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Sample records for new-onset steroid-induced diabetes

  1. New-onset diabetes and antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlik, Reinhard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diseases substantially contribute to the continuous increase in health care expenditures, including type-2 diabetes mellitus as one of the most expensive chronic diseases. Arterial hypertension presents a risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous analyses have demonstrated that antihypertensive therapies promote the development of type-2-diabetes mellitus. Studies indicate, that the application of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor-blockers (ARB lead to less new-onset diabetes compared to beta-blockers, diuretics and placebo. Given that beta-blockers and diuretics impair the glucose metabolism, the metabolic effects of different antihypertensive drugs should be regarded; otherwise not only the disease itself, but also antihypertensive therapies may promote the development of new-onset diabetes. Even though, the cost of ACE inhibitors and ARB are higher, the use in patients with metabolic disorders could be cost-effective in the long-term if new-onset diabetes is avoided. Objectives: To evaluate which class of antihypertensive agents promote the development or the manifestation of type-2 diabetes mellitus. How high is the incidence of new-onset diabetes during antihypertensive therapy and how is treatment-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus evaluated clinically? Which agents are therefore cost-effective in the long term? Which ethical, social or legal aspects should be regarded?MethodsA systematic literature review was conducted including clinical trials with at least ten participants which reported new-onset diabetes in the course of antihypertensive treatment. The trials had to be published after 1966 (after 2003 for economic publications in English or German. Results: A total of 34 clinical publications meet the inclusion criteria. Of these, eight publications focus on the development of diabetes mellitus under treatment with diuretic and/or beta-blockers, six

  2. Steroid induced diabetes mellitus in patients receiving prednisolone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Steroids are a useful component of combination chemotherapy or as a single agent in the treatment of haematological disorders even though there are adverse effects associated with its use. Methods: We report four patients who developed diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with steroids for ...

  3. Comparison between New-Onset and Old-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes with Ketosis in Rural Regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichun; Yang, Xia; Shi, Degang; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with ketosis was common because of late diagnosis and lacking adequate treatment in rural regions of China. This study aimed to provide the data of T2D with ketosis among inpatients in a south-west border city of China. Methods. Data of 371 patients of T2D with ketosis who were hospitalized between January 2011 and July 2015 in Baoshan People's Hospital, Yunnan, China, were analyzed. New-onset and old-diagnosed T2D patients presenting with ketosis were compared according to clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and chronic diabetic complications. Results. Overall, the blood glucose control was poor in our study subjects. Male predominated in both groups (male prevalence was 68% in new-onset and 64% in old-diagnosed groups). Overweight and obesity accounted for 50% in new-onset and 46% in old-diagnosed cases. Inducements of ketosis were 13.8% in new-onset and 38.7% in old-diagnosed patients. Infections were the first inducements in both groups. The prevalence of chronic complications of diabetes was common in both groups. Conclusions. More medical supports were needed for the early detection and adequate treatment of diabetes in rural areas of China. PMID:26966435

  4. Racial and ethnic differences among children with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. We analyzed a single-center series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The m...

  5. Predictors of cardiac morbidity in diabetic, new-onset diabetic and non-diabetic high-risk hypertensive patients: The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje A; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Rostrup, Morten; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Julius, Stevo

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic and new-onset diabetic patients with hypertension have higher cardiac morbidity than patients without diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether baseline predictors of cardiac morbidity, the major constituent of the primary endpoint in the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial, were different in patients with diabetes and new-onset diabetes compared to patients without diabetes. In total, 15,245 high-risk hypertensive patients in the VALUE trial were followed for an average of 4.2 years. At baseline, 5250 patients were diabetic by the 1999 World Health Organization criteria, 1298 patients developed new-onset diabetes and 8697 patients stayed non-diabetic during follow-up. Cardiac morbidity was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and heart failure requiring hospitalization, and baseline predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses. History of coronary heart disease (CHD) and age were the most important predictors of cardiac morbidity in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. History of CHD, history of stroke and age were the only significant predictors of cardiac morbidity in patients with new-onset diabetes. Predictors of cardiac morbidity, in particular history of CHD and age, were essentially the same in high-risk hypertensive patients with diabetes, new-onset diabetes and without diabetes who participated in the VALUE trial.

  6. Evaluation of New-Onset Diabetes in Patients Presenting Emergency Service with a Diabetic Ketoacidosis Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yiğit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM in patients presenting to our emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated hospital records of patients who presented to the Emergency Department at Istanbul Goztepe Research and Training Hospital between 01 April 2009 and 01 April 2011 and were diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis. 57 patients having complete clinical data were included in the study. Results: 45.6%of patients had type 1 DM, 33.3%- type 2 DM, and 21%of them were with new-onset DM. No statistically significant difference was found between type 1 DM, type 2 DM and new-onset DM patients with respect to arterial blood pH and HCO3 levels and serum sodium, potassium and plasma glucose levels at presentation as well as time of presentation (p>0.05, while HbA1c levels showed statistically significant difference in new-onset DM patients. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was found between types of DM in patients diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis except for precipitating factors, age and HbA1c. Detecting high blood glucose levels in patients presenting to emergency room for reasons other than DM is not a rare condition. Cautious evaluation and recognition of these patients in emergency room for the possibility of undiagnosed DM is important for prevention of future diabetic ketoacidosis episodes. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013; 51: 168-72

  7. Statins and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Complications: A Retrospective Cohort Study of US Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak; Frei, Christopher R; Wang, Chen-Pin; Mortensen, Eric M

    2015-11-01

    Statin use is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and possibly with increased body weight and reduced exercise capacity. Data on the long-term effects of these associations in healthy adults, however, are very limited. In addition, the relationship between these effects and diabetic complications has not been adequately studied. To examine the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity in a cohort of healthy adults. This was a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were Tricare beneficiaries who were evaluated between October 1, 2003 and March 1, 2012. Patients were divided into statin users and nonusers. We excluded patients who, at baseline, had a preexisting disease indicative of cardiovascular diseases, any positive element of the Charlson comorbidity index (including diabetes mellitus), or life-limiting chronic diseases. Using 42 baseline characteristics, we generated a propensity score to match statin users and nonusers. Outcomes assessed included new-onset diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity. A total of 25,970 patients (3982 statin users and 21,988 nonusers) were identified as healthy adults at baseline. Of these, 3351 statins users and 3351 nonusers were propensity score-matched. Statin users had higher odds of new-onset diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.87; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI] 1.67-2.01), diabetes with complications (OR 2.50; 95 % CI 1.88-3.32), and overweight/obesity (OR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.04-1.25). Secondary and sensitivity analyses demonstrated similar findings. Diabetes, diabetic complications, and overweight/obesity were more commonly diagnosed among statin-users than similar nonusers in a healthy cohort of adults. This study demonstrates that short-term clinical trials might not fully describe the risk/benefit of long-term statin use for primary prevention.

  8. New-onset diabetes after renal transplantation: A case series as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-20

    Apr 20, 2012 ... New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is an important metabolic complication of transplantation because ... This study was aimed at illustrating the presentation .... Badmus TA, Arogundade FA, Sanusi AA, Akinsola WA, Adesunkanmi AR, ... renal transplantation: Meta-analysis of clinical studies.

  9. Severe hypertriglyceridemia at new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fick, Tyler; Jack, Julie; Pyle-Eilola, Amy L; Henry, Rohan K

    2017-08-28

    Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) as well as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). HTG is an exceedingly rare complication in the pediatric population and herein we report a case of HTG at new-onset T1DM in DKA and discuss management and potential complications. An 11-year-old previously well patient with a history of fatigue and weight loss presented with: glucose >600 mg/dL, venous blood gas: pH 7.26, pCO2 20 mmHg, PO2 101 mmHg and base deficit 13 with triglyceride level 3573 mg/dL. An insulin drip was continued past criteria for discontinuation to facilitate lipoprotein lipase-based triglyceride metabolism. Lipemia secondary to severe HTG, though exceedingly rare, may exist in new onset T1DM with DKA. Complicating the diagnosis is the possibility of an analytical error from lipemia causing incongruence in diagnostic criteria. Clinicians should rely on clinical criteria for management and should consider HTG if laboratory data is inconsistent with the clinical picture.

  10. Hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 protects against early-onset diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varsha, M K N; Raman, Thiagarajan; Manikandan, R; Dhanasekaran, G

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin K is a potent regulator of vascular dynamics and prevents vascular calcification. Vitamin K is increasingly being recognized for its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Recently we demonstrated that vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg) protects against streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and diabetic cataract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could inhibit early-onset diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced rat kidney. Male Wistar rats were administered with 35 mg/kg STZ and after 3 days were treated with vitamin K1 (5 mg/kg, twice a week) for 3 months. Blood glucose was monitored once a month. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed and kidney was dissected out and analysed for free radicals, antioxidants, aldose reductase, membrane ATPases, histopathology evaluation and expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, albumin and insulin levels were also estimated. Treatment of diabetic rats with vitamin K1 resulted in a decrease in blood glucose and prevented microalbuminuria. Vitamin K1 also reduced oxidative stress and protected renal physiology by modulating Ca(2+) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. Vitamin K1 inhibited renal inflammation by reducing nuclear factor-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Interleukin-10 levels were increased in renal tissues, suggesting the ability of vitamin K1 to trigger antiinflammatory state. The hypoglycemic action of vitamin K1 could have an indirect effect by inhibiting early-onset diabetic nephropathy triggered by high blood glucose. Vitamin K1 could be an important nutrient based interventional strategy for early onset diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current smoking is an independent risk factor for new-onset diabetes mellitus during highdose glucocorticoid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takao; Sugimoto, Toyohiko; Suzuki, Sawako; Sato, Yuta; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Although high-dose glucocorticoids have been reported to cause new-onset diabetes mellitus (glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus), its risk factors have remained to be determined. We investigated the risk factors related to glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus diagnosed within 2 months after the high-dose treatment (newly treated with an initial high dose of > 20 mg prednisolone (PSL) equivalent per day for at least more than 6 months) in collagen vascular diseases. A total of 2,631 patients with collagen vascular diseases was registered between 1986 and 2006 in the Chiba-Shimoshizu Rheumatic Cohort. We analyzed 681 patients newly treated with high-dose glucocorticoid who did not have diabetes mellitus and/or its previous diagnosis (age: 46.3 ± 16.7 years, PSL dose: 40.0 ± 14.1 mg/day). Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus was diagnosed by two or more glucose measurements in patients with fasting glycaemia ≥ 7 mmol/L and 120 minutes post-load glycaemia ≥ 11.1 mmol/L. Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus was observed in 26.3% of patients, and the glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus group had higher age, higher BMI, lower rates of females and systemic lupus erythematosus, higher rates of smoking, alcohol use, and microscopic polyangiitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus was independently higher in every 10-year increment of initial age with adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.556 (95% confidence interval: 1.359 - 1.783), in every 1 kg/m2 increment of BMI with OR 1.062 (1.002 - 1.124), in current smoking with OR 1.664 (1.057 - 2.622), and in every 10 mg increment of initial dose of prednisolone with OR 1.250 (1.074 - 1.454). High-dose glucocorticoids caused diabetes mellitus with high prevalence within a short period, and current smokers should be considered at higher risk of glucocorticoidinduced diabetes mellitus in addition to age, BMI, and initial dose.

  12. Insulin requirements in non-critically ill hospitalized patients with diabetes and steroid-induced hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Elias K; Shah, Nina; Malhotra, Keya; Kemmerer, Terri; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2014-04-01

    Steroid-induced hyperglycemia is common in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus. Guidelines for glucose management in this setting are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review of non-critically ill patients with diabetes receiving steroids, hospitalized from January 2009 to October 2012. Fifty-eight patients were identified from 247 consults. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess median daily insulin requirements of normoglycemic patients compared with hyperglycemic patients. Of the 58 total patients included in our study, 20 achieved normoglycemia during admission (patient-day weighted mean blood glucose [PDWMBG] level = 154 ± 16 mg/dL) and 38 remained hyperglycemic (PDWMBG level = 243 ± 39 mg/dL; P < 0.001). There were no differences between the 2 patient groups in age, sex, race, body weight, renal function, HbA1c level, glucose-altering medications, diabetes type, or disease duration. Following multivariable adjustment, compared with hyperglycemic patients, normoglycemic patients required similar units of basal insulin (median interquartile range [IQR])(23.6 [17.9, 31.2] vs 20.1 [16.5, 24.4]; P = 0.35); higher units of nutritional insulin (45.5 [34.2, 60.4] vs 20.1 [16.4, 24.5]; P < 0.001]; and lower units of correctional insulin (5.8 [4.1, 8.1] vs 13.0 [10.2, 16.5]; P < 0.001]). Patients achieving normoglycemia required a significantly lower percentage of correction insulin (total daily dose [TDD]: 7.4% vs 23.4%; P < 0.001) and a higher percentage of nutritional insulin (TDD: 58.1% vs 36.2%; P <0.001) than hyperglycemic patients. There was no difference in the TDD per kilogram, TDD per milligram hydrocortisone dose, or TDD per milligram hydrocortisone dose per kilogram weight between the 2 groups. The data suggest that non-critically ill patients with hyperglycemia receiving steroids require a higher percentage of TDD insulin therapy as nutritional insulin to achieve normoglycemia.

  13. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus After Transplantation in a Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fasicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kristin A; Tonsho, Makoto; Madsen, Joren C

    2015-08-01

    A 5.5-y-old intact male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fasicularis) presented with inappetence and weight loss 57 d after heterotopic heart and thymus transplantation while receiving an immunosuppressant regimen consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone to prevent graft rejection. A serum chemistry panel, a glycated hemoglobin test, and urinalysis performed at presentation revealed elevated blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (727 mg/dL and 10.1%, respectively), glucosuria, and ketonuria. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and insulin therapy was initiated immediately. The macaque was weaned off the immunosuppressive therapy as his clinical condition improved and stabilized. Approximately 74 d after discontinuation of the immunosuppressants, the blood glucose normalized, and the insulin therapy was stopped. The animal's blood glucose and HbA1c values have remained within normal limits since this time. We suspect that our macaque experienced new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation, a condition that is commonly observed in human transplant patients but not well described in NHP. To our knowledge, this report represents the first documented case of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  14. New-onset diabetes after hemodialysis initiation: impact on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Moro O; Abbott, Kevin C; Aytug, Serhat; Hayat, Amir; Haria, Dhiren M; Shah, Syed; Friedman, Eli A; Delano, Barbara G; McFarlane, Samy I; Hurst, Frank P; Flom, Peter L; Jindal, Rahul M

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of new-onset diabetes after initiation of hemodialysis (NODAD) and its impact on survival is not known. We used data from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) from January 2000 to December 2001, with at least 3 years of follow-up for this study. Patients aged 18-80 years were included. NODAD was defined as two Medicare institutional claims for diabetes in patients with no history of diabetes prior to starting hemodialysis (HD). Incidence (per 1,000 patient-years), prevalence (%) and hazard ratios for mortality in patients with NODAD were calculated. There were 59,340 incident patients with no history of diabetes prior to starting HD, of which 3,853 met criteria for NODAD. The overall incidence and prevalence of NODAD were 20 per 1,000 patient-years and 7.6%, respectively. In a cohort of 444 patients without diabetes and documented glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, diabetes after initiation of HD. NODAD was associated with a significantly increased risk of death as compared to non-diabetes patients (hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.25). The USRDS showed a high incidence of NODAD, associated with significantly higher mortality compared to those who did not develop NODAD. The mechanism of NODAD needs to be explored further in experimental and clinical studies. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Niacin therapy and the risk of new-onset diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Christina; Taylor, Allen J; Nguyen, Peter; McCoy, Cody; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Preiss, David

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that niacin treatment raises glucose levels in patients with diabetes and may increase the risk of developing diabetes. We undertook a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from randomised trials to confirm whether an association exists between niacin and new-onset diabetes. We searched Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1975 to 2014, for randomised controlled trials of niacin primarily designed to assess its effects on cardiovascular endpoints and cardiovascular surrogate markers. We included trials with ≥50 non-diabetic participants and average follow-up of ≥24 weeks. Published data were tabulated and unpublished data sought from investigators. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for new-onset diabetes with random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity between trials was assessed using the I(2) statistic. In 11 trials with 26 340 non-diabetic participants, 1371 (725/13 121 assigned niacin; 646/13 219 assigned control) were diagnosed with diabetes during a weighted mean follow-up of 3.6 years. Niacin therapy was associated with a RR of 1.34 (95% CIs 1.21 to 1.49) for new-onset diabetes, with limited heterogeneity between trials (I(2)=0.0%, p=0.87). This equates to one additional case of diabetes per 43 (95% CI 30 to 70) initially non-diabetic individuals who are treated with niacin for 5 years. Results were consistent regardless of whether participants received background statin therapy (p for interaction=0.88) or combined therapy with laropiprant (p for interaction=0.52). Niacin therapy is associated with a moderately increased risk of developing diabetes regardless of background statin or combination laropiprant therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. The immune marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is associated with new-onset diabetes in non-smoking women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S B; Andersen, O; Hansen, T W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To explore the putative association of new-onset diabetes and the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which is a new and stable plasma marker of immune function and low-grade inflammation. This association has been previously suggested by using the less sensitive...... International Classification of Disease system to detect incident diabetes in the Danish MONICA 10 cohort. Methods: The Danish National Diabetes Register enabled more accurate identification of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 13.8 years in the Danish MONICA 10 cohort (n = 2353 generally healthy......-onset diabetes (P...

  17. Reduced incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitors (statins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Kim, S Joseph; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Fenton, Stanley S A; Cattran, Daniel C; Cole, Edward H; Cardella, Carl J

    2004-11-01

    Statins have anti-inflammatory effects, modify endothelial function and improve peripheral insulin resistance. We hypothesized that statins influence the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus in renal transplant recipients. The records of all previously non-diabetic adults who received an allograft in Toronto between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2001 were reviewed with follow-up through December 31, 2002. All patients receiving cyclosporine or tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone were included. New-onset diabetes was diagnosed by the Canadian Diabetic Association criteria: fasting plasma glucose > or =7.0 mmol/L or 2-h postprandial glucose > or =11.1 mmol/L on more than two occasions. Statin use prior to diabetes development was recorded along with other variables. Cox proportional hazards models analyzing statin use as a time-dependent covariate were performed. Three hundred fourteen recipients met study criteria, of whom 129 received statins. New-onset diabetes incidence was 16% (n = 49). Statins (p = 0.0004, HR 0.238[0.109-0.524]) and ACE inhibitors/ARB (p = 0.01, HR 0.309[0.127-0.750]) were associated with decreased risk. Prednisone dose (p = 0.0001, HR 1.007[1.003-1.010] per 1 mg/d at 3 months), weight at transplant (p = 0.02, HR 1.022[1.003-1.042] per 1 kg), black ethnicity (p = 0.02, HR 1.230[1.023-1.480]) and age > or =45 years (p = 0.01, HR 2.226[1.162-4.261]) were associated with increased diabetes. Statin use is associated with reduced new-onset diabetes development after renal transplantation.

  18. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  19. Steroid-induced hyperglycemia: An underdiagnosed problem or clinical inertia? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Aldo; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2018-05-01

    Corticosteroids are widely diffused drugs. An important side effect is the impairment of glycemic control both in patients with known diabetes and in normoglycemic ones potentially leading to steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (SIDM). In this review based on papers released on PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2015 to October 2017, we summarized and discussed main updates about the definition, the diagnosis, and the pathophysiology of steroid-induced hyperglycemia (SIH), with a look to new therapies. Main alterations responsible for the diabetogenic effect of corticosteroids are a negative impact on insulin sensitivity along with a derangement on insulin secretion, explaining the typical post-prandial hyperglycemia linked to the promotion of gluconeogenesis. An early and precise diagnosis of SIH and/or SIDM is necessary, but current criteria do not seem sensible enough. As an afterthought, the treatment should be reasoned and tailored according to proposed glycemic thresholds and patient comorbidities, choosing between antidiabetic oral drugs and insulin, the latter being preferable among hospitalized patients. SIDM and SIH are frequent problems, but often underdiagnosed due to old diagnostic criteria. Dedicated guidelines universally shared are mandatory in order to harmonize the treatment of these conditions, thus overtaking single therapeutic strategies mostly arising from literature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pediatric diabetes consortium type 1 diabetes new onset (NeOn) study: Factors associated with HbA1c levels one year after diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify determinants of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels 1 yr after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in participants in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D New Onset (NeOn) Study. Diabetes-specific as well as socioeconomic factors during the first year following diagnosis were analyze...

  1. Racial and ethnic differences among children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, K; Tosur, M; Schaub, R; Haymond, M W; Redondo, M J

    2017-10-01

    To compare demographic and clinical characteristics among children from ethnic minorities and non-Hispanic white children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes. We analysed a single-centre series of 712 children with new-onset autoimmune Type 1 diabetes between January 2008 and March 2011. The median (range) age was 9.7 (0.3-18.1) years, the mean (sd) BMI percentile was 69.7 (25.4) and 48.3% of the cohort were girls. The cohort comprised 57.3% non-Hispanic white, 20.5% Hispanic and 14.8% African-American children, and 7.4% were of other, mixed or unknown race. The Hispanic subgroup, compared with non-Hispanic white subgroup, had a higher mean (sd) C-peptide level [0.82 (1.62) vs 0.55 (0.47) ng/ml; P=0.004), and a greater proportion of children with elevated BMI (overweight or obesity; 49.6% vs 32.5%; P1) and diabetic ketoacidosis (51.8% vs 38.2%; P=0.006). The African-American group had a higher mean (sd) glucose level [24.4 (12.8) vs 21.4 (10.7) mmol/l; P=0.017], a greater proportion of children with ketoacidosis (56.7% vs 38.2%; P=0.001), a greater proportion with elevated BMI (52.9% vs 32.5%; P1), and a lower proportion of children at pre-pubertal stage (49.0% vs 61.6%; P=0.01), and tended to have higher C-peptide levels [0.65 (0.59) vs 0.55 [0.47] ng/ml; P=0.079) compared with the non-Hispanic white children. The differences in C-peptide levels compared with non-Hispanic white children persisted for Hispanic (P=0.01) but not African-American children (P=0.29) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, ketoacidosis, glucose, Tanner stage and autoantibody number. At the onset of paediatric autoimmune Type 1 diabetes, Hispanic, but not African-American children had higher C-peptide levels, after adjustment for potential confounders, compared with non-Hispanic white children. These findings suggest that ethnicity may contribute to the heterogeneity of Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, with possible implications for intervention. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  2. Mediterranean style diet is associated with low risk of new-onset diabetes after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, Maryse C J; Corpeleijn, Eva; Navis, Gerjan J; Keyzer, Charlotte A; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Van Den Berg, Else; Postmus, Douwe; De Borst, Martin H; Kromhout, Daan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-01-01

    Objective The incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and premature mortality is high in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We hypothesized that a Mediterranean Style diet protects against NODAT and premature mortality in RTR. Research design and methods A prospective cohort

  3. Mediterranean style diet is associated with low risk of new-onset diabetes after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osté, Maryse C J; Corpeleijn, Eva; Navis, Gerjan J; Keyzer, Charlotte A; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; van den Berg, Else; Postmus, Douwe; de Borst, Martin H; Kromhout, Daan; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and premature mortality is high in renal transplant recipients (RTR). We hypothesized that a Mediterranean Style diet protects against NODAT and premature mortality in RTR. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective cohort

  4. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, <\\/= 5 mg\\/day, > 5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  5. Steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients: the Irish experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-10-29

    BACKGROUND: Steroid therapy is associated with significant morbidity in renal transplant recipients. However, there is concern that steroid withdrawal will adversely affect outcome. METHODS: We report on 241 renal transplant recipients on different doses of corticosteroids at 3 months (zero, ≤5 mg\\/day, >5 mg\\/day). Parameters analysed included blood pressure, lipid profile, weight change, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT), allograft survival and acute rejection. RESULTS: Elimination of corticosteroids had no impact on allograft survival at 1 year. There were no cases of NODAT in the steroid withdrawal group compared with over 7% in each of the steroid groups. There were no significant improvements in weight gain, blood pressure control or total cholesterol with withdrawal of steroids before 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: In renal transplant patients treated with tacrolimus and mycophenolate, early withdrawal of steroids does not appear to adversely affect allograft outcome at 1 year. It may result in less NODAT.

  6. BILATERAL STEROID INDUCED GLAUCOMA IN VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal Surekha V, Bankar Mahima S, Bhandari Akshay J, Kalkote Prasad R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vernal Keratoconjunctivits (VKC is a bilateral recurrent allergic interstitial conjunctival inflammation with a periodic seasonal incidence and of self limiting nature, mainly affecting the younger population. Patients of VKC on steroid therapy are at higher risk of developing steroid induced glaucoma. Raised intraocular pressure due to steroids typically occurs within few weeks of starting steroid therapy and comes back to normal on immediate stoppage of steroids. A case of steroid induced glaucoma in a 30 years old female with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. She was on topical steroids for 3-4 years. She was incompliant with the instructions to stop steroids. She eventually developed steroid induced glaucoma and glaucomatous optic neuropathy with tunnel vision.

  7. Eplerenone and new-onset diabetes in patients with mild heart failure : results from the Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure (EMPHASIS-HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preiss, David; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Sattar, Naveed; Krum, Henry; Swedberg, Karl; Shi, Harry; Vincent, John; Pocock, Stuart J.; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez; McMurray, John J. V.

    No studies have examined the effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy on new-onset diabetes. In addition, though the combination of diabetes and chronic heart failure (CHF) carries a poor prognosis, few studies have examined predictors of new-onset diabetes in those with CHF. In

  8. Lifestyle risk factors and new-onset diabetes mellitus in older adults: the cardiovascular health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kamineni, Aruna; Carnethon, Mercedes; Djoussé, Luc; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Siscovick, David

    2009-04-27

    The combined impact of lifestyle factors on incidence of diabetes mellitus later in life is not well established. The objective of this study was to determine how lifestyle factors, assessed in combination, relate to new-onset diabetes in a broad and relatively unselected population of older adults. We prospectively examined associations of lifestyle factors, measured using repeated assessments later in life, with incident diabetes mellitus during a 10-year period (1989-1998) among 4883 men and women 65 years or older (mean [SD] age at baseline, 73 [6] years) enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Low-risk lifestyle groups were defined by physical activity level (leisure-time activity and walking pace) above the median; dietary score (higher fiber intake and polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio, lower trans-fat intake and lower mean glycemic index) in the top 2 quintiles; never smoked or former smoker more than 20 years ago or for fewer than 5 pack-years; alcohol use (predominantly light or moderate); body mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); and waist circumference of 88 cm for women or 92 cm for men. The main outcome measure was incident diabetes defined annually by new use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications. We also evaluated fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose levels. During 34,539 person-years, 337 new cases of drug-treated diabetes mellitus occurred (9.8 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for age, sex, race, educational level, and annual income, each lifestyle factor was independently associated with incident diabetes. Overall, the rate of incident diabetes was 35% lower (relative risk, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.71) for each 1 additional lifestyle factor in the low-risk group. Participants whose physical activity level and dietary, smoking, and alcohol habits were all in the low-risk group had an 82% lower incidence of diabetes (relative risk, 0.18; 95

  9. Prophylactic fenbendazole therapy does not affect the incidence and onset of type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Deanna D H; Shirwan, Haval

    2006-03-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) is a common, highly efficacious broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used to treat and limit rodent pinworm infections. However, the effect of its prophylactic use on the immune response of rodents is largely undefined. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a model commonly used to study type 1 diabetes (T1D). Parasitic infections will inhibit diabetes development in NOD mice; thus, in the presence of contamination, prophylactic treatment with anthelmintics must be considered to maintain experimental research. Herein, we investigated the prophylactic use of FBZ in NOD mice to determine its effect on the incidence and onset of diabetes, lymphocyte sub-populations and T cell proliferative responses. NOD mice were separated into control and treatment groups. The treatment group received a diet containing FBZ. Animals were monitored for the incidence and onset of T1D. At matched time points, diabetic and non-diabetic mice were killed and splenic lymphocytes analyzed for various cell sub-populations and mitogen-induced proliferative responses using flow cytometry. Treated and control mice were monitored >23 weeks with no detectable effects on the incidence or onset of diabetes. Moreover, no significant differences were detected in lymphocyte sub-populations and mitogen-induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) proliferative responses between control and treatment groups. These results suggest that prophylactic FBZ treatment does not significantly alter the incidence or onset of diabetes in NOD mice. The prophylactic use of FBZ, therefore, presents a viable approach for the prevention of pinworm infection in precious experimental animals with substantial scientific and economic benefits.

  10. Ketosis-Onset Diabetes and Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Same or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiyan; Yu, Changhua; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare clinical characteristics, immunological markers, and β-cell functions of 4 subgroups (“Aβ” classification system) of ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes patients without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our department from March 2011 to December 2011 in China, with 50 healthy persons as control group. Results. β-cell functional reserve was preserved in 63.52% of patients. In almost each subgroup (except A−  β− subgroup of ketosis prone group), male patients were more than female ones. The age of the majority of patients in ketosis prone group was older than that of ketosis-onset group, except A−  β− subgroup of ketosis prone group. The durations from the patient first time ketosis or DKA onset to admitting to the hospital have significant difference, which were much longer for the ketosis prone group except the A+ β+ subgroup. BMI has no significant difference among subgroups. FPG of ketosis prone group was lower than that of A−  β+ subgroup and A+ β+ subgroup in ketosis-onset group. A−  β− subgroup and A+ β+ subgroup of ketosis prone group have lower HbA1c than ketosis-onset group. Conclusions. Ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes do not absolutely have the same clinical characteristics. Each subgroup shows different specialty. PMID:23710177

  11. The Risk of Hepatotoxicity, New Onset Diabetes and Rhabdomyolysis in the Era of High-Intensity Statin Therapy: Does Statin Type Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Lane B; Bassi, Nikhil S; Davidson, Michael H

    The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on cholesterol management have placed greater emphasis on high-intensity statin dosing for those with known cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Differences in risk of hepatotoxicity, new onset diabetes and rhabdomyolysis specifically between the high-intensity statins and the most common moderate-intensity statin, simvastatin, were not found to a significant degree in this review. Rather, baseline characteristics and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) appear to be more important regarding the risk of these adverse effects. Pharmacogenetic differences in statin metabolism may explain individual susceptibility, however genetic testing is not felt to be cost effective at this time. More importantly, statin choice should consider concomitant use of the many prevalent CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers, and when present, rosuvastatin selection is recommended to reduce DDIs and risk of statin-induced adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathways to reduce diabetic ketoacidosis with new onset type 1 diabetes: Evidence from a regional pediatric diabetes center: Auckland, New Zealand, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Eleanor R; Albert, Benjamin B; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S; Gunn, Alistair J; Jefferies, Craig A

    2017-11-01

    There has been little change in the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents in most developed countries. To assess potentially modifiable antecedents of DKA in children Auckland (New Zealand) from 2010 to 2014. DKA and severity were defined according to the ISPAD 2014 guidelines. A total of 263 children presented with new onset T1DM during the 5-year study period at 9.0 years of age (range 1.0-14.7), of whom 61% were NZ-European, 14% Maori, 13% Pacifica, and 11% other. A total of 71 patients (27%) were in DKA, including 31 mild, 20 moderate, and 20 severe DKA. DKA was associated with no family history of T1DM, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at presentation, self-presenting to secondary care, health care professional contacts in the 4 weeks before final presentation, and greater deprivation. Although a delay in referral from primary care for laboratory testing was common (81/216), only delay for more than 48 hours was associated with increased risk of DKA (11/22 > 48 h vs 12/59 referred at <48 h, P = .013). These data suggest that in addition to lack of family awareness potentially modifiable risk factors for new onset DKA include prolonged delay for laboratory testing and a low index of medical suspicion for T1DM leading to delayed diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Simplifying the Evaluation of Children With New Onset Diabetes: Utility of Pancreatic Autoantibodies for Diabetes Type Classification and Use of Serum Bicarbonate to Diagnose and Classify Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Von Oettingen, Julia Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether routinely measuring pancreatic autoantibodies (PAA) in pediatric new onset diabetes (NODM) is necessary, and to evaluate serum bicarbonate (HCO3) as a substitute for venous pH (vpH) in the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients with NODM admitted to Boston Children's Hospital from 10/1/07-7/1/13. Logistic regression was used to develop a clinical score to classify diabetes type. Linear and logistic regression...

  14. Infantile onset diabetes mellitus in developing countries - India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Poovazhagi

    2016-01-01

    Infantile onset diabetes mellitus (IODM) is an uncommon metabolic disorder in children. Infants with onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) at age less than one year are likely to have transient or permanent neonatal DM or rarely type 1 diabetes. Diabetes with onset below 6 mo is a heterogeneous disease caused by single gene mutations. Literature on IODM is scanty in India. Nearly 83% of IODM cases present with diabetic keto acidosis at the onset. Missed diagnosis was common in infants with diabetes (67%). Potassium channel mutation with sulphonylurea responsiveness is the common type in the non-syndromic IODM and Wolcott Rallison syndrome is the common type in syndromic diabetes. Developmental delay and seizures were the associated co-morbid states. Genetic diagnosis has made a phenomenal change in the management of IODM. Switching from subcutaneous insulin to oral hypoglycemic drugs is a major clinical breakthrough in the management of certain types of monogenic diabetes. Mortality in neonatal diabetes is 32.5% during follow-up from Indian studies. This article is a review of neonatal diabetes and available literature on IODM from India. PMID:27022444

  15. Mutations of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes in Thais with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapaporn; Sriussadaporn, Sutin; Vannaseang, Sathit; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-06-01

    Six known genes responsible for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) were analysed to evaluate the prevalence of their mutations in Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one unrelated probands with early-onset type 2 diabetes, 21 of them fitted into classic MODY criteria, were analysed for nucleotide variations in promoters, exons, and exon-intron boundaries of six known MODY genes, including HNF-4alpha, GCK, HNF-1alpha, IPF-1, HNF-1beta, and NeuroD1/beta2, by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method followed by direct DNA sequencing. Missense mutations or mutations located in regulatory region, which were absent in 130 chromosomes of non-diabetic controls, were classified as potentially pathogenic mutations. We found that mutations of the six known MODY genes account for a small proportion of classic MODY (19%) and early-onset type 2 diabetes (10%) in Thais. Five of these mutations are novel including GCK R327H, HNF-1alpha P475L, HNF-1alphaG554fsX556, NeuroD1-1972 G > A and NeuroD1 A322N. Mutations of IPF-1 and HNF-1beta were not identified in the studied probands. Mutations of the six known MODY genes may not be a major cause of MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes in Thais. Therefore, unidentified genes await discovery in a majority of Thai patients with MODY and early-onset type 2 diabetes.

  16. Hyperparathyroidism and new onset diabetes after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, K M; Clyne, N; Almquist, M; Akaberi, S

    2014-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism persists after renal transplantation in a substantial number of patients. Primary hyperparathyroidism and secondary hyperparathyroidism are both associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism, such as insufficient insulin release and glucose intolerance. The association of hyperparathyroidism and diabetes after renal transplantation has, as far as we know, not been studied. Our aim was to investigate whether hyperparathyroidism is associated with new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) during the first year posttransplantation. In a retrospective study, we analyzed data on patient characteristics, treatment details, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in 245 adult nondiabetic patients who underwent renal transplantation between January 2000 and June 2011. The first year cumulative incidence of NODAT was 15%. The first serum PTH value after transplantation was above normal range in 74% of the patients. In multiple logistic regression analysis, PTH levels above twice normal range (>13.80 pmol/L) were significantly associated with NODAT (odds ratio [OR], 4.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-15.92; P = .03) compared with PTH within normal range (≤6.9 pmol/L). Age between 45 and 65 years (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.07-7.36; P = .04) compared with age hyperparathyroidism and NODAT in the first year after renal transplantation. Both conditions are common and have a negative impact on graft and patient survivals. Our results should be confirmed in prospective studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exocrine and endocrine pancreatic function in 21 patients suffering from autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frulloni, Luca; Scattolini, Chiara; Katsotourchi, Anna Maria; Amodio, Antonio; Gabbrielli, Armando; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Benini, Luigi; Vantini, Italo

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) responds rapidly and dramatically to steroid therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate pancreatic exocrine and endocrine function in patients suffering from AIP both before and after steroid therapy. Fecal elastase 1 and diabetes were evaluated before steroid therapy and within 1 month of its suspension in 21 patients (13 males and 8 females, mean age 43 +/- 16.5 years) diagnosed as having AIP between 2006 and 2008. At clinical onset, fecal elastase 1 was 107 +/- 126 microg/g stool. Thirteen patients (62%) showed severe pancreatic insufficiency (insufficiency (100-200 microg/g stool), while 4 (19%) had normal pancreatic function (>200 microg/g stool). Before steroids, diabetes was diagnosed in 5 patients (24%), all of whom had very low levels of fecal elastase 1 (endocrine pancreatic insufficiency at clinical onset. These insufficiencies improve after steroid therapy. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Elevated Steroid Hormone Production in the db/db Mouse Model of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Anja; Peitzsch, Mirko; Brunssen, Coy; Mittag, Jennifer; Jannasch, Annett; Frenzel, Annika; Brown, Nicholas; Weldon, Steven M; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Bornstein, Stefan R; Morawietz, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become a major public health problem worldwide. Steroid hormone dysfunction appears to be linked to development of obesity and type 2 diabetes and correction of steroid abnormalities may offer new approaches to therapy. We therefore analyzed plasma steroids in 15-16 week old obese and diabetic db/db mice using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lean db/+ served as controls. Db/db mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Hepatic triglyceride storage was increased and adiponectin and pancreatic insulin were lowered. Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and progesterone were respectively increased by 3.6-, 2.9-, 3.4, and 1.7-fold in db/db mice compared to controls. Ratios of aldosterone-to-progesterone and corticosterone-to-progesterone were respectively 2.0- and 1.5-fold higher in db/db mice. Genes associated with steroidogenesis were quantified in the adrenal glands and gonadal adipose tissues. In adrenals, Cyp11b2 , Cyp11b1 , Cyp21a1 , Hsd3b1 , Cyp11a1 , and StAR were all significantly increased in db/db mice compared with db/+ controls. In adipose tissue, no Cyp11b2 or Cyp11b1 transcripts were detected and no differences in Cyp21a1 , Hsd3b1 , Cyp11a1 , or StAR expression were found between db/+ and db/db mice. In conclusion, the present study showed an elevated steroid hormone production and adrenal steroidogenesis in the db/db model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Prevention of diabetes: effect of mycophenolate mofetil and anti-CD25 on onset of diabetes in the DRBB rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrasbul, Figen; Moore, Wayne V; Tong, Pei Ying; Kover, Karen L

    2008-12-01

    Anti-CD25 and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment of patients with new-onset diabetes is currently being tested as one of the trials in TrialNet. We tested the effectiveness of MMF and anti-CD25 in preventing autoimmune diabetes in the diabetes-resistant biobreeding (DRBB) rat. Autoimmune diabetes in the DRBB rat was induced with a Treg cell depletion regimen starting at 24-26 d of age. Treatment was started on the first day of the depletion regimen in the following groups: (i) control (vehicle); (ii) MMF 25 mg/kg/d intramuscularly daily for 8 wk; (iii) anti-CD25 0.8 mg/kg/d intraperitoneally 5 d/wk for 3 wk; and (iv) combination of MMF and anti-CD25. In a second set of experiments, treatments were started on day 5 of the depletion regimen (delayed treatment) with groups 1, 3, and 4. Rats that had diabetes-free survival for at least 30 d after the treatment was stopped underwent a second Treg depletion (redepletion). In each of the three treatment groups (n = 10/group), onset of diabetes was delayed or prevented in 20, 40 and 80% in groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. After redepletion, diabetes-free survival was unchanged in group 2 and decreased to 10 and 30% in groups 3 and 4, respectively. With delayed treatment, groups 3 and 4 had 33 and 50% diabetes-free survival that decreased to 0 and 33% after redepletion. MMF and anti-CD25 alone or in combination are effective in delaying and preventing diabetes in the DRBB rat especially if treatment is started before stimulation and expansion of the autoreactive T cells.

  20. Syphacia muris infection delays the onset of hyperglycemia in WBN/Kob-Leprfa rats, a new type 2 diabetes mellitus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taira K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders and its continuous global increase is due to factors as population growth, urbanization, aging, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. The effect of pinworm infection on the development of hyperglycemia was examined in WBN/K-Lepf (fa/fa rats, a new model of the obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with pancreatitis. The rats were orally administered Syphacia muris eggs (infected group and distilled water (control group. Hyperglycemia onset in the infected group was significantly delayed compared to the control group. Neither body weight nor intake of food and water were affected by S. muris infection. This study demonstrated that S. muris infection delayed the onset of T2DM in fa/fa rats and suggested that elucidation of the underlying mechanism and relevant pathways in the helminth-mediated protection may lead to the development of a new strategy to prevent diabetes mellitus.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Tacrolimus-Based Steroid Sparing versus Steroid Maintenance Regimens in Kidney Transplantation: Results from Discrete Event Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Vibha C A; Ferrand, Yann; Cavanaugh, Teresa M; Kelton, Christina M L; Caro, J Jaime; Goebel, Jens; Heaton, Pamela C

    2017-10-01

    Corticosteroids used as immunosuppressants to prevent acute rejection (AR) and graft loss (GL) following kidney transplantation are associated with serious cardiovascular and other adverse events. Evidence from short-term randomized controlled trials suggests that many patients on a tacrolimus-based immunosuppressant regimen can withdraw from steroids without increased AR or GL risk. To measure the long-term tradeoff between GL and adverse events for a heterogeneous-risk population and determine the optimal timing of steroid withdrawal. A discrete event simulation was developed including, as events, AR, GL, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, cytomegalovirus, and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), among others. Data from the United States Renal Data System were used to estimate event-specific parametric regressions, which accounted for steroid-sparing regimen (avoidance, early 7-d withdrawal, 6-mo withdrawal, 12-mo withdrawal, and maintenance) as well as patients' demographics, immunologic risks, and comorbidities. Regression-equation results were used to derive individual time-to-event Weibull distributions, used, in turn, to simulate the course of patients over 20 y. Patients on steroid avoidance or an early-withdrawal regimen were more likely to experience AR (45.9% to 55.0% v. 33.6%, P events and other outcomes with no worsening of AR or GL rates compared with steroid maintenance.

  2. Blood Glucose Levels Following Intra-Articular Steroid Injections in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, M N; Malik, R A; Charalambous, Charalambos Panayiotou

    2016-03-22

    Parenterally administered steroids have been shown to affect the metabolism of glucose and to cause abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. These abnormal blood glucose levels in diabetic patients raise concerns that intra-articular steroid injections also may affect blood glucose levels. We performed a systematic review of studies examining the effect of intra-articular steroid injections on blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL databases using all relevant keywords and phrases revealed 532 manuscripts. After the application of inclusion criteria, seven studies with a total of seventy-two patients were analyzed. All studies showed a rise in blood glucose levels following intra-articular steroid injection. Four of the seven studies showed a substantial increase in blood glucose. Peak values reached as high as 500 mg/dL. The peak increase in blood glucose did not occur immediately following intra-articular steroid injection, and in some cases it took several days to occur. In many patients, post-injection hyperglycemia occurred within twenty-four to seventy-two hours. Intra-articular steroid injections may cause hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients should be warned of this complication. Diabetic patients should be advised to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels for up to a week after injection and should seek medical advice if safe thresholds are breached. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Development of De Novo Diabetes in Long-Term Follow-up After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Hanipah, Zubaidah; Punchai, Suriya; Brethauer, Stacy A; Schauer, Philip R; Aminian, Ali

    2018-03-09

    While bariatric surgery leads to significant prevention and improvement of type 2 diabetes, patients may rarely develop diabetes after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the characteristic of new-onset diabetes after bariatric surgery over a 17-year period at our institution. Non-diabetic patients who underwent bariatric surgery at a single academic center (1997-2013) and had a postoperative glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%, fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 126 mg/dl, or positive glucose tolerance test were identified and studied. Out of 2263 non-diabetic patients at the time of bariatric surgery, 11 patients had new-onset diabetes in the median follow-up time of 9 years (interquartile range [IQR], 4-12). Bariatric procedures performed were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 7), adjustable gastric banding (n = 3), and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). The median interval between surgery and diagnosis of diabetes was 6 years (IQR, 2-9). At the last follow-up, the median HbA1c and FBG values were 6.3% (IQR, 6.1-6.5) and 95 mg/dl (IQR, 85-122), respectively. Possible etiologic factors leading to diabetes were weight regain to baseline (n = 6, 55%), steroid-induced after renal transplantation (n = 1), pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatitis (n = 1), and unknown (n = 3). De novo diabetes after bariatric surgery is rare with an incidence of 0.4% based on our cohort. Weight regain was common (> 50%) in patients who developed new-onset diabetes suggesting recurrent severe obesity as a potential etiologic factor. All patients had good glycemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7%) in the long-term postoperative follow-up.

  4. Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young: What Do Clinicians Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes that is characterized by an early onset, autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and a primary defect in pancreatic β-cell function. MODY represents less than 2% of all diabetes cases and is commonly misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. At least 13 MODY subtypes with distinct genetic etiologies have been identified to date. A correct genetic diagnosis is important as it often leads to personalized treatment for those with diabetes and enables predictive genetic testing for their asymptomatic relatives. Next-generation sequencing may provide an efficient method for screening mutations in this form of diabetes as well as identifying new MODY genes. In this review, I discuss a current update on MODY in the literatures and cover the studies that have been performed in Korea. PMID:26706916

  5. Menopausal hormone therapy and new-onset diabetes in the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Fournier, A; Fabre, A; Simon, N; Mesrine, S; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Balkau, B; Clavel-Chapelon, F

    2009-10-01

    Two US randomised trials found a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in women treated by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) with oral conjugated equine oestrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of various MHTs, according to their formulation and route of administration, on new-onset diabetes in a cohort of postmenopausal French women. The association between MHT use and new-onset diabetes was investigated by Cox regression analysis in 63,624 postmenopausal women in the prospective French cohort of the Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N). Cases of diabetes were identified through self-reporting or drug-reimbursement record linkage, and further validated. 1,220 new-onset diabetes cases were validated. We observed a lower risk of new-onset diabetes among women who had ever used MHT (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]), compared with those who had never used MHT. Adjustment for BMI during follow-up (rather than according to baseline BMI) did not substantially modify this association. An oral route of oestrogen administration was associated with a greater decrease in diabetes risk than a cutaneous route (HR 0.68 [95% CI 0.55-0.85] vs 0.87 [95% CI 0.75-1.00], p for homogeneity = 0.028). We were not able to show significant differences between the progestagens used in combined MHT. Use of MHT appeared to be associated with a lower risk of new-onset diabetes. This relationship was not mediated by changes in BMI. Further studies are needed to confirm the stronger effect of oral administration of oestrogen compared with cutaneous administration.

  6. Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young: What Do Clinicians Need to Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hoon Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY is a monogenic form of diabetes that is characterized by an early onset, autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and a primary defect in pancreatic β-cell function. MODY represents less than 2% of all diabetes cases and is commonly misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. At least 13 MODY subtypes with distinct genetic etiologies have been identified to date. A correct genetic diagnosis is important as it often leads to personalized treatment for those with diabetes and enables predictive genetic testing for their asymptomatic relatives. Next-generation sequencing may provide an efficient method for screening mutations in this form of diabetes as well as identifying new MODY genes. In this review, I discuss a current update on MODY in the literatures and cover the studies that have been performed in Korea.

  7. Serum uric acid is associated with new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiik, Benedicte P; Larstorp, Anne C K; Høieggen, Aud

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with development of new-onset diabetes (NOD) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that SUA predicts development of NOD in these patients....

  8. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Aki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic

  9. Ketosis-Onset Diabetes and Ketosis-Prone Diabetes: Same or Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Beiyan; Yu, Changhua; Li, Qiang; Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare clinical characteristics, immunological markers, and ? -cell functions of 4 subgroups (?A ? ? classification system) of ketosis-onset diabetes and ketosis prone diabetes patients without known diabetes, presenting with ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our department from March 2011 to December 2011 in China, with 50 healthy persons as control group. Results. ? -cell functional reserve was preserved in 63.52% of patients. In almost each subgroup (exc...

  10. Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes and Pregnancy: Three Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bonsembiante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available From 5% to 10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes. Here we describe three cases of adult-onset type 1 diabetes in pregnancy treated at our clinic between 2009 and 2012. Two patients came for specialist examination during pregnancy, the third after pregnancy. These women had no prior overt diabetes and shared certain characteristics, that is, no family diabetes history, age over 35, normal prepregnancy BMI, need for insulin therapy as of the early weeks of pregnancy, and high-titer anti-GAD antibody positivity. The patients had persistent diabetes after delivery, suggesting that they developed adult-onset type 1 diabetes during pregnancy. About 10% of GDM patients become pancreatic autoantibody positive and the risk of developing overt diabetes is higher when two or more autoantibodies are present (particularly GAD and ICA. GAD-Ab shows the highest sensitivity for type 1 diabetes prediction. We need to bear in mind that older patients might conceivably develop an adult-onset type 1 diabetes during or after pregnancy. So we suggest that women with GDM showing the described clinical features shall be preferably tested for autoimmunity. Pregnant patients at risk of type 1 diabetes should be identified to avoid the maternal and fetal complications and the acute onset of diabetes afterwards.

  11. 15-year incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes in children from a regional setting (Auckland, New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W; Derraik, José G B; Bhagvandas, Jignal; Albert, Benjamin B; Hofman, Paul L; Gunn, Alistair J; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-05-19

    We assessed the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children aged Auckland Region (New Zealand) in 1999-2013, in a retrospective review of a complete regional cohort. DKA and its severity were classified according to ISPAD 2014 guidelines. Of 730 children presenting with new-onset T1DM over the 15-year time period, 195 cases had DKA of any severity (27%). There was no change in the incidence of DKA or the proportion of children with severe DKA at presentation. The incidence of DKA among children aged Auckland Region over time. Thus, it is important to explore ways to reduce DKA risk.

  12. Late-onset acute rejection after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhisa Akamatsu; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Keneko; Yuichi Matsui; Kiyoshi Hasegawa; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of late-onset acute rejection (LAR) and to clarify the effectiveness of our immunosuppressive regime consisting of life-long administration of tacrolimus and steroids.METHODS: Adult living donor liver transplantation recipients (n = 204) who survived more than 6 mo after living donor liver transplantation were enrolled.Immunosuppression was achieved using tacrolimus and methylprednisolone. When adverse effects of tacrolimus were detected, the patient was switched to cyclosporine. Six months after transplantation,tacrolimus or cyclosporine was carefully maintained at a therapeutic level. The methylprednisolone dosage was maintained at 0.05 mg/kg per day by oral administration.Acute rejections that occurred more than 6 mo after the operation were defined as late-onset. The median followup period was 34 mo.RESULTS: LAR was observed in 15 cases (7%) and no chronic rejection was observed. The incidence of hyperlipidemia, chronic renal failure, new-onset posttransplantation diabetes, and deep fungal infection were 13%, 2%, 24%, and 17%, respectively. Conversion from tacrolimus to cyclosporine was required in 38 patients (19%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a cyclosporinebased regimen was significantly associated with LAR.CONCLUSION: Both LAR and drug-induced adverse events happen at a low incidence, supporting the safety and efficacy of the present immunosuppression regimen for living donor liver transplantation.

  13. HLA antigens in juvenile onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T; Toyota, T; Ouchi, E

    1980-11-01

    To study association between juvenile onset diabetes (JOD) and major histocompatibility gene complex, 40 patients with childhood onset diabetes and 120 healthy subjects were typed for HLA. Bw54 was present in 33 percent of the patients with JOD, while it appeared in 8 percent of the controls. Expressed as a relative risk, the antigen Bw54 confers a susceptibility to the development of JOD which is 5.3 times that in the controls. JOD shows a little high degree of association with A9 (78%). However, the A9-antigen is common in the Japanese and appears in 58 percent. Though less striking, the decreased frequency of B12 was 3 percent of JOD, less than 15 percent of the controls (p less than 0.05). There was no association between Bw54 and JOD with family history of diabetes.

  14. Aberrant gut microbiota composition at the onset of type 1 diabetes in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goffau, de M.C.; Fuentes, S.; Bogert, van den B.; Honkanen, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Welling, G.W.; Hyöty, H.; Harmsen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Recent studies indicate that an aberrant gut microbiota is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, yet little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. To this end, the microbiota of children aged 1–5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes

  15. Phenotypic risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODAT in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Hap

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT is defined as diabetes which developed after organ transplantation. NODAT occurs in approximately 16-20% of recipients one year after kidney transplantation and is the main factor for the increased mortality and morbidity, increased medical costs, progressive graft failure and decreased patients’ quality of life. Determination of phenotypic risk factors allows to define the scale of the risk of NODAT and can be helpful in detecting patients at risk of post-transplant diabetes. Overweight and obesity are well-known phenotypic risk factors that can be modified by lifestyle-change intervention. Adequate education about the principles of healthy lifestyle is one of the most important prevention factors. The medical staff should organize health education which should begin long before the planned transplantation, even at the stage of predialysis treatment or dialysis and be continued after transplantation. Early assessment of the risk of developing glucose metabolism disorders also allows the selection of immunosuppressive therapy less likely to affect carbohydrate metabolism. The article presents examples of simple risk scores and also principles of prevention and treatment of NODAT. The article presents the definition of NODAT, risk factors, especially overweight or obesity, risk scores and also principles of prevention and treatment of NODAT.

  16. Failure to preserve beta-cell function with mycophenolate mofetil and daclizumab combined therapy in patients with new- onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Peter A; Quinlan, Scott; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Greenbaum, Carla J; Wilson, Darrell M; Rodriguez, Henry; Schatz, Desmond A; Moran, Antoinette M; Lachin, John M; Skyler, Jay S

    2010-04-01

    This trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone or with daclizumab (DZB) could arrest the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was initiated by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet at 13 sites in North America and Europe. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and with sufficient C-peptide within 3 months of diagnosis were randomized to either MMF alone, MMF plus DZB, or placebo, and then followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide from the 2-h mixed meal tolerance test. One hundred and twenty-six subjects were randomized and treated during the trial. The geometric mean C-peptide AUC at 2 years was unaffected by MMF alone or MMF plus DZB versus placebo. Adverse events were more frequent in the active therapy groups relative to the control group, but not significantly. Neither MMF alone nor MMF in combination with DZB had an effect on the loss of C-peptide in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Higher doses or more targeted immunotherapies may be needed to affect the autoimmune process.

  17. Failure to Preserve β-Cell Function With Mycophenolate Mofetil and Daclizumab Combined Therapy in Patients With New- Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Peter A.; Quinlan, Scott; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Greenbaum, Carla J.; Wilson, Darrell M.; Rodriguez, Henry; Schatz, Desmond A.; Moran, Antoinette M.; Lachin, John M.; Skyler, Jay S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This trial tested whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) alone or with daclizumab (DZB) could arrest the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was initiated by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet at 13 sites in North America and Europe. Subjects diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and with sufficient C-peptide within 3 months of diagnosis were randomized to either MMF alone, MMF plus DZB, or placebo, and then followed for 2 years. The primary outcome was the geometric mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide from the 2-h mixed meal tolerance test. RESULTS One hundred and twenty-six subjects were randomized and treated during the trial. The geometric mean C-peptide AUC at 2 years was unaffected by MMF alone or MMF plus DZB versus placebo. Adverse events were more frequent in the active therapy groups relative to the control group, but not significantly. CONCLUSIONS Neither MMF alone nor MMF in combination with DZB had an effect on the loss of C-peptide in subjects with new-onset type 1 diabetes. Higher doses or more targeted immunotherapies may be needed to affect the autoimmune process. PMID:20067954

  18. Risk factors for new onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-Wei; Lu, Tian-Fei; Hua, Xiang-Wei; Dai, Hui-Juan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Xia, Qiang

    2015-05-28

    To determine the risk factors for new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. We electronically searched the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library from January 1980 to December 2013 to identify relevant studies reporting risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. Discrepancies were resolved in consultation with a third reviewer. All statistical analyses were performed with the RevMan5.0 software (The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, United Kingdom). Pooled odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using either a fixed effects or a random effects model, based on the presence (I (2) 50%) of significant heterogeneity. Twenty studies with 4580 patients were included in the meta-analysis, all of which were retrospective. The meta-analysis identified the following significant risk factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR = 2.68; 95%CI: 1.92-3.72); a family history of diabetes (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.09-2.63, P diabetes (OR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.63; P = 0.02); use of tacrolimus (OR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.03-1.76; P = 0.03) and body mass index (BMI)(WMD = 1.19, 95%CI: 0.69-1.68, P diabetes, male gender, tacrolimus and BMI are risk factors for NODM after liver transplantation.

  19. Pre-transplantation glucose testing for predicting new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Prasad, G V; Huang, M; Bandukwala, F; Nash, M M; Rapi, L; Montada-Atin, T; Meliton, G; Zaltzman, J S

    2009-02-01

    New-onset diabetes after renal transplantation (NODAT) adversely affects graft and patient survival. However, NODAT risk based on pre-transplant blood glucose (BG) levels has not been defined. Our goal was to identify the best pre-transplant testing method and cut-off values. We performed a case-control analysis of non-diabetic recipients who received a live donor allograft with at least 6 months post-transplant survival. Pre-transplant glucose abnormalities were excluded through 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) and random BG (RBG) measurement. NODAT was defined based on 2003 Canadian Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent predictor variables for NODAT. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine threshold BG values for diabetes risk. 151 recipients met initial entry criteria. 12 had pre-transplant impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, among who 7 (58%) developed NODAT. In the remaining 139, 24 (17%) developed NODAT. NODAT risk exceeded 25% for those with pre-transplant RBG > 6.0 mmol/l and 50% if > 7.2 mmol/l. Pre-transplant RBG provided the highest AUC (0.69, p = 0.002) by ROC analysis. Increasing age (p = 0.025), acute rejection (p = 0.011), and RBG > 6.0 mmol/l (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of NODAT. Pre-transplant glucose testing is a specific marker for NODAT. Patients can be counseled of their incremental risk even within the normal BG range if the OGTT is normal.

  20. 15-year incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes in children from a regional setting (Auckland, New Zealand)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W.; Derraik, José G. B.; Bhagvandas, Jignal; Albert, Benjamin B.; Hofman, Paul L.; Gunn, Alistair J.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children aged Auckland Region (New Zealand) in 1999–2013, in a retrospective review of a complete regional cohort. DKA and its severity were classified according to ISPAD 2014 guidelines. Of 730 children presenting with new-onset T1DM over the 15-year time period, 195 cases had DKA of any severity (27%). There was no change in the incidence of DKA or the proportion of children with severe DKA at presentation. The incidence of DKA among children aged Auckland Region over time. Thus, it is important to explore ways to reduce DKA risk. PMID:25989414

  1. Screening strategies and predictive diagnostic tools for the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham PT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phuong-Thu T Pham,1 Kari L Edling,2 Harini A Chakkera,3 Phuong-Chi T Pham,4 Phuong-Mai T Pham51Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, Kidney Transplant Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division Kidney Transplant Program, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Nephrology Division, UCLA-Olive View Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, USA; 5Department of Medicine, Greater Los Angeles, Veterans Administration Health Care System, CA, USAAbstract: New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT is a serious and common complication following solid organ transplantation. NODAT has been reported in 2% to 53% of all solid organ transplants. Kidney transplant recipients who develop NODAT have variably been reported to be at increased risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and other adverse outcomes including infection, reduced patient survival, graft rejection, and accelerated graft loss compared with those who do not develop diabetes. Limited clinical studies in liver, heart, and lung transplants similarly suggested that NODAT has an adverse impact on patient and graft outcomes. Early detection and management of NODAT must, therefore, be integrated into the treatment of transplant recipients. Studies investigating the best screening or predictive tool for identifying patients at risk for developing NODAT early after transplantation, however, are lacking. We review the clinical predictive values of fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, and A1C in assessing the risk for NODAT development and as a screening tool. Simple diabetes prediction models that incorporate clinical and/or metabolic risk factors (such as age, body mass index, hypertriglyceridemia, or metabolic syndrome are also

  2. CDE Perspectives of Providing New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Education Using Formal Vignettes and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Neesha; Johnson, Kim; Cullen, Karen; Hamm, Terri; Bisordi, Jean; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the 4 Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D) nurse certified diabetes educators' (CDEs) perspectives of teaching parents of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) early diabetes management skills using formal vignettes and a human patient simulator/human patient simulation (HPS) to augment/enhance the teaching-learning process. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Four CDEs were interviewed by phone about their teaching experiences. Meticulous notes were taken. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The vignettes (and use of HPS) provided structure, especially for parents who were struggling to learn. Certified diabetes educators described a short learning curve to master the use of the HPS manikin. Human patient simulation-enhanced education was described as helpful for teaching multiple caregivers about diabetes. Certified diabetes educators also described factors that affect parent learning, mechanical issues with the HPS, and additional space requirements for HPS-enhanced education. Conclusion Vignettes and HPS-enhanced education can successfully be used to educate parents of children with new-onset T1DM and were preferred by the CDEs when compared with previous teaching strategies. The results of this study support the use of both vignette-based and HPS-enhanced education when a child is newly diagnosed with T1DM. Further studies need to be done to see if these effects persist with different populations, during different stages of the disease, and for individuals with other chronic illnesses.

  3. The TetO rat as a new translational model for type 2 diabetic retinopathy by inducible insulin receptor knockdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhart, Nadine; Crespo-Garcia, Sergio; Haase, Nadine; Golic, Michaela; Skosyrski, Sergej; Rübsam, Anne; Herrspiegel, Christina; Kociok, Norbert; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Dechend, Ralf; Strauss, Olaf; Joussen, Antonia M

    2017-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy, its influence therein has not been systematically evaluated. Here we test the suitability of a new translational model of diabetic retinopathy, the TetO rat, for addressing the role of angiotensin-II receptor 1 (AT1) blockade in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes was induced by tetracycline-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the insulin receptor in rats, generating TetO rats. Systemic treatment consisted of an AT1 blocker (ARB) at the onset of diabetes, following which, 4-5 weeks later the retina was analysed in vivo and ex vivo. Retinal function was assessed by Ganzfeld electroretinography (ERG). Retinal vessels in TetO rats showed differences in vessel calibre, together with gliosis. The total number and the proportion of activated mononuclear phagocytes was increased. TetO rats presented with loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and ERG indicated photoreceptor malfunction. Both the inner and outer blood-retina barriers were affected. The ARB treated group showed reduced gliosis and an overall amelioration of retinal function, alongside RGC recovery, whilst no statistically significant differences in vascular and inflammatory features were detected. The TetO rat represents a promising translational model for the early neurovascular changes associated with type 2 diabetic retinopathy. ARB treatment had an effect on the neuronal component of the retina but not on the vasculature.

  4. Serum adiposity-induced biomarkers in obese and lean children with recently diagnosed autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, M J; Rodriguez, L M; Haymond, M W; Hampe, C S; Smith, E O; Balasubramanyam, A; Devaraj, S

    2014-12-01

    Obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications in type 1 diabetes. Adipokines, which regulate obesity-induced inflammation, may contribute to this association. We compared serum adipokines and inflammatory cytokines in obese and lean children with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes. We prospectively studied 32 lean and 18 obese children (age range: 2-18 yr) with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes and followed them for up to 2 yr. Serum adipokines [leptin, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, omentin, resistin, chemerin, visfatin], cytokines [interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha] and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at a median of 7 wk after diagnosis (range: 3-16 wk). Lean children were 71.9% non-Hispanic White, 21.9% Hispanic, and 6.3% African-American, compared with 27.8, 55.6, and 16.7%, respectively, for obese children (p = 0.01). Compared with lean children, obese children had significantly higher serum leptin, visfatin, chemerin, TNF-alpha and CRP, and lower total adiponectin and omentin after adjustment for race/ethnicity and Tanner stage. African-American race was independently associated with higher leptin among youth ≥10 yr (p = 0.007). Leptin levels at onset positively correlated with hemoglobin A1c after 1-2 yr (p = 0.0001) independently of body mass index, race/ethnicity, and diabetes duration. Higher TNF-alpha was associated with obesity and female gender, after adjustment for race/ethnicity (p = 0.0003). Obese children with new-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes have a proinflammatory profile of circulating adipokines and cytokines that may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetic complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The PTPN22 C1858T gene variant is associated with proinsulin in new-onset type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanelli Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN22 has been established as a type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene. A recent study found the C1858T variant of this gene to be associated with lower residual fasting C-peptide levels and poorer glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. We investigated the association of the C1858T variant with residual beta-cell function (as assessed by stimulated C-peptide, proinsulin and insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c, glycemic control, daily insulin requirements, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA and diabetes-related autoantibodies (IA-2A, GADA, ICA, ZnT8Ab in children during the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Methods The C1858T variant was genotyped in an international cohort of children (n = 257 patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes during 12 months after onset. We investigated the association of this variant with liquid-meal stimulated beta-cell function (proinsulin and C-peptide and antibody status 1, 6 and 12 months after onset. In addition HbA1c and daily insulin requirements were determined 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after diagnosis. DKA was defined at disease onset. Results A repeated measurement model of all time points showed the stimulated proinsulin level is significantly higher (22%, p = 0.03 for the T allele carriers the first year after onset. We also found a significant positive association between proinsulin and IA levels (est.: 1.12, p = 0.002, which did not influence the association between PTPN22 and proinsulin (est.: 1.28, p = 0.03. Conclusions The T allele of the C1858T variant is positively associated with proinsulin levels during the first 12 months in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children.

  6. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Robert M; Rajanahally, Saneal; Kovac, Jason R; Smith, Ryan P; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2013-12-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids has not been traditionally discussed in mainstream medicine. With the increased diagnosis of hypogonadism a heterogeneous population of men is now being evaluated. In this larger patient population the existence of anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism, whether transient or permanent, should now be considered. We performed an initial retrospective database analysis of all 6,033 patients who sought treatment for hypogonadism from 2005 to 2010. An anonymous survey was subsequently distributed in 2012 to established patients undergoing testosterone replacement therapy. Profound hypogonadism, defined as testosterone 50 ng/dl or less, was identified in 97 men (1.6%) in the large retrospective cohort initially reviewed. The most common etiology was prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure, which was identified in 42 men (43%). Because of this surprising data, we performed an anonymous followup survey of our current hypogonadal population of 382 men with a mean±SD age of 49.2±13.0 years. This identified 80 patients (20.9%) with a mean age of 40.4±8.4 years who had prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure. Hypogonadal men younger than 50 years were greater than 10 times more likely to have prior anabolic androgenic steroid exposure than men older than 50 years (OR 10.16, 95% CI 4.90-21.08). Prior anabolic androgenic steroid use significantly correlated negatively with education level (ρ=-0.160, p=0.002) and number of children (ρ=-0.281, panabolic androgenic steroid use is common in young men who seek treatment for symptomatic hypogonadism and anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism is the most common etiology of profound hypogonadism. These findings suggest that it is necessary to refocus the approach to evaluation and treatment paradigms in young hypogonadal men. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Natural history of diabetes mellitus with special reference to age of onset and vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Y; Toyota, T; Masuda, M; Komatsu, K; Kuriki, A

    1976-06-01

    Age and sex distribution of diabetics, seasonal incidence of diabetes, grade of hyperglycemia, frequency of vascular complications and daily living conditions were studied of 2771 diabetic patients experienced at five clinics. The cases consisted of 1587 male and 1184 female diabetics. The distribution of age of diabetes onset revealed that males predominate among diabetics but females predominate among child diabetics, and that the precentage of child was extremely low. This pattern was emphasized as characteristic of Japanese diabetic population. Distribution of fasting blood sugar at the diagnosis of diabetes was compared among the age groups of diabetes-onset and the results showed that percentage of the value exceeding 300 mg/100 ml was highest in the under 10 year-onset cases and decreased with age. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy and of ischemic ECG changes was analysed from the view point of age of diabetes onset and also the duration of the disease. The frequency of the retinopathy at the diabetes-onset was zero in the under 10 year-onset cases, 4.2% in the 10s-onset cases and increased with age. The longer the duration of the disease the higher the frequency of the retinopathy was. This increase along with the duration was most remarkable in the 10s- and 20s-onset cases and less remarkable in the 30s-onset cases. The retinopathy was significantly more frequent in female diabetics. Daily of the patients were studied by a questionnaire and the analysis of 1022 cases with diabetes of more than three years revealed that cases of patients working uneventfully and/or feeling fit were most frequent among the 30s- or 40s-onset cases and that cases of bed-disability were frequent among the cases whose diabetes was found in their twenties or younger. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients is quite different according to whether their diabetes occurred before of after 30 years of age.

  9. [Clinical parameters for molecular testing of Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datz, N; Nestoris, C; von Schütz, W; Danne, T; Driesel, A J; Maringa, M; Kordonouri, O

    2011-05-01

    Monogenic forms of diabetes are often diagnosed by chance, due to the variety of clinical presentation and limited experience of the diabetologists with this kind of diabetes. Aim of this study was to evaluate clinical parameters for an efficient screening. Clinical parameters were: negative diabetes-specific antibodies at onset of diabetes, positive family history of diabetes, and low to moderate insulin requirements after one year of diabetes treatment. Molecular testing was performed through sequencing of the programming regions of HNF-4alpha (MODY 1), glucokinase (MODY 2) and HNF-1alpha/TCF1 (MODY 3) and in one patient the HNF-1beta/TCF2 region (MODY 5). 39 of 292 patients treated with insulin were negative for GADA and IA2A, and 8 (20.5%) patients fulfilled both other criteria. Positive molecular results were found in five (63%) patients (two with MODY 2, two with MODY 3, one with MODY 5). At diabetes onset, the mean age of the 5 patients with MODY was 10.6 ± 5.3 yrs (range 2.6-15 yrs), HbA(1c) was 8.4 ± 3.1 % (6.5-13.9%), mean diabetes duration until diagnosis of MODY was 3.3 ± 3.6 yrs (0.8-9.6 yrs) with insulin requirements of 0.44 ± 0.17 U/kg/d (0.2-0.6 U/kg/d). Patients with MODY 3 were changed from insulin to repaglinide, those with MODY 2 were recommended discontinuing insulin treatment. In patients with negative diabetes-specific antibodies at onset of diabetes, with a positive family history, and low to moderate insulin needs a genetic screening for MODY is indicated. Watchful consideration of these clinical parameters may lead to an early genetic testing, and to an adequate treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A genome-wide scan in families with maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frayling, Timothy M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Chevre, Jean Claude

    2003-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterogeneous single gene disorder characterized by non-insulin-dependent diabetes, an early onset and autosomal dominant inheritance. Mutations in six genes have been shown to cause MODY. Approximately 15-20% of families fitting MODY criteria do...... not have mutations in any of the known genes. These families provide a rich resource for the identification of new MODY genes. This will potentially enable further dissection of clinical heterogeneity and bring new insights into mechanisms of beta-cell dysfunction. To facilitate the identification of novel...... MODY loci, we combined the results from three genome-wide scans on a total of 23 families fitting MODY criteria. We used both a strict parametric model of inheritance with heterogeneity and a model-free analysis. We did not identify any single novel locus but provided putative evidence for linkage...

  11. Early onset diabetes-genetic and hormonal analysis in pakistan population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Kamran, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial DNA mutation and hormonal imbalance is involved in the pathogenesis of early onset diabetes but data is lacking in Pakistani population. The study was planned to delineate the clinical presentation of early onset diabetes with possible hormonal and genetic etiological factors and aascertain the possible etiological role of insulin and glucagon in these patients either on oral hypoglycaemic or subcutaneous insulin therapy. Methods: Retrospective, analytical case control study with conventional sampling technique carried at Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM) affiliated with the department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi from Dec 2006 to July 2011. Study included the patients (20-35 years of age) with early onset diabetes on oral hypoglycemic (n=240), insulin therapy (n=280), and compared with non-diabetic healthy controls (n=150). A fragment surrounding tRNALeu (UUR) gene was amplified by AmpliTaq from mtDNA which was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Then it was subjected to restriction endonucleases, ApaI for A3242G mutation and HaeIII for G3316A mutation detection. Plasma glucose, glycosylated Hb, osmolality, insulin and glucagon levels along with ABGs analysis was also done. Results: Non diabetic controls comprised of 51% males and 49% females, diabetics on oral hypoglycemic 60% males and 40 % females and on insulin therapy 54% males and 46% females. Insulin dependent diabetics had statistically significant hyperglucagonemia, acidemia and bicarbonate deficit. MtDNA A3242G and G3316A mutations were not detected. Conclusion: relative hyperglucagonemia and acidemia in Insulin dependent diabetics was a potent threat leading to DKA. The absence of two mtDNA mutations in ND1 gene rules out the possibility of involvement of these mutations in early onset diabetes in Pakistani population. (author)

  12. [Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) - screening, diagnostic and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Susanne; Resl, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of monogenetic diabetes types affecting up to 2% all known diabetics. Transcription factor MODY (HNF1α, HNF4α), the most frequent forms of MODY, allow treatment with sulfonylureas, mutations of glucokinase (GCK-MODY) usually do not require any therapy. Especially in younger patients correct diagnosis of MODY often results in discontinuation of insulin therapy and initiation of a sulfonylurea. Accordingly, in patients with diabetes onset below age of 25 years, with a positive family history for diabetes and negative autoantibodies screening for MODY is recommended.

  13. Activation of PPAR by Rosiglitazone Does Not Negatively Impact Male Sex Steroid Hormones in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR activation decreased serum testosterone (T in women with hyperthecosis and/or polycystic ovary syndrome and reduced the conversion of androgens to estradiol (E2 in female rats. This implies modulation of female sex steroid hormones by PPAR. It is not clear if PPAR modulates sex steroid hormones in diabetic males. Because PPAR activation by thiazolidinedione increased insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes, understanding the long term impact of PPAR activation on steroid sex hormones in males is critical. Our objective was to determine the effect of PPAR activation on serum and intratesticular T, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and E2 concentrations in male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats treated with the PPAR agonist rosiglitazone (a thiazolidinedione. Treatment for eight weeks increased PPAR mRNA and protein in the testis and elevated serum adiponectin, an adipokine marker for PPAR activation. PPAR activation did not alter serum or intratesticular T concentrations. In contrast, serum T level but not intratesticular T was reduced by diabetes. Neither diabetes nor PPAR activation altered serum E2 or gonadotropins FSH and LH concentrations. The results suggest that activation of PPAR by rosiglitazone has no negative impact on sex hormones in male ZDF rats.

  14. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  15. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. HbA1c variability in type 2 diabetes is associated with the occurrence of new-onset albuminuria within three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorajoo, Sreemanee Raaj; Ng, Joceline Shi Ling; Goh, Jessica Hui Fen; Lim, Su Chi; Yap, Chun Wei; Chan, Alexandre; Lee, Joyce Yu Chia

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the association between HbA1c coefficient of variation (HbA1c-CV) and 3-year new-onset albuminuria risk. A retrospective cohort study involving 716 normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients was conducted between 2010 and 2014. HbA1c-CV was used to categorize patients into low, moderate or high variability groups. Multivariate logistic models were constructed and validated. Integrated discrimination (IDI) and net reclassification (NRI) improvement indices were used to quantify the added predictive value of HbA1c-CV. The mean age of our cohort was 56.1±12.9years with a baseline HbA1c of 8.3±1.3%. Over 3-years of follow-up, 35.2% (n=252) developed albuminuria. An incremental risk of albuminuria was observed with moderate (6.68-13.43%) and high (above 13.44%) HbA1c-CV categories demonstrating adjusted odds ratios of 1.63 (1.12-2.38) and 3.80 (2.10-6.97) for 3-year new-onset albuminuria, respectively. Including HbA1c-CV for 3-year new-onset albuminuria prediction improved model discrimination (IDI: 0.023, NRI: 0.293, pHbA1c-CV improves 3-year prediction of new-onset albuminuria. Together with mean HbA1c, baseline urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and presence of hypertension, accurate 3-year new-onset albuminuria prediction may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Alexandra; Du, Yunpeng; Liu, Haitao; Patel, Shyam; Roberts, Robin; Berkowitz, Bruce A; Kern, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM) is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied. Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm) daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo. PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers. PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit early changes of diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Functional Hypercortisolism Impairs Sexual Function in Male Late-Onset Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; Corona, G; Lamonica, G R; Lenzi, A; Maggi, M; Balercia, G

    2016-01-01

    diabetes mellitus-associated late-onset hypogonadism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Minimizing tacrolimus decreases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiu-Lin; Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yan; Yan, Lu-Nan; Yang, Jia-Yin; Wen, Tian-Fu; Li, Bo; Wang, Wen-Tao; Wu, Hong; Xu, Ming-Qing; Chen, Zhe-Yu; Wei, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Li; Yang, Jian

    2016-02-14

    To investigate the impact of minimum tacrolimus (TAC) on new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation (LT). We retrospectively analyzed the data of 973 liver transplant recipients between March 1999 and September 2014 in West China Hospital Liver Transplantation Center. Following the exclusion of ineligible recipients, 528 recipients with a TAC-dominant regimen were included in our study. We calculated and determined the mean trough concentration of TAC (cTAC) in the year of diabetes diagnosis in NODM recipients or in the last year of the follow-up in non-NODM recipients. A cutoff of mean cTAC value for predicting NODM 6 mo after LT was identified using a receptor operating characteristic curve. TAC-related complications after LT was evaluated by χ(2) test, and the overall and allograft survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors for NODM after LT were examined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Of the 528 transplant recipients, 131 (24.8%) developed NODM after 6 mo after LT, and the cumulative incidence of NODM progressively increased. The mean cTAC of NODM group recipients was significantly higher than that of recipients in the non-NODM group (7.66 ± 3.41 ng/mL vs 4.47 ± 2.22 ng/mL, P 50 years), hypertension pre-LT, and high mean cTAC (≥ 5.89 ng/mL) after 6 mo after LT were independent risk factors for developing NODM. Concurrently, recipients with a low cTAC (< 5.89 ng/mL) were less likely to become obese (21.3% vs 30.2%, P < 0.05) or to develop dyslipidemia (27.5% vs 44.8%, P <0.05), chronic kidney dysfunction (14.6% vs 22.7%, P < 0.05), and moderate to severe infection (24.7% vs 33.1%, P < 0.05) after LT than recipients in the high mean cTAC group. However, the two groups showed no significant difference in the incidence of acute and chronic rejection, hypertension, cardiovascular events and new-onset malignancy. A minimal TAC regimen can decrease the risk of long-term NODM after LT. Maintaining a c

  20. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with complication of severe respiratory failure, right heart failure, and steroid induced diabetes – qualification for lung transplantation as a matter of urgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata P. Kraśnicka-Sokół

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old woman 146 cm tall and weighing 50 kg, due to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, was firstly approved for lung transplantation according to the planned mode. Due to the low height of the patient there were difficulties in the selection of the donor and prolonged waiting time for the surgery. Rapid progression of pulmonary hypertension and steroid-induced diabetes forced us to change the mode of the procedure to urgent. The description of the case shows the difficulties in therapy and choosing the appropriate time for lung transplantation. In this case, the collaboration of specialists from various fields in the decision on transplant is noteworthy.

  1. Increasing risk of psychiatric morbidity after childhood onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, Daniel; Tolstrup, Janne S; Sildorf, Stine M

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric morbidity following childhood onset of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a matched, population-based cohort study based on Danish national registers, we identified children and adolescents who had been diagnosed as an in- or outpati......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate psychiatric morbidity following childhood onset of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a matched, population-based cohort study based on Danish national registers, we identified children and adolescents who had been diagnosed as an in...... of psychiatric disorders as well as the effects of age at onset and duration of type 1 diabetes on the risk of subsequently developing psychiatric morbidities. RESULTS: An increased risk of being diagnosed with mood disorders and anxiety, dissociative, eating, stress-related and somatoform disorders was observed....... CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In the years following type 1 diabetes onset, an increased risk of eating disorders, anxiety and mood disorders, substance misuse, and personality disorders was found. These findings highlight a clinical need to monitor the mental health of children and adolescents in the years...

  2. Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study of Decision-Making Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jull, Janet; Witteman, Holly O; Ferne, Judi; Yoganathan, Manosila; Stacey, Dawn

    2016-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from insulin deficiency and must be carefully managed to prevent serious health complications. Diabetes education and management strategies usually focus on meeting the decision-making needs of children and their families, but little is known about the decisional needs of people with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to explore the diabetes-related decision-making needs of people diagnosed with adult-onset type 1 diabetes. An interpretive descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Participants who self-identified as having adult-onset type 1 diabetes were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Transcripts were coded to identify needs, supports and barriers using thematic analysis. Participating in the study were 8 adults (2 men, 6 women), ages 33 to 57, with type 1 diabetes for durations of 1 to 20 or more years. Their decision-making needs are summarized in 6 broad themes: 1) people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are launched into a process of decision-making; 2) being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes means you will always have to make decisions; 3) knowledge is crucial; 4) personal preferences matter; 5) support is critical for decisions about self-care in type 1 diabetes; 6) living with type 1 diabetes means making very individualized decisions about daily life. The findings describe the sudden and ubiquitous nature of type 1 diabetes decision-making and the need to tailor approaches for making care decisions in type 1 diabetes. People diagnosed with adult-onset type 1 diabetes require access to reliable information, support and opportunities for participation in decision-making. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet impairs the incretin effect in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K B; Vilsbøll, T; Bagger, J I

    2010-01-01

    The loss of incretin effect in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may be secondary to impaired glucose homeostasis. We investigated whether reduced glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by steroid treatment, relative physical inactivity, and high-calorie diet in healthy young males...

  4. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alicia J; Joglekar, Mugdha V; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A; Keech, Anthony C; O'Neal, David N; Januszewski, Andrzej S

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  5. Incretin hormones and maturity onset diabetes of the young - pathophysiological implications and anti-diabetic treatment potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østoft, Signe Harring

    2015-01-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) designates monogenic forms of non-autoimmune diabetes characterised by autosomal dominant inheritance, non-insulin dependent diabetes at onset and diagnosis often before 25 years of age. MODY constitutes genetically and clinically heterogeneous forms...... of diabetes. More than 8 different genes are known to cause MODY, among which hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A) (MODY3) and glucokinase (GCK) (MODY2) mutations are the most common. Both forms of MODY are characterised by specific beta cell dysfunction, with patients with HNF1A-diabetes having...... a reduced insulin secretory capacity, while patients with GCK-diabetes have a glucose-sensing defect, but preserved insulin secretory capacity. Patients with MODY are effectively treated with sulphonylurea (SU) due to very high sensitivity to these drugs, but they are also prone to develop hypoglycaemia...

  6. Abnormal subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration is involved in the early pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Zhang, L; Pan, H; Peng, S; Zhao, X; Lu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Loss of bone microstructure integrity is thought to be related to osteonecrosis. But the relationship between the time when bone microstructure integrity loss appears and the onset of osteonecrosis has not yet been determined. Our study demonstrated abnormal changes of subchondral bone microstructure involved in the early pathogenesis of osteonecrosis. Using a rabbit model, we investigated the changes of subchondral bone microstructure following steroid administration to identify the onset of abnormal bone microstructure development in steroid-induced osteonecrosis. Fifty-five adult female Japanese White rabbits (mean body weight 3.5 kg; mean age 24 months) were used and randomly divided among three time points (3, 7, and 14 days) consisting of 15 rabbits each, received a single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone acetate (MP; Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium NV) at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and a control group consisting of 10 rabbits was fed and housed under identical conditions but were not given steroid injections. A micro-CT scanner was applied to detect changes in the trabecular region of subchondral bone of excised femoral head samples. Parameters including bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface (BS), trabecular bone pattern factor (Tb.Pf), trabecular thickness/number/separation (Tb.Th, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp), and structure model index (SMI) were evaluated using the software CTAn (SkyScan). After micro-CT scans, bilateral femoral heads were cut in the coronal plane at a thickness of 4 μm. The sections were then stained with haematoxylin-eosin and used for the diagnosis of osteonecrosis and the rate of development of osteonecrosis. The BV/TV, BS, Tb.Th and Tb.N demonstrated a time-dependent decline from 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group, while the Tb.Pf, Tb.Sp and SMI demonstrated an increase at 3, 7, and 14 days compared with the control group. For the histopathology portion, osteonecrosis was not seen 3 days after steroid treatment, but was

  7. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-09-08

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0-10) was reduced to zero, but the elevated insulin requirements continued for 4 weeks after the injection. This finding suggests that steroid injections for shoulder pain in diabetics may not always be as safe as previously thought. We propose that medical practitioners advise their patients to monitor their glucose levels more carefully after such injections and that caution is exercised when considering administrating these injections to those who have poorly controlled blood glucose levels preinjection to avoid ketoacidosis. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Diabetes distress in adult type 1 diabetes mellitus men and women with disease onset in childhood and in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lašaitė, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas; Žalinkevičius, Rimantas; Jurgevičienė, Nijolė; Radzevičienė, Lina

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether or not diabetes distress varies by age of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) onset and/or gender. A total of 700 adult T1DM patients were randomly selected from the Lithuanian Diabetes Registry; 214 of them (30.6%) agreed to participate and were recruited for the study. Diabetes distress (emotional burden, physician-related distress, regimen-related distress, interpersonal distress) was compared in 105 (42 men and 63 women) patients with T1DM diagnosed during 0-18years of life, and in 109 (61 men and 48 women) with T1DM diagnosed in adulthood, using Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS). Adult childhood-onset T1DM women have higher regimen-related distress (36.3±21.3 vs 26.6±16.2, p=0.016) than adulthood-onset women. Adult childhood-onset T1DM women experience higher diabetes distress (higher emotional burden (27.0±22.0 vs 15.6±16.4, p=0.006), physician-related distress (34.4±33.9 vs 20.7±29.4, p=0.024), total diabetes distress (41.2±13.6 vs 34.8±10.9, p=0.011)) than childhood-onset men. Adulthood-onset T1DM women experience higher physician-related distress (39.2±37.6 vs 23.4±32.5, p=0.013), but lower regimen-related distress (26.6±16.2 vs 35.8±21.6, p=0.014) than adulthood-onset men. In conclusion our findings reinforce the interdependence of psychological and biomedical factors in influencing health outcomes and support the need to provide psychological assessment and support to patients with T1DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum metabolomics differentiating pancreatic cancer from new-onset diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyi; Zhong, Jie; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Yufen; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yongping; Yuan, Yaozong

    2017-01-01

    To establish a screening strategy for pancreatic cancer (PC) based on new-onset diabetic mellitus (NO-DM), serum metabolomics analysis and a search for the metabolic pathways associated with PC related DM were performed. Serum samples from patients with NO-DM (n = 30) and patients with pancreatic cancer and NO-DM were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) of the most significant metabolites. The diagnostic model was constructed using logistic regression analysis. Metabolic pathways were analyzed using the web-based tool MetPA. PC patients with NO-DM were older and had a lower BMI and shorter duration of DM than those with NO-DM. The metabolomic profiles of patients with PC and NO-DM were significantly different from those of patients with NO-DM in the PCA and OPLS models. Sixty two differential metabolites were identified by the OPLS model. The logistic regression model using a panel of two metabolites including N_Succinyl_L_diaminopimelic_acid and PE (18:2) had high sensitivity (93.3%) and specificity (93.1%) for PC. The top three metabolic pathways associated with PC related DM were valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis and degradation, primary bile acid biosynthesis, and sphingolipid metabolism. In conclusion, screening for PC based on NO-DM using serum metabolomics in combination with clinic characteristics and CA19-9 is a potential useful strategy. Several metabolic pathways differed between PC related DM and type 2 DM. PMID:28418859

  10. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Liver Transplant Recipients With Hepatitis C: Analysis of the National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Sun, F; Hu, Z; Xiang, J; Zhou, J; Yan, S; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Zheng, S

    2016-01-01

    New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation (LT) occurs with increased frequency in recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We compared the incidence and risk factors for NODM in HCV vs non-HCV recipients. Among 24,956 liver recipients, 18,741 without pretransplantation diabetes were identified. NODM-free survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests, and risk factors for NODM were examined using multivariate Cox regression analysis. The overall incidence of NODM was 13.0% at 1 year after LT. At 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after LT, incidence of NODM in HCV recipients was 14.4%, 4.3%, 3.1%, and 3.5%, respectively, compared with 11.9%, 3.5%, 3.2%, and 6.4%, respectively, in non-HCV recipients. HCV recipients had a higher risk of NODM than non-HCV recipients (hazard ratio 1.17 [1.09-1.27], P diabetes mellitus. Risk factors in non-HCV recipients were male recipient, BMI, and recipients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis diagnosis. HCV recipients have a higher incidence and more risk factors for NODM than non-HCV recipients. Early identification of modifiable risk factors will assist clinical interventions to prevent NODM complications after LT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Photobiomodulation Mitigates Diabetes-Induced Retinopathy by Direct and Indirect Mechanisms: Evidence from Intervention Studies in Pigmented Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Saliba

    Full Text Available Daily application of far-red light from the onset of diabetes mitigated diabetes-induced abnormalities in retinas of albino rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that photobiomodulation (PBM is effective in diabetic, pigmented mice, even when delayed until weeks after onset of diabetes. Direct and indirect effects of PBM on the retina also were studied.Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice using streptozotocin. Some diabetics were exposed to PBM therapy (4 min/day; 670 nm daily. In one study, mice were diabetic for 4 weeks before initiation of PBM for an additional 10 weeks. Retinal oxidative stress, inflammation, and retinal function were measured. In some mice, heads were covered with a lead shield during PBM to prevent direct illumination of the eye, or animals were treated with an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1. In a second study, PBM was initiated immediately after onset of diabetes, and administered daily for 2 months. These mice were examined using manganese-enhanced MRI to assess effects of PBM on transretinal calcium channel function in vivo.PBM intervention improved diabetes-induced changes in superoxide generation, leukostasis, expression of ICAM-1, and visual performance. PBM acted in part remotely from the retina because the beneficial effects were achieved even with the head shielded from the light therapy, and because leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity of retinal endothelial cells was less in diabetics treated with PBM. SnPP+PBM significantly reduced iNOS expression compared to PBM alone, but significantly exacerbated leukostasis. In study 2, PBM largely mitigated diabetes-induced retinal calcium channel dysfunction in all retinal layers.PBM induces retinal protection against abnormalities induced by diabetes in pigmented animals, and even as an intervention. Beneficial effects on the retina likely are mediated by both direct and indirect mechanisms. PBM is a novel non-pharmacologic treatment strategy to inhibit early changes of diabetic

  12. New-onset diabetes mellitus after living-donor liver transplantation: association with graft synthetic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shintaro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-06-01

    It is now known that post-transplant graft function after deceased-donor liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) differ; however, there is no report assessing the relationship between graft function and the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT). We conducted this study to identify the predictive risk factors for NODAT, including graft function after LDLT. The subjects of this study were 175 adult recipients who underwent LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital between 2006 and 2010, and survived for more than 3 months (median observation period, 1046 days). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year incidences of NODAT after LDLT were 26.1, 32.0, and 33.4%, respectively. Pre-transplant diabetes was associated with poor survival (p = 0.0048), whereas NODAT was not associated with patient survival. In the multivariate analysis, recipient age ≥40, a tacrolimus trough level ≥8 ng/mL 3 months after LDLT, and cholinesterase (ChE) <185 IU/L 3 months after LDLT were the independent risk factors for NODAT. Poor graft synthetic function 3 months after LDLT as well as older age of the recipient and a higher tacrolimus concentration were strongly associated with NODAT development after LDLT.

  13. Use of Serum Bicarbonate to Substitute for Venous pH in New-Onset Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oettingen, Julia; Wolfsdorf, Joseph; Feldman, Henry A; Rhodes, Erinn T

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether serum bicarbonate (HCO3) levels can be used to accurately diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and classify its severity in children with new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). Retrospective study of all patients with NODM presenting to Boston Children's Hospital from October 1, 2007, to July 1, 2013. DKA was defined as blood glucose ≥200 mg/dL, venous pH (vpH) vpH vpH, and logistic regression to evaluate serum HCO3 as a predictor of DKA and severe DKA. Of 690 study cohort subjects (47% girls, age 10.8 ± 4.3 years, 76.7% white), 19.4% presented with DKA. The relationship between serum HCO3 and vpH was log-linear (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.89, P vpH (R(2) 0.75, P vpH = 6.81301 + (0.17823*ln[HCO3]) and DKA and severe DKA (c-statistic 0.97 [95% CI 0.96-0.99, P vpH to diagnose DKA and classify severity in children with NODM. It is suggested as an alternative to reliance on vpH, especially in settings in which access to vpH measurement is limited. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. The efficacy of a steroid mixture for chemoradiotherapy-induced acute mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Ohoguchi, Manabu; Ichioka, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Kiyotaka; Higashi, Kotarou; Tonami, Hisao

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important therapeutic tool for malignant tumors in the head and neck and thoracic region. However, radiotherapy has also been known to cause acute mucositis and esophagitis during the early phase of treatment, for which there is no cure to date. A mixture of mucosal protective steroids has been shown to be beneficial in patients with these symptoms receiving radiotherapy alone. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of this agent to treat the mucositis that accompanies chemoradiotherapy. Moreover, the differences between the curative effects were examined retrospectively, according to the region irradiated. Radiotherapy was administered to the head and neck, and thoracic region, and the steroid mixture was prescribed for patients in the radiotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy groups that exhibited acute radiation-induced mucositis symptoms. We then evaluated daily food consumption, total serum-protein value, serum-albumin value and body weight of the radiation-induced mucositis patients that were treated with the mixture. Moreover, we also examined the efficacy in patients undergoing irradiation of the oral cavity, and of the esophagus (which did not entail irradiation of the oral cavity). Two hundred and fourteen patients treated with the steroid mixture in this study had no treatment-related adverse events. In comparison between the radiotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy groups, no significant differences were observed for daily food consumption. However, differences were observed for daily food consumption between the groups undergoing irradiation of the oral cavity and irradiation of the esophagus (p=0.0008). In the group experiencing irradiation of the mouth, decreased ability to swallow and digest food associated with the primary disease was also observed. Total serum-protein values, serum-albumin values and body weight exhibited a slight decrease despite the onset of radiation-induced mucositis, compared with the values

  15. Risk factors for new-onset late postpartum preeclampsia in women without a history of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Catherine A; Pereira, Guilherme A; Warmsley, Amber; Cohen, Jennifer; Getrajdman, Chloe; Moshier, Erin; Paris, Julia; Bianco, Angela; Factor, Stephanie H; Stone, Joanne

    2014-04-01

    Risk factors for the development of new-onset late postpartum preeclampsia (LPP) in women without any history of preeclampsia are not known. Because identification of women who are at risk may lead to an earlier diagnosis of disease and improved maternal outcomes, this study identified risk factors (associated patient characteristics) for new-onset LPP. A case-control study of 34 women with new-onset LPP and 68 women without new-onset LPP after normal delivery, who were matched on date of delivery, was conducted at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY. Data were collected by chart review. Exact conditional logistic regression identified patient characteristics that were associated with new-onset LPP. New-onset LPP was associated with age ≥40 years (adjusted odds ratio, 24.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-infinity; P = .03), black race (adjusted odds ratio, 78.35; 95% CI, 7.25-infinity; P infinity; P = .001), final pregnancy body mass index of ≥30 kg/m(2) (adjusted odds ratio, 13.38; 95% CI, 1.87-infinity; P = .01), and gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio, 72.91; 95% CI, 5.52-infinity; P < .001). As predictive tests for new-onset LPP, the sensitivity and specificity of having ≥1 of these characteristics was 100% and 59%, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity of having ≥2 was 56% and 93%, respectively. Older age, black race, Latino ethnicity, obesity, and a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus all are associated positively with the development of new-onset LPP. Closer observation may be warranted in these populations. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic and clinic predictors of new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigi-Morgui, Núria; Quteineh, Lina; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; Crettol, Severine; Kutalik, Zoltán; Mueller, Nicolas J; Binet, Isabelle; Van Delden, Christian; Steiger, Jürg; Mohacsi, Paul; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Soccal, Paola M; Pascual, Manuel; Eap, Chin B

    2017-12-27

    New Onset Diabetes after Transplantation (NODAT) is a frequent complication after solid organ transplantation, with higher incidence during the first year. Several clinical and genetic factors have been described as risk factors of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM). Additionally, T2DM shares some genetic factors with NODAT. We investigated if three genetic risk scores (w-GRS) and clinical factors were associated with NODAT and how they predicted NODAT development 1 year after transplantation. In both main (n = 725) and replication (n = 156) samples the clinical risk score was significantly associated with NODAT (OR main : 1.60 [1.36-1.90], p = 3.72*10 -8 and OR replication : 2.14 [1.39-3.41], p = 0.0008, respectively). Two w-GRS were significantly associated with NODAT in the main sample (OR w-GRS 2 :1.09 [1.04-1.15], p = 0.001 and OR w-GRS 3 :1.14 [1.01-1.29], p = 0.03) and a similar OR w-GRS 2 was found in the replication sample, although it did not reach significance probably due to a power issue. Despite the low OR of w-GRS on NODAT compared to clinical covariates, when integrating w-GRS 2 and w-GRS 3 in the clinical model, the Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve (AUROC), specificity, sensitivity and accuracy were 0.69, 0.71, 0.58 and 0.68, respectively, with significant Likelihood Ratio test discrimination index (p-value 0.0004), performing better in NODAT discrimination than the clinical model alone. Twenty-five patients needed to be genotyped in order to detect one misclassified case that would have developed NODAT 1 year after transplantation if using only clinical covariates. To our knowledge, this is the first study extensively examining genetic risk scores contributing to NODAT development.

  17. [Hormonal-metabolic pattern of postmenopausal females with new onset of diabetes mellitus type 2: the role of cancer and hereditary predisposition to diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershteĭn, L M; Vasil'ev, D A; Poroshina, T E; Boiarkina, M P; Tsyrlina, E V

    2013-01-01

    85 females were studied, 35 females had new onset of diabetes (DM2) and in 50 women DM2 was associated with recently diagnosed cancer (C+DM2). Group C+DM2 was characterized by higher levels ofbody mass index, insulinemia, estradiolemia, interleukin 6 in serum, and glyoxalase I activity in mononuclears. At the same time patients in C+DM2 group who had familial predisposition to DM2 were characterized by lower body mass index, body fat content, waist circumference, insulinemia, serum interleukin 6, viscosity of erythrocyte membranes and percent of comets in mononuclears in comparison with patients without familial predisposition to DM2. These trends were mostly opposite to the data of subgroups comparison (with or without relatives with DM2) in females with DM2 without cancer. The conclusion is made that the hereditary load with DM2 is differently realized in diabetics with higher or lower predisprosition to cancer that deserves further study.

  18. Psoriasis and New-Onset Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Psoriasis is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that may be associated with psoriasis, but conflicting results have been...

  19. Variation in NCB5OR: studies of relationships to type 2 diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young, and gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Wegner, Lise; Rose, Christian Schack

    2004-01-01

    candidate gene and examined the coding region of NCB5OR in 120 type 2 diabetic patients and 63 patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. We identified a total of 22 novel nucleotide variants. Three variants [IVS5+7del(CT), Gln187Arg, and His......223Arg] were genotyped in a case-control design comprising 1,246 subjects (717 type 2 diabetic patients and 529 subjects with normal glucose tolerance). In addition, four rare variants were investigated for cosegregation with diabetes in multiplex type 2 diabetic families. The IVS5+7del(CT) variant...... was associated with common late-onset type 2 diabetes; however, we failed to relate this variant to any diabetes-related quantitative traits among the 529 control subjects. Thus, variation in the coding region of NCB5OR is not a major contributor in the pathogenesis of nonautoimmune diabetes....

  20. Adult-Onset Type 1 Diabetes and Pregnancy: Three Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsembiante, Barbara; Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Masin, Michela; Gallo, Alessandra; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2013-01-01

    From 5% to 10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes. Here we describe three cases of adult-onset type 1 diabetes in pregnancy treated at our clinic between 2009 and 2012. Two patients came for specialist examination during pregnancy, the third after pregnancy. These women had no prior overt diabetes and shared certain characteristics, that is, no family diabetes history, age over 35, normal prepregnancy BMI, need for insulin therapy as of the early weeks of pregnancy, and high-titer anti...

  1. The Effect of Prolonged Glucosamine Usage on HbA1c Levels and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommans, Yvonne M M; Runhaar, Jos; Jacobs, Marloes L; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 2.5-year glucosamine sulfate intervention on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years in middle-aged women with a body mass index ≥27 kg/m 2 . In total, 407 women were randomized into either oral crystalline glucosamine sulfate or placebo. At baseline, 1 year, 2.5 years, and 6.5 years, a blood sample for the HbA1c level was drawn and questionnaires were taken. After 6.5 years there were missing data for some variables, therefore, multiple imputation was used. With the imputed data, a generalized estimating equation was performed to analyze the effect of glucosamine sulfate usage over 6.5 years. Finally, these analyses were rerun for the 2 subgroups of participants with and without high HbA1c level (≥42 mmol/mol) at baseline. There was no significant effect of a 2.5-year glucosamine sulfate intervention on mean HbA1c level or on obtaining a high HbA1c level or new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years. The subgroup analyses of participants with and without high HbA1c level at baseline were also not statistically significant. However, participants with a high HbA1c level at baseline had higher odds ratios compared with the participants with a normal HbA1c at baseline. There was no effect of glucosamine sulfate on mean HbA1c level nor on obtaining a high HbA1c level or new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years, especially in participants with a normal HbA1c level at baseline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a patient with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3 carrying a hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1A mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Griscelli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous non-synonymous (p.S142F mutation in HNF1A leads to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY type 3, which is a subtype of dominant inherited young-onset non-autoimmune diabetes due to the defect of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a patient with HNF1A p.S142F mutation. Cells from this patient, which were reprogrammed by non-integrative viral transduction had normal karyotype, harboured the HNF1A p.S142F mutation, expressed pluripotency hallmarks.

  3. Outpatient management of steroid-induced hyperglycaemia and steroid-induced diabetes in people with lymphoproliferative disorders treated with intermittent high dose steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vidler

    2017-09-01

    Eighty-three people were diagnosed with a lymphoproliferative disorder, of whom 6 had known Type 2 diabetes. Fifty-three people without known diabetes were screened by HbA1c and random venous plasma glucose. All patients (n = 34 subsequently prescribed HDS checked capillary blood glucose (CBG pre-breakfast and pre-evening meal. Treatment algorithms used initiation and/or dose titration of gliclazide or human NPH insulin, aiming for pre-meal CBG 5–11 mmol/l. Type 2 diabetes was identified in 4/53 people screened (7.5%. Of 34 people treated with HDS, 17 (44% developed SIH/SID. All 7 people with Type 2 diabetes developed SIH and 3 required insulin. Of 27 people without known diabetes, 8 (30% developed SID and 1 required insulin. Pre-treatment HbA1c was higher in people who developed SID compared to those that did not (p = 0.002. This is the first report of a SID/SIH detection and treatment protocol for use in people with lymphoproliferative disorders receiving intermittent HDS, demonstrating its feasibility and safety.

  4. The Effect of Prolonged Glucosamine Usage on HbA1c Levels and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Middle-Aged Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M.M. Gommans (Yvonne); J. Runhaar (Jos); M.L. Jacobs (Marloes); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 2.5-year glucosamine sulfate intervention on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus over 6.5 years in middle-aged women with a body mass index ≥27 kg/m2.

  5. Biomarkers in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alicia J.; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Keech, Anthony C.; O'Neal, David N.; Januszewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global diabetes epidemic correlating with an increase in obesity. This coincidence may lead to a rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. There is also an as yet unexplained increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes, which is not related to adiposity. Whilst improved diabetes care has substantially improved diabetes outcomes, the disease remains a common cause of working age adult-onset blindness. Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes; it is greatly feared by many diabetes patients. There are multiple risk factors and markers for the onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet residual risk remains. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is recommended to facilitate early detection and treatment. Common biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy and its risk in clinical practice today relate to the visualization of the retinal vasculature and measures of glycemia, lipids, blood pressure, body weight, smoking, and pregnancy status. Greater knowledge of novel biomarkers and mediators of diabetic retinopathy, such as those related to inflammation and angiogenesis, has contributed to the development of additional therapeutics, in particular for late-stage retinopathy, including intra-ocular corticosteroids and intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors ('anti-VEGFs') agents. Unfortunately, in spite of a range of treatments (including laser photocoagulation, intraocular steroids, and anti-VEGF agents, and more recently oral fenofibrate, a PPAR-alpha agonist lipid-lowering drug), many patients with diabetic retinopathy do not respond well to current therapeutics. Therefore, more effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are necessary. New analytical techniques, in particular those related to molecular markers, are accelerating progress in diabetic retinopathy research. Given the increasing incidence and prevalence of diabetes, and the limited capacity of healthcare systems to screen and treat

  6. Adult-onset diabetes among Arabs and Jews in Israel: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter-Leibovici, O; Chetrit, A; Lubin, F; Atamna, A; Alpert, G; Ziv, A; Abu-Saad, K; Murad, H; Eilat-Adar, S; Goldbourt, U

    2012-06-01

    To study the age at presentation and factors associated with adult-onset diabetes (≥ 20 years) among Arabs and Jews in Israel. Participants (n = 1100) were randomly selected from the urban population of the Hadera District in Israel. The study sample was stratified into equal groups according to sex, ethnicity (Arabs and Jews) and age. Information on age at diabetes presentation, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics was obtained through personal interviews. Self reports of diabetes were compared with medical records and were found reliable (κ = 0.87). The risk for diabetes was calculated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Factors associated with diabetes in both ethnic groups were studied using Cox proportional hazard model. The prevalence of adult-onset diabetes was 21% among Arabs and 12% among Jews. Arab participants were younger than Jews at diabetes presentation. By the age of 57 years, 25% of Arabs had diagnosed diabetes; the corresponding age among Jews was 68 years, a difference of 11 years (P Arabs was independent of lifestyle factors, family history of diabetes and, among women, history of gestational diabetes; adjusted hazard ratio 1.70; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.43. Arabs in Israel are at greater risk for adult-onset diabetes than Jews and are younger at diabetes presentation. Culturally sensitive interventions aimed at maintaining normal body weight and active lifestyle should be targeted at this population. Possible genetic factors and gene-environmental interactions underlying the high risk for diabetes among Arabs should be investigated. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  7. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Diaz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  8. Intervening before the onset of Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Jesper Irving

    2003-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To set up a clinical trial to establish whether nicotinamide can prevent or delay clinical onset of Type 1 diabetes. METHOD: The European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial undertaken in 18 European...... countries, Canada and the USA. Entry criteria were a first-degree family history of Type 1 diabetes, age 3-40 years, confirmed islet cell antibody (ICA) levels greater than or equal to 20 JDF units, and a non-diabetic OGTT; the study group was further characterised by intravenous glucose tolerance testing......) centile in 34%. Additional islet autoantibodies were identified in 354 trial entrants. Diabetes-associated HLA class II haplotypes were found in 84% of the younger age group and 80% of the older group. The protective haplotype HLA-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602 was found in 10% overall. CONCLUSIONS...

  9. Cardiovascular safety and efficacy of the PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab in patients with and without diabetes and the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia and risk of new-onset diabetes: a prespecified analysis of the FOURIER randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatine, Marc S; Leiter, Lawrence A; Wiviott, Stephen D; Giugliano, Robert P; Deedwania, Prakash; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Murphy, Sabina A; Kuder, Julia F; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Lewis, Basil S; Handelsman, Yehuda; Pineda, Armando Lira; Honarpour, Narimon; Keech, Anthony C; Sever, Peter S; Pedersen, Terje R

    2017-12-01

    The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab reduced LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular events in the FOURIER trial. In this prespecified analysis of FOURIER, we investigated the efficacy and safety of evolocumab by diabetes status and the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia and risk of developing diabetes. FOURIER was a randomised trial of evolocumab (140 mg every 2 weeks or 420 mg once per month) versus placebo in 27 564 patients with atherosclerotic disease who were on statin therapy, followed up for a median of 2·2 years. In this prespecified analysis, we investigated the effect of evolocumab on cardiovascular events by diabetes status at baseline, defined on the basis of patient history, clinical events committee review of medical records, or baseline HbA 1c of 6·5% (48 mmol/mol) or greater or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 7·0 mmol/L or greater. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission for unstable angina, or coronary revascularisation. The key secondary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. We also assessed the effect of evolocumab on glycaemia, and on the risk of new-onset diabetes among patients without diabetes at baseline. HbA 1c was measured at baseline then every 24 weeks and FPG was measured at baseline, week 12, week 24, and every 24 weeks thereafter, and potential cases of new-onset diabetes were adjudicated centrally. In a post-hoc analysis, we also investigated the effects on glycaemia and diabetes risk in patients with prediabetes (HbA 1c 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] or FPG 5·6-6·9 mmol/L) at baseline. FOURIER is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01764633. At study baseline, 11 031 patients (40%) had diabetes and 16 533 (60%) did not have diabetes (of whom 10 344 had prediabetes and 6189 had normoglycaemia). Evolocumab significantly reduced cardiovascular outcomes

  10. Diabetes-induced microvascular complications at the level of the spinal cord; a contributing factor in diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, N; Da Vitoria Lobo, M E; Bestall, S M; L Vidueira, C; Beazley-Long, N; Ballmer-Hofer, K; Hirashima, M; Bates, D O; Donaldson, L F; Hulse, R P

    2018-05-17

    Abnormalities of neurovascular interactions within the central nervous system of diabetic patients is associated with the onset of many neurological disease states. However, to date, the link between the neurovascular network within the spinal cord and regulation of nociception has not been investigated despite neuropathic pain being common in diabetes. We hypothesised that hyperglycaemia-induced endothelial degeneration in the spinal cord, due to suppression of VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling, induces diabetic neuropathic pain. Nociceptive pain behaviour was investigated in a chemically induced model of type 1 diabetes (streptozotocin induced, insulin supplemented; either vehicle or VEGF-A 165 b treated) and an inducible endothelial knockdown of VEGFR2 (tamoxifen induced). Diabetic animals developed mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. This was associated with a reduction in the number of blood vessels and reduction in Evans blue extravasation in the lumbar spinal cord of diabetic animals versus age-matched controls. Endothelial markers occludin, CD31 and VE-cadherin were downregulated in the spinal cord of the diabetic group versus controls, as well as a concurrent reduction of VEGF-A 165 b expression. In diabetic animals, VEGF-A 165 b treatment (biweekly intraperitoneal, 20 ng g -1 ) restored normal Evans blue extravasation and prevented vascular degeneration, diabetes-induced central neuron activation and neuropathic pain. Inducible knockdown of VEGFR2 (tamoxifen treated Tie2CreER T2 -vegfr2 flfl mice) led to a reduction in blood vessel network volume in the lumbar spinal cord and development of heat hyperalgesia. These findings indicate that hyperglycaemia leads to a reduction in the VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signalling cascade resulting in endothelial dysfunction in the spinal cord, which could be an undiscovered contributing factor to diabetic neuropathic pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All

  11. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  12. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies. Methods In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, pketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both pketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2

  13. Direct diabetes-related costs in young patients with early-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate diabetes-related direct health care costs in pediatric patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes of long duration in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data of a population-based cohort of 1,473 subjects with type 1 diabetes onset at 0-4 years of age within the years 1993-1999 were included (mean age 13.9 (SD 2.2 years, mean diabetes duration 10.9 (SD 1.9 years, as of 31.12.2007. Diabetes-related health care services utilized in 2007 were derived from a nationwide prospective documentation system (DPV. Health care utilization was valued in monetary terms based on inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of statutory health insurance. Multiple regression models were applied to assess associations between direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year and demographic and clinical predictors. RESULTS: Mean direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year were €3,745 (inter-quartile range: 1,943-4,881. Costs for glucose self-monitoring were the main cost category (28.5%, followed by costs for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (25.0%, diabetes-related hospitalizations (22.1% and insulin (18.4%. Female gender, pubertal age and poor glycemic control were associated with higher and migration background with lower total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Main cost categories in patients with on average 11 years of diabetes duration were costs for glucose self-monitoring, insulin pump therapy, hospitalization and insulin. Optimization of glycemic control in particular in pubertal age through intensified care with improved diabetes education and tailored insulin regimen, can contribute to the reduction of direct diabetes-related costs in this patient group.

  14. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang

    2016-01-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured...

  15. Statins and Risk of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you have or are at risk for diabetes mellitus. What Does This US Food and Drug Administration Advisory Mean to Me? ... Cause Diabetes Mellitus? What If I Already Have Diabetes? Will Statin Therapy Make It Worse? What Does This US Food and Drug Administration Advisory Mean to Me? ...

  16. Diabetes Onset at 31?45 Years of Age is Associated with an Increased Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Wenjun; Ni, Lisha; Lu, Qianyi; Zou, Chen; Zhao, Minjie; Xu, Xun; Chen, Haibing; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This hospital-based, cross-sectional study investigated the effect of age of diabetes onset on the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. A total of 5,214 patients with type 2 DM who were referred to the Department of Ophthalmology at the Shanghai First People?s Hospital from 2009 to 2013 was eligible for inclusion. Diabetic retinopathy status was classified using the grading system of the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDR...

  17. Steroid metabolism and steroid receptors in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eechaute, W.; de Thibault de Boesinghe, L.; Lacroix, E.

    1983-01-01

    Mammary tumors were induced in rats by treatment with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. Cytosol receptors for 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were estimated by means of sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and the metabolism of [ 14 C]progesterone, [ 14 C]testosterone, and 17 beta-[ 14 C]estradiol by minced tumor tissue was studied. The estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) levels of the tumors varied considerably from less than 5 to 48 fmol/mg protein for ER and to 243 fmol/mg protein for PR. Considering a receptor level lower than 5 fmol/mg protein to be negative, four groups of tumors were found: ER-negative and PR-negative; ER-positive and PR-negative; ER-negative and PR-positive; ER-positive and PR-positive. In dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced tumor tissue, high 5 alpha-reductase and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities and somewhat lower 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 6 alpha-hydroxylase activities were found. No aromatization was detectable. Steroids, especially estradiol, were also metabolized in a high degree to unextractable metabolites. It was concluded that steroid metabolism of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors was not related to the ER and/or PR concentration of tumor tissue

  18. Diabetes mellitus is associated with late-onset post-stroke depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; He, Ji-Rong; Liang, Huai-Bin; Lu, Wen-Jing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Liu, Jian-Rong; Zeng, Li-Li

    2017-10-15

    To explore the associated factors of late-onset post-stroke depression (PSD). A total of 251 patients with acute ischemic stroke were recruited. The evaluation of depression was performed 2 weeks after ischemia. 206 patients showing no depression in 2 weeks were followed up. They were divided into late-onset PSD group and non-depressed group by clinical interview with Hamilton depression scale score 3 months after stroke. On the first day following hospitalization, the clinical data including age, gender, educational level and vascular risk factors were recorded. The severity, etiological subtype and location of stroke were evaluated. The inflammatory mediators, glucose and lipid levels were recorded on the day of admission. The association between clinical factors and late-onset PSD was explored by logistic regression analysis. The ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the predicting power of the clinical factors. 187 of 206 patients completed the assessment 3 months after stroke. 19 (10.16%) patients were diagnosed as late onset PSD. Diabetes mellitus was an independent risk factor for late-onset PSD (OR 2.675, p = 0.047). ROC analysis demonstrated that glucose and HbA1C could predict late-onset PSD with specificity of 84.4%. The sample of our study was small. The results should be further confirmed in a larger cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes mellitus were more tendered to suffer late-onset PSD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maturity onset diabetes of the young: Diagnosis and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei Covanțev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a complicated disease, so multiple factors are involved in its development. Nevertheless some of the patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus have a monogenic form of this disease which has different treatment options and usually fewer complications. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with type 2 diabetes melitus (T2DM and about 10% of type 1 diabetes melitus (T1DM are misdiagnosed and have maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY. We present a review study of the management of most frequent monogenic forms of diabetes such as MODY 1, 2 and 3 and the possibilities of their diagnosis including in resource limited situations.

  20. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young with end-stage nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saudek, Frantisek; Pruhová, Stepánka; Boucek, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -onset diabetes of the young (MODY). SPK was performed in a 47-year old man who has MODY3 because of a Arg272His mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alphagene. He developed overt diabetes mellitus at 19 years and end-stage diabetic nephropathy 26 years thereafter. Before SPK, the patient had measurable....... CONCLUSION: Identification of MODY3 among all C-peptide-positive patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy might help to select a specific group profiting from SPK.......BACKGROUND AND CASE: Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) is applied almost exclusively in C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic patients, although some data on SPK in type 2 diabetes have been published as well. Nothing is known about SPK in the autosomal diabetes form, maturity...

  1. Type 1 diabetes: New horizons in prediction and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Natasha N; Wherrett, Diane K

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and our ability to predict risk for the condition. This knowledge is being used to develop new and innovative strategies to prevent type 1 diabetes or to prevent further destruction of beta cells in those who are newly diagnosed. Several multicentre studies are underway investigating the natural history of the disease, the genetics behind the disease and ways to stop the autoimmune reaction against beta cells (Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium and the Trial to Reduce Diabetes in the Genetically at Risk [TRIGR] Study Group). The stage is set to find an agent or strategy to prevent type 1 diabetes or to preserve the residual beta cell mass in new-onset patients.

  2. Femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Akira; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Saito, Masazumi; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Hayashi, Shigeki; Ishida, Masashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis rabbit model by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Steroid-induced osteonecrosis was produced by single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone in 15 rabbits. Eight rabbits underwent PEMF stimulation (PEMF group) and seven did not (control group). DCE-MRI was performed before PEMF stimulation, immediately before steroid administration, and 1, 5, 10, and 14 days after steroid administration. Regions of interest were set in the bilateral proximal femora. Enhancement ratio (ER), initial slope (IS), and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. ER, IS, and AUC in the control group significantly decreased after steroid administration compared with before administration (P<0.05). In PEMF group, IS significantly decreased; however, ER and AUC showed no significant differences after steroid administration compared with before. ER and IS in PEMF group were higher than in control group until 10th day, and AUC was higher until 5th day after steroid administration (P<0.05). PEMF stimulation restrains the decrease in blood flow after steroid administration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Steroid injection for shoulder pain causes prolonged increased glucose level in type 1 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Povlsen, Bo; Povlsen, Sebastian D

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common in diabetic patients and often treated with steroid injections, with subsequent increases in blood glucose levels or the need for additional insulin being questioned. We report a case of significant and prolonged elevation of blood glucose levels and resultant insulin requirement in a type 1 diabetic man after a single 40 mg injection of triamcinolone for shoulder pain. Within 48 h, the shoulder pain as assessed by a visual analogue scale (0–10) was reduced to zer...

  4. Steroid - induced rosacea: A clinical study of 200 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen J Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Topical corticosteroids were first introduced for use in 1951. Since then uncontrolled use (abuse has caused many different reactions resembling rosacea - steroid dermatitis or iatrosacea. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: The aim was to study the adverse effects of topical steroid abuse and the response to various treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients with a history of topical steroid use on face for more than 1 month were studied clinically and various treatments tried. Results: The duration of topical corticosteroid use varied from 1 month to 20 years with an average of 19.76 months. Majority of patients were using potent (class II topical steroids for trivial facial dermatoses. The common adverse effects were erythema, telangiectasia, xerosis, hyperpigmentation, photosensitivity, and rebound phenomenon. No significant change in laboratory investigations was seen. Conclusion: A combination of oral antibiotics and topical tacrolimus is the treatment of choice for steroid-induced rosacea.

  5. Edaravone Protect against Retinal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Ping; Yuan, Songtao; Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Xiaojun; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, is used for the clinical treatment of retinal injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of edaravone against diabetic retinal damage in the mouse. Diabetic retinopathy in the mouse was induced by injection of streptozotocin. Edaravone was given once-daily and was intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated at a dose of 3 mg/kg from streptozotocin injection to 4 weeks after onset of diabetes. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) damage was evaluated by recording the pattern electroretinogram (ERG). RGCs damage was also detected by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined fluorometrically. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, BDNF, and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Retinal levels of ROS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the retinas of diabetic mice, compared to nondiabetic mice. Administration of edaravone significantly attenuated diabetes induced RGCs death, upregulation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of BDNF. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in diabetic retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of retinal neuropathy induced by diabetes. PMID:24897298

  6. Edaravone protect against retinal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yuan

    Full Text Available Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one, a free radical scavenger, is used for the clinical treatment of retinal injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of edaravone against diabetic retinal damage in the mouse. Diabetic retinopathy in the mouse was induced by injection of streptozotocin. Edaravone was given once-daily and was intraperitoneally (i.p. treated at a dose of 3 mg/kg from streptozotocin injection to 4 weeks after onset of diabetes. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs damage was evaluated by recording the pattern electroretinogram (ERG. RGCs damage was also detected by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were determined fluorometrically. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, BDNF, and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Retinal levels of ROS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the retinas of diabetic mice, compared to nondiabetic mice. Administration of edaravone significantly attenuated diabetes induced RGCs death, upregulation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of BDNF. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in diabetic retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of retinal neuropathy induced by diabetes.

  7. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  8. New-onset diabetes mellitus developing in Asian adult living donor liver transplant recipients: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Nobuhiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Kaneko, Junichi; Tamura, Sumihito; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after liver transplantation is a common complication with a potentially negative impact on patient outcome. To evaluate the incidence of NODM and its impact on Asian adult living donor liver transplant (LDLT) recipients, we investigated 369 adult LDLT cases in our institute. Preoperative diabetes mellitus (DM) was diagnosed in 38 (9 %) patients. NODM was observed in 128/331 (38 %) patients, 56 (44 %) with persistent NODM and 72 (56 %) with transient NODM. The mean interval between LDLT and the development of NODM was 0.6 ± 1.8 (range 0-1.4) months. Multivariate analyssis revealed that older age, being male and having a higher body mass index were independent risk factors among recipients for developing NODM, while hepatitis C virus infection was not a significant risk factor, and DM had no impact on patient outcome. Although the long-term effect of DM on outcome remains to be investigated, the presence of DM after liver transplant, whether it was NODM or preexisting DM, had no impact on LDLT recipients' outcomes in mid-term. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  9. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Herder, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    . Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response......Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating...... of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures...

  10. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T-T; Wang, A-P; Lu, J-X; Chen, M-Y; Zhao, C-C; Tang, Z-H; Li, L-X; Jia, W-P

    2018-03-21

    As the prevalence and clinical characteristics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are still unknown in ketosis-onset diabetes, the present study compared the characteristics of NAFLD in type 1 diabetes (T1D), ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. This cross-sectional study was performed with newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes, including 39 T1D, 165 ketosis-onset and 173 non-ketotic T2D, with 30 non-diabetics included as controls. NAFLD was determined by hepatic ultrasonography, then its clinical features were analyzed and its associated risk factors evaluated. NAFLD prevalence in patients with ketosis-onset diabetes (61.8%) was significantly higher than in controls (23.3%; P=0.003) and in T1D patients (15.4%; Pketosis-onset and non-ketotic T2D patients (52.6%; P=0.229), although BMI and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) proved to be independent risk factors for the presence of NAFLD in both these groups whereas, in T1D patients, serum uric acid levels were independent risk factors. NAFLD prevalence and risk factors in ketosis-onset diabetes were similar to those in non-ketotic T2D, but different from those in T1D. These data provide further evidence that ketosis-onset diabetes should be classified as a subtype of T2D rather than idiopathic T1D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of maturity onset diabetes of the young in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena V Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is highly prevalent in India and the proportion of younger patients developing diabetes is on the increase. Apart from the more universally known type 1 diabetes and obesity related type 2 diabetes, monogenic forms of diabetes are also suspected to be prevalent in many young diabetic patients. The identification of the genetic basis of the disease not only guides in therapeutic decision making, but also aids in genetic counselling and prognostication. Genetic testing may establish the occurrence and frequency of early diabetes in our population. This review attempts to explore the utilities and horizons of molecular genetics in the field of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY, which include the commoner forms of monogenic diabetes.

  12. Maturity onset diabetes of the young : Seek and you will find

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel-Borsboom, H; de Valk, H W; Losekoot, M; Westerink, J

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic, autosomal dominant form of diabetes characterised by mutations in genes resulting in dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells and subsequent insulin production. We present a family with HNF1A-MODY due to a likely pathogenic mutation in HNF1A

  13. Diabetic subjects diagnosed through the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) are often asymptomatic with normal A1C at diabetes onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, Taylor M; Chase, H Peter; Barker, Jennifer M

    2009-05-01

    Upon diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, patients are usually symptomatic, and many have ketoacidosis. Screening for islet autoantibodies (IAs) has been shown to decrease A1C level and rate of hospitalization at diabetes onset. Metabolic tests and the presence of symptoms were described at diabetes onset during the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1). The DPT-1 screened relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes for islet cell autoantiobodies (ICAs). Those with positive ICAs had intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs and OGTTs) and were randomized into one of two prevention trials. Throughout the DPT-1 parenteral and oral insulin study, 246 people were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Of the 246 subjects diagnosed with diabetes, 218 had data regarding the presence of symptoms, and 138 (63.3%) reported no symptoms suggestive of diabetes. Eight subjects (3.67%) presented with ketosis. Subjects presented with a mean +/- SD A1C of 6.41 +/- 1.15%. At diagnosis, 90 subjects (50.8%) had A1C in the normal range (IA followed by OGTT) may allow diagnosis of diabetes before severe metabolic decompensation. Screening with A1C will miss identifying many of the subjects with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes in this cohort.

  14. Population-Level Incidence and Predictors of Surgically Induced Diabetes and Exocrine Insufficiency after Partial Pancreatic Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Irmina A; Epelboym, Irene; Winner, Megan; Allendorf, John D; Haigh, Philip I

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after partial pancreatectomy affect quality of life, cardiovascular health, and nutritional status. However, their incidence and predictors are unknown. To identify the incidence and predictors of new-onset diabetes and exocrine insufficiency after partial pancreatectomy. We retrospectively reviewed 1165 cases of partial pancreatectomy, performed from 1998 to 2010, from a large population-based database. Incidence of new onset diabetes and exocrine insufficiency RESULTS: Of 1165 patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy, 41.8% had preexisting diabetes. In the remaining 678 patients, at a median 3.6 months, diabetes developed in 274 (40.4%) and pancreatic insufficiency developed in 235 (34.7%) patients. Independent predictors of new-onset diabetes were higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.62 for CCI of 1, p = 0.02; HR = 1.95 for CCI ≥ 2, p pancreatitis (HR = 1.51, p = 0.03). There was no difference in diabetes after Whipple procedure vs distal pancreatic resections, or malignant vs benign pathologic findings. Independent predictors of exocrine insufficiency were female sex (HR = 1.32, p = 0.002) and higher CCI (HR = 1.85 for CCI of 1, p insufficiency (HR = 0.35, p endocrine and exocrine insufficiency were 40% and 35%, respectively. These data are critical for informing patients' and physicians' expectations.

  15. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozo...

  16. Interleukin-1 antagonism in type 1 diabetes of recent onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Antoinette; Bundy, Brian; Becker, Dorothy J

    2013-01-01

    Innate immunity contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, but until now no randomised, controlled trials of blockade of the key innate immune mediator interleukin-1 have been done. We aimed to assess whether canakinumab, a human monoclonal anti-interleukin-1...... antibody, or anakinra, a human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, improved β-cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes....

  17. Resolution of ketoacidosis in children with new onset diabetes: Evaluation of various definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oettingen, Julia E; Rhodes, Erinn T; Wolfsdorf, Joseph I

    2018-01-01

    Data are sparse concerning use of serum electrolyte parameters as compared to venous blood gas (VBG) measurements to monitor acid-base status during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We explored the utility of various parameters to define DKA resolution by investigating the relationship of venous pH (vpH), anion gap (AG), serum bicarbonate (HCO 3 ), and glucose concentration during management of DKA in children with new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM). We included all patients with NODM presenting with DKA to Boston Children's Hospital from 10/1/07-7/1/13. DKA was defined as serum glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) and vpHvpH≥7.30 and AG≤18 mmol/L. We used Cox regression to determine time to DKA resolution, and logistic regression to evaluate different serum HCO 3 cut-off values as predictors of DKA resolution. 263 patients (133F, mean age 9.9±4.4 years, 74% White) were included. DKA was mild in 134 (51%), moderate in 75 (28%) and severe in 54 (20%). In mild DKA, AG closed after normalization of vpH; in moderate and severe DKA, AG closed before normalization of vpH. HCO 3 >15mmol/L correlated with vpH≥7.30, and had 76% sensitivity and 85% specificity to predict DKA resolution. Median times to DKA resolution were similar using two different definitions: vpH and AG (8.4h [IQR 6.3-11.9]) vs. HCO 3 >15 mmol/L (7.9 h [IQR 5.0-11.8]), p=.42. During management of pediatric DKA, HCO 3  > 15 mmol/L reliably predicts resolution of DKA. In low-resource settings where VBG is unavailable, electrolyte parameters alone may be used to determine DKA resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young--MODY. Molekylaergenetiske, patofysiologiske og kliniske karakteristika

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Urhammer, Søren A; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye

    2002-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous subtype of type 2 diabetes characterised by an early onset, an autosomal dominant inheritance, and a primary defect in insulin secretion. MODY comprises 2-5% of cases of type 2 diabetes. So far, six MODY genes...... have been identified (MODY1-6): hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF-4 alpha), glucokinase, HNF-1 alpha, HNF-1 beta, insulin promoter factor 1(IPF-1), and neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NEUROD1). MODY2 and MODY3 are the most common forms of MODY. Mutations in glucokinase/MODY2 result in a mild form...... of diabetes. In contrast, MODY3 and some of the other MODY forms are characterised by major insulin secretory defects and severe hyperglycaemia associated with microvascular complications. About 25% of known MODY is caused by mutations in yet unknown genes and present results suggest that other monogenic...

  19. New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes due to nivolumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Zaied

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death-1 receptor, is increasingly used in advanced cancers. While nivolumab use enhances cancer therapy, it is associated with increased immune-related adverse events. We describe an elderly man who presented in ketoacidosis after receiving nivolumab for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. On presentation, he was hyperpneic and laboratory analyses showed hyperglycemia and anion-gapped metabolic acidosis consistent with diabetic ketoacidosis. No other precipitating factors, besides nivolumab, were identified. Pre-nivolumab blood glucose levels were normal. The patient responded to treatment with intravenous fluids, insulin and electrolyte replacement. He was diagnosed with insulin-dependent autoimmune diabetes mellitus secondary to nivolumab. Although nivolumab was stopped, he continued to require multiple insulin injection therapy till his last follow-up 7 months after presentation. Clinicians need to be alerted to the development of diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis in patients receiving nivolumab.

  20. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  1. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical features of atherosclerotic lesions in ketosis-onset diabetes are largely absent. We aimed to compare the characteristics of lower limb atherosclerotic lesions among type 1, ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes, including 53 type 1 diabetics with positive islet-associated autoantibodies, 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, and 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics. Sixty-two subjects without diabetes were used as control. Femoral intima-media thickness (FIMT), lower limb atherosclerotic plaque and stenosis were evaluated and compared among the four groups based on ultrasonography. The risk factors associated with lower limb atherosclerotic plaque were evaluated via binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of lower limb plaque in the patients with ketosis-onset diabetes (47.6%) was significantly higher than in the control subjects (25.8%, p = 0.013), and showed a higher trend compared with the patients with type 1 diabetes (39.6%, p = 0.072), but no difference was observed in comparison to the patients with non-ketotic type 2 diabetes (62.3%, p = 0.859). The mean FIMT in the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.73 ± 0.17 mm) was markedly greater than that in the control subjects (0.69 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.045) after controlling for age and sex, but no significant differences were found between the ketosis-onset diabetics and the type 1 diabetics (0.71 ± 0.16 mm, p = 0.373), and the non-ketotic type 2 diabetics (0.80 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.280), respectively. Age and FIMT were independent risk factors for the presence of lower limb plaque in both the ketosis-onset and non-ketotic type 2 diabetic patients, while sex and age in the type 1 diabetic patients. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of lower limb

  2. Determinants of Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control in New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLong-term durable glycemic control is a difficult goal in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We evaluated the factors associated with durable glycemic control in a real clinical setting.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 194 new-onset, drug-naïve patients with T2DM who were diagnosed between January 2011 and March 2013, and were followed up for >2 years. Glycemic durability was defined as the maintenance of optimal glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] <7.0% for 2 years without substitution or adding other glucose-lowering agents. Clinical factors and glycemic markers associated with glycemic durability were compared between two groups: a durability group and a non-durability group.ResultsPatients in the durability group had a higher baseline body mass index (26.1 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2 and lower HbA1c (8.6% vs. 9.7% than the non-durability group. The initial choice of glucose-lowering agents was similar in both groups, except for insulin and sulfonylureas, which were more frequently prescribed in the non-durability group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, higher levels of education, physical activity, and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β were associated with glycemic durability. Notably, lower HbA1c (<7.0% at baseline and first follow-up were significantly associated with glycemic durability (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.51 to 22.3 (adjusted OR, 9.27; 95% CI, 1.62 to 53.1, respectively, after adjusting for confounding variables including the types of glucose-lowering agents.ConclusionEarly achievement of HbA1c level within the glycemic target was a determinant of long-term glycemic durability in new-onset T2DM, as were higher levels of education, physical activity, and HOMA-β.

  3. Heterogeneity in Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes – A Clinical Trial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollyky, Jennifer B.; Xu, Ping; Butte, Atul J.; Wilson, Darrell M.; Beam, Craig A.; Greenbaum, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet is an NIH-sponsored clinical trial network aimed at altering the disease course of type 1 diabetes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate age-dependent heterogeneity in clinical, metabolic, and immunologic characteristics of individuals with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), to identify cohorts of interest and to aid in planning of future studies. Methods 883 individuals with recent onset T1D involved in five TrialNet studies were categorized by age as: ≥ 18, age 12-17, ages 8-12, and age TrialNet studies, including C-peptide >0.2 pmol/ml, varies by age. Lower C-peptide level requirements for younger participants should be considered in the design of future trials. These data also highlight subgroups of type 1 diabetes patients, such as those with abnormal WBC or who are overweight, which allow for targeted studies of etiopathology and interventions. PMID:25689602

  4. Type 2 diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for the onset of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouwen, Arie; Winkley, Kirsty; Twisk, Jos W R

    2010-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An earlier meta-analysis showed that diabetes is a risk factor for the development and/or recurrence of depression. Yet whether this risk is different for studies using questionnaires than for those relying on diagnostic criteria for depression has not been examined. This study...... examined the association of diabetes and the onset of depression by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic. METHODS: EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to September 2009. All studies that examined the relationship...... between type 2 diabetes and the onset of depression were included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models. RESULTS: Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Based on the pooled data, including 48,808 cases of type 2 diabetes without depression...

  5. New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus: More Investigations, More Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dillien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital with recurrent seizures. Status epilepticus developed that became refractory to third-line therapy with propofol and barbiturates. The patient had a very extensive diagnostic workup including autoimmune, viral and genetic investigations. A tentative immune therapy was proposed with high doses of steroids and plasma exchanges. Our patient had an inherited heterozygous single nucleotide variant in the sequence c.1280A>G [p.Lys427Arg] of the SMC3 gene that was insufficient to explain the seizures. Surprisingly, IgM antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus were positive on the serum drawn 11 days after symptom onset, as detected by ELISA and the immunofluorescence antibody (IFA technique. IgG antibodies were also positive using the IFA technique, but not with ELISA. The same investigations as well as the detection of the viral genome by the q-RT-PCR technique were negative on cerebrospinal fluid. Despite the suspicion of a viral infection, we concluded that our patient had a new-onset refractory status epilepticus of cryptogenic origin. Termination of the status epilepticus was obtained after 47 days, with a possible benefit from the introduction of ketamine.

  6. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a patient with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 13 (MODY13 with a the potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (KCNJ11 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Griscelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterozygous activating mutation (p.Glu227Lys in KCNJ11 leads to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY type 13, that is a subtype of dominant inherited young-onset non-autoimmune diabetes due to a primary defect in pancreatic beta cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from a patient with KCNJ11p.Glu227Lys mutation who developed MODY at 13 years old. KCNJ11p.Glu227Lys-mutated cells that were reprogrammed by non-integrative viral transduction had normal karyotype, harboured the KCNJ11p.Glu227Lys mutation, expressed pluripotency hallmarks and had the differentiation capacity into the three germ layers.

  7. Effects of neuroactive steroids on cochlear hair cell death induced by gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamagoe, Mariko; Tabuchi, Keiji; Nishimura, Bungo; Hara, Akira

    2011-12-11

    As neuroactive steroids, sex steroid hormones have non-reproductive effects. We previously reported that 17β-estradiol (βE2) had protective effects against gentamicin (GM) ototoxicity in the cochlea. In the present study, we examined whether the protective action of βE2 on GM ototoxicity is mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER) and whether other estrogens (17α-estradiol (αE2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3)) and other neuroactive steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and progesterone (P), have similar protective effects. The basal turn of the organ of Corti was dissected from Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured in a medium containing 100 μM GM for 48h. The effects of βE2 and ICI 182,780, a selective ER antagonist, were examined. In addition, the effects of other estrogens, DHEA and P were tested using this culture system. Loss of outer hair cells induced by GM exposure was compared among groups. βE2 exhibited a protective effect against GM ototoxicity, but its protective effect was antagonized by ICI 182,780. αE2, E1, and E3 also protected hair cells against gentamicin ototoxicity. DHEA showed a protective effect; however, the addition of ICI 182,780 did not affect hair cell loss. P did not have any effect on GM-induced outer hair cell death. The present findings suggest that estrogens and DHEA are protective agents against GM ototoxicity. The results of the ER antagonist study also suggest that the protective action of βE2 is mediated via ER but that of DHEA is not related to its conversion to estrogen and binding to ER. Further studies on neuroactive steroids may lead to new insights regarding cochlear protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential nephrotoxic effects produced by steroidal saponins from hydro alcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sonia; Srinivasan, B P; Akarte, Atul S

    2013-09-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of microvascular complications like diabetic nephropathy. The present study investigated the potential effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Tribulus terrestris, a plant of Zygophyllaceae family, on the renal complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by administering STZ (90 mg/kg) to the 2-days old neonates. After 6 weeks of induction, diabetic rats were treated with 50 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of T. terrestris for 8 weeks. The anti-hyperglycaemic nature was confirmed by reduction in blood glucose and improvement in insulin levels. Diabetic renal injury associated with decrease in total proteins and albumin levels was observed to be improved by T. terrestris extract. Glomerular filtration rate along with inflammatory and growth factors, adiponectin and erythropoietin were also improved by the treatment, though the findings were not significant. However, the beneficial antidiabetic effects of T. terrestris extract in plasma were not observed in kidney histopathology. This was confirmed by the quantitative estimation of unhydrolyzed fraction of saponins (major component: protodioscin) in plasma and kidney samples of normal and diabetic rats. Hence, it can be concluded that 8 weeks treatment with T. terrestris extract produces potential toxic effects in kidney, which are independent of its anti-diabetic action.

  9. Clinical value of NPHS2 analysis in early- and adult-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Sheila; Tazón-Vega, Bárbara; Silva, Irene; Cobo, María Ángeles; Giménez, Isabel; Ruíz, Patricia; García-Maset, Rafael; Ballarín, José; Torra, Roser; Ars, Elisabet

    2011-02-01

    To date, very few cases with adult-onset focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) carrying NPHS2 variants have been described, all of them being compound heterozygous for the p.R229Q variant and one pathogenic mutation. Mutation analysis was performed in 148 unrelated Spanish patients, of whom 50 presented with FSGS after 18 years of age. Pathogenicity of amino acid substitutions was evaluated through an in silico scoring system. Haplotype analysis was carried out using NPHS2 single nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Compound heterozygous or homozygous NPHS2 pathogenic mutations were identified in seven childhood-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) cases. Six additional cases with late childhood- and adult-onset SRNS were compound heterozygotes for p.R229Q and one pathogenic mutation, mostly p.A284V. p.R229Q was more frequent among SRNS cases relative to controls (odds ratio=2.65; P=0.02). Significantly higher age at onset of the disease and slower progression to ESRD were found in patients with one pathogenic mutation plus the p.R229Q variant in respect to patients with two NPHS2 pathogenic mutations. NPHS2 analysis has a clinical value in both childhood- and adult-onset SRNS patients. For adult-onset patients, the first step should be screening for p.R229Q and, if positive, for p.A284V. These alleles are present in conserved haplotypes, suggesting a common origin for these substitutions. Patients carrying this specific NPHS2 allele combination did not respond to corticoids or immunosuppressors and showed FSGS, average 8-year progression to ESRD, and low risk for recurrence of FSGS after kidney transplant.

  10. Disease progression and search for monogenic diabetes among children with new onset type 1 diabetes negative for ICA, GAD- and IA-2 Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Beaufort Carine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate disease progression the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes negative (AAB negative for pancreatic autoantibodies [islet cell autoantibodies(ICA, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 antibodies (IA-2A]. Furthermore the study aimed at determining whether mutations in KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A or INS are common in AAB negative diabetes. Materials and methods In 261 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes, we measured residual β-cell function, ICA, GADA, and IA-2A at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. The genes KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS were sequenced in subjects AAB negative at diagnosis. We expressed recombinant K-ATP channels in Xenopus oocytes to analyse the functional effects of an ABCC8 mutation. Results Twenty-four patients (9.1% tested AAB negative after one month. Patients, who were AAB-negative throughout the 12-month period, had higher residual β-cell function (P = 0.002, lower blood glucose (P = 0.004, received less insulin (P = 0.05 and had lower HbA1c (P = 0.02 12 months after diagnosis. One patient had a heterozygous mutation leading to the substitution of arginine at residue 1530 of SUR1 (ABCC8 by cysteine. Functional analyses of recombinant K-ATP channels showed that R1530C markedly reduced the sensitivity of the K-ATP channel to inhibition by MgATP. Morover, the channel was highly sensitive to sulphonylureas. However, there was no effect of sulfonylurea treatment after four weeks on 1.0-1.2 mg/kg/24 h glibenclamide. Conclusion GAD, IA-2A, and ICA negative children with new onset type 1 diabetes have slower disease progression as assessed by residual beta-cell function and improved glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis. One out of 24 had a mutation in ABCC8, suggesting that screening of ABCC8 should be considered in patients with AAB negative type 1 diabetes.

  11. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A. [Cell Systems Division, Invitrogen, Madison, WI (United States); Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Mais, Dale E. [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); MPI Research, Mattawan, MI (United States); Wang, Ming-Wei, E-mail: wangmw@mail.shcnc.ac.cn [The National Center for Drug Screening, Shanghai (China); State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2010-01-15

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K{sub i} = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  12. Characterization of a novel non-steroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qun-Yi; Zhang, Meng; Hallis, Tina M.; DeRosier, Therese A.; Yue, Jian-Min; Ye, Yang; Mais, Dale E.; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Selective antagonists of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are desirable for the treatment of hypercortisolemia associated with Cushing's syndrome, psychic depression, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and glaucoma. NC3327, a non-steroidal small molecule with potent binding affinity to GR (K i = 13.2 nM), was identified in a high-throughput screening effort. As a full GR antagonist, NC3327 greatly inhibits the dexamethasone (Dex) induction of marker genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, but has a minimal effect on matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a GR responsive pro-inflammatory gene. Interestingly, the compound recruits neither coactivators nor corepressors to the GR complex but competes with glucocorticoids for the interaction between GR and a coactivator peptide. Moreover, NC3327 does not trigger GR nuclear translocation, but significantly blocks Dex-induced GR transportation to the nucleus, and thus appears to be a 'competitive' GR antagonist. Therefore, the non-steroidal compound, NC3327, may represent a new class of GR antagonists as potential therapeutics for a variety of cortisol-related endocrine disorders.

  13. Diagnostik og behandling af maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Kathrine; Christensen, Alexander Sidelmann; Storgaard, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3) is the most prevalent type of monogenetic diabetes. Treatment guidelines differ from both Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. First-line treatment is a long-acting sulphonylurea, which lowers the plasma glucose level effectively, however...... with the risk of hypoglycaemia. When hypoglycaemia is a problem, short-acting sulphonylureas, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors may be used as alternatives. Metformin, glitazones and sodium glucose transporter 2-inhibitors have only limited applicability in MODY3...

  14. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young as a model for elucidating the multifactorial origin of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Yukio

    2018-02-06

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a form of diabetes classically characterized as having autosomal dominant inheritance, onset before the age of 25 years in at least one family member and partly preserved pancreatic β-cell function. The 14 responsible genes are reported to be MODY type 1~14, of which MODY 2 and 3 might be the most common forms. Although MODY is currently classified as diabetes of a single gene defect, it has become clear that mutations in rare MODYs, such as MODY 5 and MODY 6, have small mutagenic effects and low penetrance. In addition, as there are differences in the clinical phenotypes caused by the same mutation even in the same family, other phenotypic modifying factors are thought to exist; MODY could well have characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is of multifactorial origin. Here, we outline the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the known phenotypes of MODY, focusing mainly on the examples of MODY 5 and 6, which have low penetrance, as suggestive models for elucidating the multifactorial origin of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Síndrome nefrótica córtico-sensível e diabetes mellitus tipo 1 de início simultâneo Simultaneous onset of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Rego Filho

    2003-11-01

    with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome coexisting with type-1 diabetes mellitus. The interest to this clinical case is due to the unusual association of these diseases, the clinical symptoms and laboratory tests used to confirm diagnosis and the difficulties on corticotherapy. DESCRIPTION: Nephrotic syndrome was diagnosed in a boy (age 3 years and 11 months with generalized edema. Marked weight loss (23 to 16 kg, polyuria, polydipsia and weakness were observed after three weeks of treatment with prednisone 2 mg/kg/day. Diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed by laboratory tests: hyperglycemia (glucose 657 mg/dl, glycosuria without proteinuria, acidosis and ketonuria. Therapy with insulin and prednisone was started. He was then maintained on a daily dose of NPH insulin. At age 4 years and 1 month a new episode of ketoacidosis without proteinuria occurred in association with a viral infection of the upper airways. At age 4 years and 4 months nephrotic syndrome relapsed, but the child responded well to steroid therapy. There was another relapse three months later, when prednisone treatment was interrupted. This led to the introduction of cyclophosphamide, with good results. Since then, the patient (now 5 years and 6 months old has been taking insulin daily and nephrotic syndrome has not relapsed. Plasma levels of C3 and C4 and renal function are normal. Hematuria is occasionally present. Anti-GAD antibodies (glutamic decarboxilase are normal and anti-islet cell antibodies are positive. HLA antigens: A2; B44; B52; DR4; DR8; DR53. COMMENTS: The simultaneous occurrence of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and type-1 diabetes mellitus is rare. The literature data, the familiar pattern and studies on HLA antigens are discussed.

  16. Diabetic ketoacidosis at the onset of type 1 diabetes is associated with future HbA(1c) levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, S; Johannesen, J; Johansen, A

    2013-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the long-term impact of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at onset on metabolic regulation and residual beta cell function in a Danish population with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The study is based on data from DanDiabKids, a Danish national diabetes register for children....... The register provides clinical and biochemical data on patients with type 1 diabetes diagnosed in 1996-2009 and then followed-up until 1 January 2012. Repeated-measurement models were used as statistical methods. RESULTS: The study population comprised 2,964 children...

  17. Effect of Topical Calcium Channel Blockers on Intraocular Pressure in Steroid-induced Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganekal, Sunil; Dorairaj, Syril; Jhanji, Vishal; Kudlu, Krishnaprasad

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 0.125% verapamil and 0.5% diltiazem eye drops on intraocular pressure (IOP) in steroid-induced glaucoma in rabbit eyes. A total of 18 rabbits with steroid-induced glaucoma were divided into three groups (A, B and C; n = 6 each). Right eyes in groups A, B and C received 0.5% diltiazem, 0.125% verapamil and 0.5% timolol eye drops twice daily for 12 days, respectively; whereas, left eyes received distilled water. IOP was measured with Tono-pen XL at baseline, day 4, day 8, and day 12 of treatment. Both 0.5% diltiazem and 0.125% verapamil eye drops significantly reduced IOP compared to control eyes (p cite this article: Ganekal S, Dorairaj S, Jhanji V, Kudlu K. Effect of Topical Calcium Channel Blockers on Intraocular Pressure in Steroid-induced Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2014;8(1):15-19.

  18. Gonadal steroids modulate Fas-induced apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaita, Gabriela; Zárate, Sandra; Ferrari, Luciana; Radl, Daniela; Ferraris, Jimena; Eijo, Guadalupe; Zaldivar, Verónica; Pisera, Daniel; Seilicovich, Adriana

    2011-02-01

    We have previously reported that Fas activation induces apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells from rats at proestrus but not at diestrus and in an estrogen-dependent manner. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Fas activation on apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes during the estrous cycle and explored the action of gonadal steroids on Fas-induced apoptosis. Also, we studied whether changes in Fas expression are involved in the apoptotic response of anterior pituitary cells. Fas activation increased the percentage of TUNEL-positive lactotropes and somatotropes at proestrus but not at diestrus. FasL triggered apoptosis of somatotropes only when cells from ovariectomized rats were cultured in the presence of 17 β-estradiol (E2). Progesterone (P4) blocked the apoptotic action of the Fas/FasL system in lactotropes and somatotropes incubated with E2. Both E2 and P4 increased the percentage of cells expressing Fas at the cell membrane. Our results show that Fas activation induces apoptosis of lactotropes and somatotropes at proestrus but not at diestrus. Gonadal steroids may be involved in the apoptotic response of lactotropes and somatotropes, suggesting that Fas activation is implicated in the renewal of these pituitary subpopulations during the estrous cycle. The effect of gonadal steroids on Fas expression may be only partially involved in regulation of the Fas/FasL apoptotic pathway in the anterior pituitary gland.

  19. Effects of oral contraceptive agents and sex steroids on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, R K

    1972-01-01

    The article offers a general interpretation of the influence of oral contraceptive agents on glucose tolerance, emphasizing comparisons of synthetic sex hormones. Although there are conflicting reports on steroid-induced diabetes in normal women, their glucose curves are often higher when under oral contraceptive treatment, suggesting that oral contraceptives may induce a form of subclinical diabetes melitus that is reversible. Evidence from diabetic women suggests definite deliterious effects from contraceptive administration. Estradiol, estriol, and estrone may improve glucose tolerance in nondiabetic women and reduce insulin requirements in diabetics. Progesterone has little effect on carbohydrate tolerance, as did synthetic progestin. Conjugated equine estrogens (equilenine or Premarin) may provoke mild to moderate deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Parenterally administered natural estrogens and orally administered synthetic derivatives appear to differ sharply in their effects. Sex hormones' effects on carbohydrate metabolism likely involve interactions with insulin and endogenous glucocorticoids.

  20. Diabetes and onset of natural menopause : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J. S.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Eijkemans, M. J C; Tjønneland, A.; Roswall, N.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Dossus, L.; Lukanova, A.; Grote, V.; Bergmann, M. M.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Tzivoglou, M.; Trichopoulos, D.; Grioni, S.; Mattiello, A.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.; Weiderpass, E.; Redondo, M. L.; Sánchez, M. J.; Castaño, J. M Huerta; Arriola, L.; Ardanaz, E.; Duell, E. J.; Rolandsson, O.; Franks, P. W.; Butt, S.; Nilsson, P.; Khaw, K. T.; Wareham, N.; Travis, R.; Romieu, I.; Gunter, M. J.; Riboli, E.; Van Der Schouw, Y. T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do women who have diabetes before menopause have their menopause at an earlier age compared with women without diabetes? SUMMARY ANSWER Although there was no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, our study suggests that early-onset diabetes may accelerate

  1. Evaluation of Anticonvulsive ٍEffect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles in Comparison with Conventional MgO in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jahangiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some studies show magnesium has anticonvulsive effect in some animal models. Despite of the availability of well-studied anticonvulsant drugs, this evaluation was not carried on new kind of magnesium supplement, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (nMgO. According to the interaction between magnesium and convulsion, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nMgO on strychnine-induced convulsive model in compared to its conventional in diabetic and normal mice. Methods: Healthy male albino mice were divided to 10 groups. Diabete mellitus was induced by streptozocin in 5 groups. Conventional and nanoparticle MgO (5&10mg/kg in presence and absence diabetes injected to mice, then strychnine injected and onset of convulsions and time of death were measured after strychnine administration. Results: Convulsive parameters did not change in normal and diabetic mice. cMgO pretreatment did not have anticonvulsant effect in strychnine-induced convulsion in normal and diabetic mice. But nMgO significantly changed convulsion onset and death time after strychnine administration in normal and diabetic status. Discussion: According to our results It seems that nMgO may be important in prevention or treatment of epilepsy and has more efficacy than its conventional form to showing anticonvulsive effect that probably is related to the physicochemical properties of nMgO, specially in diabetic subjects, a point that need to further investigation.

  2. RISK-FACTORS, PATHOGENESIS, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES FOR TREATMENT OF STEROID-INDUCED BONE INFARCTION OF FEMORAL HEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yang; Hu, Ningning; Miao, Xuman

    2016-01-01

    During first year of steroid usage, osteocyte necrosis and blood vessel blockage may occur, which subsequently may produce steroid-induced bone infarction (SIBI) resulting in painful movement of patient. For treatment of SIBI, pharmaceutical strategy is the basic approach. It involves the use of various pharmacologically active compounds including bisphosphonates, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), coenzyme Q10, erythropoietin, antihyperlipidemics, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and tissue repair protein. Out of these, there is no pharmaceutical agent that may completely treat this disease because many factors are found to be responsible for SIBI development; therefore, there are multiple biomarkers of this disease. This situation argues for need of new therapeutic agents for SIEB1.

  3. Anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy underlying acute liver failure in a young bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Miguel; Valente, Ana; Maldonado, Rosário; Palma, Rui; Glória, Helena; Nóbrega, João; Alexandrino, Paula

    2009-06-21

    Heart failure may lead to subclinical circulatory disturbances and remain an unrecognized cause of ischemic liver injury. We present the case of a previously healthy 40-year-old bodybuilder, referred to our Intensive-Care Unit of Hepatology for treatment of severe acute liver failure, with the suspicion of toxic hepatitis associated with anabolic steroid abuse. Despite the absence of symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at admission, an anabolic steroid-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with a large thrombus in both ventricles was found to be the underlying cause of the liver injury. Treatment for the initially unrecognized heart failure rapidly restored liver function to normal. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe acute liver failure due to an unrecognized anabolic steroid-induced cardiomyopathy. Awareness of this unique presentation will allow for prompt treatment of this potentially fatal cause of liver failure.

  4. Vorapaxar treatment reduces mesangial expansion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, JanWillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, C Arnold

    2018-04-24

    Twenty years after the onset of diabetes, up to 40% of patients develop diabetic nephropathy. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has recently been shown to aggravate the development of experimental diabetic nephropathy. PAR-1 deficient mice develop less albuminuria and glomerular lesions and PAR-1 stimulation induces proliferation and fibronectin production in mesangial cells in vitro . Vorapaxar is a clinically available PAR-1 inhibitor which is currently used for secondary prevention of ischemic events. The aim of this study was to investigate in a preclinical setting whether vorapaxar treatment may be a novel strategy to reduce diabetes-induced kidney damage. While control treated diabetic mice developed significant albuminuria, mesangial expansion and glomerular fibronectin deposition, diabetic mice on vorapaxar treatment did not show any signs of kidney damage despite having similar levels of hyperglycemia. These data show that PAR-1 inhibition by vorapaxar prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy in this preclinical animal model for type I diabetes and pinpoint PAR-1 as a novel therapeutic target to pursue in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. 22 C57Bl/6 mice were made diabetic using multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg) and 22 littermates served as non-diabetic controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, 11 mice of each group were assigned to control or vorapaxar treatment. Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks of treatment and kidney damage was evaluated.

  5. Depression as a risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, J.W.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.; Pouwer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Evidence strongly suggests that depression and type 2 diabetes are associated, but the direction of the association is still unclear. Depression may occur as a consequence of having diabetes, but may also be a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes. This study examined the

  6. Different Pathophysiological Phenotypes among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be considered a syndrome with several different pathophysiological mechanisms leading to hyperglycemia. Nonetheless, T2D is treated according to algorithms as if it was one disease entity. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of different pathophysiological phenotypes...... or secondary diabetes), classic obesity-associated insulin resistant diabetes ( f-P-C-peptide >= 568 pmol/l) and a normoinsulinopenic group (333 age of our new T2D patients was 61 years (range 21-95 years), 57% were men. We found that 3.0% newly diagnosed T2D patients...... suffered from LADA, 3.9% from secondary diabetes, 6.0% from steroid induced diabetes 5.9% had insulinopenic diabetes, whereas 56.7% presented the classic obesity-associated insulin-resistant phenotype. 24.6% was classified as normoinsulinopenic patients. Conclusion: We conclude that newly diagnosed T2D...

  7. Timing Is Everything: Age of Onset Influences Long-Term Retinopathy Risk in Type 2 Diabetes, Independent of Traditional Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Jencia; Molyneaux, Lynda; Constantino, Maria; Twigg, Stephen M.; Yue, Dennis K.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?To test the hypothesis that age of type 2 diabetes onset influences inherent susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy, independent of disease duration and degree of hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Retinopathy data from 624 patients with a type 2 diabetes duration of 20?30 years (group A) were analyzed by stratifying patients according to age of onset of diabetes and glycemic control. Retinopathy status was scored clinically as per a modified Early Treatment Diabetic Retinop...

  8. Protective effects of methanolic extract of Juglans regia L. leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiry, Davood; Khalatbary, Ali Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Talebpour Amiri, Fereshteh; Akbari, Esmaeil

    2017-10-02

    Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN), the most common and debilitating complications of diabetes mellitus. There is accumulating evidence that Juglans regia L. (GRL) leaf extract, a rich source of phenolic components, has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties. This study aimed to determine the protective effects of Juglans regia L. leaf extract against streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rat. The DPN rat model was generated by intraperitoneal injection of a single 55 mg/kg dose of streptozotocin (STZ). A subset of the STZ-induced diabetic rats intragastically administered with GRL leaf extract (200 mg/kg/day) before or after the onset of neuropathy, whereas other diabetic rats received only isotonic saline as the same volume of GRL leaf extract. To evaluate the effects of GRL leaf extract on the diabetic neuropathy various parameters, including histopathology and immunohistochemistry of apoptotic and inflammatory factors were assessed along with nociceptive and biochemical assessments. Degeneration of the sciatic nerves which was detected in the STZ-diabetic rats attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Greater caspase-3, COX-2, and iNOS expression could be detected in the STZ-diabetic rats, which were significantly attenuated after GRL leaf extract administration. Also, attenuation of lipid peroxidation and nociceptive response along with improved antioxidant status in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats were detected after GRL leaf extract administration. In other word, GRL leaf extract ameliorated the behavioral and structural indices of diabetic neuropathy even after the onset of neuropathy, in addition to blood sugar reduction. Our results suggest that GRL leaf extract exert preventive and curative effects against STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats which might be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. Protection against

  9. Far infra-red therapy promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and restores high glucose-suppressed endothelial progenitor cell functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Po-Hsun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Far infra-red (IFR therapy was shown to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular system, but effects of IFR on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC and EPC-related vasculogenesis remain unclear. We hypothesized that IFR radiation can restore blood flow recovery in ischemic hindlimb in diabetic mice by enhancement of EPCs functions and homing process. Materials and methods Starting at 4 weeks after the onset of diabetes, unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocine (STZ-induced diabetic mice, which were divided into control and IFR therapy groups (n = 6 per group. The latter mice were placed in an IFR dry sauna at 34°C for 30 min once per day for 5 weeks. Results Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio in the thermal therapy group was significantly increased beyond that in controls, and significantly greater capillary density was seen in the IFR therapy group. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired EPCs (Sca-1+/Flk-1+ mobilization after ischemia surgery in diabetic mice with or without IFR therapy (n = 6 per group. However, as compared to those in the control group, bone marrow-derived EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells defined as GFP+/CD31+ double-positive cells were significantly increased in ischemic tissue around the vessels in diabetic mice that received IFR radiation. In in-vitro studies, cultured EPCs treated with IFR radiation markedly augmented high glucose-impaired EPC functions, inhibited high glucose-induced EPC senescence and reduced H2O2 production. Nude mice received human EPCs treated with IFR in high glucose medium showed a significant improvement in blood flow recovery in ischemic limb compared to those without IFR therapy. IFR therapy promoted blood flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Conclusions Administration of IFR therapy promoted collateral flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced

  10. Metabolic risk profiles in diabetes stratified according to age at onset, islet autoimmunity and fasting C-peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wod, Mette; Yderstræde, Knud B; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Islet autoimmunity, age at onset and time to insulin treatment are often used to define subgroups of diabetes. However, the latter criterion is not clinical useful. Here, we examined whether an unbiased stratification of diabetes according to age at onset, fasting C-peptide and GAD......, fasting C-peptide above or below 300 pmol/l (CPEPhigh or CPEPlow), and presence or absence of GADab (GADpos or GADneg). HbA1c, BMI, blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine were evaluated. RESULTS: GADab were present in 13% of the cohort. Age at onset...... as GADposCPEPhigh; n=327) and patients with type 2 diabetes (GADnegCPEPhigh; n=3,544). Patients with LADA defined an intermediate group with higher HbA1c but otherwise lower cardiometabolic risk than patients with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that fasting C-peptide and GADab status...

  11. Nutritional correlates and dynamics of diabetes in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus: a novel model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslova Ekaterina

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and related chronic diseases, among them non-insulin-dependent (type 2 diabetes mellitus, are on the rise in the United States and throughout the world. Animal models that respond to environmental stressors, such as diet, are useful for investigating the outcome and development of these related diseases. Objective Within this context, growth and energy relationships were characterized in the Nile rat, an exotic African rodent, as a potential animal model for diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome. Methods Compiled data from several studies established the relationship between age, body weight gain (including abdominal adiposity, food and water consumption, and blood glucose levels as determinants of diabetes in male and female Nile rats. Glucose Tolerance Testing, insulin, HbA1c, blood pressure measurements and plasma lipids further characterized the diabetes in relation to criteria of the Metabolic Syndrome, while diet modification with high-fat, low-fiber or food restriction attempted to modulate the disease. Results The Nile rat fed lab chow demonstrates signs of the Metabolic Syndrome that evolve into diet-induced non-insulin-dependent (type 2 diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperinsulinemia with rising blood glucose (insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and impaired glucose clearance that precedes increased food and water intake, as well as elevated HbA1c, marked elevation in plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, microalbuminuria, and hypertension. Males are more prone than females with rapid progression to diabetes depending on the challenge diet. In males diabetes segregated into early-onset and late-onset groups, the former related to more rapid growth and greater growth efficiency for the calories consumed. Interestingly, no correlation was found between blood glucose and body mass index (overall adiposity in older male Nile rats in long term studies

  12. Pernicious anemia and juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus in an adolescent: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L C; Warrier, R P; Ducos, R S

    1989-02-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old black boy who developed juvenile-onset pernicious anemia in association with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. He had both intrinsic factor and parietal cell antibodies in addition to anti-islet cell surface antibodies. The existence of pernicious anemia and diabetes mellitus in such a young child makes this an unusual case.

  13. Exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms previously related to obesity and metabolic traits in pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Lora, América Liliana; Cruz, Miguel; Aguirre-Hernández, Jesús; Molina-Díaz, Mario; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Flores-Huerta, Samuel; Klünder-Klünder, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the association of 64 obesity-related polymorphisms with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes and other glucose- and insulin-related traits in Mexican children. Case-control and case-sibling designs were followed. We studied 99 patients with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes, their siblings (n = 101) without diabetes, 83 unrelated pediatric controls and 137 adult controls. Genotypes were determined for 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a possible association was examined between those genotypes and type 2 diabetes and other quantitative traits, after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. In the case-pediatric control and case-adult control analyses, five polymorphisms were associated with increased likelihood of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes; only one of these polymorphisms (CADM2/rs1307880) also showed a consistent effect in the case-sibling analysis. The associations in the combined analysis were as follows: ADORA1/rs903361 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2; 3.0); CADM2/rs13078807 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2; 4.0); GNPDA2/rs10938397 (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4; 3.7); VEGFA/rs6905288 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1; 2.1) and FTO/rs9939609 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0; 3.2). We also identified 16 polymorphisms nominally associated with quantitative traits in participants without diabetes. ADORA/rs903361, CADM2/rs13078807, GNPDA2/rs10938397, VEGFA/rs6905288 and FTO/rs9939609 are associated with an increased risk of pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes in the Mexican population.

  14. GABAergic neuroactive steroids: a new frontier in bipolar disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta Mauro Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurosteroids are synthesized in the brain and modulate brain excitability. There is increasing evidence of their sedative, anesthetic and antiseizure properties, as well as their influence on mood. Currently neurosteroids are classified as pregnane neurosteroids (allopregnanolone and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, androstane neurosteroids (androstanediol and etiocholanone or sulfated neurosteroids (pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Both preclinical and clinical findings indicate that progesterone derivative neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone play a role in mood disorders. Clozapine and olanzapine, which were shown to be effective in stabilizing bipolar disorder, elevate pregnenolone levels in rat hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and serum. In lithium-treated mice, the blood levels of allopregnanolone and pregnenolone were elevated compared to control levels. Women diagnosed with bipolar disorder typically show symptomatic exacerbation in relation to the menstrual cycle, and show vulnerability to the onset or recurrence of mood disorders immediately after giving birth, when the levels of neurosteroid derivatives of progesterone drop. Whereas in women who had recovered from bipolar disorder, the plasma concentration of allopregnanolone was elevated compared to either healthy controls or women with major depressive disorder during the premenstrual period. During depressive episodes, blood level of allopregnanolone is low. Treatment with fluoxetine tends to stabilize the levels of neurosteroids in depression. These findings converge to suggest that these steroids have significant mood-stabilizing effect. This hypothesis is consistent with the observation that a number of anticonvulsants are effective therapies for bipolar disorder, a finding also consistent with the antiseizure properties of neurosteroids. Further exploration of action of neuroactive steroids is likely to

  15. Autoimmunity in diabetics induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.R.; Barnes, A.J.; Adrian, T.E.; Polak, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Several commercial insulin preparations were found to contain significant quantities of pancreatic glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (P.P.), vasoactive intestinal peptide (V.I.P.), and somatostatin, though these substances were effectively absent from the new highly purified or monocomponent insulins. Of 448 insulin-dependent diabetics receiving conventional insulins, 63% had circulating antibodies to human P.P., 6% antibodies to V.I.P., 6% to glucagon, and 0.5% to somatostatin. The antibodies were of high affinity and were commonest in the younger diabetics. No antibodies were detected in 167 maturity-onset diabetics, in 125 healthy controls, or in 22 patients treated only with monocomponent insulin. Immuno-cytochemical testing showed that antibody-positive diabetic plasmas reacted specifically against the corresponding hormone-producing pancreatic endocrine cells, against enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells outside the pancreas, and against V.I.P.-containing autonomic nerves throughout the body. The finding of iatrogenic autoimmunity to naturally occurring hormones in large numbers of insulin-dependent diabetics raises important questions about long-term treatment. (author)

  16. Autoimmunity in diabetics induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S R; Barnes, A J; Adrian, T E; Polak, J M [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1979-01-06

    Several commercial insulin preparations were found to contain significant quantities of pancreatic glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (P.P.), vasoactive intestinal peptide (V.I.P.), and somatostatin, though these substances were effectively absent from the new highly purified or monocomponent insulins. Of 448 insulin-dependent diabetics receiving conventional insulins, 63% had circulating antibodies to human P.P., 6% antibodies to V.I.P., 6% to glucagon, and 0.5% to somatostatin. The antibodies were of high affinity and were commonest in the younger diabetics. No antibodies were detected in 167 maturity-onset diabetics, in 125 healthy controls, or in 22 patients treated only with monocomponent insulin. Immuno-cytochemical testing showed that antibody-positive diabetic plasmas reacted specifically against the corresponding hormone-producing pancreatic endocrine cells, against enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells outside the pancreas, and against V.I.P.-containing autonomic nerves throughout the body. The finding of iatrogenic autoimmunity to naturally occurring hormones in large numbers of insulin-dependent diabetics raises important questions about long-term treatment.

  17. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a birth cohort of First Nation children born to mothers with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Michael; Cloutier, Justin; Spence, Louise; Sellers, Elizabeth; Taback, Shayne; Dean, Heather

    2011-05-01

    Children who are born to mothers with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus are exposed to a hyperglycemic intra-uterine environment throughout pregnancy. The growth patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes in these offspring may be influenced by unique gene-environment interactions during intra-uterine and postnatal life. We established a cohort of offspring of First Nation mothers with onset of type 2 diabetes before age 18 years in Manitoba, Canada. We measured height or length and weight at study entry and annually thereafter with fasting blood glucose in offspring aged ≥ 7 years. We collected birth and breastfeeding history and determined the population-specific hepatic nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α) G319S genotype of offspring at age 7 years. From July 2003 to April 2008, we enrolled 76 offspring of 37 mothers. Sixty-four percent (23/36) of the offspring aged 2-19 years were obese at initial assessment. The rates of obesity remained constant throughout the 5 years. As of April 2008, 7/28 (25%) of the offspring aged 7-19 years have diabetes including 6/14 (43%) aged 10-19 years. Most offspring with diabetes (5/7, 71%) were obese at diagnosis. All of the 7 offspring with diabetes have 1 or 2 copies of the G319S polymorphism. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in this cohort of offspring of First Nation women with pediatric-onset type 2 diabetes is the highest ever reported. Obesity is an important postnatal risk factor for type 2 diabetes in this population and may result from a unique gene-environment interaction. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The effect of long term administration of ascorbic acid on the learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Hasanein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Ascorbic acid improves cognitive impairments in several experimental models. Diabetes causes learning and memory deficits. In this study we hypothesized that chronic treatment with ascorbic acid (100mg/kg, p.o would affect on the passive avoidance learning (PAL and memory in control and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats."n"nMethods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of STZ (60mg/kg. The rats were considered diabetic if plasma glucose levels exceeded 250mg/dl on three days after STZ injection. Treatment was begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30 days later. Retention test was done 24 h after training. At the end, animals were weighted and blood samples were drawn for plasma glucose measurement."n"nResults: Diabetes caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes of PAL and memory in rats. Ascorbic acid treatment improved learning and memory in control rats and reversed learning and memory deficits in diabetic rats. Ascorbic acid administration also improved the body weight loss and hyperglycemia of diabetics. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties of the vitamin may be involved in the memory improving effects of such treatment."n"nConclusion: These results show that

  19. Clinical features and treatment of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner DS,Tai ES

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Daphne SL Gardner1, E Shyong Tai21Department of Endocrinology, Singapore General Hospital, 2Department of Endocrinology, National University Hospital, SingaporeAbstract: Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY is a heterogeneous group of disorders that result in ß-cell dysfunction. It is rare, accounting for just 1%–2% of all diabetes. It is often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes, as it is often difficult to distinguish MODY from these two forms. However, diagnosis allows appropriate individualized care, depending on the genetic etiology, and allows prognostication in family members. In this review, we discuss features of the common causes of MODY, as well as the treatment and diagnosis of MODY.Keywords: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B, GCK

  20. STAT4 polymorphism is associated with early-onset type 1 diabetes, but not with late-onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Soon; Park, Hyewon; Yang, Seiwon; Kim, Dukhee; Park, Yongsoo

    2008-12-01

    In an effort to discover non-HLA genes affecting susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), we have investigated the association of polymorphisms in STAT4, an important signaling molecule of IL-12, gammaIFN, and IL-23, in a sample of 389 T1D patients and 152 nondiabetic controls in Korea. Four SNPs on chromosome 2q, which were recently found to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis, were examined for association and linkage disequilibrium. We found that neither alleles or genotypes among all four SNPs nor reconstructed haplotypes of the three SNPs within the same LD block (rs7574865, rs8179673, and rs10181656) were associated with susceptibility to T1D. When we stratified T1D patients into early-onset and late-onset subgroups on the basis of fewer or more than 7.8 years of age at diagnosis, however, the minor alleles of three SNPs (rs7574865, rs8179673, and rs10181656) showed a significant association with susceptibility to T1D in the early-onset subgroup (i.e., rs7574865, OR = 1.44 [1.03-2.01], P rs7574865, rs8179673, and rs10181656) showed very comparable degrees of risk for T1D. The age at diagnosis is lowest in the patients carrying the homozygotes of a minor allele, middle in the heterozygotes, and highest in the homozygotes of a major allele, suggesting the dosage effects of risk alleles on the age of onset of disease. Recognizing that only the early-onset cases might represent the true autoimmune T1D in Asian populations, we see that STAT4 alleles and haplotype might influence cytokine signaling and, therefore, development of T1D.

  1. Statins use and risk of new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study in Yinzhou district, Ningbo city, People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hailong Li,1 Hongbo Lin,2 Houyu Zhao,1 Yang Xu,1 Yinchu Cheng,1 Peng Shen,2 Siyan Zhan1 1Department of Epidemiology and Bio-statistics, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, Yinzhou District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China Background: Reports have suggested that statin use is associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Guidelines suggested that statins should be prescribed in hypertensive patients for primary prevention. However, there were very few studies on the risk of T2DM associated with statin use among patients with hypertension in mainland People’s Republic of China. Purpose: To determine the association between statin use and new-onset diabetes mellitus among patients with hypertension in mainland People’s Republic of China. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of hypertensive patients using the Yinzhou regional health care database from January 1, 2010, to August 31, 2016. Patients aged 30–90 years old without T2DM were eligible for inclusion. We identified new statin initiators and nonusers by using prescription records of inpatients and outpatients. Multivariate Cox model and propensity score methods were used to adjust potential confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, lifestyle characteristics, and baseline antihypertensive drug use. The risk of incident T2DM among statin initiators compared to nonusers was estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model. Propensity scores for statin use were then developed using logistic regression, statin initiators were matched 1:1 with nonusers according to propensity scores with the nearest neighbor matching method within 0.2 caliper width, and Cox regression was again conducted. Results: Among 67,993 patients (21,551 statin initiators; 46

  2. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha mutation in normal glucose-tolerant subjects and early-onset type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Dong Mee; Huh, Nam; Park, Keun Yong

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of diabetes in Korea is reported to be approximately 10%, but cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are rare in Korea. A diagnostic technique for autosomal dominant MODY is being actively sought. In this regard, we used a DNA chip to investigate the frequency of mutations of the MODY3 gene (hepatocyte nuclear factor-1?) in Korean patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes. Methods The genomic DNA of 30 normal individuals [age, 24.9?8.6 years] and 2...

  3. New Insights on Steroid Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Cabezon, Lorena; Galán, Beatriz; García, José L.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays steroid manufacturing occupies a prominent place in the pharmaceutical industry with an annual global market over $10 billion. The synthesis of steroidal active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) such as sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progestogens) and corticosteroids is currentl...

  4. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused...... of type 2 diabetes, and this occurs both in early-onset and in classical type 2 diabetes....

  5. Onset of diabetes mellitus in children population in the Republic of Mordovia

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    Yelena S. Samоshkina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM in children is a cause of early disability and high mortality in people of working age. There was an increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes worldwide while increasing the number of patients from South to North and from East to West. The maximum number of patients is in the Nordic countries. However, identified exceptions (e.g. Sardinia justify the need for continuing epidemiological studies in the Russian Federation, where the detaled information has began to emerge only in recent years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 134 case histories of children with newly diagnosed diabetes in Endocrinological Department of Children’s Republican Clinical Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2014 was carried out. All children underwent a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental examination with daily monitoring of blood glucose, determination of ionic composition, concentration of C-peptide, antibody to GAD, insulin levels, glycated hemoglobin, and glycosuria ketonuria. Results: According to the study the duration of diabetes from the onset of the first symptoms to the verification of the diagnosis was more than 3 weeks. A classic clinical picture is characterized with a predominance of symptoms of dehydration and energy deficiency, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and increase the level of antibodies to components of the beta cells. Discussion and Conclusions: Despite the presence of a clear and peculiar clinical picture, a late appeal for medical help in children with diabetes mellitus demonstrates that it contributes to the high frequency of decompensated ketoacidosis in children at disease onset. It is necessary to raise the awareness of health professionals and the public for timely diagnosis of diabetes in children.

  6. Steroid-induced osteoporosis monitored by Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2011-03-01

    Glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Unfortunately, extended exposure to this steroid is the leading cause of physician-induced osteoporosis, leaving patients susceptible to fractures at rates of 30-50%. In this presentation, we report correlations between Raman spectra and biomechanical strength tests on bones of glucocorticoid- and placebo- treated mice. Both wild-type mice and a transgenic model of rheumatoid arthritis have been studied. A two-way ANOVA model reveals statistically significant spectral differences as influenced by glucocorticoid treatment and mouse type.

  7. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of extracts of the leaves of Ajuga remota Benth on alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Hymete, Ariaya; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Tadesse, Mekuria

    2017-05-02

    Ajuga remota Benth is traditionally used in Ethiopia for the management of diabetes mellitus. Since this claim has not been investigated scientifically, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect and phytochemical screening of the aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. After acute toxicity test, the Swiss albino mice were induced with alloxan to get experimental diabetes animals. The fasting mean blood glucose level before and after treatment for two weeks in normal, diabetic untreated and diabetic mice treated with aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts were performed. Data were statistically evaluated by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20. P-value Phytochemical screening of both extracts indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids, which might contribute to the antidiabetic activity. The extracts, however, did not contain alkaloids and anthraquinones. The aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) showed the highest percentage reduction in blood glucose levels and the ability of A. remota extracts in reducing blood glucose levels presumably due to the presence of antioxidant constituents such as flavonoids. The effect of the extract supported the traditional claim of the plant.

  8. Depression as a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knol, M J; Twisk, Jos W R; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2006-01-01

    the latter association by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic. METHODS: Medline and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to January 2005. All studies that examined the relationship between depression and the onset of type 2 diabetes were...... included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models. To explore sources of heterogeneity between studies, subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Nine studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk was 1......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Evidence strongly suggests that depression and type 2 diabetes are associated, but the direction of the association is still unclear. Depression may occur as a consequence of having diabetes, but may also be a risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes. This study examined...

  9. Can preoperative serum level of creatinine predict new-onset atrial fibrillation in non-diabetic male patients undergoing open heart surgery? A retrograde view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalil Mirhosseini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Renal dysfunction is a risk marker in patients who candidate for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG. Renal disorder is associated with prolonged stays in intensive care unit and hospital, morbidity and mortality. Aim of this study is specific evaluation of association between preoperative creatinine (Cr with atrial fibrillation (AF after elective off-pump CABG in non-diabetic male patients with normal ejection fraction. Two hundred non-diabetic male patients with normal ejection fraction undergoing elective off pump CABG surgery enrolled in this cross-sectional study and were stratified by present or absence of postoperative atrial fibrillation: patients with postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (n=100 as group 1 and patients without new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation as group 2 (n=100. Preoperative serological test of the participants, such as serum creatinine, were recorded in their medical dossiers. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 software and tested for association between atrial fibrillation with creatinine level by using student t test, chi-square test or logistic regression. Cr level in patients with and without AF three days before surgery were 1.8±0.3 and 1.0±0.4 respectively (P value for Cr=0.00. On surgical day, mean Cr level in patients with and without AF were 1.6±0.2 and 1.1±0.5 respectively (P value for Cr = 0.00. Of the 100, male patients with postoperative AF, duration and frequency of recurrence of AF were not associated with Cr at three days before surgery and on surgical days (P>0.05. Patients with postoperative AF had unsuitable status of renal function compare to patients without AF; however, preoperative serum creatinine cannot associate with duration and frequency of recurrence of AF.

  10. Obesity, islet cell autoimmunity, and cardiovascular risk factors in youth at onset of type 1 autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo, Maribel; Libman, Ingrid M; Arena, Vincent C; Zhou, Lei; Trucco, Massimo; Ize-Ludlow, Diego; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Becker, Dorothy J

    2015-01-01

    The current increase in childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and obesity has led to two conflicting hypotheses and conflicting reports regarding the effects of overweight on initiation and spreading of islet cell autoimmunity vs earlier clinical manifestation of preexisting autoimmune β-cell damage driven by excess weight. The objective of the study was to address the question of whether the degree of β-cell autoimmunity and age are related to overweight at diabetes onset in a large cohort of T1D youth. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of youth with autoimmune T1D consecutively recruited at diabetes onset. The study was conducted at a regional academic pediatric diabetes center. Two hundred sixty-three consecutive children younger than 19 years at onset of T1D participated in the study. Relationships between body mass index and central obesity (waist circumference and waist to height ratio) and antigen spreading (islet cell autoantibody number), age, and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors examined at onset and/or 3 months after the diagnosis were measured. There were no significant associations between number of autoantibodies with measures of adiposity. Age relationships revealed that a greater proportion of those with central obesity (21%) were in the youngest age group (0-4 y) compared with those without central obesity (6%) (P = .001). PATIENTS with central obesity had increased CVD risk factors and higher onset C-peptide levels (P obesity accelerates progression of autoantibody spreading once autoimmunity, marked by standard islet cell autoantibody assays, is present. Central obesity was present in almost one-third of the subjects and was associated with early CVD risk markers already at onset.

  11. Sex hormone binding globulin and sex steroids among premenopausal women in the diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stentz, Frankie B; Murphy, Mary Beth; Kong, Shengchun; Nan, Bin; Kitabchi, Abbas E

    2013-07-01

    It is unknown whether intensive lifestyle modification (ILS) or metformin changes sex steroids among premenopausal women without a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We examined 1-year intervention impact on sex steroids (estradiol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione [A4]) and SHBG and differences by race/ethnicity. A subgroup of Diabetes Prevention Program participants who were premenopausal, not using estrogen, without a history of PCOS or irregular menses, and who reported non-Hispanic white (NHW), Hispanic, or African-American race/ethnicity (n = 301). Randomization arms were 1) ILS with the goals of weight reduction of 7% of initial weight and 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise, 2) metformin 850 mg twice a day, or 3) placebo. Neither intervention changed sex steroids compared to placebo. ILS, but not metformin, increased median SHBG by 3.1 nmol/L (~11%) compared to decreases of 1.1 nmol/L in the placebo arm (P < .05). This comparison remained significant after adjustment for changes in covariates including waist circumference. However, associations with glucose were not significant. Median baseline A4 was lower in Hispanics compared to NHWs (5.7 nmol/L vs 6.5 nmol/L, P < .05) and increases in A4 were greater in Hispanics compared to NHWs (3.0 nmol/ vs 1.2 nmol/L, P < .05), and these differences did not differ significantly by intervention arm. No other racial/ethnic differences were significant. Among premenopausal glucose-intolerant women, no intervention changed sex steroids. ILS increased SHBG, although associations with glucose were not significant. SHBG and sex steroids were similar by race/ethnicity, with the possible exception of lower baseline A4 levels in Hispanics compared to NHWs.

  12. Earlier Age of Onset of Chronic Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy or Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Karst Y.; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B.; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Verschuren, Monique W. M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Bots, Michiel L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2015-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the impact of a history of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP) or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on the risk and age of onset of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life, independent of

  13. Insulin gene mutations resulting in early-onset diabetes: marked differences in clinical presentation, metabolic status, and pathogenic effect through endoplasmic reticulum retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meur, Gargi; Simon, Albane; Harun, Nasret

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heterozygous mutations in the human preproinsulin (INS) gene are a cause of nonsyndromic neonatal or early-infancy diabetes. Here, we sought to identify INS mutations associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) or nonautoimmune diabetes in mid-adult life, and to explore...... the molecular mechanisms involved. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The INS gene was sequenced in 16 French probands with unexplained MODY, 95 patients with nonautoimmune early-onset diabetes (diagnosed at ... with early-onset diabetes whose clinical presentation is compatible with MODY. These led to the production of (pre)proinsulin molecules with markedly different trafficking properties and effects on ER stress, demonstrating a range of molecular defects in the beta-cell....

  14. Genetic Testing of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Parveena; Nissar, Kamran; Ali, Sajad; Ganai, Bashir Ahmad; Shabir, Uzma; Hassan, Toyeeba; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a global epidemic problem growing exponentially in Asian countries posing a serious threat. Among diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterogeneous group of monogenic disorders that occurs due to β cell dysfunction. Genetic defects in the pancreatic β-cells result in the decrease of insulin production required for glucose utilization thereby lead to early-onset diabetes (often diabetes and comprises of 1–5% of total diabetes. Till date, 14 genes have been identified and mutation in them may lead to MODY. Different genetic testing methodologies like linkage analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing are used for the accurate and correct investigation of gene mutations associated with MODY. The next-generation sequencing has emerged as one of the most promising and effective tools to identify novel mutated genes related to MODY. Diagnosis of MODY is mainly relying on the sequential screening of the three marker genes like hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), and glucokinase (GCK). Interestingly, MODY patients can be managed by diet alone for many years and may also require minimal doses of sulfonylureas. The primary objective of this article is to provide a review on current status of MODY, its prevalence, genetic testing/diagnosis, possible treatment, and future perspective. PMID:29867778

  15. Incidence and risk factors for new-onset diabetes in HIV-infected patients: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Wit, Stephane; Sabin, Caroline A; Weber, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of diabetes among HIV-infected patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort, to identify demographic, HIV-related, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-related factors associated...... with the onset of diabetes, and to identify possible mechanisms for any relationships found. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: D:A:D is a prospective observational study of 33,389 HIV-infected patients; diabetes is a study end point. Poisson regression models were used to assess the relation between diabetes...

  16. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin-to-C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M; Mirmira, Raghavendra G; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-09-01

    We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin-to-C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  18. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Brown, P.; Morris, H. R.; Lees, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in

  19. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana). T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR) was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

  20. Type 1 diabetes in India: Overall insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is also on increase like type 2 diabetes, even though not in the same proportion, but still with a trend of 3-5% increase/year. India has three new cases of T1DM/100,000 children of 0-14 years. Three sets of prevalence data shows 17.93 cases/100,000 children in Karnataka, 3.2 cases/100,000 children in Chennai, and 10.2 cases/100,000 children in Karnal (Haryana.T1DM may be autoimmune or idiopathic in nature and is present in 9% cases of insulin deficiency. T1DM is primarily caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and disorder of the immune regulatory mechanism. A combination of all these three factors causes autoimmune disease, which may ultimately result in the destruction of pancreatic beta cells leading to hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and potentially death, if not treated with insulin. Prediabetes is the phase before the onset of T1DM, which provides a window of opportunity for early intervention. All available interventions including steroids, immunosuppressants, and cyclosporins can be possibly applied during the prediabetes phase. The treatment goals for T1DM are simple and include maintaining near normal blood glucose levels and avoiding long-term complications, which is a constant juggle between insulin and maintaining an appropriate lifestyle. The Indian Council of Medical Research funded Registry of People with diabetes in India with young age at onset (YDR was started in the year 2006 with 10 collaborating centres across India. This registry is focusing on to provide an overview of diabetes in the young.

  1. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Azmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg, negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg, positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg. All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  2. Methanolic Root Extract of Rauwolfia serpentina Benth Improves the Glycemic, Antiatherogenic, and Cardioprotective Indices in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

  3. Reversal of diuretic-associated impaired glucose tolerance and new-onset diabetes: results of the STAR-LET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George; Molitch, Mark; Zhou, Qian; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Champion, Annette; Bacher, Peter; Sowers, James R

    2008-01-01

    Reversal of new-onset diabetes secondary to thiazide diuretic use remains questionable. STAR-LET was a 6-month extension of the Study of Trandolapril/Verapamil SR and Insulin Resistance (STAR), which assessed the effects of a fixed-dose renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination on changes in 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. STAR-LET explored whether the glycemic impact of HCTZ could be reversed by conversion to a RASI/verapamil combination. The primary outcome was change in 2-hour OGTT results. Fifty-one percent of the STAR patients were enrolled in STAR-LET. The 2-hour OGTT value (mmol/L) was unchanged from STAR baseline in the RASI/verapamil group (7.7+/-2.4 vs 8.1+/-3.3; P=.18) and improved in those who were switched from RASI/HCTZ to RASI/verapamil (8.5+/-3.0 vs 7.2+/-2.3; P<.001). This exploratory study suggests that the impairment in glycemic control seen with use of a thiazide diuretic combined with a RASI can be reversed by switching to a regimen that does not include a diuretic.

  4. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  5. Impact of statins on risk of new onset diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jimin Lee,1 Yoojin Noh,1 Sooyoung Shin,1 Hong-Seok Lim,2 Rae Woong Park,3 Soo Kyung Bae,4 Euichaul Oh,4 Grace Juyun Kim,5 Ju Han Kim,5 Sukhyang Lee1 1Division of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea; 2Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea; 3Department of Biomedical Informatics, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea; 4Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon, South Korea; 5Division of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Statin therapy is beneficial in reducing cardiovascular events and mortalities in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Yet, there have been concerns of increased risk of diabetes with statin use. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between statins and new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD utilizing the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service claims database. Among adult patients with preexisting IHD, new statin users and matched nonstatin users were identified on a 1:1 ratio using proportionate stratified random sampling by sex and age. They were subsequently propensity score matched further with age and comorbidities to reduce the selection bias. Overall incidence rates, cumulative rates and hazard ratios (HRs between statin use and occurrence of NODM were estimated. The subgroup analyses were performed according to sex, age groups, and the individual agents and intensities of statins. A total of 156,360 patients (94,370 in the statin users and 61,990 in the nonstatin users were included in the analysis. The incidence rates of NODM were 7.8% and 4.8% in the statin users and nonstatin users, respectively. The risk of NODM was higher among statin users (crude HR 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.93–2.10; adjusted HR 1

  6. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  7. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Böber, Ece

    2015-03-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of monogenic disorders characterized by autosomal dominantly inherited non-insulin dependent form of diabetes classically presenting in adolescence or young adults before the age of 25 years. MODY is a rare cause of diabetes (1% of all cases) and is frequently misdiagnosed as Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). A precise molecular diagnosis is essential because it leads to optimal treatment of the patients and allows early diagnosis for their asymptomatic family members. Mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) (MODY 2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1A/4A (MODY 3 and MODY 1) genes are the most common causes of MODY. GCK mutations cause a mild, asymptomatic, and stable fasting hyperglycemia usually requiring no specific treatment. However, mutations in the HNF1A and HNF4A cause a progressive pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and hyperglycemia that can result in microvascular complications. Sulfonylureas are effective in these patients by acting on adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels, although insulin therapy may be required later in life. Mutations in the HNF1B (MODY 5) is associated with pancreatic agenesis, renal abnormalities, genital tract malformations, and liver dysfunction. Compared to MODY 1, 2, 3, and 5, the remaining subtypes of MODY have a much lower prevalence. In this review, we summarize the main clinical and laboratory characteristics of the common and rarer causes of MODY.

  8. Elevations in the Fasting Serum Proinsulin–to–C-Peptide Ratio Precede the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Emily K.; Chaudhry, Zunaira; Watkins, Renecia; Syed, Farooq; Blum, Janice; Ouyang, Fangqian; Perkins, Susan M.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Sosenko, Jay; DiMeglio, Linda A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether an elevation in the serum proinsulin–to–C-peptide ratio (PI:C), a biomarker of β-cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction, was associated with progression to type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fasting total PI and C levels were measured in banked serum samples obtained from TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) participants, a cohort of autoantibody-positive relatives without diabetes of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Samples were obtained ∼12 months before diabetes onset from PTP progressors in whom diabetes developed (n = 60), and were compared with age-, sex-, and BMI-matched nonprogressors who remained normoglycemic (n = 58). PI:C ratios were calculated as molar ratios and were multiplied by 100% to obtain PI levels as a percentage of C levels. RESULTS Although absolute PI levels did not differ between groups, PI:C ratios were significantly increased in antibody-positive subjects in whom there was progression to diabetes compared with nonprogressors (median 1.81% vs. 1.17%, P = 0.03). The difference between groups was most pronounced in subjects who were ≤10 years old, where the median progressor PI:C ratio was nearly triple that of nonprogressors; 90.0% of subjects in this age group within the upper PI:C quartile progressed to the development of diabetes. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and BMI, demonstrated increased odds of progression for higher natural log PI:C ratio values (odds ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that β-cell ER dysfunction precedes type 1 diabetes onset, especially in younger children. Elevations in the serum PI:C ratio may have utility in predicting the onset of type 1 diabetes in the presymptomatic phase. PMID:27385327

  9. Body composition in adults with Type 1 diabetes at onset and during the first year of insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Hilsted, J

    2002-01-01

    . RESULTS: During the first year after onset of diabetes body weight (BW) increased 4.3 +/- 2.9 (0.1-8.3) kg (P = 0.0012) distributed as a 13.3% (1.6 kg) increase in total fat mass (FM) and 4.9% (2.5 kg) increase in lean body soft tissue mass (LBM). The self-reported weight loss at onset was 6.3 +/- 2.5 kg...... (1.5-10.0 kg). Compared with two reference populations the Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. and a healthy age and sex-matched local DXA scanned group the initial body composition data demonstrated BW 6.2 kg below ideal weight and a significant reduction of the FM (25% or -0.87 sd), whereas LBM...... was within the expected range. CONCLUSIONS: During the first year after onset of Type 1 diabetes the mean increase in BW is 6.5% with a 13.3% increase in FM and a 4.9% increase in LBM. Self-reported data on premorbid BW suggest an approximately 10% reduction in BW at onset of Type 1 diabetes. Compared...

  10. Genetic Testing of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveena Firdous

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a global epidemic problem growing exponentially in Asian countries posing a serious threat. Among diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY is a heterogeneous group of monogenic disorders that occurs due to β cell dysfunction. Genetic defects in the pancreatic β-cells result in the decrease of insulin production required for glucose utilization thereby lead to early-onset diabetes (often <25 years. It is generally considered as non-insulin dependent form of diabetes and comprises of 1–5% of total diabetes. Till date, 14 genes have been identified and mutation in them may lead to MODY. Different genetic testing methodologies like linkage analysis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and DNA sequencing are used for the accurate and correct investigation of gene mutations associated with MODY. The next-generation sequencing has emerged as one of the most promising and effective tools to identify novel mutated genes related to MODY. Diagnosis of MODY is mainly relying on the sequential screening of the three marker genes like hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α, and glucokinase (GCK. Interestingly, MODY patients can be managed by diet alone for many years and may also require minimal doses of sulfonylureas. The primary objective of this article is to provide a review on current status of MODY, its prevalence, genetic testing/diagnosis, possible treatment, and future perspective.

  11. Early-Onset Central Diabetes Insipidus due to Compound Heterozygosity for AVP Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Karine; Vallette, Sophie; Deladoëy, Johnny; Van Vliet, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Genetic cases of isolated central diabetes insipidus are rare, are mostly due to dominant AVP mutations and have a delayed onset of symptoms. Only 3 consanguineous pedigrees with a recessive form have been published. A boy with a negative family history presented polyuria and failure to thrive in the first months of life and was diagnosed with central diabetes insipidus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a normal posterior pituitary signal. A molecular genetic analysis of the AVP gene showed that he had inherited a previously reported mutation from his Lebanese father and a novel A>G transition in the splice acceptor site of intron 1 (IVS1-2A>G) from his French-Canadian mother. Replacement therapy resulted in the immediate disappearance of symptoms and in weight gain. The early polyuria in recessive central diabetes insipidus contrasts with the delayed presentation in patients with monoallelic AVP mutations. This diagnosis needs to be considered in infants with very early onset of polyuria-polydipsia and no brain malformation, even if there is no consanguinity and regardless of whether the posterior pituitary is visible or not on imaging. In addition to informing family counseling, making a molecular diagnosis eliminates the need for repeated imaging studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Study of relation between the onset age of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in children andadole scents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    robabe Ghergherehchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a chronic enteropathy caused by hypersensitivity to gluten. Most studies have showed more prevalence of CD in the patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. Both diseases are autoimmune and their incidence is related to inheritance and environmental factors. The aim of this research is the study of relation between CD prevalence and diabetic age onset. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 135 children with diabetes mellitus type 1 referring to Tabriz children hospital endocrine department and clinic between 2006-2008 were selected. After filling individual identity of the patients and the measurement of weight and height, the serumic level of anti-tissue Trans glutaminase IgA antibody (A-tTG-A-IgA, anti endomisial IgA antibody (AEA-IgA and anti-gliadin IgG antibody (AGA-IgG were measured. In the case that A-tTG-A either AEA alone or with AGA was high, small intestinal biopsy was preformed. The data was analysed using SPSS ver 16 software. Results: 28 of 135 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, were serologically positive for celiac. Confirmed celiac prevalence based on biopsy was 6. 8%. From diabetic age onset and celiac incidence point of view there was not any significant relation (P=0. 996. Conclusion: Celiac disease in type1 diabetic patients dose not have correlation with the onset age of type 1 diabetes and diabetic patients should be followed up from celiac point of view during treatment and prevention.

  13. A distant upstream promoter of the HNF-4alpha gene connects the transcription factors involved in maturity-onset diabetes of the young.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, H.; Jaschkowitz, K.; Bulman, M.P.; Frayling, T.M.; Mitchell, S.M.; Roosen, S.; Lingott-Frieg, A.; Tack, C.J.J.; Ellard, S.; Ryffel, G.U.; Hattersley, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic, autosomal dominant subtype of early-onset diabetes mellitus due to defective insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell in humans. Five different genes have been identified including those encoding the tissue-specific transcription

  14. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L; Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured by stimulated C-peptide response. Additional measures are needed to define immune state changes associated with therapeutic responses. Here, we studied these trial participants with plasma-induced transcriptional analysis. In blinded analyses, 70.2% of AIDA and 68.9% of TN-14 participants were correctly called to their treatment arm. While the transcriptional signatures from the two trials were distinct, both therapies achieved varying immunomodulation consistent with IL-1 inhibition. On average, IL-1 antagonism resulted in modest normalization relative to healthy controls. At endpoint, signatures were quantified using a gene ontology-based inflammatory index, and an inverse relationship was observed between measured inflammation and stimulated C-peptide response in IL-1Ra- and canakinumab-treated patients. Cytokine neutralization studies showed that IL-1α and IL-1β additively contribute to the T1D inflammatory state. Finally, analyses of baseline signatures were indicative of later therapeutic response. Despite the absence of clinical efficacy by IL-1 antagonist therapy, transcriptional analysis detected immunomodulation and may yield new insight when applied to other clinical trials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiezhong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotic drugs (APDs are widely prescribed to control various mental disorders. As mental disorders are chronic diseases, these drugs are often used over a life-time. However, APDs can cause serious glucometabolic side-effects including type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemic emergency, leading to medication non-compliance. At present, there is no effective approach to overcome these side-effects. Understanding the mechanisms for APD-induced diabetes should be helpful in prevention and treatment of these side-effects of APDs and thus improve the clinical outcomes of APDs. In this review, the potential mechanisms for APD-induced diabetes are summarized so that novel approaches can be considered to relieve APD-induced diabetes. APD-induced diabetes could be mediated by multiple mechanisms: (1 APDs can inhibit the insulin signaling pathway in the target cells such as muscle cells, hepatocytes and adipocytes to cause insulin resistance; (2 APD-induced obesity can result in high levels of free fatty acids (FFA and inflammation, which can also cause insulin resistance. (3 APDs can cause direct damage to β-cells, leading to dysfunction and apoptosis of β-cells. A recent theory considers that both β-cell damage and insulin resistance are necessary factors for the development of diabetes. In high-fat diet-induced diabetes, the compensatory ability of β-cells is gradually damaged, while APDs cause direct β-cell damage, accounting for the severe form of APD-induced diabetes. Based on these mechanisms, effective prevention of APD-induced diabetes may need an integrated approach to combat various effects of APDs on multiple pathways.

  16. Effects of Sex Steroids in the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Ducharme, Simon; Karama, Sherif

    2017-11-01

    Sex steroids are thought to play a critical developmental role in shaping both cortical and subcortical structures in the human brain. Periods of profound changes in sex steroids invariably coincide with the onset of sex differences in mental health vulnerability, highlighting the importance of sex steroids in determining sexual differentiation of the brain. Yet, most of the evidence for the central effects of sex steroids relies on non-human studies, as several challenges have limited our understanding of these effects in humans: the lack of systematic assessment of the human sex steroid metabolome, the different developmental trajectories of specific sex steroids, the impact of genetic variation and epigenetic changes, and the plethora of interactions between sex steroids, sex chromosomes, neurotransmitters, and other hormonal systems. Here we review how multimodal strategies may be employed to bridge the gap between the basic and clinical understanding of sex steroid-related changes in the human brain.

  17. Statins and risk of diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2015-12-01

    blood glucose of 3 mg/dL as a result of statin use.(3 Here is a verbatim quote from Shah and Goldfine: “For any prescription drug, the potential benefits to health must be balanced against potential risks. Understanding these potential risks can help physicians and patients make informed decisions on whether to use a medication.” Since the risk of statin-induced diabetes mellitus is important and unknown in the population of persons at lower risk of heart disease, it is considered prudent not to prescribe statins, except when diet and exercise cannot achieve LDL goals.(3 The mechanism by which statins induce diabetes in older persons has been recently uncovered. A Canadian research team has shown that statins increase macrophage IL-1 secretion, ndicating activation of the nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome (caspase-1 inflammasome, which promotes insulin resistance, a precursor of type 2 diabetes. These investigators are of the opinion that the risk of statin-induced insulin Univ Med - Vol. 33 No.2 73 resistance may be reduced by inhibiting the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome, particularly in obese, hyperlipidemic patients who are often at risk for developing diabetes, but have to use statins.(4 In conclusion, although the risk of new diabetes mellitus with statin therapy may be considered to be minimal, the use of statins should only be prescribed by physicians for patients at risk for cardiovascular disease. However, when these patients are also at risk for diabetes mellitus, their blood glucose level should be monitored.(3 On the other hand, since statins may trigger new onset diabetes, presumably in predisposed persons, and since diabetes carries a risk of cardiovascular disease, even statins with the least side effects should not be used routinely for primary prevention, least of all as over-the-counter drugs. Primum non nocere.

  18. Early-Onset Diabetic E1-DN Mice Develop Albuminuria and Glomerular Injury Typical of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervi E. Hyvönen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic E1-DN mice express a kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor in their pancreatic islets and are diabetic from two weeks of age due to impaired postnatal growth of β-cell mass. Here, we characterize the development of hyperglycaemia-induced renal injury in the E1-DN mice. Homozygous mice showed increased albumin excretion rate (AER at the age of 10 weeks; the albuminuria increased over time and correlated with blood glucose. Morphometric analysis of PAS-stained histological sections and electron microscopy images revealed mesangial expansion in homozygous E1-DN mice, and glomerular sclerosis was observed in the most hyperglycaemic mice. The albuminuric homozygous mice developed also other structural changes in the glomeruli, including thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and widening of podocyte foot processes that are typical for diabetic nephropathy. Increased apoptosis of podocytes was identified as one mechanism contributing to glomerular injury. In addition, nephrin expression was reduced in the podocytes of albuminuric homozygous E1-DN mice. Tubular changes included altered epithelial cell morphology and increased proliferation. In conclusion, hyperglycaemic E1-DN mice develop albuminuria and glomerular and tubular injury typical of human diabetic nephropathy and can serve as a new model to study the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. High doses of salicylate causes prepulse facilitation of onset-gap induced acoustic startle response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Doolittle, Lauren; Flowers, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Qiuju

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex (PPI), a well-established method for evaluating sensorimotor gating function, has been used to detect tinnitus in animal models. Reduced gap induced PPI (gap-PPI) was considered as a sign of tinnitus. The silent gap used in the test contains both onset and offset signals. Tinnitus may affect these cues differently. In this experiment, we studied the effects of a high dose of salicylate (250 mg/kg, i.p.), an inducer of reversible tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss, on gap-PPI induced by three different gaps: an onset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and 25 ms offset time, an offset-gap with 25 ms onset and 0.1 ms offset time, and an onset-offset-gap with 0.1 ms onset and offset time. We found that the onset-gaps induced smaller inhibitions than the offset-gaps before salicylate treatment. The offset-gap induced PPI was significantly reduced 1-3h after salicylate treatment. However, the onset-gap caused a facilitation of startle response. These results suggest that salicylate induced reduction of gap-PPI was not only caused by the decrease of offset-gap induced PPI, but also by the facilitation induced by the onset-gap. Since the onset-gap induced PPI is caused by neural offset response, our results suggest that salicylate may cause a facilitation of neural response to an offset acoustical signal. Treatment of vigabatrin (60 mg/kg/day, 14 days), which elevates the GABA level in the brain, blocked the offset-gap induced PPI and onset-gap induced facilitation caused by salicylate. These results suggest that enhancing GABAergic activities can alleviate salicylate induced tinnitus. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. RNCR3 knockdown inhibits diabetes mellitus-induced retinal reactive gliosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Chao-peng; Wang, Jia-Jian; Shan, Kun; Liu, Xin; Yan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Retinal reactive gliosis is an important pathological feature of diabetic retinopathy. Identifying the underlying mechanisms causing reactive gliosis will be important for developing new therapeutic strategies for treating diabetic retinopathy. Herein, we show that long noncoding RNA-RNCR3 knockdown significantly inhibits retinal reactive gliosis. RNCR3 knockdown leads to a marked reduction in the release of several cytokines. RNCR3 knockdown alleviates diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration, as shown by less apoptotic retinal cells and ameliorative visual function. RNCR3 knockdown could also decrease Müller glial cell viability and proliferation, and reduce the expression of glial reactivity-related genes including GFAP and vimentin in vitro. Collectively, this study shows that RNCR3 knockdown may be a promising strategy for the prevention of diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • RNCR3 knockdown inhibits retinal reactive gliosis. • RNCR3 knockdown causes a significant change in cytokine profile. • RNCR3 knockdown alleviates diabetes mellitus-induced retinal neurodegeneration. • RNCR3 knockdown affects Müller glial cell function in vitro.

  1. New Onset Diabetes: A Guide for Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Diabetes Association + Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative ** Fasting Blood Sugar ++ Post Prandial Glucose 11 Weight Control ➤ Obesity increases the risk of PTDM • Increased risk of ...

  2. Hepatic overexpression of steroid sulfatase ameliorates mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes through sex-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M; Selcer, Kyle W; Xie, Wen

    2014-03-21

    The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome.

  3. Outcome of Primary Nonpenetrating Deep Sclerectomy in Patients with Steroid-Induced Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamid Elhofi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the outcome of primary nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma. Methods. This was a retrospective interventional clinical study that included 60 eyes of 60 steroid-induced glaucoma patients that had undergone NPDS. Patients were followed up for 4 years. Data from the records was retrieved as regards corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, visual field mean defect (dB, and number of antiglaucoma medications needed if any. Complete success of the surgical outcome was considered an IOP ≤ 21 mmHg with no antiglaucoma medications. Qualified success was considered an IOP ≤ 21 mmHg using antiglaucoma medications. Results. The mean age was 21.2 ± 8.5 years (ranged from 12 to 35 years. At 48 months, mean IOP was 13.6 ± 2.8 mmHg (range 11–23 mmHg. This represented 60% reduction of mean IOP from preoperative levels. One case had YAG laser goniopuncture. Three cases required needling followed by ab interno revision. Using ANOVA test, there was a statistically significant difference between preoperative and postoperative mean IOP values (P=0.032. Twelve, 16, and 20 patients required topical antiglaucoma medications at 24, 26, and 48 months postoperative, respectively. Conclusion. Primary nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy is a safe and an effective method of treating eyes with steroid-induced glaucoma. No major complications were encountered. After 4 years of follow-up, complete success rate was 56.7% and qualified success rate was 70%.

  4. Co-localisation of the Kir6.2/SUR1 channel complex with glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide expression in human ileal cells and implications for glycaemic control in new onset type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lotte B; Ploug, Kenneth B; Swift, Peter

    2007-01-01

    on glucose-sensing tissues in vivo that may affect the overall glycaemic control in children with new-onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for expression and co-localisation studies. Meal-stimulated C-peptide test was carried out in 257...... children at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Genotyping for the Glu23Lys variant was by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: Kir6.2 and SUR1 co-localise with GLP-1 in L-cells and with GIP in K-cells in human ileum tissue. Children with type 1 diabetes carrying the hyperactive Glu23Lys...... with type 1 diabetes....

  5. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECTS OF TURMERIC IN ALLOXAN INDUCE D DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Jeevangi; Manjunath; Deepak D; Prakash G; Prashant; Chetan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is one of the common constituents of our daily food. The present study wa s undertaken to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Rhizomes of curcuma longa in alloxan induced diabetic rats and compared with of Pioglitazone, which is the standard anti-diabetic agent. METHODS: Alloxan monohydrate is used to induce diabetes mellitus in albino rats in the dose of 120mg/kg i.p. and ...

  6. Heterogeneity in recent-onset type 1 diabetes - a clinical trial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollyky, Jennifer B; Xu, Ping; Butte, Atul J; Wilson, Darrell M; Beam, Craig A; Greenbaum, Carla J

    2015-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) TrialNet is a National Institutes of Health-sponsored clinical trial network aimed at altering the disease course of T1D. The purpose of this study is to evaluate age-dependent heterogeneity in clinical, metabolic and immunologic characteristics of individuals with recent-onset T1D, to identify cohorts of interest and to aid in planning of future studies. Eight hundred eighty-three individuals with recent-onset T1D involved in five TrialNet studies were categorized by age as follows: ≥18 years, 12-17 years, 8-12 years and TrialNet studies, including C-peptide >0.2 pmol/mL, varies by age. Lower C-peptide level requirements for younger participants and other aspects of heterogeneity of recent-onset T1D patients, such as white blood cell count abnormalities and body mass index should be considered in the design of future clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Steroids for symptom control in infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezk, Emtithal; Nofal, Yazan H; Hamzeh, Ammar; Aboujaib, Muhammed F; AlKheder, Mohammad A; Al Hammad, Muhammad F

    2015-11-08

    effectiveness of steroids with placebo, usual care, or other interventions for symptom control for people with documented infectious mononucleosis. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. For this 2015 update, we did not identify any new RCTs for inclusion. The previous version of the review included seven trials with a total of 362 participants. Four trials compared the effectiveness of a steroid to placebo for short-term symptom control in glandular fever, one to aspirin, and two trials explored the effects of steroids in conjunction with an antiviral. Heterogeneity between trials prevented a combined analysis.Trials under-reported methodological design features. Three trials did not adequately describe sequence generation for randomisation. Four trials provided adequate details of allocation concealment. All trials were double-blind but four were not specific as to who was blinded. Loss to follow-up was under-reported in four trials, making it difficult to exclude attrition bias. The risk of selective reporting in the included trials was unclear.Across the trials, no benefit was found in 8/10 assessments of health improvement. Two trials found benefit of steroid therapy over placebo in reducing sore throat at 12 hours (eight-day course odds ratio (OR) 21.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.94 to 227.20; one-dose OR 4.20, 95% CI 1.08 to 16.32), but the benefit was not maintained.In combination with an antiviral drug, participants in the steroid group had less pharyngeal discomfort between days two to four (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.08) compared to placebo. Across the trials the effects on other common symptoms were less clear. Two trials set out to measure safety; they documented no major adverse effects. In two other trials adverse events were reported, including respiratory distress and acute onset of diabetes. However, the association of the events with the steroid is not definite. There is insufficient evidence to the efficacy of steroids for

  8. Infant Growth and Risk of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Children From 2 Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases with onset in childhood, but environmental risk factors have not been convincingly established. OBJECTIVE: To test whether increased growth during the first year of life is associated with higher risk of childhood......-onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a cohort study using information from 2 population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), of children born between February 1998 and July 2009.......4-15.7 years]). The incidence rate of type 1 diabetes from age 12 months to the end of follow-up was 25 cases per 100,000 person-years in DNBC and 31 cases per 100,000 person-years in MoBa. The change in weight from birth to 12 months was positively associated with type 1 diabetes (pooled unadjusted HR = 1...

  9. Ketosis Onset Type 2 Diabetes Had Better Islet β-Cell Function and More Serious Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongyun; Hu, Fang; Zeng, Yingjuan; Zou, Lingling; Luo, Shunkui; Sun, Ying; Liu, Hong; Sun, Liao

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic ketosis had been identified as a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but now emerging evidence has identified that they were diagnosed as T2DM after long time follow up. This case control study was aimed at comparing the clinical characteristic, β-cell function, and insulin resistance of ketosis and nonketotic onset T2DM and providing evidence for treatment selection. 140 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients were divided into ketosis (62 cases) and nonketotic onset group (78 cases). After correction of hyperglycemia and ketosis with insulin therapy, plasma C-peptide concentrations were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after 75 g glucose oral administration. Area under the curve (AUC) of C-peptide was calculated. Homoeostasis model assessment was used to estimate basal β-cell function (HOMA-β) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Our results showed that ketosis onset group had higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) than nonketotic group (P = 0.04). Ketosis onset group had increased plasma C-peptide levels at 0 h, 0.5 h, and 3 h and higher AUC0–0.5, AUC0–1, AUC0–3 (P ketosis onset T2DM had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance than nonketotic onset T2DM. PMID:24829925

  10. Clinical & immunological profile of newly diagnosed patients with youth onset diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D K Dhanwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: About half of the youth onset diabetes mellitus patients from north India had presence of pancreatic autoimmunity in the form of GAD, ICA512/IA2, and insulin antibodies or a combination of antibodies suggestive of having type 1 DM. Further studies need to be done on a large sample size in different parts of the country

  11. Delay between Onset of Symptoms and Seeking Physician Intervention Increases Risk of Diabetic Foot Complications: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina A. Gavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a post hoc analysis of 17,530 questionnaires collected as part of the 2012 screening for neuropathy using Norfolk Quality of Life tool in patients with diabetes in Romania, to assess the impact on foot complications of time between the onset of symptoms of diabetes/its complications and the physician visit. Odds ratios (ORs for self-reporting neuropathy increased from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07–1.25 in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset to 2.27 in those who sought medical care >2 years after symptoms onset. The ORs for having a history of foot ulcers were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26–1.63 in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months and increased to 3.08 (95% CI: 2.59–3.66 in those who sought medical care after >2 years from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset. The highest ORs for a history of gangrene (2.49 [95% CI: 1.90–3.26] and amputations (2.18 [95% CI: 1.60–2.97] were observed in those who sought medical care after >2 years following symptoms onset. In conclusion, we showed that waiting for >1 month after symptoms onset dramatically increases the risk of diabetic foot complications. These results show the need for accessible educational programs on diabetes and its chronic complications and the need to avoid delays in reporting.

  12. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  13. Duodenal neuroendocrine tumor and the onset of severe diabetes mellitus in a US veteran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Murray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasms derived from endocrine cells, most commonly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors averaging 1.2–1.5 cm, and most are asymptomatic. Common presentation is abdominal pain, upper gastrointestinal bleed, constipation, anemia, and jaundice. Methods: An adult, Black, male patient with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with elevated liver function test and fatigue. Results: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a large obstructing mass (3.6 cm × 4.4 cm × 3 cm within the second and third portions of the duodenum at the ampulla. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated an ulcerated duodenal mass that was biopsied. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for synaptophysin, chromogranin B, and CK7. Chromogranin A was in normal range. Post-Whipple procedure demonstrated a 5.5 cm × 4.1 cm × 2.9 cm duodenal mass with invasion of the subserosal tissue of the small intestine, a mitotic rate of 2 per high-power field, and antigen Ki-67 of 2%–5%. Conclusion: This case raises the question as to if the patient developed diabetes mellitus due to the tumor size and location or if the new onset of diabetes was coincidental. This case also demonstrates the importance of a proficient history and physical.

  14. Long-term experience of steroid-free pediatric renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Thiesson, Helle C; Baudier, François

    2014-01-01

    Increased focus on the potential negative side effects of steroid usage in pediatric transplantation has led to steroid minimization or steroid-free transplantation. In this study, we report results after complete steroid avoidance in renal transplantation in the period 1994-2009. We evaluate...... in the youngest (renal transplantation is safe and protects against steroid-induced obesity and short stature....... the effects of complete steroid avoidance on allograft function, BMI, and linear growth. The majority of transplanted children were induced with antithymocyte globulin and immunosuppressed with a calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil. Steroids were given only when rejection occurred or due...

  15. Targeted delivery of antigen to intestinal dendritic cells induces oral tolerance and prevents autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulin; Wu, Jie; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Wenjing; Xu, Bohui; Xu, Xiaojun; Zong, Li

    2018-03-15

    The intestinal immune system is an ideal target to induce immune tolerance physiologically. However, the efficiency of oral protein antigen delivery is limited by degradation of the antigen in the gastrointestinal tract and poor uptake by antigen-presenting cells. Gut dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are prone to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance. In this study, we delivered the antigen heat shock protein 65-6×P277 (H6P) directly to the gut DCs of NOD mice through oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting nanoparticles (NPs), and investigated the ability of this antigen to induce immune tolerance to prevent autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. A targeting NP delivery system was developed to encapsulate H6P, and the ability of this system to protect and facilitate H6P delivery to gut DCs was assessed. NOD mice were immunised with H6P-loaded targeting NPs orally once a week for 7 weeks and the onset of diabetes was assessed by monitoring blood glucose levels. H6P-loaded targeting NPs protected the encapsulated H6P from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract environment and significantly increased the uptake of H6P by DCs in the gut Peyer's patches (4.1 times higher uptake compared with the control H6P solution group). Oral vaccination with H6P-loaded targeting NPs induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented diabetes in 100% of NOD mice. Immune deviation (T helper [Th]1 to Th2) and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were found to participate in the induction of immune tolerance. In this study, we successfully induced antigen-specific T cell tolerance and prevented the onset of diabetes in NOD mice. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at delivering antigen to gut DCs using targeting NPs to induce T cell tolerance.

  16. Homicide and Associated Steroid Acute Psychosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Airagnes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of an old man treated with methylprednisolone for chronic lymphoid leukemia. After two months of treatment, he declared an acute steroid psychosis and beat his wife to death. Steroids were stopped and the psychotic symptoms subsided, but his condition declined very quickly. The clinical course was complicated by a major depressive disorder with suicidal ideas, due to the steroid stoppage, the leukemia progressed, and by a sudden onset of a fatal pulmonary embolism. This clinical case highlights the importance of early detection of steroid psychosis and proposes, should treatment not be stopped, a strategy of dose reduction combined with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic treatment. In addition have been revised the risks of the adverse psychiatric effects of steroids.

  17. New insights into the factors mediating the onset of puberty in sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, F; Rocha, A; Molés, G; Gómez, A; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2015-12-01

    In populations of 1-year-old male European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), only large males are able to acquire for the first time a functional competence of their reproductive axis; in other words, to attain puberty. To examine the causes and mechanisms involved in the onset of puberty in this species, a size sorting sampling was carried out to obtain two experimental groups of small and large male fish exhibiting different growth rates. As expected, only large fish reached full spermiogenesis (stage V of testicular development) by the end of the experiment. Our study suggests that fish size is a permissive condition to ensure full effectiveness of the hormonal (Gnrh1, gonadotropins and sexual steroids) actions. Thus, though small fish had endocrine profiles similar to those of large fish, their amplitude was much lower, and was most likely the reason why functional competence of the reproductive axis was not achieved. Moreover, this work provides evidence of the involvement of kisspeptin and Gnrh1 systems in the onset of puberty in a marine teleost fish. It also indicates that very likely kisspeptin and Gnrh1 may regulate gonadotropins and sex steroids at specific stages of testicular development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic profiling in Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and young onset type 2 diabetes fails to detect robust urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyn, Anna L; Faber, Johan H; Malmodin, Daniel; Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Lam, Francis; Ueland, Per Magne; McCarthy, Mark I; Owen, Katharine R; Baunsgaard, Dorrit

    2012-01-01

    It is important to identify patients with Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) as a molecular diagnosis determines both treatment and prognosis. Genetic testing is currently expensive and many patients are therefore not assessed and are misclassified as having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Biomarkers could facilitate the prioritisation of patients for genetic testing. We hypothesised that patients with different underlying genetic aetiologies for their diabetes could have distinct metabolic profiles which may uncover novel biomarkers. The aim of this study was to perform metabolic profiling in urine from patients with MODY due to mutations in the genes encoding glucokinase (GCK) or hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and normoglycaemic control subjects. Urinary metabolic profiling by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and ultra performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to Q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was performed in a Discovery set of subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 14), GCK-MODY (n = 17), T2D (n = 14) and normoglycaemic controls (n = 34). Data were used to build a valid partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) model where HNF1A-MODY subjects could be separated from the other diabetes subtypes. No single metabolite contributed significantly to the separation of the patient groups. However, betaine, valine, glycine and glucose were elevated in the urine of HNF1A-MODY subjects compared to the other subgroups. Direct measurements of urinary amino acids and betaine in an extended dataset did not support differences between patients groups. Elevated urinary glucose in HNF1A-MODY is consistent with the previously reported low renal threshold for glucose in this genetic subtype. In conclusion, we report the first metabolic profiling study in monogenic diabetes and show that, despite the distinct biochemical pathways affected, there are unlikely to be robust urinary biomarkers which distinguish monogenic subtypes

  19. Metabolic profiling in Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY and young onset type 2 diabetes fails to detect robust urinary biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Gloyn

    Full Text Available It is important to identify patients with Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY as a molecular diagnosis determines both treatment and prognosis. Genetic testing is currently expensive and many patients are therefore not assessed and are misclassified as having either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Biomarkers could facilitate the prioritisation of patients for genetic testing. We hypothesised that patients with different underlying genetic aetiologies for their diabetes could have distinct metabolic profiles which may uncover novel biomarkers. The aim of this study was to perform metabolic profiling in urine from patients with MODY due to mutations in the genes encoding glucokinase (GCK or hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A, type 2 diabetes (T2D and normoglycaemic control subjects. Urinary metabolic profiling by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and ultra performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to Q-TOF mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was performed in a Discovery set of subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 14, GCK-MODY (n = 17, T2D (n = 14 and normoglycaemic controls (n = 34. Data were used to build a valid partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA model where HNF1A-MODY subjects could be separated from the other diabetes subtypes. No single metabolite contributed significantly to the separation of the patient groups. However, betaine, valine, glycine and glucose were elevated in the urine of HNF1A-MODY subjects compared to the other subgroups. Direct measurements of urinary amino acids and betaine in an extended dataset did not support differences between patients groups. Elevated urinary glucose in HNF1A-MODY is consistent with the previously reported low renal threshold for glucose in this genetic subtype. In conclusion, we report the first metabolic profiling study in monogenic diabetes and show that, despite the distinct biochemical pathways affected, there are unlikely to be robust urinary biomarkers which distinguish monogenic

  20. MIF inhibition interferes with the inflammatory and T cell-stimulatory capacity of NOD macrophages and delays autoimmune diabetes onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Korf

    Full Text Available Macrophages contribute in the initiation and progression of insulitis during type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanisms governing their recruitment into the islets as well as the manner of retention and activation are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated a role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF and its transmembrane receptor, CD74, in the progression of T1D. Our data indicated elevated MIF concentrations especially in long-standing T1D patients and mice. Additionally, NOD mice featured increased MIF gene expression and CD74+ leukocyte frequencies in the pancreas. We identified F4/80+ macrophages as the main immune cells in the pancreas expressing CD74 and showed that MIF antagonism of NOD macrophages prevented their activation-induced cytokine production. The physiological importance was highlighted by the fact that inhibition of MIF delayed the onset of autoimmune diabetes in two different diabetogenic T cell transfer models. Mechanistically, macrophages pre-conditioned with the MIF inhibitor featured a refractory capacity to trigger T cell activation by keeping them in a naïve state. This study underlines a possible role for MIF/CD74 signaling pathways in promoting macrophage-mediated inflammation in T1D. As therapies directed at the MIF/CD74 pathway are in clinical development, new opportunities may be proposed for arresting T1D progression.

  1. Characterization of Diabetic Neuropathy in the Zucker Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rat: A New Animal Model for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Davidson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a new rat model for type 2 diabetes the Zucker diabetic Sprague-Dawley (ZDSD/Pco was created. In this study we sought to characterize the development of diabetic neuropathy in ZDSD rats using age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats as a control. Rats were examined at 34 weeks of age 12 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia in ZDSD rats. At this time ZDSD rats were severely insulin resistant with slowing of both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. ZDSD rats also had fatty livers, elevated serum free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol, and elevated sciatic nerve nitrotyrosine levels. The corneas of ZDSD rats exhibited a decrease in subbasal epithelial corneal nerves and sensitivity. ZDSD rats were hypoalgesic but intraepidermal nerve fibers in the skin of the hindpaw were normal compared to Sprague-Dawley rats. However, the number of Langerhans cells was decreased. Vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles, blood vessels that provide circulation to the sciatic nerve, to acetylcholine and calcitonin gene-related peptide was impaired in ZDSD rats. These data indicate that ZDSD rats develop many of the neural complications associated with type 2 diabetes and are a good animal model for preclinical investigations of drug development for diabetic neuropathy.

  2. New Onset Diabetes Mellitus after Kidney Transplantation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mette; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2010-01-01

    patients remaining on the waiting list for kidney transplantation (uremic controls, age 47 11 years). All were examined at baseline before possible transplantation and after 12 months. The prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes, insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and insulin secretion index (Isecr) were...

  3. DRESS syndrome associated with type 2 diabetes in a child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Bag, Ozlem; Karkiner, Canan Sule Unsal; Korkmaz, Huseyin Anil; Can, Demet

    2016-01-01

    Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is an uncommon, life-threatening drug reaction. The basic findings are skin rash, multiorgan involvement, and eosinophilia. Most of the aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital and carbamazepine can induce DRESS. Herein we report a 14-year-old patient with DRESS syndrome related to carbamazepine use. The patient presented with signs of involvement of the skin, lungs, liver, and microscopic hematuria. Carbamazepine treatment was discontinued; antihistamines and steroids were started. Hyperglycemia, commencing on the first dose of the steroid given, persisted even after the discontinuation of steroids and improvement of other signs. There were no signs of pancreatitis or type 1 diabetes clinically in laboratory tests. Her blood glucose levels were regulated at first with insulin and later with metformin. Within 1 year of follow-up, still regulated with oral antidiabetics, she has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Formerly, long-term sequelae related to “drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome” such as hepatic and renal failure, type 1 diabetes mellitus, Grave's disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and lupus have also been reported. However, up to date, no cases with type 2 diabetes have been reported as long-term sequelae. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature presenting with type 2 diabetes as long-term sequelae. PMID:26862317

  4. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM) on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Jin; Choi, Jina; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Park, Hae-Ran; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe) was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg) once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.). In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T), which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  5. Antibody Response to Serpin B13 Induces Adaptive Changes in Mouse Pancreatic Islets and Slows Down the Decline in the Residual Beta Cell Function in Children with Recent Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvalap, Yury; Lo, Chi-Wen; Manuylova, Ekaterina; Baldzizhar, Raman; Jospe, Nicholas; Czyzyk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is characterized by a heightened antibody (Ab) response to pancreatic islet self-antigens, which is a biomarker of progressive islet pathology. We recently identified a novel antibody to clade B serpin that reduces islet-associated T cell accumulation and is linked to the delayed onset of T1D. As natural immunity to clade B arises early in life, we hypothesized that it may influence islet development during that time. To test this possibility healthy young Balb/c male mice were injected with serpin B13 mAb or IgG control and examined for the number and cellularity of pancreatic islets by immunofluorescence and FACS. Beta cell proliferation was assessed by measuring nucleotide analog 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-EdU) incorporation into the DNA and islet Reg gene expression was measured by real time PCR. Human studies involved measuring anti-serpin B13 autoantibodies by Luminex. We found that injecting anti-serpin B13 monoclonal Ab enhanced beta cell proliferation and Reg gene expression, induced the generation of ∼80 pancreatic islets per animal, and ultimately led to increase in the beta cell mass. These findings are relevant to human T1D because our analysis of subjects just diagnosed with T1D revealed an association between baseline anti-serpin activity and slower residual beta cell function decline in the first year after the onset of diabetes. Our findings reveal a new role for the anti-serpin immunological response in promoting adaptive changes in the endocrine pancreas and suggests that enhancement of this response could potentially help impede the progression of T1D in humans. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

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    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  7. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Chae, Jey Sook; Kim, Miri; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-04-28

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism.

  8. New-onset diabetes after transplant: Incidence, risk factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This open-access article is distributed under. Creative Commons ... diabetes was determined from the laboratory data (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >7 ... The WBC membranes were then lysed with a protein denaturant (Proteinase K; ..... drafting and revision; AV contributed to design and co-ordination of the genetic study ...

  9. Bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET Inhibitor Suppresses Macrophage-Driven Steroid-Resistant Exacerbations of Airway Hyper-Responsiveness and Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Hiep Nguyen

    Full Text Available Exacerbations of asthma are linked to significant decline in lung function and are often poorly controlled by corticosteroid treatment. Clinical investigations indicate that viral and bacterial infections play crucial roles in the onset of steroid-resistant inflammation and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR that are hallmark features of exacerbations. We have previously shown that interferon γ (IFNγ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS cooperatively activate pulmonary macrophages and induce steroid-resistant airway inflammation and AHR in mouse models. Furthermore, we have established a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-induced exacerbation of asthma, which exhibits macrophage-dependent, steroid-resistant lung disease. Emerging evidence has demonstrated a key role for bromo- and extra-terminal (BET proteins in the regulation of inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. We hypothesised that BET proteins may be involved in the regulation of AHR and airway inflammation in our steroid-resistant exacerbation models.We investigated the effects of a BET inhibitor (I-BET-762 on the development of steroid-resistant AHR and airway inflammation in two mouse models. I-BET-762 administration decreased macrophage and neutrophil infiltration into the airways, and suppressed key inflammatory cytokines in both models. I-BET treatment also suppressed key inflammatory cytokines linked to the development of steroid-resistant inflammation such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, keratinocyte-derived protein chemokine (KC, IFNγ, and interleukin 27 (IL-27. Attenuation of inflammation was associated with suppression of AHR.Our results suggest that BET proteins play an important role in the regulation of steroid-resistant exacerbations of airway inflammation and AHR. BET proteins may be potential targets for the development of future therapies to treat steroid-resistant inflammatory components of asthma.

  10. Adrenal steroidogenesis after B lymphocyte depletion therapy in new-onset Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Simon H S; Mitchell, Anna L; Bennett, Stuart; King, Phil; Chandran, Sukesh; Nag, Sath; Chen, Shu; Smith, Bernard Rees; Isaacs, John D; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-10-01

    A diagnosis of Addison's disease means lifelong dependence on daily glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid therapy and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as a risk of unexpected adrenal crisis. The objective of the study was to determine whether immunomodulatory therapy at an early stage of autoimmune Addison's disease could lead to preservation or improvement in adrenal steroidogenesis. This was an open-label, pilot study of B lymphocyte depletion therapy in new-onset idiopathic primary adrenal failure. Doses of iv rituximab (1 g) were given on d 1 and 15, after pretreatment with 125 mg iv methylprednisolone. Six patients (aged 17-47 yr; four females) were treated within 4 wk of the first diagnosis of idiopathic primary adrenal failure. Dynamic testing of adrenal function was performed every 3 months for at least 12 months. Serum cortisol levels declined rapidly and were less than 100 nmol/liter (3.6 μg/dl) in all patients by 3 months after B lymphocyte depletion. Serum cortisol and aldosterone concentrations remained low in five of the six patients throughout the follow-up period. However, a single patient had sustained improvement in both serum cortisol [peak 434 nmol/liter (15.7 μg/dl)] and aldosterone [peak 434 pmol/liter (15.7 ng/dl)] secretion. This patient was able to discontinue steroid medications 15 months after therapy and remains well, with improving serum cortisol levels 27 months after therapy. New-onset autoimmune Addison's disease should be considered as a potentially reversible condition in some patients. Future studies of immunomodulation in autoimmune Addison's disease may be warranted.

  11. Novel glucokinase mutation in a boy with maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY is a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by an early onset of insulin-independent diabetes mellitus, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and a primary defect in beta-cell. There are six subtypes of MODY. MODY2 and MODY3 are the most frequent. CASE OUTLINE We present a nine-year-old boy with intermittent hyperglycaemia. According to family history, the diagnosis of MODY2 was suspected. Molecular analysis revealed novel missense mutation R250c in exon 7 of glucokinase gene. Mutation (c.748 C>T is the result of substitution of aminoacid cysteine by arginine (p.Arg250Cys. This is the first pediatric patient with MODY2 in Serbia whose diagnosis is established at molecular level. CONCLUSION Molecular diagnosis of MODY has important consequences in terms of prognosis, therapy and family screening of the disorder. Investigation of other patients with MODY2 in our country is important to establish prevalence and nature of mutations in glucokinase gene.

  12. Current and Best Practices of Genetic Testing for Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young: Views of Professional Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, A.M.; Weinreich, S.S.; Bosma, A.R.; Rigter, T.; Losekoot, M.; Henneman, L.; Cornel, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Currently, many patients with maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed with type 1 or 2 diabetes. This study aims to assess professional experts' views on factors which may influence the current practice of genetic testing for MODY and to explore next steps

  13. Elevated Medium-Chain Acylcarnitines Are Associated With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Early Progression to Type 2 Diabetes and Induce Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Al Rijjal, Dana; Prentice, Kacey J; Eversley, Judith A; Burdett, Elena; Mohan, Haneesha; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Gunderson, Erica P; Liu, Ying; Wheeler, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    Specific circulating metabolites have emerged as important risk factors for the development of diabetes. The acylcarnitines (acylCs) are a family of metabolites known to be elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and linked to peripheral insulin resistance. However, the effect of acylCs on pancreatic β-cell function is not well understood. Here, we profiled circulating acylCs in two diabetes cohorts: 1 ) women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 2 ) women with recent GDM who later developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), new-onset T2D, or returned to normoglycemia within a 2-year follow-up period. We observed a specific elevation in serum medium-chain (M)-acylCs, particularly hexanoyl- and octanoylcarnitine, among women with GDM and individuals with T2D without alteration in long-chain acylCs. Mice treated with M-acylCs exhibited glucose intolerance, attributed to impaired insulin secretion. Murine and human islets exposed to elevated levels of M-acylCs developed defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and this was directly linked to reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and subsequent ability to couple glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. In conclusion, our study reveals that an elevation in circulating M-acylCs is associated with GDM and early stages of T2D onset and that this elevation directly impairs β-cell function. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Sleep-time BP: prognostic marker of type 2 diabetes and therapeutic target for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prognostic value of clinic and ambulatory BP (ABP) to predict new-onset diabetes and whether risk reduction is related to the progressive decrease of clinic BP or awake or asleep ABP. We prospectively evaluated 2,656 individuals without diabetes, 1,292 men and 1,364 women, 50.6 ± 14.3 years of age, with baseline BP ranging from normotension to hypertension according to ABP criteria. At baseline and annually (more frequently if hypertension treatment was adjusted based on ABP) thereafter, ABP and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) were simultaneously monitored for 48 h to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means. During a 5.9-year median follow-up, 190 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The asleep systolic ABP mean was the most significant predictor of new-onset diabetes in a Cox proportional-hazard model adjusted for age, waist circumference, glucose, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension treatment. Daytime clinic BP and awake or 48 h ABP mean had no predictive value when corrected by the asleep ABP mean. Analyses of BP changes during follow-up revealed a 30% reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes per 1-SD decrease in asleep systolic ABP mean, independent of changes in clinic BP or awake or 48 h ABP means. Sleep-time BP is a highly significant independent prognostic marker for new-onset diabetes. Alteration in sleep-time BP regulation seems to precede, rather than follow, the development of new-onset diabetes. Most important, lowering asleep BP, a novel therapeutic target requiring ABP evaluation, could be a significant method for reducing new-onset diabetes risk.

  15. A Model Based Approach to Sample Size Estimation in Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Brian; Krischer, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The area under the curve C-peptide following a 2-hour mixed meal tolerance test from 481 individuals enrolled on 5 prior TrialNet studies of recent onset type 1 diabetes from baseline to 12 months after enrollment were modelled to produce estimates of its rate of loss and variance. Age at diagnosis and baseline C-peptide were found to be significant predictors and adjusting for these in an ANCOVA resulted in estimates with lower variance. Using these results as planning parameters for new studies results in a nearly 50% reduction in the target sample size. The modelling also produces an expected C-peptide that can be used in Observed vs. Expected calculations to estimate the presumption of benefit in ongoing trials. PMID:26991448

  16. German new onset diabetes in the young incident cohort study: DiMelli study design and first-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümer, Leonore; Adler, Kerstin; Bonifacio, Ezio; Hofmann, Frank; Keller, Manfred; Milz, Christine; Munte, Axel; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes incidence in childhood and youth is increasing worldwide, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune cases. Recent findings suggest that there is a larger than expected proportion of type 2 diabetes in youth, and potential cases of intermediate diabetes phenotypes. Most pediatric diabetes registries focus on type 1 diabetes. Also, there is an absence of reliable data on type 2 diabetes incidence in youth. The DiMelli study aims to establish a diabetes incidence cohort registry of patients in Germany, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus before age 20 years. It will be used to characterize diabetes phenotypes by immunologic, metabolic, and genetic markers. DiMelli will assess the contribution of obesity and socio-demographic factors to the development of diabetes in childhood and youth. Recruitment of patients started in 2009, and is expected to continue at a rate of 250 patients per year. 84% of the 216 patients recruited within the first year were positive for multiple islet autoantibodies, 12% for one islet autoantibody, and 4% were islet autoantibody-negative. Patients with multiple islet autoantibodies were younger and had lower fasting C-peptide levels, compared to islet autoantibody-negative patients (median age 10.0 vs. 14.1 years, p < 0.01). Results from the first year of the study show that DiMelli will help to reveal new knowledge on the etiology of diabetes, and the contribution of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors to the different types of diabetes.

  17. Evidence-based guideline update: steroids and antivirals for Bell palsy: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronseth, Gary S; Paduga, Remia

    2012-11-27

    To review evidence published since the 2001 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter regarding the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of steroids and antiviral agents for Bell palsy. We searched Medline and the Cochrane Database of Controlled Clinical Trials for studies published since January 2000 that compared facial functional outcomes in patients with Bell palsy receiving steroids/antivirals with patients not receiving these medications. We graded each study (Class I-IV) using the AAN therapeutic classification of evidence scheme. We compared the proportion of patients recovering facial function in the treated group with the proportion of patients recovering facial function in the control group. Nine studies published since June 2000 on patients with Bell palsy receiving steroids/antiviral agents were identified. Two of these studies were rated Class I because of high methodologic quality. For patients with new-onset Bell palsy, steroids are highly likely to be effective and should be offered to increase the probability of recovery of facial nerve function (2 Class I studies, Level A) (risk difference 12.8%-15%). For patients with new-onset Bell palsy, antiviral agents in combination with steroids do not increase the probability of facial functional recovery by >7%. Because of the possibility of a modest increase in recovery, patients might be offered antivirals (in addition to steroids) (Level C). Patients offered antivirals should be counseled that a benefit from antivirals has not been established, and, if there is a benefit, it is likely that it is modest at best.

  18. Ketosis Onset Type 2 Diabetes Had Better Islet β-Cell Function and More Serious Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic ketosis had been identified as a characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, but now emerging evidence has identified that they were diagnosed as T2DM after long time follow up. This case control study was aimed at comparing the clinical characteristic, β-cell function, and insulin resistance of ketosis and nonketotic onset T2DM and providing evidence for treatment selection. 140 cases of newly diagnosed T2DM patients were divided into ketosis (62 cases and nonketotic onset group (78 cases. After correction of hyperglycemia and ketosis with insulin therapy, plasma C-peptide concentrations were measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours after 75 g glucose oral administration. Area under the curve (AUC of C-peptide was calculated. Homoeostasis model assessment was used to estimate basal β-cell function (HOMA-β and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Our results showed that ketosis onset group had higher prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD than nonketotic group (P=0.04. Ketosis onset group had increased plasma C-peptide levels at 0 h, 0.5 h, and 3 h and higher AUC0–0.5, AUC0–1, AUC0–3 (P<0.05. Moreover, this group also had higher HOMA-β and HOMA-IR than nonketotic group (P<0.05. From these data, we concluded that ketosis onset T2DM had better islet β-cell function and more serious insulin resistance than nonketotic onset T2DM.

  19. Lost opportunities to prevent early onset type 2 diabetes mellitus after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Judith A; McCloskey, Lois; Gebel, Christina M; Iverson, Ronald E; Lee-Parritz, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) greatly increases the risk of developing diabetes in the decade after delivery, but few women receive appropriately timed postpartum glucose testing (PPGT) or a referral to primary care (PC) for continued monitoring. This qualitative study was designed to identify barriers and facilitators to testing and referral from patient and providers' perspectives. We interviewed patients and clinicians in depth about knowledge, values, priorities, challenges, and recommendations for increasing PPGT rates and PC linkage. Interviews were coded with NVIVO data analysis software, and analyzed using an implementation science framework. Women reported motivation to address GDM for the health of the fetus. Most women did not anticipate future diabetes for themselves, and focused on delivery outcomes rather than future health risks. Patients sought and received reassurance from clinicians, and were unlikely to discuss early onset following GDM or preventive measures. PPGT barriers described by patients included provider not mentioning the test or setting it up, transportation difficulties, work responsibilities, fatigue, concerns about fasting while breastfeeding, and timing of the test after discharge from obstetrics, and no referral to PC for follow-up. Practitioners described limited communication among multiple care providers during pregnancy and delivery, systems issues, and separation of obstetrics from PC. Patients' barriers to PPGT included low motivation for self-care, structural obstacles, and competing priorities. Providers reported the need to balance risk with reassurance, and identified systems failures related to test timing, limitations of electronic medical record systems (EMR), lack of referrals to PC, and inadequate communication between specialties. Prevention of early onset has great potential for medical cost savings and improvements in quality of life.

  20. Probing the onset of laser-induced relativistic transparency in massive targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wagner, Craig; Toncian, Toma; Dyer, Gilliss; Arefiev, Alexey; Ditmire, Todd

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated a novel approach of using harmonics of the laser frequency generated in the plasma to detect the onset of relativistic transparency induced by an intense laser pulse. The onset of the transparency is directly associated with a forward motion of a relativistically adjusted critical surface. The corresponding velocity is relativistic, so the harmonics generated at this critical surface are noticeably shifted. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we have confirmed that the resulting shift greatly exceeds the shift produced during a hole-boring process when the relativistic transparency plays no role, which allows us to clearly identify the onset of the relativistic transparency. Experiments that we have carried out at the Texas Petawatt laser showcase this approach. The 3rd harmonic signal detected in experiments with massive targets irradiated at laser intensities around 1020 W/cm2 has a pronounced shift associated with the relativistic transparency. The shift represents a recession of the relativistically adjusted critical surface with a velocity close to 0.2 c. This approach opens a new possibility of detecting changes in the optical properties of matter induced by intense laser pulses even when no transmission of the laser pulse takes place. This research was supported part by NSF (Grant No. 1632777) and NNSA (Cont. No. DE-NA0002008). Simulations were performed using HPC resources at TACC at the University of Texas.

  1. Preventive effects of Salvia officinalis L. against learning and memory deficit induced by diabetes in rats: Possible hypoglycaemic and antioxidant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanein, Parisa; Felehgari, Zhila; Emamjomeh, Abbasali

    2016-05-27

    Learning and memory impairment occurs in diabetes. Salvia officinalis L. (SO) has been used in Iranian traditional medicine as a remedy against diabetes. We hypothesized that chronic administration of SO (400, 600 and 800mg/kg, p.o.) and its principal constituent, rosmarinic acid, would affect on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozocin-induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. We also explored hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of SO as the possible mechanisms. Treatments were begun at the onset of hyperglycemia. PAL was assessed 30days later. Retention test was done 24h after training. At the end, animals were weighed and blood samples were drawn for further analyzing of glucose and oxidant/antioxidant markers. Diabetes induced deficits in acquisition and retrieval processes. SO (600 and 800mg/kg) and rosmarinic acid reversed learning and memory deficits induced by diabetes and improved cognition of healthy rats. While the dose of 400mg/kg had no effect, the higher doses and rosmarinic acid inhibited hyperglycemia and lipid peroxidation as well as enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. SO prevented diabetes-induced acquisition and memory deficits through inhibiting hyperglycemia, lipid peroxidation as well as enhancing antioxidant defense systems. Therefore, SO and its principal constituent rosmarinic acid represent a potential therapeutic option against diabetic memory impairment which deserves consideration and further examination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A prevalent amino acid polymorphism at codon 98 (Ala98Val) of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha is associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and younger age at onset of type 2 diabetes in Asian Indians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anuradha, Shekher; Radha, Venkatesan; Deepa, Raj

    2005-01-01

    Among Europeans, mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha (HNF1alpha) gene are associated with the most common form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3. In Asian Indians, type 2 diabetes occurs earlier and often overlaps with MODY, but the genetics of the latter are unknown....... The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Ala98Val polymorphism of the HNF1alpha gene in different types of diabetes in Asian Indians....

  3. A Steroid-resistant Cryptogenic Multifocal Ulcerous Stenosing Enteritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-22

    May 22, 2018 ... consists of nutrition supplement, systemic steroids, intestinal resection, or balloon ... onset at early ages involved gastric and duodenum, who had a mutation in cytosolic ... cancer or death has been reported. In this situation,.

  4. Psoriasis and New-onset Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Ahlehoff, Ole; Egeberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of depression, but results are inconsistent. This study examined the risk of new-onset depression in patients with psoriasis in a nationwide Danish cohort including some 5 million people in the period 2001-2011. A total of 35,001 patients with mild...... psoriasis and 7,510 with severe psoriasis were identified. Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Incidence rates for depression were 20.0 (95% confidence interval 19.9-20.0), 23.9 (23.1-24.7) and 31.6 (29.5-33.8) for the reference population, mild......, the risk of new-onset depression in psoriasis is mediated primarily by comorbidities, except in younger individuals with severe psoriasis, in whom psoriasis itself may be a risk factor....

  5. Neuroprotective effect of ginger in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Kholy, Wael

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in neuronal damage caused by increased intracellular glucose leading to oxidative stress. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress markers. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time, whether the antioxidant properties of ginger has beneficial effects on the structural brain damage associated with diabetes. We investigated the observable neurodegenerative changes in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum after 4, 6, and 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and the effect(s) of ginger (500 mg/kg/day). Sections of frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using light microscopy. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical assessments of the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Ki67 were performed. Our results revealed a protective role of ginger on the diabetic brain via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In addition, this study revealed that the beneficial effect of ginger was also mediated by modulating the astroglial response to the injury, reducing AChE expression, and improving neurogenesis. These results represent a new insight into the beneficial effects of ginger on the structural alterations of diabetic brain and suggest that ginger might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic-induced damage in brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  7. Transdermal deferoxamine prevents pressure-induced diabetic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Dominik; Neofytou, Evgenios; Wong, Victor W; Maan, Zeshaan N; Rennert, Robert C; Inayathullah, Mohammed; Januszyk, Michael; Rodrigues, Melanie; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Whitmore, Arnetha J; Walmsley, Graham G; Galvez, Michael G; Whittam, Alexander J; Brownlee, Michael; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2015-01-06

    There is a high mortality in patients with diabetes and severe pressure ulcers. For example, chronic pressure sores of the heels often lead to limb loss in diabetic patients. A major factor underlying this is reduced neovascularization caused by impaired activity of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In diabetes, HIF-1α function is compromised by a high glucose-induced and reactive oxygen species-mediated modification of its coactivator p300, leading to impaired HIF-1α transactivation. We examined whether local enhancement of HIF-1α activity would improve diabetic wound healing and minimize the severity of diabetic ulcers. To improve HIF-1α activity we designed a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) containing the FDA-approved small molecule deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator that increases HIF-1α transactivation in diabetes by preventing iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen stress. Applying this TDDS to a pressure-induced ulcer model in diabetic mice, we found that transdermal delivery of DFO significantly improved wound healing. Unexpectedly, prophylactic application of this transdermal delivery system also prevented diabetic ulcer formation. DFO-treated wounds demonstrated increased collagen density, improved neovascularization, and reduction of free radical formation, leading to decreased cell death. These findings suggest that transdermal delivery of DFO provides a targeted means to both prevent ulcer formation and accelerate diabetic wound healing with the potential for rapid clinical translation.

  8. Prognosis of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis after corticosteroid therapy-induced remission in terms of relapse and diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Miyazawa

    Full Text Available Relapse and diabetes mellitus (DM are major problems for the prognosis of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP. We examined the prognosis of type 1 AIP after corticosteroid therapy (CST-induced remission in terms of relapse and DM.The study enrolled 82 patients diagnosed with type 1 AIP who achieved remission with CST. We retrospectively evaluated the relapse rate in terms of the administration period of CST, clinical factors associated with relapse, and the temporal change in glucose tolerance.During follow-up, 32 patients (39.0% experienced relapse. There was no significant clinical factor that could predict relapse before beginning CST. AIP patients who ceased CST within 2 or 3 years experienced significantly earlier relapse than those who had the continuance of CST (p = 0.050 or p = 0.020. Of the 37 DM patients, 15 patients (40.5% had pre-existing DM, 17 (45.9% showed new-onset DM, and 5 (13.5% developed CST-induced DM. Patients with new-onset DM were significantly more likely to show improvement (p = 0.008 than those with pre-existing DM.It was difficult to predict relapse of AIP based on clinical parameters before beginning CST. Relapse was likely to occur within 3 years after the beginning of CST and maintenance of CST for at least 3 years reduced the risk of relapse. The early initiation of CST for AIP with impaired glucose tolerance is desirable because pre-existing DM is refractory to CST.

  9. Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY): Making the Right Diagnosis to Optimize Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amed, Shazhan; Oram, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of diabetes in young people. It is a monogenic disorder that typically presents at MODY are caused by mutations in glucokinase and hepatic nuclear factor 1 alpha or 4 alpha genes and account for almost 80% of cases of MODY. MODY is commonly misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes and, as a result, patients are often inappropriately managed with insulin when they can be more effectively managed with oral sulfonylureas. Therefore, making the right diagnosis is critical for effective treatment as well as for genetic counselling and, more important, for patients' quality of life. In this review, we aim to raise awareness about MODY among diabetes clinicians by describing key clinical and laboratory features of the most common forms of MODY, outlining features that might help to differentiate MODY from type 1 and type 2 diabetes and providing information about clinical tests and tools that might assist in identifying patients who are most likely to benefit from molecular genetic testing. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Steroid excretion during the ovarian cycle in captive and wild muriquis, Brachyteles arachnoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, T E; Santos, C V; Pissinatti, A; Strier, K B

    1997-01-01

    Urine, feces, and copulation frequency were collected from two captive muriqui females, Brachyteles arachnoides, at the Centro de Primatologia do Rio de Janeiro following the resumption of postpartum ovarian cycles. Fecal steroid profiles from seven wild muriqui females at the Estação Biologica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were compared to the captive females to determine the approximate patterns of steroid excretion relative to the urinary LH peak. Hormonal profiles from one of the captive female muriquis revealed a discrete urinary LH peak. For this female, fecal progesterone increased on the same day as the urinary LH peak, while fecal estradiol increased 6 days later and urinary steroids increased 5 days later. For both captive females, the onset of fecal progesterone increase was preceded by the onset of copulations, which occurred during at least a 5-day period. The complete fecal hormonal profiles of the one captive female for which continuos data were available were similar to those found in wild muriqui monkeys, with the onset of an increase in sustained progesterone levels occurring several days prior to the onset of sustained estradiol increase. These patterns suggest that fecal progesterone may be excreted rapidly in this species. The onset of sustained increase in fecal progesterone levels, together with the consistent delay in the onset of the sustained increase in estradiol, may provide the best indicators of the periovulatory period for muriqui females.

  11. A new nortriterpenoid and an ergostane-type steroid from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Ganoderma resinaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Qiang; Chen, Ling-Xiao; Li, Shao-Ping; Zhao, Jing

    2017-12-01

    One new expoxy nortriterpenoid (1) and one new ergostane-type steroid (2), together with seven known steroids (3-9), were obtained from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Ganoderma resinaceum. The new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data (MS, NMR, IR, and UV) and the known compounds were identified by comparing spectroscopic data with those reported in literature.

  12. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)--history, first case reports and recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Khalid; Musambil, Mohthash; Nazir, Nyla

    2015-01-15

    The world is seemingly facing a global increase in people suffering from diabetes especially in developing countries. The worldwide occurrence of diabetes for all age groups in year 2000 was estimated to be 2.8% and this number is most certainly expected to rise to 4.4% by 2030. Maturity-onset of diabetes of the young, or MODY, is a form of monogenic diabetes that is caused by mutations occurring in a number of different genes. Mutations in different genes tend to cause a slightly different variant of diabetes. MODY is typically diagnosed during late childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood and is usually observed to develop in adults during their late 50's. One of the main drawbacks in its diagnosis is that many people with MODY are misdiagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, a molecular and genetic diagnosis can result in a better treatment and could also help in identifying other family members with MODY. This article explores the historical prospect and the genetic background of MODY, a brief summary of the first case reported and the significant factors that differentiate it from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  14. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia: studies in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-08-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. Two hours after onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms, subcutaneous blood flow was still significantly decreased compared with pre-hypoglycaemic flow. In normal subjects local nerve blockade had no effect on blood flow changes during hypoglycaemia, whereas local alpha-receptor blockade abolished the vasoconstrictor response. We suggest that circulating catecholamines stimulating vascular alpha-receptors are probably responsible for flow reduction in the subcutaneous tissue during hypoglycaemia.

  15. Attention Contributes to Arithmetic Deficits in New-Onset Childhood Absence Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dazhi; Yan, Xiuxian; Gao, Zhijie; Xu, Keming; Chen, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Neuropsychological studies indicate that new-onset childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is associated with deficits in attention and executive functioning. However, the contribution of these deficits to impaired academic performance remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether attention and executive functioning deficits account for the academic difficulties prevalent in patients with new-onset CAE. We analyzed cognitive performance in several domains, including language, mathematics, psychomotor speed, spatial ability, memory, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning, in 35 children with new-onset CAE and 33 control participants. Patients with new-onset CAE exhibited deficits in mathematics, general intelligence, attention, and executive functioning. Furthermore, attention deficits, as measured by a visual tracing task, accounted for impaired arithmetic performance in the new-onset CAE group. Therefore, attention deficits, rather than impaired general intelligence or executive functioning, may be responsible for arithmetic performance deficits in patients with new-onset CAE.

  16. Transdermal deferoxamine prevents pressure-induced diabetic ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Dominik; Neofytou, Evgenios; Wong, Victor W.; Maan, Zeshaan N.; Rennert, Robert C.; Januszyk, Michael; Rodrigues, Melanie; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Whitmore, Arnetha J.; Galvez, Michael G.; Whittam, Alexander J.; Brownlee, Michael; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    There is a high mortality in patients with diabetes and severe pressure ulcers. For example, chronic pressure sores of the heels often lead to limb loss in diabetic patients. A major factor underlying this is reduced neovascularization caused by impaired activity of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). In diabetes, HIF-1α function is compromised by a high glucose-induced and reactive oxygen species-mediated modification of its coactivator p300, leading to impaired HIF-1α transactivation. We examined whether local enhancement of HIF-1α activity would improve diabetic wound healing and minimize the severity of diabetic ulcers. To improve HIF-1α activity we designed a transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) containing the FDA-approved small molecule deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator that increases HIF-1α transactivation in diabetes by preventing iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen stress. Applying this TDDS to a pressure-induced ulcer model in diabetic mice, we found that transdermal delivery of DFO significantly improved wound healing. Unexpectedly, prophylactic application of this transdermal delivery system also prevented diabetic ulcer formation. DFO-treated wounds demonstrated increased collagen density, improved neovascularization, and reduction of free radical formation, leading to decreased cell death. These findings suggest that transdermal delivery of DFO provides a targeted means to both prevent ulcer formation and accelerate diabetic wound healing with the potential for rapid clinical translation. PMID:25535360

  17. Diabetes insipidus as a rare cause of acute cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, V; Schlamann, M; Führer, D; Moeller, L C

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease presenting with a diversity of clinical symptoms including palsy and cognitive impairment. We present a 59-year-old woman with a history of secondary progressive MS since 1987, who was referred to our department because of recent onset of confusion and polydipsia. Initial lab tests showed mildly elevated serum sodium levels and low urine osmolality. Under water deprivation, diuresis and low urine osmolality persisted and serum sodium levels rose above 150 mmol/l. Oral desmopressin resulted in normalisation of serum sodium as well as urine osmolarity, confirming a diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus. As drug-induced diabetes could be excluded, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed. A demyelinating lesion was detected in the hypothalamus. The patient was started on oral desmopressin treatment (0.2 mg/day). Fluid intake and serum sodium levels have since remained normal. In summary, we report the rare case of a patient presenting with diabetes insipidus due to progressive MS. Diabetes insipidus should be considered in MS patients who develop new onset of polydipsia.

  18. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women. PMID:22289043

  19. Searching for Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY): When and What for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, José; Saint-Martin, Cécile; Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a group of monogenic diseases that results in primary defects in insulin secretion and dominantly inherited forms of nonautoimmune diabetes. Although many genes may be associated with monogenic diabetes, heterozygous mutations in 6 of them are responsible for the majority of cases of MODY. Glucokinase (GCK)-MODY is due to mutations in the glucokinase gene, 3 MODY subtypes are associated with mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) transcription factors, and 2 others with mutations in ABCC8 and KCNJ11, which encode the subunits of the ATP-dependent potassium channel in pancreatic beta cells. GCK-MODY and HNF1A-MODY are the most common subtypes. The clinical presentation of MODY subtypes has been reported to differ according to the gene involved, and the diagnosis of MODY may be considered in various clinical circumstances. However, except in patients with GCK-MODY whose phenotype is very homogeneous, in most cases the penetrance and expressivity of a given molecular abnormality vary greatly among patients and, conversely, alterations in various genes may lead to similar phenotypes. Moreover, differential diagnosis among more common forms of diabetes may be difficult, particularly with type 2 diabetes. Thus, careful assessment of the personal and family histories of patients with diabetes is mandatory to select those in whom genetic screening is worthwhile. The diagnosis of monogenic diabetes has many consequences in terms of prognosis, therapeutics and family screening. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Menstrual Dysfunction in Girls from the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Braffett, Barbara H; Geffner, Mitchell E; Levitsky, Lynne L; Caprio, Sonia; McKay, Siripoom V; Shah, Rachana; Sprague, Jennifer E; Arslanian, Silva A

    2018-04-24

    Little is known about reproductive function in girls with youth-onset type 2 diabetes. To characterize girls with irregular menses, and effects of glycemic treatments on menses and sex steroids in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Youth (TODAY) study. Differences in demographic, metabolic, and hormonal characteristics between regular vs. irregular menses groups were tested; treatment group (metformin +/- rosiglitazone, metformin + lifestyle) effect on menses and sex steroids over time in the study was assessed. This is a secondary analysis of TODAY data. Multi-center study in an academic setting. TODAY girls not on hormonal contraception and those > 1-year post-menarche were included. Irregular menses was defined as irregular menses. Those with irregular vs. regular menses had higher body mass index (BMI) (p=0.001), AST (p=0.001), free androgen index (p=0.0003), total testosterone (p=0.01); and lower sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (p=0.004) and estradiol (p=0.01). Differences remained after adjusting for BMI. There was no treatment group effect on menses or sex steroids at 12 or 24 months, and no association of sex steroids with measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Menstrual dysfunction is common in girls with recently diagnosed T2D and associated with alterations in sex steroids, SHBG, and AST, but not with alteration in insulin sensitivity or β-cell function, and did not improve with 2 years of anti-hyperglycemic treatment.

  1. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Shan, Bin; Liao, Cai-Hu; Xie, Jian-Hua; Wen, Ping-Wei; Shi, Jia-Yi

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (MCP) was isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia L., and the hypoglycemic effects of MCP were investigated in both normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MCP was orally administered once a day after 3 days of alloxan-induction at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight for 28 day. Results showed that fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was significantly decreased, whereas the glucose tolerance was marked improvement in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice compared to the diabetic control group. The dosage of 300mg/kg body weight exhibited the best effects. In addition, MCP did not exhibit any toxic symptoms in the limited toxicity evaluation in mice. The results suggest that MCP possess significantly dose-dependent anti-diabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hence, MCP can be incorporated as a supplement in health-care food, drugs and/or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Profile and Etiology of Diabetes Mellitus With Onset at Less Than 6 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Valamparampil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the clinical profile and etiology of diabetes mellitus (DM with onset at < 6 months of age. All children aged < 6 months diagnosed with DM at a tertiary referral center between 2005 and 2008 were included in the study. Three cases of DM with onset at < 6 months of age were identified. All patients were female and of the same ethnic origin, with nonconsanguineous parents. Intrauterine growth retardation was noted in all three patients, and diabetic ketoacidosis and hypertriglyceridemia in two of the three. Blood samples from all three patients and their parents were analyzed for mutations in the KCNJ11 gene (inwardly-rectifying potassium channel, subfamily J, member 11 gene; OMIM 600937. A heterozygous de novo mutation in the KCNJ11 gene was detected in one patient, which confirmed the diagnosis of permanent neonatal DM. Neither C-peptide secretion nor circulating islet cell antibodies were detected in any patient during diagnosis, but C-peptide elevation was detected in the patient with permanent neonatal DM after treatment with sulfonylurea. One infant had clinical and immunological evidence of congenital cytomegalovirus infection while the diabetes in another case was postulated to be syndromic. DM within the first 6 months of life is a rare condition with various etiologies. The high prevalence of Kir6.2 mutations in neonatal diabetes means that all children < 6 months of age diagnosed with diabetes should be tested for Kir6.2 mutations at diagnosis.

  3. Effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein A-V levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the effects of a 3-year dietary intervention on age-related changes in triglyceride and apolipoprotein (apo A-V) levels in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or new-onset type 2 diabetes as a function of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. Methods We genotyped the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism in 203 Korean individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes for the TT (n = 91), TC (n = 98), and CC (n = 14) alleles. Plasma apo A-V and triglyceride levels were evaluated at baseline and after a 3-year dietary intervention. Results Our results showed that HDL, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR index, free fatty acids, and apo A-V decreased and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased at the 3-year follow-up visit compared with baseline. Plasma apo A-V levels were reduced in subjects with the C allele (TC or CC) (P = 0.036) and triglyceride levels were reduced in subjects with the TT allele (P = 0.047). Subjects with the C allele showed lower post-treatment apo A-V and higher post-treatment fasting triglyceride levels than subjects with the TT allele. Changes in apo A-V and triglyceride levels were negatively correlated in subjects with the TT allele and positively correlated in subjects with the C allele. Conclusions This study showed that the dietary intervention prevented an age-related increase in triglyceride levels in individuals with IFG or new-onset type 2 diabetes who possess the TT allele, but not the CT or CC allele, of the APOA5 -1131 T > C polymorphism. PMID:24775272

  4. Antioxidant treatment attenuates lactate production in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Nielsen, Per Mose; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    -IDEAL spiral sequence. Untreated diabetic rats showed increased renal lactate production compared with that shown by the controls. However, chronic TEMPOL treatment significantly attenuated diabetes-induced lactate production. No significant effects of diabetes or TEMPOL were observed on [13C]alanine levels......, indicating an intact glucose-alanine cycle, or [13C]bicarbonate, indicating normal flux through the Krebs cycle. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that diabetes-induced pseudohypoxia, as indicated by an increased lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, is significantly attenuated by antioxidant treatment......The early progression of diabetic nephropathy is notoriously difficult to detect and quantify before the occurrence of substantial histological damage. Recently, hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate has demonstrated increased lactate production in the kidney early after the onset of diabetes, implying...

  5. Jiangtang Xiaozhi Recipe () prevents diabetic retinopathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Li, Yan-Lin; Zhou, Yun-Feng; Ge, Zheng-Yan; Wang, Li-Li; Li, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Yu-Jie; Jin, Long; Ren, Ye; Liu, Jian-Xun; Xu, Yang

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the prevention effect of diabetic retinopathy of Jiangtang Xiaozhi Recipe (, JXR) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control group and diabetic group. Rats in the diabetic group were induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg), and subdivided into 5 groups. Rats in the diabetic control group were given saline; four treatment groups were given metformin (300 mg/kg), JXR (2, 4 and 8 g/kg) respectively for 8 weeks, while rats in the normal control group were injected with citrate buffer and given the same volume of vehicle. Body weight and food intake were measured every week. The hypoglycaemic effects were determined by testing fasting blood glucose (FBG) every other week, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, and glucagon at the end of the treatment. The preventive effects of JXR on STZ-induced diabetic rats were determined by histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and periodic acid-schiff staining. The effects were further evaluated by serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA). High-dose JXR significantly reduced FBG and HbA1c level at the 8th week of administration (Pdiabetic rats. Histopathological studies revealed that there were no basement membrane thickening and mild destruction in the treated groups. Morphometric measurements of retina microvascular showed that acellular capillary and capillary density decreased in treated rats while pericyte and endothelial cell increasing after the treatment. JXR have protective effect of diabetic retinopathy and its mechanism may be associated with the obvious hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect.

  6. Screening and Treatment for Early-Onset Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immanuel, Jincy; Simmons, David

    2017-10-02

    We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the current evidence for screening and treatment for early-onset gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the women with early GDM in the first trimester do not have evidence of hyperglycemia at 24-28 weeks' gestation. A high proportion (15-70%) of women with GDM can be detected early in pregnancy depending on the setting, criteria used and screening strategy. However, there remains no good evidence for any of the diagnostic criteria for early-onset GDM. In a meta-analysis of 13 cohort studies, perinatal mortality (relative risk (RR) 3.58 [1.91, 6.71]), neonatal hypoglycemia (RR 1.61 [1.02, 2.55]), and insulin use (RR 1.71 [1.45, 2.03]) were greater among early-onset GDM women compared to late-onset GDM women, despite treatment. Considering the high likelihood of benefit from treatment, there is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials that investigate any benefits and possible harms of treatment of early-onset GDM.

  7. The Impact of Diet Wheat Source on the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Lessons Learned from the Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Jonathan; Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Budovsky, Arie; Khalfin, Boris; Klein, Joshua D; Pinchasov, Yosi; Bushuev, Maxim A; Rudchenko, Tatiana; Ben-Shabat, Shimon

    2017-05-10

    Nutrition, especially wheat consumption, is a major factor involved in the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases such as celiac. While modern wheat cultivars possess similar gliadin proteins associated with the onset of celiac disease and T1D, alternative dietary wheat sources from Israeli landraces and native ancestral species may be lacking the epitopes linked with T1D, potentially reducing the incidence of T1D. The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model was used to monitor the effects of dietary wheat sources on the onset and development of T1D. The effects of modern wheat flour were compared with those from either T. aestivum , T. turgidum spp. dicoccoides , or T. turgidum spp. dicoccum landraces or a non-wheat diet. Animals which received wheat from local landraces or ancestral species such as emmer displayed a lower incidence of T1D and related complications compared to animals fed a modern wheat variety. This study is the first report of the diabetogenic properties of various dietary wheat sources and suggests that alternative dietary wheat sources may lack T1D linked epitopes, thus reducing the incidence of T1D.

  8. [Intramuscular depot steroids : Possible treatment of postsurgical cystoid macula edema with steroid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuthe, A-M; Szurman, P; Boden, K T

    2017-11-01

    We report on a patient with postsurgical cystoid macular edema (CME) after phacoemulsification and multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) implantation. At first, there was a very good reaction to intravitreal triamcinolone, inducing complete regression of the edema without increasing intraocular pressure (IOP). One year later the patient suffered from retinal detachment and was treated with vitrectomy, laser, and gas tamponade. Afterward, he developed macular pucker with edema. After surgical treatment with pucker peeling and intravitreal triamcinolone, the patient showed a steroid response and an increase IOP. Postoperatively, there was a recurrence of CME. A coincidental administration of a steroid injection intramuscularly by the general practitioner achieved a prompt reduction of the CME without increasing IOP. This case shows that an initially good reaction to triamcinolone without increasing IOP does not rule out a future steroid response, and that a potential treatment option for CME in patients with a known steroid response could consist of intramuscularly injected steroids.

  9. Autoantibodies to N-terminally truncated GAD improve clinical phenotyping of individuals with adult-onset diabetes: Action LADA 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Peter; Hawa, Mohammed I; Krause, Stephanie; Lampasona, Vito; Jerram, Samuel T; Williams, Alistair J K; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette G; Leslie, R David

    2018-04-04

    Adult-onset type 1 diabetes, in which the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) is a major autoantigen, has a broad clinical phenotype encompassing variable need for insulin therapy. This study aimed to evaluate whether autoantibodies against N-terminally truncated GAD65 more closely defined a type 1 diabetes phenotype associated with insulin therapy. Of 1114 participants with adult-onset diabetes from the Action LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults) study with sufficient sera, we selected those designated type 1 (n = 511) or type 2 diabetes (n = 603) and retested the samples in radiobinding assays for human full-length GAD65 autoantibodies (f-GADA) and N-terminally truncated (amino acids 96-585) GAD65 autoantibodies (t-GADA). Individuals' clinical phenotypes were analysed according to antibody binding patterns. Overall, 478 individuals were f-GADA-positive, 431 were t-GADA-positive and 628 were negative in both assays. Risk of insulin treatment was augmented in t-GADA-positive individuals (OR 4.69 [95% CI 3.57, 6.17]) compared with f-GADA-positive individuals (OR 3.86 [95% CI 2.95, 5.06]), irrespective of diabetes duration. Of 55 individuals who were f-GADA-positive but t-GADA-negative, i.e. with antibody binding restricted to the N-terminus of GAD65, the phenotype was similar to type 2 diabetes with low risk of progression to insulin treatment. Compared with these individuals with N-terminal GAD65-restricted GADA, t-GADA-positive individuals were younger at diagnosis (p = 0.005), leaner (p N-terminally truncated GAD65 autoantibodies is associated with the clinical phenotype of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and predicts insulin therapy.

  10. A model-based approach to sample size estimation in recent onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Brian N; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2016-11-01

    The area under the curve C-peptide following a 2-h mixed meal tolerance test from 498 individuals enrolled on five prior TrialNet studies of recent onset type 1 diabetes from baseline to 12 months after enrolment were modelled to produce estimates of its rate of loss and variance. Age at diagnosis and baseline C-peptide were found to be significant predictors, and adjusting for these in an ANCOVA resulted in estimates with lower variance. Using these results as planning parameters for new studies results in a nearly 50% reduction in the target sample size. The modelling also produces an expected C-peptide that can be used in observed versus expected calculations to estimate the presumption of benefit in ongoing trials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. House dust mite allergen causes certain features of steroid resistant asthma in high fat fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pal; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Pratap, Kunal; Bahal, Devika; Maheswari, Deepanshu; Gheware, Atish; Bajaj, Aabha; Panda, Lipsa; Jaiswal, Ashish; Ram, Arjun; Agrawal, Anurag

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is a high risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and asthma. Obese-asthma is another emerging phenotype in asthma which is typically refractive to steroid treatment due to its non-classical features such as non-eosinophilic cellular inflammation. The overall increased morbidity, mortality and economical burden in asthma is mainly due to steroid resistant asthma. In the present study, we used high fat diet induced obese mice which when sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) showed steroid resistant features. While the steroid, dexamethasone (DEX), treatment to high fat fed naïve mice could not reduce the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by high fat, DEX treatment to high fat fed allergic mice could not reduce the HDM allergen induced airway remodeling features though it reduced airway inflammation. Further, these HDM induced high fat fed mice with or without DEX treatment had shown the increased activity and expression of arginase as well as the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. However, DEX treatment had reduced the expressions of high iNOS and arginase I in control chow diet fed mice. Thus, we speculate that the steroid resistance seen in human obese asthmatics could be stemming from altered NO metabolism and its induced airway remodeling and with further investigations, it would encourage new treatments specific to obese-asthma phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) Gene Screening in Pregnant Women with Diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddabelavangala Mruthyunjaya, Mahesh; Chapla, Aaron; Hesarghatta Shyamasunder, Asha; Varghese, Deny; Varshney, Manika; Paul, Johan; Inbakumari, Mercy; Christina, Flory; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Kuruvilla, Kurien Anil; V Paul, Thomas; Jose, Ruby; Regi, Annie; Lionel, Jessie; Jeyaseelan, L; Mathew, Jiji; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women with diabetes may have underlying beta cell dysfunction due to mutations/rare variants in genes associated with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). MODY gene screening would reveal those women genetically predisposed and previously unrecognized with a monogenic form of diabetes for further clinical management, family screening and genetic counselling. However, there are minimal data available on MODY gene variants in pregnant women with diabetes from India. In this study, utilizing the Next generation sequencing (NGS) based protocol fifty subjects were screened for variants in a panel of thirteen MODY genes. Of these subjects 18% (9/50) were positive for definite or likely pathogenic or uncertain MODY variants. The majority of these variants was identified in subjects with autosomal dominant family history, of whom five were in women with pre-GDM and four with overt-GDM. The identified variants included one patient with HNF1A Ser3Cys, two PDX1 Glu224Lys, His94Gln, two NEUROD1 Glu59Gln, Phe318Ser, one INS Gly44Arg, one GCK, one ABCC8 Arg620Cys and one BLK Val418Met variants. In addition, three of the seven offspring screened were positive for the identified variant. These identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, these findings in pregnant women with diabetes, imply that a proportion of GDM patients with autosomal dominant family history may have MODY. Further NGS based comprehensive studies with larger samples are required to confirm these finding.

  13. Comprehensive Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY Gene Screening in Pregnant Women with Diabetes in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Doddabelavangala Mruthyunjaya

    Full Text Available Pregnant women with diabetes may have underlying beta cell dysfunction due to mutations/rare variants in genes associated with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY. MODY gene screening would reveal those women genetically predisposed and previously unrecognized with a monogenic form of diabetes for further clinical management, family screening and genetic counselling. However, there are minimal data available on MODY gene variants in pregnant women with diabetes from India. In this study, utilizing the Next generation sequencing (NGS based protocol fifty subjects were screened for variants in a panel of thirteen MODY genes. Of these subjects 18% (9/50 were positive for definite or likely pathogenic or uncertain MODY variants. The majority of these variants was identified in subjects with autosomal dominant family history, of whom five were in women with pre-GDM and four with overt-GDM. The identified variants included one patient with HNF1A Ser3Cys, two PDX1 Glu224Lys, His94Gln, two NEUROD1 Glu59Gln, Phe318Ser, one INS Gly44Arg, one GCK, one ABCC8 Arg620Cys and one BLK Val418Met variants. In addition, three of the seven offspring screened were positive for the identified variant. These identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, these findings in pregnant women with diabetes, imply that a proportion of GDM patients with autosomal dominant family history may have MODY. Further NGS based comprehensive studies with larger samples are required to confirm these finding.

  14. Comprehensive Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) Gene Screening in Pregnant Women with Diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesarghatta Shyamasunder, Asha; Varghese, Deny; Varshney, Manika; Paul, Johan; Inbakumari, Mercy; Christina, Flory; Varghese, Ron Thomas; Kuruvilla, Kurien Anil; V. Paul, Thomas; Jose, Ruby; Regi, Annie; Lionel, Jessie; Jeyaseelan, L.; Mathew, Jiji; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Pregnant women with diabetes may have underlying beta cell dysfunction due to mutations/rare variants in genes associated with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). MODY gene screening would reveal those women genetically predisposed and previously unrecognized with a monogenic form of diabetes for further clinical management, family screening and genetic counselling. However, there are minimal data available on MODY gene variants in pregnant women with diabetes from India. In this study, utilizing the Next generation sequencing (NGS) based protocol fifty subjects were screened for variants in a panel of thirteen MODY genes. Of these subjects 18% (9/50) were positive for definite or likely pathogenic or uncertain MODY variants. The majority of these variants was identified in subjects with autosomal dominant family history, of whom five were in women with pre-GDM and four with overt-GDM. The identified variants included one patient with HNF1A Ser3Cys, two PDX1 Glu224Lys, His94Gln, two NEUROD1 Glu59Gln, Phe318Ser, one INS Gly44Arg, one GCK, one ABCC8 Arg620Cys and one BLK Val418Met variants. In addition, three of the seven offspring screened were positive for the identified variant. These identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, these findings in pregnant women with diabetes, imply that a proportion of GDM patients with autosomal dominant family history may have MODY. Further NGS based comprehensive studies with larger samples are required to confirm these finding PMID:28095440

  15. Diabetes Mellitus Induces Bone Marrow Microangiopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P. J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective-The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis. Methods and Results-We found profound structural alterations in BM from mice with

  16. Neuroprotection of Sex Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyue; Kelley, Melissa H.; Herson, Paco S.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids are essential for reproduction and development in animals and humans, and sex steroids also play an important role in neuroprotection following brain injury. New data indicate that sex-specific responses to brain injury occur at the cellular and molecular levels. This review summarizes the current understanding of neuroprotection by sex steroids, particularly estrogen, androgen, and progesterone, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. Better understanding of the role of sex steroids under physiological and pathological conditions will help us to develop novel effective therapeutic strategies for brain injury. PMID:20595940

  17. Does the pancreatic volume reduction rate using serial computed tomographic volumetry predict new onset diabetes after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung Pil; Seo, Hyung-Il; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Volume reduction of the pancreatic tissues following a pancreatectomy can lead to the deterioration of glucose homeostasis. This is defined as pancreatogenic diabetes mellitus (DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of new-onset DM (NODM) and evaluate the risk factors, including the pancreas volume reduction rate in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Sixty-six patients without preoperative DM underwent PD for periampullary tumors between August 2007 and December 2012 and were included in this analysis. These patients underwent follow-up tests and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan 7 days, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and 36 months after the operation. The pancreas volume reduction rate was calculated by CT volumetry. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the postoperative development of DM. After PD, newly diagnosed DM occurred in 16 patients (24.2%). The incidence of DM was highest among patients with carcinomas with an advanced T stage. The pancreatic volume reduction rate after 6 and 12 months in the NODM group was significantly higher than the normal glucose group in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the pancreatic volume reduction rate 6 months after PD was the only significant predictive factor for the development of NODM (P = 0.002). This study suggests that the pancreatic volume reduction rate 6 months after PD was the only significant predictive factor for the development of NODM. CT volumetry of the pancreas may be useful as a predictor of NODM after PD. PMID:28353594

  18. Protective effects of sodium selenite on lead nitrate-induced hepatotoxicity in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Suna; Apaydin, Fatma Gökçe; Baş, Hatice; Kalender, Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of sodium selenite on lead induced toxicity was studied in Wistar rats. Sodium selenite and lead nitrate were administered orally for 28 days to streptozotocin induced diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Eight groups of rats were used in the study: control, sodium selenite, lead nitrate, lead nitrate+sodium selenite, streptozotocin-induced diabetic-control, diabetic-sodium selenite, diabetic-lead nitrate, diabetic-lead nitrate+sodium selenite groups. Serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and histopathological changes in liver tissues were investigated in all groups. There were statistically significant changes in liver function tests, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in lead nitrate and sodium selenite+lead nitrate treated groups, also in diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Furthermore, histopathological alterations were demonstrated in same groups. In the present study we found that sodium selenite treatment did not show completely protective effect on diabetes mellitus caused damages, but diabetic rats are more susceptible to lead toxicity than non-diabetic rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Andrographolide Restores Steroid Sensitivity To Block Lipopolysaccharide/IFN-γ-Induced IL-27 and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wupeng; Tan, W S Daniel; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-06-01

    LPS and IFN-γ alone or in combination have been implicated in the development of steroid resistance. Combined LPS/IFN-γ strongly upregulates IL-27 production, which has been linked to steroid-resistant airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Andrographolide, a bioactive molecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata, has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study investigated whether andrographolide could restore steroid sensitivity to block LPS/IFN-γ-induced IL-27 production and AHR via its antioxidative property. The mouse macrophage cell line Raw 264.7, mouse primary lung monocytes/macrophages, and BALB/c mice were treated with LPS/IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of dexamethasone and/or andrographolide. Levels of IL-27 in vitro and in vivo were examined and mouse AHR was assessed. Dexamethasone alone failed to inhibit LPS/IFN-γ-induced IL-27 production and AHR in mice. Andrographolide significantly restored the suppressive effect of dexamethasone on LPS/IFN-γ-induced IL-27 mRNA and protein levels in the macrophage cell line and primary lung monocytes/macrophages, mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues, and AHR in mice. LPS/IFN-γ markedly reduced the nuclear level of histone deacetylase (HDAC)2, an essential epigenetic enzyme that mediates steroid anti-inflammatory action. LPS/IFN-γ also decreased total HDAC activity but increased the total histone acetyltransferase/HDAC activity ratio in mouse lungs. Andrographolide significantly restored nuclear HDAC2 protein levels and total HDAC activity, and it diminished the total histone acetyltransferase/HDAC activity ratio in mouse lungs exposed to LPS/IFN-γ, possibly via suppression of PI3K/Akt/HDAC2 phosphorylation, and upregulation of the antioxidant transcription factor NF erythroid-2-related factor 2 level and DNA binding activity. Our data suggest that andrographolide may have therapeutic value in resensitizing steroid action in respiratory disorders

  20. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Trine W; Pruhova, Stepanka; Andersson, Ehm A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insulin gene (INS) mutations have recently been described as a common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) and a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. METHODS: INS was sequenced in 116 maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODYX) patients (n = 48 Danish an......, and were treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or insulin. CONCLUSION: Mutations in INS can be a rare cause of MODY and we conclude that screening for mutations in INS should be recommended in MODYX patients....

  1. Why childhood-onset type 1 diabetes impacts labour market outcomes: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sofie; Dahlquist, Gisela; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies show a negative effect of type 1 diabetes on labour market outcomes such as employment and earnings later in life. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying these effects. This study aims to analyse the mediating role of adult health, education, occupation and family formation. A total of 4179 individuals from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register and 16,983 individuals forming a population control group born between 1962 and 1979 were followed between 30 and 50 years of age. The total effect of having type 1 diabetes was broken down into a direct effect and an indirect (mediating) effect using statistical mediation analysis. We also analysed whether type 1 diabetes has different effects on labour market outcome between the sexes and across socioeconomic status. Childhood-onset type 1 diabetes had a negative impact on employment (OR 0.68 [95% CI 0.62, 0.76] and OR 0.76 [95% CI 0.67, 0.86]) and earnings (-6%, p accounting for the largest part. However, some of the effect could not be attributed to any of the mediators studied and was therefore likely related to other characteristics of the disease that hamper career opportunities. The effect of type 1 diabetes on employment and earnings did not vary significantly according to socioeconomic status of the family (parental education and earnings). A large part of the effect of type 1 diabetes on the labour market is attributed to adult health but there are other important mediating factors that need to be considered to reduce this negative effect.

  2. Association of donor and recipient SUMO4 rs237025 genetic variant with new-onset diabetes mellitus after liver transplantation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Yibo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Lin; Fan, Junwei; Peng, Zhihai

    2017-09-05

    New-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) is a common complication after liver transplantation (LT). The small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4) rs237025 polymorphism has been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of donor and recipient SUMO4 rs237025 polymorphisms with NODM and the long-term consequences of NODM after LT. A total of 126 liver transplant patients were enrolled in the study. One single nucleotide polymorphism, SUMO4 rs237025, was genotyped in both donors and recipients. Both donor and recipient SUMO4 rs237025 polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with NODM after LT. In multivariate analysis, recipient age>50 years, tacrolimus trough concentrations>10ng/mL at 1month after LT, donor and recipient rs237025 genetic variant, and the combined donor and recipient rs237025 genetic variant were independent predictive factors of NODM. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis indicated the higher predictive ability of the model containing combined donor and recipient rs237025 polymorphisms than the clinical model (p=0.046). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that NODM was related to significantly poorer patient survival in comparison with non-NODM patients (p=0.041). Both donor and recipient SUMO4 rs237025 polymorphisms contribute to the development of NODM after LT and NODM is a frequent complication that negatively affects patient survival. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The prevalence of new onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation in patients with immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia in a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Samad Memon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of immediate posttransplant hyperglycemia and new onset diabetes after renal transplantation (NODAT. It also aims at answering whether posttransplant hyperglycemia per se is a risk factor for future development of NODAT. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among patients undergoing kidney transplantation under a single surgical unit in a tertiary care hospital in the past 5 years. All known patients with diabetes were excluded from the study. Immediate postoperative hyperglycemia was defined as random blood sugar (RBS ≥200 mg/dl or requirement of insulin. NODAT was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dl or RBS ≥200 mg/dl or if the patient is receiving therapy for glycemic control at 6 weeks or 3 months posttransplantation. Results: The study population included 191 patients. The overall prevalence of posttransplant hyperglycemia and NODAT was 31.4% and 26.7%, respectively. NODAT developed in 28 patients (46.7% of those who had posttransplant hyperglycemia. Thus, posttransplant hyperglycemia was associated with a fourfold increased risk of NODAT (P = 0.000. Posttransplant hyperglycemia was associated with increased infections (P = 0.04 and prolonged hospital stay (P = 0.0001. Increased age was a significant risk factor for NODAT (P = 0.000, whereas gender, acute rejection episodes, cadaveric transplant, hepatitis C virus status, human leukocyte antigen mismatch, and high calcineurin levels were not significantly associated with the future development of NODAT. Conclusion: The significant risk of NODAT posed by posttransplant hyperglycemia makes it prudent to follow up these patients more diligently in a resource-limited setting wherein routine monitoring in all patients is cumbersome.

  4. A Neutral Risk on the Development of New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus (NODM in Taiwanese Patients with Dyslipidaemia Treated with Fibrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ying Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no data on the incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM in nondiabetic dyslipidaemia patients treated with fibrates. The aim of our study was to clarify these issues, to investigate the relationship between NODM and fibrate and whether the fibrates lead to increased risk for developing NODM. A retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID 2005 of the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD from 2005 to 2010 to investigate all fibrate prescriptions for patients with dyslipidaemia. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs of NODM associated with fibrate use. We identified 145 NODM patients among 3,815 dyslipidaemic patients in the database for the study period. The risk estimates for NODM for users of fenofibrate (HR 1.30; 95% CI 0.82, 2.05 and gemfibrozil (HR 0.771; 95% CI 0.49, 1.22 were not associated with an increased risk of developing NODM (P>0.05. Our results revealed that patients with dyslipidaemia who took fenofibrate and gemfibrozil had a neutral risk of NODM. The reasons may be associated with the fibrates have the properties that activate PPARα and in some cases also activated PPARγ, leading to showing a neutral risk of NODM.

  5. Metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose and obesity, as predictors of incident diabetes in 14 120 hypertensive patients of ASCOT-BPLA: comparison of their relative predictability using a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Prieto-Merino, D; Dahlöf, B; Sever, P S; Poulter, N R

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate, in hypertensive patients, whether the metabolic syndrome is a better predictor of new-onset diabetes compared with impaired fasting glucose, obesity or its other individual components alone, or collectively. Cox models were developed to assess the risk of new-onset diabetes associated with the metabolic syndrome after adjusting for a priori confounders (age, sex, ethnicity and concomitant use of non-cardiovascular medications), its individual components and other determinants of new-onset diabetes. Area under receiver operator curves using the metabolic syndrome or models of impaired fasting glucose were compared, and the ability of these models to correctly identify those who (after 5-years of follow-up) would or would not develop diabetes was assessed. The metabolic syndrome adjusted for a priori confounders and its individual components, and further adjusted for other determinants, was associated with significantly increased risk of new-onset diabetes [1.19 (1.00-1.40), P = 0.05 and 1.22 (1.03-1.44), P = 0.02, respectively]. The discriminative ability of the metabolic syndrome model [area under receiver operating curve: 0.764 (0.750-0.778)] was significantly better than the model of impaired fasting glucose [0.742 (0.727-0.757)] (P fasting glucose status (37.7%) (P fasting glucose were associated with an approximately 9-fold (7.47-10.45) increased risk of new-onset diabetes. Among normoglycaemic patients, the metabolic syndrome was also associated with significantly increased risk of new-onset diabetes, after adjusting for BMI and a priori confounders [1.66 (1.29-2.13)]. Both impaired fasting glucose and the metabolic syndrome predict the risk of new-onset diabetes; however, the metabolic syndrome is a better predictor than impaired fasting glucose in assigning the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients, and among those with normoglycaemia. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  6. Effect of two prophylactic bolus vitamin D dosing regimens (1000 IU/day vs. 400 IU/day) on bone mineral content in new-onset and infrequently-relapsing nephrotic syndrome: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muske, Sravani; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Kamalanathan, Sadish Kumar; Rajappa, Medha; Harichandrakumar, K T; Sivamurukan, Palanisamy

    2018-02-01

    To examine the efficacy of two vitamin D dosages (1000 vs. 400 IU/day) for osteoprotection in children with new-onset and infrequently-relapsing nephrotic syndrome (IFRNS) receiving corticosteroids. This parallel-group, open label, randomised clinical trial enrolled 92 children with new-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS) (n = 28) or IFRNS (n = 64) to receive 1000 IU/day (Group A, n = 46) or 400 IU/day (Group B, n = 46) vitamin D (administered as a single bolus initial supplemental dose) by block randomisation in a 1:1 allocation ratio. In Group A, vitamin D (cholecalciferol in a Calcirol® sachet) was administered in a single stat dose of 84,000 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for new-onset NS), calculated for a period of 12 weeks@1000 IU/day) and 42,000 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for IFRNS, calculated for a period of 6 weeks@1000 IU/day). In Group B, vitamin D (cholecalciferol in a Calcirol® sachet) was administered as a single stat dose of 33,600 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for new-onset NS, calculated for a period of 12 weeks@400 IU/day) and 16,800 IU on Day 1 of steroid therapy (for IFRNS, calculated for a period of 6 weeks@400 IU/day). The proportionate change in bone mineral content (BMC) was analysed in both groups after vitamin D supplementation. Of the 92 children enrolled, 84 (n = 42 new onset, n = 42 IFRNS) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. Baseline characteristics including initial BMC, bone mineral density, cumulative prednisolone dosage and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels were comparable in the two groups. There was a greater median proportionate change in BMC in the children who received 1000 IU/day vitamin D (3.25%, IQR -1.2 to 12.4) than in those who received 400 IU/day vitamin D (1.2%, IQR -2.5 to 3.8, p = 0.048). The difference in proportionate change in BMC was only statistically significant in the combined new-onset and IFRNS, but not for IFRNS alone. There was a greater

  7. New-Onset Seizures in Pregnancy and Puerperium

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    Monton Wongwandee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Seizures in pregnant women cause several maternal and fetal consequences. Eclampsia is usually diagnosed to be the etiology. However, seizures during pregnancy or puerperium could be caused by pre-existing epilepsy, the initial presentation of a non-pregnancy-related disorder or the new-onset pregnancy-related disorder. Therefore, thorough diagnostic evaluation is essential. Although the pathogenesis of new-onset pregnancy-related neurological disorders remains unknown, physiological changes during pregnancy and puerperium are believed to have a major role. Advanced neuroimaging of the brain and cerebral vessels can help in differentiating the specific causes of seizures in these patients.

  8. Two new steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wu, Biao; Chen, Gang; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Two new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as (23S,24R,25R)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (1) and (23S,24R,25S)-5alpha-spirostane-3beta,23,24-triol-3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside} (2).

  9. Functional immunomics: microarray analysis of IgG autoantibody repertoires predicts the future response of mice to induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Francisco J; Hagedorn, Peter H; Elizur, Gad; Merbl, Yifat; Domany, Eytan; Cohen, Irun R

    2004-10-05

    One's present repertoire of antibodies encodes the history of one's past immunological experience. Can the present autoantibody repertoire be consulted to predict resistance or susceptibility to the future development of an autoimmune disease? Here, we developed an antigen microarray chip and used bioinformatic analysis to study a model of type 1 diabetes developing in nonobese diabetic male mice in which the disease was accelerated and synchronized by exposing the mice to cyclophosphamide at 4 weeks of age. We obtained sera from 19 individual mice, treated the mice to induce cyclophosphamide-accelerated diabetes (CAD), and found, as expected, that 9 mice became severely diabetic, whereas 10 mice permanently resisted diabetes. We again obtained serum from each mouse after CAD induction. We then analyzed, by using rank-order and superparamagnetic clustering, the patterns of antibodies in individual mice to 266 different antigens spotted on the chip. A selected panel of 27 different antigens (10% of the array) revealed a pattern of IgG antibody reactivity in the pre-CAD sera that discriminated between the mice resistant or susceptible to CAD with 100% sensitivity and 82% specificity (P = 0.017). Surprisingly, the set of IgG antibodies that was informative before CAD induction did not separate the resistant and susceptible groups after the onset of CAD; new antigens became critical for post-CAD repertoire discrimination. Thus, at least for a model disease, present antibody repertoires can predict future disease, predictive and diagnostic repertoires can differ, and decisive information about immune system behavior can be mined by bioinformatic technology. Repertoires matter.

  10. A New Approach for Determining Onset of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H. A.; Warren, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    The final report consists of three papers which outline and demonstrate the new method for determining transition onset. The procedure developed under this grant requires specification of the instability mechanism, i.e., Tollmien-Schlichting or crossflow, that leads to transition. The attached papers are entitled: 'An Alternative to the e(sup n) Method for Determining Onset of Transition', 'Transition Model for Swept Wing Flows', and 'A Transition Closure Model for Predicting Transition Onset'.

  11. Late onset of familial neurogenic diabetes insipidus in monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizmarova, M; Nagyova, G; Janko, V; Pribilincova, Z; Virgova, D; Ilencikova, D; Kovacs, L

    2013-10-01

    Autosomal dominant familial diabetes insipidus (FNDI) is a rare disease characterized by polydipsia and polyuria due to deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). We report the first Slovak family with the disease. Noteworthy is the concordantly belated debut of the disease symptoms in two monozygotic twin proband girls in the age of 17 years. Because of inconclusive results of water deprivation test consistent with partial diabetes insipidus (DI), missing "bright spot" of posterior pituitary gland in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and family occurrence of polyuria and polydipsia on anamnestic evaluation. Molecular genetic testing of the AVP gene was proceeded, because of the inconclusive results of water deprivation test consistent with partial diabetes insipidus, missing "bright spot" of posterior pituitary gland in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and family occurrence of polyuria and polydipsia on anamnestic evaluation. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous g.279G>A substitution that predicts a p.Ala19Thr substitution in the signal peptide of the AVP prohormone. The wide intrafamiliar variations (3 to 17 years) in disease onset together with the concordantly delayed debut of polyuria in two monozygotic twin girls suggest that individual differences in genetic influences family environmental factors may modify the penetrance of the mutation of the AVP gene. The present paper supports the notion that molecular genetic evaluation should be performed in all patients with familial occurrence of DI regardless of the clinical results.

  12. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Piper longum root aqueous extract in STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabi Shaik Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the

  13. Cause-Specific Mortality Trends in a Large Population-Based Cohort With Long-Standing Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, Aaron M.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; LaPorte, Ronald E.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known concerning the primary cause(s) of mortality in type 1 diabetes responsible for the excess mortality seen in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Allegheny County (Pennsylvania) childhood-onset (age 70% of all deaths, with cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death (40%). Women (P < 0.05) and African Americans (P < 0.001) have significantly higher diabetes-related mortality rates than men and Caucasians, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for non–diabetes-related causes do not significantly differ from the general population (violent deaths: SMR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6–1.8; cancer: SMR 1.2, 0.5–2.0). CONCLUSIONS The excess mortality seen in type 1 diabetes is almost entirely related to diabetes and its comorbidities but varies by duration of diabetes and particularly affects women and African Americans. PMID:20739685

  14. Clinical study on the size of the pancreas in young-onset diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Makoto

    1983-01-01

    The size and form of the pancreas were elucidated by the computed tomography (CT) and the relation between the size and function was investigated in 26 young-onset diabetics - 13 with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 13 with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) - and 10 normal controls. The ventrodorsal (V-D) diameter of the pancreas was significantly smaller in IDDM (13.1 +- 2.2 mm, Mean +- SD) than in NIDDM (17.9 +- 3.5 mm) and in normal controls(18.7 +- 2.9 mm). The V-D diameter/height ratio was also significantly smaller in IDDM (0.79 +- 0.14%). There was no significant correlation between the size of pancreas and the duration of the disease, regardless of the type of diabetes. The values of Σ CPR, serum P-Am, serum IRT and PFD test were significantly lower in IDDM than in NIDDM. There was a significant correlation between the V-D diameter and either result of Σ CPR or PFD test (r=0.529; r=0.592). Many patients with IDDM had small pancreas and showed marked decrease in the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions. In NIDDM, however, neither the size nor the function showed prominent decrease. These results suggest that a hypoplasty of the pancreas is responsible for the occurrence of the disease in the case of IDDM. (J.P.N.)

  15. New onset of constipation during long-term physical inactivity: a proof-of-concept study on the immobility-induced bowel changes.

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    Paola Iovino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiological mechanisms underlining constipation are incompletely understood, but prolonged bed rest is commonly considered a relevant determinant. AIMS: Our primary aim was to study the effect of long-term physical inactivity on determining a new onset of constipation. Secondary aim were the evaluation of changes in stool frequency, bowel function and symptoms induced by this prolonged physical inactivity. METHODS: Ten healthy men underwent a 7-day run-in followed by 35-day study of experimentally-controlled bed rest. The study was sponsored by the Italian Space Agency. The onset of constipation was evaluated according to Rome III criteria for functional constipation. Abdominal bloating, flatulence, pain and urgency were assessed by a 100mm Visual Analog Scales and bowel function by adjectival scales (Bristol Stool Form Scale, ease of passage of stool and sense of incomplete evacuation. Daily measurements of bowel movements was summarized on a weekly score. Pre and post bed rest Quality of Life (SF-36, general health (Goldberg's General Health and depression mood (Zung scale questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: New onset of functional constipation fulfilling Rome III criteria was found in 60% (6/10 of participants (p=0.03. The score of flatulence significantly increased whilst the stool frequency significantly decreased during the week-by-week comparisons period (repeated-measures ANOVA, p=0.02 and p=0.001, respectively. Stool consistency and bowel symptoms were not influenced by prolonged physical inactivity. In addition, no significant changes were observed in general health, in mood state and in quality of life at the end of bed rest. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that prolonged physical inactivity is relevant etiology in functional constipation in healthy individuals. The common clinical suggestion of early mobilization in bedridden patients is supported as well.

  16. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis: A clinicopathological study and comparative trial of steroid regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroids are used in the management of drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN. The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of pulse methyl prednisolone with oral prednisolone in the treatment of drug-induced AIN. Patients with biopsy-proven AIN with a history of drug intake were randomized to oral prednisolone (Group 1 1 mg/kg for 3 weeks or a pulse methyl prednisolone (Group II 30 mg/kg for 3 days followed by oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg for 2 weeks, tapered over 3 weeks. Kidney biopsy scoring was done for interstitial edema, infiltration and tubular damage. The response was reported as complete remission (CR (improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] to ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , partial remission (PR (improvement but eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or resistance (no CR/PR. A total of 29 patients, Group I: 16 and Group II: 13 were studied. Offending drugs included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, herbal drugs, antibiotics, diuretic, rifampicin and omeprazole. There was no difference in the baseline parameters between the two groups. The biopsy score in Groups I and II was 5.9 ΁ 1.1 and 5.1 ΁ 1.2, respectively. At 3 months in Group I, eight patients each (50% achieved CR and PR. In Group II, 8 (61% achieved CR and 5 (39% PR. This was not significantly different. Percentage fall in serum creatinine at 1 week (56% was higher in CR as compared to (42% those with PR. ( P = 0.14. Patients with neutrophil infiltration had higher CR compared to patients with no neutrophil infiltration ( P = 0.01. Early steroid therapy, both oral and pulse steroid, is equally effective in achieving remission in drug-induced AIN.

  17. A genetic diagnosis of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY): experiences of patients and family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.R.; Rigter, T.; Weinreich, S.S.; Cornel, M.C.; Henneman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Genetic testing for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) facilitates a correct diagnosis, enabling treatment optimization and allowing monitoring of asymptomatic family members. To date, the majority of people with MODY remain undiagnosed. To identify patients' needs and areas for

  18. Metformin ameliorates insulitis in STZ-induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jun Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims Metformin is currently the most widely used first-line hypoglycemic agent for diabetes mellitus. Besides glucose-lowering action, there is increasingly interest in the potential anti-inflammatory action of this drug. In the present study, we investigated the actions of metformin on experimental insulitis using STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods Mice with acute diabetes induced by STZ were administered metformin by gavage. Changes of blood glucose and body weight, and the daily amount of food and water intake were measured. Pancreatic tissues were collected for histologic analyses. Pathological assessment and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to determine the effect of metformin on insulitis. Inflammatory cytokines in the pancreas and insulin levels were measured through ELISA analysis. Results Metformin significantly reduced blood glucose levels and improved aberrant water intake behavior in experimental diabetic mice. No significant differences were observed in terms of body weight and food intake behavior in metformin-treated animals. In the STZ-induced model of diabetes, we found the appearance of pronounced insulitis. However, metformin administration reduced the severity of insulitis assessed by blind pathological scoring. In addition, metformin treatment improved insulin levels in experimental diabetic mice. ELISA assay revealed decreased levels of inflammatory response marker IL-1β and TNF-α in the pancreatic tissues following metformin treatment. Conclusion Metformin attenuated insulitis in the STZ-induced mice model of diabetes. This islet-protective effect might be partly correlated with the anti-inflammatory action of metformin.

  19. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Shields

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of canine diabetes remains poorly understood, in part due to enigmatic clinical features and the lack of detailed histopathology studies. Canine diabetes, similar to human type 1 diabetes, is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at onset or after insulin omission. However, notable differences exist. Whereas human type 1 diabetes often occurs in children, canine diabetes is typically described in middle age to elderly dogs. Many competing theories have been proposed regarding the underlying cause of canine diabetes, from pancreatic atrophy to chronic pancreatitis to autoimmune mediated β-cell destruction. It remains unclear to what extent β-cell loss contributes to canine diabetes, as precise quantifications of islet morphometry have not been performed. We used high-throughput microscopy and automated image processing to characterize islet histology in a large collection of pancreata of diabetic dogs. Diabetic pancreata displayed a profound reduction in β-cells and islet endocrine cells. Unlike humans, canine non-diabetic islets are largely comprised of β-cells. Very few β-cells remained in islets of diabetic dogs, even in pancreata from new onset cases. Similarly, total islet endocrine cell number was sharply reduced in diabetic dogs. No compensatory proliferation or lymphocyte infiltration was detected. The majority of pancreata had no evidence of pancreatitis. Thus, canine diabetes is associated with extreme β-cell deficiency in both new and longstanding disease. The β-cell predominant composition of canine islets and the near-total absence of β-cells in new onset elderly diabetic dogs strongly implies that similar to human type 1 diabetes, β-cell loss underlies the pathophysiology of canine diabetes.

  20. Secukinumab treatment in new-onset psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L; Eidsmo, L; Austad, J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, biologic treatments have been assessed in subjects with a long-term history of psoriasis and previous failures to systemic and topical therapies. In rheumatoid arthritis and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, early intensive systemic treatment prolongs treatment......-free remission. We hypothesize that by treating patients with psoriasis early with an effective systemic therapy, we may be able to alter the clinical outcome and the natural course of the disease. The STEPIn study (NCT03020199) investigates early intervention with secukinumab versus narrow-band ultraviolet B...... (nb-UVB) phototherapy in subjects with new-onset psoriasis. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early intervention with either nb-UVB treatment or secukinumab in subjects with new-onset plaque psoriasis might modify the natural course of the disease.. METHODS: One-hundred and sixty subjects aged 18-50 years...

  1. Arachidonic Acid-Induced Expression of the Organic Solute and Steroid Transporter-beta (Ost-beta) in a Cartilaginous Fish Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Ho; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Ballatori, Nazzareno; Barnes, David

    2008-01-01

    The organic solute and steroid transporter (OST/Ost) is a unique membrane transport protein heterodimer composed of subunits designated alpha and beta, that transports conjugated steroids and prostaglandin E2 across the plasma membrane. Ost was first identified in the liver of the cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate, and subsequently was found in many other species, including humans and rodents. The present study describes the isolation of a new cell line, LEE-1, derived from an early embryo of L. erinacea, and characterizes the expression of Ost in these cells. The mRNA size and amino acid sequence of Ost-beta in LEE-1 was identical to that previously reported for Ost-beta from skate liver, and the primary structure was identical to that of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) with the exception of a single amino acid. Ost-beta was found both on the plasma membrane and intracellularly in LEE-1 cells, consistent with its localization in other cell types. Interestingly, arachidonic acid, the precursor to eiconsanoids, strongly induced Ost-beta expression in LEE-1 cells and a lipid mixture containing arachidonic acid also induced Ost-alpha. Overall, the present study describes the isolation of a novel marine cell line, and shows that this cell line expresses relatively high levels of Ost when cultured in the presence of arachidonic acid. Although the function of this transport protein in embryo-derived cells is unknown, it may play a role in the disposition of eicosanoids or steroid-derived molecules. PMID:18407792

  2. Comparison of Glomerular Transcriptome Profiles of Adult-Onset Steroid Sensitive Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and Minimal Change Disease.

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    Jun Tong

    Full Text Available To search for biomarkers to differentiate primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and minimal change disease (MCD.We isolated glomeruli from kidney biopsies of 6 patients with adult-onset steroid sensitiveFSGS and 5 patients with MCD, and compared the profiles of glomerular transcriptomes between the two groups of patients using microarray analysis.Analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs revealed that up-regulated DEGs in FSGS patients compared with MCD patients were primarily involved in spermatogenesis, gamete generation, regulation of muscle contraction, response to unfolded protein, cell proliferation and skeletal system development. The down-regulated DEGs were primarily related to metabolic process, intracellular transport, oxidation/reduction andestablishment of intracellular localization. We validated the expression of the top 6 up-regulated and top 6 down-regulated DEGs using real-time PCR. Membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME is a down-regulated gene that was previously identified as a key gene for kidney development. Immunostaining confirmed that the protein expression of MME decreased significantly in FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys.This report was the first study to examine transcriptomes in Chinese patients with various glomerular diseases. Expressions of MME both in RNA and protein level decreased significantly in glomeruli of FSGS kidneys compared with MCD kidneys. Our data suggested that MME might play a role in the normal physiological function of podocytes and a decrease in MME expression might be related to podocyte injury. We also identified genes and pathways specific for FSGS versus MCD, and our data could help identify potential new biomarkers for the differential diagnosis between these two diseases.

  3. Stroke as the presenting feature of new onset diabetes in a young man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ruth; McMurray, Emily; Robinson, Oliver

    2014-06-25

    A 34-year-old man presented to a hospital with a 7-day history of nausea, vertigo, ataxia and frontal headache. Examination revealed ipsilateral cerebellar signs. CT of the brain demonstrated left cerebellar hypodensity suggestive of ischaemic stroke or space occupying lesion. Full blood count showed a markedly raised haemoglobin (219 g/L) and haematocrit (0.56). Admission urinalysis was performed but the results not reviewed. Owing to patient deterioration, an arterial blood gas was performed. This showed profound metabolic acidosis. Repeat urinalysis was positive for glucose and ketones. MRI of the brain confirmed ischaemic stroke. The underlying cause of this was hyperviscosity secondary to relative polycythaemia, resulting from undiagnosed diabetic ketoacidosis as a first presentation of diabetes. This case report highlights ischaemic stroke as an unusual presenting feature of diabetic ketoacidosis. Notably, the underlying diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis was initially missed, thereby emphasising the importance of performing an admission urinalysis and acting on the results. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) in Tunisia: Low frequencies of GCK and HNF1A mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khelifa, S; Martinez, R; Dandana, A; Khochtali, I; Ferchichi, S; Castaño, L

    2018-04-20

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, an early clinical onset and a primary defect in β-cell function. Mutations in the GCK and HNF1A genes are the most common cause of MODY among Caucasians. The etiology of MODY in Tunisia stills a challenge for researchers. The aim of this study was to screen for mutations in GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS genes in North African Tunisians subjects, in whom the clinical profile was very suggestive of MODY. A total of 23 unrelated patients, with clinical presentation of MODY were tested for mutations in GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS genes, using Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC), Multiplex Ligation-depend Probe Amplification (MLPA) and sequencing analysis. We identified the previously reported mutation c-169C > T in one patient as well as a new mutation c-457C > T in two unrelated patients. No mutations were detected in the HNF1A and INS genes. Despite restrictive clinical criteria used for selecting patients in this study, the most common genes known for MODY do not explain the majority of cases in Tunisians. This suggests that there are others candidate or unidentified genes contributing to the etiology of MODY in Tunisians families. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation Is a Predictor of Subsequent Hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    To examine the long-term risk of hyperthyroidism in patients admitted to hospital with new-onset AF. Hyperthyroidism is a well-known risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), but it is unknown whether new-onset AF predicts later-occurring hyperthyroidism....

  6. A,B-indolosteroids. XIII. New modification of the steroid aglycone of solasodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutnik, S.B.; Shner, V.F.; Kuleshova, L.N.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    A new modification of the steroid skeleton of the solasodine aglycone was realized; compounds of the A-nor-3-azaspirosolane series with an unsubstituted position 28 were obtained. The properties of the synthesized heterocyclic analogs of solasodine were studied

  7. Post-Renal Transplant Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Subjects: Superimposition of Transplant-Related Immunosuppressant Factors on Genetic and Type 2 Diabetic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Chul Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Postrenal transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM, or new-onset diabetes after organ transplantation, is an important chronic transplant-associated complication. Similar to type 2 diabetes, decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance are important to the pathophysiologic mechanism behind the development of PTDM. However, β-cell dysfunction rather than insulin resistance seems to be a greater contributing factor in the development of PTDM. Increased age, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, genetic variation, obesity, and hepatitis C are partially accountable for an increased underlying risk of PTDM in renal allograft recipients. In addition, the use of and kinds of immunosuppressive agents are key transplant-associated risk factors. Recently, a number of genetic variants or polymorphisms susceptible to immunosuppressants have been reported to be associated with calcineurin inhibition-induced β-cell dysfunction. The identification of high risk factors of PTDM would help prevent PTDM and improve long-term patient outcomes by allowing for personalized immunosuppressant regimens and by managing cardiovascular risk factors.

  8. Bath Salts Abuse Leading to New-Onset Psychosis and Potential for Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David

    Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.

  9. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  10. Steroidal saponins from Sansevieria trifasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Y; Inoue, T; Kuroda, M; Sashida, Y

    1996-12-01

    The methanol extract of the whole plant of Sansevieria trifasciata has yielded 12 steroidal saponins, 10 of which are new constituents. The respective structures of the new compounds have been shown by the spectroscopic evidence, and alkaline- and acid-catalysed degradation. This is the first report of the isolation of steroidal saponins from S. trifasciata.

  11. Diabetic Macular Edema: Current Understanding, Pharmacologic Treatment Options, and Developing Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin; Fortun, Jorge A

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema comprise a major source of visual disability throughout the developed world. The etiology and pathogenesis of macular edema is intricate and multifactorial, in which the hyperglycemic state in diabetes induces a microangiopathy. Through several inflammatory and vasogenic mediators, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, pathologic changes are induced in the vascular endothelium triggering breakdown of the blood retinal barrier, causing extravasation of fluid into the extracellular space and manifesting clinically as macular edema, resulting in visual loss. The advent of medications targeting the VEGF pathway has led to great clinical improvements compared with the previous standard of care of laser therapy alone, as shown in studies such as RISE, RIDE, VIVID, VISTA, and DRCR. However, analyses have shown that many patients have inadequate response or are nonresponders to anti-VEGF therapy, demonstrating the need for additional therapies to more comprehensively treat this disease. Although corticosteroid treatments and implants have demonstrated some efficacy in adjunctive and supplemental treatment, the need to more adequately treat macular edema remains. Our knowledge of diabetic macular edema continues to grow, leading to new currently available and emerging pharmacotherapies to further enhance our treatment and restore vision in those affected by diabetic macular edema. This review will discuss the pathogenesis of diabetic macular edema and the pharmacologic therapies available for its treatment, including anti-VEGF, steroids, and newer therapies still in development, such as angiopoietin antagonists, Tie2 agonists, kallikrein inhibitors, interleukin inhibitors, and others. Copyright 2018 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  12. Monogenic Forms of Diabetes: Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Your Baby is Born Monogenic Diabetes Monogenic Diabetes (Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus & MODY) The most common forms of diabetes, ... from each parent. What are monogenic forms of diabetes? Some rare forms of diabetes result from mutations ...

  13. The influence of glucagon on postprandial hyperglycaemia in children 5 years after onset of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredheim, Siri; Andersen, Marie-Louise M; Pörksen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    comprised 129 children (66 boys) with type 1 diabetes whose mean (SD) age at onset was 10.0 (3.9) years. Liquid mixed-meal tests were performed prospectively at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and a subset of 40 patients completed follow-up at 60 months. Postprandial (90 min) plasma levels of glucagon, glucose (PG......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The influence of glucagon on glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes is debated. We investigated the relationship between postprandial glucagon levels and HbA1c during a period up to 60 months after diagnosis of childhood type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The Danish remission phase cohort...... function in the first 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The positive association of glucagon with total GLP-1 and PG suggests that physiological regulation of alpha cell secretion in type 1 diabetes is seriously disturbed....

  14. Nocturnal activity of 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 1 is increased in type 1 diabetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, P; Brossaud, J; Lacoste, A; Vautier, V; Nacka, F; Moisan, M-P; Corcuff, J-B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate low-grade inflammation in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and its association with cortisol levels as well as its bioavailability through 11β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity. Children with T1D (n=45) and their non-diabetic siblings (n=28) participated in the study. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRPhs) were measured between 1400 and 1800h. Glucocorticoid metabolites were measured in the first morning urine on clinic day and 11β-HSD1 activity was estimated by tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone (THF/THE) ratio. Diabetic patients presented with an increased THF/THE ratio compared with controls (median: 0.68 [range: 0.45-1.18] vs 0.45 [0.27-0.98], respectively; Pvs 0.6 [0.6-2.2], respectively; P=0.43) and CRPhs (0.4mg/L [0-7.4] vs 0.3 [0-8.2]; P=0.26, respectively). When adjusted for age, gender and BMI, the THF/THE ratio was significantly associated with CRPhs (β=0.32, P=0.02) in diabetic patients, but not in controls. Low-grade inflammation assessed by plasma CRPhs and IL-6 concentrations was not detectable in our cohort of T1D children. Nocturnal 11β-HSD1 activity was increased and associated with plasma CRPhs concentration in diabetic patients. These results may be explained by either a direct or inflammation-mediated effect of the relative hepatic lack of insulin due to subcutaneous insulin therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Subcutaneous blood flow during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Sestoft, L

    1982-01-01

    Subcutaneous blood flow was measured preceding insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptoms and 2 h later in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy and in normal males. In all groups subcutaneous blood flow decreased at the onset of hypoglycaemic symptom...

  16. Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisinger Charlotta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin gene (INS mutations have recently been described as a common cause of permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM and a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood. Methods INS was sequenced in 116 maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODYX patients (n = 48 Danish and n = 68 Czech, 83 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, 34 type 1 diabetic patients screened negative for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, and 96 glucose tolerant individuals. The control group was randomly selected from the population-based sampled Inter99 study. Results One novel heterozygous mutation c.17G>A, R6H, was identified in the pre-proinsulin gene (INS in a Danish MODYX family. The proband was diagnosed at 20 years of age with mild diabetes and treated with diet and oral hypoglycaemic agent. Two other family members who carried the INS R6H were diagnosed with diabetes when 51 years old and with GDM when 27 years old, respectively. A fourth mutation carrier had normal glucose tolerance when 20 years old. Two carriers of INS R6H were also examined twice with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT with 5 years interval. They both had a ~30% reduction in beta-cell function measured as insulinogenic index. In a Czech MODYX family a previously described R46Q mutation was found. The proband was diagnosed at 13 years of age and had been treated with insulin since onset of diabetes. Her mother and grandmother were diagnosed at 14 and 35 years of age, respectively, and were treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents and/or insulin. Conclusion Mutations in INS can be a rare cause of MODY and we conclude that screening for mutations in INS should be recommended in MODYX patients.

  17. Regression and progression of microalbuminuria in adolescents with childhood onset diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Son

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeAlthough microalbuminuria is considered as an early marker of nephropathy in diabetic adults, available information in diabetic adolescents is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and frequency of regression of microalbuminuria in type 1 (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with childhood onset.MethodsOne hundred and nine adolescents (median, 18.9 years; interquartile range (IQR, 16.5-21.0 years with T1DM and 18 T2DM adolescents (median, 17.9 years; IQR, 16.8-18.4 years with repeated measurements of microalbuminuria (first morning urine microalbumin/creatinine ratios were included. The median duration of diabetes was 10.1 (7.8-14.0 years and 5.0 (3.5-5.6 years, respectively, and follow-up period ranged 0.5-7.0 years. Growth parameters, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c and lipid profiles were obtained after reviewing medical record in each subject.ResultsThe prevalence of microalbuminuria at baseline and evaluation were 21.1% and 17.4% in T1DM, and 44.4% and 38.9% in T2DM. Regression of microalbuminuria was observed in 13 T1DM patients (56.5% and 3 T2DM patients (37.5%, and progression rate was 10.5% and 20% in T1DM and T2DM respectively. In regression T1DM group, HbA1c at baseline and follow-up was lower, and C-peptide at baseline was higher compared to persistent or progression groups. In T2DM, higher triglyceride was observed in persistent group.ConclusionConsiderable regression of microalbuminuria more than progression in diabetes adolescents indicates elevated urinary microalbumin excretion in a single test does not imply irreversible diabetic nephropathy. Careful monitoring and adequate intervention should be emphasized in adolescents with microalbuminuria to prevent rapid progression toward diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Pre-diabetes and arterial stiffness in uraemic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Clausen, Peter; Kjaergaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    In order to address factors of relevance for new onset diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease after kidney transplantation, we investigated the presence of pre-diabetes, arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) accepted for kidney...

  20. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... steroid bursts can cause a number of side effects. Steroid side effects usually occur after long-term use ... how the dosage of steroids is determined; side effects of inhaled steroids, and some recommendations to decrease or prevent side ...

  1. Is basiliximab induction, a novel risk factor for new onset diabetes after transplantation for living donor renal allograft recipients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narayan; Gurjer, Desraj; Bhadauria, Dharmender; Gupta, Amit; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kaul, Anupama; Jaiswal, Akhilesh; Yadav, Brijesh; Yadav, Subhash; Sharma, Raj K

    2014-04-01

    It was found that, by affecting populations of T lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, basiliximab also indirectly affects pancreatic β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. In this prospective observational study, we included all renal transplant recipients from 1 July 2007 to 31 July 2011. The overall incidence of hyperglycaemia (transient hyperglycaemia, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT)) was compared between patients with and without basiliximab induction. Of the 439 eligible study patients, 105 patients received basiliximab induction and 334 patients did not. Overall hyperglycaemia (transient hyperglycaemia, IFG, IGT and NODAT) was detected in 102/334 (30.5%) patients without induction and 44/105 (41.9%) patients with induction (P = 0.03). Of the 102 patients with hyperglycaemia in patients without basiliximab, 46 (45.1%) patients improved, while only 10 (22.7%) of the 44 patients with basiliximab improved (P = 0.016) at the end of 3 months. Finally, NODAT was observed in 56/334 (16.7%) patients without induction and 102/334 (30.5%) patients with induction. Relative risk of NODAT with basiliximab was 2.3 (95% CI 1.4-3.9) compared to that of patients without induction. Basiliximab and hepatitis C virus infection were independent risk factors for NODAT. Risk of NODAT remained high with basiliximab despite adjusting the acute rejections episodes. Basiliximab induction prevents acute rejection; however, it is associated with increased risk of NODAT. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  2. An inducible mouse model of late onset Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Smith, David; Eliott-Smith, Elena; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Reinkensmeier, Gabriele; Butters, Terry D; Lemm, Thorsten; Sandhoff, Konrad; Perry, V Hugh; Dwek, Raymond A; Platt, Frances M

    2002-08-01

    Mouse models of the G(M2) gangliosidoses, Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease, are null for the hexosaminidase alpha and beta subunits respectively. The Sandhoff (Hexb-/-) mouse has severe neurological disease and mimics the human infantile onset variant. However, the Tay-Sachs (Hexa-/-) mouse model lacks an overt phenotype as mice can partially bypass the blocked catabolic pathway and escape disease. We have investigated whether a subset of Tay-Sachs mice develop late onset disease. We have found that approximately 65% of the mice develop one or more clinical signs of the disease within their natural life span (n = 52, P disease at an earlier age (n = 21, P Tay-Sachs mice confirmed that pregnancy induces late onset Tay-Sachs disease. Onset of symptoms correlated with reduced up-regulation of hexosaminidase B, a component of the bypass pathway.

  3. Serum glucose and lipid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Aloe barbadensis Miller juice extract on serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan in 5% solution. Diabetes was confirmed 72 hours after alloxan injection, if fasting blood glucose (FBG) was equal to or greater ...

  4. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective trial to evaluate the effect of vildagliptin in new-onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörl Walter H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT, a frequent and serious complication after transplantation, is associated with decreased graft and patient survival. Currently, it is diagnosed and treated primarily according to existing guidelines for type II diabetes. To date, only a few trials have studied antidiabetic drugs in patients with NODAT. Vildagliptin is a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4 inhibitor that improves pancreatic islet function by enhancing both α- and β-cell responsiveness to increased blood glucose. Experimental data show potential protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on islet function after exogenous stress stimuli including immunosuppressants. Therefore, the therapy of NODAT with this class of compounds seems attractive. At present, vildagliptin is used to treat type II diabetes as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs, since that it efficiently decreases glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c values. Additionally, vildagliptin has been shown to be safe in patients with moderately impaired kidney function. This study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of vildagliptin monotherapy in renal transplant recipients with recently diagnosed NODAT. Methods/Design This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, prospective phase II trial. Using the results of routinely performed oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT in stable renal transplant patients at our center, we will recruit patients without a history of diabetes and a 2 h glucose value surpassing 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l. They are randomized to receive either 50 mg vildagliptin or placebo once daily. A total of 32 patients with newly diagnosed NODAT will be included. The primary endpoint is the difference in the 2 h glucose value between baseline and the repeated OGTT performed 3 months after treatment start, compared between the vildagliptin- and the placebo-group. Secondary endpoints include changes in HbA1c and

  5. The effect of core decompression on local expression of BMP-2, PPAR-γ and bone regeneration in the steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the efficacy of the sole core decompression surgery for the treatment of steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis. Methods The model was established by administration of steroids in combination with horse serum. The rabbits with bilateral femoral head osteonecrosis were randomly selected to do the one side of core decompression. The other side was used as the sham. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot techniques were used to measure the local expression of BMP-2 and PPAR-γ. Bone tissues from control and operation groups were histologically analyzed by H&E staining. The comparisons of the local expression of BMP-2 and PPAR-γ and the bone regeneration were further analyzed between different groups at each time point. Results The expression of BMP-2 in the osteonecrosis femoral head with or without decompression was significantly lower than that in normal animals. BMP-2 expression both showed the decreasing trend with the increased post-operation time. No significant difference of BMP-2 expression occurred between femoral head osteonecrosis with and without decompression. The PPAR-γ expression in the femoral head osteonecrosis with and without core decompression both was significantly higher than that in control. Its expression pattern showed a significantly increased trend with increased the post-operation time. However, there was no significant difference of PPAR-γ expression between the femoral head osteonecrosis with and without decompression at each time point. Histopathological analysis revealed that new trabecular bone and a large number of osteoblasts were observed in the steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis with lateral decompression at 8 weeks after surgery, but there still existed trabecular bone fractures and bone necrosis. Conclusions Although decompression takes partial effect in promoting bone regeneration in the early treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis, such an effect does not

  6. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annida, B; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  7. Maternal and paternal age at delivery, birth order, and risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stene, Lars C; Magnus, Per; Lie, Rolv T; Søvik, Oddmund; Joner, Geir

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the associations of maternal and paternal age at delivery and of birth order with the risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetes. Design Cohort study by record linkage of the medical birth registry and the national childhood diabetes registry in Norway. Setting Norway. Subjects All live births in Norway between 1974 and 1998 (1.4 million people) were followed for a maximum of 15 years, contributing 8.2 million person years of observation during 1989-98. 1824 cases of type 1 diabetes diagnosed between 1989 and 1998 were identified. Main outcome measures Incidence of type 1 diabetes. Results There was no association between maternal age at delivery and type 1 diabetes among firstborn children, but among fourthborn children there was a 43.2% increase in incidence of diabetes for each five year increase in maternal age (95% confidence interval 6.4% to 92.6%). Each increase in birth order was associated with a 17.9% reduction in incidence (3.2% to 30.4%) when maternal age was 20-24 years, but the association was weaker when maternal age was 30 years or more. Paternal age was not associated with type 1 diabetes after maternal age was adjusted for. Conclusions Intrauterine factors and early life environment may influence the risk of type 1 diabetes. The relation of maternal age and birth order to risk of type 1 diabetes is complex. What is already known on this topicMaternal age at birth is positively associated with risk of childhood onset type 1 diabetesStudies of the effect of birth order on risk of type 1 diabetes have given inconsistent resultsWhat does this study add?In a national cohort, risk of diabetes in firstborn children was not associated with maternal ageIncreasing maternal age was a risk factor in children born second or laterThe strength of the association increased with increasing birth order PMID:11509426

  8. The New Possibilities from "Big Data" to Overlooked Associations Between Diabetes, Biochemical Parameters, Glucose Control, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Christian

    2018-06-01

    To review current practices and technologies within the scope of "Big Data" that can further our understanding of diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis from large volumes of data. "Big Data" techniques involving supervised machine learning, unsupervised machine learning, and deep learning image analysis are presented with examples of current literature. Supervised machine learning can allow us to better predict diabetes-induced osteoporosis and understand relative predictor importance of diabetes-affected bone tissue. Unsupervised machine learning can allow us to understand patterns in data between diabetic pathophysiology and altered bone metabolism. Image analysis using deep learning can allow us to be less dependent on surrogate predictors and use large volumes of images to classify diabetes-induced osteoporosis and predict future outcomes directly from images. "Big Data" techniques herald new possibilities to understand diabetes-induced osteoporosis and ascertain our current ability to classify, understand, and predict this condition.

  9. Effect of atorvastatin on hyperglycemia-induced brain oxidative stress and neuropathy induced by diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Faghihi

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The findings of the present study reveal that atorvastatin is able to prevent hyperglycemia-induced diabetic neuropathy and inhibit brain oxidative stress during diabetes. It is probable that reduction of urea is one of the reasons for atorvastatin prevention of hyperglycemia-induced neuropathy.

  10. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  11. [Proportion of low insulin responders to glucose among the offspring of maturity-onset diabetics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vague, P; Ramahandridona, G; Vague, J

    1975-03-01

    The insensitivity of B cells to glucose, a characteristic of mild essential glucose intolerance may be estimated in a given individual by the comparison of the immediate plasma insulin response to glucose (0 to 10' plasma insulin area or iG) with that to Tolbutamide (iT). It was shown that iG/iT clearly differentiates between nondiabetics and diabetics, whatever their body weight. All the diabetics had an iT/iT lower than 0,65. A high proportion of the offspring of diabetics had an iG/iT ratio in the diabetic range, whether or not they were diabetic. Among these subjects aged from 10 to 49 and weighing between 90 and 144% of their ideal body weight, the iG/iT ratio was not correlated with age nor with relative body weight while the K value was negatively correlated with age. We were thus able to look for the frequency of a "diabetic" iG/iT ratio in the offspring of diabetics, For this in sibships in which all the sibs had been tested, one subject was selected by randomisation. A "diabetic" iG/iT ratio was observed in 7 of 41 subjects with no family history of diabetes, in 27 of 50 with one parent having clinical, maturity-onset diabetes melitus, and in 15 of 19 subjects with two diabetic parents. These results are not compatible with the hypothesis of recessive transmission of the "low insulin response to glucose" characteristic.

  12. Year in diabetes 2012: The diabetes tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, R; Jastreboff, A M

    2012-12-01

    Diabetes affects more than 300 million individuals globally, contributing to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes continue to escalate with the force of an approaching tsunami, it is imperative that we better define the biological mechanisms causing both obesity and diabetes and identify optimal prevention and treatment strategies that will enable a healthier environment and calmer waters. New guidelines from the American Diabetes Association/European Association of the Study of Diabetes and The Endocrine Society encourage individualized care for each patient with diabetes, both in the outpatient and inpatient setting. Recent data suggest that restoration of normal glucose metabolism in people with prediabetes may delay progression to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, several large clinical trials have underscored the limitations of current treatment options once T2DM has developed, particularly in obese children with the disease. Prospects for reversing new-onset type 1 diabetes also appear limited, although recent clinical trials indicate that immunotherapy can delay the loss of β-cell function, suggesting potential benefits if treatment is initiated earlier. Research demonstrating a role for the central nervous system in the development of obesity and T2DM, the identification of a new hormone that simulates some of the benefits of exercise, and the development of new β-cell imaging techniques may provide novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of early diabetes detection for optimization of interventions. Today's message is that a diabetes tsunami is imminent, and the only way to minimize the damage is to create an early warning system and improve interventions to protect those in its path.

  13. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  14. An analysis of the sequence of the BAD gene among patients with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosik, Karolina; Gnyś, Piotr; Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Małecki, Maciej; Młynarski, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Monogenic diabetes is a rare disease caused by single gene mutations. Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is one of the major forms of monogenic diabetes recognised in the paediatric population. To date, 13 genes have been related to MODY development. The aim of the study was to analyse the sequence of the BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) gene in patients with clinical suspicion of GCK-MODY, but who were negative for glucokinase (GCK) gene mutations. A group of 122 diabetic patients were recruited from the "Polish Registry for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes - nationwide genetic screening for monogenic diabetes" project. The molecular testing was performed by Sanger sequencing. A total of 10 sequence variants of the BAD gene were identified in 122 analysed diabetic patients. Among the analysed patients suspected of MODY, one possible pathogenic variant was identified in one patient; however, further confirmation is required for a certain identification.

  15. Symptomatic Spinal Epidural Lipomatosis After a Single Local Epidural Steroid Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tok, Chung Hong; Kaur, Shaleen; Gangi, Afshin

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis is a rare disorder that can manifest with progressive neurological deficits. It is characterized by abnormal accumulation of unencapsulated epidural fat commonly associated with the administration of exogenous steroids associated with a variety of systemic diseases, endocrinopathies, and Cushing syndrome (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). Occasionally, spinal epidural lipomatosis may occur in patients not exposed to steroids or in patients with endocrinopathies, primarily in obese individuals (Fogel et al. Spine J 5:202–211, 2005). However, spinal lumbar epidural lipomatosis resulting from local steroid injection has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 45-year-old diabetic man with claudication that was probably due to symptomatic lumbar spinal lipomatosis resulting from a single local epidural steroid injection.

  16. Physicochemical and biological properties of new steroid metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1980-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to prepare stable steroid metal chelates by chemical conversion of the natural steroid hormones testerone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and estradiol and to characterize these by means of their spectroscopic and other physico-chemical properties. In addition, various measuring techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of complex stabilities and hydrolytic properties were employed. The distribution of some tritiated steroid metal complexes in the tissues of rats was tested using whole animal autoradiography, mainly with a view to identifying whether selective concentration occurs in certain organs. (orig.) [de

  17. Gut microbial markers are associated with diabetes onset, regulatory imbalance, and IFN-γ level in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krych, Ł; Nielsen, D S; Hansen, A K; Hansen, C H F

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulated imbalances in the host's immune profile seem to be an important factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and identifying bacterial markers for T1D may therefore be useful in diagnosis and prevention of T1D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the early gut microbiota and immune parameters of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in order to select alleged bacterial markers of T1D. Gut microbial composition in feces was analyzed with 454/FLX Titanium (Roche) pyro-sequencing and correlated with diabetes onset age and immune cell populations measured in diabetic and non-diabetic mice at 30 weeks of age. The early gut microbiota composition was found to be different between NOD mice that later in life were classified as diabetic or non-diabetic. Those differences were further associated with changes in FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CD11b(+) dendritic cells, and IFN-γ production. The model proposed in this work suggests that operational taxonomic units classified to S24-7, Prevotella, and an unknown Bacteriodales (all Bacteroidetes) act in favor of diabetes protection whereas members of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira (all Firmicutes) promote pathogenesis.

  18. Successful Treatment of Adult-Onset Erythromelalgia with Steroid Pulse and Pregabalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Kakizaki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult-onset erythromelalgia (EM is a rare disease characterized by episodic bouts of burning pain and erythema for which the optimal therapy is unclear. In this report, we describe a 68-year-old Japanese woman with adult-onset EM. Intravenous administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1,000 mg/day dramatically improved her pain as evaluated by the visual analog scale. Although the patient’s pain gradually developed again, it could be controlled with pregabalin. Our present case might suggest a possible, optimal therapy for adult-onset EM.

  19. Diabetes induced testicular dysfunction amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of hydromethanolic extract of root of Musa paradisiaca L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausik Chatterjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the diabetic therapeutic potentiality and antioxidative efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanol (40:60 extract of root of Musa paradisiaca Lam. (Musaceae in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic state was confirmed by decreased serum insulin level and carbohydrate metabolomics i.e. increased fasting blood glucose level, glycated hemoglobin level and diminished glycogen contents in liver and skeletal muscle. Reproductive homeostasis alteration in diabetes was evaluated by reproductive organo-somatic indices, sperm count, motility and histological analysis of testicular seminiferous tubule along with levels of serum testosterone, testicular cholesterol and seminal vesicular fructose assessment. Oxidative stress in primary and accessory sex organs, and in sperm pellet was assessed by measuring antioxidant enzyme activities along with quantification of free radicals products. Testicular pro-apoptotic Bax-毩 mRNA expression pattern was studied semi-quantitatively by PCR technique. Reverse phase HPLC fingerprinting was performed using methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Results: Oral administration of ethyl acetate fraction at a dose of 20 mg/0.5 mL of distilled water/100 gm body weight twice daily to the diabetic rats for 28 days significantly recovered organo-somatic indices, protected reproductive activities, corrected oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic mRNA expression pattern, which were deviated in diabetes mellitus from control level without any type of toxicity. HPLC fingerprinting shows five completely resolved peaks at 毸 max 254 nm and 342 nm. Conclusions: It has a promising antihyperglycaemic and antioxidative activity for curing diabetes induced reproductive disorders in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

  20. Sugammadex, a new reversal agent for neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in the anaesthetized Rhesus monkey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Pol, F. van de; Bom, A.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Binding of the steroidal molecule of rocuronium by a cyclodextrin is a new concept for reversal of neuromuscular block. The present study evaluated the ability of Sugammadex Org 25969, a synthetic gamma-cyclodextrin derivative, to reverse constant neuromuscular block of about 90% induced

  1. NOX2-Induced Activation of Arginase and Diabetes-Induced Retinal Endothelial Cell Senescence

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    Modesto Rojas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS and decreases in nitric oxide (NO have been linked to vascular dysfunction during diabetic retinopathy (DR. Diabetes can reduce NO by increasing ROS and by increasing activity of arginase, which competes with nitric oxide synthase (NOS for their commons substrate l-arginine. Increased ROS and decreased NO can cause premature endothelial cell (EC senescence leading to defective vascular repair. We have previously demonstrated the involvement of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2-derived ROS, decreased NO and overactive arginase in DR. Here, we investigated their impact on diabetes-induced EC senescence. Studies using diabetic mice and retinal ECs treated with high glucose or H2O2 showed that increases in ROS formation, elevated arginase expression and activity, and decreased NO formation led to premature EC senescence. NOX2 blockade or arginase inhibition prevented these effects. EC senescence was also increased by inhibition of NOS activity and this was prevented by treatment with a NO donor. These results indicate that diabetes/high glucose-induced activation of arginase and decreases in NO bioavailability accelerate EC senescence. NOX2-generated ROS contribute importantly to this process. Blockade of NOX2 or arginase represents a strategy to prevent diabetes-induced premature EC senescence by preserving NO bioavailability.

  2. Moleculaire diagnostiek bij aanwijzingen voor 'maturity onset diabetes of the young'; resultaten bij 184 patiënten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Losekoot, M.; Broekman, A. J.; Breuning, M. H.; de Koning, E. J. P.; Romijn, J. A.; Maassen, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the results of mutation analysis of the genes involved in maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) types 1-3. Descriptive. In the period July 2000-October 2003 the DNA from 184 possible MODY patients was analysed for the presence of mutations of the genes involved in MODY types 1, 2

  3. Effect of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia on glucose tolerance in normal human subjects and in maturity-onset diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M R; Wickramasinghe, N; Thabrew, M I; Ariyananda, P L; Karunanayake, E H

    1991-03-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the effects of hot-water extracts of Artocarpus heterophyllus leaves and Asteracanthus longifolia whole plant material on the glucose tolerance of normal human subjects and maturity-onset diabetic patients. The extracts of both Artocarpus heterophyllus and Asteracanthus longifolia significantly improved glucose tolerance in the normal subjects and the diabetic patients when investigated at oral doses equivalent to 20 g/kg of starting material.

  4. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  5. Late administration of Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimic enhances diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(III N-alkylpyridylporphyrins (MnPs have demonstrated protection in various conditions where increased production of reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, is a key pathological factors. MnPs can produce both pro-oxidative and antioxidative effects depending upon the cellular redox environment that they encounter. Previously we reported (Free Radic. Res. 39: 81–8, 2005 that when the treatment started at the onset of diabetes, Mn(III meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-2-ylporphyrin, MnTM-2-PyP5+ suppressed diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Diabetes, however, is rarely diagnosed at its onset. The aim of this study was to investigate if MnTM-2-PyP5+ can suppress oxidative damage and prevent diabetic complications when administered more than a week after the onset of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. The MnP-based treatment started 8 days after the onset of diabetes and continued for 2 months. The effect of the treatment on activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glyoxalases I and II as well as malondialdehyde and GSH/GSSG ratio were determined in kidneys. Kidney function was assessed by measuring lysozyme and total protein in urine and blood urea nitrogen. Vascular damage was evaluated by assessing vascular reactivity. Our data showed that delayed administration of MnTM-2-PyP5+ did not protect against oxidative damage and did not prevent diabetic complications. Moreover, MnTM-2-PyP5+ contributed to the kidney damage, which seems to be a consequence of its pro-oxidative action. Such outcome can be explained by advanced oxidative damage which already existed at the moment the therapy with MnP started. The data support the concept that the overall biological effect of a redox-active MnP is determined by (i the relative concentrations of oxidants and reductants, i.e. the cellular redox

  6. Late-onset radiation-induced vasculopathy and stroke in a child with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit R; Belair, Jeffrey; Cummings, Dana; Zuccoli, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented to our institution with left-sided weakness and slurred speech. He had a history of medulloblastoma diagnosed at 3 years of age, status postsurgical resection and craniospinal radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain revealed a right paramedian pontine infarction, suspected secondary to late-onset radiation-induced vasculopathy of the vertebrobasilar system. Radiation to the brain is associated with increased incidence of ischemic stroke. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for stroke when these patients present with new neurologic symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Preparation, preliminary screening of new types of steroid conjugates and their activities on steroid receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurášek, M.; Džubák, P.; Sedlák, David; Dvořáková, H.; Hajduch, M.; Bartůněk, Petr; Drasar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2013), s. 356-361 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : click chemistry * steroid ribbons * cytotoxic activity * steroid receptor reporter assay * 2,6-bis((1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl)pyridine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.716, year: 2013

  8. Recombinant lines for less-spininess in steroid-bearing Solanum viarum using induced mutants as parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, R.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Subhas Chander, M.

    1988-01-01

    In the domestication of the wild, spinous and steroid-bearing Solanum viarum (syn. S. khasianum var. chatterjeeanum) induced mutations play a major role. The development of Glaxo and BARC mutants catalysed commercial cultivation of this species for its berries containing solasodine, used in steroid industries. The commercially more popular Glaxo mutant population consists predominantly of plants that are totally free of spines in aerial parts except lamina where few straight spines develop. The BARC mutant still possesses spines on aerial parts including the persistent calyx. However, the laminary spines of the BARC mutant are curved and vestigial. Comparative studies on morphology, growth behaviour and agronomic characters of the two mutants, their wild progenitor and their hybrid progenies showed that the three types differ only for spine character. In F 2 generation of a cross involving the Glaxo and BARC mutants, a double mutant recombinant was recovered. The recombinant is devoid of spines in aerial parts like its Glaxo mutant parent, but possesses laminary curved vestigial spines like the BARC parent. The spine characters of the recombinant are inherited double recessive. Three advanced lines of this recombinant type (IIHR 2n - 1,2 and 3) were tested in replicated trials 1985 and 1986. They showed parity in berry yield and solasodine content with the Glaxo mutant and three promising lines evolved elsewhere viz. 'RRL (Bhuhaneswar) Y-14', 'RRL (Jorhat)' and 'Pusa'. The results indicate gainful use of induced mutants in hybridization leading to development of superior less-spiny lines of steroid bearing Solanum viarum

  9. Anti-Diabetic Potential of the Leaves of Anisomeles malabarica in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddanna Kotha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder that is affecting a majority of populations in recent years. There is a requirement for new drugs that are safer and cheaper due to the side effects associated with the available medications. Methods: We investigated the anti-diabetic activity of leaves of Anisomeles malabarica following bioactivity guided fractionation. The different solvent (hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of A. malabarica leaves were used in acute treatment studies to evaluate and identify the active fraction. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to further fractionation using silica gel column chromatography and the compounds were identified by LC-SRM/MS and GC-MS. Additional chronic treatment studies were carried out using this active fraction (AMAF for 30 days in experimental diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance were measured along with insulin resistance/sensitivity indicators (HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI to assess the beneficial effects of A. malabarica in the management of diabetes mellitus. Results: Among the different solvent extracts tested, ethyl acetate extract showed maximum (66% anti-hyperglycemic activity. The hexane and ethyl acetate (1: 1 fraction that has maximum anti-diabetic activity was identified as active fraction of A. malabarica (AMAF. The FBG, HbA1c, plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity/resistance indicators such as glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI were significantly improved to near normal in diabetic rats treated with AMAF. Further, we identified key flavonoids and fatty acids as the anti-diabetic active principles from the AMAF of A. malabarica leaves. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that Anisomeles malabarica has potential anti-diabetic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  10. Contrast media induced acute renal failure in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambausek, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dehydration, preexisting renal insufficiency, multiple myeloma and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are known risk factors for a radiocontrast medium induced acute renal failure. In 90% of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and proteinuria, a further detoriation of renal function can be expected after i.v. administration of radiocontrast medium. Recent concepts on the genesis of acute renal failure after radiocontrast medium in multiple myeloma emphasize the role of tubular blocade (tubular precipitation of myeloma protein with contrast medium). In insulin-dependent diabetic patients we found altered carbohydrate composition of urinary Tamm Horsfall Protein (THP), with increased glucose and diminished N-acetyl-neuraminicacid content. This was paralleled by a difference in an in-vitro system of coprecipitation where THP of diabetes triggered more pronounced calcium dependent coprecipitation of contrast medium and albumin. These in-vitro findings might be important for the explanation of the genesis of radiocontrast medium-induced acute renal failure in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (orig.) [de

  11. [Neuroendocrine mechanisms of puberty onset].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teinturier, C

    2002-10-01

    An increase in pulsatile release of GnRH is essential for the onset of puberty. However, the mechanism controlling the pubertal increase in GnRH release is still unclear. The GnRH neurosecretory system is already active during the neonatal period but subsequently enters a dormant state by central inhibition in the juvenile period. When this central inhibition is removed or diminished, an increase in GnRH release occurs with increase in synthesis and release of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids, followed by the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. Recent studies suggest that disinhibition of GnRH neurons from GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) appears to be a critical factor in female rhesus monkey. After central inhibition is removed, increases in stimulatory input from glutamatergic neurons as well as new stimulatory input from norepinephrine and NPY neurons and inhibitory input from beta endorphin neurons appear to control pulsatile GnRH release as well as gonadal steroids. Nonetheless, the most important question still remains: what determines the timing to remove central inhibition? Because many genes are turned on or turned off to establish a complex series of events occurring during puberty, the timing of puberty must be regulated by a master gene or genes, as a part of developmental events.

  12. Downregulation of Type II Diabetes Mellitus and Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young Pathways in Human Pancreatic Islets from Hyperglycemic Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Taneera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several molecular pathways have been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D pathogenesis, it is uncertain which pathway has the most implication on the disease. Changes in the expression of an entire pathway might be more important for disease pathogenesis than changes in the expression of individual genes. To identify the molecular alterations in T2D, DNA microarrays of human pancreatic islets from donors with hyperglycemia n=20 and normoglycemia n=58 were subjected to Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. About 178 KEGG pathways were investigated for gene expression changes between hyperglycemic donors compared to normoglycemic. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY pathways are downregulated in hyperglycemic donors, while proteasome and spliceosome pathways are upregulated. The mean centroid of gene expression of T2DM and MODY pathways was shown to be associated positively with insulin secretion and negatively with HbA1c level. To conclude, downregulation of T2DM and MODY pathways is involved in islet function and might be involved in T2D. Also, the study demonstrates that gene expression profiles from pancreatic islets can reveal some of the biological processes related to regulation of glucose hemostats and diabetes pathogenesis.

  13. Anti diabetic effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melone on alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakaiah Vangoori, Mishra SS, Ambudas B, Ramesh P, Meghavani G, Deepika K, Prathibha A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the anti diabetic effect of the bitter melon on Alloxan induced diabetes in experimental animals (rabbits. Materials and Methods: the alcohol extract of whole fruit was tested for its efficacy in Alloxan (150mg/kg induced diabetic rabbit. The diabetic rabbits were divided into 5groups. Group I (control received 2% gumacasia, groupie (positive control received standard drug Metformin (62.5mg+2%GA, group III, IV, V (T1 T2 T3 were treated orally with a daily dose of 0.5(gm 1gm, 1.5gm respectively for 35 days, for all diabetic rabbits after giving TEST,NC,PC preparations, the blood samples were collected and determined the blood glucose level 0,1,3,24hrs intervals. 0hr reading is before drug giving and remaining 3 readings after drugs giving. 24th her reading is considered as 0hr reading for the next day. Results: administration of alcohol of an extract of bitter melon produced a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose levels in Alloxan induced rabbits. There was a significant fall in blood sugar level in High dose (1.5GM/kg in comparison to low dose (0.5gm/kg and median dose (1gm/kg shown by LSD test. This is comparable to the effect of Metformin. Conclusion: the results of this study show that chronic oral administration of an extract of Momordica charantia fruit at an appropriate dosage may be good alternative anti diabetic agent.

  14. Dynamic Aerobic Exercise Induces Baroreflex Improvement in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP, heart rate (HR, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n=8 and diabetic (n=8 groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R and postexercise session (PE on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103±2 versus PE: 111±3 mmHg and HR (R: 290±7 versus PE: 328±10 bpm reductions and BR dysfunction (R: -0.70±0.06 versus PE: -1.21±0.09 bpm/mmHg was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

  15. Dynamic Aerobic Exercise Induces Baroreflex Improvement in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Luciana; da Pureza, Demilto Y.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute aerobic exercise on arterial pressure (AP), heart rate (HR), and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and diabetic (n = 8) groups. AP, HR, and BRS, which were measured by tachycardic and bradycardic (BR) responses to AP changes, were evaluated at rest (R) and postexercise session (PE) on a treadmill. At rest, STZ diabetes induced AP and HR reductions, associated with BR impairment. Attenuation in resting diabetes-induced AP (R: 103 ± 2 versus PE: 111 ± 3 mmHg) and HR (R: 290 ± 7 versus PE: 328 ± 10 bpm) reductions and BR dysfunction (R: −0.70 ± 0.06 versus PE: −1.21 ± 0.09 bpm/mmHg) was observed in the postexercise period. In conclusion, the hemodynamic and arterial baro-mediated control of circulation improvement in the postexercise period reinforces the role of exercise in the management of cardiovascular risk in diabetes. PMID:22203833

  16. [Fluocinolone acetonide (ILUVIEN®) micro-implant for chronic diabetic macular edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane, G; Behar-Cohen, F

    2015-02-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a frequent complication of diabetic retinopathy and may cause severe visual loss. In this article, we examine the pathophysiology of DME and review various treatment options, such as laser photocoagulation, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor antibodies, and steroids including ILUVIEN(®), which is a new sustained-release, non biodegradable, injectable, intravitreal micro-implant containing fluocinolone acetonide. The results of the FAME (Fluocinolone Acetonide in Diabetic Macular Edema) studies, conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ILUVIEN(®) in DME, are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) accumulation and AGE receptor (RAGE) up‐regulation contribute to the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heng; Li, Shi‐Yan; Xu, Peisheng; Babcock, Sara A.; Dolence, E. Kurt; Brownlee, Michael; Li, Ji

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Diabetic cardiomyopathy is manifested by compromised systolic and diastolic function. This study was designed to examine the role of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) and AGE receptor (RAGE) in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Heart function was assessed in isolated control and streptozotocin‐induced diabetic hearts following in vivo RAGE gene knockdown using RNA interference. Cardiomyocyte mechanical properties were evaluated including peak shortening (PS), time‐to‐PS (TPS) and time‐to‐90% relengthening (TR90). RAGE was assayed by RT‐PCR and immunoblot. Diabetes significantly enhanced cardiac MG, AGE and RAGE levels accompanied with colocalization of AGE and RAGE in cardiomyocytes. Diabetes‐elicited increase in RAGE was inhibited by in vivo siRNA interference. The AGE formation inhibitor benfotiamine significantly attenuated diabetes‐induced elevation in MG, AGE, RAGE and collagen cross‐linking without affecting hypertriglyceridaemia and hypercholesterolaemia in diabetes. Diabetes markedly decreased LV contractility, as evidenced by reduced ±dP/dt and LV developed pressure (LVDP), which were protected by RAGE gene knockdown. In addition, MG‐derived AGE (MG‐AGE) up‐regulated cardiac RAGE mRNA and triggered cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction reminiscent of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The MG‐AGE‐elicited prolongation of TPS and TR90 was ablated by an anti‐RAGE antibody in cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, MG‐AGE‐induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction was associated with mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization and reduced GSK‐3β inactivation in control cardiomyocytes, similar to those from in vivo diabetes. Treatment with siRNA‐RAGE ablated diabetes‐induced MMP depolarization and GSK‐3β inactivation. Collectively, our result implicated a role of AGE‐RAGE in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19602045

  18. Is childhood-onset type I diabetes a wealth-related disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patterson, C.C.; Dahlquist, G.; Soltész, G.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To describe the epidemiology of childhood-onset Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Europe, the EURODIAB collaborative group established prospective, geographically-defined registers of children diagnosed under 15 years of age. A total of 16,362 cases were registered...... by the capture-recapture method. Ecological correlation and regression analyses were used to study the relationship between incidence and various environmental, health and economic indicators. RESULTS: The standardised average annual incidence rate during the period 1989-94 ranged from 3.2 cases per 100......,000 person-years in the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia to 40.2 cases per 100,000 person-years in Finland. Indicators of national prosperity such as infant mortality (r = -0.64) and gross domestic product (r = 0.58) were most strongly and significantly correlated with incidence rate and previously...

  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benign oesophageal stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, S R; Fellows, I W; Ogilvie, A L; Atkinson, M

    1982-01-01

    Drug histories were obtained from 76 patients at the time of initial Eder-Puestow dilatation for benign oesophageal stricture. Six patients had consumed drugs known to cause oesophageal ulceration (emepronium bromide and potassium preparations). Of the remaining 70 patients, 22 had regularly taken a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug before the onset of dysphagia compared with 10 patients in a control group matched for age and sex; this difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may have a causative role in the formation of oesophageal stricture in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux, in whom they should be prescribed with caution. PMID:6807392

  20. Human LT-alpha-mediated resistance to autoimmune diabetes is induced in NOD, but not NOD-scid, mice and abrogated by IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, S; Satoh, J; Takahashi, K; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, T; Miyazaki, J; Toyota, T

    2001-01-01

    Systemic administration of human lymphotoxin-alpha (hLT-alpha) made NOD mice resistant not only to spontaneous autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus but also to cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced diabetes and diabetes transfer by diabetic NOD spleen cells (triple resistance). In this study we analyzed the mechanisms of hLT-alpha-induced resistance, focusing on (1) hLT-alpha-induced resistance in the pancreatic beta cell, (2) CY-resistant suppressor cells, (3) suppression of induction or function of effector cells for beta cell destruction, or (4) others. To examine the first possibility in vitro, a NOD-derived beta cell line (MIN6N) was pretreated with hLT-alpha and then mixed with diabetic NOD spleen cells and MIN6N cell viability was measured. Treatment with hLT-alpha did not protect MIN6N cells but rather enhanced cytotoxicity. Next NOD-scid mice were pretreated with hLT-alpha and then transferred with diabetic NOD spleen. All the recipients developed diabetes. These results excluded the first possibility. The second possibility was also excluded by a cotransfer experiment, in which diabetic NOD spleen cells were cotransferred to NOD-scid mice with nontreated or hLT-alpha-treated nondiabetic NOD spleens. There was no significant difference in diabetes incidence between the two groups. To observe the third possibility, spleen cells of hLT-alpha-treated triple-resistant NOD mice were transferred to NOD-scid mice. Diabetes developed in the recipients, although the onset of diabetes was slightly delayed. Finally, hLT-alpha-treated triple-resistant NOD mice developed diabetes 1 week after daily IL-12 treatment. In summary, hLT-alpha administration made NOD mice resistant to effector cells for beta cell destruction. This resistance was induced in NOD, but not in NOD-scid, mice, indicating that lymphocytes were obligatory for the resistance. However, it was not mediated by transferable suppressor cells. Because effector cells were present in hLT-alpha-treated NOD spleen and

  1. Effect of high-dose pitavastatin on glucose homeostasis in patients at elevated risk of new-onset diabetes: insights from the CAPITAIN and PREVAIL-US studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, M J; Orsoni, A; Robillard, P; Hounslow, N; Sponseller, C A; Giral, P

    2014-05-01

    Statin treatment may impair glucose homeostasis and increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus, although this may depend on the statin, dose and patient population. We evaluated the effects of pitavastatin 4 mg/day on glucose homeostasis in patients with metabolic syndrome in the CAPITAIN trial. Findings were validated in a subset of patients enrolled in PREVAIL-US. Participants with a well defined metabolic syndrome phenotype were recruited to CAPITAIN to reduce the influence of confounding factors. Validation and comparison datasets were selected comprising phenotypically similar subsets of individuals enrolled in PREVAIL-US and treated with pitavastatin or pravastatin, respectively. Mean change from baseline in parameters of glucose homeostasis (fasting plasma glucose [FPG], glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], insulin, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index [QUICKI] and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and plasma lipid profile were assessed at 6 months (CAPITAIN) and 3 months (PREVAIL-US) after initiating treatment. In CAPITAIN (n = 12), no significant differences from baseline in HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were observed at day 180 in patients treated with pitavastatin. A small (4%) increase in FPG from baseline to day 180 (P  0.05). Similar results were observed for pravastatin in the comparison dataset (n = 14). Other than a small change in FPG in the CAPITAIN study, neutral effects of pitavastatin on glucose homeostasis were observed in two cohorts of patients with metabolic syndrome, independent of its efficacy in reducing levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. The small number of patients and relatively short follow-up period represent limitations of the study. Nevertheless, these data suggest that statin-induced diabetogenesis may not represent a class effect.

  2. Ovine placental steroid synthesis and metabolism in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Legacki, Erin L; Corbin, C Jo; Caton, Joel S; Vonnahme, Kimberly A; Stanley, Scott; Conley, Alan J

    2018-04-14

    Steroid synthesis is required for pregnancy maintenance and for parturition but comparatively little is known about the major metabolic routes that influence circulating concentrations. Dietary intake changes progesterone and estradiol concentrations in pregnant ewes but whether this reflects placental synthesis is unknown. Progesterone metabolism by 5alpha-reduction is a major metabolic route in other species and can influence the onset of parturition. Therefore, studies were conducted to 1) determine placental enzyme activity, progesterone and estradiol measured by immuno-assay in late gestation ewes on low, moderate and high nutritional planes, 2) to assess the significance of 5alpha-reduction of progesterone in determining progesterone concentrations in late gestation ewes (gestation day 145) given finasteride to inhibit 5alpha-reductase metabolism. In the second experiment, steroid profiles were examined comprehensively in blood and tissues by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the first time in this species. Dietary intake altered progesterone and estradiol serum concentrations but without correlated changes in placental 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase cytochrome P450 or aromatase activity. 5alpha-reduced pregnane metabolites were identified in ewes at 145 days of gestation, but concentrations were lower than those of progesterone. Finasteride inhibited 5alpha-reduced progesterone metabolism but did not impact serum progesterone concentrations in these ewes. We conclude 1) that diet-induced changes in serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations are not likely a result of altered placental synthesis of sex steroid but most likely by their metabolism, and 2) metabolism by 5α-reduction is not a major determinant of systemic progesterone concentrations in late gestation ewes.

  3. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  4. L-glutamine supplementation prevents the development of experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

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    Sachin L Badole

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of L-glutamine on cardiac myopathy in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in overnight fasted Sprague Dawely rats by using intraperitonial injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg. Nicotinamide (100 mg/kg, i.p. was administered 20 min before administration of streptozotocin. Experimental rats were divided into Group I: non-diabetic control (distilled water; 10 ml/kg, p.o., II: diabetic control (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o., III: L-glutamine (500 mg/kg, p.o. and IV: L-glutamine (1000 mg/kg, p.o.. All groups were diabetic except group I. The plasma glucose level, body weight, electrocardiographic abnormalities, hemodynamic changes and left ventricular contractile function, biological markers of cardiotoxicity, antioxidant markers were determined after 4 months after STZ with nicotinamide injection. Histopathological changes of heart tissue were carried out by using H and E stain. L-glutamine treatment improved the electrocardiographic, hemodynamic changes; LV contractile function; biological markers; oxidative stress parameters and histological changes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Results from the present investigation demonstrated that L-glutamine has seemed a cardioprotective activity.

  5. Parasitic helminths and their beneficial impact on type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbudi, Afiat; Ajendra, Jesuthas; Wardani, Ajeng P F; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2035 almost 600 million people will suffer from diabetes. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the strongest increase of diabetes incidence occurs in developing and newly industrialized countries. This increase correlates not only with a progressing sedentary lifestyle and nutritional changes, but also environmental changes. Similarly, the increase of type 1 diabetes incidence in industrialized countries over the past decades cannot be explained by genetic factors alone, suggesting that environmental changes are also involved. One such environmental change is a reduced exposure to pathogens because of improved hygiene. Parasitic helminths modulate the immune system of their hosts and induce type 2 as well as regulatory immune responses. As pro-inflammatory immune responses are crucial for the onset of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, helminth-induced immunomodulation may prevent diabetes onset and ameliorate insulin sensitivity. Several epidemiological studies in human and experimental animal models support such a protective effect of helminths for autoimmune diabetes. Recent studies further suggest that helminths may also provide such a beneficial effect for type 2 diabetes. In this review we summarize studies that investigated parasitic helminths and helminth-derived products and their impact on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes highlighting potential protective mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. IL12RB2 gene is associated with the age of type 1 diabetes onset in Croatian family Trios.

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    Marina Pehlić

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common complex diseases are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Many genetic factors overlap between various autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present study is to determine whether four genetic variants known to be risk variants for several autoimmune diseases could be associated with an increased susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We genotyped four genetic variants (rs2358817, rs1049550, rs6679356, rs9865818 within VTCN1, ANXA11, IL12RB2 and LPP genes respectively, in 265 T1DM family trios in Croatian population. We did not detect association of these polymorphisms with T1DM. However, quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT, orthogonal model revealed a significant association between the age of onset of T1DM and IL12RB2 rs6679356 variant. An earlier onset of T1DM was associated with the rs6679356 minor dominant allele C (p = 0.005. The association remained significant even after the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing and permutation. CONCLUSIONS: Variants originally associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (VTCN1 gene, sarcoidosis (ANXA11 gene, primary biliary cirrhosis (IL12RB2 gene and celiac disease (LPP gene were not associated with type 1 diabetes in our dataset. Nevertheless, association of IL12RB2 rs6679356 polymorphism with the age of T1DM onset suggests that this gene plays a role in defining the time of disease onset.

  7. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis in young persons with preschool onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus: An analysis of three nationwide population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Lena M E; Gontscharuk, Veronika; Bächle, Christina; Castillo, Katty; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Tönnies, Thaddäus; Yossa, Rhuphine; Holl, Reinhard W; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    To describe incidence rates and temporal trends of severe hypoglycemia (SH) and of hospitalizations for SH or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in persons with early-onset, long-term type 1 diabetes (T1D) and associations of these short-term complications with potential risk factors. This study includes data of 1,875 persons 11.2 to 21.9 years of age with early-onset (10 years) T1D from 3 cross-sectional nationwide, population-based surveys conducted in 2009/2010, 2012/2013 and 2015/2016 using standardized questionnaires. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate incidence rates per 100 person-years (py), temporal trends and associations between potential risk factors and outcomes. The crude incidence rate of SH showed a decreasing trend over time (P for trend = .004), disappearing after adjustment for confounders (P for trend = .341). In contrast, adjusted rates of SH- and DKA-associated hospitalizations did not change significantly between 2009 and 2016 (P for trend = .306 and .774, respectively). Associations between sex, diabetes duration, insulin treatment regimen, hypoglycemia awareness as well as physical activity and SH were found, while family structure was associated with hospitalizations for SH. Family structure, socioeconomic status (SES), diabetes duration, and hemoglobin A1c values showed associations with DKA-related hospitalizations. After adjustment, rates of SH and SH- or DKA-associated hospitalization showed no significant changes in recent years. Structured education programs focusing on high-risk groups as, for example, persons with T1D living with 1 biological parent and the parents' partner or those with a low SES, should be implemented to reduce incidence rates of hospitalizations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pretransplant HbA1c Is a Useful Predictor for the Development of New-Onset Diabetes in Renal Transplant Recipients Receiving No or Low-Dose Erythropoietin

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    Kazuaki Tokodai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the predictive power of pretransplant HbA1c for new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT in kidney transplant candidates, who had several predispositions for fluctuated HbA1c levels. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of 119 patients without diabetes who received kidney transplantation between March 2000 and January 2012. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association of several parameters with NODAT. Predictive discrimination of HbA1c was assessed using a receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results. Seventeen patients (14.3% developed NODAT within 1 year of transplantation. Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed that recipient age, gender, and HbA1c were predictors of NODAT. In the multivariate analysis, the association between pretransplant HbA1c and NODAT development did not reach statistical significance (P=0.07. To avoid the strong influence of high-dose erythropoietin on HbA1c levels, we performed subgroup analyses on 85 patients receiving no or low-dose (≤6000 IU/week erythropoietin. HbA1c was again an independent predictor for NODAT. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis revealed a cut-off value of 5.2% with an optimal sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 78% for predicting NODAT. Conclusions. Our results reveal that the pretransplant HbA1c level is a useful predictor for NODAT in patients receiving no or low-dose erythropoietin.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eltanolone (pregnanolone), a new steroid intravenous anaesthetic, in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Peder; Høgskilde, S; Lang-Jensen, T

    1994-01-01

    Eltanolone, a new intravenous steroid anaesthetic agent was administered intravenously in a dose of 0.6 mg.kg-1 over 45 s to eight healthy male volunteers to evaluate some of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects. Drug concentration-time data were analysed by PCNONLIN, a non...

  10. Diabetes-associated dry eye syndrome in a new humanized transgenic model of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Shahnawaz; Elagin, Raya B; Jaume, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) are at high risk of developing lacrimal gland dysfunction. We have developed a new model of human T1D using double-transgenic mice carrying HLA-DQ8 diabetes-susceptibility haplotype instead of mouse MHC-class II and expressing the human beta cell autoantigen Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in pancreatic beta cells. We report here the development of dry eye syndrome (DES) after diabetes induction in our humanized transgenic model. Double-transgenic mice were immunized with DNA encoding human GAD65, either naked or in adenoviral vectors, to induce T1D. Mice monitored for development of diabetes developed lacrimal gland dysfunction. Animals developed lacrimal gland disease (classically associated with diabetes in Non Obese Diabetic [NOD] mice and with T1D in humans) as they developed glucose intolerance and diabetes. Animals manifested obvious clinical signs of dry eye syndrome (DES), from corneal erosions to severe keratitis. Histological studies of peri-bulbar areas revealed lymphocytic infiltration of glandular structures. Indeed, infiltrative lesions were observed in lacrimal/Harderian glands within weeks following development of glucose intolerance. Lesions ranged from focal lymphocytic infiltration to complete acinar destruction. We observed a correlation between the severity of the pancreatic infiltration and the severity of the ocular disease. Our results demonstrate development of DES in association with antigen-specific insulitis and diabetes following immunization with clinically relevant human autoantigen concomitantly expressed in pancreatic beta cells of diabetes-susceptible mice. As in the NOD mouse model and as in human T1D, our animals developed diabetes-associated DES. This specific finding stresses the relevance of our model for studying these human diseases. We believe our model will facilitate studies to prevent/treat diabetes-associated DES as well as human diabetes.

  11. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI

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    Chandrasekaran Suresh

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks in diabetic mice and age-matched controls. Results After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  12. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xichun; Tesiram, Yasvir A; Towner, Rheal A; Abbott, Andrew; Patterson, Eugene; Huang, Shijun; Garrett, Marion W; Chandrasekaran, Suresh; Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Luke I; Gordon, Brian E; Kem, David C

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Methods Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL/6 mice with two intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin. The blood glucose levels were maintained at 19–25 mmol/l using intermittent low dosages of long acting insulin glargine. MRI and echocardiography were performed at 4 weeks of diabetes (age of 12 weeks) in diabetic mice and age-matched controls. Results After 4 weeks of hyperglycemia one marker of mitochondrial function, NADH oxidase activity, was decreased to 50% of control animals. MRI studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks demonstrated significant deficits in myocardial morphology and functionality including: a decreased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, an increased LV end-systolic diameter and volume, a diminished LV ejection fraction and cardiac output, a decreased LV circumferential shortening, and decreased LV peak ejection and filling rates. M-mode echocardiographic and Doppler flow studies of diabetic mice at 4 weeks showed a decreased wall thickening and increased E/A ratio, supporting both systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that MRI interrogation can identify the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice with its impaired functional capacity and altered morphology. The MRI technique will lend itself to repetitive study of early changes in cardiac function in small animal models of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:17309798

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of the Visual Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes by Diffusion Tensor MRI and Contrast Enhanced MRI.

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    Swarupa Kancherla

    Full Text Available Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0.01 M citric acid, and a sham control group by intraperitoneal injection of citric acid only. One month later, diffusion tensor MRI (DTI was performed to examine the white matter integrity in the brain, followed by chromium-enhanced MRI of retinal integrity and manganese-enhanced MRI of anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway. Prior to MRI experiments, the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed significantly smaller weight gain and higher blood glucose level than the control rats. DTI revealed significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in the prechiasmatic optic nerve of the diabetic rats compared to the control rats. No apparent difference was observed in the axial diffusivity of the optic nerve, the chromium enhancement in the retina, or the manganese enhancement in the lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus between groups. Our results suggest that streptozotocin-induced diabetes leads to early injury in the optic nerve when no substantial change in retinal integrity or anterograde transport along the visual pathways was observed in MRI using contrast agent enhancement. DTI may be a useful tool for detecting and monitoring early pathophysiological changes in the visual system of experimental diabetes non-invasively.

  14. Familial young-onset diabetes, pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease are associated with genetic variants of DACH1 in Chinese.

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    Ronald Ching Wan Ma

    Full Text Available In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1 was associated with an odds ratio (OR of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57-3.96, P = 8.4 × 10(-5. Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02. In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802 with an OR of 1.07(1.02-1.12, P(meta  = 0.012. In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n = 953/953, rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07-2.22, P = 0.019 for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19-9.19, P = 0.0214 and 3.27(1.25-11.07, P = 0.0184 for coronary heart disease (CHD and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese.

  15. Familial young-onset diabetes, pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease are associated with genetic variants of DACH1 in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Lee, Heung Man; Lam, Vincent Kwok Lim; Tam, Claudia Ha Ting; Ho, Janice Siu Ka; Zhao, Hai-Lu; Guan, Jing; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Lau, Eric; Zhang, Guozhi; Luk, Andrea; Wang, Ying; Tsui, Stephen Kwok Wing; Chan, Ting Fung; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Wei Ping; Park, Kyong Soo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Furuta, Hiroto; Nanjo, Kishio; Tai, E Shyong; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping Chung; Xue, Hong; Wong, Jeffrey; Leung, Po Sing; Lau, Terrence C K; Tong, Peter Chun Yip; Xu, Gang; Ng, Maggie Chor Yin; So, Wing Yee; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor

    2014-01-01

    In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD) is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57-3.96, P = 8.4 × 10(-5)). Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02). In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802) with an OR of 1.07(1.02-1.12, P(meta)  = 0.012). In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n = 953/953), rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07-2.22, P = 0.019) for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19-9.19, P = 0.0214) and 3.27(1.25-11.07, P = 0.0184) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese.

  16. Effects of irradiation at different dose rates on the onset of type I diabetes in model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takashi; Sakai, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that low-dose irradiation (0.5 Gy) increased the level of antioxidants and decreased the level of lipid peroxide in normal mice. We also found that 0.5 Gy-irradiation of NOD mice suppressed the onset of type I diabetes. These results were obtained by the irradiation at high dose rate. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects at the low dose rate. The mice were acutely irradiated with 0.5 Gy of X-rays (300 kVp) at 94.2 Gy/hr at 10, 11, 12, 13 or 14 weeks of age, or chronically irradiated with 0.5 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays at 0.95 mGy/hr starting at 10,11,12,13 or 14 weeks of age. When irradiated at 12th week with the high dose rate X-rays, the onset of diabetes suppressed, and the increase in the specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in pancreas was observed. On the other hand, the low dose rate γ-rays delivered from 12th week of age to 14th was less effective in the suppression of the incidence of diabetes than the high dose rate X-rays at the 12-14 weeks of age. Furthermore, the significant increase in pancreatic SOD activity was not observed after the low dose irradiation. Splenic macrophage activities of superoxide generation were not affected by the high dose rate irradiation nor the low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  17. Incidence and predictors of new-onset constipation during acute hospitalisation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S-F; Ong, S Y; Tan, Y L; Ng, Y S; Chan, Y H; Childs, C

    2015-04-01

    We investigated new-onset constipation in patients with stroke compared with orthopaedic conditions and explored the predictors associated with constipation during acute hospitalisation. This was a prospective matched cohort study of 110 patients comparing stroke patients (n = 55) with orthopaedic patients (n = 55) admitted to a large tertiary acute hospital. Both cohorts were matched by age and sex. The incidence of new-onset constipation which occurred during a patient's acute hospitalisation was determined. Demographics, comorbidity, clinical factors, laboratory parameters and medications were evaluated as possible predictors of constipation. The incidence of new-onset constipation was high for both stroke (33%) and orthopaedic patients (27%; p = 0.66). Seven stroke patients (39%) and four orthopaedic patients (27%) developed their first onset of constipation on day 2 of admission. Mobility gains (RR 0.741, p constipation. Bedpan use (RR 2.058, p constipation. New-onset constipation is common among patients admitted for stroke and orthopaedic conditions during acute hospitalisation. The early occurrence, on day 2 of admission, calls for prompt preventive intervention for constipation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Phallusiasterol C, A New Disulfated Steroid from the Mediterranean Tunicate Phallusia fumigata

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    Concetta Imperatore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new sulfated sterol, phallusiasterol C (1, has been isolated from the Mediterranean ascidian Phallusia fumigata and its structure has been determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (mainly 2D NMR analysis. The possible role in regulating the pregnane X receptor (PXR activity of phallusiasterol C has been investigated; although the new sterol resulted inactive, this study adds more items to the knowledge of the structure-PXR regulating activity relationships in the case of sulfated steroids.

  19. Effects of cardiac output on the onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoki; Aono, Mayu; Kameyama, Yasuhito; Yamamoto, Mai; Kitajima, Osamu; Suzuki, Takahiro

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block and arterial pressure-based cardiac output (CO) in elderly patients. Forty elderly patients aged 65-83 years were enrolled in this study. After induction of anesthesia, contractions of the adductor pollicis muscle to ulnar nerve train-of-four stimulation were acceleromyographically evaluated and 1 mg/kg rocuronium was administered following CO measurement. The correlation between onset of rocuronium action and CO was analyzed. The mean [SD] CO reduced after induction of anesthesia from 5.1 [1.8] L/min to 3.8 [1.1] L/min. The onset time of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block was 110.3 [23.9] s (range 60-165). There was a statistically significant inverse correlation between the onset time of rocuronium and CO [onset time (s) = - 13.2·CO + 159.7, R 2  = 0.376]. In the elderly, CO influences the onset of action of rocuronium.

  20. Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy by Carvacrol through Anti-oxidative Effects in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Hamid Reza Jamshidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is prevalent in many countries. Nephropathy is a main debate’s side effect. Role of oxidative stress is well known in induction of diabetic nephropathy while carvacrol is a potent anti-oxidant that might attenuate oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of carvacrol in decreasing nephropathy-induced oxidative damage in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty five Wistar rats (200-250 g were divided to 7 groups. The rats received alloxan (i.p., 200 mg/kg for induction of diabetes. After one week, fasting blood sugar (FBS was assessed and the rats with FBS>250 mg/dL were considered as diabetic. Three weeks after alloxan injection, the blood urea (BUN and creatinine (Cr were determined for confirmation of inducing nephropathy. Then, the animals were treated with carvacrol for one week. Finally, they were anesthetized and blood was collected from animal’s heart for calculation of BUN and Cr. Furthermore, the kidneys were for oxidative stress markers such as glutathione capacity, protein carbonyl, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. Results: Our results showed that glutathione level and catalase activity significantly increased after treatment with carvacrol. Same results were found in rats that received vitamin E. Also, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, BUN and Cr levels significantly decreased after treatment with carvacrol in comparison with diabetic rats. Conclusion: Our results showed that carvacrol improved nephropathy-induced oxidative damage similar to vitamin E. Therefore, it may be suggested that carvacrol can be suggested as a useful supplement in decreasing diabetic complaints along with anti-diabetic drugs.

  1. Microvascular Outcomes of Pediatric-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Single-Center Observational Case Reviews in Sana’a, Yemen

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    Abdallah Ahmed Gunaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular complications of pediatric-onset type 1 diabetes are common in low-income countries. In this study, we aimed at reviewing microvascular outcomes in 6 cases with type 1 diabetes over 14 to 31 years of follow-up. Severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR and/or diabetic macular edema (maculopathy (DME and overt diabetic nephropathy (macroalbuminuria were seen among 4 of 6 patients, whereas severe diabetic peripheral neuropathy with Charcot neuroarthropathy was seen in 1 patient only, who had the longest duration of follow-up. The weighted mean (SD (95% confidence interval hemoglobin A 1c was 8.9 (1.6 (8.4-9.4% [74 (17 (68-80 mmol/mol] for PDR/DME and 8.6 (1.7 (8.0-9.0% [71 (19 (65-77 mmol/mol] for macroalbuminuria. Thyroid autoimmunity was positive in 3 patients with overt hypothyroidism in 2 of them. Worse microvascular outcomes among these cases might be attributed to poor glycemic control, lack of knowledge, and limited financial resources.

  2. Factors Predictive of Seizure Outcome in New-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A community-based cohort of 77 children with new-onset temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE were followed prospectively and reviewed at 7 and 14 years after seizure onset, and clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging findings and seizure outcome are reported from the Royal Children's Hospital and University of Melbourne, Australia, and Starship Children's Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand.

  3. NSC23766, a Known Inhibitor of Tiam1-Rac1 Signaling Module, Prevents the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakrishnan Veluthakal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Type 1 diabetes (T1D is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of pancreatic β-cells by cytokines (e.g., interleukin-1β; IL-1β released by invading immune cells. The mechanisms by which these cytokines induce β-cell dysfunction remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by the phagocyte-like NADPH oxidase2 (Nox2, along with significantly low levels of antioxidants in β-cells, drive them toward oxidative damage. Rac1, a small G-protein, is one of the members of Nox2 holoenzyme. We recently reported that NSC23766, a known inhibitor of Rac1, significantly attenuated cytokine-induced Nox2 activation and ROS generation in pancreatic islet β-cells in vitro. Herein, we determined the effects of NSC23766 (2.5 mg/kg/day, i.p/daily on the development of diabetes in the NOD mouse, a model for T1D. Methods: Two groups of experimental animals (Balb/c and NOD mice received NSC23766, while the two control groups received equal volume of saline. Body weights and blood glucose were measured every week for 34 weeks. Rac1 activation in pancreatic islets was measured by GLISA activation assay. Rac1 and CHOP expression was determined by Western Blotting. Results: Our findings indicate that administration of NSC23766 significantly prevented the development of spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mice. Furthermore, NSC23766 markedly suppressed Rac1 expression and activity and the endoplasmic reticulum stress (CHOP expression in NOD islets. Conclusions: Our findings provide the first evidence implicating the role of Tiam1-Rac1-Nox2 signaling pathway in the onset of spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mouse model.

  4. Identification of HNF4A Mutation p.T130I and HNF1A Mutations p.I27L and p.S487N in a Han Chinese Family with Early-Onset Maternally Inherited Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY is characterized by the onset of diabetes before the age of 25 years, positive family history, high genetic predisposition, monogenic mutations, and an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Here, we aimed to investigate the mutations and to characterize the phenotypes of a Han Chinese family with early-onset maternally inherited type 2 diabetes. Detailed clinical assessments and genetic screening for mutations in the HNF4α, GCK, HNF-1α, IPF-1, HNF1β, and NEUROD1 genes were carried out in this family. One HNF4A mutation (p.T130I and two HNF1A polymorphisms (p.I27L and p.S487N were identified. Mutation p.T130I was associated with both early-onset and late-onset diabetes and caused downregulated HNF4A expression, whereas HNF1A polymorphisms p.I27L and p.S487N were associated with the age of diagnosis of diabetes. We demonstrated that mutation p.T130I in HNF4A was pathogenic as were the predicted polymorphisms p.I27L and p.S487N in HNF1A by genetic and functional analysis. Our results show that mutations in HNF4A and HNF1A genes might account for this early-onset inherited type 2 diabetes.

  5. Type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile onset diabetes; Diabetes - type 1; High blood sugar - type 1 diabetes ... Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age. It is most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, or young adults. Insulin is ...

  6. Diabetes mellitus induces bone marrow microangiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Siragusa, Mauro; Quaini, Federico; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh G.; Caporali, Andrea; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Alphen, Floris P.J.; Graiani, Gallia; Spinetti, Gaia; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Prezioso, Lucia; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective The impact of diabetes on the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment was not adequately explored. We investigated whether diabetes induces microvascular remodeling with negative consequence for BM homeostasis. Methods and results We found profound structural alterations in BM from type-1 diabetic mice, with depletion of the hematopoietic component and fatty degeneration. Blood flow (fluorescent microspheres) and microvascular density (immunohistochemistry) were remarkably reduced. Flow cytometry verified the depletion of MECA-32pos endothelial cells (ECs). Cultured ECs from BM of diabetic mice showed higher levels of oxidative stress, increased activity of the senescence marker β-galactosidase, reduced migratory and network-formation capacities and increased permeability and adhesiveness to BM mononuclear cells. Flow cytometry analysis of lineageneg c-Kitpos Sca-1pos (LSK) cell distribution along an in vivo Hoechst-33342 dye perfusion gradient documented that diabetes depletes LSK cells predominantly in the low-perfused part of the marrow. Cell depletion was associated to increased oxidative stress, DNA damage and activation of apoptosis. Boosting the anti-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by benfotiamine supplementation prevented microangiopathy, hypoperfusion and LSK cell depletion. Conclusions We provide novel evidence for the presence of microangiopathy impinging on the integrity of diabetic BM. These discoveries offer the framework for mechanistic solutions of BM dysfunction in diabetes. PMID:20042708

  7. Use of acetazolamide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macau, Ricardo A; da Silva, Tiago Nunes; Silva, Joana Rego; Ferreira, Ana Gonçalves; Bravo, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI) is a rare and difficult-to-treat condition. A study in mice and two recent papers describe the use of acetazolamide in Li-NDI in 7 patients (a case report and a 6 patient series). We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with bipolar disorder treated with lithium and no previous history of diabetes insipidus. She was hospitalized due to a bowel obstruction and developed severe dehydration after surgery when she was water deprived. After desmopressin administration and unsuccessful thiazide and amiloride treatment, acetazolamide was administrated to control polyuria and hydroelectrolytic disorders without significant side effects. To our knowledge, this is the third publication on acetazolamide use in Li-NDI patients. Treatment of lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus might be challenging.Vasopressin, amiloride and thiazide diuretics have been used in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus treatment.Acetazolamide might be an option to treat lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus patients who fail to respond to standard treatment.The use of acetazolamide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus must be monitored, including its effects on glomerular filtration rate.

  8. Mechanisms of Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Cell Senescence: Role of Arginase 1

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    Esraa Shosha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have recently found that diabetes-induced premature senescence of retinal endothelial cells is accompanied by NOX2-NADPH oxidase-induced increases in the ureohydrolase enzyme arginase 1 (A1. Here, we used genetic strategies to determine the specific involvement of A1 in diabetes-induced endothelial cell senescence. We used A1 knockout mice and wild type mice that were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin and retinal endothelial cells (ECs exposed to high glucose or transduced with adenovirus to overexpress A1 for these experiments. ABH [2(S-Amino-6-boronohexanoic acid] was used to inhibit arginase activity. We used Western blotting, immunolabeling, quantitative PCR, and senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA β-Gal activity to evaluate senescence. Analyses of retinal tissue extracts from diabetic mice showed significant increases in mRNA expression of the senescence-related proteins p16INK4a, p21, and p53 when compared with non-diabetic mice. SA β-Gal activity and p16INK4a immunoreactivity were also increased in retinal vessels from diabetic mice. A1 gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition protected against the induction of premature senescence. A1 overexpression or high glucose treatment increased SA β-Gal activity in cultured ECs. These results demonstrate that A1 is critically involved in diabetes-induced senescence of retinal ECs. Inhibition of arginase activity may therefore be an effective therapeutic strategy to alleviate diabetic retinopathy by preventing premature senescence.

  9. Mutant INS-gene induced diabetes of youth: proinsulin cysteine residues impose dominant-negative inhibition on wild-type proinsulin transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a syndrome of Mutant INS-gene-induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY, derived from one of 26 distinct mutations has been identified as a cause of insulin-deficient diabetes, resulting from expression of a misfolded mutant proinsulin protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Genetic deletion of one, two, or even three alleles encoding insulin in mice does not necessarily lead to diabetes. Yet MIDY patients are INS-gene heterozygotes; inheritance of even one MIDY allele, causes diabetes. Although a favored explanation for the onset of diabetes is that insurmountable ER stress and ER stress response from the mutant proinsulin causes a net loss of beta cells, in this report we present three surprising and interlinked discoveries. First, in the presence of MIDY mutants, an increased fraction of wild-type proinsulin becomes recruited into nonnative disulfide-linked protein complexes. Second, regardless of whether MIDY mutations result in the loss, or creation, of an extra unpaired cysteine within proinsulin, Cys residues in the mutant protein are nevertheless essential in causing intracellular entrapment of co-expressed wild-type proinsulin, blocking insulin production. Third, while each of the MIDY mutants induces ER stress and ER stress response; ER stress and ER stress response alone appear insufficient to account for blockade of wild-type proinsulin. While there is general agreement that ultimately, as diabetes progresses, a significant loss of beta cell mass occurs, the early events described herein precede cell death and loss of beta cell mass. We conclude that the molecular pathogenesis of MIDY is initiated by perturbation of the disulfide-coupled folding pathway of wild-type proinsulin.

  10. Ethnic differences in association of high body mass index with early onset of Type 1 diabetes - Arab ethnicity as case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad M Channanath

    Full Text Available The "accelerator hypothesis" predicts early onset of Type 1 diabetes (T1D in heavier children. Studies testing direction of correlation between body mass index (BMI and age at onset of T1D in different continental populations have reported differing results-inverse, direct, and neutral. Evaluating the correlation in diverse ethnic populations is required to generalize the accelerator hypothesis.The study cohort comprised 474 Kuwaiti children of Arab ethnicity diagnosed with T1D at age 6 to 18 years during 2011-2013. Age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores were calculated by comparing the BMI measured at diagnosis with Kuwaiti pediatric population reference data recorded during comparable time-period. Multiple linear regression and Pearson correlation analyses were performed.BMI z-score was seen inversely associated with onset age (r,-0.28; p-value0 (i.e. BMI >national average showed a stronger correlation (r,-0.38; p-value<0.001 than those with BMI z-score<0 (r,-0.19; p-value<0.001; the former group showed significantly lower mean onset age than the latter group (9.6±2.4 versus 10.5±2.7; p-value<0.001. Observed inverse correlation was consistent with that seen in Anglo-saxon, central european, caucasian, and white children while inconsistent with that seen in Indian, New Zealander, and Australian children.The accelerator hypothesis generalizes in Arab pediatric population from Kuwait.

  11. Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy may have rapid onset or worsening of diabetic retinopathy. Symptoms and Detection What are the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy and ... with diabetes protect their vision? Vision lost to diabetic retinopathy is ... However, early detection and treatment can reduce the risk of blindness ...

  12. Incretin Effect and Glucagon Responses to Oral and Intravenous Glucose in Patients with Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young - Type 2 and Type 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostoft, Signe H; Bagger, Jonatan I; Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous subgroup of non-autoimmune diabetes, constituting 1-2% of all diabetes. Because little is known about incretin function in patients with MODY, we studied the incretin effect and hormone responses to oral...... and intravenous glucose loads in patients with glucokinase (GCK)-diabetes (MODY2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A)-diabetes (MODY3), respectively, and in matched healthy control individuals (CTRLs). Both MODY groups exhibited glucose intolerance after oral glucose (most pronounced in patients with HNF1A-diabetes...... incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon responses, whereas incretin effect and glucagon response to oral glucose remain unaffected in GCK-diabetes, reflecting important pathogenetic differences between the two MODY forms....

  13. AB072. Novel mutation in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b/maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 gene—unreported Vietnamese case

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, Vu Chi; Thao, Bui Phuong; Ngoc, Can Thi Bich; Khanh, Nguyen Ngoc; Ellard, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), a type of dominantly inherited diabetes mellitus and nephropathy, has been associated with mutations of the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (HNF-1β) gene, mostly generating truncated protein. Various phenotypes are related to HNF-1β mutations. Our aim to describe clinical and genetic findings in the unreported Vietnamese case identified with HNF-1β mutations. The proband with kidney failure from 7.5 years of age and diabetes diagnosed at 13.5 y...

  14. Novel therapeutic effects of sesamin on diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Tran Duong; Phan, Nam Nhut; Wang, Chih-Yang; Yu, Han-Gang; Wang, Shu-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Do, Yi-Yin; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor that increases the occurrence and severity of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality of 75% of patients with diabetes >40 years old. Sesamin, the bioactive compound extracted from Sesamum indicum, is a natural compound that has diverse beneficial effects on hypoglycemia and reducing cholesterol. The aim of this study is to investigate sesamin effects to diabetes-inducing cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study bioinformatics analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy signaling may be the most important pathway for upregulating genes in sesamin-treated groups. To verify the bioinformatics prediction, sesamin was used as the main bioactive compound to attenuate the impact of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on cardiac function in a rat model. The results revealed that oral administration of sesamin for 4 weeks (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) marginally improved blood glucose levels, body weight and significantly ameliorated the effects on heart rate and blood pressure in rats with type 1 diabetes relative to control rats. The QT interval of sesamin was also reduced relative to the control group. The findings indicated that sesamin has potential cardioprotective effects in the STZ-induced diabetes model. This suggested that this can be used as a novel treatment for patients with diabetes with cardiac dysfunction complication. PMID:28358428

  15. Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity of C21 steroids from the roots of Cynanchum atratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ma, Lin; Wu, Zheng-Feng; Yu, Shu-Le; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Yin, Zhi-Qi

    2017-06-01

    Two new (1-2) and two known C 21 steroids (3-4) were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum atratum. Their structures were elucidated by detailed 1D and 2D spectroscopic. The MTT assay showed that compounds 1-4 displayed obvious cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells with IC 50 values ranging from 10.19μM to 76.12μM. Compounds 1-3 also exhibited cytotoxic effects in A549 cells with IC 50 values of 30.87-95.39μM. Compound 3 showed the antiproliferative activity via G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and proapoptosis in HepG2 cells by Flowcytometry analysis. Western blotting analysis revealed that compound 3 could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway by downregulating Bcl-2 expression, upregulating Bax protein expression, and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence connecting old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Martin L; Brønden, Andreas; Sonne, David P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have...... current evidence connecting established glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion and discusses whether bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion may constitute a new basis for understanding how metformin, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile acids transporter, and bile acid...... sequestrants - old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs - improve glucose metabolism....

  17. TyG Index Change Is More Determinant for Forecasting Type 2 Diabetes Onset Than Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, David; Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Martinez, Jose Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    The risk of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity appears to be influenced by other metabolic abnormalities, and there is controversy about the harmless condition of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of diabetes and the impact of changes in weight and in triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index), according to the metabolic health and obesity states.We analyzed prospective data of the Vascular Metabolic CUN cohort, a population-based study among a White European population (mean follow-up, 8.9 years). Incident diabetes was assessed in 1923 women and 3016 men with a mean age at baseline of 55.33 ± 13.68 and 53.78 ± 12.98 years old.A Cox proportional-hazard analysis was conducted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of diabetes on metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese, metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). A continuous standardized variable (z-score) was derived to compute the HR for diabetes per 1-SD increment in the body mass index (BMI) and the TyG index.MHO, MUNO, and MUO status were associated with the development of diabetes, HR of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.25-4.07), 3.04 (95% CI: 1.69-5.47), and 4.04 (95% CI: 2.14-7.63), respectively. MUNO individuals had 1.82 greater risk of diabetes compared to MHO subjects (95% CI: 1.04-3.22). The HRs for incident diabetes per 1-SD increment in BMI and TyG indexes were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.40-1.68). The increase in BMI did not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects, whereas increasing the TyG index significantly affect the risk in all metabolic health categories.Metabolic health is more important determinant for diabetes onset than weight gain. The increase in weight does not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects.

  18. Beneficial effects of dietary acarbose in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovich, M J; Meldrum, M J; Vasselli, J R

    1991-12-01

    Diabetes is characterized by hyperphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, and elevations in blood and urinary glucose. It has also been documented that beta-adrenergic responsiveness is reduced in diabetes. The intestinal glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose (BAY G 5421), decreases postprandial glycemia by delaying carbohydrate absorption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic acarbose treatment (20 and 40 mg/100 g of diet) on the metabolic and adrenergic parameters altered in streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, intravenously [IV] )-induced diabetes. Metabolic parameters were measured daily for 8 weeks. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, polydipsic, and polyuric within 1 week of STZ treatment. Acarbose treatment did not consistently effect the food intake but did reduce water intake, urinary output, blood glucose, and the urinary loss of glucose associated with STZ-induced diabetes. Adrenergic responses were assessed by monitoring the increase in tail skin temperature (TST) associated with administration of isoproterenol. Diabetic rats were less responsive than controls and acarbose treatment restored responses toward that of the controls. Additionally, 3H-NE release from the tail artery was elevated in the diabetic rat and restored to normal in the acarbose-treated animals. Collectively these data suggest that acarbose treatment is effective in reducing the severity of metabolic and autonomic complications associated with STZ-induced diabetes.

  19. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcelo S; Rodrigues, Luhara S; S, Leila; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Q; Soares, Thaigra S; Américo, Madileine F; Campos, Kleber E; Damasceno, Débora C; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as "cow's hoof", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  20. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestry, Snehal Nitin; Dhodi, Jayesh Bachu; Kumbhar, Sangita Balbhim; Juvekar, Archana Ramesh

    2017-07-01

    With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum , due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS) positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Periodontitis promotes the diabetic development of obese rat via miR-147 induced classical macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran; Zeng, Guang; Wang, Shuyong; Tao, Hong; Ren, Le; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Qingna; Zhao, Jinxiu; Gao, Jing; Li, Daxu

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated the bad effect of periodontal inflammation on diabetes control. However, the exact regulatory mechanisms within the association between periodontitis and diabetic development remain unclear. This study aims to investigate the function of microRNAs in regulating periodontitis-induced inflammation in an obese rat model. Experimental periodontitis was introduced into OLETF and LETO rat. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed to detect diabetic development. Serum cytokines levels and microRNAs expression were detected by ELISA and RT-PCR analysis respectively. And, macrophages were isolated for gain- and loss-of-function studies, to investigate the regulatory mechanism of miR-147 in periodontitis-induced inflammation. Periodontitis induced proinflammatory response with classical activated macrophages in both rats, but distinctively aggravated the impaired glucose tolerance of OLETF rat with spontaneous type 2 diabetes. Analysis for serum microRNAs expression showed the distinctive and synergistic upregulation of miR-147 with periodontitis-induced effects in rats, while further experiments demonstrated the positive regulatory mechanism of miR-147 on classical activated macrophages with overexpressed proinflammatory markers, showing M1 phenotype. This study provided new evidence for the positive effect of periodontal inflammation on diabetic development, while the regulatory mechanism of miR-147 on classical macrophage activation, was verified, and presumed to contribute to the impaired glucose tolerance aggravated by periodontitis in obese rats. Besides, this study indicated the application of miR-147 for therapeutic approach in the treatment of diabetes with periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considerations when your dosage changes. What about side effects and inhaled steroids? The most common side effects with inhaled steroids ... inhaled steroid has much less potential for side effects than steroid pills or syrups. There have been concerns regarding ...

  4. Impaired osteogenic differentiation associated with connexin43/microRNA-206 in steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Luo, Gaobin; Bo, Zhandong; Liang, Xiaonan; Huang, Jie; Li, Donghui

    2016-08-01

    Connexin(Cx)43 and microRNA(miR)-206 play an important role in osteogenesis. However, their role in steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis (SANFH) is still ambiguous. The present study aimed to establish a rabbit model and investigate osteogenesis in steroid-induced femoral head osteonecrosis occurring via Cx43/miR-206 and the changes of Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway-related proteins. A total of 72 adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into a model group (Group A) and a control group (Group B) of 36 rabbits each. Group A was injected intravenously with lipopolysaccharide (10μg/kg body weight, once per day). After 48h, three injections of methylprednisolone (MPS; 20mg/kg body weight) were administered intramuscularly at 24-hour intervals. Group B were fed and housed under identical conditions but received saline injections. All animals were sacrificed at two, four, and eight weeks from the first MPS injection. Typical early osteonecrosis symptoms were observed in Group A. The expression of miR-206 in Group A was significantly higher than that of Group B. The mRNA and protein levels of Cx43, β-catenin, runt-related transcription factor 2, and alkaline phosphatase gradually decreased while Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) gradually increased in Group A compared with Group B. These findings indicated that Cx43/miR-206 is involved in the pathogenesis of early stage SANFH and may be associate with Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1ra, inducible protein 10, IL-6 and number of islet autoantibodies with progression patterns of type 1 diabetes the first year after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, A; Pfleger, Claudia Christina; Hansen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    progressers and remitters. Serum concentrations of adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1ra, inducible protein 10 (IP-10), IL-6 and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), IA-2A and islet-cell antibodies (ICA) were measured at 1, 6 and 12 months. We found that adiponectin concentrations at 1 month predicted disease......The progression of type 1 diabetes after diagnosis is poorly understood. Our aim was to assess the relation of disease progression of juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes, determined by preserved beta cell function the first year after diagnosis, with systemic cytokine concentrations and number...

  6. Rituximab for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Kazumoto; Sako, Mayumi; Nozu, Kandai; Mori, Rintaro; Tuchida, Nao; Kamei, Koichi; Miura, Kenichiro; Aya, Kunihiko; Nakanishi, Koichi; Ohtomo, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Shori; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kaito, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hidefumi; Ishikura, Kenji; Ito, Shuichi; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2014-10-04

    Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at nine centres in Japan. We screened patients aged 2 years or older experiencing a relapse of FRNS or SDNS, which had originally been diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome when aged 1-18 years. Patients with complicated FRNS or SDNS who met all other criteria were eligible for inclusion after remission of the relapse at screening. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign patients (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, with age, institution, treatment history, and the intervals between the previous three relapses as adjustment factors. Patients, guardians, caregivers, physicians, and individuals assessing outcomes were masked to assignments. All patients received standard steroid treatment for the relapse at screening and stopped taking immunosuppressive agents by 169 days after randomisation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the relapse-free period. Safety endpoints were frequency and severity of adverse events. Patients who received their assigned intervention were included in analyses. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network clinical trials registry, number UMIN000001405. Patients were centrally registered between Nov 13, 2008, and May 19, 2010. Of 52 patients who underwent randomisation, 48 received the assigned intervention (24 were given rituximab and 24 placebo). The median relapse-free period was significantly longer in the rituximab group (267 days, 95% CI 223-374) than in the placebo group (101 days, 70-155; hazard ratio: 0·27, 0·14-0·53; p<0·0001). Ten patients (42%) in the rituximab group and six (25

  7. Familial steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: seven cases from three families in China

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    Yonghui Xia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Familial steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is rare, and only approximately 3% of patients have affected siblings. METHODS: Herein, we report seven cases of patients with steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome from three Chinese families. Mutational screening of the Nphs2 gene was performed in all the patients. RESULTS: All seven of the familial steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome cases in our sample exhibited minimal change disease, and one case also presented with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, according to the renal pathology. No significant was associations were found between Nphs2 gene mutations and the onset of proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in these familial cases. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of minimal change disease is important, but it is not an unusual finding in patients with familial steroid-sensitive idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, which appears to be clinically benign and genetically distinct from other types of nephrosis.

  8. A review of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and challenges in the management of glucokinase-MODY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishay, Ramy H; Greenfield, Jerry R

    2016-11-21

    Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), the most common monogenic form of diabetes, accounts for 1-2% of all diabetes diagnoses. Glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (also referred to as MODY2) constitutes 10-60% of all MODY cases and is inherited as an autosomal dominant heterozygous mutation, resulting in loss of function of the GCK gene. Patients with GCK-MODY generally have mild, fasting hyperglycaemia that is present from birth, are commonly leaner and diagnosed at a younger age than patients with type 2 diabetes, and rarely develop complications from diabetes. Hence, treatment is usually unnecessary and may be ceased. Therefore, genetic screening is recommended in all young patients (MODY, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 1A mutations (MODY3) where hyperglycaemia is managed with low dose sulfonylurea rather than insulin. Patients with GCK-MODY, in line with trends in the general population, are becoming older and more overweight and obese, and are concomitantly developing features of insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Therefore, controversy exists as to whether such "treatment-exempt" patients should be reassessed for treatment later in life. As testing becomes more accessible, clinicians and patients are likely to embrace genetic screening earlier in the course of diabetes, which may avert the consequences of delayed testing years after diagnosis and treatment initiation.

  9. Causes of death in patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes receiving dialysis in Japan: Diabetes Epidemiology Research International (DERI) Mortality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yoshiko; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Sano, Hironari; Utsunomiya, Kazunori; Tajima, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the causes of death and how they changed over time in patients with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes who were receiving dialysis. Of the 1384 patients who were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes atdeath trends were expressed according to the duration of dialysis. The leading causes of death were end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (36.3%), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (31.9%), and infections (20.3%). Among CVD, cerebral hemorrhage was the most frequent (38.9%) and showed a significant trend for an increase in the duration of dialysis (P=0.01, the Cochran-Armitage trend test). The mortality from ESRD concentrated within 5 years of dialysis and that from CVD increased after 10 years of dialysis, while the mortality from infections peaked during 5 to 10 years from initiation of dialysis. The leading causes of death in dialysis patients with type 1 diabetes were ESRD, CVD, and infections. As the duration of dialysis increased, however, CVD contributed more to mortality. Special attention should be paid to CVD, particularly cerebral hemorrhage, to improve the long-term prognosis of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sex steroid-related candidate genes in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2008-07-01

    Sex steroids readily pass the blood-brain barrier, and receptors for them are abundant in brain areas important for the regulation of emotions, cognition and behaviour. Animal experiments have revealed both important early effects of these hormones on brain development and their ongoing influence on brain morphology and neurotransmission in the adult organism. The important effects of sex steroids on human behaviour are illustrated by, for example, the effect of reduced levels of these hormones on sexual drive and conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, perimenopausal dysphoria, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis, dysphoria induced by oral contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and anabolic steroid-induced aggression. The fact that men and women (as groups) differ with respect to the prevalence of several psychiatric disorders, certain aspects of cognitive function and certain personality traits may possibly also reflect an influence of sex steroids on human behaviour. The heritability of most behavioural traits, including personality, cognitive abilities and susceptibility to psychiatric illness, is considerable, but as yet, only few genes of definite importance in this context have been identified. Given the important role of sex steroids for brain function, it is unfortunate that relatively few studies so far have addressed the possible influence of sex steroid-related genes on interindividual differences with respect to personality, cognition and susceptibility to psychiatric disorders. To facilitate further research in this area, this review provides information on several such genes and summarizes what is currently known with respect to their possible influence on brain function.

  11. Steroid-induced suppression of gallium uptake in tumors of the central nervous system: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waxman, A.D.; Beldon, J.R.; Richli, W.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Siemsen, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of steroids given in greater than replacement doses on the gallium and technetium glucoheptonate brain scan is evaluated by comparing the relative sensitivity of both radiopharmaceuticals in patients both on and off steroids. The study shows a significant steroid effect on the sensitivity of 95% to 64% following steroids. Steroids did not significantly alter the sensitivity of the technetium glucoheptonate study. The superiority of the TcGH brain scan over the gallium citrate brain scan in the steroid population suggests a difference in the uptake mechanism for the two radiopharmaceuticals

  12. Morphology of bronchial epithelium in rodent streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus

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    Oksana Anatolyevna Pivovarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the morphology of bronchial epithelium in a rodent streptozotocin-induced (STZ diabetes mellitus.Materials and Methods. Diabetes mellitus was introduced in 47 white Wistar rats aged 5–6 months (body weight 234.0±2.64 g. 43 white Wistar rats of the same age were used as control subjects (body weight 242.0±2.13. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (SIGMA, USA 60 mg/kg in 0.1 M citrate buffer, pH 4.5.Results. A statistically significant decrease in the total epithelial area by 25.9% was observed in the study group, accompanied by a reduction of the supranuclear zone by 22.1% vs. the control group.Conclusion. We found that bronchial mucous membrane in rodents with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus exhibits signs of atrophy and partial loss of mucous production by bronchial secretory cells.

  13. Apoptosis of purified CD4+ T cell subsets is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of other cells in new onset diabetic NOD mice.

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    Ayelet Kaminitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Regulatory T cells (Treg play a significant role in immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Excessive sensitivity of isolated Treg to apoptosis has been demonstrated in NOD mice and humans suffering of type 1 diabetes, suggesting a possible role in the immune dysfunction that underlies autoimmune insulitis. In this study the sensitivity to apoptosis was measured in T cells from new onset diabetic NOD females, comparing purified subsets to mixed cultures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Apoptotic cells are short lived in vivo and death occurs primarily during isolation, manipulation and culture. Excessive susceptibility of CD25(+ T cells to spontaneous apoptosis is characteristic of isolated subsets, however disappears when death is measured in mixed splenocyte cultures. In variance, CD25(- T cells display balanced sensitivity to apoptosis under both conditions. The isolation procedure removes soluble factors, IL-2 playing a significant role in sustaining Treg viability. In addition, pro- and anti-apoptotic signals are transduced by cell-to-cell interactions: CD3 and CD28 protect CD25(+ T cells from apoptosis, and in parallel sensitize naïve effector cells to apoptosis. Treg viability is modulated both by other T cells and other subsets within mixed splenocyte cultures. Variations in sensitivity to apoptosis are often hindered by fast proliferation of viable cells, therefore cycling rates are mandatory to adequate interpretation of cell death assays. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of purified Treg to apoptosis is dominated by cytokine deprivation and absence of cell-to-cell interactions, and deviate significantly from measurements in mixed populations. Balanced sensitivity of naïve/effector and regulatory T cells to apoptosis in NOD mice argues against the concept that differential susceptibility affects disease evolution and progression.

  14. Genetic basis of early-onset, MODY-like diabetes in Japan and features of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes: dominance of maternal inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Tohru; Higuchi, Shinji; Kawakita, Rie; Hosokawa, Yuki; Aoyama, Takane; Murakami, Akiko; Kawae, Yoshiko; Hatake, Kazue; Nagasaka, Hironori; Tamagawa, Nobuyoshi

    2018-06-21

    Causative mutations cannot be identified in the majority of Asian patients with suspected maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To elucidate the genetic basis of Japanese patients with MODY-like diabetes and gain insight into the etiology of patients without mutations in the major MODY genes. 263 Japanese patients with early-onset, nonobese, MODY-like diabetes mellitus referred to Osaka City General Hospital for diagnosis. Mutational analysis of the four major MODY genes (GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A, HNF1B) by Sanger sequencing. Mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were further analyzed for clinical features. Mutations were identified in 103 (39.2%) patients; 57 mutations in GCK; 29, HNF1A; 7, HNF4A; and 10, HNF1B. Contrary to conventional diagnostic criteria, 18.4% of mutation-positive patients did not have affected parents and 8.2% were in the overweight range (BMI >85 th percentile). HOMA-IR at diagnosis was elevated (>2) in 15 of 66 (22.7%) mutation-positive patients. Compared with mutation-positive patients, mutation-negative patients were significantly older (p = 0.003), and had higher BMI percentile at diagnosis (p = 0.0006). Interestingly, maternal inheritance of diabetes was significantly more common in mutation-negative patients (p = 0.0332) and these patients had significantly higher BMI percentile as compared with mutation-negative patients with paternal inheritance (p = 0.0106). Contrary to the conventional diagnostic criteria, de novo diabetes, overweight, and insulin-resistance are common in Japanese patients with mutation-positive MODY. A significant fraction of mutation-negative patients had features of early-onset type 2 diabetes common in Japanese, and non-Mendelian inheritance needs to be considered for these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased Muscular 5α-Dihydrotestosterone in Response to Resistance Training Relates to Skeletal Muscle Mass and Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Horii, Naoki; Sato, Koji; Mesaki, Noboru; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Regular resistance exercise induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improvement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a sex steroid hormone precursor, increases 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis and is associated with improvements in fasting blood glucose level and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether increase in muscle DHT levels, induced by chronic resistance exercise, can co...

  16. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

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    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  17. Anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (Ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Selima Sultana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperlipidemia is an important modifiable risk factor contributing to atterosclerosis in diabetes mellitus. Zingiber officinale (ginger widely consumed as spice is known for its hypoglycemic and hypochlosteremic actions. The present study was undertaken to investigate anti-hyperlipidemic action of ginger juice in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wister rats, 130-150 g wt, fed on standard diet and water ad libitum were divided into 4 groups (n=6 in each group: group I non-diabetic control, group II non-diabetic treated; group III diabetic control and group IV diabetic treated. Diabetes was induced by Inj. alloxan 150 mg Kg–1 b.w., i.p. (group III & IV on Day 2. Rats having blood glucose level of >7 mmol/l on day 5 (72 hrs after alloxan Inj. were considered diabetic and selected for experimentation. Both non-diabetic and diabetic treated groups (Gr II & IV received Zingiber officinale (ginger juice (4 ml Kg–1 b.w., p.o. for 10 days (day 2-day 11 through Ryles tube. On Day 12, animals were sacrificed under light ether anaesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and serum separated for estimation of lipids. Zingiber officinale (ginger juice significantly (p<0.01 decreased alloxan induced hyperglycemia (group IV, but had no effect on blood glucose level in normal rats (group II; significantly (p<0.001 reduced alloxan induced hyperlipidemia, but produced no significant lipid lowering effects in normal rats (group II. The results suggest a significant anti-hyperlipidemic action of Zingiber officinale (ginger juice in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The findings may be clinically significant and exploited. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 55-58

  18. Effect of long-term calcitonin administration on steroid-induced osteoporosis after cardiac transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Antonopoulos, Athanassios S; Antoniou, Theofani A; Theodoraki, Kassiani A; Zarkalis, Dimitrios A; Sfirakis, Peter D; Chilidou, Despina A; Alivizatos, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Early, rapid bone loss and fractures after cardiac transplantation are well-documented complications of steroid administration; therefore, we undertook this study on the effects of long-term calcitonin on steroid-induced osteoporosis. Twenty-three heart transplant recipients on maintenance immunosuppression with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone were retrospectively studied. All patients received long-term prophylactic treatment with elemental calcium and vitamin D. Twelve (52.2%) patients also received long-term intranasal salmon calcitonin, whereas 11 (47.8%) received none. Bone mineral density and vertebral fractures were assessed at yearly intervals. Statistical comparisons between each group's bone loss during the first year and in the early (1 to 3 years), intermediate (4 to 6 years) and late (7+ years) post-transplantation periods were done. Lumbar spine bone loss was significant during the early follow-up period in the group not receiving calcitonin (0.744 +/- 0.114 g/cm(2) vs 0.978 +/- 0.094 g/cm(2) [p = 0.002]). The calcitonin group showed bone mineral density (BMD) levels within normal average values throughout the study period. BMD increased in the no-calcitonin group during the intermediate (4 to 6 years) and late (7+ years) follow-up periods, with values approaching normal average and no significant difference between the 2 groups (0.988 +/- 0.184 g/cm(2) vs 0.982 +/- 0.088 g/cm(2) [p = 0.944] and 0.89 +/- 0.09 g/cm(2) vs 1.048 +/- 0.239 g/cm(2) [p = 0.474], respectively). Prophylactic treatment with intranasal salmon calcitonin prevents rapid bone loss associated with high-dose steroids early after cardiac transplantation. Long-term administration does not seem warranted in re-establishing BMD.

  19. Aralia elata inhibits neurodegeneration by downregulating O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB in diabetic mice

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    Seong-Jae Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of O-GlcNAcylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in retinal ganglion cell (RGC death and analysedthe effect of Aralia elata (AE on neurodegeneration in diabetic mice. METHODS: C57BL/6mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were fed daily with AE extract or control (CTL diet at the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM. Two months after injection of streptozotocin or saline, the degree of cell death and the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT, N-acetyl-b-D-glucosaminidase (OGA, O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB were examined. RESULTS: AE did not affect the metabolic status of diabetic mice. The decrease in the inner retinal thickness (P<0.001 vs CTL, P<0.01 vs DM and increases in RGCs with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (P<0.001 vs CTL, P<0.0001 vs DM, glial activation, and active caspase-3 (P<0.0001 vs CTL, P<0.0001 vs DM were blocked in diabetic retinas of AE extract-fed mice. Expression levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation and OGT were increased in diabetic retinas (P<0.0001 vs CTL, and the level of O-GlcNAcylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit was higher in diabetic retinas than in controls (P<0.0001 vs CTL. AE extract downregulated O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB and prevented neurodegeneration induced by hyperglycemia (P<0.0001 vs DM. CONCLUSION: O-GlcNAcylation of NF-κB is concerned in neuronal degeneration and that AE prevents diabetes-induced RGC apoptosis via downregulation of NF-κB O-GlcNAcylation. Hence, O-GlcNAcylation may be a new object for the treatment of DR, and AE may have therapeutic possibility to prevent diabetes-induced neurodegeneration.

  20. RELATIONSHIP OF ADIPOKINES AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AMONG ASIAN INDIANS WITH OBESITY AND YOUTH ONSET TYPE 2 DIABETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulakrishnan, Kuppan; Amutha, Anandakumar; Ranjani, Harish; Bibin, Subramanian Y; Balakumar, Mahalingam; Pandey, Gautam Kumar; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that inflammation is associated with diabetes, but it is unclear whether obesity mediates this association in individuals with youth-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-Y). We recruited individuals with T2DM-Y (age at onset obesity and categorized as: nonobese NGT (n = 100), Obese NGT (n = 50), nonobese T2DM-Y (n = 50), and obese T2DM-Y (n = 50). We compared adipokines (adiponectin and leptin) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]) across groups. Compared to nonobese NGT, the other 3 groups (obese NGT, nonobese T2DM-Y, and obese T2DM-Y) were found to have lower adiponectin (7.7 vs. 5.7, 4.2, 3.8 μg/mL, Pobese T2DM-Y (141 pg/mL, Pobese T2DM, respectively. However, adjusted for same factors, leptin, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were associated with markedly higher odds (5- to 14-fold) of nonobese and obese T2DM. In young Asian Indians, leptin and proinflammatory cytokines are positively, and adiponectin negatively, associated with both nonobese and obese T2DM-Y compared to nonobese NGT individuals.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Serum Proteins Uncovers a Protein Signature Related to Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerxunyiming, Muhadasi; Xian, Feng; Zi, Jin; Yimamu, Yilihamujiang; Abuduwayite, Reshalaiti; Ren, Yan; Li, Qidan; Abudula, Abulizi; Liu, SiQi; Mohemaiti, Patamu

    2018-01-05

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an inherited monogenic type of diabetes. Genetic mutations in MODY often cause nonsynonymous changes that directly lead to the functional distortion of proteins and the pathological consequences. Herein, we proposed that the inherited mutations found in a MODY family could cause a disturbance of protein abundance, specifically in serum. The serum samples were collected from a Uyghur MODY family through three generations, and the serum proteins after depletion treatment were examined by quantitative proteomics to characterize the MODY-related serum proteins followed by verification using target quantification of proteomics. A total of 32 serum proteins were preliminarily identified as the MODY-related. Further verification test toward the individual samples demonstrated the 12 candidates with the significantly different abundance in the MODY patients. A comparison of the 12 proteins among the sera of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, MODY, and healthy subjects was conducted and revealed a protein signature related with MODY composed of the serum proteins such as SERPINA7, APOC4, LPA, C6, and F5.

  2. Steroid therapy and conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havakuk, Ofer; Konigstein, Maayan; Ben Assa, Eyal; Arbel, Yaron; Abramowitz, Yigal; Halkin, Amir; Bazan, Samuel; Shmilovich, Haim; Keren, Gad; Finkelstein, Ariel; Banai, Shmuel

    2016-10-01

    Direct mechanical compression of the frame struts on the adjacent bundle branch with local inflammatory reaction might cause conduction system disturbances and need for pacemaker implantation following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We assessed the impact of preprocedural anti-inflammatory steroid therapy on the occurrence of conduction disturbances following TAVI. From a cohort of 324 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI, 39 (12%) were pretreated with steroids because of iodine allergy (n=29) or active obstructive pulmonary disease (n=10). We compared the rate of occurrence of new conduction disturbances and pacemaker implantation between TAVI patients with (n=39) and without (n=285) steroid treatment, using Cox logistic regression estimates and proportional hazards models. The overall occurrence of new conduction defects and the need for new pacemaker implantation were similar among steroid and non-steroid-treated patients (38.4% vs 37.5% and 25.6% vs 25.3%, respectively). New conduction disturbances were more prevalent in patients treated with CoreValve prosthesis, low implantation, and smaller aortic annulus diameter (P<.001, P<.001, and P=.006, respectively). Thirty-day mortality and complication rates were similar between the groups. Although safe, steroid treatment prior to TAVI failed to reduce the incidence of new conduction defects and the need for pacemaker implantation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Administration on Passive Stretching-Induced Expression of Mechano-Growth Factor in Skeletal Muscle

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    Satoshi Ikeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stretching of skeletal muscle induces expression of the genes which encode myogenic transcription factors or muscle contractile proteins and results in muscle growth. Anabolic steroids are reported to strengthen muscles. We have previously studied the effects of muscle stretching on gene expression. Here, we studied the effect of a combination of passive stretching and the administration of an anabolic steroid on mRNA expression of a muscle growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant, or mechano-growth factor (MGF. Methods. Twelve 8-week-old male Wistar rats were used. Metenolone was administered and passive repetitive dorsiflexion and plantar flexion of the ankle joint performed under deep anesthesia. After 24 h, the gastrocnemius muscles were removed and the mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-I autocrine variant was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Repetitive stretching in combination with metenolone, but not stretching alone, significantly increased MGF mRNA expression. Conclusion. Anabolic steroids enhance the effect of passive stretching on MGF expression in skeletal muscle.

  4. New onset diabetes complicated by haemolysis and rhabdomyolysis: a case report and review of the literature

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    Galtrey Clare M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Previously undiagnosed glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency can be unmasked by a diabetic crisis and both can be associated with rhabdomyolysis. The relationship between diabetes and G6PD deficiency is discussed and the possible triggers for haemolysis as outlined in this case report. The incidence of G6PD deficiency is 10% in African-American males and up to 35% in parts of Africa so an increased awareness of G6PD deficiency is important when treating diabetes in these populations. Case presentation A 54-year-old Kenyan man presented with a 3-day history of reduced appetite, weakness and reduced level of consciousness as a result of a hyperglycaemic diabetic crisis with both hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis. The patient then developed haemolysis and a raised creatine kinase level. A diagnosis of G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis was made. Conclusion This case highlights the importance of simple laboratory investigations in the early identification of the rarer complications of diabetic crisis such as haemolysis secondary to G6PD deficiency and rhabdomyolysis.

  5. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  6. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  7. Resistin: A Potential Biomarker for Periodontitis Influenced Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Induced Periodontitis

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    Archana Devanoorkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords “Diabetes Mellitus,” “Periodontitis,” and “Resistin,” and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.

  8. Causes of Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). Neonatal diabetes occurs in the first 6 months of life. Doctors usually diagnose MODY during adolescence or early adulthood, but sometimes the ...

  9. New pregnane and steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Chen, Gang; Yi, Guo-Qing; Xu, Jian-Kun; Zhang, Tian-Long; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-03-01

    Three new steroidal saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analysis as 16beta-(4'-methyl-5'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-pentanoxy)-5alpha-pregn-3beta-ol-12,20-dione-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregn-16-en-20-one 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5alpha-furostan-20(22)-en-2alpha,3beta,26-triol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3).

  10. Preliminary Results of the Influence of Duodenojejunal Bypass in a Porcine Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiridis, S; Konstantinidis, K; Menenakos, E; Diamantis, Th; Papalois, A; Zografos, G

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetic obese patients present with a normalization of plasma glucose levels shortly after most bariatric procedures, before any significant weight loss takes place. There is only scarce literature in the new field of metabolic surgery, with most experiments being performed on small animal models. Our aim is to develop a reliable large animal model for assessment of surgical correction of diabetes. Titrated doses of streptozotocin (STZ) were used for induction of diabetes mellitus. After standardization of the surgical technique to avoid any restrictive component, three groups were created, a duodenojejunal bypass (DJB; n = 4), a gastroileal conduit (GIC; n = 3) near the ileocecal valve, and a sham (control; n = 5) group. Preoperative and postoperative glycemic curves were recorded by means of intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Body weight fluctuations were recorded as well. Diabetes was successfully induced with the use of STZ in all cases. Animals in the sham group remained diabetic for 3 weeks after operation. There was normalization of blood glucose levels in the operative groups during the 3-week postoperative follow-up, without significant body weight changes. The duodenojejunal group resulted in stronger positive response of glycemia. STZ-induced diabetes in swine leads to a reliable large animal model for assessment of metabolic surgical procedures. STZ is an effective but highly toxic means for inducing stable diabetes in the sensitive porcine model. Duodenojejunal bypass, although less invasive, seems to exert better antidiabetic effects than gastroileal conduit.

  11. Sex-Steroid Hormone Manipulation Reduces Brain Response to Reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Henningsson, Susanne; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    's vulnerability for mood disorders is linked to sex-steroid dynamics by investigating the effects of a pharmacologically induced fluctuation in ovarian sex steroids on the brain response to monetary rewards. In a double-blinded placebo controlled study, healthy women were randomized to receive either placebo...... or the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin, which causes a net decrease in sex-steroid levels. Fifty-eight women performed a gambling task while undergoing functional MRI at baseline, during the mid-follicular phase, and again following the intervention. The gambling task enabled us to map...

  12. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  13. Role of diuretics, β blockers, and statins in increasing the risk of diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: reanalysis of data from the NAVIGATOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lan; Shah, Bimal R; Reyes, Eric M; Thomas, Laine; Wojdyla, Daniel; Diem, Peter; Leiter, Lawrence A; Charbonnel, Bernard; Mareev, Viacheslav; Horton, Edward S; Haffner, Steven M; Soska, Vladimir; Holman, Rury; Bethel, M Angelyn; Schaper, Frank; Sun, Jie-Lena; McMurray, John J V; Califf, Robert M; Krum, Henry

    2013-12-09

    To examine the degree to which use of β blockers, statins, and diuretics in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors is associated with new onset diabetes. Reanalysis of data from the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial. NAVIGATOR trial. Patients who at baseline (enrolment) were treatment naïve to β blockers (n=5640), diuretics (n=6346), statins (n=6146), and calcium channel blockers (n=6294). Use of calcium channel blocker was used as a metabolically neutral control. Development of new onset diabetes diagnosed by standard plasma glucose level in all participants and confirmed with glucose tolerance testing within 12 weeks after the increased glucose value was recorded. The relation between each treatment and new onset diabetes was evaluated using marginal structural models for causal inference, to account for time dependent confounding in treatment assignment. During the median five years of follow-up, β blockers were started in 915 (16.2%) patients, diuretics in 1316 (20.7%), statins in 1353 (22.0%), and calcium channel blockers in 1171 (18.6%). After adjusting for baseline characteristics and time varying confounders, diuretics and statins were both associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes (hazard ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.44, and 1.32, 1.14 to 1.48, respectively), whereas β blockers and calcium channel blockers were not associated with new onset diabetes (1.10, 0.92 to 1.31, and 0.95, 0.79 to 1.13, respectively). Among people with impaired glucose tolerance and other cardiovascular risk factors and with serial glucose measurements, diuretics and statins were associated with an increased risk of new onset diabetes, whereas the effect of β blockers was non-significant. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097786.

  14. Revealing a steroid receptor ligand as a unique PPAR[gamma] agonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shengchen; Han, Ying; Shi, Yuzhe; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Lin, Shu-Yong; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Li, Yong (Pitt); (Xiamen)

    2012-06-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and is a molecular target for anti-diabetic drugs. We report here the identification of a steroid receptor ligand, RU-486, as an unexpected PPAR{gamma} agonist, thereby uncovering a novel signaling route for this steroid drug. Similar to rosiglitazone, RU-486 modulates the expression of key PPAR{gamma} target genes and promotes adipocyte differentiation, but with a lower adipogenic activity. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis for a unique binding mode for RU-486 in the PPAR{gamma} ligand-binding pocket with distinctive properties and epitopes, providing the molecular mechanisms for the discrimination of RU-486 from thiazolidinediones (TZDs) drugs. Our findings together indicate that steroid compounds may represent an alternative approach for designing non-TZD PPAR{gamma} ligands in the treatment of insulin resistance.

  15. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult (LADA in a Brazilian Indian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Botelho Vieira Filho

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA as originally described represents perhaps as many as 10 -- 20% of adult-onset patients with diabetes. DESIGN: case report. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old Brazilian Xavante-Jê Indian with Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of the Adult (LADA is described, coming from the Sangradouro community in Poxoréu, Mato Grosso. The onset of diabetes after reaching 25 years of age, the evolution to insulin deficiency after a period of insulin-independence and the presence of auto-antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD characteristic of LADA were present. This patient may represent the first case of LADA in a Brazilian with full Indian heritage. Further studies are necessary to verify the prevalence of this new type of diabetes in this population that does not have Caucasoid admixture and has a particular environmental background.

  16. Effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Linum usitatissimum (Linn. in hyperglycaemia associated ROS production in PBMNCs and pancreatic tissue of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvindkumar E Ghule

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Linum usitatissimum (EELU in hyperglycemia associated reactive oxygen species (ROS production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs and pancreatic antioxidant enzymes in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p. . After acute and subacute treatment serum glucose was determined. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed in EELU pretreated animals. ROS production in PBMNCs and pancreatic antioxidant enzymes were measured in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Results: Our results showed that, treatment of EELU (200 and 400 mg/kg significantly reduced serum glucose level in acute and subacute study. The antihyperglycaemic effects of EELU showed onset at 4th h (P<0.001 and peak effect at 6th h (P<0.001. The effect was sustained until 24th h with 400 mg/kg. In subacute study, significant antihyperglycaemic effect was observed from 14th day (P<0.001 onwards. In EELU treated rat the body weight was significantly (P<0.001 increased as compared to diabetic group on 21st day onwards. In OGTT, increased glucose utilization was observed. Treatment of EELU 400 mg/kg showed significant reversal in pancreatic GSH (P<0.01 and SOD (P<0.05 indicating antioxidant nature of EELU. Flow cytometric estimation of total ROS production in PBMNCs in diabetic rats was significantly increased (P<0.001, whereas EELU treatment showed significant (P<0.001 decrease in PBMNCs ROS. Conclusions: It is concluded from the investigation that EELU showed antihyperglycaemic effect mediated through inhibition of ROS level in PBMNCs and preservation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes in pancreatic tissue in alloxan induced diabetic rat.

  17. CD40 in Retinal Müller Cells Induces P2X7-Dependent Cytokine Expression in Macrophages/Microglia in Diabetic Mice and Development of Early Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Jose-Andres C; Lopez Corcino, Yalitza; Miao, Yanling; Tang, Jie; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S; Dubyak, George R; Subauste, Carlos S

    2017-02-01

    Müller cells and macrophages/microglia are likely important for the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the interplay between these cells in this disease is not well understood. An inflammatory process is linked to the onset of experimental diabetic retinopathy. CD40 deficiency impairs this process and prevents diabetic retinopathy. Using mice with CD40 expression restricted to Müller cells, we identified a mechanism by which Müller cells trigger proinflammatory cytokine expression in myeloid cells. During diabetes, mice with CD40 expressed in Müller cells upregulated retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), developed leukostasis and capillary degeneration. However, CD40 did not cause TNF-α or IL-1β secretion in Müller cells. TNF-α was not detected in Müller cells from diabetic mice with CD40 + Müller cells. Rather, TNF-α was upregulated in macrophages/microglia. CD40 ligation in Müller cells triggered phospholipase C-dependent ATP release that caused P2X 7 -dependent production of TNF-α and IL-1β by macrophages. P2X 7 -/- mice and mice treated with a P2X 7 inhibitor were protected from diabetes-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, and NOS2 upregulation. Our studies indicate that CD40 in Müller cells is sufficient to upregulate retinal inflammatory markers and appears to promote experimental diabetic retinopathy and that Müller cells orchestrate inflammatory responses in myeloid cells through a CD40-ATP-P2X 7 pathway. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Effect of irradiation on the dental pulp tissues in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ho Duk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To observe the histological changes in the pulp tissues of mandibular molars in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after irradiation. The male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing approximately 250 gm were divided into four groups : control, diabetes, irradiation, and diabetes-irradiation groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats in control and irradiation groups were injected with citrate buffer only. After 5 days, the head and neck region of the rats in irradiation and diabetes-irradiation groups were irradiated with a single absorbed dose of 10 Gy. All the rats were sacrificed at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after irradiation. The specimen including the mandibular molars were sectioned and observed using a histopathological method. In the diabetes group, capillary dilatation was observed. However, there was no obvious morphologic alteration of the odontoblasts. In the irradiation group, generalized necrosis of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the odontoblasts and dilatation of the capillaries were noted in the early experimental phases. In the diabetes-irradiation group, generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues was observed. Vacuolation of the dental pulp cells and the odontoblasts was noted in the late experimental phases. This experiment suggest that dilatation of the capillaries in the dental pulp tissue is induced by diabetic state, and generalized degeneration of the dental pulp tissues is induced by irradiation of the diabetic group.

  19. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  20. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovén, Ida; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-06-30

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices.

  1. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices. PMID:28665347

  2. Minireview: Epigenetics of obesity and diabetes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomko, Howard; Heo, Hye J; Einstein, Francine H

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the determinants of human health and disease is overwhelmingly complex, particularly for common, late-onset, chronic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes. Elucidating the genetic and environmental factors that influence susceptibility to disruptions in energy homeostasis and metabolic regulation remain a challenge, and progress will entail the integration of multiple assessments of temporally dynamic environmental exposures in the context of each individual's genotype. To meet this challenge, researchers are increasingly exploring the epigenome, which is the malleable interface of gene-environment interactions. Epigenetic variation, whether innate or induced, contributes to variation in gene expression, the range of potential individual responses to internal and external cues, and risk for metabolic disease. Ultimately, advancement in our understanding of chronic disease susceptibility in humans will depend on refinement of exposure assessment tools and systems biology approaches to interpretation. In this review, we present recent progress in epigenetics of human obesity and diabetes, existing challenges, and the potential for new approaches to unravel the complex biology of metabolic dysregulation.

  3. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids ha...

  4. Vitamin D and new-onset atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Ling; Yang, Jun; Yang, Jian; Wang, Hui-Bo; Yang, Chao-Jun; Yang, Ying

    2017-11-14

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, which affects 1.5% to 2% of the general population. More than six million Europeans suffer from AF. To research vitamin D levels in the prevention of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), we conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We focused on the vitamin D levels in the preven