WorldWideScience

Sample records for newborn infant centering

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant. Centering around the CT picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemine, Hisao

    1983-08-01

    The labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by the severity of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal.

  2. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  3. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  4. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  5. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  6. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...

  7. Hospital stay for healthy term newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitz, William E

    2015-05-01

    The hospital stay of the mother and her healthy term newborn infant should be long enough to allow identification of problems and to ensure that the mother is sufficiently recovered and prepared to care for herself and her newborn at home. The length of stay should be based on the unique characteristics of each mother-infant dyad, including the health of the mother, the health and stability of the newborn, the ability and confidence of the mother to care for herself and her newborn, the adequacy of support systems at home, and access to appropriate follow-up care in a medical home. Input from the mother and her obstetrical care provider should be considered before a decision to discharge a newborn is made, and all efforts should be made to keep a mother and her newborn together to ensure simultaneous discharge. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Martin O; Kotecha, Sarah J; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory distress is recognised as any signs of breathing difficulties in neonates. In the early neonatal period respiratory distress is common, occurring in up to 7% of newborn infants, resulting in significant numbers of term-born infants being admitted to neonatal units. Many risk factors are involved; the increasing number of term infants delivered by elective caesarean section has also increased the incidence. Additionally the risk decreases with each advancing week of gestation. At 37 weeks, the chances are three times greater than at 39-40 weeks gestation. Multiple conditions can present with features of respiratory distress. Common causes in term newborn infants include transient tachypnoea of the newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and pneumothorax. Early recognition of respiratory distress and initiation of appropriate treatment is important to ensure optimal outcomes. This review will discuss these common causes of respiratory distress in term-born infants.

  9. [General vitamin K prevention in newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, W

    1986-01-01

    Vitamin K is required for the synthesis of active forms of some coagulation factors. Bleeding due to low levels of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn) is most frequently seen in newborns with a low intake of breast milk, who are not fed supplemental formula, since transplacental transfer of vitamin K seems to be small and breast milk is relatively deficient in vitamin K. Severe bleeding due to vitamin K deficiency is also observed in 4-12 weeks old infants. The reason for the deficiency in otherwise healthy infants of this age is unclear. Classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is not existent in infants given vitamin K intramuscularly at birth. Also, the late manifestation of vitamin K deficiency has been observed virtually exclusively in infants, who had not been given vitamin K parenterally at birth. Since most newborns will be breast fed and supplemental formula feeding will not be required in most healthy full term newborns, all newborns should be given a dose of vitamin K intramuscularly immediately after birth. Whether it is safe to administer vitamin K to the mother or orally to the child requires further investigation.

  10. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  11. Advances in nutrition of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane E; Cormack, Barbara E; Alexander, Tanith; Alsweiler, Jane M; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2017-04-22

    Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established. New developments include recommendations to increase protein supply, improve formulations of parenteral lipids, and provide mineral supplements while encouraging human milk feeding. However, high quality evidence of the risks and benefits of these developments is lacking. Clinical trials are also needed to assess the effect on preterm infants of experiencing the smell and taste of milk, to determine whether boys and girls should be fed differently, and to test effects of insulin and IGF-1 supplements on growth and developmental outcomes. Moderate-to-late preterm infants have neonatal nutritional challenges that are similar to those infants born at earlier gestations, but even less high quality evidence exists upon which to base clinical decisions. The focus of research in nutrition of infants born at term is largely directed at new formula products that will improve cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Providing the most effective nutrition to preterm infants should be prioritised as an important focus of neonatal care research to improve long-term metabolic and developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inflammatory cytokines in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarandakou

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in 48 healthy, termed neonates on the 1st (N1, 5th (N5 and 40th (N40 day after birth, compared with those in maternal serum (MS, umbilical cord (UC and adult controls. Cytokine values in N1 and N5 were significantly elevated, than those in UC and in controls (p<0.0001. IL-1β and IL-6 declined significantly from N1 to N40 (p<0.0001, while TNF-α increased significantly from N1 to N5 and declined thereafter. MS ∞ IL-1β and IL-6, but not MS ∞ TNF-α, were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.0001. IL-1β values depended on the mode of delivery. In conclusion, the increased concentrations of IL-1 β, IL-6 and TNF-α during the perinatal period might suggest their involvement in an inflammation like process during normal parturition, and reflect also a newborn immune response to the stress of delivery and environmental changes.

  13. Managing hypertension in the newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Nickavar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension in newborn infants, particularly those requiring intensive care, is becoming increasingly recognized, with prevalence of 0.2-3%. Recent studies have established normative tables for blood pressure (BP in both term and pre-term infants based on the gestational age, postnatal age, gender, weight and height, identifying the neonates at increased risk for early-onset cardiovascular disease. Common causes of neonatal hypertension include thromboembolic complications secondary to umbilical artery catheterization, congenital renal structural malformation, renovascular disease, aortic coarctation, as well as acute kidney injury and certain medications. A careful diagnostic evaluation should lead to identification of the underlying cause of hypertension in most infants. Treatment options should be tailored to the severity; and underlying cause of hypertension, including intravenous and/or oral therapy. This review summarizes recent work in these areas, focusing on optimal BP measurement, definition, evaluation and management of hypertension as well as advances in drug therapy of neonatal hypertension.

  14. Tissue carnitine reserves of newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenai, J P; Borum, P R

    1984-07-01

    This study assessed the tissue reserves of carnitine at birth in a group of neonates (n = 22) of varying gestational age dying within 24 h of birth, prior to possible changes in carnitine status induced by postnatal intervention. Tissue carnitine concentration was highest in the muscle in each infant. The mean (+/- SD) muscle carnitine concentration of 8.4 +/- 3.6 nmol/mg noncollagen protein (NCP) in very immature infants (less than or equal to 1000 g birth weight) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean (+/- SD) values of 14.0 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg NCP in larger preterm infants (1001-2500 g; P less than 0.01) and 19.4 +/- 2.6 nmol/mg NCP in term infants (greater than or equal to 2501 g; P less than 0.001). Muscle carnitine concentration correlated positively with gestational age (r = 0.832; P less than 0.001) and with body dimensions. Liver and heart carnitine concentrations did not correlate significantly with gestation or body dimensions. The mean (+/- SD) liver carnitine concentration for all the neonates as a group was 4.1 +/- 1.5 nmol/mg NCP. The mean (+/- SD) heart carnitine concentration was 4.7 +/- 1.3 nmol/mg NCP. In comparison to adult controls, tissue carnitine concentrations were markedly lower in neonates, particularly in immature newborns. These data suggest that newborn infants, especially premature babies, are born with limited tissue reserves of carnitine and are therefore at an increased risk for developing carnitine deficiency and its adverse effects in the postnatal period, particularly if maintained on carnitine-free intravenous nutrition for prolonged periods of time.

  15. A retrospective study of administration of vaccination for hepatitis B among newborn infants prior to hospital discharge at a midwestern tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Helen I; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Ryckman, Kelli K; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2015-05-11

    Infants are at high risk of developing chronic, life-threatening disease as a result of hepatitis B virus infection. Universal vaccination of infants against hepatitis B virus, before discharge from the hospital after delivery is recommended as a measure to eradicate infection and associated mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine rates of perinatal hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B) administration at a tertiary care center in Iowa and to assess the impact of maternal factors on Hep B uptake. Data concerning mother-infant pairs that received care at one institution from 1/2009 to 4/1/2013 were extracted from the system's electronic medical record. Characteristics of study participants were compared using chi-square tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between each factor and vaccination status, controlling for other characteristics. Of 5663 mother-infant pairs, 5175 (91.4%) infants received Hep B within 7 days after delivery. The majority of those not vaccinated had a medical indication to delay vaccination. Single women were significantly more likely to have an infant not vaccinated, after adjustment for all other factors. Women of minority groups were significantly less likely to have an infant who lacked Hep B at hospital discharge than Caucasian women. Significant improvements have occurred in Hep B rates in the state and region. Infants of single mothers may be at the greatest risk for lacking vaccination at hospital discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Newborn infants detect the beat in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, István; Háden, Gábor P; Ladinig, Olivia; Sziller, István; Honing, Henkjan

    2009-02-17

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the origin of music. Theorists are divided on the issue whether this ability is innate or learned. We show that newborn infants develop expectation for the onset of rhythmic cycles (the downbeat), even when it is not marked by stress or other distinguishing spectral features. Omitting the downbeat elicits brain activity associated with violating sensory expectations. Thus, our results strongly support the view that beat perception is innate.

  17. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral...... haemodynamics' includes cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood flow velocity, and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Therapy aimed at changing vascular anatomy is not available. Therefore, prevention of disturbances in CBF and CBV is pivotal. However, continuous monitoring of CBF and CBV is still unavailable...... for clinical use. Tissue oxygenation may be used as a surrogate for CBF, although precision is still questionable. General knowledge of the regulation of CBF and CBV is important. Although this knowledge is still incomplete, especially regarding autoregulation and the exact role of CBV, it is still useful...

  18. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B

    1970-07-01

    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  19. Hypotension in Newborn Infants and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Uysal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic hypotension is a common complication of sick premature infants and may be associated with major adverse outcomes, including intraventricular hemorrhage, neuro-developmental morbidity, and mortality. There is no consensus among neonatologists regarding either the definition of hypotension or the lower threshold level of systemic arterial blood pressure in which neurological injury is inevitable. For this reason, there is a considerable variation in the reported prevalence of hypotension among different neonatal units. However, it is widely accepted by many of clinicians that early and aggressive treatment of hypotension in the neonates leads to improved neurologic outcome and survival. The goal of treatment of hypotension is to maintain adequate organ blood flow, particularly, cerebral blood flow. Because of difficulties in evaluating organ perfusion and adequacy of cerebral oxygen delivery, treatment decisions are based on statistically defined gestational and postnatal age-dependent normative blood-pressure values combined with clinical intuition. Current treatment of hypotension in the premature infant includes the use of volume expansions, inotropes, vasopressor agents and corticosteroids. It has been reported that dopamine, as a commonly used inotropic agents in the neonatal period, is more effective than dobutamine in the raising of blood pressure. Some hypotensive premature infants have low cortisol levels because of adrenocortical insufficiency, and corticosteroids are generally reserved for treatment of refractory hypotension of these infants; however, it is not recommended for prophylaxis or routine clinical use because of its potential serious side effects. This article aims to review some of the controversies about diagnosis and management of systemic hypotension in the newborn infants. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013;11:68-76

  20. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P

    2008-01-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  1. Can Conditioned Responses be Established in the Newborn Infant: 1971?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold J.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence indicates that the newborn infant must first develop cognitive systems, through his experience with various stimuli, to differentiate each modality separately before he can integrate any two modalities in classical conditioning. (Author/NH)

  2. Septic arthritis in the newborn and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajdobranski Đorđe R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Septic arthritis represents an intra-articular infection caused by pyogenic bacteria. During the earliest childhood it is considered to be a systemic septic condition and demands early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. Material and methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients with septic arthritis treated at the Department of Orthopedics of the Pediatric Surgery Clinic in Novi Sad, over a 10-year period. We are also presenting a case of a 12-day-old newborn baby, with clear radiological signs of osteoarthritis of the right knee. Results A retrospective study included the period 1991-2000, and showed that 15 patients, aged 10 days - 12 months were treated for osteoarthritis. The most common localization was the hip, in 60% of cases. In 11 patients the causative agent was Staphylococcus aureus while in the 4 remaining patients the bacteriologic finding was negative. One patient died of generalized sepsis. Discussion In neonates and infants septic arthritis is characterized by atypical clinical picture, often causing delayed diagnosis. In the initial phases of the disease ultrasonographic findings were of greater use compared to radiological imaging, due to relatively late appearance of radiological signs of disease. Conclusions Due to possible development of serious and irreversible damage, even lethal outcome, septic arthritis requires early diagnosis, prompt administration of antibiotics and early surgical treatment. It is a quite unique area in Pediatric Orthopedics where missed or delayed diagnosis may have serious consequences.

  3. Measurement and repeatability of interrupter resistance in unsedated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A M; Olden, C; Wertheim, D; Ives, A; Bridge, P D; Lenton, J; Seddon, P

    2009-12-01

    Interrupter resistance (R(int)) is a useful measure of airway caliber in young children, but has not been well characterized in infants-in whom there are concerns about the accurate measurement of driving pressure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and repeatability of measuring R(int) in unsedated newborn infants, and to explore alternative algorithms for calculating driving pressure. R(int) measurement was attempted in 28 healthy term newborn infants during natural sleep using the MicroRint device. Paired R(int) measurements were achieved in 24 infants, but after screening of waveforms only 15 infants had at least 5 technically acceptable waveforms on both measurements. R(int) values obtained were comparable with reported values for airflow resistance in newborns using other methods. However, the repeatability coefficient (CR) was much higher than reported values in preschool children using standard back-extrapolation algorithms, with CR 2.47 KPa L(-1) sec (unscreened) and 2.93 KPa L(-1) sec (screened). Other algorithms gave only marginally better repeatability, with all CR values over 50% of the mean R(int) value. Using current commercially available equipment, R(int) is too poorly repeatable to be a reliable measurement of airflow resistance in newborn infants. Lower deadspace equipment is needed, but anatomical and physiological factors in the infant are also important.

  4. STUDY ON THE GROWTH OF CEREBELLUM IN NEWBORN INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟利; 钟美萍; 吴圣楣; 罗敏洁

    2000-01-01

    Objective To know the growth of the cerebellum in newborn infants. Methods The central vermian area (CVA) of the cerebellum was measured by head ultrasonography in 90 newborns including 65full- terms, 14 preterms and 11 small for gestational age infants (SGA). Results The average age of the newborn infants were 4.7d (3~7d). The mean CVA in full- terms was 5.8±0.8cm2, which was significantly greater than that in preterms (3.7±1.0cm2), and SGA (5.1±0.8cm2), respectively. However, when corrected for birth weight (BW), the ratio of CVA/BW in term SGA was 2.07, being significantly higher than the ratio of 1.72 in normal full-term newborns. There was no difference between male and female infants. Statistically significant relationships were found between CVA and BW (r=0.8129, P<0.01) and between CVA and gestational age (r=0.7450, P<0.01). Conclusion The study provide some understanding on the growth of the cerebellum, and the cerebellar measurement by cranial ultrasound is helpful for the assessment of neurological maturation in newborn infants.

  5. [Increased incidence of developmental hip dysplasia in hypertrophic newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschgens, T; Skopnik, H; Casser, H R; Rauschning-Sikora, K; Heimann, G

    1993-01-01

    "Lack of space" in utero is considered to be a major factor in the aetiology of the congenital dislocation of the hip. This study tries to answer the question whether hypertrophy of a newborn has to be regarded as a risk factor on the basis of the principle mentioned above. The results of postnatal clinical and sonographical examination performed on 98 large-for-gestational-age (LGA-) newborn were compared to those performed on 310 newborn children during a non selective screening program. Among the LGA-newborn pathological hip joints were found more often mainly female LGA-newborn infants were affected. It seemed that the birth weight did not correlate to the extent of the retardation of the hip joint development. It was again confirmed that the restriction to only clinical diagnostic procedures in the neonatal period is not effective in the early diagnosis of the malformation. Hypertrophy of a newborn has to be considered as a risk factor behind the development of congenital dislocation of the hip. It is recommended to examine all LGA-newborn infants post partum by clinical and most importantly also by sonographical means to recognize a retardation of hip joint development.

  6. CAUSES OF DEATH IN NEWBORN INFANTS ACCORDING TO AUTOPSY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh.- R. Walizadeh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Autopsy findings in 138 newborn infants which died in a university nursery during 3 years are reviewed and discussed. 80 per cent were premature and small- for- date newborns of up to 2500 g birth weight. Most of these cases showed in addition to general prematurely signs, respiratory tract diseases such as atelectasia, amniotic fluid aspiration and hyaline membrane disease. The full term infants died mostly of malformations. In post neonatal period the cause of death was almost entirely infections such as bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and septicemia.

  7. Dissociation between small and large numerosities in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coubart, Aurélie; Izard, Véronique; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Marie, Julien; Streri, Arlette

    2014-01-01

    In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. While a previous study showed the former system to be already present a few hours after birth, it is unknown whether the latter system is functional at this age. Here, we adapt the auditory-visual matching paradigm that previously revealed sensitivity to large numerosities to test sensitivity to numerosities spanning the range from 2 to 12. Across studies, newborns discriminated pairs of large numerosities in a 3:1 ratio, even when the smaller numerosity was 3 (3 vs. 9). In contrast, newborn infants failed to discriminate pairs including the numerosity 2, even at the same ratio (2 vs. 6). These findings mirror the dissociation that has been reported with older infants, albeit with a discontinuity situated between numerosities 2 and 3. Two alternative explanations are compatible with our results: either newborn infants have a separate system for processing small sets, and the capacity of this system is limited to 2 objects; or newborn infants possess only one system to represent numerosities, and this system either is not functional or is extremely imprecise when it is applied to small numerosities.

  8. Factors influencing surfactant composition in the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1978-07-01

    In order to evaluate the surfactant maturation of the neonate, tracheal aspirates were analyzed in 84 newborn infants with 12h of birth. Using 2-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, 9 different phospholipids were identified. Dynamic surface tension measurements were performed with a modified Wilhelmy balance. Five different groups of infants with typical phospholipid patterns were characterized: i.e., 1. Normal term newborn. 2. RDS in the preterm infant. 3. Acceleration of lung maturity in preterm infants without RDS. 4. Retardation in term infants with RDS. 5. Therapeutic induction of pulmonary maturity in preterm infants following maternal glucocorticoid administration. Mature lung effluent contains high concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phsophatidylglycerol (PG). In infants with RDS, PC is low and PG absent. Accelerated lung maturity was observed after chronic prenatal stress, such as prolonged rupture of the membranes, chronic vaginal bleeding, and maternal hepatitis or drug addiction. Retardation of pulmonary maturity was seen in infants with alpha-1-AT-deficiency, maternal diabetes and maternal hypothyroidism. Administration of methylprednisolone to the mother 24 h to 72h before birth induced both the synthesis of PC and PG in the preterm infants, resulting in an almost full-term phospholipid pattern as early as 31 weeks of gestation. The significance of these factors on the pathogenesis of RDS is discussed.

  9. [Advantage of delayed umbilical cord clamping in the newborn infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menget, A; Mougey, C; Thiriez, G; Riethmuller, D

    2013-09-01

    The timing of umbilical cord clamping remains controversial. Although most maternity wards use the early clamping (5-15s), randomized studies and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefit of delayed clamping for term and preterm newborn infants over the past 10 years. Indeed, placentofetal transfusion of 20-30 ml/kg in 2-3 min improves the iron status of term infants and prevents infant hypochromic anemia. Infant anemia is a public health problem in many developing countries. For preterm newborns, placental transfusion for 45 s or milking the cord for 15 s improves cardiovascular adaptation, with better hemodynamic stability, as well as decreased intraventricular hemorrhages, need for transfusion, and late-onset sepsis. A new look at this symbolic act is needed and professionals need to be persuaded of the importance of the "wait a minute" policy for a better physiological delivery.

  10. Standards for skinfold thickness in British newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, J R; Parsons, R J; Whitelaw, A G

    1977-01-01

    Standards of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses for 1293 Caucasian newborn infants of gestational ages 37-42 weeks, and of 0-25 kg birthweight intervals between 2-25 and 4-5 kg are presented. Female infants had a greater skinfold thickness than males, and the subscapular skinfold was greater than the triceps. The skinfold thickness in both males and females declined after 40 weeks of gestation. PMID:860873

  11. Effect of tilting on oxygenation in newborn infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Thoresen, M; Cowan, F.; Whitelaw, A

    1988-01-01

    Transcutaneous (tc) PO2 in newborn infants increased on head up tilting (median increase 0.5 kPa at term, 1.0 kPa preterm). Head down tilting was associated with an equivalent fall in tcPO2. There was no change in tcPCO2. Tilting of infants mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome or surgery produced no consistent change in PO2.

  12. Xe enhanced CT in the human newborn infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Yozen; Nemoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Mitsumasa; Uga, Naoki; Tada, Hiroshi; Fujii, Toshi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Machida, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hideo; Izumi, Shigemitsu

    1990-09-01

    With a cranial computed tomography (CT) using stable xenon gas as a diffusible tracer, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 newborn infants with a variety of neurological abnormalities. Gestational ages and birthweights were 35 to 43 weeks and 2436 to 3540 g, respectively. Four infants exhibited hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), one infant had subdural hemorrhage and the other one was the infant with hyponatremia. A baseline CT was done during denitrogenation by 100% oxygen breathing and then a mixture of 35% xenon and 65% oxygen was breathed for 6 minutes. Six scans were obtained during the inhalation period then the infant was returned to breathing 100% oxygen and additional 7 scans were taken. Four samples of arterial blood were collected every 2 minutes before and during inhalation of the xenon gas. A rCBF was calculated with the changes of Hounsfield units in brain tissue and arterial blood. Relatively high blood flows in the region of the basal nuclei as well as decreased flows in the occipital white matter were observed in the infants with HIE. In an infant with subdural hemorrhage, the blood flows were markedly reduced in the areas adjacent to the lesion, including the basal nuclei, and frontal white matter in the opposite hemisphere. Xenon-enhanced CT by inhaling low concentration of the xenon gas enables to measure rCBF in the human newborn infants without no obvious side effect. (author).

  13. Spontaneous oesophageal rupture with duodenal atresia in a newborn infant.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    A newborn infant with spontaneous oesophageal rupture associated with duodenal atresia is described. The diagnosis was established by the pattern of hydropneumothorax on the chest x-ray film and by the aspiration of gastric juice by thoracocentesis. Necropsy showed a tear, which extended from the oesophagogastric junction to the upper portion of the stomach.

  14. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review

  15. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the o

  16. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the

  17. Surfactant protein D in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Juvonen, Pekka Olavi; Holmskov, Uffe;

    2005-01-01

    , the highest levels being observed in infants born by cesarean section. It was concluded that SP-D concentrations in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood are highly variable and depend on several perinatal conditions. Further studies are needed to elucidate the effect of respiratory distress and infection...

  18. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háden, Gábor P; Stefanics, Gábor; Vestergaard, Martin D; Denham, Susan L; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2009-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch changes was tested by recording event-related brain potentials in healthy newborn infants to frequent standard and infrequent pitch-deviant sounds while the perceived resonator size of all sounds was randomly varied. The elicitation of an early negative and a later positive discriminative response by deviant sounds demonstrated that the neonate auditory system represents pitch separately from timbre, thus showing advanced pitch processing capabilities.

  19. Prevention of Vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihatsch, W. A.; Braegger, C P; Bronsky, J

    2016-01-01

    prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K 1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3×2 mg vitamin K 1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K......Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence...... 1 orally at birth, and a weekly dose of 1 mg orally for 3 months. Intramuscular application is the preferred route for efficiency and reliability of administration. The success of an oral policy depends on compliance with the protocol and this may vary between populations and healthcare settings...

  20. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry in the newborn infant: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, T

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia in the newborn infant continues to challenge physicians. Clinical evaluation and treatment have evolved well-established principles over the past decade. This review examines neonatal bilirubin metabolism and focuses on a recently developed clinical diagnostic tool, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer. In spite of some limitations, the transcutaneous bilirubinometer can be best applied as a screening tool to identify healthy full-term infants who require serum bilirubin determination. With proper application, this device can eliminate most invasive diagnostic testing. Optimal use of the instrument requires the relationship between the serum bilirubin concentration and the transcutaneous bilirubinometer index to be determined for each device, institution, and population.

  1. Aortic mass in a newborn infant with respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Vaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic disease is rare in neonates. Many of the cases reported in literature are attributed to the placement of central catheters. We report on a case of aortic thrombosis in a newborn infant with significant respiratory distress due to meconium aspiration, necessitating intubation and placement of central catheters. Due to the location and size of the thrombus in our case, various subspecialties were involved, which ultimately guided therapy to anti-coagulate the patient.

  2. Timbre-independent extraction of pitch in newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    HÁDEN, GÁBOR P.; STEFANICS, GÁBOR; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Denham, Susan L.; Sziller, István; Winkler, István

    2008-01-01

    The ability to separate pitch from other spectral sound features, such as timbre, is an important prerequisite of veridical auditory perception underlying speech acquisition and music cognition. The current study investigated whether or not newborn infants generalize pitch across different timbres. Perceived resonator size is an aspect of timbre that informs the listener about the size of the sound source, a cue that may be important already at birth. Therefore, detection of infrequent pitch ...

  3. [Spinal sonography of a newborn infant with postpartal paraplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, R; Klemm, T

    1988-01-01

    Cranial ultrasonography is a well established diagnostic procedure. In contrast ultrasonography of the spine and the spinal cord is less frequently used. It is indicated in infants with spinal dysraphism and may help to diagnose patients with meningomyelocele, spinal lipoma or cord tethering. We present a newborn with parplectic symptoms as a result of an epidural hematoma, which could be demonstrated exclusively by ultrasonography. We want to stress that spinal ultrasonography is a method of high clinical value.

  4. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of neuroinfections in the newborn and infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippkin, M A; Kal'naia, T V; Kal'noĭ, A M

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss the potentialities of the ultrasonic method in the diagnosis of brain involvement in the newborns and infants with neuroinfections. Ultrasonic examination was carried out in 75 infants aged 4 days to 15 months. Fifteen infants suffered from specific neuroinfections that developed in utero (toxoplasmosis, cytomegalia, listerosis), the rest 60 developed inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, ventriculitis). The examinations were performed in the real time regimen with a frequency of 3.5-7.5 MHz. In all the cases the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings. Specific changes in the brain morphology were detected at the early stages of inflammatory processes of various origins. Ultrasonic examinations help identify the type of the pathologic process, its dissemination and complications (dislocation, cerebral ventricles dilatation, abscesses, hygromas).

  5. [Clinical results and pharmacokinetics of cefotaxime in newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S

    1982-07-01

    One full-term newborn infant and 2 premature ones were treated with cefotaxime for the treatment of suspected sepsis and umbilical suppurative inflammation. Pathogenic organisms could not be identified in all cases. A good result was obtained with the case of suspected sepsis. But the other 2 cases were not evaluable because underlying diseases such as massive pulmonary atelectasis or respiratory distress syndrome masked the effects of this agent. Serum levels of cefotaxime in 3 of the 4 cases were determined with bioassay. Time courses of the serum levels in 2 of them resulted in peculiar biphasic disappearance curves. This fact implies the possibility that desacetylation of cefroxime proceeds also in newborns as in adults and that desacetyl metabolite accumulates in the body owing to the premature function of the neonatal kidney.

  6. Contact and nutrient caregiving effects on newborn infant pain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, S; Barr, R G; Wertheim, L; Alkawaf, R; Calinoiu, N; Young, S N

    2001-01-01

    To understand how the 'caregiving context' could affect responses to procedural pain, the authors sought to determine whether (1) the combined effects of sweet taste and holding (caregiving contact) were greater than the effects of either alone, (2) any combined effects were additive or interactive, and (3) the interventions had similar effects on behavioral (crying and facial activity) and physiological (heart rate, vagal tone) responses to the heel-stick procedure in newborn infants in a randomized two-factorial intervention trial. Eighty-five normally developing newborn infants were studied with a mean gestational age of 39.4 weeks on the 2nd or 3rd day of life. Infants were randomized in blocks of eight to receive (1) no holding and water taste (control participants), (2) no holding and sucrose taste (sucrose group), (3) holding and water taste (holding group), or (4) holding and sucrose taste (holding and sucrose group). Crying was reduced significantly by taste and holding, and the interventions combined additively. Facial activity was only significantly reduced by holding. For physiological measures, the interventions interacted with each other and preintervention levels to reduce heart rate and lower vagal tone more during the procedure in infants in whom heart rate and vagal tone were higher before intervention. Consequently, sweet taste and holding interventions combined in complex ways when acting on different behavioral and physiological response systems to modify stressful pain experiences. The results suggest that providing a caregiving context when painful procedures are performed may be a simple and practical method of reducing pain experience in infants, and that no one measure captures these effects.

  7. [Pain scales used in the newborn infant: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Da Silva, Tiago; Justo Da Silva, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    For many years, appropriate relevance has not been given for pain in newborn infants, but research brought to light this important subject in neonatal medicine. Pain scores have been organized in scales and validated to be used in clinical practice. Currently, there are several scales based on different pain indicators. These scales should be used according to different circumstances. With the purpose of helping health professionals, a systematic review of neonatal pain scales based on gestational age, duration of painful episode and type of pain indicator was carried out. Data concerning validation of the scales were also analyzed and two scales for use in clinical practice or in research are suggested.

  8. Percutaneous catheter use in newborn infants with parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García del Río, M; Lastra-Sanchez, G; Martínez-Léon, M; Martínez-Valverde, A

    1998-12-01

    The well known negative effect of infection on nutrition causes the cycle 'infection-malnutrition-infection'. Prolonged parenteral nutrition requires central venous catheterization. Due to the possibility of 'catheter related sepsis' (CRS) catheters should be used correctly to avoid septic complications. A very high percentage of central venous catheters (CVC) removed because of presumed infections are not infected when culture is done. In some patients infections are successfully treated with antibiotics without catheter removal. Removal of the line is recommended when catheter-associated sepsis is suspected or proven, but not for the extremely ill preterm infant or when such removal may be impractical. A therapeutic protocol is suggested to avoid future canalizations in the neonate, sometimes in a critical situation. Current literature referring to CRS in the newborn infant is reviewed.

  9. Nemaline myopathy in a newborn infant: a rare muscle disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukman, O; Calkavur, S; Diniz, G; Unalp, A; Atlihan, F

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous muscle disorder, defined by the presence of characteristic nemaline bodies on muscle biopsy. The disease has a wide spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from forms with neonatal onset and fatal outcome to asymptomatic forms. The neonatal form is severe and usually fatal. The clinical variability, with differing age of onset and severity of symptoms makes the diagnosis difficult during infancy. There is no curative treatment. L-tyrosine may prevent aspiration by reducing pharyngeal secretions and drooling. Most of the patients die from respiratory and cardiac failure. This article discusses a newborn infant who presented with generalized weakness and respiratory failure. Partial response to L-tyrosine treatment was noted. The case is worth presenting to remind clinicians of congenital myopathies in the differential diagnosis of floppy infant during neonatal period and to emphasize the importance of muscle biopsy in diagnosis.

  10. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of high-risk mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S. H.; van Beek, A.; Janssen, J. W.; de Vleeschouwer, L. H. M.; Huysman, W. A.; van den Akker, E. L. T.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborn infants of mothers at risk of vitamin D deficiency because of dark skin or the wearing of concealing clothes (such as a veil) compared with a group presumed not to be at risk. A second aim was to correlate these newborn infant

  11. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  12. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  13. [Swedish guidelines for prevention and treatment of pain in the newborn infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Björn A; Gradin, Maria; Lind, Viveka; Selander, Bo

    2002-04-25

    A Swedish national consensus statement concerning prevention and management of pain in the newborn infant has been prepared by members of the Swedish Paediatric Pain Society (Svensk Barnsmärtförening, SBSF). The document is based on the Consensus Statement for the Prevention and Management of Pain in the Newborn Infant by Anand et al [1].

  14. Heart rate variability analysis for newborn infants prolonged pain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, J; Rakza, T; Logier, R; Jeanne, M; Jounwaz, R; Storme, L

    2011-01-01

    Pain management is a general concern for healthcare quality. In the particular context of neonatal care, it's well known that an efficient pain management will decrease mortality and morbidity of newborn infants. Furthermore, the plasticity of developing brain is vulnerable to pain and/or stress, that in turn may cause long term neurodevelopmental changes, including altered pain sensitivity and neuroanatomic and behavioural abnormalities. During neonatal intensive care stay, large number of painful procedures are performed, the majority of which are not accompanied by adequate analgesia. Optimal management requires competent pain assessment which can be especially difficult to perform in this non verbal population. We have developed an instantaneous heart rate variability (HRV) analysis method, non intrusive and user-friendly, based on the ECG signal acquisition. This analysis method enabled us to design parameters related to the influence of pain on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) activity. This paper presents the application of this method, previously validated for adults under general anesthesia, to the domain of newborn infants prolonged pain assessment.

  15. Understanding newborn infant readmission: findings of the Ontario Mother and Infant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sword, W A; Watt, S; Krueger, P D; Kyong, S L; Sheehan, D D; Roberts, J G; Gafni, A

    2001-01-01

    The Ontario Mother and Infant Survey examined health and social service utilization of postpartum women and newborn infants from five hospital sites. A cross-sectional multilanguage survey design with longitudinal follow-up was used: 1,250 eligible, consenting women completed a self-report questionnaire in hospital and 875 women participated in a structured telephone interview at four weeks post-discharge. Rates of newborn infant readmission ranged from 2.4% to 6.7%. The best predictors of readmission were: main source of household income was other than employment; maternal self-rating of health was poor; mother anticipated inadequate help and support at home following discharge; mother received help from friends/neighbours following discharge; and mother had concern about infant care and behaviour. Readmission was not associated with length of postpartum hospital stay. The study findings suggest that there is a complex relationship between infant health care needs, family resources and provider practices that produces clinically important, site-specific readmission patterns.

  16. Colonization and infection in the newborn infant: Does chlorhexidine play a role in infection prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegón, Lizeth; Puentes-Herrera, Marcela; Corrales, Ivohne F; Cortés, Jorge A

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are a major problem in newborn infants, considering their high morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae. In preterm infants, it has been shown that skin and gastrointestinal tract colonization undergoes variations compared to healthy term infants, and that preterm infants are more exposed to nosocomial microorganisms given their higher probability of being admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit where they are cared for. This document reviews normal colonization, the changes observed during hospitalization, prematurity, and the potential role of chlorhexidine in the prevention of resistant microorganism transmission, as well as its side effects in newborn infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit.

  17. Detecting the temporal structure of sound sequences in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háden, Gábor P; Honing, Henkjan; Török, Miklós; Winkler, István

    2015-04-01

    Most high-level auditory functions require one to detect the onset and offset of sound sequences as well as registering the rate at which sounds are presented within the sound trains. By recording event-related brain potentials to onsets and offsets of tone trains as well as to changes in the presentation rate, we tested whether these fundamental auditory capabilities are functional at birth. Each of these events elicited significant event-related potential components in sleeping healthy neonates. The data thus demonstrate that the newborn brain is sensitive to these acoustic features suggesting that infants are geared towards the temporal aspects of segregating sound sources, speech and music perception already at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Does Newborn Care, Feeding Practices and Immunization Status have an Effect on Anthropometric Measurements of Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili Mishra, Shraddha Dwivedi, M A Hassan, Khurshid Parveen, M A Khan

    2015-01-01

    Method: A cohort study conducted in a community among newborns born during the period of November 2011 to April 2012. IEC (Information, Education and Counselling was given to their mothers from last three months of pregnancy till the newborns completed one year of age. The effect of newborn care, infant feeding practices and immunization status was assessed in terms of anthropometric measurements. Results: More than half of the infants i.e. 47 (60.26 % gained weight to reach within the normal range and weight of 33 (42.31% infants was below 2 standard deviation. Conclusion: Newborn care, infant feeding practices, immunization status and lesser episodes of illnesses have a positive effect on nutritional status of infants in terms of weight and length."

  19. The Parental Experience of Having an Infant in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Hala M.; Bond, Elaine A.; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to explore and describe the experience of parents with an infant in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). A literature search covering the period 1998–2008 was conducted. Fourteen articles reporting qualitative studies describing parental experiences and meeting the inclusion criteria were evaluated and themes were identified. Findings revealed that parents with an infant in the NICU experience depression, anxiety, stress, and loss of control, and they vacillate between feelings of inclusion and exclusion related to the provision of health care to their neonate. Nursing interventions that promote positive psychosocial outcomes are needed to decrease parental feelings of stress, anxiety, and loss of control. Interventions need to focus on family-centered and developmentally supportive care. PMID:20514124

  20. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C

    2014-06-01

    To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use.

  1. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use. PMID:25119746

  2. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Eustáquio Chaves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve.RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001. The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%.CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of free and total flucloxacillin in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herngren, L; Ehrnebo, M; Broberger, U

    1987-01-01

    Flucloxacillin 50 mg/kg b.w. was administered intravenously (in combination with ampicillin/gentamicin) and orally (with amoxicillin) to 9 newborn infants (gestational age 33-41 weeks) to treat bacterial infections. The concentrations of flucloxacillin in plasma and urine after i.v. injection were analysed according to an open two-compartment model, and the plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin and its distribution to blood cells and plasma water in whole blood were determined. Considerable differences were found from values reported in adults. The terminal half-life averaged 4 h 38 min and was significantly correlated with gestational age. Plasma clearance was low (0.744 ml X min-1 X kg-1), due to the small renal clearance (0.182 ml X min-1 X kg-1), whilst non-renal clearance (0.563 ml X min-1 X kg-1) was approximately the same as in adults. The mean apparent volume of distribution of total drug (Vz) was 0.280 l/kg. The corresponding volume of distribution of unbound drug (Vu1 + Vu2) was 1.74 l/kg, which indicates considerable extravascular drug binding. The plasma protein binding of flucloxacillin (mean 86.3%) was significantly correlated with gestational age and the bilirubin/albumin concentration ratio. Bioavailability after oral administration, when corrected for changes in terminal half-life, was 47.7%, which is only slightly lower than that reported in adults. Since the plasma concentrations after both i.v. and oral administration were well above the MIC-values generally reported for Staphylococcus aureus, and since few side-effects were observed, intravenous injection or, in selected cases, orl administration of flucloxacillin appears to be a reliable therapy for the treatment of infections due to sensitive strains of S. aureus in premature newborn infants.

  4. Physical therapy with newborns and infants: applying concepts of phenomenology and synactive theory to guide interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Yvette; Øberg, Gunn Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Physical therapy involving newborns and young infants is a specialized area of practice reserved for therapists who have advanced training and the competence to help newborns, young infants and their families meet their goals. Beginning at birth, infants apply a significant amount of effort to actively participate in and shape their world. Infants make their intentions and requests for support known through their behaviors during social and physical therapy encounters. The therapeutic encounter viewed from the infant's perspective has received limited attention in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts related to phenomenology and synactive theory that are relevant to physical therapy with newborns and young infants during the first few months of life after birth.

  5. [Hemorrhagic infarction of the testicle in the newborn infant. A case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel Sánchez, B; Domínguez Hinarejos, C; Serrano Durbá, A; Martínez Verduch, M; Estornell Moragues, F; García Ibarra, F

    2004-05-01

    Hemorrhagic infarction of the testicle is an unusual occurrence in the newborn infant. It usually develops as a consequence of torsion of the spermatic cord. We report a case of global testicular infarction in a newborn associated with a tense hydrocele.

  6. Effect of preeclampsia in the mother on the leucine metabolism in the newborn infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcos, MSD; Wattimena, DJL; Van Beek, RHT; Lotgering, FK; Sauer, PJJ

    2002-01-01

    The leucine turnover in newborn infants is influenced by factors such as nutritional state and corticosteroid treatment. Little is known about maternal factors influencing the leucine turnover in the newborn. In order to approach the effect of preeclampsia in the mother on neonatal protein turnover,

  7. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  8. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were dissolved once a day in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for parenteral nutrition of newborn infants and infused continuously to 88 infants in whom septicaemia was suspected or had been proved. The mean dosages were 162 and 5.3 mg/kg per 24 hours...

  9. Favorable outcome in cerebral abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri in a newborn infant

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Algubaisi; Christoph Bührer; Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale; Birgit Spors

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of brain abscesses in newborn infants is controversial. We report on a 6-week-old infant with multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacter koseri that resolved after treatment with combined surgical drainage and intravenous therapy with meropenem and fosfomycin.

  10. Overview of Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century: Factors Affecting Infant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Fumihiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Ozaki, Takashi; Ito, Yoshiya; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2017-01-01

    There are two major nationwide birth cohort studies in Japan, namely, the Longitudinal Survey of Newborns in the 21st Century conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW) and the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS) conducted by the Ministry of Environment. The former was a longitudinal questionnaire survey focusing on environmental and socioeconomic factors for descriptive epidemiology conducted every year since 2001 by mail. The latter was based on 15 unit centers nationwide with environmental measurements and collection of biological samples for environmental risk evaluation. Both are prospective birth cohort studies whose findings will be expected as the basis for establishing health policies. The data obtained in the former study can be used for research with permission from MHLW. To date, there have been more than ten published studies using those data. We have reviewed these studies and introduced our preliminary findings on factors affecting infant growth. Employment before delivery, educational background of parents, household income, and smoking habit of both parents have been suggested to affect infant growth. We will analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and infant growth trajectory to elucidate the most adequate intervention for children.

  11. Pain assessment and management in the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, K M

    1999-12-01

    Managing the pain of a newborn is both complex and challenging because of the subtlety of pain expression in these patients and their vulnerability. This article provides an overview of the physiology of pain in the newborn, addresses pain assessment and pain-assessment tools, explores both nonpharmacological and pharmacological approaches to pain management, and finally, lays the responsibility for pain management in the newborn squarely in the lap of the professional.

  12. Surveillance of extreme hyperbilirubinaemia in Denmark. A method to identify the newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, J.V.; Petersen, Jes Reinholdt; Ebbesen, F.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of infants born at term or near-term with extreme hyperbilirubinaemia. METHODS: The study period was between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2005, and included all infants born alive at term or near-term in Denmark. Medical reports on all newborn infants with a total...... serum bilirubin concentration (TSB) > or = 450 micromol/L were obtained by linking laboratory data to the unique Danish personal identification number. RESULTS: In total, 113 infants were included, that is, an incidence of 45/100,000 live births. Thirty-seven infants presented in hospital, 2 after home...... birth and the others after having been discharged. The maximum TSB was 485 (450-734) micromol/L (median [range]) and appeared latest amongst those infants admitted from home, but was not different from the maximum TSB of the nondischarged infants. Forty-three infants had symptoms of early-phase acute...

  13. Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram of newborns and infants. Its clinical expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cervantes Blanco Jorge Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Burst-suppression pattern in the electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with severe brain damage and has a bad prognosis in 85% of the cases. Objectives. To identify the prevalence of the EEG burst-suppression pattern (BSP in fullterm newborns and infants, determine its etiol- ogy, clinical features and course. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 4,891 EEGs were reviewed. The EEGs of newborns and infants (< 3 months of age with BSP were selected. Results. 11 cases identified with burst suppression pattern. The overall prevalence of which was 3.5%; 8.1% among the newborns and 1.2% among infants. Seizures were the main reason for doing an EEG in the newborn period in 7 patients and after day 28 in three. The clinical manifestations were abnormal level of consciousness (n=8, hypotonia (n=2, and spasticity (n=6. The main causes were hypoxic ischemic injury, stroke and kernicterus. There were two cases of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Two patients died before the third month of age; 8 survived an average of 13 months. All had epilepsy, neurologic retardation and disability. Two patients had persistent EEG burst-suppression pattern; 1 and 3 months after the neonatal period respectively; 7 had focal spikes and an asymmetric pattern. Conclusions. Electroencephalographic burst-suppression pat- tern predicts a severe neurologic injury in fullterm newborns and infants.

  14. [Functional state feature of erythrocytes in healthy term newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsiukova, I I; Iakushenko, N S; Andreeva, A A; Shevel'kova, A A; Kolesova, T A; Katiukhin, L N; Dobrylko, I A; Mandukshev, I V

    2014-01-01

    Hematological parameters and functional status of erythrocytes were studied by the osmotic and ammonium loads in healthy newborns and in adults. Mean erythrocyte volume of newborns more than in adults. Significant difference index of osmotic fragility of neonates were observed in the transition from swelling to hemolysis. Kinetic of erythrocyte's hemolysis in the ammonium load was studied by low-angle light scattering (LaSca-analyzer). The percentage of erythrocyte hemolysis is lower and the velocity of hemolysis is 2.5 times slower in newborns than in adults.

  15. Chest X-ray in newborns and infants; Konventionelle Thoraxdiagnostik bei Neugeborenen und Kleinkindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, Joerg D. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Paediatrische Radiologie und Sonographie

    2012-12-15

    Chest X-ray in newborns and infants shows great differences to that in adults. Therefore all radiologists, who engage in X-rays in this age group, must be familiar with the special features. At the beginning specific items of examination methods are explained, which must be strictly followed due to radiological protection. Focus of the paper is the discussion of the important chest diseases in newborn and infants, which are mostly unknown in chest diagnosis in adults. Many of them can be life-threatening, thus their knowledge is essential. Pathophysiological explanations shall make the special radiological signs understandable. (orig.)

  16. Climate change is associated with male:female ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    . INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Yearly sex ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants and monthly fetal death rates and sex ratios of newborn infants. RESULT(S): A statistically significant positive association was found between yearly temperature differences and sex ratios of fetal deaths...... ratios of newborn infants have been decreasing since the 1970s. Two climate extremes, a very hot summer in 2010 and a very cold winter in January 2011, showed not only statistically significant declines in sex ratios of newborn infants 9 months later in June 2011 and October 2011 but also statistically...... significant increases of fetal death rates immediately, in September 2010 and January 2011. CONCLUSION(S): The recent temperature fluctuations in Japan seem to be linked to a lower male:female sex ratio of newborn infants, partly via increased male fetal deaths. Male concepti seem to be especially vulnerable...

  17. The half-life and exposure of cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G.; Hyldig, N.; Joergensen, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    in normal adults and seemed to clear within 24 hours. The median area under the concentration–time curve was 65.0 hour μg/mL (range 31.7–162.4). Conclusion: We found that the cefuroxime half-life after a Caesarean section varied among infants and was longer than in normal adults but cleared within 24 hours....... Exposure to cefuroxime in newborn infants may influence the gut microbiota and should be investigated further....

  18. ENDOSCOPIC BALLOON DILATATION OF ACQUIRED AIRWAY STENOSIS IN NEWBORN-INFANTS - A PROMISING TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELKERBOUT, SC; VANLINGEN, RA; GERRITSEN, J; ROORDA, RJ

    1993-01-01

    Acquired stenosis of the trachea or bronchus in newborn infants is a possible complication of perinatal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, stenosis formation seems to be initiated by pressure necrosis. Prematurity is thought to be an important risk

  19. 3-D cardiac MRI in free-breathing newborns and infants: when is respiratory gating necessary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Achim [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Krumm, Patrick; Schaefer, Juergen F.; Kramer, Ulrich [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Hornung, Andreas; Sieverding, Ludger [University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Newborns and small infants have shallow breathing. To suggest criteria for when respiratory gating is necessary during cardiac MRI in newborns and infants. One-hundred ten data sets of newborns and infants with (n = 92, mean age: 1.9 ± 1.7 [SD] years) and without (n = 18, mean age: 1.6 ± 1.8 [SD] years) navigator gating were analysed retrospectively. The respiratory motion of the right hemidiaphragm was recorded and correlated to age, weight, body surface area and qualitative image quality on a 4-point score. Quantitative image quality assessment was performed (sharpness of the delineation of the ventricular septal wall) as well as a matched-pair comparison between navigator-gated and non-gated data sets. No significant differences were found in overall image quality or in the sharpness of the ventricular septal wall between gated and non-gated scans. A navigator acceptance of >80% was frequently found in patients ages <12 months, body surface area <0.40 m{sup 2}, body weight <10 kg and a size of <80 cm. Sequences without respiratory gating may be used in newborns and small infants, in particular if age <12 months, body surface area <0.40 m{sup 2}, body weight <10 kg and height <80 cm. (orig.)

  20. Administration of gentamicin and ampicillin by continuous intravenous infusion to newborn infants during parenteral nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1982-01-01

    Gentamicin and ampicillin were dissolved in an L-amino acid solution especially prepared for newborn infants and infused intravenously over 24 h in 7 babies with serious neonatal surgical problems. Serum concentrations of the antibiotics were maintained rather constant and well above the minimal ...

  1. ENDOSCOPIC BALLOON DILATATION OF ACQUIRED AIRWAY STENOSIS IN NEWBORN-INFANTS - A PROMISING TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELKERBOUT, SC; VANLINGEN, RA; GERRITSEN, J; ROORDA, RJ

    Acquired stenosis of the trachea or bronchus in newborn infants is a possible complication of perinatal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, stenosis formation seems to be initiated by pressure necrosis. Prematurity is thought to be an important risk

  2. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...

  3. IMMUNE-RESPONSE AFTER SURFACTANT TREATMENT OF NEWBORN-INFANTS WITH RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bambang Oetomo, S.; Bos, A.F.; de Lei, L.; Okken, A.; VANSONDEREN, L; HALLIDAY, HL; WALTI, H

    1993-01-01

    We examined the sera of 68 newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome; 49 were treated with a natural porcine-derived surfactant preparation and 19 were controls. Serum of the patients was collected before, 3 weeks and 3 months after surfactant treatment. To detect any antibody that had been

  4. Newborn infants' auditory system is sensitive to Western music chord categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtala, Paula; Huotilainen, Minna; Partanen, Eino; Fellman, Vineta; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Neural encoding of abstract rules in the audition of newborn infants has been recently demonstrated in several studies using event-related potentials (ERPs). In the present study the neural encoding of Western music chords was investigated in newborn infants. Using ERPs, we examined whether the categorizations of major vs. minor and consonance vs. dissonance are present at the level of the change-related mismatch response (MMR). Using an oddball paradigm, root minor, dissonant and inverted major chords were presented in a context of consonant root major chords. The chords were transposed to several different frequency levels, so that the deviant chords did not include a physically deviant frequency that could result in an MMR without categorization. The results show that the newborn infants were sensitive to both dissonant and minor chords but not to inverted major chords in the context of consonant root major chords. While the dissonant chords elicited a large positive MMR, the minor chords elicited a negative MMR. This indicates that the two categories were processed differently. The results suggest newborn infants are sensitive to Western music categorizations, which is consistent with the authors' previous studies in adults and school-aged children.

  5. The added value of simultaneous EEG and amplitude-integrated EEG recordings in three newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Nathalie K. S.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2007-01-01

    Amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms (aEEGs) recorded by cerebral function monitors (CFMs) are used increasingly to monitor the cerebral activity of newborn infants with encephalopathy. Recently, new CFM devices became available which also reveal the original EEG signals from the same leads.

  6. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior...

  7. Pseudomonas Sepsis and Multiple Brain Abscesses in a Newborn Infant Following Neurosurgical Procedure for Meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgili Gökmen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postneurosurgical brain abscess carries a high risk of neurologic morbidity and mortality. Case Presentation: A newborn infant had Pseudomonas sepsis and multiple brain abscesses after meningocele repair, and was successfully treated medically. Conclusion: Prompt recognition of this life-threatening condition is crucial.

  8. PHENYLKETONURIA, DETECTION IN THE NEWBORN INFANT AS A ROUTINE HOSPITAL PROCEDURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUTHRIE, ROBERT; WHITNEY, STEWART

    A FIELD TRIAL OF AN INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD FOR SCREENING FOR PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU) TESTED MORE THAN 400,000 NEWBORN INFANTS PRIOR TO DISCHARGE FROM THE HOSPTIAL. IN ALL, 39 CASES WERE FOUND, A HIGHER INCIDENCE THAN HAD PREVIOUSLY BEEN EXPECTED. THE PRACTICALITY OF THE INHIBITION ASSAY METHOD WAS ALSO DEMONSTRATED. THE REPORT DETAILS THE TRIAL'S…

  9. Asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in newborn infants of diabetic mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Huerta, M M; Vargas-Origel, A; Olvera-López, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the frequency and outcome of asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH) in large-for-gestational-age infants (LGA) born to diabetic (DM) and nondiabetic mothers (NDM), and to establish the relationship between ASH and maternal diabetes control. A comparative study was design to assess ASH in infants born to DM and NDM. The study was conducted in the Departments of Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology of the "Hospital de Gineco-Pediatria 48", Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social from January to December 1997. Eighty-five full-term infants of DM (group A) and 85 LGA infants of NDM (group B) were included. As a control group (group C), we studied 85 healthy, full-term infants. In all cases a Doppler echocardiogram was obtained in the first 48 h after birth, and for the ASH infants, at 2 and 4 months. Chest X ray, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests were performed as complementary studies. ASH was present in 38.8% of LGA infants of DM and in 7.1% of NDM. The difference was significant (p < 0.01). Interventricular septum (IVS) and IVS/ posterior wall of left ventricle ratio were significantly different between groups A and B with C. There was no correlation between Hb A1 level and the presence of ASH in group A. ASH is a common finding in infants of DM. We could not find a relationship between the degree of metabolic control during pregnancy and the incidence and severity of ASH.

  10. Newborn Infants and the Moral Significance of Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    1999-01-01

    Presents moral philosophical arguments regarding life-saving medical treatment that may be more available to infants without disabilities than to infants with intellectual disabilities. Argues that human well-being is not based merely on individual characteristics, but is a result of the individual's relation to other people. (Author/CR)

  11. Newborn Infants' Memory for Speech Sounds Retained over 24 Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Irina U.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Neonates who were exposed to the same or different words on two consecutive days habituated to the sound on day one and recovered head turning on day two. Infants who heard the same word again on day two responded less well than infants exposed to the word for the first time on day two. (BC)

  12. [The Amben correction of disorders in the intestinal microbial colonization of newborn infants with perinatal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakushenko, M N; Tkhagapsoeva, Zh A; Bondarenko, V M

    1998-01-01

    The examination of 49 newborn infants revealed that at the early neonatal period the character of the microbial colonization of the intestine depended on the kind of perinatal pathology: in lesions of the central nervous system and conjugation jaundice the deficiency of Bifidobacterium and Escherichia was detected; in hemolytic disease opportunistic bacteria were dominant simultaneously with the deficiency of lactoflora. The study of these infants, divided into two groups differing in the administration of Amben (an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes), showed the efficiency of Amben which stimulated the growth and development of resident microflora in the intestine, thus contributing to the maintenance of eubiosis in a given group of infants with perinatal pathology.

  13. [A mobile reanimation model (reanimationmobile) for initial newborn infant care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, N; Hansmann, M; Niesen, M

    1976-12-01

    A mobile unit for reanimation of the newborn is reported to be used alternatively in the deliveryroom or in the surgical tract. The following adventages are achieved: a large working plate easily accessible from three sides, a complete and variable instrumentation, an efficent warmth supply and the possibility for easy cleaning and desinfection.

  14. Biochemical characteristics of "young" and "old" erythrocytes of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komazawa, M; Oski, F A

    1975-07-01

    Cord blood samples from ten term infants were fractionated into populations of young and old erythrocytes and compared with cells prepared in a similar fashion from eight normal adults. The old cell fraction from the newborn infants had very low phosphofructokinase activity and did not display the usual decline of activity of the enzymes phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase. In addition, the old cells from the newborn infants demonstrated impaired glucose consumption, which, upon analysis of the pattern of glycolytic intermediates, appeared to be a result of the phosphofructokinase deficiency. These findings suggest that cells produced earlier in gestation possess the developmental characteristics of fetal blood to a more significant degree and that these biochemical alterations may produce functional impairment.

  15. [Late hemorrhagic disease in newborn infants. Is the current preventive treatment with oral vitamin K adequate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K N; Tegllund, L; Lange, A; Ebbesen, F

    1992-04-13

    During recent years, we have observed two cases of haemorrhage due to vitamin K deficiency which developed late in the neonatal period. One patient was a female infant aged six weeks with severe intracranial bleeding and the other was a female infant aged three weeks with marked haemorrhage from the umbilicus. Both of these infants were entirely breast-fed and had received vitamin K (1 mg fytomenadion) orally at birth. Both infants had unrecognized alfa-1-antitrypsin deficiency with liver involvement. In other European countries, many cases of late haemorrhagic disease of the newborn due to vitamin K deficiency have been registered in infants who had received oral vitamin K prophylaxis. On the basis of these observations and investigations which suggest that oral vitamin K prophylaxis is not so effective as intramuscular administration, it is suggested that the present oral vitamin K prophylaxis should be altered.

  16. INTESTINAL COLIC IN NEWBORNS AND INFANTS: FROM DIAGNOSTICS TO THE DIFFERENTIATED CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional disorders of digestion are the most widespread disturbances of adaptation in infants. The article presents classification of colic in newborns and infants, characterizes their etiology and pathogenesis depending on maturity of a child, presence of perinatal pathology, defects of nursing and nutrition. Authors describe main principles of intestinal colic correction including diet and medicamental treatment in infants. «Mild» drugs (herbal therapy have some advantages in treatment of colic. The results of an observation of 47 mature and premature infants treated with Plantex are presented.Key words: infants, intestinal colics, dietotherapy, herbal therapy.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 137–140

  17. Early neonatal hyperkalaemia in the extremely premature newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, G I; Carman, G; Arnold, J D

    1990-02-01

    The incidence of hyperkalaemia in 43 consecutive infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation and cared for in our neonatal intensive care unit was documented. Plasma K levels were related to indices of renal function as well as to the degree of illness in the infants. The mean gestational age was 26.0 weeks (range 24-27 weeks) and the mean birthweight was 815 g (range 395-1170 g). Twenty-six of the infants (60%) had at least one plasma K greater than 5.5 mmol/L and 13 (30%) had a maximum plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L. The mean postnatal age at which the plasma K exceeded 7 mmol/L was 25 h (range 10-39 h). Five infants with plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L developed cardiac arrhythmias and four died of this complication. Only one infant had a large intraventricular haemorrhage. Only two of 16 infants with an initial plasma K less than 5 mmol/L had a maximum plasma K greater than 7 mmol/L, compared with eight of 10 with an initial plasma K greater than 6 mmol/L (P less than 0.005). Plasma K also correlated directly with plasma urea (P less than 0.001) and plasma creatinine (P less than 0.025), and inversely with urine volume (P less than 0.05). Plasma K did not correlate with K intake, arterial pH, presence of asphyxia, severity of respiratory illness, gestation or birthweight. The rapidity with which the plasma K concentration reached potentially hazardous levels in some infants makes it imperative to measure plasma K within 6 h of birth and to continue to monitor levels at least every 6 h for the first 48 h in all infants born at less than 28 weeks gestation.

  18. [The newborn infant of a mother with tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicino, R; Bressan, K; Bedetta, M

    2010-06-01

    TBC is a major infectious emergency in the world. OMS suggest that there are 8 millions of affected every year and 2 millions of deaths. Italy is considered a country with low prevalence, but the increase of the immigration from Africa Asia and Est Europa (country with high risk) imposes attention to the problem. The delivery is a critical moment to investigate people at risk of disease. The infection of the newborn can happen intrauterine or in the expulsive period, but is possible also at home, from somebody affected by an active pulmonary disease. Diagnosis in the newborn is not easy for the aspecificity of clinical signs and for the frequent initial negativeness of Mantoux test. Culture of placenta, gastric aspirate, tracheal secretions, urine would be requested, cerebrospinal fluid if necessary. Neonatal disease needs therapy with isoniazide, rifampicine, pirazinamide and, or ethambutol, or streptomycin. Profilaxis of a newborn from a woman affected by an active form of tuberculosis or living with people affected by an active pulmonary form consists in giving isoniazide until diagnostic tests are negative and in removing the sicks (only with pulmonary disease). New dangerous kinds of pharmacological multiresistent tuberculosis are appeared in the last years in the world and, with the coinfection HIV-TBC and the reorganization of the surveillance system, represents the major obligation for the next years.

  19. [RV polymorphism of the chromosomes in newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachunova, M; Tsancheva, M; Lozanova, T

    1980-01-01

    The authors examined the routine variants (RV) of the karyotype of 100 clinically healthy newborns--49 girls and 51 boys. Secondary constriction of the long arm of one of the homologues of the chromosome I was found in 2% of the newborns; of the chromosome 9--in 4% of the chromosome 16--in 3%. Secondary constriction in both homologues was observed in the chromosome I in 1%; in the chromosome 9--in 1% and in the chromosome 16--4%. Secondary constriction of the short arm of both homologues was found only in the chromosome 16 in 3%. The large acrocentric chromosomes showed extended proximal area (p5) in 34%, but diminished (pI)--in 8%. The small acrocentrics with p5 were found in 14% of the newborns, but with pI--in 7%. Enlarged satelites were observed in 1% in the both groups of acrocentrics. Difference between the homologues in respect to the short arms was observed in 32,3% of the pairs of the great acrocentrics and in 47,5% of the small acrocentrics. Distribution of the Y chromosome according to the size in 51 boys was of Gaus character q1--0%, q2--29,4%, q3--33,3%, q4--25,5% and q5--11,7%. It is possible that Y chromosome with a size of q1 could be connected with definite pathology.

  20. [Prematurity risk according to prematurity risk score and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coradello, H; Lubec, G; Simbruner, G

    1981-02-01

    Risk of premature birth was evaluated retrospectively in 610 women in the first days after delivery using the prematurity risk score published by Thalhammer 1973. The calculated risk of premature birth was compared than prospectively to postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants as determined by duration of hospital stay, incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, need of artificial ventilation and mortality. A positive correlation could be found between risk of premature birth and postpartal morbidity of the newborn infants especially in small premature infants with birthweights of 2000 grams and less. The same correlation existed also in two groups of infants out of two different obstetric clinics which showed the same distribution of prenatal risks and the same prenatal care frequencies. It clearly becomes evident that infants with the same prenatal risks but good prenatal care during pregnancy had much lower hospital stays, lower respiratory distress frequencies and lower mortality rates than babies delivered from pregnancies badly cared for. These prenatal care related differences in postpartum morbidity again were much more evident in infants out of lower birth weight classes.

  1. [Clinical effect of latamoxef on newborn and premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, M; Oka, T; Yoshioka, H; Tsuchida, A; Sanae, N; Maruyama, S

    1983-09-01

    Eleven infants ranging 2 days to 3 months of age were studied for clinical evaluation. Ten of them were diagnosed as sepsis or suspected to be septic. Another one contracted umbilical infection. In 7 of 10 cases, causative bacteria were detected by blood culture, that is S. epidermidis in 3 cases, E. cloacae in 2 cases, K. pneumoniae in 1 case and A. calcoaceticus in another. Those infants were treated by parenteral LMOX. Dosage was 30 to 75 mg/kg per day. Clinical results were excellent in 6 cases (3 cases of S. epidermidis, 2 of E. cloacae and 1 of K. pneumoniae) and good in another case (A. calcoaceticus). The other 3 infants clinically diagnosed as sepsis but not proven by blood culture were also treated successfully. The result of the umbilical infection in 1 case was good. Another group of 5 infants ranging 4 to 22 days of age were also treated by LMOX because of suspected bacterial infections. With these infants pharmacokinetic study was done. Peak serum levels after 1 hour drip infusion of 20 mg/kg ranged from 43 to 53 micrograms/ml. Average of half-lives was 2.7 hours. Estimation of distribution volume resulted in 350 to 523 ml/kg body weight.

  2. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2014-01-01

    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  3. Lipid infusion and intravenous access in newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique Haumont

    2010-01-01

    @@ The spectacular development of neonatal intensive care since the 1960s allowed a drop in neonatal mortality of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from 50% to less than 15% in the last decade.1 However 15% to 25% of the VLBW infants will present neurodevelopment impairment in the following fields: motor function,vision, auditory function, cognition, behaviour, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, visual-motor integration and language.2,3 Compared to their term pairs there is substantial scientific evidence of altered early brain development.

  4. NONIMMUNE HYDROPS-FETALIS AND BILATERAL PULMONARY HYPOPLASIA IN A NEWBORN-INFANT WITH EXTRALOBAR PULMONARY SEQUESTRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUS, F; NIKKELS, PGJ; VANLOON, AJ; OKKEN, A

    Extralobar pulmonary sequestration was found in a newborn premature infant that presented with non-immune hydrops fetalis, massive bilateral hydrothorax and polyhydramnios in utero. The baby died of severe respiratory insufficiency 15 h after birth. Postmortem examination revealed distended

  5. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallionpaa, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Oling, Viveka; Harkonen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Ilonen, Jorma; Landesmaki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Ryhanen, Samppa; Siljander, Heli; Hamalainen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svettana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyoty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Korhonen, Tuuli; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood

  6. An Investigation of the Mortality Rate and Risk Factors in Newborn Infants With Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabzehei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the serious challenges facing neonatal medicine is meconium aspiration syndrome, delays in the treatment of which can lead to high mortality. Objectives This study was designed and conducted with the aim of determining the mortality rate and risk factors affecting this rate in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective descriptive research on newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome hospitalized at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Fatemieh and Be’sat hospitals in Hamadan city during a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Demographic information of the mother and the newborn, hospitalization course, the need for mechanical ventilation, and complications and outcomes of disease were extracted and were analyzed using the SPSS software version 22. Results Sixty-three newborn infants, diagnosed with meconium aspiration syndrome, were entered in this study, 40% of them were male, 85.7% wighed more than 2500 g, and 17.5% were post term, 25.3% had a five-minute Apgar Score (AS5min of less than seven, 39.6% were nonvigorous at birth, 31.8% needed to be placed on mechanical ventilation, and 14.3% died during the hospitalization course. There was a significant relationship between the need for mechanical ventilation, nonvigorous state at the birth, complications of disease and mortality rate. Conclusions Despite the progress made in medicine, meconium aspiration syndrome is still one of the causes of newborn infants’ mortality. The mortality and morbidity rates can be reduced by improvement in perinatal care, prevention of post term delivery, timely caesarean and effective neonatal resuscitation at birth.

  7. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

  8. Blood immunological parameters upon hypoxic-ischemic injuries of central nervous system in newborns and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulomjan Khalimbetov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies interrelation between immune system condition and circulating concentrations of neuropeptides and neuron-specific enolase (NSE upon perinatal pathology in newborns and infants. Reactivity of cytokine and interleukin links of immune systems was found varying in newborns and infants with CNS hypoxic-ischemic pathology, accompanied by psychomotor retardation, a psycho-speech disorder, emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD and paroxysmal syndrome. At admission irrespectively of a syndrome type in the patients with CNS hypoxic-ischemic pathology, as compared with the patients in the control group, circulating TNF-α and IL-1 were found increased by 3.4-4.1 and 6.4-7.9 times, respectively. Release of S100 protein and NSE seems to be the underlying mechanism for enhancement of synthesis and/or release of TNF-α and IL-1 into circulation of patients with CNS hypoxic-ischemic pathology.

  9. L-citrulline provides a novel strategy for treating chronic pulmonary hypertension in newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Candice D.; Summar, Marshall; Aschner, Judy L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective therapies are urgently needed for infants with forms of pulmonary hypertension that develop or persist beyond the first week of life. The L-arginine nitric oxide (NO) precursor, L-citrulline, improves NO signalling and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension in newborn animal models. In vitro studies demonstrate that manipulating L-citrulline transport alters NO production. Conclusion Strategies that increase the supply and transport of L-citrulline merit pursuit as novel approaches to managing infants with chronic, progressive pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24862864

  10. Overlap of clinical features of Smith-Magenis & Down Syndrome in newborns and infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, K.A.; Finucane, B.M.; Bauer, M.S. [Integrated Genetics, West Paterson, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) frequently goes unrecognized in newborns and infants as these patients do not yet demonstrate the characteristic behavioral phenotype and may only present with developmental delay and physical dysmorphism. Six of Hall`s ten cardinal features of trisomy 21 in the newborn are also frequently found in newborns with SMS, leading to an early presumptive diagnosis of DS in many of these patients. CASE No. 1: Based on clinical findings, a presumptive diagnosis of DS was given to the patient in the newborn period. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood revealed a normal 46,XX karyotype. Given this result, the possibility of mosaic DS was raised, and a skin fibroblast study done. Again, the karyotype was reported as normal. Clinical features and cytogenetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of SMS when the patient was 8 years old. CASE No. 2: A presumptive diagnosis of DS was made in an infant with hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and congenital heart defects. A routine chromosome analysis was ordered, which revealed a 46,XY,del(17)(p11.2p11.2) karyotype. Indeed, approximately 38% of blood samples referred to our laboratory to rule out DS in an infant failed to demonstrate trisomy for chromosome 21. Given the high degree of clinical overlap with Down Syndrome, the diagnosis of SMS should be considered in all such patients. Additional analysis should be done to look for deletion 17p11.2 when faced with a {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} karyotype in an infant referred to rule out DS.

  11. Intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage and remote soft tissue arteriovenous malformation in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Grow, Jennifer L; Faix, Roger G

    2002-12-01

    Congenital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) often present with congestive heart failure. Such pathologic vascular structures typically occur in cranial, hepatic, or pulmonary locations and are usually associated with overlying external visible, tactile, or audible abnormalities. These vascular anomalies may also be associated with such complications as thromboembolic events, coagulopathy, and localized hemorrhage. We present a newborn infant with an occult but hemodynamically significant parascapular AVM who presented with an intraparenchymal brain hemorrhage, which we suspect to be a remote complication of the AVM.

  12. Dual role of cerebral blood flow in regional brain temperature control in the healthy newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Sachiko; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Takashima, Sachio; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Robertson, Nicola J; Iwata, Osuke

    2014-10-01

    Small shifts in brain temperature after hypoxia-ischaemia affect cell viability. The main determinants of brain temperature are cerebral metabolism, which contributes to local heat production, and brain perfusion, which removes heat. However, few studies have addressed the effect of cerebral metabolism and perfusion on regional brain temperature in human neonates because of the lack of non-invasive cot-side monitors. This study aimed (i) to determine non-invasive monitoring tools of cerebral metabolism and perfusion by combining near-infrared spectroscopy and echocardiography, and (ii) to investigate the dependence of brain temperature on cerebral metabolism and perfusion in unsedated newborn infants. Thirty-two healthy newborn infants were recruited. They were studied with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, echocardiography, and a zero-heat flux tissue thermometer. A surrogate of cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured using superior vena cava flow adjusted for cerebral volume (rSVC flow). The tissue oxygenation index, fractional oxygen extraction (FOE), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen relative to rSVC flow (CMRO₂ index) were also estimated. A greater rSVC flow was positively associated with higher brain temperatures, particularly for superficial structures. The CMRO₂ index and rSVC flow were positively coupled. However, brain temperature was independent of FOE and the CMRO₂ index. A cooler ambient temperature was associated with a greater temperature gradient between the scalp surface and the body core. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and perfusion were monitored in newborn infants without using tracers. In these healthy newborn infants, cerebral perfusion and ambient temperature were significant independent variables of brain temperature. CBF has primarily been associated with heat removal from the brain. However, our results suggest that CBF is likely to deliver heat specifically to the superficial brain. Further studies are required to assess the

  13. Multiple arterial anomalies in the newborn infant. Echocardiographic and angiographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Romero Rivera

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple arterial anomalies characterized by tortuosity and rolling of the pulmonary arteries and aorta were diagnosed on echocardiography in an asymptomatic newborn infant with a phenotype suggesting Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. These changes were later confirmed on angiography, which also showed peripheral vascular abnormalities. The electrocardiogram showed a probable hemiblock of the left anterosuperior branch, and the chest x-ray showed an excavated pulmonary trunk with normal pulmonary flow.

  14. Influence of repeated painful procedures and sucrose analgesia on the development of hyperalgesia in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Shah, Vibhuti; Atenafu, Eshetu; Katz, Joel

    2009-07-01

    This study determined the effects of cumulative exposure to painful needle procedures and sucrose analgesia on the development of remote hyperalgesia in newborn infants, defined as an increase in response to a normally painful stimulus at a site distal from the site of injury. One-hundred and twenty healthy newborns and 120 healthy newborn infants of diabetic mothers equally randomized to sucrose analgesia or placebo prior to all needle procedures in the first two days after birth were divided into two exposure groups according to number of needle procedures they had undergone [high (> or =5) or low (pain response during a subsequent venipuncture distal to the site of previous injury, assessed by the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) [7.1 vs. 8.4; p=0.012] and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) [2.5 cm vs. 3.2 cm; p=0.047], and a trend for longer cry duration [25.7 s vs. 33.8 s; p=0.171]. PIPP scores did not differ during a routine diaper change, suggesting a nociceptive specific mechanism for the remote hyperalgesia to venipuncture. Sucrose reduced PIPP, VAS, and cry duration scores during venipuncture, but did not prevent hyperalgesia (p>0.05). There was a preponderance of infants of diabetic mothers in the high exposure group; however, the analysis did not demonstrate this to be a confounding factor. In conclusion, sucrose analgesia for repeated painful procedures in the first day of life does not prevent development of remote hyperalgesia in newborns.

  15. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis in the Newborn and Young Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adhikari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 250 000 women die during pregnancy, delivery, or postpartum. Maternal mortality rates due to tuberculosis (TB and HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa now supersede obstetric-related causes of mortality. The majority of cases occur in population-dense regions of Africa and Asia where TB is endemic. The vertical transmission rate of tuberculosis is 15%, the overall vertical transmission rate of HIV in resource-limited settings with mono- or dual-ARV therapy varies from 1.9% to 10.7%. If the millennium development goals are to be achieved, both HIV and TB must be prevented. The essential aspect of TB prevention and detection in the newborn is the maternal history and a positive HIV status in the mother. Perinatal outcomes are guarded even with treatment of both diseases. Exclusive breast feeding is recommended. The community and social impact are crippling. The social issues aggravate the prognosis of these two diseases.

  16. The role of surfactant treatment in preterm infants and term newborns with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbelauer, J; Speer, C P

    2009-05-01

    Surfactant treatment in preterm infants and term newborns with (acute respiratory distress syndrome) ARDS-like severe respiratory failure has become part of an individualized treatment strategy in many intensive care units around the world. These babies constitute heterogeneous groups of gestational ages, lung maturity, as well as of the underlying disease processes and postnatal interventions. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure in preterm infants is characterized by a combination of primary surfactant deficiency and surfactant inactivation as a result of plasma proteins leaking into the airways from areas of epithelial disruption and injury. Various pre- and postnatal factors, such as exposure to chorioamnionitis, pneumonia, sepsis and asphyxia, induce an injurious inflammatory response in the lungs of preterm infants, which may subsequently affect surfactant function, synthesis and alveolar stability. Surfactant inactivation--and dysfunction--is also a hallmark in newborns with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), pneumonia and other disorders affecting the pulmonary function. Although for the majority of suggested indications no data from randomized controlled trials exist, a surfactant replacement that counterbalances surfactant inactivation seems to improve oxygenation and lung function in many babies with ARDS without any apparent negative side effects. Newborns with MAS will definitely benefit from a reduced need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Clinical experience seems to justify surfactant treatment in neonates with ARDS.

  17. Soy Protein-Based Infant Formulas with Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides: Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Hydration Status in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lasekan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike milk-based infant formulas, soy-based infant formulas containing supplemental fructooligosaccharides (FOS have not been clinically evaluated. A randomized, double-blind, 28 day parallel feeding trial compared gastrointestinal (GI tolerance and hydration in healthy term newborn infants fed either a commercialized soy formula (with history of safe use containing sucrose as 20% of total carbohydrate, no supplemental short-chain FOS (scFOS and no mixed carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta-carotene as a control (CF, n = 62 infants or one of two experimental soy-based formulas, EF1 (n = 64 and EF2 (n = 62 containing scFOS (2.5 g/L and mixed carotenoids. EF1 differed from EF2 by containing sucrose. Results indicated no significant study group differences (p > 0.05 in study completion rates (CF = 81, EF1 = 86, & EF2 = 87%, growth, mean rank stool consistency, stool frequency, formula intake, spit-up/vomit, and safety measures (urine specific gravity, USG; hydration status and adverse events. Mean USGs for study groups were normal (<1.03. The EF1 > CF group in percent yellow stools (p < 0.01 at age 14 days. In conclusion, the study suggested that term infants fed soy-based formulas supplemented with scFOS and mixed carotenoids, with or without sucrose in the 1st 35 days of infancy demonstrated good tolerance and hydration comparable to the control soy-based formula with history of safe use.

  18. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35...

  19. Kinetics and dose calculations of ampicillin and gentamicin given as continuous intravenous infusion during parenteral nutrition in 88 newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Bentzon, M W

    1983-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were administered continuously intravenously to 88 newborn infants using individually calculated dosages. For infants with a mean value of plasma clearance of the antibiotics, it was calculated that the serum ampicillin and gentamicin concentrations would be between 35-5...

  20. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  1. Continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin and gentamicin during parenteral nutrition to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Møller, S; Andersen, G E

    1984-01-01

    Ampicillin and gentamicin were given continuously i.v. to 36 newborn infants using a dosage schedule and the results were compared with those obtained in an earlier study including 88 infants who received individually calculated dosages. With the dosage schedule the variation in the serum concent...

  2. Incidence, management and outcomes of cardiovascular insufficiency in critically ill term and late preterm newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Erika; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Faix, Roger G.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Osborne, Karen A.; Das, Abhik; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Shankaran, Seetha; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the incidence, management and short term outcomes of cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI) in mechanically ventilated newborns, evaluating 4 separate pre-specified definitions. Study Design Multicenter, prospective cohort study of infants ≥34 weeks gestational age (GA) and on mechanical ventilation during the first 72 hours. CVI was prospectively defined as either (1) mean arterial pressure (MAP) infants, 46% did not have CVI as defined by a MAP < GA ± signs of inadequate perfusion. Inotrope therapy was associated with increased mortality (11.1% vs. 1.3%; P < 0.05). Conclusion More than half of the infants met at least one definition of CVI. However, almost half of the treated infants met none of the definitions. Inotropic therapy was associated with increased mortality. These findings can help guide the design of future studies of CVI in newborns. PMID:24515617

  3. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Gutierrez Carvalho

    Full Text Available Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet.To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants.Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP.23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP.Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  4. Metabolism of methionine in the newborn infant: response to the parenteral and enteral administration of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Gruca, Lourdes L; Bennett, Carole; Parimi, Prabhu S; Hanson, Richard W; Kalhan, Satish C

    2008-10-01

    The rates of transmethylation and transsulfuration of methionine were quantified using [1-(13)C]methionine and [C2H3]methionine tracers in newborn infants born at term gestation and in prematurely born low birth weight infants. Whole body rate of protein breakdown was also measured using [2H5]phenylalanine. The response to enteral formula feeding and parenteral nutrition was examined in full term and prematurely born babies, respectively. The relative rates of appearance of methionine and phenylalanine were comparable to the amino acid composition of mixed body proteins. Rates of transmethylation were high, both in full term infants (fast 32 +/- 14 micromol kg(-1) x h(-1); fed 21.7 +/- 3.2) and in preterm infants (57.2 +/- 14.8). Significant flux through the transsulfuration pathway was evident (full term: fast 6.0 +/- 4.4, fed 4.1 +/- 2.1; preterm: 24.9 +/- 9.9 micromol kg(-1) x h(-1)). Transsulfuration of methionine is evident in the human newborn in the immediate neonatal period, suggesting that cysteine may not be considered a "conditionally" essential amino acid for the neonate. The high rate of transmethylation may reflect the high methylation demand, whereas high rates of transsulfuration in premature babies may be related to high demands for glutathione and to the amounts of methionine in parenteral amino acid mixtures.

  5. Newborn jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of life for babies sent home from the hospital in 72 hours Alternative Names Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin Patient Instructions Newborn jaundice - discharge Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor Images ...

  6. Estimation of tidal ventilation in preterm and term newborn infants using electromagnetic inductance plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E M; Pickerd, N; Eriksen, M; Øygarden, K; Kotecha, S

    2011-11-01

    Tidal volume (VT) measurements in newborn infants remain largely a research tool. Tidal ventilation and breathing pattern were measured using a new device, FloRight, which uses electromagnetic inductive plethysmography,and compared simultaneously with pneumotachography in 43 infants either receiving no respiratory support or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).Twenty-three infants were receiving CPAP (gestational age 28 ± 2 weeks, mean ± SD) and 20 were breathing spontaneously (gestational age 34 ± 4 weeks). The two methods were in reasonable agreement, with VT (r2 = 0.69) ranging from 5 to 23 ml (4–11 ml kg−1) with a mean difference of 0.4 ml and limit of agreement of −4.7 to + 5.5 ml. For respiratory rate, minute ventilation,peak flow and breathing pattern indices, the mean difference between the two methods ranged between 0.7% and 5.8%. The facemask increased the respiratory rate (P < 0.001) in both groups with the change in VT being more pronounced in the infants receiving no respiratory support. Thus, FloRight provides an easy to use technique to measure term and preterm infants in the clinical environment without altering the infant's breathing pattern.

  7. Gastric emptying patterns of a liquid meal in newborn infants, measured by epigastric impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Aksel; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Thommesen, Peter

    1997-01-01

      Epigastric impedance was used to measure patterns of the gastric emptying of a liquid non-caloric meal (5 ml water/kg) in newborn infants. The emptying patterns consisted of two components, theemptying signal - the DC component - and a phasic 3 cycle per minutes (CPM) signal - the AC component....... Phasic 3 CPM signal was also seen during the fasting state. Measurements were erformed in thirty healthy infants. Twenty-six mature infants were examined in the first eight days of life, and four preterm infants were examined within 6 weeks after birth. For the emptying signal the median half emptying.......A periodic change of the impedance signal, the phasic 3 CPM signal, was observed after a meal in 24 of the infants. The median frequency was 3.03 CPM in 20 mature and 2.93 CPM in 4 preterminfants. In 9 infants a phasic 3 CPM signal was observed during fasting state. The median frequency was 2.9 CPM...

  8. Gastric emptying patterns of a liquid meal in newborn infants, measured by epigastric impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Aksel; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Thommesen, Peter;

    1997-01-01

      Epigastric impedance was used to measure patterns of the gastric emptying of a liquid non-caloric meal (5 ml water/kg) in newborn infants. The emptying patterns consisted of two components, theemptying signal - the DC component - and a phasic 3 cycle per minutes (CPM) signal - the AC component....... Phasic 3 CPM signal was also seen during the fasting state. Measurements were erformed in thirty healthy infants. Twenty-six mature infants were examined in the first eight days of life, and four preterm infants were examined within 6 weeks after birth. For the emptying signal the median half emptying.......A periodic change of the impedance signal, the phasic 3 CPM signal, was observed after a meal in 24 of the infants. The median frequency was 3.03 CPM in 20 mature and 2.93 CPM in 4 preterminfants. In 9 infants a phasic 3 CPM signal was observed during fasting state. The median frequency was 2.9 CPM...

  9. Bioavailability of cadmium from infant diets in newborn rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, G.; Oskarsson, A. [Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Petersson Grawe, K. [Toxicology Div., National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    Infants are exposed to higher levels of cadmium (Cd) from infant and follow-on formulas than from breast milk. We studied the bioavailability of {sup 109}CdCl{sub 2} from cows' milk formula, soy formula, wheat/oat/milk formula, wholemeal/milk formula and water in 11-day-old rat pups. The pups received a single oral dose of one diet labelled with {sup 109}Cd, 0.1 or 0.3 mg Cd/kg body weight. After 2 or 24 h or 4, 9 or 12 days the fractional retention of {sup 109}Cd in the whole body, in segments of rinsed small intestine and in tissue was measured in a gamma counter. Pups receiving {sup 109}Cd in water or cows' milk formula had the highest mean whole-body retention. It ranged from 67% of the dose in the water group to 52% in the wholemeal/milk formula group 4 days after dosing. The retention of {sup 109}Cd in the rinsed small intestine was significantly higher in the water group and the cows' milk formula group than in the cereal-based formula groups at 24 h and 4 days after dosing. It was still high in all groups on day 9, ranging from 26 to 11%. Initially most of the {sup 109}Cd was retained in the duodenum but by day 4 it had moved further down into the jejunum. In the liver, the highest and lowest retention on day 4 was 16 permille and 3 permille of the dose in the water group and wholemeal/milk formula group, respectively. In the kidney, {sup 109}Cd was still increasing 12 days after exposure in all groups. Whole-body retention and tissue levels were higher than previously reported in adult animals. The lower bioavailability of {sup 109}Cd from the cereal-based formulas compared to water and cows' milk formula on the longer survival times is most likely explained by Cd binding to dietary fibre and phytic acid in the cereal-based formulas reducing the intestinal binding and decreasing the bioavailability of Cd. The high retention of {sup 109}Cd in the small intestine, leading to a prolonged absorption period, emphasizes the importance of

  10. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Bonnie; Yamada, Janet; Ohlsson, Arne; Haliburton, Sarah; Shorkey, Allyson

    2016-07-16

    heterogeneity by the I(2) test. We assessed the risk of bias of included trials using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system. Seventy-four studies enrolling 7049 infants were included. Results from only a few studies could be combined in meta-analyses and for most analyses the GRADE assessments indicated low- or moderate-quality evidence. There was high-quality evidence for the beneficial effect of sucrose (24%) with non-nutritive sucking (pacifier dipped in sucrose) or 0.5 mL of sucrose orally in preterm and term infants: Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) 30 s after heel lance WMD -1.70 (95% CI -2.13 to -1.26; I(2) = 0% (no heterogeneity); 3 studies, n = 278); PIPP 60 s after heel lance WMD -2.14 (95% CI -3.34 to -0.94; I(2) = 0% (no heterogeneity; 2 studies, n = 164). There was high-quality evidence for the use of 2 mL 24% sucrose prior to venipuncture: PIPP during venipuncture WMD -2.79 (95% CI -3.76 to -1.83; I(2) = 0% (no heterogeneity; 2 groups in 1 study, n = 213); and intramuscular injections: PIPP during intramuscular injection WMD -1.05 (95% CI -1.98 to -0.12; I(2) = 0% (2 groups in 1 study, n = 232). Evidence from studies that could not be included in RevMan-analyses supported these findings. Reported adverse effects were minor and similar in the sucrose and control groups. Sucrose is not effective in reducing pain from circumcision. The effectiveness of sucrose for reducing pain/stress from other interventions such as arterial puncture, subcutaneous injection, insertion of nasogastric or orogastric tubes, bladder catherization, eye examinations and echocardiography examinations are inconclusive. Most trials indicated some benefit of sucrose use but that the evidence for other painful procedures is of lower quality as it is based on few studies of small sample sizes. The effects of sucrose on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are unknown. Sucrose is effective for reducing procedural pain from single

  11. The effect of massage on neonatal jaundice in stable preterm newborn infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri-Moghadam, Mahdi; Basiri-Moghadam, Kokab; Kianmehr, Mojtaba; Jani, Somaye

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of massage therapy on transcutaneous bilirubin of stable preterm infants. The controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2014 at Shahid Hasheminejhad Hospital, Iran, and comprised preterm neonatal children in the neonatal intensive care unit. The newborns were divided into two groups of massage and control via random allocation. The children in the control group received the routine therapy whereas those in the massage group underwent the same four days of routine plus 20 minutes of massage twice a day. The transcutaneous bilirubin and the number of excretions of the newborns were noted from the first to the fourth day of the intervention and results were compared between the two groups. There were 40 newborns in the study l 20(50%) each in the two groups. There was a significant difference in the number of times of defecation (p=0.002) and in the level of bilirubin (p=0.003) between the groups with those in the massage group having a higher number of defecations as well as a lower level of transcutaneous bilirubin. Through massage therapy the bilirubin level in preterm newborns can be controlled and a need for phototherapy can also be delayed.

  12. Transplant Tolerance Induction in Newborn Infants: Mechanisms, Advantages, and Potential Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua; Gazarian, Aram; Dubernard, Jean-Michel; Belot, Alexandre; Michallet, Marie-Cécile; Michallet, Mauricette

    2016-01-01

    Although several tolerance induction protocols have been successfully implemented in adult renal transplantation, no tolerance induction approach has, as yet, been defined for solid organ transplantations in young infants. Pediatric transplant recipients have a pressing demand for the elaboration of tolerance induction regimens. Indeed, since they display a longer survival time, they are exposed to a higher level of risks linked to long-term immunosuppression (IS) and to chronic rejection. Interestingly, central tolerance induction may be of great interest in newborns, because of their immunological immaturity and the important role of the thymus at this early stage in life. The present review aims to clarify mechanisms and strategies of tolerance induction in these immunologically premature recipients. We first introduce the discovery and mechanisms of neonatal tolerance in murine experimental models and subsequently analyze tolerance induction in human newborn infants. Hematopoietic mixed chimerism in neonates is also discussed based on in utero hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant studies. Then, we review the recent advances in tolerance induction approaches in adults, including the infusion of HSCs associated with less toxic conditioning regimens, regulatory T cells/facilitating cells/mesenchymal stem cells transplantation, costimulatory blockade, and thymus manipulation. Finally, IS withdrawal in pediatric solid organ transplant is discussed. In conclusion, the establishment of transplant tolerance induction in infants is promising and deserves further investigations. Future studies could focus on the selection of patients, on less toxic conditioning regimens, and on biomarkers for IS minimization or withdrawal. PMID:27092138

  13. Definitions of cardiovascular insufficiency and relation to outcomes in critically ill newborn infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Erika; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Faix, Roger G.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Osborne, Karen A.; Das, Abhik; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Shankaran, Seetha; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously reported on the overall incidence, management and outcomes in infants with cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI). However, there are limited data on the relationship of the specific different definitions of CVI to short term outcomes in term and late preterm newborn infants. Objective To evaluate how 4 definitions of CVI relate to short term outcomes and death. Study Design The previously reported study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 647 infants ≥ 34 weeks gestation admitted to a Neonatal Research Network (NRN) newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and mechanically ventilated (MV) during their first 72 hours. The relationship of five short term outcomes at discharge and 4 different definitions of CVI were further analyzed. Results All 4 definitions were associated with greater number of days on MV & days on O2. The definition using a threshold blood pressure (BP) measurement alone was not associated with days to full feeding, days in the NICU or death. The definition based on treatment of CVI was associated with all outcomes including death. Conclusions The definition using a threshold BP alone was not consistently associated with adverse short term outcomes. Using only a threshold BP to determine therapy may not improve outcomes. PMID:25825962

  14. Skinfold thickness of preterm newborns when they become late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Meral; Ergenekon, Ebru; Beken, Serdar; Kulalı, Ferit; Unal, Sezin; Kazancı, Ebru; Aktas, Selma; Altuntas, Nilgun; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim; Turkyılmaz, Canan; Koç, Esin; Atalay, Yıldız

    2015-04-01

    Nutrition of very low-birth-weight newborns is important for a good physical and neurologic outcome. Body composition assessment, together with anthropometric measurements, is considered necessary to monitor adequate nutrition and growth. Objectives of this study were to assess body fat changes in newborns ≤32 weeks gestation by weekly skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements and to compare them with those of late preterm infants born at 34, 35, and 36 weeks once they reached 34, 35, and 36 weeks corrected age (CA). Preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestation had SFT measured from 4 body sites, including biceps, triceps, and subscapulary and suprailiac regions, by a Holtain caliper starting from 48 hours of age at weekly intervals until 34, 35, and 36 weeks CA. The measurements were compared with those of late preterm controls born at 34, 35, and 36 weeks gestation. There were 37 preterm infants in the patient group. When reaching 34, 35, and 36 weeks CA, preterm infants had higher SFT values compared with controls in all body sites. Median and range of total SFT were 14.6 mm (9.6-18.9 mm) in patients and 11 mm (7.8-16.4 mm) in controls at 34 weeks CA, 15.5 mm (10.7-21.8 mm) in patients and 12.3 mm (7-17 mm) in controls at 35 weeks CA, and 16.4 mm (11.8-23.7 mm) in patients and 12.9 mm (7-17.8 mm) in controls at 36 weeks CA (P = .001 in all). No sex difference was observed at 34 and 35 weeks. These results show that preterm infants start accumulating excess fat even from early weeks of life. Careful assessment of growth by tools other than simple anthropometric measurements is essential to avoid future complications. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Results of ultrasound screening of the hips in newborns and infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džoleva-Tolevska Roza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the results of ultrasound screening of the hips in newborns and infants and to establish the importance of ultrasonography in early diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hips (DDH. Material and Methods: In 2010, at the Clinic for orthopedic surgery in Skopje, 6333 newborns and infants were examined. They were classified in 2 groups: first group consisted of patients with normal ultrasound findings and second group consisted of patients with DDH on ultrasound finding. Patients underwent clinical examination and ultrasonography of the hips. Results: We examined 6333 newborns and infants up to 6 months of age. 3213 were female and 3120 were male. In the first group there were 5932 (93.67% patients with normal ultrasound of the hip-Graf Type 1. In the second group there were 401 (6.33% patients with DDH on ultrasound. The patients of the second group were divided in 3 types according to Graf method. Graf Type 2-Patients with dysplasia 378 (5.97% subdivided in 2a- 260 (4.11% patients, 2b 85 (1.34% patients and 2c 33 (0.52% patients. Graf Type 3 - Patients with subluxation of the hip 9 (0.1%, subdivided in 3a 3 (0.05% patients and 3b 3 (0.5% patients. Graf Type 4 -Patients with luxation of the hip 17 (0.27% patients. 124 patients (30.5% with DDH had an associated risk factors (65 patients with positive family history, 48 patients with breech delivery and 11 patients with clubfoot deformity. 387 patients with dysplasia and subluxation of the hips were treated with abduction brace and Pavlik harness. 17 patients with luxation of the hips were treated with exercises and overhead traction of the muscles, close reduction of the hip placed in spica cast or open reduction. Conclusion: Ultrasound screening of hips in newborns and infants is important for early diagnosis of DDH. This is necessary for adequate treatments. If this disease is not treated properly it gives long term morbidity such as gait

  16. Congenital heart anomaly in newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, R; Javadian, P; Kailin, J A; Maskatia, S A; Shamshirsaz, A A; Cass, D L; Zamora, I J; Sangi-Haghpeykar, H; Lee, T C; Ayres, N A; Mehollin-Ray, A; Cassady, C I; Fernandes, C; Welty, S; Belfort, M A; Olutoye, O O

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of the presence of a congenital heart anomaly (CHA) and its potential contribution to morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In this retrospective cohort study, prenatal and postnatal data of all newborns diagnosed with CDH between January 2004 and December 2012 in a single center were reviewed. Cases were classified into two groups: those with 'isolated' CDH and those with both CDH and CHA. Patients with CHA were further subclassified into those with a major or minor CHA based on the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 (RACHS-1), and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery (STS-EACTS) scoring systems. Patients with associated non-cardiac anomalies, including 'syndromic cases', were excluded from the analysis. Primary and secondary outcomes were survival up to 1 year of age and a need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), respectively. Of the 180 infants with CDH, 41 were excluded because of the presence of non-cardiac associated anomalies, 118 had isolated CDH and 21 had CDH with CHA (16 with minor and five with major CHA). Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis demonstrated that the best cut-off for survival was when the score for CHA was ≤ 2 for both RACHS-1 (area under the curve (AUC), 0.74 (P = 0.04); sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 87.5%) and STS-EACTS (AUC, 0.83 (P = 0.03); sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 87.5%). Survival rate at 1 year was significantly lower in those with CHD and a major CHA (40.0%; P = 0.04) than in those with isolated CDH (77.1%) and those with CDH and a minor CHA (81.3%). We found no significant differences among the groups with regard to the need for ECMO. In general, a milder form of CHA does not appear to have a negative impact on the survival of infants with CDH. However, mortality appears to be significantly higher in infants with CDH and a major form of CHA. The scoring systems

  17. Dynamics of gut colonization and source of intestinal flora in healthy newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiainen, Terhi; Ylitalo, Samuli; Eerola, Erkki; Uhari, Matti

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the dynamics of gut colonization and the main source of intestinal bacterial flora in infancy in a quantitative manner using computerized analysis of bacterial cellular fatty acid (CFA) profiles. Each stool was collected from 10 healthy newborn infants during their first 2-7 days of life and a follow-up sample at 6 months of age. Stool samples were collected from mothers and nurses for comparison. Gas-liquid chromatography of the 159 stool samples was used to produce bacterial cellular fatty acid (CFA) profiles by means of a previously developed computerized program. The CFA profiles for the infants fluctuated from hour to hour during the first days of life and resembled those for both the mothers and the nurses, doing so all the more in the case of the five infants examined 6 months after birth. Gut colonization fluctuated markedly from hour to hour in the perinatal period. The effect of the maternal flora on the initial gut colonization may be less than expected as the fecal flora of infants started to resemble both the fecal flora of the mother as well as that of the first nurse.

  18. Withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment for newborn infants from a Christian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Joynt, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The more vulnerable a person, of whatever age, therefore, the more there must be a presumption in favour of life; and care must be offered with particular respect and dignity, and in the best interests of the infant her/himself, not in those of others. The principles, that guide Christians in making ethical healthcare decisions, were derived from two core Christian beliefs: that all human beings, of whatever age, are "made in the image of God"--so human beings have a distinctive dignity and value, and may not be treated as possessions or commodities; and that we are therefore made to live relationally--so communal, as well as individual, perspectives ought to be considered in ethical decision-making. The article then notes and explores three areas in which it may not be in the infant's best interests for life-sustaining treatment to continue or to be initiated, noting the complexity of "quality of life" questions, and the danger of considering others' quality of life over that of the infant. So, to safeguard the vulnerable, the threshold for acceptable "quality of life" needs to be set at a "low" level; and a distinction should be drawn, in considering withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, between medical intervention and "assisted-care" - so that there are very limited circumstances in which life-sustaining treatments ought to be withheld or withdrawn from newborn infants.

  19. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the respiratory care of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diblasi, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a noninvasive form of respiratory assistance that has been used to support spontaneously breathing infants with lung disease for nearly 40 years. Following reports that mechanical ventilation contributes to pulmonary growth arrest and the development of chronic lung disease, there is a renewed interest in using CPAP as the prevailing method for supporting newborn infants. Animal and human research has shown that CPAP is less injurious to the lungs than is mechanical ventilation. The major concepts that embrace lung protection during CPAP are the application of spontaneous breathing at a constant distending pressure and avoidance of intubation and positive-pressure inflations. A major topic for current research focuses on whether premature infants should be supported initially with CPAP following delivery, or after the infant has been extubated following prophylactic surfactant administration. Clinical trials have shown that CPAP reduces the need for intubation/mechanical ventilation and surfactant administration, but it is still unclear whether CPAP reduces chronic lung disease and mortality, compared to modern lung-protective ventilation techniques. Despite the successes, little is known about how best to manage patients using CPAP. It is also unclear whether different strategies or devices used to maintain CPAP play a role in improving outcomes in infants. Nasal CPAP technology has evolved over the last 10 years, and bench and clinical research has evaluated differences in physiologic effects related to these new devices. Ultimately, clinicians' abilities to perceive changes in the pathophysiologic conditions of infants receiving CPAP and the quality of airway care provided are likely to be the most influential factors in determining patient outcomes.

  20. Sonographic evaluation of cerebral development of the newborn infant: A correlation study with postconceptional age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Jee Young; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye [Gachon Medical School, Gil Medical Center, Gachon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-15

    To ascertain the sonographic changes of cerebral development in the newborn infant according to the postconceptional age and to assess the sonographic predictability of postconceptional age. Retrospectively, 251 consecutive normal brain sonograms were analyzed. The postconceptional age of the newborn infant ranged from 26 to 44 weeks (male: 123, female: 128). We made a score with sonographic patterns of the sylvian fissure, the sulcal development, the echogenecity of periventricular white matter (PVWM), and cortex-subcortex (C-SC) differentiation. The scoring systems were as followed; Open Y-shape (a point) and close Y-shape (two points) of the sylvain fissure; Lissencephalic pattern (a point), intermediate pattern (two points), and mature form (three points) of the sulcus: Discrete increased echogenecity of PVWN along the entire lateral ventricular wall (a point), indistant margin and intermediate extent (two points), and family localized to trigonal area (three points) of PVWM echogenecity: Indistant (a point), broad and faint (two points), and definitely linear (three points) C-SC differentiation. We identified the sonographic developmental change according to postconceptional age. And we classified the maturity of brain with 15 grades using the sonographic score. Correlation between the sonographic grades for cerebral development and the postconceptional age were statistically analyzed. Sonography showed immature brain (score 1 for sylvain fissure, sulcal pattern, echogenecity of PVWM, and C-SC differentiation) until 28 postconceptional weeks (PCW) of the newborn infant. All sylvain fissures had been converted to Y-shape until 35 PCW. Mature form for sulcal pattern, echogenecity of PVWM, and C-SC differentiation appears since 34-35 PCW. Conversion to the mature forms was detected in about 98% (191 out of 194 cases) of sulcal pattern after 38 PCW, all cases of echogenecity of PVWM after 40 PCW, and C-SC differentiation after 41 postconceptional weeks. And

  1. Prevention of Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding in Newborn Infants: A Position Paper by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihatsch, Walter A; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša F; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mlgaard, Christian; Embleton, Nicholas; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) due to physiologically low vitamin K plasma concentrations is a serious risk for newborn and young infants and can be largely prevented by adequate vitamin K supplementation. The aim of this position paper is to define the condition, describe the prevalence, discuss current prophylaxis practices and outcomes, and to provide recommendations for the prevention of VKDB in healthy term newborns and infants. All newborn infants should receive vitamin K prophylaxis and the date, dose, and mode of administration should be documented. Parental refusal of vitamin K prophylaxis after adequate information is provided should be recorded especially because of the risk of late VKDB. Healthy newborn infants should either receive 1 mg of vitamin K1 by intramuscular injection at birth; or 3 × 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, at 4 to 6 days and at 4 to 6 weeks; or 2 mg vitamin K1 orally at birth, and a weekly dose of 1 mg orally for 3 months. Intramuscular application is the preferred route for efficiency and reliability of administration. The success of an oral policy depends on compliance with the protocol and this may vary between populations and healthcare settings. If the infant vomits or regurgitates the formulation within 1 hour of administration, repeating the oral dose may be appropriate. The oral route is not appropriate for preterm infants and for newborns who have cholestasis or impaired intestinal absorption or are too unwell to take oral vitamin K1, or those whose mothers have taken medications that interfere with vitamin K metabolism. Parents who receive prenatal education about the importance of vitamin K prophylaxis may be more likely to comply with local procedures.

  2. [Pediatricians' and pediatric nurses' knowledge about pain in newborn infants and their practices in some provinces in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Emine; Altun, Emine; Cetin, Hacer; Işler, Ayşegül

    2007-07-01

    This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the status of pediatricians and nurses who work on pediatric wards about their recognizing, evaluating, and using appropriate nonpharmacologic interventions to treat pain in newborn infants. The study was conducted between March and May 2005. A total of 198 nurses and physicians were included in the sample, 31 of whom were from Sivas 1st Izzettin Keykavus State Hospital, 76 from Akdeniz University Medical Faculty Hospital, 45 from Mersin University Medical Faculty Research, Mersin State and Taurus State Hospitals and 46 from Ege University Medical Faculty Hospital. The data were collected using a 16-question survey form. Five of the survey questions were regarding the nurses' and physicians' sociodemographic characteristics and 11 contained questions directed at obtaining physicians and nurses' information about pain in newborns. The results of the research showed that the physicians and nurses were knowledgeable about newborn pain. It was determined that the pediatric nurses used nonpharmacologic methods during invasive procedures in the newborns but the physicians did not. In conclusion it is recommended that this issue receive more discussion in continuing education programs at hospitals for the purpose of encouraging nurses and physicians to use nonpharmacologic methods during invasive procedures that are done in newborns to facilitate a multidisciplinary team approach for pain management in newborn infants.

  3. Effects of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy on liver enzymes and amylase in HIV-exposed, uninfected newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. A prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (ZDV group, n = 18, infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (TT group, n = 22 and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12. Umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The median levels for TT group newborns were 33.3 U/L for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 U/L for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dL for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dL for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 U/L for amylase. These results did not differ from those obtained for Control newborns or newborns exposed to ZDV alone. No association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.

  4. Fetus-in-fetu in the scrotal sac of a newborn infant: imaging, surgical and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.H.; Yoon, C.H.; Cho, K.S.; Auh, Y.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S.D. [Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E.A.R.; Kim, K.S.; Pi, S.Y. [Department of Pediatrics, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of fetus-in-fetu located in the scrotal sac of a newborn male infant. Plain radiography (including specimen radiography), ultrasonography and MRI clearly demonstrated vertebral column, ribs, skull, pelvic bones, femurs and a portion of tibiae and humeri. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination. (orig.) With 4 figs., 5 refs.

  5. NONIMMUNE HYDROPS-FETALIS AND BILATERAL PULMONARY HYPOPLASIA IN A NEWBORN-INFANT WITH EXTRALOBAR PULMONARY SEQUESTRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUS, F; NIKKELS, PGJ; VANLOON, AJ; OKKEN, A

    1993-01-01

    Extralobar pulmonary sequestration was found in a newborn premature infant that presented with non-immune hydrops fetalis, massive bilateral hydrothorax and polyhydramnios in utero. The baby died of severe respiratory insufficiency 15 h after birth. Postmortem examination revealed distended lymphati

  6. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: parents' preferences regarding counseling at the time of infants' sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Koscik, Rebecca L; Modaff, Peggy; Pfeil, Darci; Rock, Michael J; Farrell, Philip M; Lifchez, Caroline; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Gershan, William; Zaleski, Christina; Sullivan, Bradley

    2006-08-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) protocols for cystic fibrosis (CF) are the first regional population-based programs to incorporate DNA analysis into their procedures. Research about these programs can inform policy and practice regarding how best to counsel families with abnormal NBS results. The grounded theory method guided interviews with 33 families whose infants had abnormal CF NBS results. A dimensional analysis of these interviews provided a theoretical framework describing parents' preferences regarding counseling during their infant's sweat test appointment. This framework describes the contexts and characteristics of the two main dimensions of parents' preferences: factual information and emotional support. Factual information included learning about the probability of a CF diagnosis, CF disease facts, sweat test procedure, and CF genetics. Social support consisted of offering parents a choice about the timing and amount of CF information, showing empathy for their distress, instilling hope, personalizing counseling, and providing hospitality. This framework also explains the consequences of counseling that matched versus mismatched parental preferences in these domains. Counseling that matched parents preferences reduced parents' distress while mismatched counseling tended to increase parents' worry about their infant.

  7. Acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma in a newborn infant with Menkes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Horikawa, Masahiro; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Hashimoto, Jyunya; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) in newborn infants is rare compared with other types of intracranial hemorrhages. Furthermore, posterior fossa EDH is extremely rare. We present a case of posterior fossa EDH in an infant with Menkes disease with accessory bones in the occiput. A male infant with a condition diagnosed with Menkes disease by prenatal testing was born at 39 weeks via vacuum extraction. The patient presented with a mild tremor at 2 days after delivery. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed an acute EDH in the posterior fossa, extending into the occipitoparietal area. Three-dimensional CT and bone window CT scan revealed several accessory bones, diastasis of 1 accessory suture, a communicated fracture, and a linear fracture in the occipital bone. Furthermore, a bone fragment from a communicated fracture displaced toward the inside. The patient was treated conservatively for EDH because of his good general condition. The hematoma gradually resolved, and his tremor did not recur. We suggest the following mechanism of posterior fossa EDH development in our patient: (1) external force was applied to the occiput inside the birth canal during delivery, resulting in diastasis; (2) a communicated fracture occurred, and a bone fragment displaced toward the inside (linear fracture was caused indirectly by the force); (3) a transverse sinus was injured by the fragment; and (4) EDH developed in both the posterior fossa and supratentorial region. Copper deficiency can also cause fragility of connective tissues, vessels, and bones.

  8. Bacterial meningitis in newborn and infant: correlation between organism, CT findings and clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hye Young; Park, Young Seo; Yoo, Shi Joon; Suh, Dae Chul; Chung, Young Kyo [College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-03-15

    Acute bacterial meningitis often results in significant neurologic complications regardless of the antibiotics treatment Computed tomographic (CT) finding of tuberculous meningitis is fairly well known but not the findings of bacterial meningitis. This study was performed to determine the incidence of causative organisms and to correlate between the organisms and computed tomographic (CT) findings with clinical outcome of bacterial meningitis in newborns and infants. We analyzed the brain CT and clinical records of 15 infants who had been diagnosed as bacterial meningitis by CSF culture. We found that the most common organisms were Group B streptococcus in neonates without no neurologic complications in all but one and Hemophilus influenza in infants whose clinical outcomes were poor in all except one. CT findings related with poor prognosis in this study were cerebral edema, basal cisternal obliteration and enhancement, and cerebral infarction on initial CT and ventriculomegaly on follow-up CT. We concluded that CT diagnosed intracranial complications of bacterial meningitis well and could contributed to better treatment of bacterial meningitis.

  9. Neurological evaluation of newborn infants of mothers working in citrus groves in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Winslow Joseph; Riederer, Anne; Prapamontol, Tippawan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess neurological function in newborn infants born to mothers working in citrus orchards in Northern Thailand for a period in excess of one year where pesticide applications average 35 times a year. Forty-one infants from uncomplicated term births at the community hospital in Fang, Thailand, were given neurological evaluations during the first four days of life. This was a cross-sectional study in which nine mothers worked in citrus orchards and 32 mothers did not. Examiners were not given the exposure history of the mothers. Twelve infants--five of them born to mothers from citrus orchards--had examinations demonstrating abnormal muscle tone. Using logistic regression, the final model showed that maternal citrus grove exposure and anesthesia use were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of abnormal muscle tone with adjusted odds ratios of 9.82 (CI = 1.42, 68.07) and 5.99 (CI = 1.003, 35.85) for exposure and anesthesia respectively.

  10. Avicenna (AD 980 to 1037) and the care of the newborn infant and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modanlou, H D

    2008-01-01

    A brief historical review of medicine during the fourth century Islamic civilization or eleventh century AD in Persia or Iran was undertaken with its focus on Avicenna. A physician-philosopher, named Ibn Sina or Avicenna (980 to 1037), followed and further expanded the tradition of western philosophy and medicine by Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen. Avicenna, a physician, philosopher, astrologist, anatomist, pharmacologist, ethicist and poet wrote, the Canon of Medicine, the most comprehensive medical textbook of its time. This important textbook was extensively used in European medical schools for centuries after Avicenna's death. In the Canon of Medicine, a chapter is dedicated to the care of the newborn infant dealing with hygiene, breastfeeding and upbringing of the child.

  11. Desferrioxamine treatment of iron overload secondary to RH isoimmunization and intrauterine transfusion in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalaz, Mehmet; Bilgin, Betül Siyah; Köroğlu, Ozge Altun; Ay, Yılmaz; Arıkan, Ciğdem; Sagol, Sermet; Akısü, Mete; Kültürsay, Nilgün

    2011-11-01

    Intrauterine transfusion is the standard of care in the management of severe Rh isoimmunization. Desferrioxamine has been used for the treatment of iron overload secondary to hemolysis and intrauterine transfusions in Rh isoimmunization cases. Here, we report a preterm infant born at 34 weeks of gestational age who had formerly received intrauterine transfusions for Rhesus hemolytic disease and presented with severe hyperferritinemia and elevated liver enzymes in the first week of life. Desferrioxamine treatment was started due to a ferritin level of 28,800 ng/ml and continued for 13 weeks. Although the treatment was successful, we observed resistant leukopenia which resolved after the cessation of treatment. In conclusion, iron overload secondary to intrauterine transfusions can be treated successfully with desferrioxamine; however, neonatologists must be aware of the possible side effects of this drug which has been used in only a limited number of newborns.

  12. An audit of the effect of two cord-care regimens on bacterial colonization in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, B; Jones, C C

    1987-03-01

    Proper care of the umbilical cord of newborn infants may prevent later infections. When St Joseph's Hospital in Hamilton, Ontario, started using alcohol instead of triple dye for umbilical cord care, there was a dramatic increase in the incidence of bacterial colonization in newborns in the nursery and, later, in the number of cases of staphylococcus-related skin infections in infants born at the hospital. Follow-up on 1,545 infants revealed that triple dye was significantly more effective than alcohol in reducing the growth of gram-positive organisms, especially Staphylococcus aureus and group B streptococcus, and several gram-negative organisms. Because hospital medical staff had carefully collected data on bacterial colonization, they were quickly aware of the problem and could justify resuming the use of triple dye.

  13. Colestasis del recién nacido y del lactante Cholestasis of newborn and infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hondal Álvarez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Los recién nacidos y lactantes pequeños tienen una inmadurez funcional y anatómica que justifica que las enfermedades hepáticas que se manifiestan en estas edades tengan la ictericia como signo principal y que otros procesos extrahepáticos o sistémicos puedan condicionar colestasis. La colestasis del lactante es un síndrome clínico caracterizado por ictericia, acolia o hipocolia, y coluria, que evoluciona con elevación de la bilirrubina directa y de los ácidos biliares séricos. La evaluación diagnóstica del lactante con colestasis, realizada por un equipo multidisciplinario, debe minimizar la realización de pruebas innecesarias para lograr un diagnóstico correcto en el menor tiempo posible, diferenciar entre colestasis intrahepática o extrahepática y lograr un diagnóstico etiológico, que incluya aquellos procesos que ponen en peligro la vida o requieren un tratamiento específico médico o quirúrgico. El presente trabajo pretende revisar las principales causas, procedimientos diagnósticos y el enfoque terapéutico de la colestasis del recién nacido y del lactante en aras de contribuir a su diagnóstico temprano y su tratamiento adecuado.The small newborns and infants have a functional anatomical immaturity justifying that liver diseases present at these ages have the jaundice as leading sign and that other extra-hepatic or systemic processes may conditioning the Cholestasis. Infant Cholestasis is a clinical syndrome characterized by jaundice, acholia or hypoacholia and choluria evolving with a rise of direct bilirubin and of serum biliary acids. The diagnostic assessment of infant presenting with Cholestasis made by a multidisciplinary staff must to minimize the carrying out of unnecessary tests to obtain an appropriate diagnosis in less time, to differentiate among the intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholestasis and to achieve an etiologic diagnosis including the processes threatening the life or that requiring a medical or

  14. Presentation of Aural Stimuli to Newborns and Premature Infants: An Audiological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine extant research in the field of music with premature and full term infants in order to identify protocols being used in the presentation of musical stimuli to neonates and (b) to use knowledge gleaned from audiology as a basis for suggesting a standardized protocol for use of musical stimuli with infants. Articles considered appropriate for inclusion in the analysis met the following criteria: (a) presented data for the effects of music on a dependent measure, (b) had subjects who were identified as either premature or term newborns receiving treatment after birth and prior to discharge from the hospital, and (c) used music for some or all of the aural stimuli. Articles (N = 20) were categorized by demographic information, types of aural stimuli, independent variables, dependent measures, and protocol used to present the musical stimuli. Of primary importance to this study was the protocol used in each study to present musical stimuli. Data regarding total duration of stimuli per day, longest duration of stimuli per day, method of stimuli presentation, placement of speakers, decibel level of stimuli, and where;he decibel level was measured reveal that there is no standard protocol being followed with regard to the presentation of aural stimuli. Recommendations include future research on (a) determining a minimum gestational age where music therapy may be appropriate, (b) determining the frequency spectrum perceived by a premature infant, (c) determining the decibel levels reaching the ear drum and assessing appropriate levels for minimum stimulation with maximum results, and (d) carefully considering the method of stimulus presentation as it will have an impact on the decibel level reaching the ear drum of these infants.

  15. Cochrane Review: Screening programmes for developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Damon; Hong, Timothy; Osborn, David A

    2013-01-01

    ultrasound resulted in no significant difference in late diagnosed DDH but a significant reduction in treatment. No infants in either group received surgery. There is insufficient evidence to give clear recommendations for practice. There is inconsistent evidence that universal ultrasound results in a significant increase in treatment compared to the use of targeted ultrasound or clinical examination alone. Neither of the ultrasound strategies have been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes including late diagnosed DDH and surgery. The studies are substantially underpowered to detect significant differences in the uncommon event of late detected DDH or surgery. For infants with unstable hips or mildly dysplastic hips, use of delayed ultrasound and targeted splinting reduces treatment without significantly increasing the rate of late diagnosed DDH or surgery. Screening methods for dislocated or improperly formed hips in newborn infants The hip joint is a ball and socket joint. Newborns may have hips that are not in their socket (dislocated) or hips that are improperly formed (dysplasia). Risk factors for hip dysplasia include a family history of a similar problem and female infants delivered in the breech position. The hips of most newborns will be examined clinically after birth and during infancy to determine whether they are stable, unstable or dislocated. Screening for hip dysplasia may prevent the need for late treatment, which is associated with long term hip deformity, gait disturbance and arthritis. However, early screening leads to increased treatment. Treatment may be complicated by damage to the hip due to impairment of the blood supply (avascular necrosis). This review found no studies that compared the benefits and costs of early screening versus not screening for hip problems. Studies that compared the addition of ultrasound to clinical examination reported that when ultrasound was performed on all infants, the rate of treatment increased with no significant

  16. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hae-Joong; Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n=46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4-9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure among biologically susceptible human populations.

  17. Prevalência dos defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural em recém-nascidos do Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP: 2000-2004 Neural tube defects prevalence in newborn infants in the Women Care Center of the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira, IMIP: 2000-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmya Silva Pacheco

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a prevalência de defeito de fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN em crianças nascidas na maternidade do Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP no período de 2000 a 2004. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo, do tipo corte transversal, cujos dados foram coletados de um banco de dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos do qual foram selecionados todos os registros de recém-nascidos com malformação fetal. A partir daí selecionaram-se os recém-nascidos com DFTN ocorridos no período considerado. RESULTADOS: entre os 24.964 nascimentos, foram registrados 709 recém-nascidos apresentando alguma malformação ao nascer. Ao se considerar apenas os recém nascidos com DFTN, observaram-se 124 registros, representando uma prevalência de 0,5% entre nascimentos naquele período. Os recém-nascidos com DFTN apresentaram características semelhantes aos recém-nascidos com malformações, de uma forma geral. A maioria (68,5% desses recém-nascidos era de parto cesariano e 37,7% apresentaram baixo peso ao nascer. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência de DFTN entre os nascimentos registrados no Centro de Atenção à Mulher do Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira foi elevada (5/1000 nascimentos e isso, provavelmente é reflexo do fato de a maternidade ser referência para gestações de alto-risco.OBJECTIVES: to determine neural tube closing defects in newborns delivered in the maternity ward of the Women Care Center of the Instituto Materno Infantil Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP. METHODS: a descriptive cross-sectional cohort study, with data collected from a Born Alive Information System from which all records of newborns with fetal malformation were selected. From these records the ones pertaining to newborns between 2000 and 2004 with the neural tube closing defect were considered. RESULTS: of 24.964 births, 709 newborns with some type of malformation were registered. When

  18. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel López-Velázquez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos® was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783.

  19. Effects of Fructans from Mexican Agave in Newborns Fed with Infant Formula: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Parra-Ortiz, Minerva; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; Alcántara-Ortigoza, Miguel Angel; González-del Angel, Ariadna; Velázquez-Aragón, José; Ortiz-Hernández, Rosario; Cruz-Rubio, José Manuel; Villa-Barragán, Pablo; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Castrellón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background: The importance of prebiotics consumption is increasing all over the world due to their beneficial effects on health. Production of better prebiotics from endemic plants raises possibilities to enhance nutritional effects in vulnerable population groups. Fructans derived from Agave Plant have demonstrated their safety and efficacy as prebiotics in animal models. Recently, the safety in humans of two fructans obtained from Agave tequilana (Metlin® and Metlos®) was demonstrated. Methods: This study aimed to demonstrate the efficacy as prebiotics of Metlin® and Metlos® in newborns of a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with a pilot study design. Biological samples were taken at 20 ± 7 days, and three months of age from healthy babies. Outcomes of efficacy include impact on immune response, serum ferritin, C-reactive protein, bone metabolism, and gut bacteria changes. Results: There were differences statistically significant for the groups of infants fed only with infant formula and with formula enriched with Metlin® and Metlos®. Conclusions: Our results support the efficacy of Metlin® and Metlos® as prebiotics in humans, and stand the bases to recommend their consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT 01251783. PMID:26529006

  20. Comprehensive approach to newborns and infants with brachial plexus impairment – proposal of Slovenian guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Groleger Sršen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of brachial plexus (IBP in the neonate and infant remains an important problem. Risk factors for IBP are well known, but the mechanisms of impairment are not yet fully understood. It is important to identify early signs of IBP and to evaluate the hand function. In the guidelines we propose to use the Toronto scale for evaluation of hand function. The newborn with IBP should be referred to physiotherapy, and then regularly followed-up once a month. If the arm and hand function, especially flexion of the elbow, is not improving at the age of two months, the infant should be referred to the tertiary level rehabilitation centre and to department for plastic surgery at the University Medical Centre in Ljubljana. When necessary, the reconstructive procedure should be done by the age of three to six months. After reconstruction of brachial plexus, the child needs a comprehensive therapy program, which involves passive stretching, sensory stimulation, exercises to promote the development of active voluntary movements, bimanual activities, and symmetrical posture and movement patterns.

  1. Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: risk factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation of risk factors to the occurrence of urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study (1997 including full-term infants having a positive urine culture by bag specimen. Urine collection was based on: fever, weight loss > 10% of birth weight, nonspecific symptoms (feeding intolerance, failure to thrive, hypoactivity, debilitate suction, irritability, or renal and urinary tract malformations. In these cases, another urine culture by suprapubic bladder aspiration was collected to confirm the diagnosis. To compare and validate the risk factors in each group, the selected cases were divided into two groups: Group I - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and negative urine culture by suprapubic aspiration, and Group II - positive urine culture by bag specimen collection and positive urine culture by suprapubic aspiration . RESULTS: Sixty one infants were studied, Group I, n = 42 (68.9% and Group II, n = 19 (31.1%. The selected risk factors (associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, renal and urinary tract malformations, mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition and intravascular catheter were more frequent in Group II (p<0.05. Through relative risk analysis, risk factors were, in decreasing importance: parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, associated infectious diseases, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and renal and urinary tract malformations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that parenteral nutrition, intravascular catheter, and associated infectious diseases contributed to increase the frequency of neonatal urinary tract infection, and in the presence of more than one risk factor, the occurrence of urinary tract infection rose up to 11 times.

  2. 3-D refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Songyi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Nab, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions for fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed of RBCs from cord blood of newborn infants, and of adult RBCs from mothers or non-pregnant women, employing optical holographic micro-tomography. Optical measurements of 3-D refractive index distributions, and of dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs, enabled retrieval of the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significant larger than those of RBCs from non-pregnant women, and cord RBCs have more flattened shapes than RBCs in adults. In addition, the Hb content in the cord RBCs of newborns was significantly greater. The Hb concentration in cord RBCs was higher than for non-pregnant women or maternal RBCs, but t...

  3. [Effects on the newborn infant of thiopental and propofol used in anesthetic induction in cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, E; Redondo, J A; Catalán, P A; Carrillo, F

    1994-01-01

    To compare the effects of an anesthetic induction dose of thiopental to that of propofol on the vitality of the neonate, as measured by Apgar score and the interval between extraction of the newborn and unassisted respiration. One hundred ASA I-II women undergoing cesarean section were randomly assigned to two groups of 50. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4 mg/kg in one group; in the other group, propofol 2 mg/kg was used. Time intervals recorded were induction-to-extraction, uterine incision-to-extraction and extraction-to-unassisted respiration. An Apgar score was recorded 1, 5 and 10 min after birth. For statistical analysis, each group was divided into three subgroups, in accordance with the reason for performing the cesarean section: subgroup 1, elective cesarean; subgroup 2, emergency cesarean due to dystocia or failure; subgroup 3, emergency cesarean section due to acute fetal distress. Means of intervals for induction-extraction and uterine incision-extraction showed no significant differences. All induction-extraction intervals were under 10 min (4.94 +/- 1.55 min) and all uterine incision-extraction intervals were under 180 sec, with most staying under 90 sec (43.13 +/- 25.76 sec). No statistically significant differences were found for vitality between the two groups of neonates. If the induction-extraction interval is 10 min or less, both thiopental (4 mg/kg) and propofol (2 mg/kg) given in a single dose for induction of general anesthesia in all types of cesarean section are equally safe for the newborn infant.

  4. Hypothermia at Birth and its Associated Com- plications in Newborn infants: a Follow up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nayeri

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is one of the main causes of neonatal mortality in developing countries. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the relationship between hypothermia at birth and the risk of mortality or morbidity among neonates born in Imam Hospital in Tehran, Iran. During a one-year period, body temperature was taken from all newborns using a low-reading rectal thermometer, immediately after their admission into the Neonatal ward of the above hospital. A temperature less than 36.5C was considered as hypothermia. A questionnaire was filled for each subject. Using logistic regression the risk of development of respiratory distress in the first six hours of birth, hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperbilirubinemia, scleroderma, pulmonary hemorrhage, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (DIC in the first three days of birth were assessed and compared with the hypothermic and normothermic newborn infants. Nine hundred and forty neonates were enrolled into the study. A significant relationship was found between hypothermia and respiratory distress in the first six hours of birth and death, as well as with jaundice, hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis in the first three days of birth (P=0.0001. Logistic regression showed that, regardless of weight and gestational age, hypothermia at birth alone could increase the risk of neonatal death (OR=3.64, CI=1.85-7.18, Respiratory distress (OR=2.12, CI=1.53-2.93, metabolic acidosis (OR=2.83, CI=1.74-4.59 and jaundice (OR=2.01, CI=1.45-2.79. Neonatal hypothermia at birth increases mortality as well as significant morbidity and hospitalization period.

  5. Maternal assessment of recommendations on the newborn infant care upon hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Morín, José David; Huidobro Fernández, Belén; Amigo Bello, María Cristina; Quiroga González, Rocío; Fernández González, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    It is common for pediatricians to provide parents with information on how to look after their newborn baby at the time of discharge from the hospital. The objectives of this study are to determine the level of satisfaction regarding such information, to be aware of what additional information parents would have liked to receive, and to establish which factors may impact any additional information request. Descriptive study evaluating the opinion of women at 5-15 days post- partum regarding such information. A hundred and seventy-six surveys were collected. Of these, 68.8% respondents had attended childbirth classes. Sixty-one point four percent referred to have looked for advice on the newborn infant care, mostly on the Internet and in books. Seventy-four point four percent considered that the information provided sufficed. Most commonly, information was requested on breastfeeding (33.3%), bottle feeding (20.0%), and umbilical cord care (11.1%). Mothers who requested more information attended childbirth classes more frequently (significant) and searched for information during pregnancy (not significant). In addition, this group significantly assigned a lower score to the opportunity to ask questions and the level of trust on the pediatrician. Maternal satisfaction regarding the information provided is adequate; and most mothers do not request additional information. The topic on which they most frequently request additional information is breastfeeding. The decision to request information does not depend on maternal age, maternal education, employment condition, or having other children. Likewise, mothers have questions that are not satisfactorily answered during childbirth classes.

  6. Mercury levels in newborns and infants after receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E; Gentile, Angela; Giglio, Norberto; Umido, Veronica; Clarkson, Thomas; Cernichiari, Elsa; Zareba, Grazyna; Gotelli, Carlos; Gotelli, Mariano; Yan, Lihan; Treanor, John

    2008-02-01

    Thimerosal is a mercurial preservative that was widely used in multidose vaccine vials in the United States and Europe until 2001 and continues to be used in many countries throughout the world. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to assess blood levels and elimination of ethyl mercury after vaccination of infants with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Blood, stool, and urine samples were obtained before vaccination and 12 hours to 30 days after vaccination from 216 healthy children: 72 newborns (group 1), 72 infants aged 2 months (group 2), and 72 infants aged 6 months (group 3). Total mercury levels were measured by atomic absorption. Blood mercury pharmacokinetics were calculated by pooling the data on the group and were based on a 1-compartment first-order pharmacokinetics model. For groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, (1) mean +/- SD weights were 3.4 +/- 0.4, 5.1 +/- 0.6, and 7.7 +/- 1.1 kg; (2) maximal mean +/- SD blood mercury levels were 5.0 +/- 1.3, 3.6 +/- 1.5, and 2.8 +/- 0.9 ng/mL occurring at 0.5 to 1 day after vaccination; (3) maximal mean +/- SD stool mercury levels were 19.1 +/- 11.8, 37.0 +/- 27.4, and 44.3 +/- 23.9 ng/g occurring on day 5 after vaccination for all groups; and (4) urine mercury levels were mostly nondetectable. The blood mercury half-life was calculated to be 3.7 days and returned to prevaccination levels by day 30. The blood half-life of intramuscular ethyl mercury from thimerosal in vaccines in infants is substantially shorter than that of oral methyl mercury in adults. Increased mercury levels were detected in stools after vaccination, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract is involved in ethyl mercury elimination. Because of the differing pharmacokinetics of ethyl and methyl mercury, exposure guidelines based on oral methyl mercury in adults may not be accurate for risk assessments in children who receive thimerosal-containing vaccines.

  7. The Relationship Between Thyroxine Level and Short Term Clinical Outcome Among Sick Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Kadivar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature and critically sick infants frequently experience several interventions, including blood transfusions, parentral nutrition, and prescriptions during hospitalization that could affect the result of thyroid function test. This study aims to investigate the correlation between thyroxine level and clinical short term outcome among the newborn infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. We assessed serum levels of thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone of 99 neonates who were admitted in the NICU from September 1st 2004 to March 30th 2005. Number of patients with low thyroxin level (less than 6.5 µg/dl was determined and the relation between serum total thyroxine level and birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization, clinical diagnosis, and final outcome was investigated. Short term outcome was considered as duration of hospitalization and discharge alive from hospital. Prevalence of hypothyroxinemia was 26 percent. Later assessment of thyroxine level within 3 weeks revealed normal level of this parameter (8.12 µg/dl ±1.36. Patients with lower gestational age and lower birth weight had lower thyroxine level (7.15 µg/dl ±2.56, and P=0.03, 6.72 µg/dl ±3.03, and P=0.08. Low thyroxine level was not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcome (mortality rates; 3(11% and 9(12%, and duration of hospitalization among 17.7±9.8 vs 16.7± 13.0 in patients with hypothyroxinemia and low thyroxine level respectively. Hypothyroxinemia has considerable prevalence in neonatal intensive care setting and is related with lower birth weight and gestational age. Whether thyroxin levels are a marker or mediator of short term clinical outcome remains to be determined by further studies.

  8. Bilingual Baby: Foreign Language Intervention in Madrid's Infant Education Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Kuhl, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The first years of life represent a unique window of opportunity for foreign language learning. However, key questions are: How much and what kind of foreign language exposure is needed to ignite learning? We conducted a foreign language (English) intervention in four public Infant Education Centers in Madrid, Spain. Intervention children (N =…

  9. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi [School of Public Health, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hae-Joong [College of Medicine, Korea University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon [College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo [College of Medicine, Hallym University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su Young [College of Medicine, Jeju National University (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyo-Bang [College of Science and Technology, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungkyoon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kho, Young Lim [Department of Health, Environment and Safety, Eulji University (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyungho, E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr [School of Public Health, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (< 48 h after delivery), and the association between paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n = 46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE–LC–MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4–9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure

  10. The window of opportunity: decision theory and the timing of prognostic tests for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic

    2009-11-01

    In many forms of severe acute brain injury there is an early phase when prognosis is uncertain, followed later by physiological recovery and the possibility of more certain predictions of future impairment. There may be a window of opportunity for withdrawal of life support early, but if decisions are delayed there is the risk that the patient will survive with severe impairment. In this paper I focus on the example of neonatal encephalopathy and the question of the timing of prognostic tests and decisions to continue or to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Should testing be performed early or later; and how should parents decide what to do given the conflicting values at stake? I apply decision theory to the problem, using sensitivity analysis to assess how different features of the tests or different values would affect a decision to perform early or late prognostic testing. I draw some general conclusions from this model for decisions about the timing of testing in neonatal encephalopathy. Finally I consider possible solutions to the problem posed by the window of opportunity. Decision theory highlights the costs of uncertainty. This may prompt further research into improving prognostic tests. But it may also prompt us to reconsider our current attitudes towards the palliative care of newborn infants predicted to be severely impaired.

  11. GENERAL ANESTHESIA: IS IT SAFE FOR NEWBORNS, INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancheva Jasminka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of neonates, infants and small children to general anesthesia is becoming a common occurrence. Accumulating preclinical data indicate that exposure to commonly used general anesthetic agents during key periods of brain development in this population(between late gestation and 3 to 4 years of age, can lead to apoptotic neurodegeneration, synapse loss, and cognitive and neurobehavioral deficits that persist as the organism matures. New work suggests that infants and small children undergoing some types of surgery could have better recovery if they receive regional anesthesia rather than general anesthesia. In response to this concerns, the Food and drug administration (FDA and the International Research Society in anesthesia (IARS started an initiative called Smart Tots (Strategies for Mitigating Anesthesia- related neuro Toxicity in Tots which examine the effects of anesthesia on brain development. Also another two major prospective studies are ongoing in children : PANDA (Pediatric Anesthesia Neurodevelopment assessment Study project is a large, multi-center study based at the Morgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York at Columbia University, and another one is GAS study which is a multisite randomized controlled trial comparing neurodevelopment outcomes in infant receiving general anesthesia compared to spinal and other regional anesthetics to the stress response to surgery. The findings from these studies will help researches to design the safest anesthetic regimens and to develop the new and safer anesthetic drugs for use in pediatric medicine.

  12. Decision-making for postpartum discharge of 4300 mothers and their healthy infants: the Life Around Newborn Discharge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Henry H; Spino, Cathie; Finch, Stacia; Wasserman, Richard; Slora, Eric; Lalama, Christina; Touloukian, Carol Litten; Lilienfeld, Harris; McCormick, Marie C

    2007-08-01

    Postpartum discharge of mothers and infants who are not medically or psychosocially ready may place the family at risk. Most studies of postpartum length of stay, however, do not reflect the necessary complexity of decision-making. With this study we aimed to characterize decision-making on the day of postpartum discharge from the perspective of multiple key informants and identify correlates of maternal and newborn unreadiness for discharge. This was a prospective observational cohort study of healthy term infants with mothers, pediatric providers, and obstetricians as key informants to assess the decision-making process regarding mother-infant dyad unreadiness for discharge. A mother-infant dyad was defined as unready for postpartum hospital discharge if > or = 1 of 3 informants perceived that either the mother or infant should stay longer at time of nursery discharge. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on the day of discharge. Of 4300 mother-infant dyads, unreadiness was identified in 17% as determined by the mother (11%), pediatrician (5%), obstetrician (1%), and > or = 2 informants (hospital neonatal problems, receiving a limited number of in-hospital classes, and intent to breastfeed. Mothers, pediatricians, and obstetricians must make decisions about postpartum discharge jointly, because perceptions of unreadiness often differ. Sensitivity toward specific maternal vulnerabilities and an emphasis on perinatal education to insure individualized discharge plans may increase readiness and determine optimal timing for discharge and follow-up care.

  13. Newborns' sensitivity to the visual aspects of infant-directed speech: Evidence from point-line displays of talking faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellaï, Bahia; Streri, Arlette; Chopin, Adrien; Rider, Delphine; Kitamura, Christine

    2016-09-01

    The first time a newborn is held, he is attracted by the human's face. A talking face is even more captivating, as it is the first time he or she hears and sees another human talking. Older infants are relatively good at detecting the relationship between images and sounds when someone is addressing to them, but it is unclear whether this ability is dependent on experience or not. Using an intermodal matching procedure, we presented newborns with 2 silent point-line displays representing the same face uttering different sentences while they were hearing a vocal-only utterance that matched 1 of the 2 stimuli. Nearly all of the newborns looked longer at the matching point-line face than at the mismatching 1, with prior exposure to the stimuli (Experiment 1) or without (Experiment 2). These results are interpreted in terms of newborns' ability to extract common visual and auditory information of continuous speech events despite a short experience with talking faces. The implications are discussed in the light of the language processing and acquisition literature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Congenital malformations in a fetus and a newborn according to the data of Perinatal Center of the Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim: to study the frequency of birth defects in Perinatal Center of the Saratov region from 2014 till 2015, the possibility of prognosing, early diagnosis and optimization of programs for the prevention and correction of congenital malformations, the evaluation of treatment outcomes. Materials and Methods. The study included newborn babies and fetuses with birth defects for the period 2014-2015 according to data received from Perinatal Center. The data on ultrasound examination of pregnant women and about 149 fetuses with malformations in case of early terminated pregnancies were analyzed. Results. In 2014 Perinatal Center of the Saratov region found 77 newborns with congenital malformations, in 2015-72; 24 children (16.1% required early surgical intervention. The comprehensive assessment of the health status of women and their children, the assessment of placental blood flow and fetal development, the identification of chromosomal and genetic abnormalities were conducted. 5 children of 149 children with congenital malformations died at the stage of the maternity hospital where average mortality accounted for 3.3%. Congenital malformations of central nervous system and sense organs accounted for 13.4%, malformations of the face and neck — 5.4%, malformations of the cardiovascular system — 28.8%, malformations of the respiratory system — 2.7%, malformations of the gastrointestinal tract — 4%, malformations of the musculoskeletal system — 9.4%, malformations of the urinary system — 27.5%, genital malformations — 4%, defects of the skin and its appendages — 1.3%, other malformations — 2.7%. Multiple malformations accounted for 4.7%. During 2014-2015 due to congenital malformations 311 births (4.4% were interrupted, the main cause was determined as chromosomal abnormalities. Training, diagnosis, management of pregnant women and their delivery is carried out in Perinatal Center of the Saratov region in accordance with the

  15. Different methods for assessment of nutritional status in newborn infants based on physical and anthropometric indexes: a short review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several complications during childhood is associated with nutritional status of infants at birth. Therefore, nutritional status of newborns must be evaluated properly after birth. Assessment of the nutritional status of neonates based on anthropometric and physical indices is simple and inexpensive without the need for advanced medical equipment. However, no previous studies have focused on the assessment methods of the nutritional status of infants via anthropometric and physical indices. This study aimed to review some of the key methods used to determine the nutritional status of neonates using anthropometric and physical indices. To date, most studies have focused on the diagnosis of fetal malnutrition (FM and growth monitoring. In order to diagnose FM, researchers have used growth charts and Ponderal index (PI based on anthropometric indices, as well as Clinical Assessment of Nutritional (CAN Score based on physical features. Moreover, in order to assess the growth status of infants, growth charts were used. According to the findings of this study, standard intrauterine growth curves and the PI are common measurement tools in the diagnosis of FM. Furthermore, CAN score is widely used in the evaluation of the nutritional status of neonates. Given the differences in the physical features of term and preterm infants, this index should be adjusted for preterm neonates. Longitudinal growth charts are one of the most prominent methods used for monitoring of the growth patterns of infants.

  16. Palatal development of preterm and low birthweight infants compared to term infants – What do we know? Part 1: The palate of the term newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehmer Ulrike

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence on prematurity as 'a priori' a risk for palatal disturbances that increase the need for orthodontic or orthognathic treatment is still weak. Further well-designed clinical studies are needed. The objective of this review is to provide a fundamental analysis of methodologies, confounding factors, and outcomes of studies on palatal development. One focus of this review is the analysis of studies on the palate of the term newborn, since knowing what is 'normal' is a precondition of being able to assess abnormalities. Methods A search profile based on Cochrane search strategies applied to 10 medical databases was used to identify existing studies. Articles, mainly those published before 1960, were identified from hand searches in textbooks, encyclopedias, reference lists and bibliographies. Sources in English, German, and French of more than a century were included. Data for term infants were recalculated if particular information about weight, length, or maturity was given. The extracted values, especially those from non-English paper sources, were provided unfiltered for comparison. Results The search strategy yielded 182 articles, of which 155 articles remained for final analysis. Morphology of the term newborn's palate was of great interest in the first half of the last century. Two general methodologies were used to assess palatal morphology: visual and metrical descriptions. Most of the studies on term infants suffer from lack of reliability tests. The groove system was recognized as the distinctive feature of the infant palate. The shape of the palate of the term infant may vary considerably, both visually and metrically. Gender, race, mode of delivery, and nasal deformities were identified as causes contributing to altered palatal morphology. Until today, anatomical features of the newborn's palate are subject to a non-uniform nomenclature. Conclusion Today's knowledge of a newborn's 'normal' palatal

  17. [Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis of newborns with and without infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccon, M E; Diníz, E M; Carneiro-Sampaio, M M; Arslanian, C; Diogo, C L; Ramos, J L; Vaz, F A

    1998-01-01

    Immunological behavior (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total Complement (CH50) of newborns infants with risk factors for early onset sepsis. Comparative analysis between newborns with and without infection. Rev. Hosp. Clín. Fac. Med. S. Paulo, 53(6): 303-310, 1998. The objective of this study was to verify the immunological behavior of the newborn infant in front of an infection. We studied 60 newborn infants that had risk factors for early onset sepsis (premature rupture membranes, clinic amnionitis or tract urinary infection) from de immunological and infection point of view. They were classified into three gestational age groups: or = 37 weeks. Sepsis diagnosis was done through clinical and laboratorial data and we also included the followings exams: Immunological types (IgG, IgM, IgA) and total complement (CH50) obtained from the newborn at birth and on the fifth day of life. We could verify that 15 newborns (25%) presented early sepsis. There was a statistical association between perinatal asfixia and infection in the group with gestational age < 34 weeks and this same group presented statistical association between infection and death. The serical levels of IgG and CH50 were directly related to the gestational age and there were significant statistical differences between levels of IgG, IgM and total Complement between infected and not infected newborns within the same group os gestional age. We observed that the infection was associated to low levels of IgG and CH50, at birth and on the fifth day, mainly in the group of infected newborns with gestional age < 34 weeks, being this group, therefore, the one that would mostly benefit from an immunological support in front of and infection.

  18. A laminar flow unit for the care of critically ill newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez JM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jose MR Perez,1 Sergio G Golombek,2 Carlos Fajardo,3 Augusto Sola41Stella Maris Hospital, International Neurodevelopment Neonatal Center (CINN, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2M Fareri Children’s Hospital, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; 4St Jude Hospital, Fullerton, California, CA, USAIntroduction: Medical and nursing care of newborns is predicated on the delicate control and balance of several vital parameters. Closed incubators and open radiant warmers are the most widely used devices for the care of neonates in intensive care; however, several well-known limitations of these devises have not been resolved. The use of laminar flow is widely used in many fields of medicine, and may have applications in neonatal care.Objective: To describe the neonatal laminar flow unit, a new equipment we designed for care of ill newborns.Methods: The idea, design, and development of this device was completed in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The unit is an open mobile bed designed with the objective of maintaining the advantages of the incubator and radiant warmer, while overcoming some of their inherent shortcomings; these shortcomings include noise, magnetic fields and acrylic barriers in incubators, and lack of isolation and water loss through skin in radiant warmers. The unit has a pump that aspirates environmental air which is warmed by electrical resistance and decontaminated with High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter (HEPA filters (laminar flow. The flow is directed by an air flow directioner. The unit has an embedded humidifier to increase humidity in the infant’s microenvironment and a servo control mechanism for regulation of skin temperature.Results: The laminar flow unit is open and facilitates access of care providers and family, which is not the case in incubators. It provides warming by convection at an air velocity of 0.45 m/s, much faster than an incubator (0.1 m/s. The system

  19. [Intracranial hemorrhage during hemorrhagic disease of the newborn infant at term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyoukolo, J; Retbi, J M; Allemon, M C; Semaan, N; J'Mii, B

    1990-01-01

    The authors report a case of intra-cerebral hematoma in a patient with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. This hematoma had to be taped, and after that, an hydrocephalus shunted. The state of deficiency of vitamin K in the newborn should be treated systematically. The oral route is as good as the intra-muscular route for the baby.

  20. Use of 2% 2-phenoxyethanol and 0.1% octenidine as antiseptic in premature newborn infants of 23-26 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer, C; Bahr, S; Siebert, J; Wettstein, R; Geffers, C; Obladen, M

    2002-08-01

    In preterm newborn infants, topical iodine-containing antiseptics disturb thyroid hormone regulation while alcohol-based disinfectants may cause local burns. We therefore investigated the use of an aqueous solution containing 0.1% octenidine and 2% 2-phenoxyethanol for skin disinfection during the first seven days of life in premature newborns with a gestational age octenidine/phenoxyethanol solution prior to umbilical vessel catheterization. No other local reactions were observed. The urinary concentration of 2-phenoxyethanol was octenidine and 2-phenoxyethanol does not cause major skin damage in premature newborn infants <27 weeks' gestation. 2-Phenoxyethanol is readily absorbed by the newborn's skin but apparently undergoes extensive oxidative metabolization to 2-phenoxyacetic acid.

  1. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  2. Do women tend while men fight or flee? Differential emotive reactions of stressed men and women while viewing newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Fabian; Meng-Hentschel, Juliane; Golle, Jessika; Stucki, Sylvia; Akyildiz-Kunz, Carola; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2017-01-01

    Infant care often is carried out under stressful circumstances. Little is known about differences in caretaking motivation between men and women under stress. In the present study, stress was induced in 40 participants (21 women, 19 men) by means of the cold pressor stress test, 40 (22 women, 18 men) serving as controls. Participants then rated their urge to care for newborn infants shown on 20 short video clips. The infants in the videos were either crying (N=10) or were showing typical neonatal facial movements (N=10). Skin conductance was obtained while participants viewed the videos and salivary cortisol was measured to capture stress responses. We found sex differences in caretaking motivation, such that stress led to decreased caretaking motivation in men but not in women. Furthermore, stressed men elicited a stronger skin conductance change while viewing infant videos than stressed women. These findings provide further evidence for differential stress reactions in men and women and may have crucial implications for parental care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noninvasive monitoring of gas in the lungs and intestines of newborn infants using diode lasers: feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie Krite; Cocola, Lorenzo; Xu, Märta Lewander; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2013-12-01

    Preterm newborn infants have a high morbidity rate. The most frequently affected organs where free gas is involved are the lungs and intestines. In respiratory distress syndrome, both hyperexpanded and atelectatic (collapsed) areas occur, and in necrotizing enterocolitis, intramural gas may appear in the intestine. Today, these conditions are diagnosed with x-ray radiography. A bed-side, rapid, nonintrusive, and gas-specific technique for in vivo gas sensing would improve diagnosis. We report the use of noninvasive laser spectroscopy, for the first time, to assess gas content in the lungs and intestines of three full-term infants. Water vapor and oxygen were studied with two low-power diode lasers, illuminating the skin and detecting light a few centimeters away. Water vapor was easily detected in the intestines and was also observed in the lungs. The relatively thick chest walls of the infants prevented detection of the weaker oxygen signal in this study. However, results from a previous phantom study, together with scaling of the results presented here to the typical chest-wall thickness of preterm infants, suggest that oxygen also should be detectable in their lungs.

  4. Developmental stimulation in child care centers contributes to young infants' cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Esther M; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2010-12-01

    This study examined whether the quality of caregiver behavior in child care centers contributes to infant cognitive development at 9 months of age. Sixty-four infants (34 boys) were observed with their primary caregivers in child care centers at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. Caregiver behavior was rated for sensitivity and for stimulation of infant development during one-to-one caregiving interactions. Infant cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (Mental Development Index). Higher levels of developmental stimulation in the centers predicted higher levels of infant cognitive development at 9 months, beyond infant cognitive development at 3 months (just before entering child care), parental education, and maternal sensitivity. The results suggest that even small increases in developmental stimulation provided in child care centers in the first year of life may foster infants' cognitive development.

  5. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  6. Bacterial Colonization and Antibiotic Resistance in a Prospective Cohort of Newborn Infants During the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kurt C.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Weiss, Judith K.; Bajaksouzian, Saralee; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Infants are virtually sterile at birth and frequently use antibiotics; our objective was to (1) characterize the longitudinal colonization with bacterial pathogens and associated antibiotic resistance in a cohort of community-dwelling infants in Northeast Ohio and (2) describe longitudinal concurrent antibiotic and daycare exposures. Methods. For 35 newborns, nasopharyngeal swabs were cultured for Streptococcus pneumoniae, anterior nasal for Staphylococcus aureus, and perirectal for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative enteric bacteria, at 3-month intervals for 12 months. Infant and household antibiotics and daycare exposure were assessed longitudinally. Results. Thirteen infants received perinatal or nursery antibiotics. By 3 months, at least 22 were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria; 2 with S pneumoniae (type 19A, resistant; 15C, susceptible), 5 with methicillin-susceptible S aureus. By 12 months, at least 22 of 35 infants received antibiotics, 20 had household members with antibiotics, and 12 attended daycare; 7 more had household members with daycare exposure. The ESBL-producing organisms were not identified. At least 10 infants were colonized at some time with an antibiotic-resistant organism, 3 more with pathogens displaying intermediate resistance. Pathogen colonization and resistance were intermittent and inconsistent. Conclusions. In a community-based cohort followed from birth, early antibiotic and daycare exposures are common, especially considering perinatal maternal exposures. Colonization patterns of Gram-negative bacteria, S pneumoniae, S aureus, and resistant pneumococci are strikingly dynamic. Further research can identify key areas for potential interventions to maximize clinical antibiotic outcomes while minimizing future resistance. PMID:27957505

  7. A proposed new international convention supporting the rights of pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winrow, Benjamin; Bile, Khalif; Hafeez, Assad; Davies, Hugh; Brown, Nick; Zafar, Shamsa; Cham, Mamady; Phillips, Barbara; MacDonald, Rhona; Southall, David P

    2012-05-01

    For a multitude of eminently modifiable reasons, death rates for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants in poorly resourced countries remain unacceptably high. The concomitant high morbidity rates compound the situation. The rights of these vulnerable individuals are incompletely protected by existing United Nations human rights conventions, which many countries have failed to implement. The authors propose a novel approach grounded on both human rights and robust evidence-based clinical guidelines to create a 'human rights convention specifically for pregnant women and girls and their newborn infants'. The approach targets the 'right to health' of these large, vulnerable and neglected populations. The proposed convention is designed so that it can be monitored, audited and evaluated objectively. It should also foster a sense of national ownership and accountability as it is designed to be relevant to local situations and to be incorporated into local clinical governance systems. It may be of particular value to those countries that are not yet on target to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially MDGs 4 and 5, which target child and maternal mortality, respectively. To foster a sense of international responsibility, two additional initiatives are integral to its philosophy: the promotion of twinning between well and poorly resourced regions and a raising of awareness of how some well-resourced countries can damage the health of mothers and babies, for example, through the recruitment of health workers trained by national governments and taken from the public health system.

  8. The effect of improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus to newborn infants: the Swedish Hygiene Intervention and Transmission of S aureus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernelius, Sara; Löfgren, Sture; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Blomberg, Marie; Olhager, Elisabeth; Gunnervik, Christina; Lenrick, Raymond; Thrane, Malena Tiefenthal; Isaksson, Barbro; Matussek, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Newborn infants are often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus originating from health care workers (HCWs). We therefore use colonization with S aureus of newborn infants to determine the effect of an improved compliance with hygiene guidelines on bacterial transmission. Compliance with hygiene guidelines was monitored prior to (baseline) and after (follow-up) a multimodal hygiene intervention in 4 departments of obstetrics and gynecology. spa typing was used to elucidate transmission routes of S aureus collected from newborn infants, mothers, fathers, staff members, and environment. The compliance with hygiene guidelines increased significantly from baseline to follow-up. The transmission of S aureus from HCWs to infants was however not affected. Fathers had the highest colonization rates. Persistent carriage was indicated in 18% of the HCWs. The most commonly isolated spa type was t084, which was not detected in a previous study from the same geographic area. It is possible to substantially improve the compliance with hygiene guidelines, by using multimodal hygiene intervention. The improved compliance did not decrease the transmission of S aureus from sources outside the own family to newborn infants. Furthermore, we show the establishment of a new spa type (t084), which now is very common in our region. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-related differentiations of Th1/Th2 cytokines in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthimia Protonotariou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate age-related differentiation of immune response in newborns by measuring serum concentrations of interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ during the perinatal period.

  10. [Anthropometric data on newborn infants: comparative study of two ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related.

  11. [Parasitic and viral marker detection in pregnant adolescents and their newborn infants at risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M C; Escaff, V; Salinas, P; Saavedra, T; Suárez, M

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzzi, Hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in 139 adolescent pregnant women and in their high risk newborn children. The methods employed were the Sabin and Feldman reaction, complement fixation reaction, ELISA, and xenodiagnostic 30.9% of the pregnant group were seropositive for T. gondii, both mothers and newborns were IgM-negative. Two mothers (1.4%) presented anti T. cruzii antibodies, and one newborn child had circulating parasites. Related to the virological studies, 93.5% of the population were anti CMV antibodies positive and all their newborns were IgM (-) 90.6% of the adolescents were rubella positive and one was seropositive to VIH. We conclude that the prevalence found in this group of adolescent pregnant women are not significantly different to the one reported for the general pregnant women population.

  12. Impaired autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1979-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow was measured, using the 133Xe clearance technique, a few hours after birth in 19 infants with varying degrees of respiratory distress syndrome. Ten of these infants had had asphyxia at birth. The least affected infants with normotension (systolic blood pressure 60 to 65 mm Hg...... at birth and infants with RDS only. CBF varied considerably with spontaneous variations in blood pressure, suggesting that autoregulation was lacking. This finding may explain why distressed premature infants are prone to develop massive capillary bleeding in the germinal layer with penetration...

  13. Peripartum maternal transmission of extended-spectrum β-lactamase organism to newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Skuratovsky, Alina; Khabra, Efrat; Adler, Amos; Pastukh, Nina; Barak, Shay; Perlitz, Yuri; Ben-Ami, Moshe; Kushnir, Amir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the route of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) transmission to hospitalized newborns was from their mothers during delivery. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalized newborns were sampled for ESBL presence by stool cultures on the first and fourth days of life. Mothers of ESBL-positive newborns were sampled for possible correlation detection. Bacteria isolates were molecularly identified and susceptibility tests for antibiotic agents were performed. Of the 225 newborns, 14 (6.2%) were ESBL positive, 10 (4.4%) were Escherichia coli positive, and 4 (1.7%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae positive. Among the 14 mothers of positive newborns, 13 (92.8%) were found ESBL positive and one mother of a newborn with E. coli carriage was found ESBL negative. Genes encoding for ESBL resistance were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance were tested. This study demonstrated that ESBL bacteria carrier neonates hospitalized in NICU may be a result of transmission from mother to baby during delivery.

  14. In utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and anogenital distance in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Besselink, Harrie; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-01-01

    Anogenital distance in animals is used as a measure of fetal androgen action. Prenatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in rodents causes reproductive changes in male offspring and decreases anogenital distance. We assessed whether in utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds adversely influences anogenital distance in newborns and young children (median age, 16 months; range, 1-31 months). We measured anogenital distance among participants of the "Rhea" mother-child cohort study in Crete and the Hospital del Mar (HMAR) cohort in Barcelona. Anogenital distance (AGD; anus to upper penis), anoscrotal distance (ASD; anus to scrotum), and penis width (PW) were measured in 119 newborn and 239 young boys; anoclitoral (ACD; anus to clitoris) and anofourchetal distance (AFD; anus to fourchette) were measured in 118 newborn and 223 young girls. We estimated plasma dioxin-like activity in maternal blood samples collected at delivery with the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX®) bioassay. Anogenital distances were sexually dimorphic, being longer in males than females. Plasma dioxin-like activity was negatively associated with AGD in male newborns. The estimated change in AGD per 10 pg CALUX®-toxic equivalent/g lipid increase was -0.44 mm (95% CI: -0.80, -0.08) after adjusting for confounders. Negative but smaller and nonsignificant associations were observed for AGD in young boys. No associations were found in girls. Male infants may be susceptible to endocrine-disrupting effects of dioxins. Our findings are consistent with the experimental animal evidence used by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization to set recommendations for human dioxin intake.

  15. HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS IN NEW-BORNS AND INFANTS: CLINICAL COURSE AND PERINATAL RISK FACTORS OF ARRHYTHMIAS APPEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kovalyov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical course, prognosis and mechanisms of separate forms of heart rhythm disorders in children differ from those in adults. Especially, it refers to new-borns and infants whose conduction system differs by functional and morphologic immaturity. In connection with it, the assessment of natural history of heart rhythm disorders, occurred in a perinatal period, and determination of risk factors of arrhythmia appearance in infants are of some interest. 88 newborns took part in the study. The patients were involved by continuous sampling technique. Risk factors, occurred in a perinatal period and potentially influenced on development of heart rhythm disorders, were assessed. In our study we took biological, gynecologic and obstetric history, data of gestation and delivery course, early and late neonatal period, early infancy, Echo, neurosonography, Holter monitoring with determination of heart rhythm variability, and determined thyroid hormonal status. Maximum specific gravity had extrasystoles – 32.4% – in the structure of idiopathic arrhythmias in infants. Heart rhythm disorders with natural history were kept at six months of life only in 5,4% of children. Persistence of arrhythmias was marked during one year only for WPW syndrome. Heart rhythm disorders are often marked significantly in children whose mothers had acute respiratory disease during the pregnancy, or if the children were born from the first pregnancy, had the signs of central nervous system damage syndromes in an early perinatal period (arrest, intracranial hypertension, convulsive disorder. Disorders of autonomic imbalance of cardiac function and peculiarities of hemodynamics of pulmonary circulation contribute significantly into appearance and persistence of all types of arrhythmias. On the whole, the prognosis of heart rhythm disorders, occurred in the perinatal period, without organic and structural changes of myocardium is favorable. The exclusion can be made for

  16. [Implications of nicotine detected in autopsy cases of newborn babies and infants from the perspective of social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Furumiya, Junichi; Nakanishi, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-10-01

    Smoking by pregnant and parturient women is generally suspected to increase nicotine levels in fetal and infant blood. Supportive data of nicotine levels in infants is, however, inadequate. We investigated blood and muscle nicotine and cotinine levels in 14 autopsy cases of newborn babies and infants using gas chromatography. Among the 14 cases investigated, nicotine or cotinine was detected in six cases (42.9%). In each of these six cases, the mother was a smoker. Route of exposure to nicotine originating from smoking was transplacental in three cases, via breast milk in one case and secondhand smoke in two cases. Nicotine and cotinine levels in blood from the two cases with placental exposure were 10.6-84.4 ng/ml and 20.3-183 ng/ml, and levels in muscle from one case were 43.9 ng/g and 308 ng/g, respectively. Nicotine and cotinine levels in blood from exposure via breast milk were 19.1 ng/ml and 87.1 ng/ml, and from secondhand smoke were 0 ng/ml and 14.6-20.1 ng/ml. Mean concentrations of blood nicotine and cotinine in 68 autopsy cases of adult habitual smokers were 30.0 ng/ml and 247 ng/ml. Our data for nicotine and cotinine levels in infant blood seem to indicate that some infants who are born and develop under exposure to smoking by family members, particularly the mother, may show high nicotine levels in blood and experience possible health risks.

  17. Air trapping on chest CT is associated with worse ventilation distribution in infants with cystic fibrosis diagnosed following newborn screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham L Hall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In school-aged children with cystic fibrosis (CF structural lung damage assessed using chest CT is associated with abnormal ventilation distribution. The primary objective of this analysis was to determine the relationships between ventilation distribution outcomes and the presence and extent of structural damage as assessed by chest CT in infants and young children with CF. METHODS: Data of infants and young children with CF diagnosed following newborn screening consecutively reviewed between August 2005 and December 2009 were analysed. Ventilation distribution (lung clearance index and the first and second moment ratios [LCI, M(1/M(0 and M(2/M(0, respectively], chest CT and airway pathology from bronchoalveolar lavage were determined at diagnosis and then annually. The chest CT scans were evaluated for the presence or absence of bronchiectasis and air trapping. RESULTS: Matched lung function, chest CT and pathology outcomes were available in 49 infants (31 male with bronchiectasis and air trapping present in 13 (27% and 24 (49% infants, respectively. The presence of bronchiectasis or air trapping was associated with increased M(2/M(0 but not LCI or M(1/M(0. There was a weak, but statistically significant association between the extent of air trapping and all ventilation distribution outcomes. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that in early CF lung disease there are weak associations between ventilation distribution and lung damage from chest CT. These finding are in contrast to those reported in older children. These findings suggest that assessments of LCI could not be used to replace a chest CT scan for the assessment of structural lung disease in the first two years of life. Further research in which both MBW and chest CT outcomes are obtained is required to assess the role of ventilation distribution in tracking the progression of lung damage in infants with CF.

  18. Stability of ampicillin, piperacillin, cefotaxime, netilmicin and amikacin in an L-amino acid solution prepared for total parenteral nutrition of newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, K; Colding, H; Andersen, G E

    1988-01-01

    The stability of ampicillin, piperacillin and cefotaxime, alone or in combination with either netilmicin or amikacin, was tested by microbiological methods at 29 degrees C (ampicillin, also at 22 degrees C) in an L-amino acid solution specially prepared for newborn infants. In the case of ampicil...

  19. Association between Several Persistent Organic Pollutants and Thyroid Hormone Levels in Cord Blood Serum and Bloodspot of the Newborn Infants of Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmi Kim

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on adverse endocrine disruption effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs among newborn infants is limited and often controversial. To investigate the associations between prenatal exposure to major POPs and thyroid hormone levels among newborn infants, both cord serum or maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were compared with five thyroid hormones in cord serum of newborn infants as well as TSH in bloodspot collected at 2 day after birth (n=104. Since cord serum thyroid hormones could be affected by those of mothers, thyroid hormone concentrations of the matching mothers at delivery were adjusted. In cord serum, BDE-47, -99, and Σchlordane (CHD showed significant positive associations with cord or bloodspot TSH. At the same time, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE and hexachlorbenzene (HCB showed negative associations with total T3 and total T4 in cord serum, respectively. Maternal exposure to β-hexachlorhexane (β-HCH, ΣCHD, ΣDDT, or p,p'-DDE were also associated with neonatal thyroid hormones. Although the sample size is small and the thyroid hormone levels of the subjects were within the reference range, our observation supports thyroid disrupting potential of several POPs among newborn infants, at the levels occurring in the general population. Considering the importance of thyroid hormones during gestation and early life stages, health implication of thyroid hormone effects by low level POPs exposure deserves further follow up investigations.

  20. Alterations in head shape of newborn infants after caesarean section or vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S W; Ross, J; Milner, R D

    1976-08-01

    Alterations of head shape in preterm, small-for-dates, and term normal infants were studied by measuring occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and occipitofrontal diameter (OFD) at intervals after birth. In 9 preterm infants born by elective caesarean section ther was a 5-2% reduction in BPD and 2-0% reduction in OFC at the age of 7 days. In 18 term infants born by elective caesarean section these changes were 2-4% and 0% respectively in BPD and OFC. In 25 preterm infants born by vertex vaginal delivery there was a significant fall in OFC of 0-7% at the age of 7 days and of 2-4% in BPD, but no significant change in OFD. In 19 small-for-dates infants born vaginally OFC increased 1-0% and OFD 2-7% at 7 days, but BPD decreased 2-5%. After the first week all three measurements increased in both groups of vaginal deliveries. The results show that shrinkage and biparietal flattening of the skull occur during the first week of life in preterm and term infants born by caesarean section and in preterm infants born vaginally. This fact should be borne in mind when comparing the measurements of an infant's head size with published norms.

  1. Nurses' role in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns in the concept of Family-Centered Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Jakšová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the following review is to analyze the role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care. Design: The type of study – review. Methods: Both licensed and free-access electronic databases were used to search relevant studies from Czech and foreign sources for the period 2000–2015: CINAHL EBSCOhost, SCOPUS, PubMed and Medline. The selection criteria for the studies to be analyzed were as follows: both quantitative and qualitative studies taking into account parents aged 19–44 with premature newborns from 24–36 weeks of gestation. Experimental studies and imprecisely defined studies were eliminated. Only 21 of the 49 research studies considered met the selection criteria. This review involves seven of the studies: three quantitative studies – one randomized study, two cross-sectional studies, and four case studies. Results: Based on analysis of the studies, it appears that Family-Centered Care should be considered an essential means of support for parents of premature newborns. The role of nurses in promoting relations between parents and their premature newborns was highly appreciated in the areas of therapeutic communication, efficient work organization and choice of appropriate interventions. Conclusion: Studies focusing on the application of the principles of Family-Centered Care stress its advantages for parents, premature newborns, and medical staff. The conclusion of most of the studies is that nurses play a unique role in eliminating the degree of trauma experienced by parents, and in promoting relations between parents and premature newborns according to the concept of Family-Centered Care.

  2. Acute subdural hematoma secondary to distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm rupture in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iza-Vallejo, Begoña; Mateo-Sierra, Olga; Fortea-Gil, Fernando; Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Martín, Yolanda Ruiz

    2009-05-01

    The authors present the case of a peripheral aneurysmal lesion that developed in a newborn baby and was successfully treated by endovascular parent artery occlusion. Given the natural history of aneurysms, which are prone to rupture and to cause deleterious intracerebral hemorrhage, with high mortality rates, aggressive and early management (endovascular or surgical) is recommended.

  3. Newborn Care Practices among Mother-Infant Dyads in Urban Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Okaba Kayom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most information on newborn care practices in Uganda is from rural communities which may not be generalized to urban settings. Methods. A community based cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the capital city of Uganda from February to May 2012. Quantitative and qualitative data on the newborn care practices of eligible mothers were collected. Results. Over 99% of the mothers attended antenatal care at least once and the majority delivered in a health facility. Over 50% of the mothers applied various substances to the cord of their babies to quicken the healing. Although most of the mothers did not bathe their babies within the first 24 hours of birth, the majority had no knowledge of skin to skin care as a thermoprotective method. The practice of bathing babies in herbal medicine was common (65%. Most of the mothers breastfed exclusively (93.2% but only 60.7% initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of life, while a significant number (29% used prelacteal feeds. Conclusion. The inadequate newborn care practices in this urban community point to the need to intensify the promotion of universal coverage of the newborn care practices irrespective of rural or urban communities and irrespective of health care seeking indicators.

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis in a newborn infant: a case report Fasciíte necrosante em neonato: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a one-day-old newborn infant, female, birth weight 1900 g, gestational age 36 weeks presenting with necrotizing fasciitis caused by E. coli and Morganella morganii. The newborn was allowed to fall into the toilet bowl during a domestic delivery. The initial lesion was observed at 24 hours of life on the left leg at the site of the venipuncture for the administration of hypertonic glucose solution. Despite early treatment, a rapid progression occurred resulting in a fatal outcome. We call attention to the risk presented by this serious complication in newborns with a contaminated delivery, and highlight the site of the lesion and causal agents.Os autores relatam o caso de um recém-nascido com um dia de vida, sexo feminino, com peso de nascimento de 1900g e idade gestacional de 36 semanas que apresentou fasciíte necrosante causada por E. coli e Morganella morganii. O parto foi domiciliar, com queda acidental no vaso sanitário durante o nascimento. A lesão inicial foi observada com 24 horas de vida, na perna esquerda em local de venopunção para a administração de solução de glicose hipertônica. Apesar do tratamento precoce, houve progressão rápida, com evolução fatal. Os autores chamam a atenção para o risco desta complicação grave em recém-nascido de parto contaminado, destacando o local da lesão e os agentes etiológicos.

  5. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  6. A new holder and surface MRI coil for the examination of the newborn infant hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, R; Casser, H R; Requardt, H; Botschek, A

    1993-01-01

    A special holder was developed for examination of the infant hip joint using MRI. This holder allows the infant hip joint to be examined both in a neutral position and in various defined functional positions. A special integrated surface coil, also developed for this purpose, provides the high spatial resolution required for assessment of the fine joint structures. Thirty infants were examined and the new device has proved useful in advanced hip dysplasia, therapy-resistant subluxation and luxation, and for operative therapy planning (reconstruction of the acetabular roof, redirectional osteotomies). Interpretation errors due to misprojection can be eliminated to a large extent since the holder allows standardized and reproducible positioning.

  7. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilkerson, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Meisner, L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A newborn infant chimpanzee snatched and cannibalized immediately after birth: Implications for "maternity leave" in wild chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Hitonaru; Nakamura, Michio

    2017-10-06

    This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. The case of cannibalism was observed on December 2, 2014. We used the long-term daily attendance record of the M group chimpanzees between 1990 and 2010 to calculate the lengths of "maternity leave," a perinatal period during which a mother chimpanzee tends to hide herself and gives birth alone. We observed a very rare case of delivery in a wild chimpanzee group. A female chimpanzee gave birth in front of other members, and an adult male snatched and cannibalized the newborn infant immediately after birth. Using the long-term data, we demonstrate that the length of "maternity leave" is longer than that of nonmaternity leave among adult and adolescent female chimpanzees. We argue that this cannibalism event immediately after birth occurred due to the complete lack of "maternity leave" of the mother chimpanzee of the victim, who might lack enough experience of delivery. We suggest that "maternity leave" taken by expecting mothers may function as a possible counterstrategy against infanticide soon after delivery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Respiratory water loss and oxygen consumption in newborn infants during phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Riesenfeld, T; Sedin, G

    1992-10-01

    Respiratory water loss was measured together with oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) in 11 full-term and eight preterm infants (mean gestational age 34 weeks, range 31-36 weeks) before and during 1 h of phototherapy. The method for determination of respiratory water loss, VO2 and VCO2 was based on an open flow-through system with a mass spectrometer for measurement of gas concentrations. All infants were studied naked in an incubator with an ambient relative humidity of 50% and with a controlled environment with respect to temperature and air velocity. The infants were calm during the measurements. Before phototherapy, in term infants respiratory water loss was 4.4 (SD 0.7) mg/kg min and VO2 5.9 (0.9) ml/kg min and in preterm infants respiratory water loss was 4.7 (0.8) mg/kg min and VO2 6.1 (0.8) ml/kg min. No significant difference was found between values obtained during or after 1 h of phototherapy and those obtained before.

  10. A comparison of pain measures in newborn infants after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Linda S; Ridout, Deborah; Howard, Richard; Peters, Judy; Honour, John W

    2011-08-01

    Accurate pain assessment tools to evaluate pain in critically ill neonates in the postoperative period are lacking. Therefore, we compared a number of potentially useful indices of pain in critically ill neonates following cardiac surgery. Eighty-one full-term infants were studied during the first 48 postoperative hours and the following indices were measured: heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, heart-rate variability, urinary and plasma cortisol, and 4 composite pain measurement scales: Children's and Infants' Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS), CRIES, COMFORT, and Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Regression models were used to investigate relationships between individual pain indices or composite pain assessment scales with respect to procedural intensity and opioid dose and plasma levels. COMFORT score performed best, with a 27% difference in score between procedures causing tissue damage and those that did not (Ppain indices studied, the COMFORT score performed best, with both behavioural and physiological components providing significant contributions.

  11. Emergency balloon dilation or stenting of critical coarctation of aorta in newborns and infants: An effective interim palliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of native uncomplicated coarctation in neonates remains controversial with current evidence favoring surgery. The logistics of organizing surgical repair at short notice in sick infants with critical coarctation can be challenging. Methods and Results: We reviewed data of 10 infants (mean age of 2.9 ±1.6 weeks who underwent catheter intervention for severe coarctation and left ventricular (LV dysfunction between July 2003 and August 2007. Additional cardiac lesions were present in 7. Mean systolic gradient declined from 51±12 mm Hg to 8.7±6.7 mm Hg after dilation. The coarctation segment was stented in five patients. Procedural success was achieved in all patients with no mortality. Complications included brief cardiopulmonary arrest (n =1, sepsis (n = 1 and temporary pulse loss (n = 2. LV dysfunction improved in all patients. Average ICU stay was 5±3.4 days and hospital stay was 6.5±3.4 days. On follow-up (14.1±10.5 months, all developed restenosis after median period of 12 weeks (range four to 28 weeks. Three (two with stents underwent elective coarctation repair, two underwent ventricular septal defect (VSD closure and coarctation repair and one underwent pulmonary artery (PA banding. Two patients who developed restenosis on follow-up were advised surgery, but did not report. Two (one with stent underwent redilatation and are being followed with no significant residual gradients. Conclusion: Balloon dilation ± stenting is an effective interim palliation for infants and newborns with critical coarctation and LV dysfunction. Restenosis is inevitable and requires to be addressed.

  12. Neonatal parenteral nutrition hypersensitivity: a case report implicating bisulfite sensitivity in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Robert K; Baxter, Louise M; Larrabee, Paige B

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a case of parenteral nutrition hypersensitivity in a 37 weeks' gestation infant with congenital diaphragmatic hernia complicated by bowel necrosis and functional short bowel syndrome. The patient developed a rash with subsequent urticaria beginning on the 50th day of life. The reactions were confirmed with a positive rechallenge. After the amino acid solution was replaced with a non-bisulfite-containing product, the infant was able to continue to receive nutrition support through parenteral nutrition without recurrence of symptoms. It is speculated that the bisulfite additive in the amino acid solution may have interacted with the lipid emulsion to sensitize the patient.

  13. Effect of hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin on infection in newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Jia Yang; Jin-Hong Liu; Xue-Lian Tong; Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin on infection in newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers. Methods:Two hundred newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers who had received prenatal examination and given birth to their child were selected as the study subjects and divided into the control group and the observation group in accordance with the voluntary principle. Newborn infants in the control group received 100 IU of vaccinations of hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin at postnatal 24 h, 1 month and 6 months, while lying-in women in the observation group were continuously given 200 IU of immune globulin injection at the 27th, 30th, 33rd and 36th weeks of pregnancy. The infection condition and the influence of different delivery modes in infants of the two groups would be observed 12 months after birth. Results:The HBsAg positive rate and HBsAb positive rate of infants in the observation group were 1.00%and 59.00%respectively, while the control group’s were 10.00%and 73.00%. The HBsAg positive rate and HBsAb positive rate of infants in the observation group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The data showed statistical significances. Seven cases of infants born vaginally showed positive HBsAg. One of them belonged to the observation group and the other six were in the control group. Four cases of infants delivered by cesarean section showed positive HBsAg and they all belonged to the control group. The HBsAg positive rate of the observation group was obviously lower than that of the control group no matter what deliver mode those children had received. Conclusions:Hepatitis B vaccine combined with hepatitis B immune globulin could effectively decrease the morbidity rate of positive HBsAg for newborn infants no matter what birth way they had received.

  14. Glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition does not improve intestinal permeability, nitrogen balance, or outcome in newborns and infants undergoing digestive-tract surgery: results from a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); F.W.J. Hazebroek (Frans); M. Mourik; G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); T. Rietveld (Trinet); J.G.M. Huijmans (Jan); D. Tibboel (Dick); M.J.I.J. Albers (Marcel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Glutamine supplementation in critically i

  15. Glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition does not improve intestinal permeability, nitrogen balance, or outcome in newborns and infants undergoing digestive-tract surgery - Results from a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, MJIJ; Steyerberg, EW; Hazebroek, FWJ; Mourik, M; Borsboom, GJJM; Rietveld, T; Huijmans, JGM; Tibboel, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of isocaloric isonitrogenous parenteral glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and nitrogen loss in newborns and infants after major digestive-tract surgery. Summary Background Data: Glutamine supplementation in critically ill and surgical adults may nor

  16. Pharmacokinetic analysis of 14C-ursodiol in newborn infants using accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordi, Toufigh; Baillie, Rebecca; Vuong, Le T; Abidi, Saira; Dueker, Stephen; Vasquez, Herbert; Pegis, Priscilla; Hopper, Andrew O; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2014-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies in the neonatal population are often limited by the small volume of blood that can be collected. The high sensitivity of (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) enables pharmacokinetic studies to be conducted with greatly reduced sample volumes. We demonstrated the utility of AMS in infants by studying the plasma pharmacokinetic behavior of nanogram doses of (14) C-ursodiol administered as a non-perturbing microdose or as a microtracer with therapeutic doses of non-labeled ursodiol in infants. Five non-cholestatic infants were administered 3 consecutive oral microdoses of (14) C-ursodiol: 8 ng (1.0 nCi), 26 ng (3.3 nCi), and 80 ng (10 nCi) 48 hours apart. Three additional infants with cholestasis were administered a single 80 ng (10.0 nCi) oral dose of (14) C-ursodiol together with a therapeutic dose of 40 mg/kg of non-labeled ursodiol. A pharmacokinetic model describing ursodiol concentrations was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The pharmacokinetics of ursodiol in this pilot study were best described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of microdose and microtrace methodology in pediatric research.

  17. [Severe respiratory distress with stubborn hypoxemia in newborn infants whose mothers had had placenta previa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioude, R; Bourgeois, M; Canet, J

    1975-01-01

    The study of 16 newborn of birthweight less than or equal to 2,200 g characterized by a common point: the presence of PLACENTA PRAEVIA IN THE MOTHER, enabled us to come to grips with the severe respiratory distress that these newborn can have. From the clinical standpoint: there is always early respiratory distress. From the radiological standpoint: by far the most dominant pathology was interstitial edema, giving rise to a WET LUNG. From the biochemical standpoint: the blood gases were characterized in a certain number of cases by hypoxemia which was refractory to the usual forms of treatment. From the mechanical standpoint: measurements carried out in 4 patients confirmed the extraordinary fall in these patients' compliance. The clinical, radiological, blood gas and mechanical analysis enabled one to differenciate 2 main types of indications for artificial ventilation: -- acute hypoxemia, -- the idea of an increased need for oxygen. In these 2 types of indications for artificial ventilation, it was apparent that the treatment of choice is constant positive pressure which may or may not be combined with intermittent positive pressure. With this treatment technique, none of the patients progressed to massive atelectasis. It can be said that with the advent of techniques of ventilation by high pressure combining IPP with CPP, one has definitively eliminated from this pathological picture, the principal cause of death: --anoxia due to massive alveolar collapse.

  18. Reducing maternal, newborn, and infant mortality globally: an integrated action agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cabral, Sergio; Chan, Chok-Wan; Keenan, William J

    2012-10-01

    There has been increasing awareness over recent years of the persisting burden of worldwide maternal, newborn, and child mortality. The majority of maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, with obstetric hemorrhage as the primary medical cause of death. Other causes of maternal mortality include hypertensive diseases, sepsis/infections, obstructed labor, and abortion-related complications. Recent estimates indicate that in 2009 an estimated 3.3 million babies died in the first month of life and that overall, 7.3 million children under 5 die each year. Recent data also suggest that sufficient evidence- and consensus-based interventions exist to address reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health globally, and if implemented at scale, these have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need to put elements in place to promote integrated interventions among healthcare professionals and their associations. What is needed is the political will and partnerships to implement evidence-based interventions at scale.

  19. Emollient therapy for preterm newborn infants – evidence from the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Application of emollients is a widespread traditional newborn care practice in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) and may have the potential to decrease infection and consequent mortality in preterm neonates. Methods We systematically reviewed literature published up to December 2012 to identify studies describing the effectiveness of emollient therapy. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format to estimate the effect of emollient therapy by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. Results We included seven studies and one unpublished trial in this review. Topical emollient therapy significantly reduced neonatal mortality by 27% (RR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94) and hospital acquired infection by 50% (RR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.71). There were significant increases in weight (g) (MD: 98.04, 95% CI: 42.64, 153.45) and weight gain (g/kg/day) (MD: 1.57, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.36), whereas the impacts were non-significant for length and head circumference. Conclusion Emollient therapy is associated with improved weight gain, reduced risk of infection and associated newborn mortality in preterm neonates and is a potentially promising intervention for use in low resource settings. Large scale effectiveness trials are required to further assess the impact of this intervention. PMID:24564550

  20. Learning, Play, and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Learning, Play, and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Learning, ... juega su recién nacido What Is My Newborn Learning? Play is the chief way that infants learn ...

  1. A New Scale for Evaluating the Risks for In-Hospital Falls of Newborn Infants: A Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Abike

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop a new scale for evaluating risks and preventive measures for in-hospital falls of newborn infants, from admission to discharge of the expectant mother. Our study was prepared in accordance with Failure Modes and Effects Analysis criteria. The risks and preventive measures for in-hospital falls of newborns were determined. Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs were determined by multiplication of the scores of severity, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Analyses showed that risks having the highest RPNs were the mother with epidural anesthesia (RPN: 350 point, holding of the baby at the moment of delivery (RPN: 240, and transportation of baby right after delivery (RPN: 240. A reduction was detected in all RPNs after the application of preventive measures. Our risk model can function as a guide for obstetric clinics that need to form strategies to prevent newborn falls.

  2. One Nursing Case of Brain-stem Hemorrhage from Newborn Infant%1例新生儿脑干出血的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜爱红

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes a nursing case of infant patient who suffers from brainstem hemorrhage through an emergency cure and carefillly nursing of brainstem hemorrhage from newborn infant.%通过对l例新生儿脑干出血的急救治疗,并进行了精心细致的护理,患者康复出院,并安全度过新生儿期。本文对其护理进行总结介绍。

  3. Family knowledge on newborn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Leticia Monteiro Gomes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: analyzing the knowledge that families acquired on newborn care, before and after their participation in a mother-father-infant welcoming group. Methods: a quantitative and descriptive study that took place in a municipal health center, with 27 participants. Data were collected by a questionnaire applied before and after the educational activity, and was analyzed by comparing the answers of the items. Results: care actions properly modified were: the use of baby powder, soap, tea, objects in the navel, sun bathing time, correct hygiene of male genitalia, attention to child’s records and physiological eliminations. Conclusion: the families reported positive changes in newborn care through participation in health education activities, suggesting that the activity developed with caregivers can reduce risks to the health of newborn babies.

  4. [Objective hearing tests in pediatric audiology: AGERA recommendations for follow-up diagnosis in infants that fail newborn hearing screening tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, S; Janssen, T; Mühler, R; Walger, M; Wiesner, T

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the recommendations compiled by the German Electric Response Audiometry Working Group (Arbeitsgruppe Elektrische Reaktions-Audiometrie, AGERA) and the Association of German Audiologists and Neuro-otologists (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutschsprachiger Audiologen und Neurootologen, ADANO) for infants that fail newborn hearing screening (NHS) tests. Outlined are procedures for follow-up diagnosis using objective hearing tests to rule out or confirm a therapeutically relevant auditory defect and assessment of the severity thereof.

  5. A Turkish newborn infant with cerebellar agenesis/neonatal diabetes mellitus and PTF1A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutak, E; Satar, M; Yapicioğlu, H; Altintaş, A; Narli, N; Hergüner, O; Bayram, Y

    2009-01-01

    Classical neonatal diabetes mellitus is defined as hyperglycemia that occurs within the first month of life in term infants. It can be either permanent or transient. Cerebellar agenesis and permanent neonatal diabetes has been previously reported as a new autosomal recessive disorder. Pancreas Transcription Factor 1 Alpha (PTF1A) mutations have been related with this constellation of abnormalities. Here we report a new case of cerebellar agenesis and neonatal diabetes mellitus whose parents are PTF1A mutation carriers.

  6. Neonatal Respiratory Diseases in the Newborn Infant: Novel Insights from Stable Isotope Tracer Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnielli, Virgilio P; Giorgetti, Chiara; Simonato, Manuela; Vedovelli, Luca; Cogo, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is a common problem in preterm infants and the etiology is multifactorial. Lung underdevelopment, lung hypoplasia, abnormal lung water metabolism, inflammation, and pulmonary surfactant deficiency or disfunction play a variable role in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome. High-quality exogenous surfactant replacement studies and studies on surfactant metabolism are available; however, the contribution of surfactant deficiency, alteration or dysfunction in selected neonatal lung conditions is not fully understood. In this article, we describe a series of studies made by applying stable isotope tracers to the study of surfactant metabolism and lung water. In a first set of studies, which we call 'endogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled intravenous surfactant precursors, we showed the feasibility of measuring surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants using several metabolic precursors including plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids and body water. In a second set of studies, named 'exogenous studies', using stable isotope-labelled phosphatidylcholine tracer given endotracheally, we could estimate surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholine pool size and half-life. Very recent studies are focusing on lung water and on the endogenous biosynthesis of the surfactant-specific proteins. Information obtained from these studies in infants will help to better tailor exogenous surfactant treatment in neonatal lung diseases.

  7. [Traditional enema for newborns and infants in Bobo Dioulasso: health practice or socialisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, Pierre; Konaté, Blahima; Traoré, Abdullaye; Barennes, Hubert

    2002-01-01

    Kanki demonstrated a high prevalence and frequency of enema practised with newborns in the South-West of Burkina Faso. Little is known about the risks on children's health possibly associated with this practice and about its impact on other treatments in paediatrics. In this study, the authors describe daily administered enema (DAE) and analyse local conceptual frameworks underlying this practice through in-depth-interviews and focus group discussions with 30 mothers, 5 traditional healers and 5 health agents. Various medications are used to compose the liquid introduced by the mothers in the child's anus. Many of these substances are prone to irritate intestinal mucus, others are simply toxic. Practically, enema aims at curing or preventing a variety of diseases caused by an accumulation of impurities (nògò) in the intestines due to the consumption of inappropriate food. With newborns, diseases are transmitted by mothers through breastfeeding after eating food which is too sweet or too fat. In addition to provoking diseases, the nògò also "block" the child's physical and psychic development during his/her first year of life. Therefore, as soon as the child has excreted for the first time, most mothers give enema daily both to protect their children from diseases and to speed their development. In fact, beside prophylaxy and therapy lies a "didactic" function of enema as a medication used to help the child to stand up, to get teeth..., to gain independence from his/her mother. DAE therefore plays an important role in the process of acquiring bio-social aptitudes, i.e., important educational virtues to achieve a successful first step in the socialisation process. Exploring more deeply local perceptions explaining the origin of the n g , the authors found an interesting relationship with religious taboos. Beside prohibited food, the n g are also due to transgression of various taboos surrounding birth and breastfeeding and even suggest a religious, rather than

  8. Cystic degeneration of the telencephalic subependymal germinal layer in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, G A; Girling, D J

    1975-03-01

    Cystic lesions were found in the telencephalic germinal layer of 12 newborn babies. According to their location, the cysts could be divided into three groups: anterior, middle or thalamostriate, and posterior. The histological appearance of all cysts was essentially the same, but in three cases the germinal layer had a peculiar alveolar type of microcystic degeneration. A constant feature was the presence in the cyst wall of small white granulations composed of germinal cells and/or glial tissue. Cystic degeneration of the germinal layer was usually bilateral and sometimes quite extensive. After the involution of the germinal layer, these lesions are likely to persist as subependymal cysts, characterized by their specific location and the presence of glial granulations.

  9. Face Orientation and Motion Differently Affect the Deployment of Visual Attention in Newborns and 4-Month-Old Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Valenza

    Full Text Available Orienting visual attention allows us to properly select relevant visual information from a noisy environment. Despite extensive investigation of the orienting of visual attention in infancy, it is unknown whether and how stimulus characteristics modulate the deployment of attention from birth to 4 months of age, a period in which the efficiency in orienting of attention improves dramatically. The aim of the present study was to compare 4-month-old infants' and newborns' ability to orient attention from central to peripheral stimuli that have the same or different attributes. In Experiment 1, all the stimuli were dynamic and the only attribute of the central and peripheral stimuli to be manipulated was face orientation. In Experiment 2, both face orientation and motion of the central and peripheral stimuli were contrasted. The number of valid trials and saccadic latency were measured at both ages. Our results demonstrated that the deployment of attention is mainly influenced by motion at birth, while it is also influenced by face orientation at 4-month of age. These findings provide insight into the development of the orienting visual attention in the first few months of life and suggest that maturation may be not the only factor that determines the developmental change in orienting visual attention from birth to 4 months.

  10. [Angioarchitectonics of the costovertebral joints of embryos, fetuses, and newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavata, B V

    1981-09-01

    Blood supply of the costo-vertebral joints has been studied in human embryos (18), fetuses of various age (83) and newborns (4). Methods of preparation, circulatory bed injection with various contrasting masses--for roentgenography and Indian ink with gelatin suspension--for microscopic investigations have been applied. Histological sections (both sagittal and horizontal) have been stained after van Gieson. At the end of the 8th week of development the main sources of blood supply for the human costo-vertebral joints are branches of the segmental arteries, and at the end of the 12th week--those of the subclavian artery (the highest intercostal artery and the deep cervical artery) and those of the thoracic aorta (10 pairs of the posterior intercostal arteries). In the fetuses, variations in the course of the intercostal arteries have been revealed. The arteries situating within the costo-vertebral joints form extra organic branches which participate in blood supply of ligaments, articular capsules and cartilagenous epiphyses. Peculiar features in the angioarchitectonics of structural components of the costo-vertebral joints have been demonstrated. Interrelations of the blood vessels with some tissues of the costal head joint and the costo-transversal joints have been stated. The course and direction of capillaries in the cartilagenous tissue of the head, cervix and costal tubercle, and also in the transversal processes of the thoracic vertebrae have been described. No blood vessels have been revealed in the cartilage of the costo-vertebral joints.

  11. Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Patrik; Svanberg, Emilie K.; Cocola, Lorenzo; Lewander, Märta; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Jahr, John; Fellman, Vineta; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2012-03-01

    Non-invasive diode laser spectroscopy was, for the first time, used to assess gas content in the intestines and the lungs of a new-born, 4 kg, baby. Two gases, water vapor and oxygen, were studied with two low-power tunable diode lasers, illuminating the surface skin tissue and detecting the diffusely emerging light a few centimeters away. The light, having penetrated into the tissue, had experienced absorption by gas located in the lungs and in the intestines. Very distinct water vapor signals were obtained from the intestines while imprint from oxygen was lacking, as expected. Detectable, but minor, signals of water vapor were also obtained from the lungs, illuminating the armpit area and detecting below the collar bone. Water vapor signals were seen but again oxygen signals were lacking, now due to the difficulties of penetration of the oxygen probing light into the lungs of this full-term baby. Ultra-sound images were obtained both from the lungs and from the stomach of the baby. Based on dimensions and our experimental findings, we conclude, that for early pre-term babies, also oxygen should be detectable in the lungs, in addition to intestine and lung detection of water vapor. The present paper focuses on the studies of the intestines while the lung studies will be covered in a forthcoming paper.

  12. A case of cervical esophageal duplication cyst in a newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Shoko; Segawa, Osamu; Kimura, Shuri; Tsuchiya, Masayoshi; Henmi, Nobuhide; Hasegawa, Hisaya; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-12-01

    Esophageal duplication cyst is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from a foregut budding error during the fourth to sixth week of embryonic development. Cervical esophageal duplication cysts are very rare and may cause respiratory distress in infancy. A full-term newborn girl who was born by normal delivery was transferred to our hospital because of swelling of the right anterior neck since birth. Cervical ultrasonography showed a 40 × 24 × 33 mm simple cyst on the right neck. Tracheal intubation was required at 2 weeks of age because of worsening external compression of the trachea. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed the existence of ciliated epithelium. At 1 month of age, exploration was performed through a transverse neck incision. The cyst had a layer of muscle connected to the lateral wall of the esophagus. Histopathological diagnosis was a cervical esophageal duplication cyst. We describe the clinical features of infantile cervical esophageal duplication cysts based on our experience of this rare disease in a neonate, along with a review of 19 cases previously reported in literature.

  13. Newborn screening for methylmalonic aciduria by tandem mass spectrometry: 7 years' experience from two centers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kang-Hsiang; Liu, Mei-Ying; Kao, Chuan-Hong; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsiao, Kwang-Jen; Liu, Tze-Tze; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Hung; Chiang, Chuan-Chi; Ho, Huey-Jane; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Lee, Ni-Chung; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lin, Ju-Li; Hung, Ping-Yao; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2010-06-01

    The clinical course of methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is fulminant in neonates and emergency management is necessary to save lives. It is therefore very important to differentiate affected from unaffected neonates immediately when there are abnormal results regarding MMA in newborn screening. Between January 2002 and December 2008, 598,522 newborns were screened for MMA by 2 neonatal screening centers: the Chinese Foundation of Health and the Taipei Institute of Pathology. A total of 22 newborns were referred to confirmatory medical centers, and 7 were confirmed as having MMA. The initial propionylcarnitine (C3) level, C3/acetylcarnitine (C2) ratio, plasma ammonia, liver function tests, blood pH and bicarbonate were compared between the true-positive and false-positive groups. The C3/C2 ratio and plasma ammonia were markedly higher in the true-positive MMA group (p 0.4 or ammonia levels > 200 mg/dL should be highly suspected of having MMA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Perinatal Outcomes of Newborn Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Dadashloo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcomes of such pregnancies have been rarely evaluated in our country. Adescriptive study was planned to assess the health and condition of neonates conceived with assistedtechniques in a one year period.Materials and Methods: At Royan Institute, Tehran, 443 women who became pregnant by oneof the assisted techniques in vitro fertilization (IVF, intrauterine insemination (IUI andintracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI enrolled in a descriptive study during 16 month periodbeginning on September, 2007. The sampling method used was non-incidental, consecutive.Questionnaires regarding the contents of the baby birth card were completed after interviews withthe mothers. The time from fertilization of the ovum until delivery was considered as the gestational(conception age. Pregnant mothers were under periodic evaluation until delivery. Women withstillborn babies were followed via phone contact.Results: From a total of 443 conceptions, there were 13 (2.9% pregnancies demised in utero(stillbirths and 10 (2.6% who died during the neonatal period. Additionally, 133 (43% infantswere born after multifetal pregnancies and 96 (31% infants were prematurely born. There were 106(34.3% infants with low birth weight (LBW; less than 2500 g, of which 83 (78.3% LBW infantswere multiplets. After completion of the study, 71 women were still passing their pregnancy periodand no assessed.Conclusion: The most important factor for untoward perinatal events was multifetal pregnancy. Suchpregnancies were more frequently complicated and higher risk. Low birth weight and prematuritywere more frequent in singletons conceived by assisted techniques in respect to control singletons.

  15. A study of the effects of pinealectomy on intestinal cell proliferation in infant newborn rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalio Marcelo Belini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Study the proliferation rate of jejunum and large intestine crypt epithelial cells, in rats pinealectomized immediately after borning. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups: Acute group (n=12 and Chronic group (n=12. Six animals of each group were operated for removal of the pineal gland (pinealectomy-PnX, and other six were controls (sham pinealectomy-C. Animals from acute and chronic group were sacrificed 15 and 90 days after the surgery, respectively. RESULTS: In acute group, pinealectomy of new-born rats has not caused significant alteration in cell proliferation (PnX=58,77?1,77 and C=60,88?1,10 in the descending colon/ PnX=31,56?0,45 and C=31,73?0,47 in the proximal jejunum and in crypt cell population (PnX=24,92?4,82 and C=23,60?2,48 in the descending colon/ PnX=39,92?3,49 and C=44,32?5,56 in the proximal jejunum. However, in chronic group there was an uprising crypt cell production per crypt in the proximal jejunum (PnX=57,54?2,19 and C=47,19?7,3and in the descending colon (PnX=37,78?2,22 and C=17,92?2,28. CONCLUSION: As the increase of intestinal crypts epithelial cells in chronic group is a carcinogenesis predetermining factor, the understanding of the interaction between pineal gland and this event has great importance.

  16. Effect of maternal consumption of cocaine base paste on neurological behavior of newborn infants Comportamiento neurológico del recién nacido de madre consumidora de basuco durante su gestación

    OpenAIRE

    Luz E. Gómez; José E. Caicedo R.; Rafael J. Manotas Cabarcas

    1997-01-01

    Twenty newborn infants from mothers that consumed coca leaves' paste during pregnancy were compared with 19 controls as to their neurological behavior and supression evidences; the following alterations were significantly more frequent (p < 0.05) in infants from consumer mothers: Tremor, irritability, nausea, and depression of crying, suction and prension. The duration of these alterations as well as that of other neurological abnormalities was significantly longer in infants from consumer...

  17. Using Stochastic modelling to identify unusual continuous glucose monitor measurements and behaviour, in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signal Matthew

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal blood glucose (BG concentrations have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both critically ill adults and infants. Furthermore, hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability have both been independently linked to mortality in these patients. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM devices have the potential to improve detection and diagnosis of these glycaemic abnormalities. However, sensor noise is a trade-off of the high measurement rate and must be managed effectively if CGMs are going to be used to monitor, diagnose and potentially help treat glycaemic abnormalities. Aim To develop a tool that will aid clinicians in identifying unusual CGM behaviour and highlight CGM data that potentially need to be interpreted with care. Methods CGM data and BG measurements from 50 infants at risk of hypoglycaemia were used. Unusual CGM measurements were classified using a stochastic model based on the kernel density method and historical CGM measurements from the cohort. CGM traces were colour coded with very unusual measurements coloured red, highlighting areas to be interpreted with care. A 5-fold validation of the model was Monte Carlo simulated 25 times to ensure an adequate model fit. Results The stochastic model was generated using ~67,000 CGM measurements, spread across the glycaemic range ~2-10 mmol/L. A 5-fold validation showed a good model fit: the model 80% confidence interval (CI captured 83% of clinical CGM data, the model 90% CI captured 91% of clinical CGM data, and the model 99% CI captured 99% of clinical CGM data. Three patient examples show the stochastic classification method in use with 1 A stable, low variability patient which shows no unusual CGM measurements, 2 A patient with a very sudden, short hypoglycaemic event (classified as unusual, and, 3 A patient with very high, potentially un-physiological, glycaemic variability after day 3 of monitoring (classified as very unusual. Conclusions

  18. Screening programmes for developmental dysplasia of the hip in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon Shorter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Uncorrected developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH is associated with long term morbidity such as gait abnormalities, chronic pain and degenerative arthritis. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of different screening programmes for DDH on the incidence of late presentation of congenital hip dislocation. METHODS Search methods: Searches were performed in CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2011 supplemented by searches of clinical trial registries, conference proceedings, cross references and contacting expert informants. Selection criteria: Randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster trials comparing the effectiveness of screening programmes for DDH. Data collection and analysis: Three independent review authors assessed study eligibility and quality, and extracted data. MAIN RESULTS No study examined the effect of screening (clinical and/or ultrasound and early treatment versus not screening and later treatment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is insufficient evidence to give clear recommendations for practice. There is inconsistent evidence that universal ultrasound results in a significant increase in treatment compared to the use of targeted ultrasound or clinical examination alone. Neither of the ultrasound strategies have been demonstrated to improve clinical outcomes including late diagnosed DDH and surgery. The studies are substantially underpowered to detect significant differences in the uncommon event of late detected DDH or surgery. For infants with unstable hips or mildly dysplastic hips, use of delayed ultrasound and targeted splinting reduces treatment without significantly increasing the rate of late diagnosed DDH or surgery.

  19. Use of Esophageal Hemoximetry to Assess the Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Gastrointestinal Oxygenation in Newborn Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Farha M; Gates, Judy; Gerard, Kimberley; Hanson, Shawn; Applegate, Richard L; Blood, Arlin B

    2017-01-18

    Objectives There are no widely accepted methods of continuously monitoring gut oxygenation in the newborn during packed red blood cell transfusion. We investigated the use of an orally inserted light spectroscopy probe to measure lower esophageal oxyhemoglobin saturations (eStO2) before, during, and after transfusion and made comparisons with abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow. Study Design Thirteen neonates with corrected gestational ages ranging from 22 weeks, 0 day to 37 weeks, 5 days were enrolled. eStO2 and NIRS measurements were recorded continuously for a 25-hour period starting 1 hour prior to starting the 4-hour transfusion. Transabdominal ultrasound was used to measure SMA flow prior to, upon completion, and 20 hours after the transfusion. Results Twelve infants completed the study. eStO2 was well-tolerated and was weakly (r = 0.06) correlated (p < 0.001) with NIRS. Compared with NIRS, eStO2 demonstrated a markedly greater variation in oxyhemoglobin values. NIRS and SMA flow measurements did not change, while eStO2 increased from 48 ± 5% and 45 ± 5% in the pre- and intratransfusion periods to 57 ± 4% in the posttransfusion period (p = 0.03). Conclusion Measurement of eStO2 is feasible in neonates and may provide a continuous and sensitive index of rapid changes in mesenteric oxygenation in this patient population.

  20. Validity of behavioral and physiologic parameters for acute pain assessment of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lübe de S Thiago Pereira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The subjectivity of pain causes enormous difficulties in evaluating neonatal pain with a single, practical and easy-to-apply tool. Pain evaluation in the neonatal period should be performed by valid, safe, useful and feasible methods. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS, Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS, heart rate (HR and O2 saturation (O2 sat for neonatal pain assessment. DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind randomized trial. SETTING: A secondary level maternity hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 70 healthy neonates requiring bilirubin dosage were randomly assigned to receive a venous puncture (P: n=33, BW 3.2kg, SD 0.6; GA 39wk, SD 1; 59h of life, SD 25 or an alcohol swab friction (F: n=37; BW 3.1kg, SD 0.5; GA 39wk, SD 1; 52h of life, SD 17. INTERVENTION: All measurements were taken prior to (PRE, during (T0, and 1(T1, 3(T3, 5(T5 and 10(T10 minutes after the procedure. MEASUREMENTS: A neonatologist evaluated NFCS, NIPS, HR and O2 sat by pulse oxymetry. RESULTS: Median NFCS and NIPS results at T0, T1 and T3 were higher in P group, compared to F. More P neonates presented NFCS >2 and/or NIPS >3 at T0, T1 and T3. HR was lower in P group at T1. Average O2 sat was above 90% during the whole study period in both groups. CONCLUSION: NFCS and NIPS are suitable instruments for neonatal pain evaluation. Heart rate and O2 saturation can be used only as auxiliary methods.

  1. Inter-society consensus document on treatment and prevention of bronchiolitis in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Eugenio; Lanari, Marcello; Manzoni, Paolo; Rossi, Giovanni A; Vandini, Silvia; Rimini, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Costantino; Colonna, Pierluigi; Biondi, Andrea; Biban, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Bernardini, Roberto; Picca, Marina; Cappa, Marco; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Catassi, Carlo; Urbino, Antonio Francesco; Memo, Luigi; Donzelli, Gianpaolo; Minetti, Carlo; Paravati, Francesco; Di Mauro, Giuseppe; Festini, Filippo; Esposito, Susanna; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-10-24

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in children less than 1 year of age worldwide. It is usually a mild disease, but some children may develop severe symptoms, requiring hospital admission and ventilatory support in the ICU. Infants with pre-existing risk factors (prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart diseases and immunodeficiency) may be predisposed to a severe form of the disease. Clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis is manly based on medical history and physical examination (rhinorrhea, cough, crackles, wheezing and signs of respiratory distress). Etiological diagnosis, with antigen or genome detection to identify viruses involved, may have a role in reducing hospital transmission of the infection. Criteria for hospitalization include low oxygen saturation (bronchiolitis, and the mainstay of therapy is supportive care. This consists of nasal suctioning and nebulized 3% hypertonic saline, assisted feeding and hydration, humidified O2 delivery. The possible role of any pharmacological approach is still debated, and till now there is no evidence to support the use of bronchodilators, corticosteroids, chest physiotherapy, antibiotics or antivirals. Nebulized adrenaline may be sometimes useful in the emergency room. Nebulized adrenaline can be useful in the hospital setting for treatment as needed. Lacking a specific etiological treatment, prophylaxis and prevention, especially in children at high risk of severe infection, have a fundamental role. Environmental preventive measures minimize viral transmission in hospital, in the outpatient setting and at home. Pharmacological prophylaxis with palivizumab for RSV bronchiolitis is indicated in specific categories of children at risk during the epidemic period. Viral bronchiolitis, especially in the case of severe form, may correlate with an increased incidence of recurrent wheezing in pre-schooled children and with asthma at school age

  2. Cardiac output measurement in newborn infants using the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor: an assessment of agreement with conventional echocardiography, repeatability and new user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neil; Dodsworth, Melissa; Mills, John F

    2011-05-01

    To assess (1) agreement between the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) 1A device for measurement of cardiac output in newborn infants and conventional echocardiography (ECHO), (2) repeatability of USCOM measurements and (3) agreement between novice and expert users of the USCOM. A prospective observational study. The Neonatal Unit at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. 56 term and near-term infants, with no evidence of structural or functional cardiovascular disease, or haemodynamic shunts. Agreement between ECHO and USCOM was assessed by paired measurements of ventricular outputs by a single experienced user. Repeatability was assessed using five repeated measurements in 10 infants. Agreement between five novices and one expert user was assessed by paired USCOM measurements over 30 training measurements. Agreement between USCOM and ECHO for left ventricular output (LVO) was (bias, ±limits of agreement, mean % error): 14, ±108 ml/kg/min, 43%, and for right ventricular output (RVO): -59, ±160, ml/kg/min, 57%. Intra-observer repeatability was 6.7% for USCOM LVO and 3.6% for ECHO LVO. After five training measurements, the mean difference between USCOM measures of LVO by novice and expert users was less than 50 ml/kg/min, but with variability. Repeatability of USCOM measures is high in newborn infants. New users can be trained quickly, but with high inter-user variability. Agreement between USCOM and conventional ECHO is broad, and worse for RVO and LVO. Further studies are required to assess the ability of the device to detect clinically significant changes in infant cardiac output.

  3. Perioperative Feeding Approaches in Single Ventricle Infants: A Survey of 46 Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, Julie; Sables-Baus, Sharon; Lambert, Linda M; Peterson, Laura E; Woodard, Frances K; Ocampo, Elena C

    2016-12-01

    Background Feeding dysfunction occurs commonly in infants with single ventricle heart disease and impacts growth and long-term outcomes. Little evidence exists to guide safe feeding in this population. This study surveyed centers participating in the National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative to assess prevailing feeding practices amongthose caring for single ventricle neonates. Methods Web-based survey of 56 pediatric cardiac surgical centers was conducted. Questions addressed peri-operative feeding approaches and responses were presented and analyzed descriptively. Results Of 56 centers, 46 (82%) completed a survey. Preoperative feeding was common in single ventricle infants (30/46; 65%), routes varied. Centers who did not feed infants preoperatively cited the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (16/16; 100%), presence of umbilical artery catheter (12/16; 75%), and prostaglandin infusion (9/16; 56%) as main concerns. 67% of centers reported no specific vital sign thresholds for withholding enteral feedings. In the postoperative period, most centers used an "internal guideline" (21/46; 46%) or an "informal practice" (15/46; 33%) to determine feeding readiness. Approaches to findings were significantly different among centers. About 40% of centers did not send patients home with feeding tubes, and there was no clear consensus between preferred feeding tube modality at discharge. Conclusion Considerable variation exists in feeding practices for infants with single ventricle congenital heart disease among 46 centers participating in a quality improvement collaborative. Although most centers generally feed infants preoperatively, feeding practices remain center-specific. Variability continues in the immediate post-operative and interstage periods. Further opportunities exist for investigation, standardization and development of best-practice feeding guidelines.

  4. [Handicaps due to perinatal causes in Trento newborn infants (1979-1988)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, G; Ghersini, L

    1992-01-01

    A survey on perinatal handicaps must follow some standards: a) homogeneous population; b) univoc method of evaluation; c) 7 years follow-up; d) case control study. From ethnic and geographical point of view, Trentino is in a favorable condition; all pathologic cases come in the only 3th Level Center (Trento), and all neurological evaluations were made from the same specialist up to primary school. Now case control survey is starting. In district of Trento neonates without congenital malformations have risk for severe residual handicaps of 0.08%; under 1500 g the risk is 6.5% while in the group 1500-2499 the risk is 0.53%. A better prevention program during pregnancy and in Intensive Care Unity may reduce the severe outcome in the 1500-2499 group of neonates.

  5. Desenvolvimento cerebral em recém-nascidos prematuros Cerebral development in preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Peterson Zomignani

    2009-06-01

    2007 along with textbooks whose content was relevant. DATA SYNTHESIS: The development of preterm infants differs from term neonates. Studies have shown that children born prematurely have anatomical changes related to cognitive impairments in the central nervous system. Some regions seem vulnerable, such as white and gray matter, corpus callosum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, when evaluated by volumetric neuroimaging techniques. Thus, one would expect some functional and/or learning impairment in children, adolescents and adults born prematurely. When evaluated in late childhood and adolescence, they show deficits in the intelligence quotient, memory, calculations skills and in the overall cognitive function. Motor coordination, attention, planning and association deficits are also reported in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity can lead to structural and anatomical changes of the brain due to interruption of the prenatal development. These changes can cause functional deficits and children born prematurely are more vulnerable to cognitive and motor problems as well as its effects on their daily activities, even in adolescence and adulthood.

  6. [The role of antibiotics in the prevention of cross infections in newborn infants and mothers during the puerperium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornachev, A S

    1991-07-01

    Epidemiological efficiency of antibiotic prophylaxis of hospital infections (HIs) in maternity homes was analyzed by the materials on the clinical observation of 43995 newborns and their mothers within a period of 1986 to 1989 as well as by the data on the bacteriological examination of 6616 smears from the mucosa of the nose, pharynx, rectum and umbilical wounds of 1890 newborns carried out within the same period. It was shown that the prophylactic use of the antibiotics in the maternity homes led to changes in the microflora colonizing the newborns. The more massive was the use of the antibiotics in the departments of newborns and the postnatal departments, the more intensive was replacement of gram-positive microflora in the newborns by gram-negative organisms among which Klebsiella strains with high antibiotic resistance predominated. This involved an increase in the incidence of pneumonia and sepsis in the newborns and a higher death rate among the newborns due to HIs. In parallel there was observed an increase in the incidence of metro-endometritis in the puerperae++ and a simultaneous decrease in the number of the cases with lactational mastitis as a result of lower numbers of Staphylococcus aureus cultures isolated from various loci of the newborns. It was concluded that antibiotics were not the drugs to be used as prophylactic agents in control of HIs in maternity homes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Atelectasia pulmonar em recém-nascidos: etiologia e aspectos radiológicos = Pulmonary atelectasis in newborn infants: etiology and radiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Descrever os principais fatores etiológicos e os achados radiológicos da atelectasia pulmonar em recémnascidos Fonte de dados: Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura através de livros e artigos publicados nos últimos 30 anos, obtidos a partir das bases de dados PubMed, SciELO e BIREME, utilizando-se os descritores: atelectasia pulmonar/ pulmonary atelectasis, diagnóstico/diagnosis, neonato/neonate, recém-nascido/infant, newborn Síntese dos dados: Os sinais radiológicos de at...

  8. Hyper lucent hemithorax in the newborn and infant: distinct diseases with similar radiographic features; Hipertransparencia toracica unilateral no neonato e lactente: patologias distintas com aspecto radiografico semelhante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andrea S.; Torre, Marcia B.; Bogus, Luis C.; Andrade, Marcio R.; Barba, Mario F.; Losasso, Jose A.L.; Bunduki, Victor; Scatigno Neto, Andre; Zugaib, Marcelo [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The authors describe three diseases that can present as hyperlucent hemithorax: cystic adenomatoid malformation unilateral pulmonary agenesis, and diaphragmatic hernia. They present four cases of cystic adenomatoid malformation, one of them associated with extralobar pulmonary sequestration, one case of left pulmonary agenesis and two cases of diaphragmatic hernia, respectively, Bochdalek and Morgagni. The authors discuss the pathological and radiological findings of different organic diseases with similar chest X-ray features in the newborn and infant, presented radiologically as hyperlucent hemithorax. (author) 27 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population1-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, S Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 mo in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Aim The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. Study Design and Subjects One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 mo. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Results Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 (1.01) to -2.20 (1.05) and -2.26 (1.01) at 3 and 6 mo respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 mo were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R2 = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 mo was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education*maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 mo. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. Conclusion The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. PMID:24083893

  10. Mass, center of mass, and moment of inertia estimates for infant limb segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Zernicke, R F

    1992-02-01

    To quantify limb dynamics, accurate estimates are needed of anthropometric inertia parameters (mass, center-of-mass location, and moments of inertia). These estimates, however, are not available for human infants; therefore, the movement dynamics of infants have not been studied extensively. Here, regression equations for the masses, center-of-mass locations, and transverse moments of inertia of upper and lower limb segments (upper arm, forearm, and hand; thigh, leg, and foot) of 0.04 to 1.50 yr old infants are provided. A mathematical model of the human body was used to determine the anthropometric inertia parameters for upper limbs in 44 infants and for lower limbs in 70 infants. Stepwise linear regressions were used to fit the distributions of the anthropometric inertia parameters. The regression equations accounted for significant amounts of the variance (64-98%), and the R2-values compared favorably when our equations were cross-validated. Consequently, these regression equations can provide, for infants of similar ages, reasonable estimates of upper and lower limb anthropometric inertia parameters, suitable for equations of motion in the analysis of limb dynamics in human infants.

  11. Cortisol levels of infants in center care across the first year of life: links with quality of care and infant temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Esther M; Beijers, Roseriet; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; Sweep, Fred C G J; de Weerth, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations of older children in childcare centers have been found to be higher than at home. This study focuses on infant cortisol in childcare centers throughout the first year of life, and aims to investigate whether inter-individual differences can be explained by temperament, the quality of maternal behavior, and the quality of center care. Sixty-four infants were followed for 9 months after entering care at 3 months of age. Salivary samples were taken at 10.00 h and 16.00 h in center care (in post-entry weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 36) and at home (in post-entry weeks 1, 24, and 36). Prior to entry, mothers completed a temperament questionnaire and the quality of maternal behavior (sensitivity and cooperation) was observed during routine bathing sessions. Subsequently, the infants were visited three times at center care to observe the quality of infant's interactive experiences with their professional caregiver. Longitudinal regression models showed that both morning and afternoon cortisol were higher in center care compared to home. Longitudinal regression models showed that infants receiving higher quality of maternal behavior displayed higher morning cortisol in center care, compared to infants receiving lower quality of maternal behavior. Higher quality of maternal behavior was also related to higher afternoon cortisol in center care, but only in infants high in negative emotionality. Center care quality was not related to cortisol. In sum, young infants show higher cortisol concentrations in center care that are related to infant temperament and quality of maternal behavior at home.

  12. 剖宫产对新生儿近远期的影响%Recent and long-term effection of cesarean section on newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立志; 周晓玉

    2015-01-01

    Although the cesarean section has become an effective means to solve dystocia,high - risk pregnan-cy and other critical obstetrical disease,but the morbidity rate and hospitalization rate of newborn did not decreased obviously because of the continuous increasing of cesarean section rate. Contrary,in recent years,many domestic and foreign researches have found that,compared with normal vaginal delivery babies,cesarean section newborn infants have higher related disease incidence rate after birth,especially respiratory distress sydrome,transient tachypnea of newborn infants,persistent pulmonary hypertension and infection,and more attention should be paid to the fact that cesarean section children are more prone to allergic and immune system diseases as well as neuropsychiatric related diseases. Therefore,this article aims at integrating the researches and providing an overview on recent and long - term effection on newborn infants.%虽然剖宫产已逐渐成为解决难产和高危妊娠等产科危重症的有效手段,但新生儿疾病的发病率及其 NICU 住院率并未因剖宫产率的不断增高而明显减少,相反,近年来国内外诸多研究发现相比较正常阴道分娩儿,剖宫产儿在出生后有较高的新生儿相关疾病发病率,以呼吸窘迫综合征、新生儿暂时性呼吸困难、持续肺动脉高压、感染等最为常见,更为值得关注的是剖宫产儿在儿童期和成年期也更易于患过敏性及免疫系统疾病和神经精神相关性疾病。现就剖宫产对新生儿近远期的影响进行综述。

  13. Comparison of the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on the bacterial colonization of umbilical cord in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk contains significant amounts of compounds that act as natural antimicrobial agents. This study was conducted to compare the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on bacterial colonization in the umbilical cord of newborn infants. Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 174 infants in Kashan. The newborns were randomized to mother's milk group and dry cord care group from the birth. In group 1, the mother rubbed her own milk on the cord stump every 12 hours from 3 hours after birth to 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. In group 2, the mother was recommended not to use any material on the cord. Then, the cord samples were taken four times; 3hours after birth, at days 3 and 7, and 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. Results: The findings of the culture two days after umbilical cord separation indicated that low percentage of neonates in the breast milk (23.1% and dry cord care (28.8% groups had bacterial colonization. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of growth of pathogenic organisms and normal flora of the skin (P>0.05. Conclusion: Given the low prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the two groups, it seems using breast milk and dry cord care are equally effective methods of taking care of umbilical cord.

  14. The influence of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin therapy on neonatal mortality and hematological variables in newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasoğlu, Aslıhan; Ecevit, Ayşe; Tuğcu, Ali Ulaş; Yapakçı, Ece; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah; Tarcan, Aylin; Ecevit, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of adjuvant immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enriched intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy on mortality rate, hematological variables and length of hospital stay in newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis. Demographic and clinical features and outcome measures of 63 newborn infants with blood culture-proven sepsis were documented retrospectively from the medical records. The patients were divided into two groups according to their treatment history. The patients in Group 1 received antibiotic therapy only and the patients in Group 2 received both antibiotic and adjuvant IgMenriched IVIG. The study revealed that mortality rates were 28.1% and 12.9% in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mortality rate was lower in Group 2, but the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p=0.21). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most common type of bacteria isolated from the blood culture in both groups. When changing laboratory results were compared between the two groups, hemoglobin, leukocyte count and C-reactive protein levels were different during the first three days of antibiotic treatment. Our study revealed that if diagnosed at an early stage and treated aggressively with appropriate and effective antibiotics, adjuvant IgM-enriched IVIG treatment has no additional benefits in neonatal sepsis.

  15. Discordant expression of pro-B-type and pro-C-type natriuretic peptide in newborn infants of mothers with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Junge

    2007-01-01

    CNP-derived peptides in newborn infants. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of proCNP-derived peptides were measured in umbilical cord plasma and human placental tissue extracts using sequence-specific radioimmunoassays raised against N-terminal and C-terminal proCNP regions, respectively. RESULTS: The median pro......CNP concentrations were similar in umbilical cord plasma from pregnant women with and without type 1 diabetes (17 pmol/L vs. 19 pmol/L, P not significant) and did not correlate with the proBNP concentrations in the same samples. However, the molar ratio between the proCNP and the CNP peptide was increased...... in umbilical cord plasma compared to adult plasma (4.6 vs. 1.1), which parallels our earlier findings for proBNP and BNP peptides. CONCLUSIONS: There is a discordant expression of CNP and BNP peptides in newborn infants of mothers with diabetes. Moreover, fetal metabolism of proCNP and CNP appears to differ...

  16. Transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. I. Relation to ambient humidity and site of measurement and estimation of total transepidermal water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarl-nd, K; Nilsson, G E; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1977-09-01

    Insensible water loss (IWL) is an important factor in the thermoregulation and water balance of the newborn infant. A method for direct measurement of the rate of evaporation from the skin surface has been developed. The method, which is based on determination of the vapour pressure gradient close to the skin surface, allows free evaporation. From measurements performed on 19 newborns placed in incubators, a linear relation was found between the evaporation rate (ER) and the humidity of the environment at a constant ambient temperature. A 40% lower ER was recorded at a high relative humidity (60%) than at a low one (20%) in the incubator. At measurements on different sites of the body, a high ER was observed on the face and peripheral parts of the extremities, while ER at other sites was relatively low. By determining ER from different parts of the body and calculating the areas of the corresponding surfaces, the total cutaneous insensible water loss for the infant in question could be obtained. The transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for the whole body surface area was calculated to be 8.1 g/m2h. On the basis of measurements performed it was found that the total cutaneous insensible water loss can be estimated with a reasonable degree of accuracy by recording ER from only three easily accessible measurement points.

  17. Longitudinal change of selected human milk oligosaccharides and association to infants' growth, an observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Norbert; Lee, Le Ye; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Steenhout, Philippe; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2'FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) and 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2'FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12-42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880-2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2'FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. The milk samples with low 2'FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2'FL. The milk 3'- and 6'SL concentrations were independent of 2'FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2'FL, LNT, LNnT and 6'SL, especially from 1 to 2 months, while 3'SL remained at relatively constant concentration

  18. Infant and Newborn Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sitting, crawling, maybe even starting to walk Fine motor - holding a spoon, picking up a piece of cereal between thumb and finger Sensory - seeing, hearing, tasting, touching and smelling Language - starting ...

  19. Features of newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (according to the data of perinatal center of the Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify risk factors that adversely affect the development of fetus and child small for gestational age; to assess the incidence of the intrauterine development of fetus and newborn; to analyze the health indicators of these children. Material and Methods. Cases of 226 children (6.6% with diagnosed intrauterine growth restriction of the fetus were examined, including 134 of prematurity (59%. Results. The most common risk factors for the intrauterine development of the fetus were: violation of the utero-placental circulation — 196 cases, the uterine scar — 78 women, urinary tract infection — 94. Extragenital pathology was found in all women, the threat of termination of pregnancy in 109 cases, medical history of abortions in 106 women and 83 anaemia in women. Birth asphyxia was observed in 102 children (45%, prematurity in 71 cases (31.4%. Asphyxia of severe degree accounted 1 (0.5% premature and 1 (0.45% full-term baby. Asphyxia of moderate severity (4-6 points accounted 70 (30.9% preterm and 31 (13.7% full-term infants. The most common form of the intrauterine development of the fetus asymmetrical revealed 178 cases (79.1%. Conclusion: Perinatal factors such as medical abortion, urinary tract infection, extragenital pathology are preventable. The predominant form of the intrauterine development of the fetus is asymmetric form, symmetric and dysplastic revealed to a greater degree in premature infants. Children with low weight for gestational age should be adequately provided with the necessary nutrients, fortifiers, vitamins and in the process of rehabilitation — cerebropro-tective therapy.

  20. Indicadores de risco para perda auditiva em neonatos e lactentes atendidos em um programa de triagem auditiva neonatal Risk indicators for hearing loss of newborns and infants in a newborn hearing screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Sobral Griz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever os indicadores de risco para perda auditiva presentes em neonatos e lactentes que realizaram a Triagem Auditiva Neonatal no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, nascidos em 2008. MÉTODOS: foram pesquisados os 787 neonatos e lactentes que realizaram a Triagem Auditiva Neonatal no citado Hospital, nascidos em 2008. Foi montado um banco de dados com informações do formulário com histórico familiar e clínico dos pesquisados e resultado da triagem, para análise dos indicadores de risco. RESULTADOS: os indicadores de risco mais prevalentes na população estudada foram presença de hiperbilirrubinemia, nascimento pré-termo, baixo peso ao nascimento, uso de medicamento durante o período gestacional, permanência em Unidade de Terapia intensiva e presença de infecções intra-uterinas durante a gestação. Os indicadores de risco para perda auditiva com associação estatisticamente significante com o resultado falha na triagem foram nascimento pré-termo, baixo peso, permanência em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, uso de ventilação mecânica e uso de medicamento ototóxicos. CONCLUSÃO: houve ocorrência de indicadores de risco pré, peri e pós-natais, porém apenas foi encontrada significância estatística entre alguns indicadores peri e pós-natais e a falha na triagem.PURPOSE: to characterize neonates and infants who were born in 2008 and have been submitted to the Newborn Hearing Screening Program of the Federal University of Pernambuco Hospital according to the presence of risk factors related to hearing loss. METHODS: a total of 787 newborns took part in the study. Information from clinical charts and tests results were collected in order set up a database. RESULTS: the most prevalent risk factors for hearing loss in the related population was hyperbilirubinemia, prematurity, low weigh at birth, use of medication during pregnancy, presence of diseases during pregnancy and permanence in a

  1. IgG and IgG subclass specific antibody responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in newborns and infants given DTP immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengrove, J; Lee, E J; Heiner, D C; St Geme, J W; Leake, R; Baraff, L J; Ward, J I

    1986-08-01

    To evaluate immune responses to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids in infants we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect total IgG and specific IgG-1, IgG-2, IgG-3, and IgG-4 antibody. One group of infants received a newborn dose and subsequently received the usual three doses of DTP. A second group of infants received only the routine dosage at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. In sera acquired at birth, 6, and 9 months of age, there were no statistically significant differences between the two vaccine groups in IgG antibody responses to diphtheria or tetanus, or in IgG subclass tetanus-specific antibody responses. In individual children, tetanus-specific subclass responses were similar in pattern to that for total IgG tetanus antibody, i.e. each IgG subclass response appeared to be regulated by similar mechanisms in that child, but the regulation differed between children. In contrast to a prior study of pertussis immunity, maternally acquired antibody did not significantly affect immune responses to diphtheria or tetanus toxoid by 9 months of age. There was no discernible tolerance due to early tetanus or diphtheria immunization or to high levels of maternally acquired antibody.

  2. Basic consciousness of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The newborn shows several signs of consciousness, such as being awake and aware of him/herself and mother. The infant processes olfactory and painful inputs in the cortex, where consciousness is believed to be localized. Furthermore, the newborn expresses primary emotions such as joy, disgust, and surprise and remember rhymes and vowels to which he or she has been exposed during fetal life. Thus, the newborn infant fulfills the criteria of displaying a basic level of consciousness, being aware of its body and him/her-self and somewhat about the external world. Preterm infants may be conscious to a limited degree from about 25 weeks, when the thalamocortical connections are established.

  3. Hiperecogenicidade dos vasos talâmicos no recém-nascido prematuro Hyperechogenicity of thalamic vessels in preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Paczko

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: o presente estudo procura avaliar as possíveis patologias que se manifestam associadas à hiperecogenicidade dos vasos talâmicos na ultra-sonografia cerebral, e observar a freqüência com que ocorrem. Métodos: a amostra foi constituída de 206 recém-nascidos prematuros, nascidos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, no período de julho de 1998 a maio de 1999. Todos realizaram a ultra-sonografia cerebral na primeira semana de vida. Foram incluídos no estudo aqueles prematuros que necessitaram de internação hospitalar, e que tiveram o termo de consentimento informado assinado por um dos responsáveis. Foram excluídos aqueles cuja ultra-sonografia cerebral evidenciava sangramento cerebral e/ou malformações congênitas associadas, e os que evoluíram para óbito antes da realização do exame. Resultados: a ultra-sonografia cerebral levou à identificação de 65 recém-nascidos prematuros com hiperecogenicidade dos vasos talâmicos e de 141 recém-nascidos prematuros sem. Conclusão: a forma de apresentação do tipo pélvica ao nascimento, a maior idade gestacional, o maior peso do recém-nascido ao nascimento e a classificação grande para a idade gestacional foram fatores de risco para a ocorrência de hiperecogenicidade dos vasos talâmicos, enquanto a presença de hipertensão materna durante o período de gestação tendeu a ser fator de proteção. Os recém-nascidos que apresentaram crises convulsivas durante o período de internação hospitalar tiveram risco 3,2 vezes maior de ter hiperecogenicidade dos vasos talâmicos, quando comparados aos que não apresentaram crises convulsivas.Objective: the aim of this study is to evaluate possible pathologies associated with hyperechogenicity of thalamic vessels (HETV, which are found on brain ultrasounds (BUS, as well as to observe the frequency of their occurrence. Methods: the sample was composed of 206 preterm newborn infants at Hospital de Clíncas de Porto Alegre

  4. The effect of diazepam administration during pregnancy or labor on the heart rate variability of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geijn, H P; Jongsma, H W; Doesburg, W H; Lemmens, W A; de Haan, J; Eskes, T K

    1980-03-01

    Maternal diazepam medication during labor reduces beat-to-beat variability of the fetal heart rate. In this study, the prolongation of the effect was examined in the newborn. The mother received diazepam: (A) during labor as a tranquilizer, (B) daily in low doses at the end of pregnancy, or (C) in high doses i.v. for (pre-)eclampsia. A control group had no analgesic or sedative during pregnancy or labor. The electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded daily from each newborn during the first 6 days after birth. After preprocessing of the ECG, the median R-R interval, the long-term irregularity index (LTI index) and the interval difference index (ID index) were calculated. A cubic spline interpolation method was applied to compare the various groups with respect to these heart rate parameters. The median R-R interval showed no particular differences in trend for all groups. The LTI index was decreased in the first days after birth in the chronic diazepam (B), and in the diazepam infusion groups (C), but statistical significance was not reached. The ID index was significantly decreased in the first 1-2 days in the newborns of the acute and chronic diazepam group. In the diazepam infusion group, an even longer lasting effect was observed. Maternal diazepam medication affects the beat-to-beat variability in the newborn. The duration of the effect is dependent on dosage and route of administration.

  5. A scale for home visiting nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect among mothers with newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H; Geeraert, L; Hellinckx, W

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child. Met

  6. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Initial Management, Stabilization, and Transport of Newborn Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianshen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review experience of the transport and stabilization of infants with CDH who were treated with high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. Study Design. Retrospective chart review was performed of infants with antenatal diagnosis of CDH born between 2004 and 2009, at Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Detailed information was abstracted from the charts of all infants who received HFJV. Results. Of the 55 infants, 25 were managed with HFJV at some point during resuscitation and stabilization prior to transport. HFJV was the initial ventilation mode in six cases and nineteen infants were placed on HFJV as rescue therapy. Blood gases procured from the umbilical artery before and/or after the initiation of HFJV. There was a significant difference detected for both PaCO2 (P=0.0002 and pH (P<0.0001. The pre- and posttransport vital signs remained stable and no transport related deaths or significant complications occurred. Conclusion. HFJV appears to be safe and effective providing high frequency rescue therapy for infants with CDH failing conventional mechanical ventilation. This paper supports the decision to utilize HFJV as it likely contributed to safe transport of many infants that would not otherwise have tolerated transport to a surgical centre.

  7. [Noninvasive, continuous monitoring of artificial respiration in premature and newborn infants by the constant measurement of respiratory minute volume, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide release].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, E; Noller, F; Mentzel, H

    1986-01-01

    A system of instrumentation for the continuous measurement of the respiratory gases during assisted ventilation of neonates and premature infants based upon "breath-by-breath-method" is described. The four respiratory parameters flow (V), ventilation pressure (p), oxygen-concentration and carbon dioxide-concentration are measured. These datas are processed by a computer to generate a continuous display of the respiratory minute volume, the tidal volume, the breath rate, the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production. All parameters are stored and can be displayed or plotted as trends. The flow-measurement is performed using hot-wire-anemometry. The very small flow sensor is adapted directly to the tube. Next to this sensor, the respiratory gas for the analysis of the O2- and CO2- concentration is suctioned off continuously. First clinical experience in mechanically ventilated newborns is characterized.

  8. The time-associated impact of the Newborn Influenza Protection Act on infant influenza rates in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shetal; Messina, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Influenza presents with increased morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 months of age. Vaccination of caregivers is indicated, but immunization rates are estimated at only 30%. The 2009 New York State Neonatal Influenza Protection Act (NIPA) mandated offering of influenza vaccine to caregivers during the post-partum hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of NIPA on infant influenza rates. Data on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases between 2006 and 2012 were extracted from the New York State Electronic Clinical Laboratory Reporting System (ECLRS). Data on infant cases were categorized by age (0-5 months) and location [New York City (NYC), outside NYC] based on reporting laboratory site. The total number of influenza cases and the percentage of total cases in the infant age group were normalized to the number of reporting laboratory sites. The χ2-test was used to compare the proportions of cases pre- and post-implementation. Year-to-year trends were assessed by linear regression. All tests of significance were two-sided and evaluated at the P<0.05 level. During the 6-year study period, 3154 cases of infant influenza were detected. In bivariate analysis, 1707 (54.1%) of cases occurred prior to NIPA implementation and 1447 (45.9%) of cases occurred after (P<0.001). Of the 1422 total infant cases detected in NYC, the percentages of influenza cases pre- and post-NIPA were 54.6% (777) and 45.4% (645), respectively (P<0.006). Outside NYC, the percentage of infant cases was reduced from 53.7% (930/1732) to 46.3% (802/1732, P<0.02). Prior to implementation, there was a year-to-year increase in the number of infant influenza cases statewide (P<0.04 for trend). The ratio of infant influenza cases normalized per ECLRS site in NYC increased each year after NIPA passage (P<0.01 for trend). The ratio of infant cases outside NYC decreased annually (P<0.05 for trend). No year-to-year trends were seen in the percentage of total influenza cases in

  9. Comparison between two different modes of non-invasive ventilatory support in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome mild to moderate: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite of improved survival of premature infants, the incidence of long term pulmonary complications, mostly associated with ventilation-induced lung injury, remains high. Non invasive ventilation (NIV is able to reduce the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation. Although nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP is an effective mode of NIV, traumatic nasal complications and intolerance of the nasal interface are common. Recently high flow nasal cannula (HFNC is emerging as a better tolerated form of NIV, allowing better access to the baby’s face, which may improve nursing, feeding and bonding. HFNC may be effective in the treatment of some neonatal respiratory conditions while being more user-friendly for care-givers than conventional NCPAP. Limited evidence is available to support the specific role, efficacy and safety of HFNC in newborns and to demonstrate efficacy compared with NCPAP; some studies suggest a potential role for HFNC in respiratory care of the neonate as a distinct non invasive ventilatory support. We present the preliminary data of a randomized clinical trial; the aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of HFNC compared to NCPAP in preterm newborns with mild to moderate respiratory distress syndrome (RDS.

  10. A critical assessment of uncalibrated respiratory inductance plethysmography (Respitrace) for the measurement of tidal breathing parameters in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E; Stocks, J; Pilgrim, L; Dundas, I; Dezateux, C

    1995-08-01

    We have compared results obtained with an uncalibrated respiratory inductance plethysmograph (RIP) with those of a face mask and pneumotachograph (PNT) for the computerized measurement of the time to reach peak tidal expiratory flow as a ratio of total expiratory time (tPTEF:tE). Simultaneous measurements were made in 32 healthy neonates aged 0-3 weeks, 35 healthy infants aged 5-82 weeks, and 28 infants aged 15-94 weeks with physician diagnosed recurrent wheeze. The group mean (+/- SD) values of tPTEF:TE determined using a PNT were 0.455 (+/- 0.129), 0.263 (+/- 0.077), and 0.232 (+/- 0.089) for the neonates, healthy infants and infants with recurrent wheeze respectively. RIP gave mean (+/- SD) values that were 0.055 (+/- 0.044) and 0.025 (+/- 0.104) lower than the PNT in healthy neonates and infants with recurrent wheeze respectively; RIP values were 0.002 (+/- 0.073) higher in the healthy infants over 4 weeks of age than measurements by PNT. Although the difference between the two measurements was not related to the thoracoabdominal phase angle, as measured from Lissajous figures, examination of the RIP ribcage and abdominal signals revealed that many healthy subjects, while appearing clinically in phase, had ribcage and abdominal signals that differed markedly from each other in terms of convexity/concavity during early expiration. This may explain the lack of agreement between the two methods. We conclude that uncalibrated RIP should be used with caution for the determination of tPTEF:tE, even in subjects whose ribcage and abdomen appear to move synchronously. The measurement of tPTEF:tE did not differentiate between the healthy infants and infants with recurrent wheezing.

  11. Assessment of oxidative damage to proteins and DNA in urine of newborn infants by a validated UPLC-MS/MS approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kuligowski

    Full Text Available The assessment of oxidative stress is highly relevant in clinical Perinatology as it is associated to adverse outcomes in newborn infants. This study summarizes results from the validation of an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the urinary concentrations of a set of endogenous biomarkers, capable to provide a valid snapshot of the oxidative stress status applicable in human clinical trials, especially in the field of Perinatology. The set of analytes included are phenylalanine (Phe, para-tyrosine (p-Tyr, ortho-tyrosine (o-Tyr, meta-tyrosine (m-Tyr, 3-NO2-tyrosine (3NO2-Tyr, 3-Cl-tyrosine (3Cl-Tyr, 2'-deoxyguanosine (2dG and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG. Following the FDA-based guidelines, appropriate levels of accuracy and precision, as well as adequate levels of sensitivity with limits of detection (LODs in the low nanomolar (nmol/L range were confirmed after method validation. The validity of the proposed UPLC-MS/MS method was assessed by analysing urine samples from a clinical trial in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants randomized to be resuscitated with two different initial inspiratory fractions of oxygen.

  12. Differences Between the Family-Centered "COPCA" Program and Traditional Infant Physical Therapy Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is ba

  13. [Evaluation of sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 of newborn infants feeding different types of nutrition, by means of urinary excretion determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Pustograev, N N

    2015-01-01

    With the help of non-invasive methods the sufficiency with vitamins C, B1 and B2 in 58 newborns (38-40 weeks of gestation) on breastfeeding as well as on mixed or artificial feeding has been evaluated. Urinary excretion and breast content of ascorbic acid (measured by visual titration), thiamin (by thiochrome fluorimetric method) andriboflavin (fluorimetrically by titration with riboflavin-binding protein) was determined on the 3-10th day after birth. 35 infants were exclusively breastfed. 40% of their mothers regularly took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and 42.9%--both during pregnancy and after childbirth, 17.1% did not use vitamin complexes either duringpregnancy or after childbearing. The content of vitamins C, B1 and B2 in the breast milk of women who did not additionally intake vitamins during pregnancy and lactation, was reduced compared with that of mothers who took multivitamin supplements, and provided only a half of the needs of their child in these vitamins. All these babies have urinary excretion of vitamins below the lower limit of norm. Among infants whose mothers took multivitamin supplements during pregnancy, but stop taking them immediately after their birth, only 28.6% of newborns were provided with vitamin C, while all the children identified a lack of vitamins By and B2. The insufficiency with vitamins C and B1 was detected in one third of children breastfed by mothers who took vitamins during pregnancy and continued intaking them after birth, adequate supplied with vitamin B2 was 35.7% of the surveyed. Determination of vitamin urinary excretion (perg creatinine) is useful for vitamin status evaluation. The content of vitamins in breast milk can be used for assessment of vitamin status both a nursing woman and her child. Taking into consideration that the diet of a breastfeeding woman is not always the best, there is no doubt about the need to continue multivitamin intake during breastfeeding. The question on the doses of vitamins

  14. [Laser Doppler flowmetry in newborn infants with low birth weight. The effect of differences in humidity on peripheral circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssler, L; Roll, C; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 10 low birth weight infants we measured skin temperature using infrared thermography and laser Doppler flow in central and peripheral regions of the body. After elevation of incubator humidity from 40 to 80% skin temperature of the foot rose significantly (p less than 0.01). At the same time there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) of laser Doppler flow. Temperature and laser Doppler flow in the area of the abdomen did not show significant changes. Low birth weight infants are able to regulate peripheral blood flow after changes of ambient humidity. With the method of laser Doppler flowmetry thermoregulatory responses in the microvascular bed can be measured in these infants.

  15. Thermal balance in term and preterm newborn infants nursed in an incubator equipped with a radiant heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, G; Hammarlund, K; Sedin, G

    1997-04-01

    A radiant hood warmer, a device that heats the incubator roof independently of the incubator's main heat source, was used to study the thermal balance of 11 full term and 13 preterm (gestational age 25-34 weeks) infants exposed to an isolated elevation of incubator roof temperature at stable ambient air temperature and humidity. After initial measurements without active heating of the incubator roof, the hood warmer was set to 33 degrees C, 36 degrees C and finally (preterm infants only) to 39 degrees C. At least 18 min of measurements with the infant asleep were made at each hood warmer setting. In the term infants an increase in roof temperature from 30.5 degrees C to 35.6 degrees C resulted in an increase in skin temperature from 35.4 to 35.9 degrees C, and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 32.8 to 20.7 W/m2 exposed skin. In the preterm infants an increase in roof temperature from 31.0 to 38.4 degrees C led to an increase in skin temperature from 35.7 to 36.3 degrees C and a decrease in radiative heat loss from 34.1 to 13.0 W/m2 exposed skin. The increased inner roof surface temperature did not affect evaporative or convective heat loss, skin blood flow, respiratory water loss, oxygen consumption or transepidermal water loss in either group. Thus, at stable ambient air temperature and humidity, the increase in incubator roof temperature resulted in an increase in skin temperature and a decrease in radiative heat loss in both term and preterm infants.

  16. Identification of sapovirus infection among Japanese infants in a day care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihara, Shiho; Phan, Tung Gia; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Yagyu, Fumihiro; Okitsu, Shoko; Müller, Werner E G; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2005-12-01

    A total of 921 fecal specimens collected from 44 infants in a day care center in Tokyo, Japan during June 1999 to July 2000 were tested for the presence of sapovirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of 88 fecal specimens from infants with acute gastroenteritis, 2.3% (2) were found to be positive for sapovirus. Twenty-two of 833 (2.6%) fecal specimens collected from asymptomatic infants were also infected with this virus. Another interesting feature was the demonstration of high incidence of sapovirus infection (95.5%, 21 of 22) identified in a single day care center, which was not due to viral shedding after the latest acute gastroenteritis. Sapovirus was subjected to genetic analysis by sequencing. Up to 4 of 24 sapoviruses (16.7%) were clustered into genogroup IV known as a rare group. Remarkably, majority (79.2%, 19 of 24) of sapovirus isolates detected in this study turned out to present one novel sapovirus genotype tentatively called GI/8. It was noteworthy to point out that the GI/8 sapovirus infection was apparently confined only within the period of 9 weeks (44th through 52nd weeks). This pattern of infection implied the outbreak of asymptomatic GI/8 sapovirus infection in these subjects. The findings clearly indicate genogroup I sapovirus can be classified into eight genotypes. This is the first report to underscore that sapovirus pathogen causes not only clinical manifestations of acute gastroenteritis but also asymptomatic infection in infants in day care centers in Japan. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, inc.

  17. CenteringParenting: an innovative dyad model for group mother-infant care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Joanna; Rising, Sharon Schindler

    2013-01-01

    CenteringParenting is a group model that brings a cohort of 6 to 7 mothers and infants together for care during the first year of life. During 9 group sessions the clinician provides well-baby care and also attends to the health, development, and safety issues of the mother. Ideally, CenteringParenting provides continuity of care for a cohort of women who have received care in CenteringPregnancy, group prenatal care that is 10 sessions throughout the entire pregnancy and that leads to community building, better health outcomes, and increased satisfaction with prenatal care. The postpartum year affects the entire family, but especially the mother, who is redefining herself and her own personal goals. Issues of weight/body image, breastfeeding, depression, contraception, and relationship issues all may surface. In traditional care, health resources for support and intervention are frequently lacking or unavailable. Women's health clinicians also note the loss of contact with women they have followed during the prenatal period, often not seeing a woman again until she returns for another pregnancy. CenteringParenting recognizes that the health of the mother is tied to the health of the infant and that assessment and interventions are more appropriate and efficient when done in a dyad context. Facilitative leadership, rather than didactic education, encourages women to fully engage in their care, to raise issues of importance to them, and to discuss concerns within an atmosphere that allows for the surfacing of culturally appropriate values and beliefs. Implementing the model calls for system changes that are often significant. It also requires the building of a substantial team relationship among care providers. This overview describes the CenteringParenting mother-infant dyad care model with special focus on the mother and reviews the perspectives and experiences of staff from several practice sites.

  18. Clinical features of early newborn infants with congenital heart disease%早期新生儿的先天性心脏病特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国萍; 毛梁元; 陈少稚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical feature of early newborn infants with congenital heart disease.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of 477 newborn infants with congenital heart disease born within seven days out of 28 050 live births in Shaoxing women and children hospital from October 1,2009 to September 30,2012.Infants with congenital heart disease were divided into single malformation group (240 cases),composite deformity group (199 cases) and multiple malformations group (38 cases).Differences of clinical feature were compared between the three groups.Results Atrial septal defect was the most malformation 91.6% (437/477).Incidence of preterm birth was higher in newborn inants with congenital heart disease [512.23/10 000(134/2 616)] than infants without without congenital heart disease [134.86/10 000 (343/25 434),P < 0.01].Proportion of preterm birth among the three congenital heart disease groups was similar (P > 0.05).The incidence of small for gestational age in congenital heart disease group(10.90%,52/477)was also significantly higher than those without congenital heart disease group (5.91%,1 630/27 573,P < 0.01).Small for gestational age with congenital heart disease of complex malformations,multiple malformations groups was higher than that in the single malformation group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05).Conclusions Early newborn with atrial septal defect is the most common neonatal congenital heart disease.The incidence of preterm is higher in newborn infants with congenital heart disease.Complex and multiple malformations are linked with small for gestational age birth weight.%目的 探讨早期新生儿的先天性心脏病特点.方法 2009年10月1日至2012年9月30日在绍兴市妇幼保健院分娩的活产儿共28 050例,对其中出生7d内诊断为先天性心脏病的477例活产儿进行回顾性分析,统计先天性心脏病的发生率和类型.按心脏缺陷情况,将患儿分为单发畸形组(240

  19. Aquaporin-2 excretion and renal function during the 1st week of life in preterm newborn infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacobelli, S.; Addabbo, F.; Bonsante, F.; Procino, G.; Tamma, G.; Acito, A.; Esposito, L.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2006-01-01

    In many preterm infants, a characteristic pattern of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis occurs during the 1st week of life, consisting of three phases: prediuretic, diuretic, and postdiuretic. In this study, we evaluated the possible role of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in renal concentrating ability and corre

  20. CLASS-Infant: An Observational Measure for Assessing Teacher-Infant Interactions in Center-Based Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Cabell, Sonia Q.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new…

  1. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Camelo Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher. The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  2. A role for H2S in the microcirculation of newborns: the major metabolite of H2S (thiosulphate is increased in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Dyson

    Full Text Available Excessive vasodilatation during the perinatal period is associated with cardiorespiratory instability in preterm neonates. Little evidence of the mechanisms controlling microvascular tone during circulatory transition exists. We hypothesised that hydrogen sulphide (H2S, an important regulator of microvascular reactivity and central cardiac function in adults and animal models, may contribute to the vasodilatation observed in preterm newborns. Term and preterm neonates (24-43 weeks gestational age were studied. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler. Thiosulphate, a urinary metabolite of H2S, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography as a measure of 24 hr total body H2S turnover for the first 3 days of postnatal life. H2S turnover was greatest in very preterm infants and decreased with increasing gestational age (p = 0.0001. H2S turnover was stable across the first 72 hrs of life in older neonates. In very preterm neonates, H2S turnover increased significantly from day 1 to 3 (p =0.0001; and males had higher H2S turnover than females (p = 0.04. A significant relationship between microvascular blood flow and H2S turnover was observed on day 2 of postnatal life (p = 0.0004. H2S may play a role in maintaining microvascular tone in the perinatal period. Neonates at the greatest risk of microvascular dysfunction characterised by inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation--very preterm male neonates--are also the neonates with highest levels of total body H2S turnover suggesting that overproduction of this gasotransmitter may contribute to microvascular dysfunction in preterms. Potentially, H2S is a target to selectively control microvascular tone in the circulation of newborns.

  3. A role for H2S in the microcirculation of newborns: the major metabolite of H2S (thiosulphate) is increased in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rebecca M; Palliser, Hannah K; Latter, Joanna L; Chwatko, Grazyna; Glowacki, Rafal; Wright, Ian M R

    2014-01-01

    Excessive vasodilatation during the perinatal period is associated with cardiorespiratory instability in preterm neonates. Little evidence of the mechanisms controlling microvascular tone during circulatory transition exists. We hypothesised that hydrogen sulphide (H2S), an important regulator of microvascular reactivity and central cardiac function in adults and animal models, may contribute to the vasodilatation observed in preterm newborns. Term and preterm neonates (24-43 weeks gestational age) were studied. Peripheral microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler. Thiosulphate, a urinary metabolite of H2S, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography as a measure of 24 hr total body H2S turnover for the first 3 days of postnatal life. H2S turnover was greatest in very preterm infants and decreased with increasing gestational age (p = 0.0001). H2S turnover was stable across the first 72 hrs of life in older neonates. In very preterm neonates, H2S turnover increased significantly from day 1 to 3 (p =0.0001); and males had higher H2S turnover than females (p = 0.04). A significant relationship between microvascular blood flow and H2S turnover was observed on day 2 of postnatal life (p = 0.0004). H2S may play a role in maintaining microvascular tone in the perinatal period. Neonates at the greatest risk of microvascular dysfunction characterised by inappropriate peripheral vasodilatation--very preterm male neonates--are also the neonates with highest levels of total body H2S turnover suggesting that overproduction of this gasotransmitter may contribute to microvascular dysfunction in preterms. Potentially, H2S is a target to selectively control microvascular tone in the circulation of newborns.

  4. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial strains isolated from newborn infants Sensibilidad a los antibióticos de bacterias aisladas de neonatos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Uribe

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Eighty nine bacterial strains isolated from newborn infants hospitalized at a Special Care Unit in Medellin, Colombia, were studied. The sensitivity of each one was determined by the Minimallnhibitory Concentration method against 21 antibiotics; a high frequency of resistance was found toward gentamycin, netilmycin, oxacillin, penicillin G and ampicillin, that are often employed as initial therapy in newborn infants; on the other hand both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria exhibited high percentages of sensitivity against quinolones; aztreonam and third generation cephalosporins were also highly effective against Gram negative bacilli. On the basis of this new information the need to restate therapeutic conducts in the case of serious bacterial neonatal infections is emphasized.

    Se estudiaron 89 cepas bacterianas aisladas de neonatos hospitalizados en la sala de cuidados especiales de la Fundación Hospitalaria San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín; a cada una se le determinó la sensibilidad frente a 21 antibióticos por el método de la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM; se halló una alta frecuencia de resistencia hacia la gentamicina, la netilmicina, la oxacilina y la ampicilina que se usan a menudo en esta institución como terapia inicial en las infecciones del recién nacido; por otra parte se demostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad hacia las quinolonas tanto de las bacterias gram positivas como de las gram negativas; contra estas últimas también fueron muy efectivos el aztreonam y las cefalosporinas de tercera generación. A la luz de esta nueva información se llama la atención hacia la necesidad de revaluar las normas de la antibioterapia en las infecciones graves del recién nacido.

  5. Potentiality of early chest roentgen examination in ventilator treated newborn infants to predict future lung function and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensson, W. (St. Goeran' s Children' s Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Andreasson, B.; Lindroth, M.; Svenningsen, N. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatrics); Jonson, B. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Physiology)

    1989-11-01

    The potentiality of early chest X-ray to predict the risk of lung function abnormalities was studied prospectively in 40 preterm ventilator treated infants in a 8-10-year follow-up investigation. According to the findings at chest X-ray 3 to 10 days after completed ventilator treatment the infants were divided into 3 groups considered to respresent increasing risk and severity of lung damage: (1) normal findings, (2) interstitial parenchymal abnormalities exclusively or (3) in combination with local or general hyperinflation. Lung function tests and chest X-ray were performed at the age of 8 to 10 years. A correlation was found between the findings at the early chest roentgen examination and the risk of abnormal lung function at the follow-up. Occurrence of focal or general hyperinflation or both were associated with a greater risk of airway obstruction. Infants with only interstitial abnormalities were, however, at a higher risk than those with normal chest examination to develop general hyperinflation and increased air way obstruction. (orig.).

  6. Genetic variants for long QT syndrome among infants and children from a statewide newborn hearing screening program cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ruey-Kang R; Lan, Yueh-Tze; Silka, Michael J; Morrow, Hallie; Kwong, Alan; Smith-Lang, Janna; Wallerstein, Robert; Lin, Henry J

    2014-03-01

    Autosomal recessive long QT syndrome (LQTS), or Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS), can be associated with sensorineural hearing loss. We aimed to explore newborn hearing screening combined with electrocardiograms (ECGs) for early JLNS detection. In California, we conducted statewide, prospective ECG screening of children ≤ 6 years of age with unilateral or bilateral, severe or profound, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. Families were identified through newborn hearing screening and interviewed about medical and family histories. Twelve-lead ECGs were obtained. Those with positive histories or heart rate corrected QT (QTc) intervals ≥ 450 ms had repeat ECGs. DNA sequencing of 12 LQTS genes was performed for repeat QTc intervals ≥ 450 ms. We screened 707 subjects by ECGs (number screened/number of responses = 91%; number of responses/number of families who were mailed invitations = 54%). Of these, 73 had repeat ECGs, and 19 underwent gene testing. No subject had homozygous or compound heterozygous LQTS mutations, as in JLNS. However, 3 individuals (with QTc intervals of 472, 457, and 456 ms, respectively) were heterozygous for variants that cause truncation or missplicing: 2 in KCNQ1 (c.1343dupC or p.Glu449Argfs*14; c.1590+1G>A or p.Glu530sp) and 1 in SCN5A (c.5872C>T or p.Arg1958*). In contrast to reports of JLNS in up to 4% of children with sensorineural hearing loss, we found no examples of JLNS. Because the 3 variants identified were unrelated to hearing, they likely represent the prevalence of potential LQTS mutations in the general population. Further studies are needed to define consequences of such mutations and assess the overall prevalence. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy for infants with respiratory distress in non tertiary care centers: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Adam G; Arnolda, Gaston; Wright, Ian M R; Foster, Jann P; Henderson-Smart, David J

    2007-09-01

    Our objective was to determine whether continuous positive airway pressure therapy would safely reduce the need for up-transfer of infants with respiratory distress from nontertiary centers. We randomly assigned 300 infants at >30 weeks of gestation with respiratory distress to receive either Hudson prong bubble continuous positive airway pressure therapy or headbox oxygen treatment (standard care). The primary end point was "up-transfer or treatment failure." Secondary end points included death, length of nursery stay, time receiving oxygen therapy, cost of care, and other measures of morbidity. Of 151 infants who received continuous positive airway pressure therapy, 35 either were up-transferred or experienced treatment failure, as did 60 of the 149 infants given headbox oxygen treatment. There was no difference in the length of stay or the duration of oxygen treatment. For every 6 infants treated with continuous positive airway pressure therapy, there was an estimated cost saving of $10,000. Pneumothorax was identified for 14 infants in the continuous positive airway pressure group and 5 in the headbox group. There was no difference in any other measure of morbidity or death. Hudson prong bubble continuous positive airway pressure therapy reduces the need for up-transfer of infants with respiratory distress in nontertiary centers. There is a clinically relevant but not statistically significant increase in the risk of pneumothorax. There are significant benefits associated with continuous positive airway pressure use in larger nontertiary centers.

  8. Neurocomportamento de recém-nascidos a termo, pequenos para a idade gestacional, filhos de mães adolescentes Neurobehavior of full-term small for gestational age newborn infants of adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C. de Moraes Barros

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o neurocomportamento de recém-nascidos a termo pequenos (PIG e adequados (AIG para a idade gestacional, filhos de mães adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo de nascidos a termo AIG e PIG, com 24-72 horas de vida, sem afecções do sistema nervoso central. Os neonatos foram avaliados por meio da Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS para: habituação, atenção, despertar, controle, manobras para a orientação, qualidade dos movimentos, excitabilidade, letargia, reflexos não ótimos, assimetria, hipertonia, hipotonia e sinais de estresse e abstinência. A comparação dos grupos AIG e PIG foi feita por análise de variância e teste do qui-quadrado. Aplicou-se a regressão multivariada para analisar os fatores associados ao escore de cada variável do NNNS. RESULTADOS: Dos 3.685 nascidos no local do estudo, 928 (25% eram de mães adolescentes. Desses, 477 satisfizeram os critérios de inclusão, sendo 419 (88% AIG e 58 (12% PIG. A análise univariada não mostrou diferença em nenhuma das variáveis da NNNS entre os PIG e os AIG. Na análise multivariada, os PIG nascidos de parto vaginal apresentaram menor escore na variável qualidade de movimentos do que os nascidos por cesárea. Os PIG nascidos com anestesia local ou sem anestesia apresentaram maior escore na variável excitabilidade do que os nascidos sob anestesia loco-regional. Os PIG femininos tiveram menor escore na variável sinais de estresse/abstinência que os masculinos. CONCLUSÃO: Os recém-nascidos PIG de mães adolescentes mostraram menor qualidade de movimento, mais excitabilidade e mais sinais de estresse, em associação com o sexo do neonato e com variáveis relacionadas ao parto.OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurobehavior of small (SGA and adequate (AGA for gestational age full-term neonates born to adolescent mothers. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included full-term newborn infants aged 24

  9. Endotracheal tube resistance and inertance in a model of mechanical ventilation of newborns and small infants-the impact of ventilator settings on tracheal pressure swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Roland; Buntzel, Julia; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Resistive properties of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are particularly relevant in newborns and small infants who are generally ventilated through ETTs with a small inner diameter. The ventilation rate is also high and the inspiratory time (ti) is short. These conditions effectuate high airway flows with excessive flow acceleration, so airway resistance and inertance play an important role. We carried out a model study to investigate the impact of varying ETT size, lung compliance and ventilator settings, such as peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspiratory time (ti) on the pressure-flow characteristics with respect to the resistive and inertive properties of the ETT. Pressure at the Y piece was compared to direct measurement of intratracheal pressure (P(trach)) at the tip of the ETT, and pressure drop (ΔP(ETT)) was calculated. Applying published tube coefficients (Rohrer's constants and inertance), P(trach) was calculated from ventilator readings and compared to measured P(trach) using the root-mean-square error. The most relevant for ΔP(ETT) was the ETT size, followed by (in descending order) PIP, compliance, ti and PEEP, with gas flow velocity being the principle in common for all these parameters. Depending on the ventilator settings ΔP(ETT) exceeded 8 mbar in the smallest 2.0 mm ETT. Consideration of inertance as an additional effect in this setting yielded a better agreement of calculated versus measured P(trach) than Rohrer's constants alone. We speculate that exact tracheal pressure tracings calculated from ventilator readings by applying Rohrer's equation and the inertance determination to small size ETTs would be helpful. As an integral part of ventilator software this would (1) allow an estimate of work of breathing and implementation of an automatic tube compensation, and (2) be important for gentle ventilation in respiratory care, especially of small infants, since it enables the physician to estimate

  10. Experiences of self-esteem among parents to preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    2014-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... aspects influence the parents’ experience of their self-esteem after the premature birth. Individual aspects include fathers' description of feeling as being split between taking care of the mother and taking care of the newborn infant admitted to the newborn intensive care. The mothers' experience...... difficulties remembering what happened during the first day after giving birth. The relational aspects affect the relationship between the mother and father, the relationship towards their infant and the parents’ experience of their self-esteem. Furthermore, the support from the nurses and the parents’ network...

  11. Imprinting, latchment and displacement: a mini review of early instinctual behaviour in newborn infants influencing breastfeeding success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, Elsie J; Mobbs, George A; Mobbs, Anthony E D

    2016-01-01

    Instinctive behaviours have evolved favouring the mother-infant dyad based on fundamental processes of neurological development, including oral tactile imprinting and latchment. Latchment is the first stage of emotional development based on the successful achievement of biological imprinting. The mechanisms underpinning imprinting are identified and the evolutionary benefits discussed. It is proposed that the oral tactile imprint to the breast is a keystone for optimal latchment and breastfeeding, promoting evolutionary success. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  12. Am Investigation of the Hip Development in Fetus and Newborn Infants%胎儿及新生儿髋关节发育的大体观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许瑞江; 马承宣; 张喜恩

    1988-01-01

    The right hip joints from 47 fresh fetus and newborn infant cadavers were studied. Vernier calliper (precision of 0.02mm) was used for measuring the diameter of the femoral head and the depth of the acetabulum, and their ratio was calculated. The result shows that although the ratio between the diameter of the femoral head and the depth of the acetabulum decreased at birth, the acetabulum is big enough to hold the femoral head. So the hip joint is quite , stable. It is suggested that the relative shallowness of acetabulum do not cause CDH directly. CDH occurs readily when there are acetabular dysplasia, oligohydramnios, malposition in utero and after birth and so on.%本文对47例胎儿、新生儿尸体的右髋关节进行大体解剖研究.用游标卡尺测量股骨头直径和髋白深度.其结果发现:尽管头白比值在出生时有减少的趋势,但髋关节仍很稳定,提示单纯髋臼相对变浅不足以引起先天性髋脱位,只有在髋白发育不良、羊水过少和不良胎位或体位等因素的基础上才容易导致先天性髋脱位的发生.

  13. Diagnosis of 65 cases of ampullary renal pelvis after postnatal follow-up of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Chao; Li, Fujiang; Li, Xiang; Sun, Chao; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the morbidity of ampullary renal pelvis (ARP) and document its natural history in post-natal life. A total of 1,167 newborn infants with prenatally suspected hydronephrosis were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, 65 patients were diagnosed with ARP by computed tomography urography (CTU) and/or magnetic resonance urography (MRU). All cases were followed up with ultrasonogrophy at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after birth, and one case was followed up for 5 years. Changes in the separation of the renal pelvis collection system were recorded. Children with ARP accounted for 5.57% of the total cases (65/1,167) followed-up. No lack of connection between the renal calyces and the renal pelvis was detected. The long-term follow-up revealed that the separation of the renal pelvis collection system did not tend to increase over time. In addition to imaging examinations, long-term follow-up observation is recommended for the accurate diagnosis of pediatric ARP, particularly for differentiation from hydronephrosis.

  14. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Caroline; Agranonik, Marilyn; Portella, André Krumel; Filion, Françoise; Johnston, Celeste C.; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r = 0.864, P = 0.001), without correlation when the solution given is water (r = 0.314, P = 0.455). In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals. PMID:22851979

  15. [Improvement in diurnal oral ingestion in the malnourished newborn infant induced by the administration of nocturnal enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Chagoyán, O C; López-Ayllón, R M; Ríos-Espinosa, E; Arteaga-Noriega, M M; Camacho-Gutiérrez, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the impact of nocturnal nasogastric tube feeding on diurnal caloric intake in children with severe energy protein-calorie malnutrition. Sixteen infants admitted to the Pediatric Nutrition Department with severe malnutrition were randomly assigned into groups: eight children in group A and eight in group B. Infants in both groups received 100% of their caloric requirements by oral feeding ad libitum. An additional 30% caloric charge was given to patients in group A by nocturnal nasogastric tube feeding. At admission and at their 7th day, weight, height, arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were recorded. Weight for age, weight for height, height for age and upper arm muscle circumference were estimated. Every meal was weighted and measured before and after being eaten in order to calculate the child caloric intake using food composition tables. There were no statistically differences in all parameters between groups at admission. At discharge significant differences on caloric intake were found (179.7 +/- 75.34 kcal vs. 98.38 +/- 37.73 kcal; p 0.02). This findings suggest that nocturnal support with an extra caloric supply over the normal requirements for age improve the diurnal caloric intake of children with severe protein energy malnutrition.

  16. Intrauterine Growth Restriction and the Fetal Programming of the Hedonic Response to Sweet Taste in Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ayres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased risk for adult metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, which seems to be related to altered food preferences in these individuals later in life. In this study, we sought to understand whether intrauterine growth leads to fetal programming of the hedonic responses to sweet. Sixteen 1-day-old preterm infants received 24% sucrose solution or water and the taste reactivity was filmed and analyzed. Spearman correlation demonstrated a positive correlation between fetal growth and the hedonic response to the sweet solution in the first 15 seconds after the offer (r=0.864, P=0.001, without correlation when the solution given is water (r=0.314, P=0.455. In fact, the more intense the intrauterine growth restriction, the lower the frequency of the hedonic response observed. IUGR is strongly correlated with the hedonic response to a sweet solution in the first day of life in preterm infants. This is the first evidence in humans to demonstrate that the hedonic response to sweet taste is programmed very early during the fetal life by the degree of intrauterine growth. The altered hedonic response at birth and subsequent differential food preference may contribute to the increased risk of obesity and related disorders in adulthood in intrauterine growth-restricted individuals.

  17. A Continuous Quality Improvement Project to Implement Infant-Driven Feeding as a Standard of Practice in the Newborn/Infant Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrupcala, Kimberly A; Edwards, Taryn M; Spatz, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    To increase the number of neonates who were fed according to cues prior to discharge and potentially decrease length of stay. Continuous quality improvement. Eighty-five bed level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Surgical and nonsurgical neonates of all gestational ages. Neonates younger than 32 weeks gestation, who required intubation, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), high flow nasal cannula (HFNC), or did not have suck or gag reflexes were excluded as potential candidates for infant-driven feeding. The project was conducted over a 13-month period using the following methods: (a) baseline data collection, (b) designation of Infant Driven Feeding (IDF) Champions, (c) creation of a multidisciplinary team, (d) creation of electronic health record documentation, (e) initial staff education, (f) monthly team meetings, (g) reeducation throughout the duration of the project, and (h) patient-family education. Baseline data were collected on 20 neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 0/7(th) weeks and a mean total length of stay (LOS) of 43 days. Postimplementation data were collected on 150 neonates with a mean gestational age of 36 1/7(th) weeks and a mean total LOS of 36.4 days. A potential decrease in the mean total LOS of stay by 6.63 days was achieved during this continuous quality improvement (CQI) project. Neonates who are fed according to cues can become successful oral feeders and can be safely discharged home regardless of gestational age or diagnosis. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  18. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloni, Maysa Helena de A; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto de A C

    2014-03-01

    To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal) for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old) who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption.

  19. Consumption of industrialized food by infants attending child day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Helena de A. Toloni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the age of introduction of petit suisse cheese and instant noodles in the diet of infants attending nurseries of public day care centers and to compare the nutritional composition of these foods with the healthy recommended diet (breast milk and salt meal for this age, in order to estimate nutritional errors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 366 children (from nine to 36 months old who attended day care centers, whose mothers were interviewed about the age of introduction of those foods. The means of the nutrients indicated on the labels of the most consumed brands were considered. For the calculation of the percent composition of breast milk and salt meal, Tables of Food Composition were used. To assess the nutritional adequacy, we used the Dietary Reference Intakes by age group. The percentage of adequacy evaluation of the petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles nutritional compositions was made by comparing them with those of the human milk and the salt meal, respectively. Results: The petit suisse cheese and the instant noodles were consumed by 89.6 and 65.3% of the children in the first year of life. The percentages of adequacy for carbohydrates were more than twice and the percentages for sodium were 20 times higher than those found in the recommended foods. Conclusions: Both industrialized products are inappropriate for infants, emphasizing the need for adoption of norms that can inform health professionals, educators and parents about the risks of consumption.

  20. Frequency of “Nursing Strike” among 6-Month-Old Infants, at East Tehran Health Center and Contributing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Nayyeri; Farima Raji; Edith Haghnazarian; Mamak Shariat; Hosein Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Objective:An abrupt refusal by the infant to breastfeed is often called “nursing strike”. In fact a common reason for cessation of nursing is infant’s refusal to breast feed. This problem can often be overcome. This paper has aimed to identify the causes of “breast feeding refusal” or “nursing strike” in 6 month old infants visiting the East Tehran health center for their scheduled vaccination of 6 months old.Materials and methods:Totally 175 six month old infants were enrolled in this study....

  1. Design and Methodological Considerations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Urologic and Renal Protocol for the Newborn and Young Child with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Jonathan C; Cheng, Earl Y; Austin, J Christopher; Baum, Michelle A; Gargollo, Patricio C; Grady, Richard W; Herron, Adrienne R; Kim, Steven S; King, Shelly J; Koh, Chester J; Paramsothy, Pangaja; Raman, Lisa; Schechter, Michael S; Smith, Kathryn A; Tanaka, Stacy T; Thibadeau, Judy K; Walker, William O; Wallis, M Chad; Wiener, John S; Joseph, David B

    2016-12-01

    Care of children with spina bifida has significantly advanced in the last half century, resulting in gains in longevity and quality of life for affected children and caregivers. Bladder dysfunction is the norm in patients with spina bifida and may result in infection, renal scarring and chronic kidney disease. However, the optimal urological management for spina bifida related bladder dysfunction is unknown. In 2012 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a working group composed of pediatric urologists, nephrologists, epidemiologists, methodologists, community advocates and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention personnel to develop a protocol to optimize urological care of children with spina bifida from the newborn period through age 5 years. An iterative quality improvement protocol was selected. In this model participating institutions agree to prospectively treat all newborns with spina bifida using a single consensus based protocol. During the 5-year study period outcomes will be routinely assessed and the protocol adjusted as needed to optimize patient and process outcomes. Primary study outcomes include urinary tract infections, renal scarring, renal function and bladder characteristics. The protocol specifies the timing and use of testing (eg ultrasonography, urodynamics) and interventions (eg intermittent catheterization, prophylactic antibiotics, antimuscarinic medications). Starting in 2014 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding 9 study sites to implement and evaluate the protocol. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Urologic and Renal Protocol for the Newborn and Young Child with Spina Bifida began accruing patients in 2015. Assessment in the first 5 years will focus on urinary tract infections, renal function, renal scarring and clinical process improvements. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening of Menkes Disease in Newborns that are likely to Benefit from Copper Treatment | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's (NICHD) Molecular Medicine Program is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, or evaluate on a large-scale, population-based newborn screening for Menkes disease (also known as kinky hair disease).

  3. Physician medical decision-making at the end of life in newborns : Insight into implementation at 2 Dutch centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A. A. Eduard; van der Hoeven, Mark A. H.; van Meerveld, R. Corine; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Decisions regarding end-of-life care in critically ill newborns in the Netherlands have received considerable criticism from the media and from the public. This might be because of a lack of proper information and knowledge. Our purpose was to provide detailed information about how and wh

  4. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Pramila; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Kumar, Mala; Ramesh, V; Bhatia, Eesh; Gupta, Sarika; Singh, Swati; Saxena, Priya; Bhatia, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-09-28

    Hypovitaminosis D is common in India. In the present prospective partially randomised study of vitamin D (D₃) supplementation during pregnancy, subjects were randomised in the second trimester to receive either one oral dose of 1500 μg vitamin D₃ (group 1, n 48) or two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D₃ each in the second and third trimesters (group 2, n 49). Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at term, cord blood (CB) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), neonatal serum Ca and anthropometry were measured in these subjects and in forty-three non-supplemented mother-infant pairs (usual care). Median maternal 25(OH)D at term was higher in group 2 (58·7, interquartile range (IQR) 38·4-89·4 nmol/l) v. group 1 (26·2, IQR 17·7-57·7 nmol/l) and usual-care group (39·2, IQR 21·2-73·4 nmol/l) (P = 0·000). CB ALP was increased (>8.02 μkat/l or >480 IU/l) in 66·7 % of the usual-care group v. 41·9 % of group 1 and 38·9 % of group 2 (P = 0·03). Neonatal Ca and CB 25(OH)D did not differ significantly in the three groups. Birth weight, length and head circumference were greater and the anterior fontanelle was smaller in groups 1 and 2 (3·08 and 3·03 kg, 50·3 and 50·1 cm, 34·5 and 34·4 cm, 2·6 and 2·5 cm, respectively) v. usual care (2·77 kg, 49·4, 33·6, 3·3 cm; P = 0·000 for length, head circumference and fontanelle and P = 0·003 for weight). These differences were still evident at 9 months. We conclude that both 1500 μg and two doses of 3000 μg vitamin D₃ had a beneficial effect on infant anthropometry, the larger dose also improving CB ALP and maternal 25(OH)D.

  5. Design of an Integrated Sensor Platform for Vital Sign Monitoring of Newborn Infants at Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous health status monitoring and advances in medical treatments have resulted in a significant increase of survival rate in critically ill infants admitted into Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. The quality of life and long-term health prospects of the neonates depend increasingly on the reliability and comfort of the monitoring systems. In this paper, we present the design work of a smart jacket for vital sign monitoring of neonates at a NICU. The design represents a unique integration of sensor technology, user focus and design aspects. Textile sensors, a reflectance pulse oximeter and a wearable temperature sensor were proposed to be embedded into the smart jacket. Location of the sensor, materials and appearance were designed to optimize the functionality, patient comfort and the possibilities for aesthetic features. Prototypes were built for demonstrating the design concept and experimental results were obtained from tests on premature babies at the NICU of M�xima Medical Centre (MMC in Veldhoven, the Netherlands.

  6. The early development of brain white matter: a review of imaging studies in fetuses, newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, J; Dehaene-Lambertz, G; Kulikova, S; Poupon, C; Hüppi, P S; Hertz-Pannier, L

    2014-09-12

    Studying how the healthy human brain develops is important to understand early pathological mechanisms and to assess the influence of fetal or perinatal events on later life. Brain development relies on complex and intermingled mechanisms especially during gestation and first post-natal months, with intense interactions between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. Although the baby's brain is organized early on, it is not a miniature adult brain: regional brain changes are asynchronous and protracted, i.e. sensory-motor regions develop early and quickly, whereas associative regions develop later and slowly over decades. Concurrently, the infant/child gradually achieves new performances, but how brain maturation relates to changes in behavior is poorly understood, requiring non-invasive in vivo imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two main processes of early white matter development are reviewed: (1) establishment of connections between brain regions within functional networks, leading to adult-like organization during the last trimester of gestation, (2) maturation (myelination) of these connections during infancy to provide efficient transfers of information. Current knowledge from post-mortem descriptions and in vivo MRI studies is summed up, focusing on T1- and T2-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and quantitative mapping of T1/T2 relaxation times, myelin water fraction and magnetization transfer ratio.

  7. Metabonomic study of newborn infants with intrauterine growth restriction%宫内生长受限新生儿代谢组学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔文; 李芳; 刘敬; 张万巧; 王燕; 付薇

    2016-01-01

    .000),ornithine (t =4.264,P =0.000),serine (t =2.647,P =0.011),threonine (t =2.311,P =0.026),tryptophan (t =4.040,P =0.000),valine (t =2.700,P =0.01),7-carbon acylcarnitine (t =-2.44 1,P =0.019),18-carbon diene carnitine (t =2.449,P =0.018),capric acylcarnitine(t =-4.148,P =0.000) and hydroxyl acetyl carnitine (t =-2.097,P =0.042) were lower than those in full-term IUGR newborns.(3) For AGA newborns,metabolites had no differences between male and female (P > 0.05);however,for newborns with IUGR,metabolites significantly differed between male and female,and the concentrations of aspartic acid(t=2.521,P =0.016),glutamate(t =-2.175,P =0.035) in male IUGR were lower than those in female newborns with IUGR,but the concentration of 26-carbon carnitine (t =2.231,P =0.031) was higher than that in female group.(4) Birth weight had no significant effect on free carnitine concentration or on the ratios of free carnitine and acylcarnitine to total carnitine(all P > 0.05).Conclusions IUGR infants exhibit significant abnormalities in amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism,especially those with birth weight < 3rd percentile.With the increase of birth weight,amino acids and acylcarnitines showed compensatory increases or decrease,and when birth weight reached the 10th percentile,the newborns with IUGR were close to the AGA newborns.

  8. 新生儿疼痛影响因素的临床观察%Study on the influencing factors of pain in newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄云丽; 叶永青; 黄东明; 吴巧珍; 施玉麒; 王维琼; 梁淑英; 陈朝霞

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿疼痛的影响因素,为临床对新生儿疼痛进行干预提供依据.方法 应用"新生儿急性疼痛行为评分量表"对42例新生儿进行疼痛评分.按照性别、胎龄、出生体重、穿刺类型、是否经产道分娩和生后日龄进行分组,比较各组新生儿的疼痛评分.同时应用多功能监护仪动态记录新生儿在穿刺过程中呼吸、心率、血压和经皮血氧饱和度等指标的变化.结果 42例新生儿平均疼痛评分为7.6分.性别、胎龄、出生体重及穿刺类型对新生儿疼痛评分的影响无统计学意义(P值均>0.05),而是否经产道分娩和生后日龄时新生儿疼痛评分的影响有统计学意义(P值均 0.05),while significant differences among infants with different birth age and whether by vaginal birth or not (P=0.015 and 0.043 respectively). In the process of puncture,the SO2 was significantly decreased,while the respiration rate,heart rate,sys-tolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly increased. Conclusions Pain is prevalent in newborn infants and accom-panied by obvious changes of vital signs. The means of childbirth and birth age have significant influence on the neonatal pain. It is suggested to pay close attention to the neonatal pain and take effective interventions.

  9. Developmental alterations of the auditory brainstem centers--pathogenetic implications in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna M; Ottaviani, Giulia; Matturri, Luigi

    2015-10-15

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), despite the success of campaigns to reduce its risks, is the leading cause of infant death in the Western world. Even though the pathogenesis remains unexplained, brainstem abnormalities of the neuronal network that mediates breathing and protective responses to asphyxia, particularly in the arousal phase from sleep, are believed to play a fundamental role. This is the first study to identify, in SIDS, developmental defects of specific brainstem centers involved in hearing pathways, particularly in the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, in the superior olivary complex and in the inferior colliculus, suggesting a possible influence of the acoustic system on respiratory activity. In 49 SIDS cases and 20 controls an in-depth anatomopathological examination of the autonomic nervous system was performed, with the main aim of detecting developmental alterations of brainstem structures controlling both the respiratory and auditory activities. Overall, a significantly higher incidence of cytoarchitectural alterations of both the auditory and respiratory network components were observed in SIDS victims compared with matched controls. Even if there is not sufficient evidence to presume that developmental defects of brainstem auditory structures can affect breathing, our findings, showing that developmental deficit in the control respiratory areas are frequently accompanied by alterations of auditory structures, highlight an additional important element for the understanding the pathogenetic mechanism of SIDS.

  10. [Management of sudden unexpected infant death syndrome (SUIDS) in reference centers in France in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levieux, K; Patural, H; Harrewijn, I; Hanf, M; Gras Leguen, C

    2015-04-01

    In France, nearly 500 infants still die unexpectedly every year. In 2009, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance published a survey showing great heterogeneity in the management of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual diagnostic approach to SUID in the different reference centers in France and to determine the degree to which the 2007 recommendations of the French National Authority for Health (Haute Autorité de santé [HAS]) are applied. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional epidemiological study by email sent to the 36 SIDS reference centers with questions on examinations usually performed in SIDS cases. We also submitted six SUID test cases for death classification to the different reference physicians. Twenty-nine of 36 centers (80.5%) responded. Among the recommended tests, only blood cultures, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, and a proposal to autopsy are done in 100% of the centers. Other investigations are not carried out systematically: skeleton radiography (65.5%), cranial CT scan (58%), eye fundus (20.7%), metabolic analysis (65.5%), and blood toxicology (62%). The main reasons for non-completion of these tests were hospital practices, lack of resources, technical difficulties, cost of tests, and difficulty in interpreting results (50% reported not knowing the postmortem biological standards). None of the institutions apply the HAS recommendations entirely. The classification of causes-of-death test cases also varied between the centers, with a maximum of 62% concordance in their responses. In 2013, in France, there is still substantial heterogeneity in the diagnostic set-up of SUIDS, a non-exhaustive implementation of the recommendations of the French National Authority for Health, and an unsatisfactory SUIDS classification tool because of considerable discordance between physicians. These results explain the current difficulties in obtaining reliable epidemiological data

  11. Cost estimate of hospital stays for premature newborns in a public tertiary hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Desgualdo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasindice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased.

  12. Evaluating a switch from meconium to umbilical cord tissue for newborn drug testing: A retrospective study at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kendra L; Wood, Kelly E; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare detection rates of newborn drug exposure at an academic medical center transitioning from meconium to umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing. We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart review on all newborns (n=2072) for whom newborn drug testing was ordered at our academic medical center between June 2012 and August 2015 (in August 2013, umbilical cord tissue became the preferred specimen). Meconium toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 221 cases (21.3% of 1037 total specimens), with non-medical drug use identified in 85 cases (8.2%). Umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 302 cases (29.2%), with non-medical drug use identified in 107 cases (10.3%). Of the cases involving non-medical drug use, the most common compounds detected were tetrahydrocannabinol and amphetamines. Non-medical drug use did not differ significantly between meconium and umbilical cord tissue, either as a total or for classes of drugs such as amphetamines, cannabinoids, and opiates. Maternal non-medical use of tramadol (not tested for in meconium) was identified in 5 cases (0.4%). There were significant differences in rate of detection of iatrogenic medications. Specifically, morphine, lorazepam, phenobarbital, and codeine were more commonly detected in meconium, while oxycodone was more commonly detected in umbilical cord tissue. Umbilical cord tissue toxicology testing yielded a similar detection rate compared to meconium testing. The use of umbilical cord tissue avoids detection of medications given to the neonate prior to meconium collection. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pregnant women and their newborn infants in the region of São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara de Cássia Brandão de Mattos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Toxoplasmosis transmission during pregnancy can cause severe sequelae in fetuses and newborns. Maternal antibodies may be indicators of risk or immunity. The aim here was to evaluate seropositivity for anti-Toxoplasma gondii (anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies and IgG avidity in pregnant women and their newborn infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic. METHODS: Serum samples from pregnant women (n = 87 and their respective newborns (n = 87 were evaluated for anti-T. gondii antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF (IgM and IgG, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA (IgG and an avidity test. RESULTS: Anti-T. gondii antibodies were identified in 64.4% of the serum samples from the mothers and their infants (56/87. Except for two maternal serum samples (2.3%, all others were negative for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, using IIF. The results showed that 92.9% of the pregnant women had high IgG avidity indexes (> 30% and four samples had avidity indexes between 16 and 30%. Two women in the third trimester of pregnancy were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies; their babies had avidity indexes between 16 and 30%. The avidity indexes of serum from the other 83 newborns were similar to the results from their mothers. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that 2% of the pregnant women were at risk of T. gondii transmission during the gestational period. These data seem to reflect the real situation of gestational toxoplasmosis in the northwestern region of the state of São Paulo.

  14. Maternal and perinatal characteristics of small-for-gestational-age newborns: Ten-year experience of a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin Uysal, Nihal; Gülümser, Çağrı; Bilgin Yanık, Filiz

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the maternal and perinatal characteristics of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) newborns in singleton pregnancies managed at our hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. The study (n=456) and control (n=4925) groups included pregnancies resulting in SGA and AGA newborns, respectively. Additionally, two SGA subgroups were defined according to abnormal (n=34) and normal (n=57) Doppler findings. Maternal demographic features; intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies; gestational age at delivery; birth weight; major congenital anomalies, karyotype abnormalities, and genetic syndromes; maternal and obstetric problems such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, oligohydramnios, preterm birth; admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and perinatal mortality were recorded, and the two groups were compared with respect to these parameters. Mean maternal age, parity, gestational age at delivery, and birthweight were significantly lower; the frequencies of ICSI pregnancies, hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios, preterm delivery, major congenital anomalies, karyotype abnormalities and genetic syndromes, admission to the NICU and perinatal mortality were significantly higher in the study group (p0.05). The association of SGA with ICSI pregnancies, hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios, preterm delivery, congenital/chromosomal anomalies, NICU admission and perinatal mortality may be important in perinatal care. Clinical suspicion of SGA necessitates appropriate monitorization and management. Although obstetric outcomes were not significantly different between the two SGA subgroups with abnormal and normal Doppler findings in this study, this finding must be evaluated with caution due to the small sizes.

  15. A framework for key considerations regarding point-of-care screening of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Alex R; Kus, Christopher A; Ostrander, Robert J; Comeau, Anne Marie; Boyle, Coleen A; Dougherty, Denise; Mann, Marie Y; Botkin, Jeffrey R; Green, Nancy S

    2012-12-01

    Newborn screening is performed under public health authority, with analysis carried out primarily by public health laboratories or other centralized laboratories. Increasingly, opportunities to improve infant health will arise from including screening tests that are completed at the birth centers instead of in centralized laboratories, constituting a significant shift for newborn screening. This report summarizes a framework developed by the US Secretary of Health and Human Services Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children based on a series of meetings held during 2011 and 2012. These meetings were for the purpose of evaluating whether conditions identifiable through point-of-care screening should be added to the recommended universal screening panel, and to identify key considerations for birth hospitals, public health agencies, and clinicians when point-of-care newborn screening is implemented.

  16. Respiratory distress in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Suzanne; Moser, Chuanpit; Baack, Michelle

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory distress presents as tachypnea, nasal flaring, retractions, and grunting and may progress to respiratory failure if not readily recognized and managed. Causes of respiratory distress vary and may not lie within the lung. A thorough history, physical examination, and radiographic and laboratory findings will aid in the differential diagnosis. Common causes include transient tachypnea of the newborn, neonatal pneumonia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Strong evidence reveals an inverse relationship between gestational age and respiratory morbidity. (1)(2)(9)(25)(26) Expert opinion recommends careful consideration about elective delivery without labor at less than 39 weeks’ gestation. Extensive evidence, including randomized control trials, cohort studies, and expert opinion, supports maternal group B streptococcus screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and appropriate followup of high-risk newborns according to guidelines established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (4)(29)(31)(32)(34) Following these best-practice strategies is effective in preventing neonatal pneumonia and its complications. (31)(32)(34). On the basis of strong evidence, including randomized control trials and Cochrane Reviews, administration of antenatal corticosteroids (5) and postnatal surfactant (6) decrease respiratory morbidity associated with RDS. Trends in perinatal management strategies to prevent MAS have changed. There is strong evidence that amnioinfusion, (49) oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal suctioning at the perineum, (45) or intubation and endotracheal suctioning of vigorous infants (46)(47) do not decrease MAS or its complications. Some research and expert opinion supports endotracheal suctioning of nonvigorous meconium-stained infants (8) and induction of labor at 41 weeks’ gestation (7) to prevent MAS.

  17. Agreement between Cochrane Neonatal reviews and clinical practice guidelines for newborns in Denmark a cross sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Greisen, Gorm; Madsen, Lars P

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess agreement between Cochrane Neonatal Group reviews and clinical practice guidelines in Denmark. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical guidelines for newborn infants. Materials:All Cochrane neonatal reviews and Danish local clinical guidelines for newborn infants. MAIN OUT...

  18. Diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Per Haavwardsholm; Dalen, Ingvild; Ikonomou, Nicolaos; Ulimoen, Geir; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

    2008-06-01

    Screening of newborn infants for congenital hip dysplasia may be done by clinical examination, ultrasound, or radiography--or a combination of these. Studies that have used clinical examination followed by ultrasound imaging for infants with certain risk factors have shown excellent results, but they were performed by very experienced practitioners. We wanted to find out whether the results of such screening would be equally good with less optimal staffing. Thus, we evaluated the real-life performance of a screening program for detection of congenital hip dysplasia in newborn infants. We performed a retrospective chart review of all infants (n = 1,983) referred for evaluation for suspected congenital hip dysplasia from one single obstetric hospital, where 19,820 infants had been screened from 1992 through 2001. Infants were referred either because of a positive finding during the Ortolani and Barlow examinations or because of the presence of risk factors. The reasons for referral of the 1,983 infants (10% of those examined) were: positive clinical signs in 255 (1.3% of all examined) and risk factors in 1,547 (7.8%), and a combination of both in 114 (0.6%). 67 other infants (0.3%) who had passed the initial pediatric screening were later referred from the local health centers. Finally, 23 of the 1,983 infants were subsequently referred again by their health center for renewed orthopedic evaluation. Of the infants who were treated (298/1,983 = 15% of those referred), those with a pathological examination result were represented proportionately more than infants who were referred because of risk factors (0.8% as opposed to 0.5%). Delayed diagnoses occurred in 1.7/1,000 infants. The performance of a screening protocol for congenital hip dysplasia in a real-life setting involving several physicians both on the pediatric and orthopedic side may not live up to expectations based on the use of such a protocol in an optimized setting. This type of analysis of screening data

  19. Late hemorrhagic disease of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, I E; Rao, S D Subba

    2003-03-01

    The clinical features of 14 infants diagnosed with late hemorrhagic disease of newborn (LHDN), of which 10 did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis, are presented. All infants were exclusively breast-fed and 12 did not have any underlying illness to explain the abnormal coagulation profile. The common presenting symptoms were seizures (71%), vomiting (57%), poor feeding (50%) and altered sensorium (36%). Physical examination shared pallor in all infants and a bulging anterior fontanel in 64%. Intracranial bleed was the predominant manifestation (93%), with CT scan showing intracranial bleed in 78%. Eight infants (57%) succumbed to their illness, while 36%had neurological sequelae. Since LHDN leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it should be prevented by providing vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns.

  20. 两种不同分娩方式对足月新生儿早期血糖的影响%Effects of two delivery ways on early blood glucose of full-term newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符佩华; 田铭霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of two delivery ways on early blood glucose of full-term newborn infants.Methods Totally 120 full-term newborn infants were chosen from March to October in 2015, including 60 cases in uterine-incision group and 60 cases in natural labor group.The blood glucose levels of mothers were immediately measured after labor, while those of infants were measured 30min after birth and before eating milk.Results The blood glucose levels of mothers and infants in uterine-incision group were obviously lower than those in natural labor group, and the differences between two groups were significant (t value was -6.07 and -3.57, respectively, both P<0.05).Compared with the natural labor group, the incidence of hypoglycemia in mothers and infants was significantly higher in the uterine-incision group (χ2 value was 7.908 and 7.619, respectively, both P<0.05).Conclusion Hypoglycemia may occur in newborn infants at early stage, and its incidence is higher in uterine-incision delivery infants than natural labor infants.The effect of puerperant fasting hypoglycemia before labor is greater in uterine-incision delivery infants.%目的 探讨两种不同分娩方式对足月新生儿早期血糖的影响.方法 选择2015年3月到2015年10月娩出的足月新生儿120例,其中剖宫产组60例,阴道分娩组60例,测定分娩即刻孕母末梢血糖,新生儿于出生后30min未开奶前测定血糖值.结果 剖宫产组产妇、新生儿血糖值明显低于阴道分娩组,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为-6.07、-3.57,均P<0.05);剖宫产组产妇和新生儿低血糖发生率明显高于阴道分娩组,两组比较,差异有统计学意义(χ2值分别为7.908、7.619,均P<0.05).结论 足月新生儿存在生后早期发生低血糖的可能,剖宫产儿发生低血糖的可能性大于阴道分娩儿,产妇分娩前空腹低血糖对剖宫产儿的影响更大.

  1. 针对剖宫产新生儿早期护理干预模式的效果评价%Evaluation of the effect of early nursing intervention mode for the newborn infants given birth through cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽绚; 蔡荣英

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of the effect of early nursing intervention mode for the newborn infants given birth by cesarean section. Methods Chose the newborn infants given birth by cesarean section in our hospital during January 2014 and December 2015 as study objects. 150 cases of neonatal baby were divided into the control group (75 cases) and observation group (75 cases) according to random number table method. The control group was given routine nursing care, while the observation group was given early nursing intervention on the basis of control group. The clinical indexes of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results There were no significant differences in the mixed feeding, breastfeeding, artificial feeding and sucking rate between the two groups(P>0.05). In the observation group, the duration of jaundice, the incidence of sepsis, skin rash, physiological weight loss, and the size of the normal clinical indicators were better than the control group( P0.05),观察组的黄疸消褪时间,脓疱疹、皮疹发生率,生理性体重降低、大小便次正常等临床指标优于对照组( P<0.05)。结论剖宫产新生儿给予早期护理干预模式,能明显改善新生儿预后,提高新生儿母乳喂养率,值得推广。

  2. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Human Milk and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamohammadi, Azar; Zafari, Mandana; Moslemi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Objective Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time. Methods This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns. Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. The umbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ2, Fisher were used in this study. Findings Median time of cord sepa...

  3. Cultures of education and rituals of transition from home to the infant toddler center. Observing interactions and professional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bove

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the infant-toddler center, the rituals of transition that mark children’s arrival and going home times offer interesting kaleidoscopes for the study of interactive dynamics with the associated meanings and implicit educational models. Numerous pedagogical studies have investigated the meanings of these events, for the most part drawing on the monocultural model of classical attachment theory to analyze interactions between adults and children. Far less research has approached these rituals using triadic, systemic and intercultural categories of analysis in order to explore not only educators’ actions but also what is going on in their minds. In this paper, we discuss examples from a recent study on rituals of transition in the multicultural context of an infant toddler center, combining description of the timing, behaviors and interactive styles of children and adults, with analysis of the thoughts and representations of the educators.

  4. Caregiver Perceptions and Child-Caregiver Interactions in a Newly Inclusive Infant Child Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.; Berr, Christy N.; Hsiung, Madeline

    1998-01-01

    Explored caregivers' perceptions concerning inclusion of infants and toddlers with special needs, as well as their actual behaviors toward these children. Findings indicated that while individual differences in infant behavior may affect caregiving need more than differences specific to a particular risk condition, caregivers' perceptions about…

  5. Prevalence and Morbidity of Late Preterm Infants: Current Status in a Medical Center of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Tsai

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Late-preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal morbidities associated with organ immaturity. The results of this study emphasize the importance of judicious obstetrical decision-making when considering late preterm delivery, and the need to set up anticipatory clinical guidelines for the care of late preterm infants.

  6. General Characteristics of Newborn from the Area of Tuzla Canton, Born in the Course of 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halilović, Jasminka H; Begić, Amela

    2015-06-01

    The paper examined the basic anthropometric characteristics, birth weight and birth length of newborns, from the Tuzla Canton (TC) born during 2007. The study is a retrospective study in which data from the book of protocol of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic - University Clinical Center Tuzla (OGC UCC). There were 4057 births in which 4125 babies were born in the OGC UCC Tuzla between 01 January and 31 December 2007. Of the total number, there were 29 stillborn (0.7%), of which 16 boys and 13 girls. There was 4,096 (99.3%) live born, of which 2,123 (51.83%) boys and 1973 (48.17%) girls. On every 100 girls 108 boys were born. Average values of the observed parameters in the total sample of infants were the following: birth weight 3387.17g; birth length 52.83cm; age of the mother was X(sr) = 26.49 years, and the average order of birth is 1.61. Birth weight in the total sample of male infants ranged from minimal 1130g to 5150g maximum. The average value of birth weight of male newborns was 3443.47g and female 3326.38g. The birth length of male infants in the total sample ranged from minimal 35 cm to 62 cm maximum and average value of the birth length reached 53.16 cm. Infants with low birth weight, hypotrophic newborns, born 123 or 6.24%. There were 1659 or 84.22% eutrophic infants born. There were 188 or 9.54% of high birth weight infants, hypertrophic infants, born. Male infants were more likely hypertrophic than female.

  7. A prospective newborn screening and treatment program for sickle cell anemia in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Patrick T; Ferris, Margaret G; Ramamurthy, Uma; Santos, Brigida; de Oliveira, Vysolela; Bernardino, Luis; Ware, Russell E

    2013-12-01

    Over 300,000 infants are born annually with sickle cell anemia (SCA) in sub-Saharan Africa, and >50% die young from infection or anemia, usually without diagnosis of SCA. Early identification by newborn screening (NBS), followed by simple interventions dramatically reduced the mortality of SCA in the United States, but this strategy is not yet established in Africa. We designed and implemented a proof-of-principle NBS and treatment program for SCA in Angola, with focus on capacity building and local ownership. Dried bloodspots from newborns were collected from five birthing centers. Hemoglobin identification was performed using isoelectric focusing; samples with abnormal hemoglobin patterns were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Infants with abnormal FS or FSC patterns were enrolled in a newborn clinic to initiate penicillin prophylaxis and receive education, pneumococcal immunization, and insecticide-treated bed nets. A total of 36,453 infants were screened with 77.31% FA, 21.03% FAS, 1.51% FS, and 0.019% FSC. A majority (54.3%) of affected infants were successfully contacted and brought to clinical care. Compliance in the newborn clinic was excellent (96.6%). Calculated first-year mortality rate for babies with SCA compares favorably to the national infant mortality rate (6.8 vs. 9.8%). The SCA burden is extremely high in Angola, but NBS is feasible. Capacity building and training provide local healthcare workers with skills needed for a functional screening program and clinic. Contact and retrieval of all affected SCA infants remains a challenge, but families are compliant with clinic appointments and treatment. Early mortality data suggest screening and early preventive care saves lives.

  8. Epidemiology of respiratory distress and the illness severity in late preterm or term infants: a prospective multi-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-lu; YI Bin; SHI Jing-yun; DU Li-zhong; XU Xue-feng; CHEN Chao; YAN Chao-ying; LIU Ya-ming; LIU Ling; XIONG Hong; SUN Hui-qing; LAI Jian-pu

    2010-01-01

    Background The severity of respiratory distress was associated with neonatal prognosis. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics, therapeutic interventions and short-term outcomes of late preterm or term infants who required respiratory support, and compare the usage of different illness severity assessment tools.Methods Seven neonatal intensive care units in tertiary hospitals were recruited. From November 2008 to October 2009, neonates born at ≥34 weeks' gestational age, admitted at <72 hours of age, requiring continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or mechanical ventilation for respiratory support were enrolled. Clinical data including demographic variables, underlying disease, complications, therapeutic interventions and short-term outcomes were collected. All infants were divided into three groups by Acute care of at-risk newborns (ACoRN) Respiratory Score <5, 5-8, and >8.Results During the study period, 503 newborn late preterm or term infants required respiratory support. The mean gestational age was (36.8±2.2) weeks, mean birth weight was (2734.5±603.5) g. The majority of the neonates were male (69.4%), late preterm (63.3%), delivered by cesarean section (74.8%), admitted in the first day of life (89.3%) and outborn (born at other hospitals, 76.9%). Of the cesarean section, 51.1% were performed electively. Infants in the severe group were more mature, had the highest rate of elective cesarean section, Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes and resuscitated with intubation, the in-hospital mortality increased significantly. In total, 58.1% of the patients were supported with mechanical ventilation and 17.3% received high frequency oscillation. Adjunctive therapies were commonly needed.Higher rate of infants in severe group needed mechanical ventilation or high frequency oscillation, volume expansion,bicarbonate infusion or vasopressors therapy (P <0.05). The incidence of complications was also increased significantly in severe group (P

  9. Using the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale for examining the quality of care for infants and toddlers in Norwegian day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Grethe Baustad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of the presented study is to explore whether ITERS-R is an appropriate tool to use for examining the quality of care for infants and toddlers in Norwegian day care centers. The study is based on a pedagogical perspective of quality, a perspective which takes into account that it is possible both to define and assess the quality in day care centers. This study indicates that ITERS-R can be an appropriate tool to use in examining pedagogical quality in Norwegian day care centers, and especially the concept of process quality. The fit between the values and goals given in the Norwegian Framework Plan and the areas and quality indicators in the ITERS-R is also good; even if there are differences which need to be dealt with. The results are interpreted and discussed within the Norwegian day care center context and the values and goals of Norwegian day care centers. The following four interacting and interdependent dimensions of pedagogical quality made the basis for the discussion: those of the society, the child, the staff (teacher/ teachers and the learning context (Sheridan, 2007, 2009.

  10. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  11. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association betwe

  12. Educação em saúde auditiva do neonato e lactente para profissionais de enfermagem Newborn and infant hearing health education for nursing professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Padilha Barbosa

    2013-04-01

    professional participating (nurses, technicians and assistants working in a university hospital between March and September of 2011. All of the interviewees answered a semi-structured questionnaire before and after the educational actions. RESULTS: We observed a significant change in the knowledge of the nursing professionals after the educational activity in most of the variables; such as: ideal age to perform the newborn hearing screening; ideal age to diagnose hearing loss; ideal age to start intervention against hearing loss and risk indicators for hearing loss. CONCLUSION: It is believed that the methodology used in educational activities, based on problems found in professional practice, education may have contributed greatly to increase knowledge about hearing health, especially concerning neonates and infants.

  13. 高频振荡通气治疗新生儿肺出血的临床研究%Effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation on pulmonary hemorrhage in newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹; 黄西林; 李小萍; 李明玉; 沈剑峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高频振荡通气(HFOV)治疗新生儿肺出血的有效性及安全性.方法 回顾性分析高频和常频通气(CMV)治疗肺出血患儿62例的临床效果,比较两组患儿的肺氧合功能、肺出血时间、住院时间、上机时间、氧疗时间、合并症及转归.结果 HFOV组治疗后1、6、12、24、48、72 h 氧合指数(OI)明显低于CMV组,动脉/肺泡氧分压(a/APO2)明显高于CMV组,差异有统计学意义(P < 0.05).HFOV组呼吸机相关性肺炎(VAP)发生率明显低于CMV组(P < 0.05),治愈率增高(P < 0.05).HFOV组气胸、颅内出血、消化道出血、血糖异常、败血症、肾功能损害的发生率与CMV组比较差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05).存活患儿中,HFOV组在肺出血时间、住院时间、上机时间、氧疗时间较CMV组明显缩短(P < 0.05).结论 HFOV能更好地改善肺出血患儿氧合功能,降低VAP的发生率,缩短病程,提高治愈率,与CMV组比较并不增加不良反应的发生率.%Objectives To investigate the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)for the treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage in newborn infants. Methods The clinical effect for the treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage was retrospectively evaluated in 30 newborn infants with HFOV and 32 newborn infants with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) by comparing the oxygenate function, the duration of pulmonary hemorrhage, the length of hospital stay, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the duration of oxygen therapy,complications and prognosis. Results The oxygen index (OI) was lower obviously and the arterial/alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/APO2) was higher markedly at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment in the HFOV group compared to those in the CMV group, respectively (P <0.05 for all). There were significantly the lower incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the higher recovery rate in the HFOV group compared to those in the CMV

  14. Bacterial drug resistance analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in newborn infants%肺炎克雷伯菌属感染新生患儿的细菌耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李际红; 王健; 资捷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze and research on drug resistance in patients with neonatal pneumonia Klebsiella, to provide a strong basis for early clinical treatment of children with scientific detection, to a certain extent, to ensure the treatment of children, to lay a solid foundation for clinical rational use of antibiotics. Methods From January 2014 to December 2015, 63 patients in our hospital neonatal infection of Klebsiella pneumoniae as the research object of this experiment. Systematically reviewed and studied the specific circumstances of birth and the results of drug resistance test of newborn infants infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results In this study, 63 cases of newborn infants infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae were studied. There were 14 cases of newborn infants with gestational age less than 37 weeks;between 37 weeks and 42 weeks, there were 39 newborn infants; more than 42 weeks of newborn children with 10 cases. 72 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated in sputum accounted for 83. 3%, ESBLs positive rate was 37. 5%, ESBLs producing strained to imipenem and levofloxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin / tazobactam and Jotham resistance rate was low (0.0%, 11.1%, 18.5%), strained to penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics appear to be highly resistant to sulfa antibiotics, aminoglycoside had higher resistance, to ampicillin was 100% resistant. Conclusions The resistance rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae to penicillin and the high rate of antibiotics in newborn infants are higher. The resistance rate of ESBLs producing strains to the tested antibiotics is significantly higher than that of non ESBLs producing strains. The phenomenon of multiple drug resistance of ESBLs producing strains is outstanding. In clinic, we should choose antibiotics rationally according to the results of drug sensitivity test, and actively and effectively control the infection of the newborn.%目的:分析和研究针对新生儿肺炎患者中克雷伯菌的药物的耐

  15. Center Variation in Intestinal Microbiota Prior to Late-Onset Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana H Taft

    Full Text Available Late onset sepsis (LOS contributes to mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We tested the hypotheses that microbes causing LOS originate from the gut, and that distortions in the gut microbial community increases subsequent risk of LOS.We examined the gut microbial community in prospectively collected stool samples from preterm infants with LOS and an equal number of age-matched controls at two sites (Cincinnati, OH and Birmingham, AL, by sequencing the bacterial 16S rDNA. We confirmed our findings in a subset of infants by whole genome shotgun sequencing, and analyzed the data using R and LEfSe.Infants with LOS in Cincinnati, as compared to controls, had less abundant Actinobacteria in the first samples after birth (median 18 days before sepsis onset, and less abundant Pseudomonadales in the last samples collected prior to LOS (median 8 days before sepsis onset. Infants with LOS in Birmingham, as compared to controls, had no differences identified in the first sample microbial communities, but Lactobacillales was less abundant in the last samples prior to LOS (median 4 days before sepsis onset. Sequencing identified detectable levels of the sepsis-causative organism in stool samples prior to disease onset for 82% of LOS cases.Translocation of gut microbes may account for the majority of LOS cases. Distortions in the fecal microbiota occur prior to LOS, but the form of distortion depends on timing and site. The microbial composition of fecal samples does not predict LOS onset in a generalizable fashion.

  16. Mitochondrial mutation m.1555A>G as a risk factor for failed newborn hearing screening in a large cohort of preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Göpel, Wolfgang; Berkowski, Sandra; Preuss, Michael; Ziegler, Andreas; Küster, Helmut; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Gortner, Ludwig; Mögel, Michael; Härtel, Christoph; Herting, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial m.1555A>G mutation is associated with a high rate of permanent hearing loss, if aminoglycosides are given. Preterm infants have an increased risk of permanent hearing loss and are frequently treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics. Methods We genotyped preterm infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams who were prospectively enrolled in a large cohort study for the m.1555A>G mutation. Treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics in combination with mitochondrial m....

  17. Early onset Morganella morganii sepsis in a newborn infant with emergence of cephalosporin resistance caused by depression of AMPC beta-lactamase production..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ajay K; Kempley, Stephen T; Price, Elizabeth; Sharma, Bal K; Livermore, David M

    2006-04-01

    A preterm infant with early onset Morganella morganii sepsis was treated with cefotaxime and gentamicin after confirmation of antimicrobial susceptibility. The infant developed persistent ventriculitis caused by the emergence of a cefotaxime-resistant Morganella variant with derepression of its AmpC beta-lactamase. When choosing antibiotic therapy, the risk of development of resistance to cephalosporins should be considered in infections caused by M. morganii and other Gram-negative organisms with inducible AmpC beta-lactamases.

  18. Risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among term and preterm infants born small-for-gestational-age: secondary analyses of the WHO Multi-Country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ota

    Full Text Available Small for gestational age (SGA is not only a major indicator of perinatal mortality and morbidity, but also the morbidity risks in later in life. We aim to estimate the association between the birth of SGA infants and the risk factors and adverse perinatal outcomes among twenty-nine countries in Africa, Latin America, the Middle East and Asia in 359 health facilities in 2010-11.We analysed facility-based, cross-sectional data from the WHO Multi-country Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models with random effects for facilities and countries to estimate the risk factors for SGA infants using country-specific birthweight reference standards in preterm and term delivery, and SGA's association with adverse perinatal outcomes. We compared the risks and adverse perinatal outcomes with appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants categorized by preterm and term delivery.A total of 295,829 singleton infants delivered were analysed. The overall prevalence of SGA was highest in Cambodia (18.8%, Nepal (17.9%, the Occupied Palestinian Territory (16.1%, and Japan (16.0%, while the lowest was observed in Afghanistan (4.8%, Uganda (6.6% and Thailand (9.7%. The risk of preterm SGA infants was significantly higher among nulliparous mothers and mothers with chronic hypertension and preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR: 2.89; 95% CI: 2.55-3.28 compared with AGA infants. Higher risks of term SGA were observed among sociodemographic factors and women with preeclampsia/eclampsia, anaemia and other medical conditions. Multiparity (> = 3 (AOR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92 was a protective factor for term SGA. The risk of perinatal mortality was significantly higher in preterm SGA deliveries in low to high HDI countries.Preterm SGA is associated with medical conditions related to preeclampsia, but not with sociodemographic status. Term SGA is associated with sociodemographic status and various medical conditions.

  19. Anemia in the Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Doctor About Emotional Struggles Additional Content Medical News Anemia in the Newborn By Arthur E. Kopelman, MD, ... of Prematurity Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) Jaundice in Newborns Anemia in the Newborn Polycythemia in the Newborn Thyroid ...

  20. Infants' Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Zarin koob

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a study performed following the study between the years 1980 to 1982 to investigate risk factors and diagnostic and rehabilitative patterns in a group of newborns suffered hearing loss in a city centre. The current findings which have been attained from 1983 to 1988 manifested that just one third of the deaf newborns can be tracked by means of common auditory evaluation tests in the Neonatal Intense Care Unit (NICU. Although these newborns have been followed sooner than the infants in the Well Baby Nursery (WBN. The age for enrolling in the Parent-Infant Program for both groups is approximately 20 month. During these 8 years it has been detected that the common age for taking part in the rehabilitative programs for newborns is 1 year or more greater than that recommended by Joint Committee on infant hearing

  1. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics.

  2. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Human Milk and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time.Methods: This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns.Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. Theumbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ2, Fisher were used in this study.Findings: Median time of cord separation in human milk application group (150.95±28.68 hours was significantly shorter than dry cord care group (180.93±37.42 hours (P<0.001.Conclusion: Topical application of human milk on the remaining part of the cord reduces the cord separation time and it can be used as an easy, cheap and non invasive way for cord care.

  3. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Livingston

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1 to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2 to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC. Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation

  4. Association of anthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asefzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indices are of the best indicators for growth monitoring during neonatal period. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the association ofanthropometric indices in Iranian and Afghan infants with maternal indices. The study was conducted in 230 mothers who had health profiles in the Eqbaliyeh health center, Qazvin during 2013. Data were collected through the records in mothers’ health profiles. Data were analyzed using T-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Of 230 infants, 119 (51.7% were male. Mean weight and head circumference were significantly different between Iranian and Afghan infants.The Iranian mothers were older and had higher weight and height during pregnancy compared to the Afghan mothers and the difference was statistically significant. There was positive significant correlation between mothers’ age, weight, hemoglobin, and hematocrit and infants’ birth weight. There was also positive significant correlation between mothers’ hemoglobin and hematocrit and infants’ height. With regards to the results, proper nutrition, maternal health, and providing appropriate health services during pregnancy can be beneficial for improving infants’ health.

  5. Comparing Language and Literacy Environments in Two Types of Infant-Toddler Child Care Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Language development is a significant milestone in the infant/toddler years; vocabulary by 2 years of age is predictive of later school success. It has been recognized within the bioecological systems theoretical framework that language develops as a result of an interplay between characteristics of the child, features of the setting, and…

  6. Validity of a family-centered approach for assessing infants' social-emotional wellbeing and their developmental context : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hielkema, Margriet; De Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Family-centered care seems promising in preventive pediatrics, but evidence is lacking as to whether this type of care is also valid as a means to identify risks to infants' social-emotional development. We aimed to examine the validity of such a family-centered approach. Methods: We

  7. Center Variation in Intestinal Microbiota Prior to Late-Onset Sepsis in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Diana H.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Schibler, Kurt R.; Yu, Zhuoteng; Newburg, David S.; Deshmukh, Hitesh; Ward, Doyle V.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Late onset sepsis (LOS) contributes to mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We tested the hypotheses that microbes causing LOS originate from the gut, and that distortions in the gut microbial community increases subsequent risk of LOS. Study Design We examined the gut microbial community in prospectively collected stool samples from preterm infants with LOS and an equal number of age-matched controls at two sites (Cincinnati, OH and Birmingham, AL), by sequencing the bacterial 16S rDNA. We confirmed our findings in a subset of infants by whole genome shotgun sequencing, and analyzed the data using R and LEfSe. Results Infants with LOS in Cincinnati, as compared to controls, had less abundant Actinobacteria in the first samples after birth (median 18 days before sepsis onset), and less abundant Pseudomonadales in the last samples collected prior to LOS (median 8 days before sepsis onset). Infants with LOS in Birmingham, as compared to controls, had no differences identified in the first sample microbial communities, but Lactobacillales was less abundant in the last samples prior to LOS (median 4 days before sepsis onset). Sequencing identified detectable levels of the sepsis-causative organism in stool samples prior to disease onset for 82% of LOS cases. Conclusions Translocation of gut microbes may account for the majority of LOS cases. Distortions in the fecal microbiota occur prior to LOS, but the form of distortion depends on timing and site. The microbial composition of fecal samples does not predict LOS onset in a generalizable fashion. PMID:26110908

  8. Comparison of the Clinical Characteristics of Newborn Respiratory Distress Syndrome between Full-term and Premature Infants%足月儿与早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病临床比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical characteristics of newborn respiratory distress syndrome between full-term and premature infants, and to further explore the similarities and differences between them.Methods Eighty-six eases of confirmed respiratory distress syndrome with different gestational age in ICU of the department of Newborn in our hospital from January, 2007 to August, 2010, were enrolled in this study. They were divided into two groups: the premature infant group (50 cases, < 37 weeks) and the full-term group (36cases, > 37 weeks). The cause of disease, the onset time, X-ray performance, the treatment and complications of them were analyzed retrospectively. Results The causes of disease in full-term infants were the meeonium aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, cesarean section and so on. The causes of disease in premature infants were premature delivery, premature rupture of memberane, asphyxia, cesarean section and aspiration pneumonia. Progressive dyspnea and cyanosis appeared in full-term infants ( 10.5 ± 4.1 ) h after birth, the mechanical ventilation time was (97.7 ± 17.2) h. While Progressive dyspnea, groaning and eyanosis appeared in premature infants (3.9 ± 2.7) h after birth, the mechanical ventilation time was (79.7 ± 7.6) h. The chest X-ray of infants in the two groups showed obvious diffused infiltrating shade in double lungs and air bronchogram.Most full-term infants with respiratory distress syndrome were complicated with the protopathy signs.Conclusions The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome is later, and the mechanical ventilation time was longer in full-term infants than in premature infants. Meconium aspiration pneumonia, asphyxia, and cesarean section are high risk factors of respiratory distress syndrome in full-term infants, while insufficient generative capacity of pulmonary surfactant is the high risk factor in premature infants.%目的 比较足月新生儿与早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征发病的临床特点,以进

  9. [Pain in newborns and children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaja, Francesca; Alesi, Mt

    2004-01-01

    Pain is a mechanism of defense in response to damaged tissue in order to determine a response to remove the cause of damage. Attention to pain control is considered a quality index in the pediatric care newborn infants react to pain with changes in cardiac and respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood gas, grimace, palm sweating, crying, sleep/awake rythm. Measuring pain in child is based on: history of the child, changes in behaviour adn vital parameters. Being able to explain pain depends on cognitive and language ability of the child. The role of the nurse who attend the newborn infant in the neonatal intensive care unit is to help baby to cope with acute pain by means of simple manoeuvres like wrapping, non nutritive suction, massage, tactile stimulation.

  10. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits.

  11. Introduction of soft drinks and processed juice in the diet of infants attending public day care centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de Aguiar; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Asakura, Leiko; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with the mothers of 636 children (aged 0 to 36 months) from nurseries of day care centers, who were asked questions about the age of feeding introduction. This study evaluated the proximate composition of soft drinks and artificial juice, comparing them with those of natural fruit juice regarding energy, sugar, fiber, vitamin C, and sodium values. The chemical composition of fruit juice was obtained by consulting the Table of Food Composition and, for industrialized drinks, the average nutritional information on the labels of the five most consumed product brands. RESULTS: The artificial drinks were consumed before the first year of life by more than half of the children studied, however, approximately 10% consumed them before the age of 6 months. With regard to the comparison among the drinks, artificial fruit juice beverages and soft drinks proved to contain from nine to 13 times higher amounts of sodium, and 15 times less vitamin C than natural juices. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature.. When compared to natural fruit juice, these have inferior nutritional composition, which suggests the urgent need for measures based on strategies for food and nutrition education in order to promote awareness and the maintenance of healthy eating habits. PMID:25662561

  12. Perinatal and Delivery Management of Infants with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapo, Laura; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Donofrio, Mary T

    2016-03-01

    Advances in fetal echocardiography have improved prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and allowed better delivery and perinatal management. Some newborns with CHD require urgent intervention after delivery. In these cases, delivery close to a pediatric cardiac center may be considered, and the presence of a specialized cardiac team in the delivery room or urgent transport of the infant should be planned in advance. Delivery planning, monitoring in labor, rapid intervention at birth if needed, and avoidance of iatrogenic preterm delivery have the potential to improve outcomes for infants with prenatally diagnosed CHD.

  13. Leptina como marcadora do dimorfismo sexual em recém-nascidos Leptin as a marker of sexual dimorphism in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês M. C. G. Pardo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os níveis de leptina do cordão umbilical em recém-nascidos adequados para a idade gestacional conforme sexo, peso, comprimento e índice ponderal de nascimento. MÉTODO: Estudo tipo transversal, envolvendo 132 recém-nascidos adequados para idade gestacional (68 do sexo feminino, 64 do sexo masculino, com idade gestacional de 35-42 semanas. Os dados foram obtidos mediante entrevista com as mães na maternidade, pelo estudo antropométrico dos recém-nascidos e pela dosagem de leptina, estradiol e testosterona no cordão umbilical por meio da coleta imediata após o parto. RESULTADOS: Os recém-nascidos do sexo feminino apresentaram níveis de leptina significativamente maiores que os do sexo masculino (8,34±0,65 ng/ml versus 6,06±0,71 ng/ml; p = 0,000. Os níveis de estradiol e testosterona não variaram conforme o sexo. A leptina se correlacionou positivamente com idade gestacional (r = 0,394, p OBJECTIVE: To determine cord blood leptin levels in newborns appropriate for gestational age, according to gender, birth weight, birth height and ponderal index. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 132 term newborns appropriate for gestational age (68 females, 64 males, gestational age between 35-42 weeks. Data were collected through interviews with the mothers at the maternity, anthropometrycal study of the newborns, and cord blood estradiol, testosterone and leptin assays obtained immediately after birth. RESULTS: The levels of leptin were significantly higher in females than in males (8.34±0.65 ng/ml versus 6.06±0.71 ng/ml; p = 0.000. The concentrations of estradiol and testosterone did not differ between males and females. Leptin levels were positively correlated with gestational age (r = 0.394, p < 0.01, birth weight (r = 0.466, p < 0.01, birth length (r = 0.335, p < 0.01 and ponderal index (r = 0.326, p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin concentration in the umbilical cord is positively correlated with

  14. [Tracheal phospholipid composition and respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1979-03-01

    Tracheal or pharyngeal aspirates were collected in 50 newborn infants with and without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). After lipid extraction the phospholipids were analyzed with 2-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Surface-active are lecithin (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Newborn infants with RDS always have a complete lack of PG, which makes up to 11% of phospholipid-phosphors in mature newborns. In all infants with and without RDS, a sharp increase of PC occurs in the lung effluent after birth. The recovery from RDS is characterized by marked changes of PI: this phospholipid rises up to twice its initial value if the infants survive. The PI-increase parallels the clinical improvement and reaches its maximum usually on the 5th day of life. At the time of the PI-peak, the infants' surfactant function is sufficient to maintain alveolar stability with spontaneous breathing. In infants dying from RDS the PI-increase was not observed.

  15. Potential roles and clinical utility of prebiotics in newborns, infants, and children: proceedings from a global prebiotic summit meeting, New York City, June 27-28, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Philip M; Cabana, Michael; Gibson, Glenn R; Koletzko, Berthold V; Neu, Josef; Veereman-Wauters, Gigi; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Walker, W Allan

    2009-11-01

    Initial bacterial colonization, including colonization with health-positive bacteria, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, is necessary for the normal development of intestinal innate and adaptive immune defenses. The predominance of beneficial bacteria in the gut microflora of breast-fed infants is thought to be, at least in part, supported by the metabolism of the complex mixture of oligosaccharides present in human breast milk, and a more adult-type intestinal microbiota is found in formula-fed infants. Inadequate gut colonization, dysbiosis, may lead to an increased risk of infectious, allergic, and autoimmune disorders later in life. The addition of appropriate amounts of selected prebiotics to infant formulas can enhance the growth of bifidobacteria or lactobacilli in the colonic microbiota and, thereby, might produce beneficial effects. Among the substrates considered as prebiotics are the oligosaccharides inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides, and lactulose. There are some reports that such prebiotics have beneficial effects on various markers of health. For example, primary prevention trials in infants have provided promising data on prevention of infections and atopic dermatitis. Additional well-designed prospective clinical trials and mechanistic studies are needed to advance knowledge further in this promising field.

  16. Radial localization of odors by human newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieser, J; Yonas, A; Wikner, K

    1976-09-01

    To study sensitivity to radial location of an odor source, 20 human newborns, ranging from 16 to 130 hours of age, were presented with a small amount of ammonium hydroxide. The odor source was placed near the nose slightly to the left or right of midline, with its position randomized over repeated trails. Direction of headturn with respect to the odor location and diffuse motor activity were scored from the videotape recordings of the newborns' behavior. It was found that as a group, the newborns turned away from the odor source more frequently than they turned toward it. The tendency to turn away from the odor was stronger in infants who displayed less motor activity after the response. Newborns also exhibited a right bias in the direction of the head movements. It is concluded that a spatially appropriate avoidance response is present in the neonate and that the newborn is innately sensitive to the radial location of an odor.

  17. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  18. O que os pediatras conhecem sobre avaliação e tratamento da dor no recém-nascido? What do pediatricians know about pain assessment and treatment in newborn infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimery G. Chermont

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar os conhecimentos dos pediatras que atuam com pacientes neonatais em relação à avaliação e o tratamento da dor do recém-nascido. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com 104 pediatras (de um total de 110 que trabalhavam em 1999 a 2001, nas sete unidades de terapia intensiva e nos 14 berçários da cidade de Belém, e responderam a um questionário escrito com perguntas a respeito do seu perfil demográfico e do conhecimento de métodos de avaliação e de tratamento da dor no recém-nascido. RESULTADOS: cem por cento dos médicos referiram acreditar que o recém-nascido sente dor, mas apenas um terço deles conhecia alguma escala para avaliar a dor nessa faixa etária. A maioria dos entrevistados referia perceber a presença de dor no recém-nascido por meio de parâmetros comportamentais. O choro foi o preferido para avaliar a dor do bebê a termo; a mímica facial para o prematuro, e a freqüência cardíaca para o neonato em ventilação mecânica. Menos de 10% dos entrevistados diziam usar analgesia para punções venosas e capilares; 30 a 40% referiam empregar analgesia para punções lombares, dissecações venosas, drenagens de tórax e ventilação mecânica. Menos da metade dos entrevistados referiu aplicar medidas para o alívio da dor no pós-operatório de cirurgia abdominal em neonatos. O opióide foi o medicamento mais citado para a analgesia (60%, seguido pelo midazolam (30%. CONCLUSÃO: os pediatras demonstraram pouco conhecimento a respeito dos métodos de avaliação e tratamento da dor no período neonatal. Há necessidade de reciclagens e de atualização no tema para os profissionais de saúde que atuam com recém-nascidos doentes.OBJECTIVE: to analyze the knowledge of pediatricians who work with neonatal patients regarding the evaluation and treatment of pain in newborn infants. METHODS: cross-sectional study of 104 pediatricians (out of 110 who were working during 1999 to 2001 in seven intensive care units

  19. Predictable risk factors and clinical courses for prolonged transient tachypnea of the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Chang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN is usually benign and improves within 72 hours. However, it can also progress to prolonged tachypnea over 72 hours, profound hypoxemia, respiratory failure, and even death. The aim of this study is to find predictable risk factors and describe the clinical courses and outcomes of prolonged TTN (PTTN. Methods : The medical records of 107 newborns, &gt;35+0 weeks of gestational age with TTN, who were admitted to the NICU at Seoul Asan Medical Center from January 2001 to September 2007 were reviewed. They were divided into 2 groups based on duration of tachypnea. PTTN was defined as tachypnea ?#247;2 hours of age, and simple TTN (STTN as tachypnea &lt;72 hours of age. We randomly selected 126 healthy-term newborns as controls. We evaluated neonatal and maternal demographic findings, and various clinical factors. Results : Fifty-five infants (51% with total TTN were PTTN. PTTN infants had grunting, tachypnea &gt;90/min, FiO2 &gt;0.4, and required ventilator care more frequently than STTN infants. PTTN had lower level of serum total protein and albumin than STTN. The independent predictable risk factors for PTTN were grunting, maximal respiration rate &gt;90/min, and FiO2 &gt;0.4 within 6 hours of life. Conclusion : When a newborn has grunting, respiration rate &gt;90/min, and oxygen requirement &gt;0.4 of FiO2 within 6 hours of life, the infant is at high risk of having persistent tachypnea ?#247;2 hours. We need further study to find the way to reduce PTTN.

  20. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  2. Newborns Sickened with Legionnaire's Disease via Home Water Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newborns Sickened With Legionnaire's Disease Via Home Water Birth: CDC Arizona investigators say better precautions needed to ... Texas highlight a little-known danger of "water births" at home -- infant infections with Legionnaire's disease. "The ...

  3. Evaluation of immunity effectiveness and related factors of hepatitis B vaccine in new-born infants%新生儿乙肝疫苗免疫效果及影响因素评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 崔伟红; 衣学梅; 李书胜; 姜梅

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the immunity effectiveness of 5μg/agent vaccine in new-born infant and to evaluate related factors. METHODS Anti-HBs were detected with CMIA. Non-and-low response infants were boosted with 3 doses HepB at 0, 1,6 months and the immunity effectiveness were re-evaluated. RESULTS 97.19% of children were vaccinated timely. In non-booster children, 53.54% were premature birth and low-weight infants. After the initial immunity, 80.75% had protection response, 17.56% had low response, and 1.69% of infants had no response. Different gender, natural delivery and caesarean section, premature and full-term infants had the same response rate. Infants who were born in different hospitals, whose parents had Negative -HBsAg or positive- HBsAg had different response rates but the same GMC. After one dose immunity, 82.71% children had normal response. After three doses of the vaccine, the response rate reached 96.06%. The GMC of 10μg/agent was higher than that of 5 ug/agent. CONCLUSION Caesarean and premature babies have good response. For low- or no-response groups, re-vacination can reach a higher response rate. After three doses of the vaccine, the response rate reaches at a high level. We should strengthen screening of pregnant women and develop supplementary immunization strategies of low/no response infants.%目的 评价新生儿乙肝疫苗初免及低/无免疫应答者再免效果,分析影响因素.方法 化学发光微粒子免疫分析法(CMIA)检测抗-HBs.结果 新生儿首针乙肝疫苗(HepB1)及时接种率97.19%,未种者中早产、低体重儿占53.54%.初免乙肝表面抗体(抗-HBs)保护率80.75%,低、无应答分别占17.56%、1.69%.性别不同、顺产与剖腹产、早产与足月儿应答率差异无统计学意义.县级及以上医院出生、父母乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)阴性儿童应答率较高.各组抗体几何平均滴度(GMC)差异均无统计学意义.对低/无免疫应答者再免1剂次,有82.71

  4. The assessment of newborn iron stores at birth: a review of the literature and standards for ferritin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Ashajyothi M; Rao, Raghavendra; Long, Jeffrey D; Widness, John A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2007-01-01

    Serum ferritin measurements are used in clinical populations to estimate total body iron stores and the risk of subsequent iron deficiency or overload. The lack of normative newborn serum ferritin concentration data between 23 and 41 weeks has led to difficulty in establishing the incidence and degree of abnormal iron status in the neonatal period. The primary objective of this review was to summarize the maternal and gestational factors that determine ferritin concentrations in full-term and pre-term newborn infants and to generate comprehensive reference values. The secondary objective was to assess serum ferritin concentrations in newborn infants at risk for abnormal fetal iron metabolism, including maternal diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Serum ferritin and gestational age data at birth from 457 low-risk pre-term and term infants of 23-41 weeks gestation obtained from 35 published studies reviewed from a period of 25 years and from recently collected data from our centers were assessed by regression analysis. Slopes and intercepts of the high-risk groups were compared with the standard curve. Umbilical cord serum ferritin concentrations increased with advancing gestational age, from a mean of 63 mug/l at 23 weeks to 171 mug/l at 41 weeks gestation (p Iron deficiency and overload have been implicated in neurodevelopmental impairments. Normative cord serum ferritin data may permit a more precise assessment of infants who are at risk for abnormal iron status at birth.

  5. Hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, P; Tan, K K

    1994-02-01

    A three day old male, term infant with hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn was treated successfully with vitamin K and thoracocentesis. Exclusive breast feeding and absence of vitamin K prophylaxis were important diagnostic clues, although hemothorax as a sole manifestation of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is rare. This case highlighted the good prognosis of an uncommon complication when prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are instituted. The importance of vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns is emphasized.

  6. Newborn behavior, parent-infant interaction, and developmental change processes: research roots of developmental, relational, and systems-theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Joshua

    2013-08-01

    The discovery of individual and cross-cultural differences among newborns, and their effects on caregiver behaviors, underpins a systems theory of human development and a resulting paradigm shift. This theory accommodates both epigenetics-mediating genes and environment within the individual, and culture-a dynamic, emergent phenomenon transmitting contextually adaptive child-rearing beliefs and practices. Within human systems, children and parents' development is also propelled by mutual adaptation occurring through the microprocesses of early interactions and through normative periods of disorganization and reorganization (touchpoints). This paradigm shift in developmental theory calls for parallel shifts in clinical practice and organizational structures and processes. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fetal cardiology: changing the definition of critical heart disease in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodki, M; Respondek-Liberska, M; Pruetz, J D; Donofrio, M T

    2016-08-01

    Infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) may require emergent treatment in the newborn period. These infants are likely to benefit the most from a prenatal diagnosis, which allows for optimal perinatal planning. Several cardiac centers have created guidelines for the management of these high-risk patients with CHD. This paper will review and compare several prenatal CHD classification systems with a particular focus on the most critical forms of CHD in the fetus and newborn. A contemporary definition of critical CHD is one which requires urgent intervention in the first 24 h of life to prevent death. Such cardiac interventions may be not only life saving for the infant but also decrease subsequent morbidity. Critical CHD cases may require delivery at specialized centers that can provide perinatal, obstetric, cardiology and cardiothoracic surgery care. Fetuses diagnosed in mid-gestation require detailed fetal diagnostics and serial monitoring during the prenatal period, in order to assess for ongoing changes and identify progression to a more severe cardiac status. Critical CHD may progress in utero and there is still much to be learned about how to best predict those who will require urgent neonatal interventions. Despite improved therapeutic capabilities, newborns with critical CHD continue to have significant morbidity and mortality due to compromise that begins in the delivery room. Fetal echocardiography is the best way to predict the need for specialized care at birth to improve outcome. Once the diagnosis is made of critical CHD, delivery at the proper time and in appropriate institution with specific care protocols should be initiated. More work needs to be done to better delineate the risk factors for progression of critical CHD and to determine which newborns will require specialized care. The most frequently described forms of critical CHD requiring immediate intervention include hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact or severely restricted

  8. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  9. Premature infants' health at multiple induced pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenkov Yu.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define the risk factors adversely influencing prenatal development at premature birth at use of methods of assisted reproductive technology (ART; to estimate premature' infants health from multiple induced pregnancy according to Perinatal Center of Saratov for last 3 years. Material and Methods. Under supervision there were 139 pregnant women with application ART. 202 children (51 twins were born and 5 triplet babies, from them 83 premature infants born from multiple induced pregnancy have been analyzed. Results. The newborns examined by method ART, were distributed as follows: 22-28 weeks — 19 children; 29-32 weeks — 23; 33-36 weeks — 41. Asphyxia at birth was marked at all premature infants. Respiratory insufficiency at birth is revealed in 87,3% of cases. The most frequent pathologies in premature infants are revealed: neurologic infringements and bronchopulmonary pathology occured at all children, developmental anomaly — 33, 8%, retinopathies in premature infants — 26,5%. The mortality causes include: extreme immaturity, cerebral leukomalacia, IVN 3 degrees. Conclusion. The risk factors, premature birth at application of methods ART are revealed: aged primiparas, pharmacological influence, absence of physiological conditions of prenatal development; multifetation. The high percent of birth of children with ELBW and ULBW is revealed. RDCN with further BPD development, retinopathies in premature infants and CNS defeat is more often occured.

  10. Delivery of an Ebola Virus-Positive Stillborn Infant in a Rural Community Health Center, Sierra Leone, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Hilary; Grass, Julian E; Veltus, Emily; Brault, Aaron; Campbell, Shelley; Basile, Alison Jane; Wang, David; Paddock, Christopher D; Erickson, Bobbie R; Salzer, Johanna S; Belser, Jessica; Chege, Eunice; Seneca, Dean; Saffa, Gbessay; Stroeher, Ute; Decroo, Tom; Caleo, Grazia M

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of an Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA-negative pregnant woman who delivered an EBOV RNA-positive stillborn infant at a community health center in rural Sierra Leone, 1 month after the mother's last possible exposure. The mother was later found to be immunoglobulins M and G positive indicating previous infection. The apparent absence of Ebola symptoms and not recognizing that the woman had previous contact with an Ebola patient led health workers performing the delivery to wear only minimal personal protection, potentially exposing them to a high risk of EBOV infection. This case emphasizes the importance of screening for epidemiological risk factors as well as classic and atypical symptoms of Ebola when caring for pregnant women, even once they have passed the typical time frame for exposure and incubation expected in nonpregnant adults. It also illustrates the need for health-care workers to use appropriate personal protection equipment when caring for pregnant women in an Ebola setting.

  11. Lessons Learned From Newborn Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Matthew E; Aucott, Susan W; Glidewell, Jill; Hackell, Jesse; Kochilas, Lazaros; Martin, Gerard R; Phillippi, Julia; Pinto, Nelangi M; Saarinen, Annamarie; Sontag, Marci; Kemper, Alex R

    2016-05-01

    Newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects (CCHD) was added to the US Recommended Uniform Screening Panel in 2011. Within 4 years, 46 states and the District of Columbia had adopted it into their newborn screening program, leading to CCHD screening being nearly universal in the United States. This rapid adoption occurred while there were still questions about the effectiveness of the recommended screening protocol and barriers to follow-up for infants with a positive screen. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention partnered with the American Academy of Pediatrics to convene an expert panel between January and September 2015 representing a broad array of primary care, neonatology, pediatric cardiology, nursing, midwifery, public health, and advocacy communities. The panel's goal was to review current practices in newborn screening for CCHD and to identify opportunities for improvement. In this article, we describe the experience of CCHD screening in the United States with regard to: (1) identifying the target lesions for CCHD screening; (2) optimizing the algorithm for screening; (3) determining state-level challenges to implementation and surveillance of CCHD; (4) educating all stakeholders; (5) performing screening using the proper equipment and in a cost-effective manner; and (6) implementing screening in special settings such as the NICU, out-of-hospital settings, and areas of high altitude.

  12. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12-Month-Old Bed-Sharing All About Sleep Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn Your Newborn's Growth Choosing Safe Baby Products: Cribs Flat Head Syndrome ( ...

  13. Arsenic levels among pregnant women and newborns in Canada: Results from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fisher, Mandy; Liang, Chun Lei; Davis, Karelyn; Cirtiu, Ciprian-Mihai; Bélanger, Patrick; LeBlanc, Alain; Fraser, William D

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic is a common environmental contaminant from both naturally-occurring and anthropomorphic sources and human exposure can be detected in various tissues. Its toxicity depends on many factors including the chemical form, valence state, bioavailability, metabolism and detoxification within the human body. Of paramount concern, particularly with respect to health effects in children, is the timing of exposure as the prenatal and early life periods are more susceptible to toxic effects. The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) cohort was established to obtain national-level biomonitoring data for approximately 2,000 pregnant women and their infants between 2008 and 2011 from 10 Canadian cities. We measured total arsenic (As) in 1st and 3rd trimester maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and infant meconium and speciated arsenic in 1st trimester maternal urine. Most pregnant women had detectable levels of total arsenic in blood (92.5% and 87.3%, respectively, for 1st and 3rd trimester); median difference between 1st and 3rd trimester was 0.1124µg/L (p50%) of arsenic species (arsenous acid (As-III), arsenic acid (As-V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and arsenobetaine (AsB)) were also below the limit of detection, except dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). DMA (>85% detected) ranged from arsenic in blood and specific gravity-adjusted DMA in urine (Spearman r=0.33, parsenic measured in blood and urine were lower than national population figures for Canadian women of reproductive age (20-39 years). In general, higher arsenic levels were observed in women who were older, foreign-born (predominantly from Asian countries), and had higher education. Further research is needed to elucidate sources of exposure and factors that may influence arsenic exposure in pregnant women and children. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maintaining Acceptably Low Referral Rates in TEOAE-Based Newborn Hearing Screening Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxon, Antonia Brancia; White, Karl R.; Culpepper, Brandt; Vohr, Betty R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes factors that can affect the referral rate for otoacoustic emission-based newborn hearing screening and discusses the screening results of 1,328 newborns screened with transient evoked otoaoustic emissions prior to hospital discharge. The youngest infants were as likely to pass as infants who were 24-27 hours old. (Author/CR)

  15. The genetics of feto-placental development: A study of acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase polymorphisms in a consecutive series of newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamaschi Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase locus 1 polymorphisms show cooperative effects on glucose metabolism and immunological functions. The recent observation of cooperation between the two systems on susceptibility to repeated spontaneous miscarriage prompted us to search for possible interactional effects between these genes and the correlation between birth weight and placental weight. Deviation from a balanced development of the feto-placental unit has been found to be associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality and with cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Methods We examined 400 consecutive newborns from the Caucasian population of Rome. Birth weight, placental weight, and gestational length were registered. Acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase locus 1 phenotypes were determined by starch gel electrophoresis and correlation analysis was performed by SPSS programs. Informed verbal consent to participate in the study was obtained from the mothers. Results Highly significant differences in birth weight-placental weight correlations were observed among acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes (p = 0.005. The correlation between birth weight and placental weight was markedly elevated in subjects carrying acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes with medium-low F isoform concentration (A, CA and CB phenotypes compared to those carrying acid phosphatase locus 1 phenotypes with medium-high F isoform concentration (BA and B phenotypes (p = 0.002. Environmental and developmental variables were found to exert a significant effect on birth weight-placental weight correlation in subjects with medium-high F isoform concentrations, but only a marginal effect was observed in those with medium-low F isoform concentrations. The correlation between birth weight and placental weight is higher among carriers of the adenosine deaminase locus 1 allele*2, which is associated with low activity, than in homozygous adenosine

  16. The use of peritoneal dialysis in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute renal failure is a common complication in critically ill newborn infants. The therapy of acute renal failure is conservative and etiological. Patients not responding to this kind of therapy require peritoneal dialysis. Material and methods. This retrospective study included 6 newborn infants undergoing peritoneal dialysis during the period from January 2004 to June 2006, at the Nephrology Department of the Institute of Child and Youth Health Care in Novi Sad. All patients presented with complications of acute renal failure including hypercalemia and uremic encephalopathy. Results. Complete restoration of kidney function was evident in four patients on peritoneal dialysis. Three patients are still alive, but in one patient acute renal failure progressed to chronic renal failure. One patient died in the third month of life due to multiple organ dysfunction, after just two days of dialysis. Several complications were reported: intra-abdominal hemorrhage, dialysate leakage, peritonitis and dialysis catheter obstruction. Discussion. Periotoneal dialysis catheter placement is a great problem due to the size of the newborn. If it is estimated that it will be a long-lasting dialysis, Tenckhoff catheter is recommended. In very low birth weight newborn infants, in poor overall condition, general anesthesia is too risky, and acute peritoneal dialysis catheter should be placed (i.v. cannula, venous catheter. Conclusion. Peritoneal dialysis is the method of choice in newborns with acute renal failure, and it is used in the treatment of neonatal asphyxia till the restoration of kidney function is achieved. .

  17. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%. Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%. Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8% and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development.

  18. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  19. [Transfer and transport of newborn babies in vital distress in Yaoundé, Cameroon: situational analysis conducted in a reference hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlend, Anne Esther Njom; Zeudja, Cécile; Nsoa, Lydie

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to describe transfer modalities of newborn babies in vital distress to the ESSOS Hospital Center in Yaoundé, Cameroon. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study from October 2014 to January 2015. Data were collected using a short questionnaire from the transfer operator. Main parameters: means of transport, reason for transfer, transfer delay, number of detours (itinerary before admission) prevalence for hypothermia, neonatal mortality rate. We recorded 73 transfers during the study period. Nearly 1/5 (22%) of infants were born within the health district of the reference structure. 24/73 newborns were referred for tertiary care centers (33%). The main reason for transfer was prematurity (40%) followed by neonatal asphyxia (26%). Medical transfer was performed in 5/73 (7%) cases, inter-hospital transfer effected through a nurse was performed in 10/73 (13.6%) cases. The average transfer time was 17 hours, 60% of babies were transferred within the first 6 hours of life, 22% (16/73) within the first two hours of life. For more than half of newborns, a transfer to another hospital was done before admission. Hypothermia (central temperature less than 36° C) on arrival was found in 20% of cases. 15/73 (20.5%) of transferred newborns died. The mean temperature in the dead infants upon their arrival to the hospital was 35.5° C versus 37° C in the non-deceased (p = 0.006). The percentage of newborns who underwent =2 tranfers was 57% in the deceased infants versus 30% in the non-deceased ones (p=0,02). In Yaoundé, transfers conditions of newborns in precarious conditions of life hinder early neonatal prognosis because of an erratic itinerary, which increases the risk of hypothermia and death. This reinforces the need for a perinatal network.

  20. Do we really know the pharmacodynamics of anaesthetics used in newborns, infants and children? A review of the experimental and clinical data on neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska-Śniatkowska, Alicja; Rosada-Kurasińska, Jowita; Zielińska, Marzena; Bienert, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    The practices of anaesthesiology and intensive therapy are difficult to imagine without sedation or general anaesthesia, regardless of whether the patient is a newborn, baby, child or adult. The relevant concerns for children are distinct from those for adults, primarily due to the effects of anatomical, physiological and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) differences, which become increasingly important in the brains of children as they develop. The process of central nervous system maturation in humans lasts for years, but its greatest activity (myelination and synaptogenesis) occurs during the fetal period and the first two years of life. Many experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to anaesthetic drugs during this period can induce neurodegenerative changes in the central nervous systems of animals. The extrapolation of these results directly to humans must be performed with great caution, but anaesthesiologists around the world must begin to debate the safety of general anaesthesia in humans. Prospective trials should continue being carried out, and anaesthesia and surgery, delayed if possible among the smallest patients. The simultaneous use of different anaesthetics with the same potential neurotoxicities should also be avoided, potentially in favour of regional anaesthesia techniques, in this group of patients.

  1. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  2. A comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of oxcarbazepine oral suspension between infants and children with epilepsy: a retrospective chart review at a single medical center in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Hao; Liu, Cheng-Chao; Fan, Pi-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Few clinical studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of oxcarbazepine (OXC) oral suspension in Asian pediatric patients and particularly in infants. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in Taiwanese infants and children with various types of epilepsy. A retrospective review of the efficacy, tolerability, and side effects of OXC oral suspension in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan was conducted and included children (1-9 years old) and infants (epilepsy, which was classified into idiopathic partial, symptomatic partial, or multifocal subtypes. The OXC oral suspension (Trileptal(®); Novartis) was given in a gradual dose titration, from an initial 7.5 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day within 1 month in all cases. A total of 20 infants and 38 children were identified. There were no statistically significant differences between the children and infants in efficacy (75 vs. 82 %, p = 0.734) and adverse effects (30 vs. 21 %, p = 0.525) after OXC oral suspension treatment. The efficacy was significantly correlated with the epilepsy subtype (p epilepsy responded better to OXC oral suspension than those with multifocal epilepsy. OXC oral suspension is effective and well tolerated in both infants and children with partial epilepsy in Taiwan. Treatment efficacy was related to epilepsy subtype and number of combined AEDs before OXC treatment. Monotherapy had an excellent therapeutic response in partial epilepsy but not in multifocal epilepsy.

  3. Change of cystatin C values in preterm infants with asphyxia-From two centers of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wu, Yue; Pan, Jing-Jing; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    To explore the values of cystatin C (Cys-C) in asphyxial preterm babies as an effective endogenous marker of renal function. After birth, preterm infants with 5-minute Apgar score C were 2.21 (1.49-2.98) mg/L with gestational age (GA) >32, 1.94 (1.37-2.76) mg/L with GA 28-32, and 1.87 (1.49-2.13) mg/L with GA C were 2.35 (1.57-3.26) mg/L with GA>32, 2.07 (1.42-2.90) mg/L with GA 28-32, and 1.69 (1.13-2.04) mg/L with GA C were 1.92 (1.61-2.13) mg/L with GA>32, 1.79 (1.29-1.84) mg/L with GA 28-32, and 1.66 (1.21-2.10) mg/L GA C has a good distinguishability in asphyxial neonates in spite of gestational age or birth weight in the Chinese population. Further studies with large numbers of cases are required to assess whether Cys-C could replace creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as an endogenous marker of renal function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Implementation examined in a health center-delivered, educational intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Steckler, Allan; Black, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    Process evaluation was used to examine the implementation of a randomized, controlled trial of an education intervention that improved infant growth in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered the multi-component intervention as part of usual care in the government health centers. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine process indicators, which included the extent of delivery (dose), fidelity to intervention protocol, barriers to implementation and context. Results demonstrated that most intervention components were delivered at a level of 50-90% of expectations. Fidelity to intervention protocol, where measured, was lower (28-70% of expectations). However, when compared with existing nutrition education, as represented by the control centers, significant improvements were demonstrated. This included both improved delivery of existing educational activities as well as delivery of new intervention components to strengthen overall nutrition education. Barriers to, and facilitators of, implementation were explored with health personnel and helped to explain results. This study demonstrates the importance of examining actual versus planned implementation in order to improve our understanding of how interventions succeed. The information gained from this study will inform future evaluation designs, and lead to the development and implementation of more effective intervention programs for child health.

  5. Usefulness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using double roller pumps in a low body weight newborn: A novel strategy for mechanical circulatory support in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Nakanishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO with a centrifugal pump requires a certain flow rate; therefore, its application for low body weight infants is frequently accompanied by oxygenator membrane malfunction and/or inadequate perfusion. To prevent low-flow associated complications, we report a case in which a novel system of dual roller pumps was used. A baby girl with a body mass index 0.25 m 2 , who experienced difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after a Norwood-like operation, required an ECMO. Concerns for the tube lifespan reduction due to roller pump friction led to the use of a double roller pump circulation. The termination of ECMO during tube exchange is not needed, because circulation is maintained by another roller pump. The novel strategy of ECMO with double roller pumps will allow low perfusion rate to provide adequate circulatory support for low body weight patients.

  6. Métodos de alimentação alternativos para recém-nascidos prematuros Métodos de alimentación alternativa para recién-nacidos prematuros Alternative feeding methods for premature newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Peyres Lopez

    2012-06-01

    complementación de la alimentación de recién-nacidos prematuros mediante vaso/taza. Se debe realizar estudios controlados con la finalidad de rever riesgos y beneficios del uso de métodos alternativos en la alimentación del recién-nacido prematuro.OBJECTIVE: To present a literature review about the use of glass/cup as an alternative method of feeding premature newborns and to identify if there is a consensus on its indication for this population. DATA SOURCE: A narrative review of the literature. Articles were selected from Medline, Lilacs, SciELO, and Cochrane databases, regardless of year, using the following specific key-words: feeding, premature newborn, breastfeeding, feeding methods. DATA SYNTHESIS: Although some studies showed that feeding premature and term newborns using the glass/cup is safe and efficient, most of them did not apply an objective evaluation of the swallowing to identify the effect of the method in this population. CONCLUSIONS: There is no consensus in the literature about feeding premature newborn infants by glass/cup. Controlled studies should be conducted in order to evaluate risks and benefits of alternative feeding methods in preterm newborn infants.

  7. The interfacility transport of critically ill newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Hilary Ea; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The practice of paediatric/neonatal interfacility transport continues to expand. Transport teams have evolved into mobile intensive care units capable of delivering state-of-the-art critical care during paediatric and neonatal transport. While outcomes are best for high-risk infants born in a tertiary care setting, high-risk mothers often cannot be safely transferred. Their newborns may then have to be transported to a higher level of care following birth. The present statement reviews issues relating to transport of the critically ill newborn population, including personnel, team competencies, skills, equipment, systems and processes. Six recommendations for improving interfacility transport of critically ill newborns are highlighted, emphasizing the importance of regionalized care for newborns.

  8. Unsafe from the Start: Serious Misuse of Car Safety Seats at Newborn Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Benjamin D; Gallardo, Adrienne R; Carlson, Kathleen F

    2016-04-01

    To estimate prevalence of car safety seat (CSS) misuse for newborns on hospital discharge; and to identify potential risk and protective factors for CSS misuse. We randomly sampled 291 mother-baby dyads from the newborn unit of an academic health center. Participants completed a survey and designated someone (themselves or another caregiver) to position their newborn in the CSS and install the CSS in their vehicle. Certified child passenger safety technicians assessed positioning and installation using nationally standardized criteria. To examine factors associated with CSS misuse, we used logistic regression to compute ORs and 95% CIs. A total of 291 families (81% of those eligible) participated. Nearly all (95%) CSSs were misused, with 1 or more errors in positioning (86%) and/or installation (77%). Serious CSS misuse occurred for 91% of all infants. Frequent misuses included harness and chest clip errors, incorrect recline angle, and seat belt/lower anchor use errors. Families with mothers of color (OR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.8-21.6), non-English language (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.1-21.2), Medicaid (OR, 10.3; 95% CI, 2.4-44.4), or lower educational level (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.7-12.4) were more likely to misuse CSSs. However, families that worked with a child passenger safety technician before delivery were significantly less likely to misuse their CSSs (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-0.4). Nearly all parents of newborn infants misused CSSs. Resources should be devoted to ensuring families with newborns leave the hospital correctly using their CSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 改良新生儿股静脉穿刺采血方法的应用分析%Analysis on the application of the method of improving the blood sampling of femoral vein puncture in newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭惠兰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿股静脉穿刺采血方法的改良。方法:选取股静脉穿刺采血的新生儿100例,按照随机数字表法将新生儿平均分为观察组和对照组各50例,观察组进行常规股静脉穿刺采血,对照组进行改良股静脉穿刺采血。结果:观察组一次性穿刺成功新生儿42例,成功率84%,对照组一次性穿刺成功新生儿48例,成功率96%,两组新生儿一次性穿刺成功率比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:经过改良的新生儿股静脉穿刺采血方法能够提高一次性股静脉穿刺采血的成功率,并有效降低了淤血、小血肿等并发症发生率,值得临床推广和应用。%Objective:To explore the improvement of blood sampling method of femoral vein puncture in newborn infants. Methods:100 cases of neonatal femoral vein puncture, according to the number of random said the average newborn divided into observation group and control group with 50 cases in each. Observation group were given routine femoral venous puncture. Control group improved femoral venous puncture. Results:In the observation group the one-time successful puncture neonatal 42 cases, successful rate was 84%, control group disposable puncture success neonatal 48 cases, and the success rate was 96%, two groups of neonatal disposable puncture success rate difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Through the improvement of neonatal femoral venous puncture method can greatly improve the disposable femoral vein puncture success rate, and effectively reduce the congestion, small hematoma and other complications, worthy of clinical popularization and application.

  10. [Transport of "high-risk" newborn infants. (Apropos of 159 emergency calls by the SAMU 94-Service d'Aide Médicale Urgente-Emergency Health Service)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, M; Iannascoli, F; Brioude, R; Canet, J

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of our experience confirms in the domain of the newborn the fundamental notion of the Emergency medical call. The EMC has two objectives: 1--Emergency treatment before the patient is moved, and the correction of failing vital functions by a medical team skilled in problems of neonates. 2--Transportation of the neonate in a stable condition, to the Intensive Care unit. The quality of such transportation depends closely upon the quality of the medical care given and upon organisation. It can only be carried out in the context of a system coordinated by a "coordinating physician" (e.g. SAMU 94). This coordinating physician has responsibility for logistics, telephone coordination, and application of the call procedure as rapidly as possible. From a logistical point of view, only coordination between:--SAMU-SMUR;--Medical team of the Intensive care unit;--Requesting service make possible the provision and quality of continuous supplies of oxygen, warmth, sugar - all under aseptic conditions, indispensable to the quality of survival of the neonate. In addition, we feel it essential--that the delay before the call is answered be as brief as possible;--that the call should be dealt with by a mixed team, including at least one physician experienced in neonatal problems;--that the choice of vehicle used for transportation should be better adapted to the situation. This choice is the responsibility of the coordinating physician, who should base his decisions on two fundamental requirements:--rapidity of dealing with the call;--personal safety of those involved. This without losing sight of--Prevention of perinatal problems lies part with the detection of high risk pregnancies, with the aim of arranging delivery in specialised "mother and baby" centres where close collaboration between obstetrician and paediatrician is assured.--The development of transportation of the "high-risk" neonate, which is so costly in manpower and equipment, depends closely upon general

  11. Using telemedicine in the care of newborn infants after discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit reduced the need of hospital visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Charlotta; Gund, Anna; Sjöqvist, Bengt-Arne; Bry, Kristina

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the use of telemedicine as a means to follow up infants discharged from a Swedish neonatal intensive care unit to home health care. Families were randomised to either a control group receiving standard home health care (n = 42 families) or a telemedicine group receiving home health care with telemedicine support (n = 47 families) after discharge from the hospital. Both groups had follow-up hospital appointments with the neonatal nurse. In the telemedicine group, appointments were supplemented by the use of a specially designed web page and video calls. The use of the web page and video calls decreased the number of emergency visits to the hospital (p = 0.047). In the telemedicine group, 26% of the families felt they had more scheduled appointments than necessary, whereas only 6% of the families in the control group thought so (p = 0.037). The parents were highly satisfied with the use of telemedicine. Although the nurses were favourable to using telemedicine, the rigid organisation of the home healthcare programme and the nurses' schedules and work routines prevented its optimal use. The use of telemedicine decreased the need of hospital visits. Organisational adaptations would be necessary to make the best use of telemedicine. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  12. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid YAGHINI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Yaghini O, Danesh F, Mahmoudian T, Beigi B. Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Infants Who Came in for 6th Month Vaccination in Isfahan City Health Centers. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2: 29-32. Objective Developmental delay is one of the most common causes of conferring the pediatric neurologist. The main part of neurological growth and development occur in the first two years especially in the first 6 months of life. Metabolic or skeletal diseases are important causes of developmental delay. Early diagnosis of deviance from the normal diagram of development in lower ages is important. Materials & Methods Specific ages and stages questionnaires (ASQ for 6 months was completed in the health centers for 800 infants conferring for their vaccination in Isfahan and the retest was performed at 24 months of age by ASQ and then these two questionnaires were compared. Results 10.5% of the infants were delayed in at least one domain. At 24 months, 38.4% of them remained delayed; 21.1% in one domain, 9.6% in two domains, 3.8% in four domains and 3.8% in five domains. Of the children who had problem in communication, 20%; in gross motor, 25%; in fine motor, 20%; and in problem solving, 30% remained delayed. In the personal social domain, none of the delayed children at 6 months remained delayed at 24 months. Conclusion ASQ is feasible, inexpensive, easy to use and was appreciated by the parents. It can be used as a screening test for detection of developmental delay in lower ages, but its results must be followed by other standard tests or diagnostic tools.References Lewis R, Palfreg GS. The infant or young child with developmental delay. The New England J Med 1994;330:478-83.Cleary MA, Green A. Developmental Delay: when to suspect and how to investigate for an inborn error of metabolism. Arch Dis Child2005;90(11:1128-32.Schendel DE, Stockbauer JW, Hoffman HJ, Herman AA, Berg CJ, Schrann WF. Relation between very low birth

  13. Comportamiento neurológico del recién nacido de madre consumidora de basuco durante su gestación Effect of maternal consumption of cocaine base paste on neurological behavior of newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz E. Gómez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 20 niños recién nacidos, hijos de madres consumidoras de pasta base de coca (basuco, en comparación con 19 controles nacidos de madres no consumidoras, con el fin de detectar en los primeros alteraciones neurológicas y evidencias de supresión; se hallaron las siguientes con frecuencias significativamente mayores en los hijos de madres consumidoras: temblor (p: 0.00001, irritabilidad (p: 0.0015, náuseas (p: 0.003, llanto deprimido (p: 0.004 y succión deprimida (p: 0.02; en los restantes signos de supresión (vómito, anorexia, hipersomnia, hiposomnia, hipertonía, cólico y diarrea y alteraciones neurológicas (hipotonía o hipertonía musculares, enderezamiento anormal, marcha deprimida, alpinista deprimido, hiporreflexia no hubo diferencia significativa entre los casos y los controles. La duración del temblor, la irritabilidad y las náuseas, así como la depresión del llanto, la succión, la prensión y la marcha, el enderezamiento anormal, el alpinista deprimido y la hiporreflexia, fueron significativamente más prolongadas en los hijos de madres consumidoras que en los de las controles. Los hallazgos demuestran que los neonatos sometidos a exposición a cocaína porque sus madres consumieron pasta base de coca durante la gestación, presentan alteraciones neurológicas y signos definidos de supresión que sugieren una acción directa del sicofármaco sobre el sistema nervioso central, la cual perdura varios días; estos niños constituyen un serio problema de salud pública cuyo manejo requiere decisión y sólidos conocimientos acerca de las repercusiones de esta drogadicción. Twenty newborn infants from mothers that consumed coca leaves' paste during pregnancy were compared with 19 controls as to their neurological behavior and supression evidences; the following alterations were significantly more frequent (p < 0.05 in infants from consumer mothers: Tremor, irritability, nausea, and depression of crying, suction

  14. Variation of Sensitive Blood Coagulation Indexes in Infants with Hemorrhagic Disease of the Newborn Treated with Vitamin K%维生素 K治疗新生儿出血症凝血指标的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明静

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价维生素K治疗新生儿出血症( HDN)对凝血指标的影响。方法在维生素K治疗前后分别检测37例HDN患儿凝血酶原前体蛋白( PIVKA-Ⅱ)、凝血酶原时间( PT)、部分活化凝血活酶时间( APTT)、凝血酶原活动度( PTA)、凝血酶时间( TT)及纤维蛋白原( FIB)。结果维生素K治疗后凝血指标PIVKA-Ⅱ、PT明显降低(P<0.05),PTA、APTT明显升高(P<0.05),维生素K治疗后凝血指标PIVKA-Ⅱ、PTA、PT、APTT异常率较治疗前明显降低( P<0.05)。而TT、FIB异常率未出现明显变化( P>0.05)。结论 HDN患儿在使用维生素K治疗后,PIVKA-Ⅱ、PTA、PT、APTT变化明显,反应敏感,能较好地反映HDN的凝血水平,可作为HDN的诊断依据及转归指标。%Objective To evaluate the effect of Vitamin K on blood coagulation indexes in infants with hemorrhagic disease of the newborn(HDN).Methods Thirty-seven cases of HDN were meausred for protein induced by Vitamin K absence or antagonist-Ⅱ(PIVKA-Ⅱ),prothrombin time(PT),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),prothrombin time activity(PTA),thrombin time(TT),human fibrinogen(FIB) before and after treatment of Vitamin K.Results PIVKA-Ⅱ, PT decreased significantly after treatment of Vitamin K (P0.05).Conclusion PIVKA-Ⅱ, PT,APTT,and PTA have improved significantly after the treatment of Vitamin K in infants with HDN ,which can reflect the blood coagulation level .They can be applied to the diagnosis and prognosis of HDN .

  15. Newborn screening in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Riziwanguli Maitusong; Rukeya Japaer; ZHAO Zheng-yan; YANG Ru-lai; HUANG Xiao-lei; MAO Hua-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been 11 years since newborn screening started in Zhejiang in 1999.The aim of this study was to analyze and summarize the status of newborn screening in Zhejiang from 1999 to 2009.Methods Blood samples were collected from the heels of newborns 72 hours after birth.We have conducted laboratory tests that the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and circulating levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was detected.Blood phenylalanine (Phe) was detected for phenylketonuria (PKU).Dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) was used for detection.Results From 1999 to 2009,3875228 newborns were screened and 2309 cases were confirmed as CH and 155 cases were confirmed as PKU.The incidence of CH and PKU were 1:1678 and 1:25 001 respectively.Conclusion In 11 years,the Zhejiang newborn screening center screened more than 3.8 million newboms,and helped more than 2000 CH and PKU patients to obtain early treatment in order to prevent physical disability and mental retardation.

  16. Percutaneous dilational tracheotomy for airway management in a newborn with Pierre-Robin syndrome and a glossopharyngeal web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirat, Arash; Candan, Selim; Unlükaplan, Aytekin; Kömürcü, Ozgür; Kuşlu, Selim; Arslan, Gülnaz

    2012-04-01

    Pierre-Robin syndrome (PRS) is often associated with difficulty in endotracheal intubation. We present the use of percutaneous dilational tracheotomy (PDT) for airway management of a newborn with PRS and a glossopharyngeal web. A 2-day-old term newborn with PRS and severe obstructive dyspnea was evaluated by the anesthesiology team for airway management. A direct laryngoscopy revealed a glossopharyngeal web extending from the base of the tongue to the posterior pharyngeal wall. The infant was spontaneously breathing through a 2 mm diameter fistula in the center of this web. It was decided that endotracheal intubation was impossible, and a PDT was planned. The trachea of the newborn was cannulated, using a 20 gauge peripheral venous catheter and a 0.71 mm guide wire was introduced through this catheter. Using 5 French, 7 French, 9 French, and 11 French central venous catheter kit dilators, staged tracheotomy stoma dilation was performed. By inserting a size 3.0 tracheotomy cannula, PDT was successfully completed in this newborn. This case describes the successful use of PDT for emergency airway management of a newborn with PRS and glossopharyngeal web.

  17. Study on the clinical features and the related factors of transient tachypnea of newborn (TTN) in term infants%足月儿湿肺的临床特点及病情轻重影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 侯珊珊; 李玉梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析比较足月儿湿肺临床特点及病情轻、重组的影响因素.方法:对吉林大学新生儿疾病诊治中心收治的足月儿湿肺患儿744例的基本资料、围产期因素、临床表现、辅助检查、治疗情况等进行回顾分析,并根据是否应用呼吸支持分为病情重组及病情轻组,分析比较影响病情轻、重的因素.结果:湿肺患儿以男性为主占67.1%,选择性剖宫产占61.8%,存在妊娠并发症者共447例占60.1%;入院呼吸频率≥60次/min 363例占48.8%,存在呼吸系统并发症者78例占10.5%.病情轻、重组间分娩方式、妊娠并发症、呼吸系统并发症及入院呼吸频率差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:男性患儿、妊娠并发症、选择性剖宫产可能为湿肺发生的危险因素,妊娠并发症、选择性剖宫产、呼吸系统并发症可能为足月儿病情严重的危险因素,入院呼吸频率高可能为足月儿湿肺病情严重的预测因素.%Objective: To analyze the clinical features and the related factors of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) in term infants. Methods: Some information of 744 term infants diagnosed with TTN at Neonatal, Treatment Center of Jilin University were analyzed in the study, including the basic information, perinatal factors, clinical manifestations, accessory examination and therapy of them. Further more, they were divided into mild group and severe group depending to whether application of respiratory support, and the factors related severity of disease were analyzed. Results: Male infants were more (67. 1% ), and elective caesarean section was 61. 8% . 447 cases (60.1%) had pregnancy complications; 78 cases (10.5%) with respiratory complications, the initial respiratory rate of 363 cases (48. 8% ) were more than 60 times per minute. The delivery mode, pregnancy complications, respiratory complications and initial respiratory rate were all significantly difference (P<0.05) between the

  18. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  19. The brains of very preterm newborns in clinically stable condition may be hyperoxygenated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line Caroe; Greisen, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    near-infrared spectroscopy in clinical steady state on the first day of life (median age: 19.2 hours). The mean gestational ages and birth weights in the 2 groups were 29.1 +/- 2.6 weeks versus 39.7 +/- 1.3 weeks and 1307 +/- 437 g versus 3484 +/- 346 g, respectively. Three preterm infants needed......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare cerebral oxygenation in preterm newborns with that in healthy term newborns. METHODS: Forty-six preterm newborns with gestational ages of weeks and 25 healthy term newborns were included. The cerebral tissue oxygenation index (c-TOI) was measured by using...... mechanical ventilation and 11 received inotropic drugs. Later, 3 preterm infants developed intraventricular hemorrhage and 2 infants died. All term infants were healthy newborns recruited in the maternity ward. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in c-TOI (preterm: 78.6% [95% confidence interval: 76.9%-80...

  20. Respostas fisiológicas de recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos à musicoterapia clássica Respuestas fisiológicas de recién nacidos pretérmino sometidos a musicoterapia clásica Physiological responses of preterm newborn infants submitted to classical music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Mendes da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da musicoterapia nas respostas fisiológicas de recém-nascidos pré-termo hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Ensaio clínico não controlado realizado com 12 recém-nascidos pré-termo, com idade gestacional OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la musicoterapia en las respuestas fisiológicas de recién nacidos pretérmino hospitalizados. MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico no controlado realizado con 12 recién nacidos pretérmino internados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal y en la Unidad Intermediaria, con edad gestacional OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physiological effects of music therapy on hospitalized preterm newborns. METHODS: A noncontrolled clinical trial including 12 newborn infants with gestational age <36 weeks, spontaneously breathing. The preterm infants were submitted to 15-minute sessions of classical music therapy twice a day (morning and afternoon for three consecutive days. The variables: heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation, diastolic and systolic arterial pressures, and body temperature were analyzed before and immediately after each music therapy session. RESULTS: There was a decrease in the heart rate after the second session of music therapy (paired t-test; p=0.002, and an increase at the end of the third session (paired t-test; p=0.005. Respiratory rate decreased during the fourth and fifth sessions (paired t-test; p=0.01 and 0.03, respectively. Regarding oxygen saturation, there was an increase after the fifth session (p=0.008. Comparison of physiological parameters among sessions, for the six studied sessions, showed only that the gain in oxygen saturation during the fifth session was significantly higher than during the sixth one (Tukey's test after variance analysis; p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Music therapy may modify short-term physiological responses of hospitalized preterm newborn infants.

  1. The influence of sampling site and time upon umbilical cord blood acid-base status and PO2 in the newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, A; Nickelsen, C N; Brandi, L

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of umbilical cord blood acid-base status is routinely carried out in many obstetric centers. Umbilical cord blood pH, PO2, PCO2 and SBE (standard base excess) may change between clamping of the cord and analysis due to diffusion and metabolism. It was the aim of this study to evaluate...... these changes separately in artery and vein blood during storage in the clamped umbilical cord. The umbilical cords from 11 normal term deliveries were clamped immediately after delivery and kept at room temperature. Samples of artery and vein blood were drawned separately 1, 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes post...... minutes were modest. A significant fall in vein pH, vein SBE and artery PO2 and a significant rise in artery PCO2 was found. Greater variation in the changes over time was found in artery than in vein blood, being most evident for the 30 min values. Although significant changes in the umbilical cord acid...

  2. Postpartum Health Services Requested by Mothers with Newborns Receiving Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiest, Sarah; McClain, Erin; Stuebe, Alison; Menard, M Kathryn

    2016-11-01

    Objectives Our pilot study aimed to build knowledge of the postpartum health needs of mothers with infants in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Between May 2008 and December 2009, a Certified Nurse Midwife was available during workday hours to provide health care services to mothers visiting their infants in the NICU at a large tertiary care center. Results A total of 424 health service encounters were recorded. Maternal requests for services covered a wide variety of needs, with primary care being the most common. Key health concerns included blood pressure monitoring, colds, coughs, sore throats, insomnia and migraines. Mothers also expressed a need for mental health assessment and support, obstetric care, treatment for sexually transmitted infections, tobacco cessation, breastfeeding assistance, postpartum visits, and provision of contraception. Conclusions Our study suggests that mothers with babies in the NICU have a host of health needs. We also found that women were receptive to receiving health services in a critical care pediatric setting. Intensive care nurseries could feasibly partner with in-patient mother-baby units and/or on-site obstetric clinics to increase access to health care for the mothers of the high-risk newborns in their units. Modifications should be made within health care systems that serve high-risk infants to better address the many needs of the mother/baby dyad in the postpartum period.

  3. Newborn screening for SCID identifies patients with ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallott, Jacob; Kwan, Antonia; Church, Joseph; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Diana; Lorey, Fred; Tang, Ling Fung; Sunderam, Uma; Rana, Sadhna; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Brenner, Steven E; Puck, Jennifer

    2013-04-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by failure of T lymphocyte development and absent or very low T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), DNA byproducts of T cell maturation. Newborn screening for TRECs to identify SCID is now performed in several states using PCR of DNA from universally collected dried blood spots (DBS). In addition to infants with typical SCID, TREC screening identifies infants with T lymphocytopenia who appear healthy and in whom a SCID diagnosis cannot be confirmed. Deep sequencing was employed to find causes of T lymphocytopenia in such infants. Whole exome sequencing and analysis were performed in infants and their parents. Upon finding deleterious mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, we confirmed the diagnosis of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) in two infants and then tested archival newborn DBS of additional AT patients for TREC copy number. Exome sequencing and analysis led to 2 unsuspected gene diagnoses of AT. Of 13 older AT patients for whom newborn DBS had been stored, 7 samples tested positive for SCID under the criteria of California's newborn screening program. AT children with low neonatal TRECs had low CD4 T cell counts subsequently detected (R = 0.64). T lymphocytopenia in newborns can be a feature of AT, as revealed by TREC screening and exome sequencing. Although there is no current cure for the progressive neurological impairment of AT, early detection permits avoidance of infectious complications, while providing information for families regarding reproductive recurrence risks and increased cancer risks in patients and carriers.

  4. Assessment of pulmonary function in a follow-up of premature infants: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in neonates, especially preterm infants; a long term complication of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is particularly relevant today. The exact role of the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT in this area is not yet well defined; the PFT in newborns and infants - in contrast to what happens in uncooperative children and adults - are routinely used only in a few centers. The assessment of pulmonary function in newborns and infants, however, is nowadays possible with the same reliability that in cooperative patients with the possibility to extend the assessment of polmonary function from bench to bed. The assessment of pulmonary function must be carried out with non invasive and safe methods, at the bedside, with the possibility of continuous monitoring and providing adequate calculation and management of data. The ability to assess lung function helps to define the mechanisms of respiratory failure, improving the treatment and its effects and is therefore a useful tool in the follow-up of newborn and infant with pulmonary disease.

  5. Assessment of pulmonary function in a follow-up of premature infants: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ciuffini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory diseases are a major cause of morbidity in neonates, especially preterm infants; a long term complication of prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is particularly relevant today. The exact role of the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT in this area is not yet well defined; the PFT in newborns and infants - in contrast to what happens in uncooperative children and adults - are routinely used only in a few centers. The assessment of pulmonary function in newborns and infants, however, is nowadays possible with the same reliability that in cooperative patients with the possibility to extend the assessment of polmonary function from bench to bed. The assessment of pulmonary function must be carried out with non invasive and safe methods, at the bedside, with the possibility of continuous monitoring and providing adequate calculation and management of data. The ability to assess lung function helps to define the mechanisms of respiratory failure, improving the treatment and its effects and is therefore a useful tool in the follow-up of newborn and infant with pulmonary disease.

  6. Estudo retrospectivo de crianças pré-termo no Ambulatório de Especialidades Jardim Peri-Peri Retrospective study of preterm newborn infants at the ambulatory of specialities Jardim Peri-Peri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Tavares Lorena

    2009-06-01

    ção mecânica convencional a mais utilizada. CONCLUSÕES: Neste trabalho, a incidência de retinopatia da prematuridade correspondeu aos dados estatísticos internacionais, uma vez que a doença limiar atingiu 3% dos casos. O perfil clínico do grupo I estudado revelou que todos os prematuros utilizaram a oxigenoterapia e apresentaram a síndrome do desconforto respiratório, com prevalência do estágio 1 da retinopatia da prematuridade.PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity preterm newborn infants, associating it with its risk factors besides comparing the incidence of refractive errors like myopia and strabismus among preterm children who developed retinopathy of prematurity (Group I and those who did not present this retinopathy (Group II. METHODS: A cross-sectional, retrospective and documental study of records of 147 preterm children who were examined at the "Ambulatório de especialidades Jardim Peri Peri" (Ambulatory of Specialties Jardim Peri Peri was used in this paper. These children were born between July 7th, 2004 and July 10th, 2008 at "Maternidade Mário Degni" (Maternity Mário Degni. Fundus examination with escleral depression was first carried out between the 3rd and 8th weeks after birth and repeated every 1 to 4 weeks depending on the retinal imaging findings, until retina vascularization was complete or retinopathy of prematurity was present and it was followed by an annual ophthalmologic follow-up comprised of fundus examination and refraction. International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity criteria was used to classify the retinopathy of prematurity. Analysis of the whole group of preterm newborns was made and classified in group I and group II, and the incidence of Myopia and Astigmatism in each group was analyzed. RESULTS: This casuistry showed that retinopathy of prematurity was present in 35 preterm children (23% and 112 preterm children (77% did not develop this retinopathy. In Group I, 34 children (97

  7. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  8. Senses and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hearing screening. continue Can My Baby Taste or Smell? Newborns can taste and smell and will favor sweet tastes over bitter ones. ... sour to taste. Likewise, newborns will turn toward smells they favor and turn away from bad odors. ...

  9. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  10. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAP introduced this recommendation in 1992. Use a firm sleep surface. Cover the mattress with a sheet ... Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn Medical Care and Your Newborn ...

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ...

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment by Laparoscopy for Congenital Duodenal Obstruction in Newborn Infants%腹腔镜诊治新生儿先天性十二指肠梗阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿娜; 李索林; 李英超; 时保军; 于增文; 马亚贞

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价腹腔镜诊断和治疗新生儿先天性十二指肠梗阻(CDO)的可行性和疗效.方法 回顾性分析2002年7月-2010年10月新生儿CDO患儿21例行腹腔镜手术的临床资料,腹腔镜下探查病因,并依据其病理类型予以相应手术矫治.结果 21例患儿均在腹腔镜下明确诊断,并顺利完成手术,肠旋转不良13例实施Ladd手术,十二指肠狭窄4例腔镜下纵行切开其前壁横行缝合,十二指肠闭锁2例和环状胰腺2例成功进行空肠十二指肠菱形吻合术.手术时间(73.0±21.3) min (45~135 min),除1例术后发生暂时性吻合口漏,给予禁食水及肠外营养处理自愈外,无术中并发症出现.术后上消化道造影检查吻合口通畅,术后7~12 d痊愈出院.随访(31.3±4.8)个月,患儿生长发育正常.仅1例术后2个月出现肠黏连梗阻,予手术松解治愈.结论 腹腔镜诊治新生儿CDO是一种安全有效的方法,具有创伤小、进食早、恢复快、美观等特点.但新生儿期腹腔镜手术对麻醉及围术期管理要求更高.%Objective To evaluate the feasibility and availability of laparoscopy in diagnosis and treatment for newborn infants with congenital duodenal obstruction(CDO). Methods Twenty - one neonates with CDO who underwent laparoscopic surgery were analyzed retrospectively from Jul. 2002 to Oct. 2010. Under the laparoscopic vision ,the cause of CDO was explored and the CDO was treated proportionally according to corresponding pathological types. Results All procedures were successfully performed and the etiology was identified. A standard Ladd's procedure was carried out in 13 newborns with intestinal nalrotation. Four cases with duodenal diaphragmatic stenosis underwent a partial excision of the diaphragm after vertical incision of the anterior part in the duodenum followed by a transverse suture. A diamond - shaped side - to - side duodenal anastomosis was completed in 2 cases of duodenal atresia and 2 cases of annular

  13. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  14. Healthy babies through infant-centered feeding protocol: an intervention targeting early childhood obesity in vulnerable populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horodynski Mildred A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor feeding practices during infancy contribute to obesity risk. As infants transition from human milk and/or formula-based diets to solid foods, these practices interfere with infant feeding self-regulation and healthy growth patterns. Compared with other socioeconomic groups, lower-income mothers are more likely to experience difficulty feeding their infants. This may include misinterpreting feeding cues and using less-than-optimal feeding styles and practices, such as pressuring infants during mealtimes and prematurely introducing solid food and sweetened beverages. The Healthy Babies trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial of an in-home intervention with economically and educationally disadvantaged mother-infant dyads. The educational intervention is being conducted during the infant's first 6 months of life to promote healthy transition to solids during their first year and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods/Design We will describe our study protocol for a multisite randomized control trial being conducted in Colorado and Michigan with an anticipated sample of 372 economically and educationally disadvantaged African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian mothers with infants. Participants are being recruited by county community agency staff. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. The intervention consists of six in-home visits by a trained paraprofessional instructor followed by three reinforcement telephone contacts when the baby is 6, 8, and 10 months old. Main maternal outcomes include a maternal responsiveness, b feeding style, and c feeding practices. Main infant outcome is infant growth pattern. All measures occur at baseline and when the infant is 6 and 12 months old. Discussion If this project is successful, the expected outcomes will address whether the home-based early nutrition education intervention is effective

  15. Study of clinic etiologies about newborn infants with high risk of inborn error of metabolism%高危新生儿遗传代谢病临床病因学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄太凤; 马建荣; 温春玲; 邢继伟; 张巍; 杨艳玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinic etiologies about newborn infants with high risk of inborn error of metabolism ( IEM) in NICU. Methods We did a urine organic acid analysis about 100 newhom infants with high risk of IEM by GC/MS. At the same time . blood routine , liver and renal function , blood lactic acid, blood pyruvic acid , β-hydroxyhutyric acid ,blood ammonia and serum homocysteine were determined. There were 24 patients diagnosed IEM by analysis results among the 100 cases. After 1 or 2 courses of treatment to the 24 patients , we did follow-up examination. Results There were 12 cases confirmed with IEM in the 24 patients ,including 2 patients with propionic acidemia ( PA) ,2 with tyrosinemia,2 with homocystinemia , 1 with methylmalonic aciduria ( MMA) ,1 with glutaric acidosis type Ⅱ ( GAⅡ) ,1 with congenital lactose intolerance,1 with hypermethioninemia ,1 with β-ketothiolase deficiency and 1 with ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency ( OCTD). Those diseases were autosomal recessive inheritance . There were different clinical features in 12 IEM cases ,including 3 patients with blood vessel pathological changes ( microthrombus engendered and encephalon parenchyma haemo -rrhage),2 with eclampsia ,2 with recurred metabolic acidosis ,1 with sudden death,1 with recurred hypoglycemia,1 with obstinated diarrhoea ,1 with jaundice correlated with inheritance and 1 with severe pneumonia. In the crises of the 12 IEM patients , 100% patients showed hyperammonemia, 83% metabolic acidosis and pyruvemia , 67% nephridium impaired , 50% with liver impaired ,42% with blood impaired. Conclusions The newbom infants with high risk of IEM had complicated etiologies . The neonates' IEM spectrum were amplification by new technique ( eg. GC/MS ). The amplification of IEM spectrum would show more etiologies of newborn and help diagnosis and treatment .%目的 初步研究新生儿重症监护室(NICU)先天性遗传代谢病(IEM)高危新

  16. Uso antenatal de corticosteróide e evolução clínica de recém-nascidos pré-termo Antenatal corticosteroid use and clinical evolution of preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    interview, analysis of medical records, and follow-up of the newborn infants. Data analysis was performed with the use of chi-square, t Student, Mann-Whitney, and ANOVA tests and multiple logistic regression, with level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Treatment was directly associated with the number of prenatal visits, with maternal hypertension and with the antenatal use of tocolytic agents. Babies from treated pregnant women presented better Apgar scores at the 1st and 5th minute, reduced need for intervention in the delivery room and lower SNAPPE II. They were born with higher birth weight, longer gestational age and needed less surfactant use, ventilation, and oxygenation time. After multiple logistic regression, the use of antenatal corticosteroid independently improved birth conditions, decreased ventilation time, being related to increased occurrence of neonatal sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: The use of corticosteroid was associated with better prenatal care and birth conditions, better preterm evolution but higher risk of infection.

  17. Intervenção fonoaudiológica em recém-nascido pré-termo com gastrosquise Speech language therapy in a preterm newborn infant with gastroschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene de Souza Rocha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a intervenção fonoaudiológica para a adequação da função alimentar por meio da avaliação e tratamento do sistema estomatognático e suas funções. O estudo foi feito a partir do relato de caso de um recém-nascido pré-termo com gastrosquise que foi alimentado por sonda, atendido na Neonatologia do Hospital Luterano, no período de 29/03/2005 a 22/04/2005. A avaliação fonoaudiológica foi realizada, seguindo o protocolo padronizado do serviço de Neonatologia e apresentou os seguintes resultados: órgãos do sistema estomatognático no que se refere à postura, conformação e mobilidade dentro da normalidade; reflexos orais presentes; força e ritmo adequados na sucção não nutritiva; alteração na sensibilidade oral com reflexo nauseoso anteriorizado e exacerbado; sinal de estresse de alteração respiratória durante a sucção nutritiva na mamadeira; e dificuldade de pegar o seio materno. Foram realizadas três sessões de intervenção fonoaudiológica, uma vez por semana, com orientação para a equipe de enfermagem dar continuidade na estimulação oral nos demais dias. Em uma das sessões, a mãe recebeu orientações sobre os benefícios da amamentação e a importância do uso adequado de chupetas e bico de mamadeira do tipo ortodôntico para o desenvolvimento adequado das funções orais. O recém-nascido do relato de caso teve alta sem alterações orais, mamando no seio materno com complementação de mamadeira, sugerindo desta forma, a importância da intervenção fonoaudiológica para a adequação da função alimentar.The aim of this study was to describe the speech-language therapy regarding the adequation of the feeding function by assessing and treating the stomatognathic system and its functions. The study was carried out based on a case report of a preterm newborn infant with gastroschisis, who was tube fed while assisted in the Neonatology division of Lutheran Hospital

  18. 西地那非治疗新生儿持续肺动脉高压的疗效观察%Efficacy of sildenafil on persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裘刚; 张育才; 黄绮薇; 戎群芳; 龚小慧

    2009-01-01

    also help to improve cardiac function of the newborn infants.

  19. Baby massage ameliorates neonatal jaundicein full-term newborn infant%婴儿出生后早期抚触对新生足月儿黄疸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凤会; 钱雷; 孙长虹; 王登艾

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of gentle baby massage on neonatal jaundice in full -term newborn infant. Methods Breastfed newborns without phototherapy were recruited in this study: 106 in massage group and 57 in control group. The mean stool frequency on dayl and day 2 were observed. The transcutaneous bilirubin levels on the second to the fifth day and serum total bilirubin levels on the fourth day were measured respectively. Results The mean stool frequency on day 1 and day 2 (4. 6 and 4.3) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3. 2 and 2.6)(P<0.05). The transcutaneous bilirubin levels on the second to the fifth day and serum total bilirubin levels on the fourth day were significantly decreased in the massage group, compared with the control group. Conclusion Baby massage at early stage after birth could reduce neonatal jaundice levels and is helpful in ameliorating neonatal jaundice.%目的 研究婴儿出生后早期抚触对新生足月儿黄疸的影响.方法 研究对象为母乳喂养的健康新生足月儿,对106例进行婴儿抚触护理,同时设60例未经抚触的新生足月儿对照组.观察出生后前2d排便频率,经皮黄疽检测仪检测出生后5d经皮胆红素值,出生后第4天生化分析仪检测血清胆红素.结果 抚触组新生儿大便频率第1天为4 6次/d,第2天为4.3次/d,比对照组的3.3次/d和2.6次/d显著升高(P<0.05).与正常对照组相比,经抚触新生儿皮肤的胆红素水平在出生后第2天至第5天显著下降(P<0 05).血清胆红素水平在第4天显著下降(P<0 05).结论 新生儿出生后早期阶段抚触能够减轻新生儿胆红素水平,对改善新生儿黄疽具有一定的临床意义.

  20. Mother and infant: early emotional ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, M

    1998-11-01

    Recent behavioral and physiologic observations of infants and mothers have shown them ready to begin interacting in the first minutes of life. Included among these findings are the newborn infant's ability to crawl toward the breast to initiate suckling and mother-infant thermoregulation. The attachment felt between mother and infant may be biochemically modulated through oxytocin; encouraging attachment through early contact, suckling, and rooming-in has been shown to reduce abandonment.

  1. Interleucina 6 e proteína c reativa no diagnóstico de sepse tardia no recém-nascido Interleukins 6 and c - reactive protein for the diagnosis of late onset sepsis in the newborn infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esther J. R. Ceccon

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a acurácia da interleucina 6 (IL-6 e da proteína C reativa (PCR para o diagnóstico de sepse tardia no recém-nascido (RN. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo de coorte prospectivo com 43 RNs internados com suspeita de sepse tardia na UTIN. Foram dosados no dia da suspeita diagnóstica (dia 0 e nos dias 1, 3 e 7 de evolução os níveis séricos da IL-6 e da PCR e calculado o melhor valor de coorte para o diagnóstico de sepse. Também foram calculados os índices de sensibilidade (S, especificidade (E, valor preditivo positivo e negativo (VPP, VPN para cada um dos testes, assim como para a combinação entre eles. RESULTADOS: Os níveis séricos da IL-6 e da PCR estiveram acima do ponto de coorte nos RN com sepse e com sepse presumível com diferenças significantes entre ambos os grupos, nos quais a única diferença foi hemocultura positiva no primeiro. Foi possível afastar esse diagnóstico em seis RNs. Para o diagnóstico de sepse, a IL-6 obteve os melhores índices no dia da suspeita diagnóstica, dia 0 (S: 88,9%, E: 80%, VPP: 76,2%, VPN: 90,9%, seguida da proteína C reativa (S: 94%, E: 78,3%, VPP: 77,3%, VPN: 94,7% 24 horas após. A combinação dos dois (IL 6/PCR mostrou-se mais adequada para o diagnóstico precoce no dia 0 e até 24 horas de evolução com S e VPN de 100%. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação de IL6/PCR apresentou acurácia para o diagnóstico de sepse. A evolução destes testes ao longo dos dias refletiu a evolução clínica dos RN.BACKGROUND: Verify the accuracy of interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP for diagnosis of late onset sepsis in newborn (NB infants. METHODS: a prospective cohort study with 43 NB infants hospitalized at the NICU with suspicion of late onset sepsis was carried out. Levels of IL-6 and of CRP were dosed with suspicion diagnoses; day (0 and sequentially on day 1, 3, and 7 of the evolution and the best cut-off values were calculated for the diagnoses. Indices of sensibility (S

  2. Risk factors and pathogenic analysis in the newborn infants with ventilator-associated pneumonia%新生儿呼吸机相关肺炎危险因素和病原学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潮

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors and microbial causes related to the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP).Methods Totaly 138 intubated newborn infants for longer than 48 hours in Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital were studied,who were divided into VAP group (56 cases)and non VAP group(82 cases).Microbial causes of VAP were analyzed.Results Malnutrition,repeated tracheal intubation,repeated endotracheal suctioning,indwelling tube,posture,hyaline membrane disease,gestational age,birth weight,duration of intubation,duration of hospitalization were independent risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia(P48 h的138例患儿的临床资料,对VAP的危险因素进行统计学分析.结果 138例机械通气患儿发生VAP 56例,发病率为40.6%.在营养不良、反复气管插管、反复吸痰、留置胃管、体位、肺透明膜病、胎龄、出生体重、插管天数、住院时间方面,VAP患儿与非VAP患儿的差异有显著性(P<0.05).56例VAP患儿中,气道分泌物细菌培养阳性48例(86%).VAP的主要致病菌为肺炎克雷白杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌、不动杆菌属、阴沟肠杆菌.结论 缩短机械通气时间、避免反复气管插管、留置胃管、采取半卧体位可以降低VAP的发病率,耐药性条件致病菌的综合防治至关重要.

  3. Cyclooxygenase (COX Inhibitors and the Newborn Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COXI in influencing the structural development as well as the function of the developing kidney. COXI administered either during pregnancy or after birth can influence kidney development including nephronogenesis, and can decrease renal perfusion and ultrafiltration potentially leading to acute kidney injury in the newborn period. To date, which COX isoform (COX-1 or COX-2 plays a more important role in during fetal development and influences kidney function early in life is not known, though evidence points to a predominant role for COX-2. Clinical implications of the use of COXI in pregnancy and in the newborn infant are also evaluated herein, with specific reference to the potential effects of COXI on nephronogenesis as well as newborn kidney function.

  4. High prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in both rural and urban Iowa newborns: Spatial patterns and area-level covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Margaret; Zahrieh, David; Young, Sean G; Oleson, Jacob; Ryckman, Kelli K; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L; Saftlas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Lead in maternal blood can cross the placenta and result in elevated blood lead levels in newborns, potentially producing negative effects on neurocognitive function, particularly if combined with childhood lead exposure. Little research exists, however, into the burden of elevated blood lead levels in newborns, or the places and populations in which elevated lead levels are observed in newborns, particularly in rural settings. Using ~2300 dried bloods spots collected within 1-3 days of birth among Iowa newborns, linked with the area of mother's residence at the time of birth, we examine the spatial patterns of elevated (>5 μg/dL) blood lead levels and the ecological-level predictors of elevated blood lead levels. We find that one in five newborns exceed the 5 μg/dL action level set by the US Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Bayesian spatial zero inflated regression indicates that elevated blood lead in newborns is associated with areas of increased pre-1940s housing and childbearing-age women with low educational status in both rural and urban settings. No differences in blood lead levels or the proportion of children exceeding 5 μg/dL are observed between urban and rural maternal residence, though a spatial cluster of elevated blood lead is observed in rural counties. These characteristics can guide the recommendation for testing of infants at well-baby appointments in places where risk factors are present, potentially leading to earlier initiation of case management. The findings also suggest that rural populations are at as great of risk of elevated blood lead levels as are urban populations. Analysis of newborn dried blood spots is an important tool for lead poisoning surveillance in newborns and can direct public health efforts towards specific places and populations where lead testing and case management will have the greatest impact.

  5. Newborn lamb

    OpenAIRE

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Translated onto glass from copper plates As from Rembrandt or Brueghel or their heirs In whose busy depictions such an act Is incidental, some side-alley fact, Now placed here in the center by Millet -- This all too human scene, both rude and true: A mother wrinkling up her young son’s gown  Before he wets himself on backdoor steps Where his six-year-old sister, shrinking, stares At the wobbly colossus, wholly exposed. His soft hand grips his mother’s muscled wrist, Still nearer to the milk...

  6. Anaesthetic management of nesidioblastosis in a newborn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares A

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This report details the management of a newborn with nesidioblastosis who underwent a 95% pancreatectomy under general anaesthesia. The baby presented with hypoglycemic convulsions, due to hyperinsulinism, and was treated with 12.5% dextrose infusions, glucagon and anticonvulsants. Intraoperatively and postoperatively the baby remained hyperglycemic. A postoperative osmotic diuresis necessitated the use of insulin for brief period. The infant remained euglycemic and convulsion free, following discontinuation of the dextrose infusions and starting of oral feeds. Recovery was uneventful.

  7. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed

  8. Newborn care practices in Pemba Island (Tanzania) and their implications for newborn health and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thairu, Lucy; Pelto, Gretel

    2008-07-01

    Newborn mortality accounts for about one-third of deaths in children under five. Neglecting this problem may undermine the fourth Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015. This study was conducted in Tanzania, where an estimated 32/1000 infants die within the first 28 days. Our objective was to describe newborn care practices and their potential impact on newborn health. We interviewed two purposive samples of mothers from Pemba Island, a predominantly Muslim community of Arab-African ethnicity, and one of Tanzania's poorest. The first sample of mothers (n = 12) provided descriptive data; the second (n = 26) reported actual practice. We identified cultural beliefs and practices that promote early initiation of breastfeeding and bonding, including 'post-partum seclusion'. We also identified practices which are potentially harmful for newborn health, such as bathing newborns immediately after delivery, a practice motivated by concerns about 'ritual pollution', which may lead to newborn hypothermia and premature breast milk supplementation (e.g. with water and other fluids) which may expose newborns to pathogens. Some traditional practices to treat illness, such as exposing sick newborns to medicinal smoke from burning herbs, are also of concern. It is unclear whether the practice of massaging newborns with coconut oil is harmful or beneficial. Interventions to reduce neonatal mortality need to identify and address the cultural rationales that underlie negative practices, as well as reinforce and protect the beliefs that support positive practices. The results suggest the need to improve use of health services through improving health worker communication skills and social management of patients, as well as by lowering healthcare costs.

  9. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  10. Comportamiento de la colestasis del recién nacido y del lactante en el Hospital Pediátrico «William Soler» Behavior of newborn and infant cholestasis in the "William Soler" Children Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hondal Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    reflejo en alguna medida de las diferencias en la composición de las distintas series.INTRODUCTION. The small newborns and infants have a functional and anatomical immaturity justifying that the liver diseases present in these ages have the jaundice as the main sign. The list of processes causing cholestasis during this period is very large including structural, extrahepatic, intrahepatic anomalies and also processes altering the mechanisms synthesis and the excretion of bile salts. The aim of present study was to describe the behavior of the cases of infants presenting with cholestasis seen in the Hepatology Service of the "William Soler" Children General Hospital, assessed in a programmed way between January, 2004 and December, 2006. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted. Sample included 76 patients diagnosed with cholestasis, assessed in a programmed way during this period. Variables analyzed were: sex, gestational age and birth weight, perinatal and postnatal backgrounds, presence or absence of cholestasis. A database was designed in SPSS (version 12 and the variables were analyzed in percentage way. RESULTS. There was predominance of male newborns (45, 59,2%, term (63, 82,9% of normal weight (50,65,7% and without perinatal and postnatal backgrounds. Only in the 9,2% of cases the cholestasis was associated with a liver failure. Frequency of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis was similar. The major causes of cholestasis present were: biliary tracts atresia (24, 31,5%, idiopathic neonatal hepatitis(15, 19,8%, cytomegalovirus infection (14, 18,5% and bile thickening (9,11,9%. CONCLUSIONS. Behavior of different causes of cholestasis is heterogeneous and the differences as regards the frequencies of cholestasis causes is in some extent a reflection of the differences in the composition of the group of series.

  11. Multifocal Group B Streptococcal Infection in a Newborn: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Öztekin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Group B streptococci cause sepsis and other infections in newborns very early in life (early-onset sepsis and also later (late-onset sepsis in the newborn period.Case Report: A case of multifocal group B streptococcal infection with sepsis, meningitis, ventriculitis, osteomyelitis and abscesses in a newborn infant was reported. Ventriculitis is often thought of as a secondary complication of acute group B streptococcal meningitis.Conclusion: Multifocal group B streptococcal infection is rare and group B streptococcal ventriculitis should be suspected in cases that are refractory to treatment or in patients who later develop hydrocephalus. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 141-4

  12. Early hospital discharge in maternal and newborn care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    This article highlights the historic precedence of early discharge practices and the debate regarding length of stay for new mothers and newborns in the United States. Although the documented effects of early discharge on maternal and newborn health are inconsistent, research findings universally support follow-up care for mothers and infants within 1 week of hospital discharge. Research is needed to identify the components and timing of follow-up care to optimize maternal and newborn outcomes. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Alternative feeding methods for premature newborn infants

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Peyres Lopez; Roberta Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar revisão de literatura sobre o uso do copo/xícara como método alternativo de alimentação para recém-nascidos prematuros e verificar se há consenso sobre sua indicação para essa população. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura narrativa, tendo sido selecionados artigos nas bases de dados Medline, Lilacs, SciELO e Cochrane, independentemente do ano, usando descritores específicos: alimentação artificial, recém-nascido prematuro, aleitamento materno, métodos de alimentação. ...

  14. Umbilical Cord Care in the Newborn Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dan; Benitz, William

    2016-09-01

    Postpartum infections remain a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. A high percentage of these infections may stem from bacterial colonization of the umbilicus, because cord care practices vary in reflection of cultural traditions within communities and disparities in health care practices globally. After birth, the devitalized umbilical cord often proves to be an ideal substrate for bacterial growth and also provides direct access to the bloodstream of the neonate. Bacterial colonization of the cord not infrequently leads to omphalitis and associated thrombophlebitis, cellulitis, or necrotizing fasciitis. Various topical substances continue to be used for cord care around the world to mitigate the risk of serious infection. More recently, particularly in high-resource countries, the treatment paradigm has shifted toward dry umbilical cord care. This clinical report reviews the evidence underlying recommendations for care of the umbilical cord in different clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Respiratory Microbiome of New-born Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Gallacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The respiratory tract, once believed to be sterile, harbours diverse bacterial communities. The role of microorganisms within health and disease is slowly being unravelled. Evidence points to the neonatal period as a critical time for establishing stable bacterial communities and influencing immune responses important for long term respiratory health. This review summarises the evidence of early airway and lung bacterial colonisation and the role the microbiome has on respiratory health in the short and long term. The challenges of neonatal respiratory microbiome studies and future research directions are also discussed.

  16. Pantoea agglomerans septicemia in three newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, Klasina A.; Arends, Jan P.; Scholvinck, Elisabeth H.

    Pantoea infections are rare in humans, especially in neonates. Infections are usually associated with plant thom injury or outbreaks traced to contaminated parenteral nutrition, intravenous anesthetics or packed er throcytes. Between I st of January 1994 and Ist of June 2005, 125 cf 6383 patients

  17. INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention and Infant Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Savage, Jennifer S; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Marini, Michele E; Mindell, Jodi A; Birch, Leann L

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate sleep during infancy is associated with adverse outcomes for infants and families. We sought to improve sleep behaviors and duration through a responsive parenting (RP) intervention designed for obesity prevention. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is a randomized trial comparing a RP intervention with a safety control. Primiparous mother-newborn dyads were randomized after childbirth, and research nurses delivered intervention content at home visits at infant ages 3, 16, 28, and 40 weeks and at a research center visit at 1 year. The RP sleep component included developmentally appropriate messages about bedtime routines, sleep location and behaviors, and responses to wakings. Portions of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire were administered 2, 8, and 52 weeks after birth with expanded sleep-related data collection at 16 and 40 weeks. Two hundred and seventy-nine dyads completed the first home visit; 90.7% completed the 1-year visit. Compared with controls, RP group infants were less likely to have prolonged bedtime routines >45 minutes and more likely to have earlier bedtimes at 16 and 40 weeks. They were less likely to be fed immediately before bed and more likely to self-soothe to sleep. At 8, 16, and 40 weeks, RP group nocturnal sleep duration was longer by 35, 25, and 22 minutes, respectively (P < .05 for all). Sleep duration at 1 year was similar between groups. The INSIGHT RP intervention positively influenced developmentally appropriate bedtime routines, sleep-related behaviors, and sleep duration for infants. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Conjunctivitis in the newborn- A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Wadhwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conjunctivitis of the newborn is defined as hyperemia and eye discharge in the neonates and is a common infection occurring in the neonates in the first month of life. In the United States, the incidence of neonatal conjunctivitis ranges from 1-2%, in India, the prevalence is 0.5-33% and varies in the world from 0.9-21% depending on the socioeconomic status. Aim: To study the organisms causing conjunctivitis of the newborn and to correlate the etiology with the mode of delivery. Design: Single center, prospective, observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 mothers and their newborns, born over a period of one year, were included in the study. Of these 200 newborns were delivered through vaginal route (Group A and 100 (Group B delivered by lower segment caesarean section (LSCS. At the time of labour, high vaginal swabs were taken from the mothers. Two conjunctival swabs each from both eyes of the newborn were collected at birth and transported to Microbiology department in a candle jar immediately. Results: Eight babies in Group A, developed conjunctivitis at birth. None of the babies in Group B developed conjunctivitis, this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.000. The organisms found in the conjunctiva of the newborns in Group A were Coagulase negative Staphylococcus, α hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spps. However, the commonest organism leading to conjunctivitis in the newborn in this study was Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. It was observed that the mothers of 5 out of 8 babies (60% developing conjunctivitis gave history of midwife interference and premature rupture of membranes so the presence of risk factors contribute to the occurrence of conjunctivitis in the newborn. Conclusions: It is inferred that the mode of delivery and the presence of risk factors is responsible for conjunctivitis in the newborn.

  19. Blood pressure values in healthy term newborns at a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... The monitor (Dinamap 8100) is switched on while the cuff inflation and deflation is automatically done by ... Key words: Blood pressure, healthy, newborns, term ..... Moss AJ. Blood pressure in infants children and adolescents.

  20. Physical examination instead of laboratory tests for most infants born to mothers colonized with group B Streptococcus: support for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2010 recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Luigi; Ronfani, Luca; Da Riol, Rosalia; Demarini, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    To compare 2 approaches in the management of neonates at risk for group B Streptococcus early-onset sepsis: laboratory tests plus standardized physical examination and standardized physical examination alone. Prospective, sequential study over 2 consecutive 12-month periods, carried out in the maternity hospitals of the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia (north-eastern Italy). All term infants were included (7628 in the first period, 7611 in the second). In the first period, complete blood count and blood culture were required for all infants at risk, followed by a 48-hour period of observation with a standardized physical examination. In the second period, only standardized physical examination was performed. Study outcomes were: (1) number of neonates treated with antibiotics; and (2) time between onset of signs of possible sepsis and beginning of treatment. There was no difference between the 2 periods in the rate of maternal colonization (19.7% vs 19.8%, P = .8), or in other risk factors. The interval between onset of signs of sepsis and starting of antibiotics was not different in the 2 periods. Significantly fewer infants were treated with antibiotics in the second period (0.5% vs 1.2%, P physical examination seem to offer no advantage over standardized physical examination alone; the latter was associated with fewer antibiotic treatments. Our results are in agreement with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2010 recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assistive Technology for Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children with Disabilities. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c212

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that assistive technology (AT) can help young children with disabilities to learn developmental skills. Its use may help infants and toddlers to improve in many areas such as: (1) social skills including sharing and taking turns; (2) communication skills; (3) attention span; (4) fine and gross motor skills; and (5) self confidence…

  2. Assistive Technology for Infants, Toddlers, and Young Children with Disabilities. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c212

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that assistive technology (AT) can help young children with disabilities to learn developmental skills. Its use may help infants and toddlers to improve in many areas such as: (1) social skills including sharing and taking turns; (2) communication skills; (3) attention span; (4) fine and gross motor skills; and (5) self confidence…

  3. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jia Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3% died and another 69 infants (26.7% died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019. BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other

  4. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Jia Lin; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Jia-Hua Pan; Xiao-Mei Tong; Qiu-Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:With the progress ofperinatal medicine and neonatal technology,more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world.This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China.Methods:All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) <1000 g were included between January 1,2011 and December 3 1,201 1.All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire.The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed.Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test.Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors.Results:A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs,of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks,and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g.The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%.Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal.Furthermore,the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs.35.3%,P =0.019).BW <750 g and GA <28 weeks were the largest risk factors,and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality.Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication.The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus,intraventricular hemorrhage,periventricular leukomalacia,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%,33.7%,6.7%,48.1%,and 41.4%,respectively.Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization.Conclusions:Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China.The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.

  5. Perception of Object Shape and Texture in Human Newborns: Evidence from Cross-Modal Transfer Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sann, Coralie; Streri, Arlette

    2007-01-01

    The present research investigates newborn infants' perceptions of the shape and texture of objects through studies of the bi-directionality of cross-modal transfer between vision and touch. Using an intersensory procedure, four experiments were performed in newborns to study their ability to transfer shape and texture information from vision to…

  6. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Lisa K

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  7. [Acute bacterial parotitis in infants under 3 months of age: a retrospective study in a pediatric tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, J; Lorrot, M; Teissier, N; Delacroix, G; Doit, C; Bingen, E; Faye, A

    2011-12-01

    Acute bacterial parotitis is a rare infectious disease in infants under 3 months of age. To describe the clinical characteristics and the course of acute bacterial parotitis in infants less than 3 months old. Infants under 3 months of age, hospitalized at Robert Debré university hospital, Paris, France, between January 2005 and December 2009 for acute bacterial parotitis, were included in a retrospective study. Five infants less than 3 months of age were included in this study, for a frequency of 2.5/1000 hospitalizations in this age group. All were born at term, 4 of 5 were male. Three of the 5 patients had specific clinical signs of parotitis on admission. One patient had septic shock on admission. The ultrasound confirmed the parotitis in all cases. No parotid abscess was demonstrated on imaging. All patients had at least one abnormal inflammatory biological test (WBC, CRP, PCT). Bacteria were identified in 4 of 5 cases: Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in the pus culture of the Stenon duct in 2 patients and a group B Streptococcus was isolated from blood culture of 2 other patients. The duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy varied from 4 to 13 days, and the total duration of antibiotic therapy was between 10 and 16 days. No surgical procedures were needed. Acute bacterial parotitis in infants under 3 months of age might be associated with localized infections due to S. aureus, but also with a more severe clinical presentation due to group B streptococcus infection. Early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy might prevent the progression to serious complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  9. Special immunobiologicals’ schedule applied to infants at a reference service in Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselany Áfio Caetano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the vaccine schedule for preterm infants in a program of special immunobiologicals. Methods: A documental study conducted at a Reference Center of Special Immunobiologicals (CREATE situated in a general hospital of tertiary care in pediatrics. The sample consisted of 112 newborns with gestational age below 37 weeks and weighing less than 2500g, suitable for vaccination, assisted in 2006-2007. Data collection was done from registration forms, reference records and registers of control of special immunobiologicals’ administration, in year 2008. Results: The results showed that 22 (20% newborns were weighing between 1000 and 1499g. Regarding gestational age, 39 (35% were born between 30 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Most proceeded from public institutions, 37 (69%. The vaccination schedule of most children, 68 (61%, was incomplete. The main clinical indications for special immunobiologicals were prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. It was observed that 89% (n = 100 of preterm infants received the pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar. For preterm infants who were at risk of developing serious events related to the tetravalent vaccine, it was elected the scheme Prevenar + DTPa + Hib. Simultaneous administration of meningococcal conjugate vaccines - C (MncC with Prevenar was indicated for candidates for cochlear implants. Conclusion: The integral care to the preterm newborn involves early immunization, that is, the one that starts in the neonatal unit, and requires the inclusion of special immunobiologicals, which should be criteriously recommended.

  10. Transpyloric feeding in 49 infants undergoing intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, E

    1980-11-01

    The use of transpyloric feeding in 46 very ill newborn infants requiring assisted ventilation was evaluated. It was found to be a simple and well-tolerated technique. A possible complication of significance was necrotising enterocolitis in 4 infants. Transpyloric tube feeding in 3 infants with treated upper small-bowel atresia is also described.

  11. Teaching Parents How to Prevent Acquired Cranial Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Freda; Nordin, Per; Wennergren, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cranial asymmetry is prevalent in infants today. This is largely attributed to the supine sleep position recommended for infant safety. The condition can become permanent, so prevention and early detection are important. A prevention project was initiated where guidelines for Swedish child health nurses were developed, tested in a pilot study, revised, and then incorporated into a short cranial asymmetry prevention program for nurses. The program included detailed information on what to teach parents of newborns. An intervention study was initiated where one group of nurses was taught according to the program and the other group followed the standard recommendations. The aim of this survey was to compare intervention and control group parents' responses regarding the cranial asymmetry prevention information that they had received from their nurses during their infant's first four months. Participants included 272 parents (180 intervention group, 92 control group) at 26 child health centers. A checklist was distributed to parents in conjunction with infants' four month health checkup. A significantly higher percentage of intervention group parents were aware of regular recommendations - alternate direction of the infant's head when putting the child to bed (82%: 64%, p=0.001), which pillow to use (92%: 80%, p=0.01), and when to remove the pillow (48%: 31%, p=0.006) - and five newly introduced recommendations compared to controls. Results indicate that educating child health nurses on prevention of cranial asymmetry works to increase parental awareness of what to do and how to do it safely.

  12. Umbilical cord milking improves transition in premature infants at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Katheria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord milking (UCM improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC. The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described. METHODS: Women admitted to a tertiary care center and delivering before 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive UCM or ICC. A blinded analysis of physiologic data collected on the newborns in the delivery room was performed using a data acquisition system. Heart rate (HR, SpO2, mean airway pressure (MAP, and FiO2 in the delivery room were compared between infants receiving UCM and infants with ICC. RESULTS: 41 of 60 neonates who were enrolled and randomized had data from analog tracings at birth. 20 of these infants received UCM and 21 had ICC. Infants receiving UCM had higher heart rates and higher SpO2 over the first 5 minutes of life, were exposed to less FiO2 over the first 10 minutes of life than infants with ICC. CONCLUSIONS: UCM when compared to ICC had decreased need for support immediately following delivery, and in situations where resuscitation interventions were needed immediately, UCM has the advantage of being completed in a very short time to improve stability following delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434732.

  13. Umbilical Cord Milking Improves Transition in Premature Infants at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, Anup; Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord milking (UCM) improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC). The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described. Methods Women admitted to a tertiary care center and delivering before 32 weeks gestation were randomized to receive UCM or ICC. A blinded analysis of physiologic data collected on the newborns in the delivery room was performed using a data acquisition system. Heart rate (HR), SpO2, mean airway pressure (MAP), and FiO2 in the delivery room were compared between infants receiving UCM and infants with ICC. Results 41 of 60 neonates who were enrolled and randomized had data from analog tracings at birth. 20 of these infants received UCM and 21 had ICC. Infants receiving UCM had higher heart rates and higher SpO2 over the first 5 minutes of life, were exposed to less FiO2 over the first 10 minutes of life than infants with ICC. Conclusions UCM when compared to ICC had decreased need for support immediately following delivery, and in situations where resuscitation interventions were needed immediately, UCM has the advantage of being completed in a very short time to improve stability following delivery. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01434732 PMID:24709780

  14. Communication and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn Print A A A What's ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  15. Communication and Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn A A A What's in ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  16. Nurses' attitudes and knowledge of their roles in newborn abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to "abandon" her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.

  17. Adverse reactions to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in new-born infants-an evaluation of the Danish strain 1331 SSI in a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke Nissen, Thomas; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial. DESIGN: A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG or no inter...

  18. A Care Coordination Program for Substance-Exposed Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean E.; Caldwell, Donna; Soave, Rosemary; Fontaine, Lynne Andreozzi; Lester, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The Vulnerable Infants Program of Rhode Island (VIP-RI) was established as a care coordination program to promote permanency for substance-exposed newborns in the child welfare system. Goals of VIP-RI were to optimize parents' opportunities for reunification and increase the efficacy of social service systems involved with families affected by…

  19. Clinical monitoring of systemic hemodynamics in critically ill newborns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boode, W.P. de

    2010-01-01

    Circulatory failure is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in critically ill newborn infants. Since objective measurement of systemic blood flow remains very challenging, neonatal hemodynamics is usually assessed by the interpretation of various clinical and biochemical parameters. An overview

  20. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  1. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  2. Process evaluation determines the pathway of success for a health center-delivered, nutrition education intervention for infants in Trujillo, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rebecca C; Gittelsohn, Joel; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Penny, Mary E; Caulfield, Laura E; Narro, M Rocio; Black, Robert E

    2006-03-01

    Process evaluation was used to explain the success of a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention to improve the feeding behaviors of caregivers and the nutritional status of infants in Trujillo, Peru. Health personnel delivered a multicomponent intervention within the environment of usual care at government health centers. We created a model of the expected intervention pathway to successful outcomes. Process data were then collected on health center implementation of the intervention and caregiver reception to it. Using multivariate models, we found that variables of health center implementation, caregiver exposure, and caregiver message recall were all significant determinants in the pathway leading to improved feeding behaviors. These outcomes were consistent with our original intervention model. Further support for our model arose from the differences in caregiver reception between intervention and control centers. Process data allowed us to characterize the pathway through which an effective nutrition intervention operated. This study underscores the importance of including process evaluation, which will lead to the development and implementation of more effective nutrition interventions.

  3. Radiation exposure of children in pediatric radiology, Pt. 8. Radiation doses during thoracoabdominal babygram and abdominal X-ray examination of the newborn and young infants; Zur Strahlenexposition von Kindern in der paediatrischen Radiologie. T. 8. Strahlendosen beim thorakoabdominalen babygramm und bei der abdomenaufnahme neugeborener und saeuglinge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Karl; Seidenbusch, M.C. [Abt. Radiologie, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of radiation doses for the thoracoabdominal babygram and the abdomen X-ray from radiographic settings and exposure data acquired at Dr. von Hauner's Kinderspital (children's hospital of the University of Munich, DvHK) between 1976 and 2007; comparison of these dose values with values reported in the literature; recommendation of a reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram. Materials and Methods: The data from all X-ray examinations performed since 1976 at DvHK were stored electronically in a database. After 30 years of data collection, the database now includes 305 107 radiological examinations (radiographs and fluoroscopies), especially 1493 thoracoabdominal babygrams and 3632 abdomen X-rays of newborns and young infants. With the computer program PAeDOS, a specific dose reconstruction algorithm was developed. Results: the entrance dose values of thoracoabdominal babygrams and abdomen X-rays in DvHK could be reduced in the last 30 years by a factor of 5 to 8. They are far below the entrance dose values reported by other radiology departments in Europe. Nevertheless, a slight increase in the entrance doses that correlates with the introduction of a digital storage phosphor system could be observed in the last years. Conclusion: because nearly all radiosensitive body organs in early life are involved during a thoracoabdominal babygram and because of the high radiation sensitivity of newborns, thoracoabdominal babygrams should be performed in neonatology with caution. A dose value of 1.0 cGy cm{sup 2} could serve as the actual reference dose value for the thoracoabdominal babygram of the newborn. (orig.)

  4. Desempenho motor de lactentes frequentadores de berçários em creches públicas Motor performance of infants attending the nurseries of public day care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o desempenho motor axial, apendicular e global e sua correlação com as características neonatais, familiares e de tempo de exposição à creche em crianças com idade entre 12-24 meses, frequentadoras de creches públicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 40 lactentes (idade média 14,3±2,4 meses frequentadores de creches públicas. Os participantes foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho motor com a Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III, a qual possibilita análise do desempenho motor e comparação dos domínios motores axial e apendicular. Foram coletados dados neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche e pesquisou-se a correlação destes fatores ao desempenho motor. Foi utilizado o teste t pareado para comparar médias e a correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: O desempenho motor do grupo esteve, em média, abaixo da referência, com 22,5% das crianças classificadas como suspeitas de atraso nos desempenhos axial e global, contrastando com nenhuma no domínio apendicular. A comparação axial e apendicular apontou diferença significativa, com desempenho axial aquém do apendicular, além de 35% do grupo ter apresentado discrepância significativa entre esses domínios. Não foi encontrada correlação linear entre os domínios motores avaliados e as variáveis neonatais, familiares e de exposição à creche. CONCLUSÕES: O desempenho motor global do grupo esteve abaixo da média de referência, com desempenho motor axial inferior ao apendicular e importante discrepância entre esses. Recomenda-se atenção às habilidades motoras axiais e às oportunidades de exploração que o ambiente em creches pode propiciar, especialmente no decorrer dos dois primeiros anos de vida.OBJECTIVE: To analyze gross, fine and global motor performance and its correlation with neonatal and familial variables and day care exposure among children between 12-24 months of age attending public day care centers. METHODS: This

  5. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic activity is suppressed in preterm infants with high scores on illness severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; van Eykern, Leo A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The neonatal acute physiology score. SNAP-II, reflects the severity of illness in newborns. In term newborns, amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG), is depressed following asphyxia. In preterm infants aEEG is discontinuous, and therefore more difficult to assess compared to term infants. Aims:

  6. The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning: Addressing Challenging Behavior in Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amy; Hemmeter, Mary Louise

    2009-01-01

    The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) is a federally funded national resource center designed to support early care and education providers address the social-emotional needs of children birth through age 5 years. Recent research has found that an extraordinarily high number of young children are being…

  7. Correlation between maternal milk and infant serum levels of chlorinated pesticides (CP) and the impact of elevated CP on bleeding tendency and immune status in some infants in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaalan, Mona F; Abdelraouf, Sahar M; Mohamed, Waleed A; Hassanein, Fetouh S

    2012-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides (CP) are environmentally persistent pollutants that (prenatally through the placenta and post-natally via breastfeeding) are transferred from mother to child. Considering the significant bleeding tendency noted in infants of CP-intoxicated mothers in Egypt, this study aimed to investigate any correlation between levels of these xenobiotics in mothers' milk and bleeding tendencies of their infants, as well as a possible role of any related immunosuppression in this phenomenon. This study examined 180 newborns presenting with altered bleeding tendencies and their mothers, and 180 normal newborns and their mothers (serving as a controls), selected from the Breastfeeding Unit, Center for Social and Preventive Medicine at the Cairo University Pediatric Hospital. Chlorinated pesticides (e.g., hexachlorocyclohexane, DDT, hepta-chloroepoxide, α- and β-endosulfan, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin) levels and their derivatives were measured in mothers' milk as well as in serum of neonates using gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. To link bleeding tendency with lactational intoxication of neonates by CP, newborns' blood was assessed for: platelet count, bleeding and prothrombin time, liver enzymes, Vitamin K, TNFα, and IL-10. Breast milk CP levels were associated with a higher incidence of bleeding in infants. Interference with the coagulation cascade was supported by changes in prothrombin time (prolonged), platelet counts (decreased), liver enzymes (increased), and serum vitamin K concentrations (decreased). Moreover, the significant decrease in WBC count and lymphocytes added to depressed cytokine secretion, i.e., TNFα and IL-10, suggested an organochlorine-induced immunotoxicity in infants developmentally exposed to the agents. We conclude that maternal transfer of CP, via breastfeeding or across the placenta, was sufficient to achieve similar CP levels in the serum of their infants; this correlated with a manifesting of altered

  8. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking...

  9. Fatores perinatais associados ao óbito precoce em prematuros nascidos nos centros da Rede Brasileira de Pesquisas Neonatais Perinatal factors associated with early deaths of preterm infants born in Brazilian Network on Neonatal Research centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Branco de Almeida

    2008-08-01

    -1,500 g and 23-33 weeks of gestational age (GA, without malformations, who were born alive at eight public university tertiary hospitals in Brazil between June of 2004 and May of 2005. Infants who died within their first 6 days of life were compared with those who did not regarding maternal and neonatal characteristics and morbidity during the first 72 hours of life. Variables associated with the early deaths were identified by stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 579 live births met the inclusion criteria. Early deaths occurred in 92 (16% cases, varying between centers from 5 to 31%, and these differences persisted after controlling for newborn illness severity and mortality risk score (SNAPPE-II. According to the multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with early intrahospital neonatal deaths: gestational age of 23-27 weeks (odds ratio - OR = 5.0; 95%CI 2.7-9.4, absence of maternal hypertension (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.0-3.7, 5th minute Apgar 0-6 (OR = 2.8; 95%CI 1.4-5.4, presence of respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.4-6.6, and network center of birth. CONCLUSION: Important perinatal factors that are associated with early neonatal deaths in very low birth weight preterm infants can be modified by interventions such as improving fetal vitality at birth and reducing the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. The heterogeneity of early neonatal rates across the different centers studied indicates that best clinical practices should be identified and disseminated throughout the country.

  10. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  11. "Security Theater" in the Pediatric Wing: The Case for RFID Protection for Infants in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyld, David C.

    In a typical year, five infants are abducted by strangers from hospitals. These are devastating events for the families involved and for the health care facilities' staff and executives. This article looks at the nature of newborn and infant abductions, analyzing data on these kidnappings from the FBI and from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Then, the article examines the potential for RFID (radio frequency identification) based systems to improve security in the pediatric area of hospitals, providing an overview of the technology on the market today for infant protection. The article concludes with an analysis of the ROI (return on investment) equation for health care administrators to consider in weighing their options on how to prevent a statistically unlikely, but potentially cataclysmic occurrence, at their facility. In the end, RFID-based infant protection systems can be seen as a form of "security theater," serving as a "palliative countermeasure" that will indeed work - both substantively and psychologically - to promote a more secure hospital environment for moms and their newborns.

  12. Management of the woman with threatened birth of an infant of extremely low gestational age. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Committee, Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for parents, physicians and other members of the health-care team for management of the probable birth of an infant with a gestational age of 26 completed weeks or less. OPTIONS: Vaginal birth or birth by cesarean section for fetal indications and active treatment or palliative care of the infant at birth. OUTCOMES: Increased risk of complications for the mother from cesarean section at this stage of pregnancy and the difficulty in making a prognosis before or a...

  13. Ultrasound-guided central line insertion and standard peripherally inserted catheter placement in preterm infants: Comparing results from prospective study in a single-center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Antanios Al Hamod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among preterm infants, the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC is the standard line for central venous access; however, its placement exposes them to hypothermia and pain. Ultrasound (US-guided central line insertion may be less morbid than standard PICC line. Aims: To determine the ease, success rate, and morbidity associated with US-guided central line insertion in the internal jugular vein (IJV by comparing it to the standard PICC line placement. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center nonrandomized prospective study evaluating preterm infants between October 2013 and June 2014. Patients were allocated into two groups: The standard group (control group who underwent blind PICC line insertion and the intervention group who underwent a percutaneous US-guided central line insertion in the IJV. The epicutaneo-cava-catheter was used in both groups. Results: Fifty neonates were enrolled on study. A statistically difference in favor of US-IJV insertion was noted concerning the rate of successful first attempt (P < 0.001, insertion (P = 0.001, and procedure duration (P < 0.001 and number of trials (P < 0.001 compared to PICC. No difference in complications (P = 1.000 was noted. Conclusion: US guided catheterization of the IJV technique is faster than PICC line insertion with higher rates of successful first attempt and insertion, less procedure duration and fewer number of trials compared to PICC line insertion. There were no differences in complications.

  14. Hemothorax in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppermann, H.C.; Wille, L.

    1980-04-01

    Twenty cases of hemothorax in newborns are reviewed in detail. This unusual cause of acute respiratory distress within the neonatal period was observed in 14 males and 6 females. Most of the patients were fullterm newborns. As causal factors hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (vitamin K deficiency), disseminated intravascular coagulation, arteriovenous malformations and pleural/vascular rupture are considered. The time of occurrence of bleeding symptoms ranged from 1 to 28 days of life. Sixteen out of 20 patients survived without sequelae, but in 4 cases the outcome was lethal.

  15. Effects of white noise and holding on pain perception in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoç, Ayse; Türker, Funda

    2014-12-01

    This experimental study on newborns was conducted to compare the effects of various atraumatic care procedures during an infant's crying response to pain. Included in this study were 120 newborns chosen from among healthy infants admitted to the Obstetrics Department of Çanakkale State Hospital between April 2010 and June 2010. The patients were divided into three physically homogeneous groups. Infants in group 1 were held on the mothers' laps, infants in group 2 were held on the mother's laps and listened to white noise, and infants in group 3 lay in their cribs and listened to white noise while undergoing a painful procedure. Data collection included the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale, which was used to evaluate the behavioral responses to pain during a heel prick blood draw and a newborn information sheet developed by the researcher. Changes in cardiac and respiratory rates recorded during the invasive procedure were statistically significant among the three groups (p noise. This group was then followed by the infants who listened to white noise while being held by their mothers. The highest behavioral reaction was reported by those infants who were held by their mothers but did not listen to white noise. According to the results, white noise is an effective nonpharmacologic method to control pain, reduce crying time, and positively effect vital signs. Therefore, it is recommended that the use of white noise be practiced on newborns when they undergo painful procedures.

  16. Innate intersubjectivity: newborns' sensitivity to communication disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Emese

    2008-11-01

    In most of our social life we communicate and relate to others. Successful interpersonal relating is crucial to physical and mental well-being and growth. This study, using the still-face paradigm, demonstrates that even human neonates (n = 90, 3-96 hr after birth) adjust their behavior according to the social responsiveness of their interaction partner. If the interaction partner becomes unresponsive, newborns will also change their behavior, decrease eye contact, and display signs of distress. Even after the interaction partner resumes responsiveness, the effects of the communication disturbance persist as a spillover. These results indicate that even newborn infants sensitively monitor the behavior of others and react as if they had innate expectations regarding rules of interpersonal interaction.

  17. 妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症的新生儿血清胱抑素c测定分析%Newborn Infants Suffering from Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) by Measuring the Content of Serum Cystatin C (CysC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李作娅; 李伟; 夏梅梅; 任盛

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过对妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)的新生儿血清胱抑C(CysC)血尿素氮(BuN),血肌肝(scR)测定分析,探讨妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症的新生儿肾功能变化.方法:对35例妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)的新生儿与正常对照组新生儿均于生后24小对内和第七天,分别测定血清胱抑素C(CysC)、血尿素氮(BuN)、血肌肝(scR)水平,并将两组测定数据进行对比分析.结果:妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症(ICP)的新生儿组血清胱抑素C(CysC)与正常对照组的新生儿比较明显增高(p<0.05),而血清尿素氮( BUN)及肌肝SCR两组比较差异无统计学意义.一周后两组胱抑素C(CysC)、肌肝(BuN)、尿素氮( BUN)比较无差异(P>0.05).结论:妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症ICP的新生儿有一过性肾损害,血清胱抑素C与血尿素氨、血肌酐比较,是早期诊断肾功能损害更灵敏的指标.%Objective: To explore changes in renal functions of newborn infants suffering from Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) by measuring the content of serum cystatin C (CysC), Urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr).Methods: The contents of serum cystatin C (CysC), Urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) of 35 newborn children suffering from ICP were measured within 24 hours of birth and the seventh day of birth, respectively. As the control, the measuring were performed in the exactly the same way for regular new born children.Results: the children suffering from ICP showed obvious increase in CysC in contrast with the control (p0.05).Conclusion: transient kidney injuries exist in newborn infants suffering from ICP. Compared with BUN and SCr, CysC is a sensitive indicator for kidney injury early diagnosis.

  18. [Newborn life threatening respiratory failure treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbańska, Ewa; Grzybowski, Adam; Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Przybylski, Roman; Walas, Wojciech; Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Szary, Tomasz; Włoczka, Grzegorz; Skalski, Janusz H; Zembala, Marian

    2006-01-01

    THE AIM of the study was to show first results of newborn life threatening respiratory failure treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in Poland. Nine newborns were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in Silesian Center for Heart Diseases. Newborns were born in 38 week of gestational age (36-41 weeks) with mean birth weight of 3490 g. Reasons for the referral were: meconium aspiration syndrome, infection, and pulmonary hypertension. Each newborn fulfilled an Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. seven out of nine of patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survived. Full clinical stabilization was reached about 6th hour of treatment. Mean extracorporeal oxygenation time was 162 hours. For eight newborns veno-venous method was applied and for one newborn veno-arterial method. Roller pump was used in 7 cases and centrifugal pomp in one case. Five newborns had uneventful treatment. During extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy we have observed several complications: PDA, hemorrhagic complications, renal failure, arterial hypertension, septicemia, tubing rupture. extracorporeal oxygenation is an effective method of treatment for newborn life threatening respiratory failure. Obtained results do not differ much from Extracorporeal Life Support Organization register results. The most essential problem for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy is correct qualification, early referral, safe transportation as well as the development of centers providing ECMO treatment.

  19. Newborn Screening for Krabbe’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Joseph J.; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos A.; Gelb, Michael H.; Caggana, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Live newborn screening for Krabbe’s disease (KD) was initiated in New York on August 7, 2006, and started in Missouri in August, 2012. As of August 7, 2015, nearly 2.5 million infants had been screened, and 443 (0.018%) infants had been referred for followup clinical evaluation; only five infants had been determined to have KD. As of August, 2015, the combined incidence of infantile KD in New York and Missouri is ~1 per 500,000; however, patients who develop later-onset forms of KD may still emerge. This Review provides an overview of the processes used to develop the screening and followup algorithms. It also includes updated results from screening and discussion of observations, lessons learned, and suggested areas for improvement that will reduce referral rates and the number of infants defined as at risk for later-onset forms of KD. Although current treatment options for infants with early-infantile Krabbe’s disease are not curative, over time treatment options should improve; in the meantime, it is essential to evaluate the lessons learned and to ensure that screening is completed in the best possible manner until these improvements can be realized. PMID:27638592

  20. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... common condition in newborns, refers to the yellow color of the skin and whites of the eyes ...

  1. Common Conditions in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Common Conditions in Newborns Page Content Article Body Some physical conditions are especially common during the first couple of weeks after birth. ...

  2. Vitamin K status of lactating mothers and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R

    1999-08-01

    Vitamin K deficiency remains a world-wide problem in the newborn. Vitamin K traverses the placenta from mother to infant very poorly and is present only in very low concentrations in human milk. Thus, it is not surprising that the newborn infant has undetectable vitamin K serum levels with abnormal amounts of the coagulation proteins and undercarboxylated prothrombin. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, secondary to vitamin K deficiency, remains largely a disease of breastfed infants. Lactating mothers easily achieve the recommended dietary allowance for vitamin K (1 microg kg(-1) d(-1)) and the breast milk concentration is readily increased by increasing maternal vitamin K intake. Breastfed infants do not receive the recommended vitamin K intake via human milk. To prevent vitamin K deficiency in the newborn, intramuscular or oral vitamin K prophylaxis is necessary.

  3. Infección congénita por citomegalovirus en recién nacidos del estado de San Luis Potosí, México Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborn infants from the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Noyola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección congénita por citomegalovirus en recién nacidos participantes en el programa de tamiz neonatal de los Servicios de Salud de San Luis Potosí. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó la presencia de citomegalovirus en muestras de sangre almacenadas en papel filtro. RESULTADOS. Se detectó la presencia de citomegalovirus en 10 (0.68% de 1 457 muestras estudiadas. No se encontraron diferencias en las características de los recién nacidos con infección congénita en comparación con aquéllos sin infección. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario concientizar a los profesionales de la salud sobre la prevalencia e impacto de la infección congénita por citomegalovirus.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection in newborn infants included in the neonatal screening program coordinated by the State Health Services in San Luis Potosí. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated the presence of cytomegalovirus in blood samples stored in filter paper. RESULTS: Cytomegalovirus was detected in 10 (0.68% of the 1 457 samples included in the study. There were no differences in the characteristics of infants with congenital infection compared to those without infection. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to increase awareness of health professionals regarding the prevalence and impact of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

  4. The Effects of Inhaled β-Adrenergic Agonists in Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengul Keleş MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the efficacy of an inhaled β-adrenergic agonists in transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN. Method. We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 51 term infants (Group 1 and 37 term infants (Group 2 monitored in the newborn intensive care unit diagnosed with TTN. Infants in Group 1 received humidified oxygen alone, and infants in Group 2 were administered the inhaled β-2 agonist plus humidified oxygen. Results. TTN clinical respiratory assessment, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation values, need for supplemental oxygen therapy, blood gas PH, PO2, and duration of hospitalization were significantly improved in infants in Group 2 as compared with infants in Group 1 (P .05. Conclusion. Inhaled β-adrenergic agonist added to humidified oxygen was found to improve clinical and laboratory parameters. We believe that further studies should be conducted with larger groups to demonstrate the efficacy of β-2 agonists in TTN patients.

  5. The Wisconsin approach to newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbsky, James; Thakar, Monica; Routes, John

    2012-03-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a life-threatening disease of infants that is curable with hematopoietic cell transplantation if detected early. Population-based screening for SCID using the T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay began in Wisconsin in 2008; 5 infants with SCID or other forms of severe T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) have been detected, and no infants with SCID have been missed. This review will provide an overview of the TREC screening assay and an update of the findings from Wisconsin on all infants screened from January 1, 2008, until December 31, 2010. Importantly, we give practical recommendations regarding newborn population-based screening using the TREC assay, including the evaluation and care of infants detected.

  6. Proteção do recém-nascido contra o tétano pela imunização ativa da gestante com antitoxina tetânica: estudo original de 1953 Protection of newborn infants against tetanus by active immunization of the pregnant women with tetanus antitoxin: the 1953 original study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Gomes Mattos

    2008-12-01

    and after 15 days of life. One group of guinea pigs received a booster dose of tetanus toxoid 30 days before delivery and the immunization status of dam and offspring was also studied. In a clinical trial, pregnant women were vaccinated in any period of gestation with three doses of tetanus toxoid with a 30-day interval; the antibody levels were measured in the mother and in the newborn infant at birth and at the 15th day of life. RESULTS: The antibody levels of guinea pigs offspring immunized with tetanus toxoid during gestation were elevated at birth and at the 15th day of life. These levels were elevated by the booster dose 30 days prior to delivery. In pregnant women, the immunization with three doses of tetanus toxoid was followed by immunity in 95% of the studied infants studied. The newborn infants of vaccinated women presented elevated levels of antibodies at birth and at 15th day of life. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination during gestation was followed by protective levels of antibodies in guinea pigs and in newborn infants.

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medication in asphyxiated newborns during controlled hypothermia. The PharmaCool multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Timo R.; Bijleveld, Yuma A.; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Groenendaal, Floris; van den Broek, Marcel P. H.; Rademaker, Carin M. A.; van Straaten, Henrica L. M.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, Jeroen R.; Dijk, Peter H.; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P.; Gavilanes, Danilo; van Kaam, Anton H.; Offringa, Martin; Mathot, Ron A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, perinatal asphyxia (severe perinatal oxygen shortage) necessitating newborn resuscitation occurs in at least 200 of the 180-185.000 newly born infants per year. International randomized controlled trials have demonstrated an improved neurological outcome with

  8. Apnea after Routine Eye Examinations in Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Brittany; Wang, Hongyue; Guillet, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine exams for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Study Design This is a retrospective review of 79 premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The baseline for each infant (mean cardiorespiratory events in the 72 hours before the exam) was compared with the number of cardiorespiratory events during the subsequent 24 hours using generalized estimating equation and the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test to determine if there was an association between cardiorespiratory events and potential risk factors. Results Approximately 19 to 25% of infants experienced an increase in cardiorespiratory events in the 24 hours following their eye exams. These newborns were generally of a younger gestational age and lower birthweight. Conclusion The frequency of cardiorespiratory events following routine ROP exams is similar to that following routine immunizations in this population. Thus, in infants being continuously monitored during the 24 hours after the exam, alterations in medical care in the absence of other clinical signs suggestive of sepsis or clinical deterioration may not be required, limiting unnecessary antibiotic exposure, prolonged caffeine administration, unwarranted gastroesophageal reflux treatment, and undue family stress.

  9. Newborn Body Indices in Housewives and Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieh Torabizadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare newborns anthropometric indices of housewives and employed women.Materials and Methods: This case control study compared newborns’ anthropometric indices (weight, length, head circumference and first minute APGAR between working women and housewives. Two hundred consecutive term pregnant women during active phase of labor without any pregnancy complications were evaluated. For each participant a questionnaire was filled by the researcher. Employed women according to their standing position during work time were divided into three groups: heavy, light and moderate jobs.   Results: The mean weight, length and head circumference of the newborns were higher in employed women (p=0.018, p<0.001, p=0.010, respectively. After eliminating effect of the interfering variables by using a general linear model, it was observed that the mother’s job has a direct influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight was similar in two groups (p=0.340. The newborn's anthropometric indices and first minute APGAR had not significant difference in subgroups of job difficulty.Conclusion: Maternal job has a direct positive influence on newborn's length and head circumference. But infant's weight is not related to maternal job.

  10. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Schefer Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. RESULTS: Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. CONCLUSION: Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units.

  11. Newborn physiological responses to noise in the neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Sandra Maria Schefer; Kozlowski, Lorena de Cássia; Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira de; Marques, Jair Mendes; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of technologies in the care of infants has contributed to increased survival; however, this has turned neonatal unit into a noisy environment. To evaluate the physiological and functional effects resulting from the exposure to noise on low-weight newborns in incubators in a neonatal unit. Prospective, observational, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study. The adopted statistical method included tables of frequency, descriptive statistics, and Student's t-test, with a 0.05 level of significance. As data collection tools, the environmental noise and the noise inside of the incubator were evaluated, and the Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior scale was used to assess premature newborn behavior and projected specifically to document the neurobehavioral functioning of preterm infants. The data collection occurred from September of 2012 to April of 2013; 61 low-weight newborns admitted in the neonatal unit and in incubators were observed. Significant differences in the variables heart rate and oxygen saturation were noted when newborns were exposed to noise. Low-weight neonates in incubators present physiological alterations when facing discomfort caused by environmental noise in neonatal units. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Congenital malaria in newborns selected for low birth-weight, anemia, and other possible symptoms in Maumere, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Jahja, Natalia Erica; Huwae, Irene Ratridewi; Nara, Mario B; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Congenital malaria is assumed to be a risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas like Maumere, Indonesia. Infected infants are susceptible to its impact such as premature labor, low birth weight, anemia, and other unspecified symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital malaria and the influence of mother-infant paired parasite densities on the clinical outcome of the newborns at TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere. An analytical cross sectional study was carried out in newborns which showed criteria associated with congenital malaria. A thick and thin blood smear confirmed by nested PCR was performed in both mothers and infants. The association of congenital malaria with the newborn's health status was then assessed. From 112 mother-infant pairs included in this study, 92 were evaluated further. Thirty-nine infants (42.4%) were found to be infected and half of them were asymptomatic. Infected newborns had a 4.7 times higher risk in developing anemia compared to uninfected newborns (95% CI, 1.3-17.1). The hemoglobin level, erythrocyte amount, and hematocrit level were affected by the infants' parasite densities (Pmalaria, the prevalence is almost 3 times higher than in an unselected collective. Low birth weight, anemia, and pre-term birth were the most common features. Anemia seems to be significantly influenced by infant parasite densities but not by maternal parasitemia.

  13. PERINATAL OUTCOME OF PRETERM INFANTS IN FEDERATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokić Fahrija

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite growing progress of perinatal medicine and perinatal care, between 9-19% of preterm infants are born each year. Improvement in survival of infants and the reduction in infant mortality rates is a key role of perinatal quality healthcare. The Aim: To evaluate the perinatal outcome of preterm infants in maternity wards of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina for a period of one year. Material and methods: Of 22 897 live newborns, the research criteria matched 669 (2.9% preterm infants with complete medical records in ten cantons of the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina. We analyzed data from maternity wards documentation and discharge letters from tertiary health care centers. Results: Most deliveries were in the Tuzla and Sarajevo Canton with 42.5% of preterm infants. The mean gestational age of preterm infants was 31.4 weeks, with SD ± 5.34, and the mean birth weight 1295 grams, SD ± 234.2. The mean Apgar score was 4.6 ± 2.1, and in the fifth minute 6.6 ± 1.9.Of 669 examinees, there were 345 (51.56% males and 324 (48.44% females (51.56 vs 48.44; χ 2 = 1.19; P = 0.27. By analyzing the frequency of preterm infant birth rate according to weight categories, we found a significant difference in some levels of perinatal health institution, between the 1st and 2nd institutions levels (1.76% vs 3.01%; P< 0.0001, also between 2nd and 3rd institutions levels (3.01% vs 3.03%; P < 0.0002, and between 1st and 3rd institutions levels (1.76% vs 3.03%; P < 0.0001. A significant statistical difference in survival of tested newborns was found in institutions of 3rd level χ 2 = 49.25; P < 0.0001 with a low risk for unfavorable outcome [OR = 0.436; 95%CI (0.346-0.550]. Conclusion: Perinatal outcome of preterm infants in the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina significantly depends on the level of perinatal health care. Survival rate of infants born in the institutions of the 3rd level was statistically much higher than the survival

  14. Umbilical cord blood and neonatal endothelin-1 levels in preterm newborns with and without respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome is suggested, and endothelin-1 plays an important role in pulmonary vascular reactivity in newborns. We determined umbilical cord blood and neonatal (second sample) levels of endothelin-1 in 18 preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome who had no clinical or echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and 22 without respiratory distress syndrome (gestational ages: 31.4 ± 1...

  15. Comprehensive description of newborn distress behavior in response to acute pain (newborn male circumcision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Fay; Sandrin, Dilma

    2004-02-01

    One of the most difficult challenges still facing researchers and clinicians is assessing pain in the newborn. Behaviors provide one of the most promising avenues for deepening our fundamental understanding of complex phenomenon like newborn pain, and are key to developing descriptive-level knowledge to further newborn pain assessment efforts. In this ethologically based research, we report on the duration and frequency of neonatal distress behavior to seven distinct noxious and non-noxious but distress-provoking events including baseline (diaper change, post-diaper change, application of arm and leg restraints, post-application of arm and leg restraints, circumcision, post-circumcision) associated with newborn surgical pain. Approximately 67 min of videotaped data, involving four neonates who had undergone newborn male circumcision, were coded at 1-s intervals (4010 s in total). A reliably established coding scheme was used to code behaviors as they were observed on videotape for the duration of the seven designated events. This led to the identification of (1) 40 distress behaviors as they occurred along the continuum of distress, (2) eight distress behaviors specific to surgery, (3) 11 classes of behaviors occurring within the five sub-phases of circumcision, and (4) a description of 25 distinct post-distress behaviors. Findings support the ability to distinguish distress behaviors specific to pain and the ability to detect prolonged distress as well as individual differences in distress-related pain expression. Findings also justify ongoing use of ethological approaches to further newborn pain assessment and to investigate poorly understood topics such as infant self-regulation within the context of pain (pain recovery).

  16. Four Decades of Ground-Breaking Research in the Reproductive and Developmental Sciences: The Infant Primate Research Laboratory at the University of Washington National Primate Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbacher, Thomas M.; Grant, Kimberly S.; Worlein, Julie; Ha, James; Curnow, Eliza; Juul, Sandra; Sackett, Gene P.

    2017-01-01

    The Infant Primate Research Laboratory (IPRL) was established in the 1970s at the University of Washington as a visionary project of Dr. Gene (Jim) P. Sackett. Supported by a collaboration between the Washington National Primate Research Center and the Center on Human Health and Disability, the IPRL operates under the principle that learning more about the causes of abnormal development in macaque monkeys will provide important insights into mechanisms underlying childhood neurodevelopmental disorders. Over the past forty years, a broad range of research projects have been conducted at the IPRL. Some have described the normal expression of species-typical behaviors in nursery-reared macaques while others have focused on specific issues in perinatal medicine and research. This article will review the unique history of the IPRL and the scientific contributions produced by research conducted in the laboratory. Past and present investigations at the IPRL have explored the consequences of adverse early rearing, low-birth-weight, prematurity, epilepsy, chemical/drug exposure, viral infection, diarrheal disease, vaccine safety, assisted reproductive technologies and perinatal hypoxia on growth and development. New directions of investigation include the production of a transgenic primate model using our embryonic stem cell-based technology to better understand and treat heritable forms of human mental retardation such as fragile X. PMID:23873400

  17. Newborn screening program for hemoglobinopathies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Ballas, Samir K; Domingos, Ana Carolina Bonini; Moura, Patricia G; do Nascimento, Emilia Matos; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia Farias

    2014-01-01

    Newborn screening for hemoglobinopathy in Brazil has been decentralized until 2001 when the Health Ministry of Brazil established the National Newborn Hemoglobinopathy Screening Program. The State of Rio de Janeiro started a program in collaboration with the State Health Department and the Institute of Hematology in Rio (HEMORIO). The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the first 10 years of the Newborn Hemoglobinopathy Screening Program in identifying and managing infants with Sickle cell disease (SCD) in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Blood samples from 1,217,833 neonates were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Infants with SCD were enrolled in comprehensive treatment programs. Data showed that 4.87% of the newborns were heterozygous for a hemoglobin variant, 0.08% were homozygous or doubly heterozygous for abnormal hemoglobins and 95.02% had normal hemoglobin. All the 912 newborns with SCD were referred for treatment at HEMORIO, 34 (3.7%) of these died due to acute chest syndrome, sepsis or splenic sequestration. Four more children died of unknown causes. The implementation of the Rio de Janeiro Newborn Screening Program gradually increased the area of the State covered by the program. Data collected during the 10 years of the program showed reduction in mortality of patients with SCD in comparison to available historical statistical data before the implementation of the national screening program. This 10-year study showed that early diagnosis and treatment of newborns was associated with improved survival and quality of life of Brazilian children with SCD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy: an effective treatment for kidney stones in infants under 1 year of age. A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağgülli, Mansur; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Dede, Onur; Utanğaç, Mehmet Mazhar; Bodakçi, Mehmet Nuri; Penbegül, Necmettin; Hatipoğlu, Namık Kemal; Çakmakçı, Süleyman

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to present the outcomes of PNL surgery performed in infantile patients with small renal stones who were younger than 1 year of age. A single-center prospective trial was initiated and during the period between Jan 2013 and Jan 2015, PNL was applied to 20 renal units of 16 infants (6 girls and 10 boys), including 4 patients with bilateral kidney stones. PNL was performed in patients with renal stones larger than 2 cm, as well as stones resistant to SWL or renal stones that were undetectable during SWL. The mean age of the patients was 9.55 (5-12) months. Of the 20 renal units, 1 had complete staghorn stones, 3 had partial staghorn stones, 13 had renal pelvic stones, and 3 had lower pole stones. The mean stone size was 18.5 mm (range 12-36 mm). Mean operative time for PNL was 88 (25-135 min). Mean fluoroscopy time was estimated as 3.4 min. Mean hemoglobin loss was 0.72 g/L (0.2-3). The mean hospital stay was 4.1 days (2-8 days). On postoperative day 1, a complete stone-free state was achieved in 70% of renal units (14 of 20). At the end of the first postoperative week, the remaining two patients had insignificant residual fragments of 3 mm and were followed conservatively without any specific intervention. Thus, the total SFR was 80% (16 of 20) at discharge. In infants aged less than 1 year, minimal access tract dilation during PNL, the use of smaller caliber pediatric instruments, and the realization of this procedure by surgeons with adequate experience in adults carry utmost importance. In addition, special care should be taken to avoid hypothermia and radiation exposure during PNL.

  19. Artificial Nursing Procedure Establishment for Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong; Si Wei; Zhou Yin; Chen Lixian

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus monkey can not achieve natural delivery due to various reasons,and cesarean section becomes an important midwifery to get infant monkeys. After caesarean section,the pregnant monkey is weak and postoperative wound pain,so it can not personally feed infant monkeys which must be artificially fed. Thus,establishing suitable feeding management program is very important for improving survival rate of infant rhesus monkey and maintaining good health. We summarized food preparation method for infant rhesus monkeys as well as temperature setting and light control,and established the nursing program for newborn infant monkey and daily management process for infant monkeys.

  20. [Intraventricular haemorrhage in premature newborn babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, N

    This work is the product of the checking of the pathogenesis, incidence, treatment, and prognostic of the intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature newborn. In the revised publications, that include important series of following, this pathology is present in 25% of the infants weighing less than 1,500 g, in which the mortality and morbidity is greater than that of normal newborns, since the development of intraventricular hemorrhage can produce alterations of cerebral blood flow in the immature germinal matrix and in the microvascular net. In consequence the prevention of the intraventricular hemorrhage is directly related with its pathogenesis. It is said that the use of dexamethasone steroids in low doses in the prenatal period, and low doses of indomethacin in the postnatal period, can give better neuroprotection. The surgical treatment is exceptional and has very precise indications, when a progresive hydrocephalus of later apparition is proven. Therefore in premature newborns with intraventricular hemorrhage the best actual treatment is to use an appropiate pharmacological and medical following