn brain: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, C.H.A.


    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) during the perinatal period is a significant health problem for the newborn. The discovery of safe and effective therapies to combat perinatal HI remains an ongoing challenge for perinatal medicine. Understanding the interplay between numerous pathophysiological pathways that

  1. Performance Needs Assessment of Maternal and Newborn Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    African Journal of Reproductive Health June 2014; 18(2): 105 ... The study aimed to determine performance and compare gaps in maternal and newborn health ... in MNH service performance and this was worse in the rural areas. ... particularly disadvantaged in terms of social .... significance was determined at p < 0.05.

  2. Newborn Hearing Screening: An Analysis of Current Practices (United States)

    Houston, K. Todd; Bradham, Tamala S.; Munoz, Karen F.; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell


    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the newborn hearing screening area, a total of 293 items were listed by 49 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified within…

  3. Breathing Patterns In The Newborn And Related Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transition from foetal to neonatal life is a dramatic one; it demands considerable and effective physiological alteration in the newborn to ensure survival. Simultaneously cardio-respiratory adjustments are initiated and breathing maintained on a continuous basis. The basic movements in the human foetus being about 8 ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garuda Rama


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia is the commonest nutritional deficiency disorder in the world and in India prevalence in pregnancy is 50-80%. It is a risk factor for preterm delivery, low birth weight, stillbirth and foetal anaemia. The aim of the study is to find out correlation between maternal and cord haemoglobin and birth weight of newborn. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective observational study of 150 pregnant women delivering in KIMS from December 2014 to June 2016 for antenatal and newborn haemoglobin and newborn weight. RESULTS Of 150 mothers, 89.33% are anaemic (24% mild, 44% moderate and 21.3% severe. The incidence of low birth weight and low cord haemoglobin varied directly with severity of anaemia. Out of 150 babies, 119 (79.3% of babies had anaemia in our study. The mean haemoglobin among babies was 12.9 g/dL with a S.D. of 2.01. CONCLUSION A significant positive correlation with maternal haemoglobin and newborn weight and cord haemoglobin. RecommendationAntenatal prophylaxis with iron and folic acid to prevent anaemia and incidence of low birth weight and infantile anaemia.

  5. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  6. Lower neonatal screening thyroxine concentrations in Down syndrome newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Trotsenburg, A. S. P.; Vulsma, T.; van Santen, H. M.; Cheung, W.; de Vijlder, J. J. M.


    There is an unexplained higher incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by T-4-based neonatal screening programs and a very high prevalence of (mild) plasma TSH elevation in young children with Down syndrome (DS). To determine whether newborns with DS have decreased blood T-4

  7. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn. (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J


    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracranial epidural hematoma in a newborn with DIC secondary to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidural hematoma in newborns is rare, it occurs more frequently in infants born from nulliparous mothers with delivery difficulties. Intracranial hemorrhage in infants is usually secondary to vascular malformations, anticoagulation, inherited or acquired coagulopathy. Hematological disorders are infrequently associated with ...

  9. Sucrose and warmth for analgesia in healthy newborns: an RCT. (United States)

    Gray, Larry; Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W


    Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. On the Non-Uniqueness of Sediment Yield (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Fatichi, S.


    There has been ample experimental evidence that soil erosion does not necessarily occur at the same rate, given the same amount of rainfall or runoff. Such a non-unique phenomenon has been often referred to in literature as due to 'natural variability'. Our recent study hypothesized that uncertainties in the distribution and properties of a sediment layer can be a potential clue to one of the reasons of the non-unique sediment yield. Specifically, numerical experimentation with a sophisticated two-dimensional model showed that a deposited layer plays two conflicting roles: it can both increase and decrease soil erosion, given the same magnitude of runoff. The difference in erodibilities of the "original, intact soil layer" and the "deposited, loose soil layer" and the composition of soil particles in the underlying layers give rise to the non-uniqueness of the amount of eroded materials. In continuing efforts, we attempt to investigate this phenomenon using a comprehensive the Universal Soil Loss Erosion (USLE) database, that contains data on paired hillslopes that show a high degree of non-uniqueness in the response, even though the hillslopes exhibit the same topography, soil type, rainfall and meteorological forcings, and landuse. An underlying hypothesis of this study is that uncertainties in the distribution of soil substrate prior to a rainfall event lead to low predictability skill, i.e., a stochastically-varying outcome. A large number of simulation cases demonstrating the proposed hypothesis are conducted using a coupled numerical model, tRIBS-VEGGIE-FEaST (Triangulated irregular network - based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator- VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution -Flow Erosion and Sediment Transport).

  11. Screening for seemingly healthy newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using newborn urine: an observational study


    Yamaguchi, Akira; Oh-ishi, Tsutomu; Arai, Takashi; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Asanuma, Satoshi; Oguma, Eiji; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Jiro; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Tadashi; Fujita, Jutaro; Shirato, Ken; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako


    Objective Approximately 8?10% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection develop sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the relationship between CMV load, SNHL and central nervous system (CNS) damage in cCMV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between urinary CMV load, SNHL and CNS damage in newborns with cCMV infection. Study design The study included 23?368 newborns from two maternity hospitals in Saitama Prefecture, Ja...

  12. Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST) trial: Community-based maternal and newborn care economic analysis. (United States)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Barger, Diana; Mayora, Chripus; Waiswa, Peter; Lawn, Joy E; Kalungi, James; Namazzi, Gertrude; Kerber, Kate; Owen, Helen; Daviaud, Emmanuelle


    The Uganda Newborn Study (UNEST) was a two-arm cluster Randomized Control Trial to study the effect of pregnancy and postnatal home visits by local community health workers called 'Village Health Teams' (VHT) coupled with health systems strengthening. To inform programme planning and decision making, additional economic and financial costs of community and facility components were estimated from the perspective of the provider using the Excel-based Cost of Integrating Newborn Care Tool. Additional costs excluded costs already paid by the government for the routine health system and covered design, set-up, and 1-year implementation phases. Improved efficiency was modelled by reducing the number of VHT per village from two to one and varying the number of home visits/mother, the programme's financial cost at scale was projected (population of 100 000). 92% of expectant mothers (n = 1584) in the intervention area were attended by VHTs who performed an average of three home visits per mother. The annualized additional financial cost of the programme was $83 360 of which 4% ($3266) was for design, 24% ($20 026) for set-up and 72% ($60 068) for implementation. 56% ($47 030) went towards health facility strengthening, whereas 44% ($36 330) was spent at the community level. The average cost/mother for the community programme, excluding one-off design costs, amounted to $22.70 and the average cost per home visit was $7.50. The additional cost of the preventive home visit programme staffed by volunteer VHTs represents $1.04 per capita, 1.8% of Uganda's public health expenditure per capita ($59.00). If VHTs were to spend an average of 6 h a week on the programme, costs per mother would drop to $13.00 and cost per home visit to $3.20, in a population of 100 000 at 95% coverage. Additional resources are needed to rollout the government's VHT strategy nationally, maintaining high quality and linkages to quality facility-based care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford

  13. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Liu


    Full Text Available This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group. The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4% were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3% were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3% were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the

  14. Results of exchange transfusions in newborns without blood group incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yel


    Full Text Available Objective: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem ofneonatal period that has high morbidity and mortality.Blood exchange is the most effective and urgent treatmentmodality for very high bilirubin levels that can lead toneurotoxicity called as kernicterus. The aim of this studywas to compare 90 minutes exchange transfusion withthat of 120 minutes.Methods: This study was performed at Dicle UniversityMedical Faculty, Neonatal Unit between July 2007 andJune 2008. A total of 36 term newborn (38 - 42 gestationalweek without blood group incompatibility and withtotal serum bilirubin levels over 25 mg/dl were included.Newborns were randomly assigned in two groups eachof them comprise 18 babies as Group 1 underwent 90minute-exchange and Group 2 120 minute. Effectivenessand complications of exchange transfusion were recorded.Newborns with Rh, ABO or subgroup incompatibilities,prematurity or small for gestational age, septicemia,hypothyroidism, G6PD enzyme deficiency, intrauterineinfections, diabetic mother’s baby, hemolytic disease ormetabolic diseases were excluded.Results: There were no significant differences in thebody weight, gestational age, postnatal age, age of mother,total bilirubin and albumin levels, the number of bloodexchange, hospital stay days and complications betweentwo groups (p>0.05. However, mean phototherapy durationwas significantly shorter in 120 minutes transfusiongroup compared with 90 minutes group (p<0.001.Conclusion: Our results indicated that 90 minutes wassufficient for an effective exchange transfusion in severehyperbilirubinemic newborn infants. However longer exchangetransfusion durations may shorten the duration ofphototherapy.Key words: Indirect hyperbilirubinemia, exchange transfusion,newborns, outcome

  15. Newborn Parent Based Intervention to Increase Child Safety Seat Use (United States)

    Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping


    This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID

  16. Neurodevelopment in newborns: a sample entropy analysis of electroencephalogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dandan; Ding, Haiyan; Liu, Yunfeng; Ding, Haishu; Zhou, Congle; Ye, Datian


    The present paper investigates the neural ontogeny of newborns in view of electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity during active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Sample entropy (SampEn) is applied to EEG recordings from 168 newborns with postmenstrual age (PMA) ranging from 25 to 60 weeks. The relationship between neurodevelopment and PMA is then explored according to the statistical analysis of the median and interquartile range of SampEn curves. It is found that SampEn of EEG during AS is higher than that during QS. SampEn increases during both AS and QS before about 42 weeks in PMA while it ceases its increase in QS and even decreases in AS after newborns reaching term age. A distinct decrease in the interquartile range of SampEn is found with increasing PMA (from 25 to about 50 weeks), followed by maintenance of low fluctuation in SampEn curves. The study in this paper sets the stage for exhaustive investigation of the SampEn of EEG during brain maturation in newborns. And it could be hoped that SampEn in sleep EEG might be a useful parameter against which delays and aberrations in brain maturation might be tested. The SampEn changes during brain maturation also offer functional clues about neurodevelopment, based on which further explorations could be done. The significance of this paper is the discovery of the decrease in EEG complexity after newborns reaching term. Although some potential neurophysiologic reasons are given, this new discovery might require more study to investigate. In addition, the fluctuation of EEG complexity is analyzed for the first time, which helps to understand the EEG maturation in neurodevelopment

  17. Fragile X protein in newborn dried blood spots. (United States)

    Adayev, Tatyana; LaFauci, Giuseppe; Dobkin, Carl; Caggana, Michele; Wiley, Veronica; Field, Michael; Wotton, Tiffany; Kascsak, Richard; Nolin, Sarah L; Glicksman, Anne; Hosmer, Nicole; Brown, W Ted


    The fragile X syndrome (FXS) results from mutation of the FMR1 gene that prevents expression of its gene product, FMRP. We previously characterized 215 dried blood spots (DBS) representing different FMR1 genotypes and ages with a Luminex-based immunoassay (qFMRP). We found variable FMRP levels in the normal samples and identified affected males by the drastic reduction of FMRP. Here, to establish the variability of expression of FMRP in a larger random population we quantified FMRP in 2,000 anonymous fresh newborn DBS. We also evaluated the effect of long term storage on qFMRP by retrospectively assaying 74 aged newborn DBS that had been stored for 7-84 months that included normal and full mutation individuals. These analyses were performed on 3 mm DBS disks. To identify the alleles associated with the lowest FMRP levels in the fresh DBS, we analyzed the DNA in the samples that were more than two standard deviations below the mean. Analysis of the fresh newborn DBS revealed a broad distribution of FMRP with a mean approximately 7-fold higher than that we previously reported for fresh DBS in normal adults and no samples whose FMRP level indicated FXS. DNA analysis of the lowest FMRP DBS showed that this was the low extreme of the normal range and included a female carrying a 165 CGG repeat premutation. In the retrospective study of aged newborn DBS, the FMRP mean of the normal samples was less than 30% of the mean of the fresh DBS. Despite the degraded signal from these aged DBS, qFMRP identified the FXS individuals. The assay showed that newborn DBS contain high levels of FMRP that will allow identification of males and potentially females, affected by FXS. The assay is also an effective screening tool for aged DBS stored for up to four years.

  18. Absorption of cadmium in the newborn and juvenile guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.


    The accepted premise that absorption is enhanced in the newborn animal is based primarily on studies using the rat, which has a relatively immature gastrointestinal system at birth. This study was conducted to determine if enhanced absorption of cadmium also occurs in the guinea pig, a species that is more precocious at birth than the rat. Newborn guinea pigs were administered a single oral dose of 5 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd (0.25 mCi of /sup 115m/Cd per milligram of cadmium) between 8 and 24 hr of age and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after the dosing. Juvenile guinea pigs were similarly dosed with 20 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd and killed 1 to 5 days later. Guinea pigs dosed on the day of birth absorbed approximately 6% of the dose by 1 day after the dosing and nearly 25% of the dose by 11 days. This is a cumulative absorption five times that found in rats dosed at 24 hr and two times that of rats dosed at 2 hr. The residence time of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract was longer in newborn guinea pigs than in juvenile guinea pigs but was still significantly less than that in the newborn rat. We concluded that the absorption of cadmium from the gastrointestinal tract was greater in newborn guinea pigs than in rats, even though the residence time of cadmium in the intestinal tract was less in guinea pigs than in rats and the maturity at birth of the guinea pig is greater than that of the rat. The bases of these differences were not readily apparent

  19. Library exhibits and programs boost science education (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa


    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  20. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised. (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  1. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.


    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004

  2. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics. (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.


    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  3. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  4. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter


    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  5. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.


    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  6. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.


    be balanced with the desire to maintain enriching and naturalistic exhibit enclosures that benefit ape residents and attract the visiting public. In these settings, examinations of ape behavior and welfare typically focus exclusively on activity in the primary exhibit area. However, physical, social...... and sensory experiences unique to each area may shape different patterns of behavior. In the current study, zoo-living chimpanzees and gorillas were moved each day from exhibit areas to off-exhibit holding areas for a short duration as a part of regular management procedures. Behavioral data indicated species......-specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all...

  7. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)


    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  8. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server


    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  9. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe


    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  10. Recommendations for newborn screening for galactokinase deficiency: A systematic review and evaluation of Dutch newborn screening data. (United States)

    Stroek, Kevin; Bouva, Marelle J; Schielen, Peter C J I; Vaz, Frédéric M; Heijboer, Annemieke C; de Jonge, Robert; Boelen, Anita; Bosch, Annet M


    Galactokinase (GALK) deficiency causes cataract leading to severe developmental consequences unless treated early. Because of the easy prevention and rapid reversibility of cataract with treatment, the Dutch Health Council advised to include GALK deficiency in the Dutch newborn screening program. The aim of this study is to establish the optimal screening method and cut-off value (COV) for GALK deficiency screening by performing a systematic review of the literature of screening strategies and total galactose (TGAL) values and by evaluating TGAL values in the first week of life in a cohort of screened newborns in the Netherlands. Systematic literature search strategies in OVID MEDLINE and OVID EMBASE were developed and study selection, data collection and analyses were performed by two independent investigators. A range of TGAL values measured by the Quantase Neonatal Total Galactose screening assay in a cohort of Dutch newborns in 2007 was evaluated. Eight publications were included in the systematic review. All four studies describing screening strategies used TGAL as the primary screening marker combined with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) measurement that is used for classical galactosemia screening. TGAL COVs of 2200 μmol/L, 1665 μmol/L and 1110 μmol/L blood resulted in positive predictive values (PPV) of 100%, 82% and 10% respectively. TGAL values measured in the newborn period were reported for 39 GALK deficiency patients with individual values ranging from 3963 to 8159 μmol/L blood and 2 group values with mean 8892 μmol/L blood (SD ± 5243) and 4856 μmol/L blood (SD ± 461). Dutch newborn screening data of 72,786 newborns from 2007 provided a median TGAL value of 110 μmol/L blood with a range of 30-2431 μmol/L blood. Based on TGAL values measured in GALK deficiency patients reported in the literature and TGAL measurements in the Dutch cohort by newborn screening we suggest to perform the GALK screening with

  11. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes


    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  12. Screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) among Filipino newborn infants. Philippine Newborn Screening Study Group. (United States)

    Fagela-Domingo, C; Padilla, C D; Cutiongco, E M


    From June 1996 to June 1998 a total of 62.841 newborn infants were screened for congenital hypothyroidism with thyroid stimulating hormone assay as a primary test. The method used was an immunofluorescent assay using the DELFIA TSH Kit on dried blood specimens collected by heelprick on filter paper. All infants with TSH values greater than 20 microU/ml were retested. If the results remained abnormally high, confirmatory testing was done by radioimmunoassay. All infants who were confirmed to be hypothyroid were referred to pediatric endocrinologists for initial management. The overall weighted incidence of congenital hypothyroidism obtained in this study was 0.000277 (95% CI; 0.000122 - 0.000432) or 1:3,610 which may be higher than that reported by most screening programs worldwide. The recall rate was 0.16%. The higher recall rate may be explained by early testing in a number of cases and by the possibility of iodine deficiency in some of the mothers. On the basis of the results of this study, we would recommend (1) screening on a greater number of infants to verify the incidence of CH and (2) establishing normal TSH values at different hours of life to improve our recall rate.

  13. Incidence and Risk Factors for Neonatal Jaundice among Newborns in Southern Nepal (United States)

    Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Mullany, Luke C.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Tielsch, James M.


    Objective To quantify the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal jaundice among infants referred for care from a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Methods Study participants were 18,985 newborn infants born in Sarlahi District in Southern Nepal from May 2003 through January 2006 who participated in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based trial to evaluate the effect of newborn chlorhexidine cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity. Jaundice was assessed based on visual assessment of the infant by a study worker and referral for care. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated to identify risk factors for referral for neonatal jaundice using Poisson regression. Results The incidence of referral for neonatal jaundice was 29.3 per 1,000 live births (95% Confidence Interval: 26.9, 31.7). Male sex, high birth weight, breastfeeding patterns, warm air temperature, primiparity, skilled birth attendance, place of delivery, prolonged labor, oil massage, paternal education, and ethnicity were significant risk factors (p-valuesjaundice, whereas exclusive breastfeeding was protective among infants with no report of difficulty feeding. Conclusions Several known risk factors for neonatal jaundice in a low-resource setting were confirmed in this study. Unique observed associations of jaundice with ambient air temperature and oil massage may be explained by the opportunity for phototherapy based on the cultural practices of this study population. Future research should investigate the role of an infant’s difficulty in feeding as a potential modifier in the association between exclusive breastfeeding and jaundice. PMID:24112359

  14. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness]. (United States)

    Yamaoka, S


    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  15. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity. (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C


    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala


    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  17. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge


    -being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  18. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )


    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  19. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  20. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi


    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  1. Platelet-activating factor synthesis and receptor-mediated signaling are downregulated in ovine newborn lungs: relevance in postnatal pulmonary adaptation and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. (United States)

    Renteria, L S; Cruz, E; Ibe, B O


    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a phospholipid with a wide range of biological activities. We studied PAF metabolism and PAF receptor (PAFR) signaling in perinatal ovine lungs to understand PAF's role in transition of the perinatal pulmonary hemodynamics and pathophysiology of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We hypothesized that downregulation of PAF synthesis with upregulation of PAF catabolism by acetylhydrolase (PAF-Ah) in the newborn lung is needed for fetus-to-newborn pulmonary adaptation. Studies were conducted on fetal and newborn lamb pulmonary arteries (PA), veins (PV) and smooth muscle cells (SMC). PAF metabolism, PAFR binding and cell proliferation were studied by cell culture; gene expression was studied by qPCR. Fetal lungs synthesized 60% more PAF than newborn lungs. Compared with the fetal PVs and SMCs, PAF-Ah activity in newborn was 40-60% greater. PAF-Ah mRNA expression in newborn vessels was different from the expression by fetal PA. PAF-Ah gene clone activity confirmed deletion of hypoxia-sensitive site. PAFR mRNA expression by the PVs and SMC-PV of the fetus and newborn was greater than by corresponding PAs and SMC-PA. Q-PCR study of PAFR expression by the SMC-PV of both groups was greater than SMC-PA. Fetal SMCs bound more PAF than the newborn SMCs. PAFR antagonist, CV-3988, inhibited PAFR binding and DNA synthesis by the fetal SMCs, but augmented binding and DNA synthesis by newborn cells. We show different PAF-PAFR mediated effects in perinatal lungs, suggesting both transcriptional and translational regulation of PAF-Ah and PAFR expression in the perinatal lamb lungs. These indicate that the downregulation of PAF-mediated effects postnatally protects against persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

  2. The Milan Project: a newborn hearing screening programme. (United States)

    Pastorino, Giancarlo; Sergi, Paola; Mastrangelo, Massimo; Ravazzani, Paolo; Tognola, Gabriella; Parazzini, Marta; Mosca, Fabio; Pugni, Lorenza; Grandori, Ferdinando


    Since 1997 a newborn hearing screening programme has been implemented by the U.O. Neurologia-Neurofisiopatologia and Dipartimento di Neonatologia of the Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento ICP in Milan for both babies with no risk and those at risk of hearing impairment. This programme was named the Milan Project. The protocol for no-risk babies consisted of three stages: in the first two stages, newborns were tested with transient click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE), in the third one with conventional auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The first TEOAE test was performed by 36 h of age, before discharge, the second one after 15-30 d in case of referral, and the third one, by ABR, for those babies who failed the second TEOAE stage. Newborns at audiological risk were submitted to conventional ABR before the third month of corrected age. Some of this latter population was also submitted to the TEOAE test. The entire tested population (no-risk babies and newborns at audiological risk) consisted of 19 777 babies: 19 290 without risk ("no risk") and 487 at risk ("at risk"). During the course of the Milan Project, hearing impairment (ABR threshold equal to or greater than 40 dB nHL) was identified in 63 newborns (19 from the no-risk and 44 from the at-risk population), with a prevalence of 0.32%. Bilateral hearing impairment (BHI) was found in 33 newborns (10 from the no-risk and 23 from the at-risk population), corresponding to 0.17%. Among infants with bilateral hearing impairment, 30.3% had no risk factors. The prevalence of hearing impairment was determined on days 15-30 after birth. The results show that the implementation of a hospital-based, universal neonatal hearing screening programme for babies with and without audiological risk is feasible and effective. The effectiveness of the programme has increased as a function of the years since its inception, with a strong decrease in the referral rate. Further improvement is obtained if the TEOAE measurements

  3. Comparison of devices for newborn ventilation in the delivery room. (United States)

    Szyld, Edgardo; Aguilar, Adriana; Musante, Gabriel A; Vain, Nestor; Prudent, Luis; Fabres, Jorge; Carlo, Waldemar A


    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a T-piece resuscitator compared with a self-inflating bag for providing mask ventilation to newborns at birth. Newborns at ≥26 weeks gestational age receiving positive-pressure ventilation at birth were included in this multicenter cluster-randomized 2-period crossover trial. Positive-pressure ventilation was provided with either a self-inflating bag (self-inflating bag group) with or without a positive end-expiratory pressure valve or a T-piece with a positive end-expiratory pressure valve (T-piece group). Delivery room management followed American Academy of Pediatrics and International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation guidelines. The primary outcome was the proportion of newborns with heart rate (HR)≥100 bpm at 2 minutes after birth. A total of 1027 newborns were included. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of HR≥100 bpm at 2 minutes after birth between the T-piece and self-inflating bag groups: 94% (479 of 511) and 90% (466 of 516), respectively (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.41-1.05; P=.08). A total of 86 newborns (17%) in the T-piece group and 134 newborns (26%) in the self-inflating bag group were intubated in the delivery room (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8; P=.002). The mean±SD maximum positive inspiratory pressure was 26±2 cm H2O in the T-piece group vs 28±5 cm H2O in the self-inflating bag group (P<.001). Air leaks, use of drugs/chest compressions, mortality, and days on mechanical ventilation did not differ significantly between groups. There was no difference between the T-piece resuscitator and a self-inflating bag in achieving an HR of ≥100 bpm at 2 minutes in newborns≥26 weeks gestational age resuscitated at birth. However, use of the T-piece decreased the intubation rate and the maximum pressures applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  5. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information. (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio


    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  6. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness


    Shettleworth, Sara J.


    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  7. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo


    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  8. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia. (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kripke, Donald L; McHugh, Paul R; Treisman, Glenn J; Squire, Larry R


    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film "50 First Dates". On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL's memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-h intervals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.


    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  10. Thyroid function in the newborn child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharieva, V.; Shtereva, K.


    Assessment is made of the thyroid parameters in the early neonatal period against the background of age-related physiological peculiarities of the thyroid function. One hundred infants, born in the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology over the period 25th to 42nd gestation week, are studied. The umbilical cord serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine and thyroiy-stimulating (TSH) levels are measured by a radioimmunologic method. The values of thyroxine disclose a steady increase with the progress of the gestation age of the fetus, and at childbirth they are higher than in adults. Triiodothyronine is lowered in all instances, and only in full-term infants it augments to reach the lowermost limit of the norm for adults. Reverse triiodothyronine is strongly elevated in all neonates, rather marked in premature infants. TSH exhibits no dependence whatsoever on the gestation age of the fetus, and at childbirth it is slightly above the uppermost limit of the norm for adults. Being aware of the peculiarities outlined has an essenti;l practical bearing on the correct interpretation of the results of ho of the results of hormonal studies, which in turn is closely linked to the problem of early detection and treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. (author)

  11. Different Amounts of DNA in Newborn Cells of Escherichia coli Preclude a Role for the Chromosome in Size Control According to the "Adder" Model. (United States)

    Huls, Peter G; Vischer, Norbert O E; Woldringh, Conrad L


    According to the recently-revived adder model for cell size control, newborn cells of Escherichia coli will grow and divide after having added a constant size or length, ΔL , irrespective of their size at birth. Assuming exponential elongation, this implies that large newborns will divide earlier than small ones. The molecular basis for the constant size increment is still unknown. As DNA replication and cell growth are coordinated, the constant ΔL could be based on duplication of an equal amount of DNA, ΔG , present in newborn cells. To test this idea, we measured amounts of DNA and lengths of nucleoids in DAPI-stained cells growing in batch culture at slow and fast rates. Deeply-constricted cells were divided in two subpopulations of longer and shorter lengths than average; these were considered to represent large and small prospective daughter cells, respectively. While at slow growth, large and small prospective daughter cells contained similar amounts of DNA, fast growing cells with multiforked replicating chromosomes, showed a significantly higher amount of DNA (20%) in the larger cells. This observation precludes the hypothesis that Δ L is based on the synthesis of a constant ΔG . Growth curves were constructed for siblings generated by asymmetric division and growing according to the adder model. Under the assumption that all cells at the same growth rate exhibit the same time between initiation of DNA replication and cell division (i.e., constant C+D -period), the constructions predict that initiation occurs at different sizes ( Li ) and that, at fast growth, large newborn cells transiently contain more DNA than small newborns, in accordance with the observations. Because the state of segregation, measured as the distance between separated nucleoids, was found to be more advanced in larger deeply-constricted cells, we propose that in larger newborns nucleoid separation occurs faster and at a shorter length, allowing them to divide earlier. We propose

  12. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.


    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  13. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman


    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  14. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) a novel candidate biomarker for newborn screening of propionic and methylmalonic acidemias. (United States)

    Malvagia, Sabrina; Haynes, Christopher A; Grisotto, Laura; Ombrone, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; Moretti, Elisa; McGreevy, Kathleen S; Biggeri, Annibale; Guerrini, Renzo; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Garg, Uttam; Seeterlin, Mary; Chace, Donald; De Jesus, Victor R; la Marca, Giancarlo


    3-Hydroxypalmitoleoyl-carnitine (C16:1-OH) has recently been reported to be elevated in acylcarnitine profiles of patients with propionic acidemia (PA) or methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) during expanded newborn screening (NBS). High levels of C16:1-OH, combined with other hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitines are related to long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency. The acylcarnitine profile of two LCHADD patients was evaluated using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. A specific retention time was determined for each hydroxylated long chain acylcarnitine. The same method was applied to some neonatal dried blood spots (DBSs) from PA and MMA patients presenting abnormal C16:1-OH concentrations. The retention time of the peak corresponding to C16:1-OH in LCHADD patients differed from those in MMA and PA patients. Heptadecanoylcarnitine (C17) has been identified as the novel biomarker specific for PA and MMA patients through high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) experiments. We found that 21 out of 23 neonates (22 MMA, and 1PA) diagnosed through the Tuscany region NBS program exhibited significantly higher levels of C17 compared to controls. Twenty-three maternal deficiency (21 vitamin B12 deficiency, 1 homocystinuria and 1 gastrin deficiency) samples and 82 false positive for elevated propionylcarnitine (C3) were also analyzed. We have characterized a novel biomarker able to detect propionate disorders during expanded newborn screening (NBS). The use of this new biomarker may improve the analytical performances of NBS programs especially in laboratories where second tier tests are not performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parents are interested in newborn genomic testing during the early postpartum period. (United States)

    Waisbren, Susan E; Bäck, Danielle K; Liu, Christina; Kalia, Sarah S; Ringer, Steven A; Holm, Ingrid A; Green, Robert C


    We surveyed parents to ascertain interest in newborn genomic testing and determine whether these queries would provoke refusal of conventional state-mandated newborn screening. After a brief genetics orientation, parents rated their interest in receiving genomic testing for their healthy newborn on a 5-point Likert scale and answered questions about demographics and health history. We used logistic regression to explore factors associated with interest in genomic testing and tracked any subsequent rejection of newborn screening. We queried 514 parents within 48 hours after birth while still in hospital (mean age (SD) 32.7 (6.4) years, 65.2% female, 61.2% white, 79.3% married). Parents reported being not at all (6.4%), a little (10.9%), somewhat (36.6%), very (28.0%), or extremely (18.1%) interested in genomic testing for their newborns. None refused state-mandated newborn screening. Married participants and those with health concerns about their infant were less interested in newborn genomic testing (P = 0.012 and P = 0.030, respectively). Degree of interest for mothers and fathers was discordant (at least two categories different) for 24.4% of couples. Interest in newborn genomic testing was high among parents of healthy newborns, and the majority of couples had similar levels of interest. Surveying parents about genomic sequencing did not prompt rejection of newborn screening.Genet Med 17 6, 501-504.

  16. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates. (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji


    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Congenital Infantile Fibrosarcoma Causing Intestinal Perforation in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kaiser


    Full Text Available Congenital infantile fibrosarcoma (CIF is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor and only 14 cases have been reported with gastrointestinal manifestation. We report about a female newborn delivered per emergency cesarean section at 34 weeks of gestation. Postnatally, she rapidly developed an acute abdomen and sonographic evidence of intestinal perforation requiring laparotomy on the first day of life. A perforated 2 × 3 cm sized spherical tumorous structure of the jejunum was identified. Due to unknown histopathology at this point and unclear resectional margins, she received a temporary ileostomy, which was closed two months later. Histopathology revealed a congenital intestinal fibrosarcoma without the characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. In conclusion, this rare tumor must be considered as differential diagnosis of intestinal perforations in newborns.

  18. Measurements and monitoring of phototherapy in newborn jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisson, T.R.


    Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn (neonatal jaundice) may cause irreversible brain damage if plasma concentrations of bilirubin exceed the number of binding sites on albumin and other blood components. Phototherapy or exchange transfusions to prevent the excessive rise in concentration of the pigment should be instituted in appropriate clinical situations. In phototherapy, the jaundiced infant is exposed to visible light containing the wavelength (about 450 nm) bilirubin will absorb. Because bilirubin is quite photolabile and will readily isomerize in vivo, it is rapidly converted to excretable forms. The effectiveness of this therapy, however, depends upon the maintenance of adequate radiant flux in the required wavelength. Energy output and spectral distributions of phototherapy lamps must be measured. The long-term effects of irradiation of newborn infants over several days are not yet known

  19. Clinical presentation of late haemorrhagic disease of newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, R.; Memon, Y.; Majeed, F.


    To observe the clinical presentation of late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn (LHDNB), and clinical improvement after the administration of vitamin K/sub 1/. This is a prospective descriptive study. All the children older than seven days who presented with bleeding were admitted in pediatrics ward of Isra University Hyderabad from April 2006 to April 2007 were included. Data collection was done by means of detailed proforma. Analysis was done on SPSS version 11. Thirty five cases were included. Commonest site of bleeding was subcutaneous followed by oral and injection site. Mean age of late haemorrhagic disease of newborn was 109 days and minimum age of presentation was 28 days. Common clinical presentations were irritability, convulsions, poor reflexes and poor feeding. Mostly recovery was within 24 hours after vit K. Late HDN results in severe hemorrhage especially hemorrhage in the central nervous system. Administration of Vitamin K (1mg, 1M) at birth can present these severe complications. (author)

  20. Eye disorders in newborn infants (excluding retinopathy of prematurity). (United States)

    Wan, Michael J; VanderVeen, Deborah K


    A screening eye examination is an essential part of the newborn assessment. The detection of many ocular disorders in newborn infants can be achieved through careful observation of the infant's visual behaviour and the use of a direct ophthalmoscope to assess the ocular structures and check the red reflex. Early diagnosis and subspecialty referral can have a critical impact on the prognosis for many ocular conditions, including potentially blinding but treatable conditions such as congenital cataracts, life-threatening malignancies such as retinoblastoma and harbingers of disease elsewhere such as sporadic aniridia and its association with the development of Wilms tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. [Prevalence of ankyloglossia in newborns in Asturias (Spain)]. (United States)

    González Jiménez, D; Costa Romero, M; Riaño Galán, I; González Martínez, M T; Rodríguez Pando, M C; Lobete Prieto, C


    The prevalence of ankyloglossia has been estimated at around 4% of live births. Its prevalence at national level is unknown. Multicenter, prospective observational study. Six hospitals in Asturias took part. All newborns were examined on Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays for 3 months. Coryllos and Hazelbaker criteria were used to diagnose ankyloglossia. The prevalence in the 667 newborns examined was 12.11% (95% CI: 9.58 to 14.64), of whom 62% were male. One in 4 children with ankyloglossia had a family history. According to Coryllos' classification, type II was the most common (54%). The prevalence of ankyloglossia in Asturias was 2 to t3 times higher than expected. The diagnostic criteria for ankyloglossia needs to be unified, and further studies are required to determine the association with breastfeeding difficulties and other health problems. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. A newborn with duodenal atresia and a gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcora Bulent


    Full Text Available Congenital duodenal atresia complicated by gastric perforation (GP is a very rare and a very mortal condition. Only three newborns could be cured in the reported 13 cases. We report a successfully treated newborn with this complicated disease. A 2-day-old male was hospitalized with prediagnosis of duodenal obstruction. Twelve hours later, significant abdominal distention occurred promptly. At laparotomy, GP and preampullary duodenal atresia were detected. Gastrorrhaphy and duodenoduodenostomy were performed in the same operation. The patient was discharged on the 15th postoperative day. This complicated disease can be treated by early diagnosis and surgical intervention. We choose one-stage operation because of the clean peritoneal cavity. However, generalized peritonitis may require two-stage operation in delayed cases.

  3. The newborn oxygram: automated processing of transcutaneous oxygen data. (United States)

    Horbar, J D; Clark, J T; Lucey, J F


    Hypoxemic and hyperoxemic episodes are common in newborns with respiratory disorders. We have developed a microprocessor-based data system for use with transcutaneous oxygen (TcPO2) monitors in an attempt to quantitate these episodes. The amount of time spent by an infant in each of ten preset TcPO2 ranges can be automatically recorded. These data are referred to as the oxygram. Fourteen newborn infants were monitored for a total of 552 hours using this system. They spent a mean of 2.96% of the time with a TcPO2 less than or equal to 40 torr and 0.26% of the time with a TcPO2 greater than 100 torr. Representative oxygrams are presented. Clinical and research applications of the data system are discussed.

  4. Population newborn screening for inherited metabolic disease: current UK perspectives. (United States)

    Green, A; Pollitt, R J


    Some of the generally accepted criteria for screening programmes are inappropriate for newborn metabolic screening as they ignore the family dimension and the importance of timely genetic information. Uncritical application of such criteria creates special difficulties for screening by tandem mass spectrometry, which can detect a range diseases with widely different natural histories and responsiveness to treatment. Further difficulties arise from increasing demands for direct proof of the effects of screening on long-term morbidity and mortality. The randomized controlled trial is held to be the gold standard, but for ethical and practical reasons it will be impossible to achieve for such relatively rare diseases. This approach also oversimplifies the complex matrix of costs and benefits of newborn metabolic screening. A more workable approach could involve Bayesian synthesis, combining quantitative performance data from carefully designed prospective pilot studies of screening with existing experience of the natural history, diagnosis, and management of the individual disorders concerned.

  5. A laboratory cage for foster nursing newborn mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marques-de-Araújo


    Full Text Available We describe a cage to be used for foster nursing in order to guarantee that original mother's colostrum is not ingested by the newborn mice. A common (30.5 cm x 19.5 cm x 12.0 cm mouse cage was fitted with a wire net tray with a mesh (1 cm x 1 cm, which divides the cage into an upper and a lower compartment. Mice born to females placed in the upper compartment pass through the mesh and fall into the lower compartment, where another lactating female with one or two of its own pups are. Of a total of 28 newborn mice of C3H/He and Swiss strains, 23 were successfully fostered. Important observations are presented to show that this is a valuable alternative for foster studies without great suffering on the part of the female.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini


    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  7. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas


    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  8. Screening for seemingly healthy newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using newborn urine: an observational study. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Oh-Ishi, Tsutomu; Arai, Takashi; Sakata, Hideaki; Adachi, Nodoka; Asanuma, Satoshi; Oguma, Eiji; Kimoto, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Jiro; Fujita, Hidetoshi; Uesato, Tadashi; Fujita, Jutaro; Shirato, Ken; Ohno, Hideki; Kizaki, Takako


    Approximately 8-10% of newborns with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection develop sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). However, the relationship between CMV load, SNHL and central nervous system (CNS) damage in cCMV infection remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the relationship between urinary CMV load, SNHL and CNS damage in newborns with cCMV infection. The study included 23 368 newborns from two maternity hospitals in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Urine screening for cCMV infection (quantitative real-time PCR) and newborn hearing screening (automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) testing) were conducted within 5 days of birth to examine the incidence of cCMV infection and SNHL, respectively. CNS damage was assessed by MRI of cCMV-infected newborns. The incidence of cCMV infection was 60/23 368 (0.257%; 95% CI 0.192% to 0.322%). The geometric mean urinary CMV DNA copy number in newborns with cCMV was 1.79×10 6 copies/mL (95% CI 7.97×10 5 to 4.02×10 6 ). AABR testing revealed abnormalities in 171 of the 22 229 (0.769%) newborns whose parents approved hearing screening. Of these 171 newborns, 22 had SNHL (12.9%), and 5 of these 22 were infected with cCMV (22.7%). Newborns with both cCMV and SNHL had a higher urinary CMV DNA copy number than newborns with cCMV without SNHL (p=0.036). MRI revealed CNS damage, including white matter abnormalities, in 83.0% of newborns with cCMV. Moreover, newborns with CNS damage had a significantly greater urinary CMV load than newborns without CNS damage (p=0.013). We determined the incidence of cCMV infection and urinary CMV DNA copy number in seemingly healthy newborns from two hospitals in Saitama Prefecture. SNHL and CNS damage were associated with urinary CMV DNA copy number. Quantification of urinary CMV load may effectively predict the incidence of late-onset SNHL and neurodevelopmental disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  9. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns. (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I


    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  10. A clinical prediction rule for histological chorioamnionitis in preterm newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V Been

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histological chorioamnionitis (HC is an intrauterine inflammatory process highly associated with preterm birth and adverse neonatal outcome. HC is often clinically silent and diagnosed postnatally by placental histology. Earlier identification could facilitate treatment individualisation to improve outcome in preterm newborns. AIM: Develop a clinical prediction rule at birth for HC and HC with fetal involvement (HCF in preterm newborns. METHODS: Clinical data and placental pathology were obtained from singleton preterm newborns (gestational age ≤ 32.0 weeks born at Erasmus UMC Rotterdam from 2001 to 2003 (derivation cohort; n = 216 or Máxima MC Veldhoven from 2009 to 2010 (validation cohort; n = 206. HC and HCF prediction rules were developed with preference for high sensitivity using clinical variables available at birth. RESULTS: HC and HCF were present in 39% and 24% in the derivation cohort and in 44% and 22% in the validation cohort, respectively. HC was predicted with 87% accuracy, yielding an area under ROC curve of 0.95 (95%CI = 0.92-0.98, a positive predictive value of 80% (95%CI = 74-84%, and a negative predictive value of 93% (95%CI = 88-96%. Corresponding figures for HCF were: accuracy 83%, area under ROC curve 0.92 (95%CI = 0.88-0.96, positive predictive value 59% (95%CI = 52-62%, and negative predictive value 97% (95%CI = 93-99%. External validation expectedly resulted in some loss of test performance, preferentially affecting positive predictive rather than negative predictive values. CONCLUSION: Using a clinical prediction rule composed of clinical variables available at birth, HC and HCF could be predicted with good test characteristics in preterm newborns. Further studies should evaluate the clinical value of these rules to guide early treatment individualisation.

  11. Postpartum follow-up: can psychosocial support reduce newborn readmissions? (United States)

    Barilla, Dora; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Anderson, S Eric; Hopp, Joyce W


    To determine whether there was a relationship between postpartum psychosocial support from healthcare providers and the rate of normal newborn readmissions (NNRs), and whether there was a cost benefit to justify an intervention. Data were abstracted for all normal newborn births from 1999 to 2006 (N = 14,786) at a community hospital in southern California at three different time periods: (1) at baseline prior to any intervention (1999-2000), (2) the 4 years during the comprehensive psychosocial support intervention (2001-2004), and (3) the 2 years during a limited psychosocial support intervention (2004-2006). A cost-benefit analysis was performed to analyze whether the financial benefits from the intervention matched or exceeded the costs for NNRs. There was a significantly lower readmission rate of 1.0% (p = < .001) during the comprehensive intervention time period compared to baseline (2.3%) or to the limited intervention time period (2.3%). Although there was no significant difference in the average cost per newborn readmitted across the three study time periods, during the comprehensive intervention time period the average costs of a NNR were significantly lower ($4,180, p = .041) for the intervention group compared to those who received no intervention ($5,338). There was a cost benefit of 513,540 dollars due to fewer readmissions during the comprehensive time period, but it did not exceed the cost of the intervention. Providing comprehensive follow-up for new mothers in the postpartum period can reduce NNRs, thus lowering the average newborn readmission costs for those who receive psychosocial support. Followup for new mothers should be an accepted norm rather than the exception in postpartum care, but NNRs should not be considered the sole outcome in such programs.

  12. Newborn Screening in the Era of Precision Medicine. (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Chen, Jiajia; Shen, Bairong


    As newborn screening success stories gained general confirmation during the past 50 years, scientists quickly discovered diagnostic tests for a host of genetic disorders that could be treated at birth. Outstanding progress in sequencing technologies over the last two decades has made it possible to comprehensively profile newborn screening (NBS) and identify clinically relevant genomic alterations. With the rapid developments in whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) recently, we can detect newborns at the genomic level and be able to direct the appropriate diagnosis to the different individuals at the appropriate time, which is also encompassed in the concept of precision medicine. Besides, we can develop novel interventions directed at the molecular characteristics of genetic diseases in newborns. The implementation of genomics in NBS programs would provide an effective premise for the identification of the majority of genetic aberrations and primarily help in accurate guidance in treatment and better prediction. However, there are some debate correlated with the widespread application of genome sequencing in NBS due to some major concerns such as clinical analysis, result interpretation, storage of sequencing data, and communication of clinically relevant mutations to pediatricians and parents, along with the ethical, legal, and social implications (so-called ELSI). This review is focused on these critical issues and concerns about the expanding role of genomics in NBS for precision medicine. If WGS or WES is to be incorporated into NBS practice, considerations about these challenges should be carefully regarded and tackled properly to adapt the requirement of genome sequencing in the era of precision medicine.

  13. Aortic mass in a newborn infant with respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Vaz


    Full Text Available Thrombotic disease is rare in neonates. Many of the cases reported in literature are attributed to the placement of central catheters. We report on a case of aortic thrombosis in a newborn infant with significant respiratory distress due to meconium aspiration, necessitating intubation and placement of central catheters. Due to the location and size of the thrombus in our case, various subspecialties were involved, which ultimately guided therapy to anti-coagulate the patient.

  14. Hemolytic disease of the newborn- anti c antibody induced hemolysis. (United States)

    Murki, Srinivas; Kandraju, Hemasree; Devi, Surekha A


    Hemolytic disease in the newborn, as a cause of early jaundice, is not uncommon. This is mostly due to Rh (D), ABO incompatibility and rarely due to other minor blood group incompatibility. The authors report two cases of Rh anti c isoimmunization presenting as significant early neonatal jaundice within the 20 h of life. Both the babies were treated with intensive phototherapy. One baby underwent exchange transfusion and the other required packed cell transfusion for anemia.

  15. Severe hemolytic disease of the newborn from anti-e. (United States)

    McAdams, R M; Dotzler, S A; Winter, L W; Kerecman, J D


    Maternal antibody-mediated fetal red blood cell destruction secondary to non-D Rhesus (Rh) antibodies is a significant cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Here, we report a rare case of severe HDN associated with maternal antibody to Rh e. In addition to severe anemia, the infant developed thrombocytopenia, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and cholelithiasis. Resolution of the infant's cholelithiasis occurred following treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid.

  16. Positive pressure ventilation and cranial volume in newborn infants.


    Milligan, D W


    The relationship between changes in airways pressure, pleural pressure, and cranial volume was studied in a group of sick newborn infants requiring ventilatory assistance. Cranial volume increased appreciably only when lung compliance was such that more than 20% of the applied airways pressure was transmitted to the pleural space, or if the absolute pleural pressure was greater than 4 cmH2O above atmospheric pressure. The findings stress the need for more-critical monitoring during periods of...

  17. Functional residual capacity measurement by heptafluoropropane in ventilated newborn lungs


    Kusztrich, Ariane


    Objective: Heptafluoropropane is an inert gas commercially used as propellant for inhalers. Since heptafluoropropane can be detected in low concentrations, it could also be used as a tracer gas to measure functional residual capacity. The aim of the present study was to validate functional residual capacity measurements by heptafluoropropane wash-in/wash-out (0.8%) during mechanical ventilation in small, surfactant-depleted lungs using a newborn piglet model. Design: Prospective laborato...

  18. Impact of physiotherapy on neuromotor development of premature newborns


    Coutinho, Giselle Athayde Xavier; Lemos, Daniela de Mattos; Caldeira, Antônio Prates


    Introduction The population of children born prematurely has increased in line with improving the quality of perinatal care. It is essential to ensure to these children a healthy development. Objective We evaluate the neuromotor development of a group of preterm infants regularly assisted by a physiotherapy service in comparison to full-term newborns, checking, so the impact of the service. Materials and methods We randomly assigned preterm and full-term infants that formed two distinct group...

  19. Bilateral scrotal abscesses caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in a newborn. (United States)

    Di Renzo, Dacia; Pappalepore, Nicola; Colangelo, Maurizia; Chiesa, Pierluigi Lelli


    The management of acute scrotal swelling can be challenging in neonatal age, with scrotal infections being great mimickers of testicular torsion. Only a few unilateral cases of scrotal abscess have been previously reported, mostly caused by Staphylococcus and Salmonella. We describe the case of a newborn who developed bilateral scrotal abscesses caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and discuss the rarity of the case, regarding both the bilaterality and the pathogen, never reported before.

  20. Diagnostic Pitfalls in Newborns and Babies with Blisters and Erosions


    Elke Nischler; Alfred Klausegger; Clemens Hüttner; Gabriele Pohla-Gubo; Anja Diem; Johann W. Bauer; Helmut Hintner


    Establishing the correct diagnosis in newborns presenting with blisters and erosions is not always a straightforward process. Many different disease entities including acquired (i.e., infectious, immunobullous, traumatic) and inherited disorders have to be taken into consideration. Similarities in clinical appearance, colonization and/or superinfections of preexisting skin lesions, as well as the absence of late changes in the neonate often pose significant diagnostic challenges. In this pape...

  1. Selective nontreatment of handicapped newborns: a critical essay. (United States)

    Kohrman, A F


    The neonatal intensive care unit is the site of some of the most dramatic technology, complex decision-making and costly activity in the current range of medical institutions. Thus, the decisions made there are particularly visible, and of concern to a society which has increasingly scrutinized and challenged medical practices. Questions of marginal utility and cost-benefit relationships are becoming increasingly prominent. These concerns are heightened by the social and political tensions over issues of the time of initiation of life, quality of life, and assurances of equity for those less well off or handicapped from birth. Robert Weir's book, Selective Nontreatment of Handicapped Newborns, successfully summarizes the current dilemmas and identifies areas of uncertainty and lack of knowledge which cloud the decision-making processes. The book reviews the positions of the major protagonists of the last several years; inevitably, their positions will undergo continuous evolution in response to new data and vigorous political and public policy activity. Weir appropriately identifies the difficulty in arriving at an accurate prognosis as an important and prominent problem in decision-making about defective newborns. The population of surviving, compromised newborns is relatively unfamiliar and their problems remain largely unstudied. Weir's discussion of the desirability of the establishment of Infant Care Review Committees in those institutions which care for defective and handicapped newborns thoughtfully concludes that such committees are, on the balance, desirable. As experience accumulates with Infant Care Review Committees, they should serve the positive purpose of generating open discussion of legitimate disagreements. These committees will provide a forum in which decision-makers can disclose uncertainty, consider alternatives, and receive counsel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn. (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos


    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavior change for newborn survival in resource-poor community settings: bridging the gap between evidence and impact. (United States)

    Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Aarti; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Despite an established evidence base of simple, affordable, and low-cost interventions to avert neonatal deaths, global progress in reducing neonatal mortality has stagnated in recent years. Under-recognition of the critical role played by behavior change in ensuring adoption and dissemination of innovations is a major reason for this gap between evidence and impact. A general lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying behavior change at a population level coupled with an under-appreciation of the sociocultural context of newborn care behaviors has underscored ill-informed approaches towards behavior change that have met with limited success. This article draws upon available evidence from prevention-oriented, community-based newborn survival trials to derive insights into the role of behavior change in neonatal mortality reduction. We propose a simple model, the intervention-causation pathway, to explain the pathway through which behavior change interventions may lead to reductions in mortality. Further, we explore the unique nature of newborn care behaviors and their underlying sociocultural context, along with state-of-the-art advances in social, behavioral, and management sciences. These principles form the basis of the behavior change management framework that has successfully guided intervention design and implementation, leading to high impact on neonatal mortality reduction, in Uttar Pradesh, India. We describe how the behavior change management framework can be applied to inform the design of theoretically and empirically sound behavior change interventions with greater precision, predictability and pace towards reduction in neonatal mortality. We finally touch upon key overarching principles that should guide intervention execution for maximal impact. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Umbilical cord blood glucose levels in full-term newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Karpova


    Full Text Available The purpose of the investigation was to determine the umbilical cord venous blood level of glucose in full-term newborns and its relationship to the mode of delivery. The investigation included 102 full-term newborn infants, including 33 and 69 babies born via cesar-ean and vaginal delivery, respectively. Umbilical cord serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase test using a Sap-phire-400 biochemical analyzer. In healthy full-term newborns, the mean umbilical cord blood glucose levels were 4,29±0,88 mmol/1 (minimum, 2,9 mmol/1 and maximum, 5,9 mmol/1. In the babies born via cesarean delivery, the umbilical cord blood concentration of glucose was ascertained to be significantly lower than in those born vaginally (3,84+0,71 mmol/1 versus 4,51+0,87 mmol/1; /><0,0001. Abdominal delivery can be apparently considered to be a risk factor for hypoglycemia in neonatal infants.

  5. Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka R. Donti


    Full Text Available Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of biotin metabolism resulting in multiple carboxylase deficiency. The typical presentation described in the medical literature is of neonatal onset within hours to weeks of birth with emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, seizures, metabolic ketolactic acidosis, hyperammonemia, developmental delay, skin rash and alopecia. The condition is screened for by newborn screening (NBS tandem mass spectroscopy by elevated hydroxypentanoylcarnitine on dried blood spots. Urine organic acid profile may demonstrate elevated lactic, 3-OH isovaleric, 3-OH propionic, 3-MCC, methylcitric acids, and tiglylglycine consistent with loss of function of the above carboxylases. Here we describe a cohort of patients, 2 diagnosed pre-NBS and 3 post-NBS with broad differences in initial presentation and phenotype. In addition, prior to the advent of NBS, there are isolated reports of late-onset holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the medical literature, which describe patients diagnosed between 1 and 8 years of life, however to our knowledge there are no reports of late-onset HCLS being missed by NBS. Also we report two cases, each with novel pathogenic variants HCLS, diagnosed at age 3 years and 21 months respectively. The first patient had a normal newborn screen whilst the second had an abnormal newborn screen but was misdiagnosed as 3-methylcrotonylcarboxylase (3-MCC deficiency and subsequently lost to follow-up until they presented again with severe metabolic acidosis.

  6. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns. (United States)

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha


    To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (ptouch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate.

  7. The art, science and philosophy of newborn care. (United States)

    Singh, Meharban


    Neonates truly constitute the foundation of a nation and no sensible government can afford to neglect their needs and rights. In the last 50 y, technology has revolutionized neonatology and we have moved from an exceedingly passive or "hands-off" philosophy to an extremely aggressive or mechanistic approach. Deaths during first 28 d of life account for over 60 % of all infant deaths and 40 % of all deaths of under-5 children. If we have to further reduce infant mortality rate in our country we must focus our strategies to improve health and survival of newborn babies. There should be equitable distribution of resources for the care of mothers and babies in the community and establishment of high-tech newborn care facilities. In 21st century, we must delink and sever our dependence on traditional birth attendants or dais and develop necessary infrastructure and facilities to ensure that every pregnant woman is provided with essential antenatal care and all deliveries take place at health care facilities and they are conducted by trained health care professionals. In the best pediatric tradition, there is a need for greater focus on preventive rather than curative health care strategies because a large number of neonatal deaths occur due to potentially preventable disorders like birth asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and infections. The art and science of neonatology should be integrated and we should follow a "middle path" and strike a balance between art and technology in the care of newborns.

  8. Therapeutic touch: influence on vital signs of newborns (United States)

    Ramada, Nadia Christina Oliveira; Almeida, Fabiane de Amorim; Cunha, Mariana Lucas da Rocha


    ABSTRACT Objective>: To compare vital signs before and after the therapeutic touch observed in hospitalized newborns in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study performed at a neonatal intensive care unit of a municipal hospital, in the city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. The sample included 40 newborns submitted to the therapeutic touch after a painful procedure. We evaluated the vital signs, such as heart and respiratory rates, temperature and pain intensity, before and after the therapeutic touch. Results: The majority of newborns were male (n=28; 70%), pre-term (n=19; 52%) and born from vaginal delivery (n=27; 67%). Respiratory distress was the main reason for hospital admission (n=16; 40%). There was a drop in all vital signs after therapeutic touch, particularly in pain score, which had a considerable reduction in the mean values, from 3.37 (SD=1.31) to 0 (SD=0.0). All differences found were statistically significant by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that therapeutic touch promotes relaxation of the baby, favoring reduction in vital signs and, consequently in the basal metabolism rate. PMID:24488378

  9. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Altunhan


    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  10. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the healthy newborn. (United States)

    Mazo-Tomé, Pedro Luis Del; Suárez-Rodríguez, Marta


    The best nourishment for infants during the first 6 months of life is exclusive breastfeeding. It is recommended along with other food to complement the diet until the child is 2 years old, as long as the mother and the child are willing to continue with it. The objectives of this study were to determine he exclusive breastfeeding rate in full term newborns at hospital discharge and 15 days later and to analyze the factors that positively affect the exclusive breastfeeding. A prospective study was conducted in which a sample of postpartum women with full term newborns was recruited during hospital admission. Different variables were compiled and two interviews were made to determine the kind of feeding they were giving their children and if it was maintained at 15 days of birth. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at hospital discharge is much lower than recommended. It significantly decreases at 15 days of birth, increasing artificial feeding. It seems that having a vaginal birth, no complications giving birth, providing early breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact in the delivery room are predisposing factors necessary to establish a good breastfeeding at hospital discharge. Despite the efforts of professionals, the percentage of newborns with exclusive breastfeeding at birth is not enough for the current recommendations. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  11. Suction is kid's play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Roos, Gert; Genbrugge, Annelies; Leysen, Heleen; Aerts, Peter; Adriaens, Dominique; Herrel, Anthony


    Ongoing anatomical development typically results in a gradual maturation of the feeding movements from larval to adult fishes. Adult seahorses are known to capture prey by rotating their long-snouted head extremely quickly towards prey, followed by powerful suction. This type of suction is powered by elastic recoil and requires very precise coordination of the movements of the associated feeding structures, making it an all-or-none phenomenon. Here, we show that newborn Hippocampus reidi are able to successfully feed using an extremely rapid and powerful snout rotation combined with a high-volume suction, surpassing that observed in adult seahorses. An inverse dynamic analysis shows that an elastic recoil mechanism is also used to power head rotation in newborn H. reidi. This illustrates how extreme levels of performance in highly complex musculoskeletal systems can be present at birth given a delayed birth and rapid development of functionally important structures. The fact that the head skeleton of newborn seahorses is still largely cartilaginous may not be problematic because the hydrodynamic stress on the rotating snout appeared considerably lower than in adult syngnathids. PMID:19324657

  12. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU (United States)

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Fahimzad, Seyyed-Ali-Reza; Shiva, Farideh; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Esmaili, Fatemeh


    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W) and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days); duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3%) newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality. PMID:27307961

  13. Oxidative stress in resuscitation and in ventilation of newborns. (United States)

    Gitto, E; Pellegrino, S; D'Arrigo, S; Barberi, I; Reiter, R J


    The lungs of newborns are especially prone to oxidative damage induced by both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Yet, these infants are often 1) exposed to high oxygen concentrations, 2) have infections or inflammation, 3) have reduced antioxidant defense, and 4) have high free iron levels which enhance toxic radical generation. Oxidative stress has been postulated to be implicated in several newborn conditions with the phrase "oxygen radical diseases of neonatology" having been coined. There is, however, reason to believe that oxidative stress is increased more when resuscitation is performed with pure oxygen compared with ambient air and that the most effective ventilatory strategy is the avoidance of mechanical ventilation with the use of nasopharyngeal continuous positive airway pressure whenever possible. Multiple ventilation strategies have been attempted to reduce injury and improve outcomes in newborn infants. In this review, the authors summarise the scientific evidence concerning oxidative stress as it relates to resuscitation in the delivery room and to the various modalities of ventilation.

  14. Genetic contribution to patent ductus arteriosus in the premature newborn. (United States)

    Bhandari, Vineet; Zhou, Gongfu; Bizzarro, Matthew J; Buhimschi, Catalin; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Heping


    The most common congenital heart disease in the newborn population, patent ductus arteriosus, accounts for significant morbidity in preterm newborns. In addition to prematurity and environmental factors, we hypothesized that genetic factors play a significant role in this condition. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of genetic factors to the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborns. A retrospective study (1991-2006) from 2 centers was performed by using zygosity data from premature twins born at Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by echocardiography at each center. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of specific covariates. Latent variable probit modeling was then performed to estimate the heritability of patent ductus arteriosus, and mixed-effects probit modeling was used to quantify the genetic component. We obtained data from 333 dizygotic twin pairs and 99 monozygotic twin pairs from 2 centers (Yale University and University of Connecticut). Data on chorioamnionitis, antenatal steroids, gestational age, body weight, gender, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, oxygen supplementation, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were comparable between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. We found that gestational age, respiratory distress syndrome, and institution were significant covariates for patent ductus arteriosus. After controlling for specific covariates, genetic factors or the shared environment accounted for 76.1% of the variance in liability for patent ductus arteriosus. Preterm patent ductus arteriosus is highly familial (contributed to by genetic and environmental factors), with the effect being mainly environmental, after controlling for known confounders.

  15. [Aftercare of newborn infants in a patient hotel]. (United States)

    Lindgren, C


    Postnatal care of the healthy term newborn and the mother has, in modern times, taken place in the hospital setting. As a result of tightened hospital budgets as well as maternal preferences the duration of hospital stay has successively been shortened. Most women in Scandinavia today leave the hospital within four days after delivery. Postnatal care in a hotel like setting has emerged as an alternative to the well-baby nursery unless medical conditions makes this option inappropriate. To evaluate the safety of postnatal care a study was undertaken to investigate whether correct criteria were being used for referral of the newborn to the hotel. We also wanted to document the duration of stay, unexpected medical complications, and weight development of the infants. Data from 865 infants were used for analysis. Ten (1.1%) newborns had to be readmitted to the hospital due to medical complications. 488 (56%) of the mothers went home within 96 hours, and only 23 (2.6%) stayed more than 120 hours. The weight of the infants reached a nadir on the fourth day post partum (-5.2% of birth weight). The patient hotel is a medically safe alternative to the traditional well-baby nursery, provided that appropriate criteria for referral are used.

  16. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for the term newborn with encephalopathy. (United States)

    Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth John; Miller, Steven Paul


    Neonatal encephalopathy is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and of long-term neurodevelopmental disability in survivors. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques now play a major role in the clinical care of newborns with encephalopathy and in research addressing this important condition. From conventional magnetic resonance imaging, typical patterns of injury have been defined in neonatal encephalopathy. When applied in contemporary cohorts of newborns with encephalopathy, the patterns of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging distinguish risk factors, clinical presentation, and risk of abnormal outcome. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging provide novel perspectives on neonatal brain metabolism, microstructure, and connectivity. With the application of these imaging tools, it is increasingly apparent that brain injury commonly occurs at or near the time of birth and evolves over the first weeks of life. These observations have complemented findings from trials of emerging strategies of brain protection, such as hypothermia. Application of these advanced magnetic resonance techniques may enable the earliest possible identification of newborns at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment, thereby ensuring appropriate follow-up with rehabilitation and psychoeducational resources.

  17. [Early discharge of newborns: what problems should we anticipate?]. (United States)

    Straczek, H; Vieux, R; Hubert, C; Miton, A; Hascoet, J-M


    Following Nordic and Anglo-Saxon countries, France is directing towards an early discharge policy from maternity hospitals. French National Authority for Health has published recommendations focusing on the importance to highlight the dangers of such a policy so as to be able to anticipate them. To describe the complications diagnosed in the newborn infants from day 2 to the current hospital's discharge (noteworthy, if infants are discharged early, these complications may occur at home) to determine predictive factors and to validate those proposed by the French National Authority for Health. Prospective study conducted in the maternity ward of Nancy's level III facility, from January 6th to May 6th 2005. Nine hundred and three newborn infants were included. Forty-two (4.6%) presented with complications diagnosed from day 2 to hospital's discharge, among which 4 required urgent neonatal care. The most frequent complication was hyperbilirubinemia: 23 newborns were treated with phototherapy between day 2 and day 10. Statistically significant risk factors of hyperbilirubinemia after day 2 in multivariate analysis were instrumental vaginal delivery (OR=2.94; CI 95% [1.04-8.34]) and jaundice before day 2 (OR=7.39; CI 95% [2.66-20.55]). According to the French National Authority for Health's policy, 33 among 42 infants presenting with a complication would have been withdrawn from an early discharge program. In our population, French National Authority for Health's recommendations were relevant to guide an early discharge project.

  18. [The newborn infant of a mother with tuberculosis]. (United States)

    Pedicino, R; Bressan, K; Bedetta, M


    TBC is a major infectious emergency in the world. OMS suggest that there are 8 millions of affected every year and 2 millions of deaths. Italy is considered a country with low prevalence, but the increase of the immigration from Africa Asia and Est Europa (country with high risk) imposes attention to the problem. The delivery is a critical moment to investigate people at risk of disease. The infection of the newborn can happen intrauterine or in the expulsive period, but is possible also at home, from somebody affected by an active pulmonary disease. Diagnosis in the newborn is not easy for the aspecificity of clinical signs and for the frequent initial negativeness of Mantoux test. Culture of placenta, gastric aspirate, tracheal secretions, urine would be requested, cerebrospinal fluid if necessary. Neonatal disease needs therapy with isoniazide, rifampicine, pirazinamide and, or ethambutol, or streptomycin. Profilaxis of a newborn from a woman affected by an active form of tuberculosis or living with people affected by an active pulmonary form consists in giving isoniazide until diagnostic tests are negative and in removing the sicks (only with pulmonary disease). New dangerous kinds of pharmacological multiresistent tuberculosis are appeared in the last years in the world and, with the coinfection HIV-TBC and the reorganization of the surveillance system, represents the major obligation for the next years.

  19. Zonulin: A Potential Marker of Intestine Injury in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tarko


    Full Text Available Introduction. Zonulin (ZO, a new diagnostic biomarker of intestinal permeability, was tested in newborns presenting symptoms of infection and/or inflammation of the gut or being at risk of intestinal pathology. Material and Methods. Serum ZO was assessed in 81 newborns diagnosed with sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, rotavirus infection, and gastroschisis, also in extremely low gestational age babies, and in controls (healthy newborns. ZO concentration was compared to C-reactive protein (CRP and procalcitonin (PCT values, leucocyte and platelet count, basic demographic data, and the value of the Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (NTISS. Results. Median values of ZO were markedly higher in groups with rotavirus infection and gastroschisis (36.0 (1-3Q: 26.0–43.2 and 20.3 (1-3Q: 17.7–28.2 ng/ml, resp. versus controls (3.5 (1-3Q: 2.7–4.8 ng/ml. Its concentration in the NEC group was twice as high as in controls but did not reach statistical significance. ZO levels were not related to NTISS, CRP, and PCT. Conclusions. Zonulin is a promising biomarker of intestinal condition, markedly elevated in rotavirus infections. Its role in defining the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and the risk for perforation is not well described and needs further evaluation. An increase in zonulin may not be parallel to the release of inflammatory markers, and low CRP should not exclude an injury to neonatal intestine.

  20. Zonulin: A Potential Marker of Intestine Injury in Newborns. (United States)

    Tarko, Anna; Suchojad, Anna; Michalec, Marta; Majcherczyk, Małgorzata; Brzozowska, Aniceta; Maruniak-Chudek, Iwona


    Zonulin (ZO), a new diagnostic biomarker of intestinal permeability, was tested in newborns presenting symptoms of infection and/or inflammation of the gut or being at risk of intestinal pathology. Serum ZO was assessed in 81 newborns diagnosed with sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), rotavirus infection, and gastroschisis, also in extremely low gestational age babies, and in controls (healthy newborns). ZO concentration was compared to C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) values, leucocyte and platelet count, basic demographic data, and the value of the Neonatal Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (NTISS). Median values of ZO were markedly higher in groups with rotavirus infection and gastroschisis (36.0 (1-3Q: 26.0-43.2) and 20.3 (1-3Q: 17.7-28.2) ng/ml, resp.) versus controls (3.5 (1-3Q: 2.7-4.8) ng/ml). Its concentration in the NEC group was twice as high as in controls but did not reach statistical significance. ZO levels were not related to NTISS, CRP, and PCT. Zonulin is a promising biomarker of intestinal condition, markedly elevated in rotavirus infections. Its role in defining the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis and the risk for perforation is not well described and needs further evaluation. An increase in zonulin may not be parallel to the release of inflammatory markers, and low CRP should not exclude an injury to neonatal intestine.