WorldWideScience

Sample records for neutron velocity selector

  1. Neutron Time of Flight Spectrometer for Velocity Selector Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Small angle neutron spectrometer on China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) is located at neutron guide hall and is installed on the end of cold neutron guide. Velocity selector which can purify white light neutron beam into monochromatic neutron beam with wavelength

  2. Note: A helical velocity selector for continuous molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewc, Carola; Collier, James D; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2010-10-01

    We report on a modern realization of the classic helical velocity selector for gas phase particle beams. The device operates stably under high vacuum conditions at rotational frequencies limited only by commercial dc motor capabilities. Tuning the rotational frequency allows selective scanning over a broad velocity band. The width of the selected velocity distributions at full-width-half-maximum is as narrow as a few percent of the selected mean velocity and independent of the rotational speed of the selector. The selector generates low vibrational noise amplitudes comparable to mechanically damped state-of-the-art turbo-molecular pumps and is therefore compatible with vibration sensitive experiments like molecule interferometry.

  3. Cherenkov light detection as a velocity selector for uranium fission products at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, T., E-mail: yamaguti@phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Enomoto, A.; Kouno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Matsunaga, S.; Suzaki, F.; Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Abe, Y.; Nagae, D.; Okada, S.; Ozawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Sawahata, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    The in-flight particle separation capability of intermediate-energy radioactive ion (RI) beams produced at a fragment separator can be improved with the Cherenkov light detection technique. The cone angle of Cherenkov light emission varies as a function of beam velocity. This can be exploited as a velocity selector for secondary beams. Using heavy ion beams available at the HIMAC synchrotron facility, the Cherenkov light angular distribution was measured for several thin radiators with high refractive indices (n=1.9∼2.1). A velocity resolution of ∼10{sup −3} was achieved for a {sup 56}Fe beam with an energy of 500 MeV/nucleon. Combined with the conventional rigidity selection technique coupled with energy-loss analysis, the present method will enable the efficient selection of an exotic species from huge amounts of various nuclides, such as uranium fission products at the BigRIPS fragment separator located at the RI Beam Factory. - Highlights: • The cone angle of Cherenkov light can be used as a velocity selector of RI beams. • Proof-of-principle experiments are made using heavy ions at intermediate energies. • Results demonstrate successful separation of RI beams produced by fragmentation. • A velocity resolution of 10{sup −3} is achieved for thin high refractive radiators.

  4. Cherenkov light detection as a velocity selector for uranium fission products at intermediate energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Enomoto, A.; Kouno, J.; Yamaki, S.; Matsunaga, S.; Suzaki, F.; Suzuki, T.; Abe, Y.; Nagae, D.; Okada, S.; Ozawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Sawahata, K.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.

    2014-12-01

    The in-flight particle separation capability of intermediate-energy radioactive ion (RI) beams produced at a fragment separator can be improved with the Cherenkov light detection technique. The cone angle of Cherenkov light emission varies as a function of beam velocity. This can be exploited as a velocity selector for secondary beams. Using heavy ion beams available at the HIMAC synchrotron facility, the Cherenkov light angular distribution was measured for several thin radiators with high refractive indices (n = 1.9 ~ 2.1). A velocity resolution of ~10-3 was achieved for a 56Fe beam with an energy of 500 MeV/nucleon. Combined with the conventional rigidity selection technique coupled with energy-loss analysis, the present method will enable the efficient selection of an exotic species from huge amounts of various nuclides, such as uranium fission products at the BigRIPS fragment separator located at the RI Beam Factory.

  5. Concentration of the velocity distribution of pulsed neutron beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaguchi, Masaaki; Shimizu, Hirohiko M

    2016-01-01

    The velocity of neutrons from a pulsed neutron source is well-defined as a function of their arrival time. Electromagnetic neutron accelerator/decelerator synchronized with the neutron time-of-flight is capable of selectively changing the neutron velocity and concentrating the velocity distribution. Possible enhancement of the neutron intensity at a specific neutron velocity by orders of magnitude is discussed together with an experimental design.

  6. Velocity-space sensitivity of neutron spectrometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Salewski, Mirko; Eriksson, J.;

    2015-01-01

    Neutron emission spectrometry (NES) measures the energies of neutrons produced in fusion reactions. Here we present velocity-space weight functions for NES and neutron yield measurements. Weight functions show the sensitivity as well as the accessible regions in velocity space for a given range...

  7. Slow Neutron Velocity Spectrometer Transmission Studies Of Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, W. W. Jr.; Melkonian, E.; Rainwater, L. J.; Levin, M.

    1951-05-28

    The slow neutron transmission of several samples of Pu has been investigated with the Columbia Neutron Velocity Spectrometer. Data are presented in two groups, those covering the energy region from 0 to 6 ev, and those covering the region above 6 ev. Below 6 ev the resolution was relatively good, and a detailed study of the cross section variation was made. Work above 6 ev consisted of merely locating levels and obtaining a rough idea of their strengths.

  8. A new photographic method for neutron velocity spectrography (II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endt, P.M.; Paris, C.H.

    1952-01-01

    In a previous paper 1) the principles were presented of a new and simple method for neutron velocity spectrography. In this second paper we give a more elaborate description of the apparatus and of some simple experiments to test its performance.

  9. Improved Matrix Uncertainty Selector

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    We consider the regression model with observation error in the design: y=X\\theta* + e, Z=X+N. Here the random vector y in R^n and the random n*p matrix Z are observed, the n*p matrix X is unknown, N is an n*p random noise matrix, e in R^n is a random noise vector, and \\theta* is a vector of unknown parameters to be estimated. We consider the setting where the dimension p can be much larger than the sample size n and \\theta* is sparse. Because of the presence of the noise matrix N, the commonly used Lasso and Dantzig selector are unstable. An alternative procedure called the Matrix Uncertainty (MU) selector has been proposed in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) in order to account for the noise. The properties of the MU selector have been studied in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) for sparse \\theta* under the assumption that the noise matrix N is deterministic and its values are small. In this paper, we propose a modification of the MU selector when N is a random matrix with zero-mean entries having the variances th...

  10. Instant jQuery selectors

    CERN Document Server

    De Rosa, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant jQuery Selectors follows a simple how-to format with recipes aimed at making you well versed with the wide range of selectors that jQuery has to offer through a myriad of examples.Instant jQuery Selectors is for web developers who want to delve into jQuery from its very starting point: selectors. Even if you're already familiar with the framework and its selectors, you could find several tips and tricks that you aren't aware of, especially about performance and how jQuery ac

  11. Transport of ultracold neutrons through a mirror system with surface roughness as a velocity filter

    CERN Document Server

    Chizhova, L A; Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Geltenbort, P; Abele, H; Burgdörfer, J

    2012-01-01

    We perform classical Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold neutron transport through an absorbing-reflecting mirror system in the Earth's gravitational field. We show that the underlying mixed phase space of regular skipping motion and random motion due to disorder scattering can be exploited to realize a velocity filter for ultracold neutrons. The range of velocities selected is controlled by geometric parameters of the wave guide. Possible applications include investigations of transport and scattering dynamics in confined systems.

  12. Quality assessment of neutron delivery system for small-angle neutron scattering diffractometers of the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at the FRM II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Aurel; Pipich, Vitaliy; Ioffe, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Following the shutdown of FRJ-2 research reactor in Jülich, the pinhole small-angle neutron diffractometers KWS-1 and KWS-2 have been moved to the research reactor FRM II in Garching. The installation of these 40 m long instruments required the design and setup of new neutron guides with geometrical and optical features imposed by the instruments' positioning in the neutron guide hall, such as, the predetermined length and beam height as well as the foreseen improvement of the instrument performance. We report here about the quality assessment of the newly constructed neutron guides with respect to the optical, geometrical and alignment characteristics and the positioning of the velocity selector integrated in the neutron guide system by comparing the features of the measured neutron beams (in terms of neutron flux, intensity distribution and beam profile) with the results of the simulations of optimal neutron guide systems.

  13. The cold neutron tomography set-up at SINQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materna, T.; Baechler, S.; Jolie, J.; Masschaele, B.; Dierick, M.; Kardjilov, N.

    2004-06-01

    The cold neutron tomography station operated at SINQ (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland) is reviewed. The high neutron flux together with a set-up based on a scintillator screen and a CCD camera yielded fast and effective results with resolution down to 250 μm: tomography of small samples (up to 2 cm large) could be performed in less than an hour. The use of a velocity selector improved the contrast discrimination and allows dichromatic tomography. The station is moving to the new research reactor FRM-II (Garching, Germany) where its performances will be increased by the availability of a 5-times-higher cold neutron flux.

  14. Velocity-Autocorrelation Function in Liquids, Deduced from Neutron Incoherent Scattering Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Kim

    1976-01-01

    The Fourier transform p(ω) of the velocity-autocorrelation function is derived from neutron incoherent scattering results, obtained from the two liquids Ar and H2. The quality and significance of the results are discussed with special emphasis on the long-time t-3/2 tail, found in computer...

  15. Velocity-space sensitivity of the time-of-flight neutron spectrometer at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, A. S., E-mail: Ajsen@fysik.dtu.dk; Salewski, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Stejner, M. [Association Euratom - DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Eriksson, J.; Ericsson, G.; Hjalmarsson, A. [Association Euratom - VR, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    The velocity-space sensitivities of fast-ion diagnostics are often described by so-called weight functions. Recently, we formulated weight functions showing the velocity-space sensitivity of the often dominant beam-target part of neutron energy spectra. These weight functions for neutron emission spectrometry (NES) are independent of the particular NES diagnostic. Here we apply these NES weight functions to the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFOR at JET. By taking the instrumental response function of TOFOR into account, we calculate time-of-flight NES weight functions that enable us to directly determine the velocity-space sensitivity of a given part of a measured time-of-flight spectrum from TOFOR.

  16. Accretion by a Neutron Star Moving at a High Kick Velocity in the Supernova Ejecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhang; Ye Lu; Yong-Heng Zhao

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a two-dimensional time dependent analytic model to describe the accretion of matter onto a neutron star moving at a high speed across the ejecta left in the aftermath of a supernova explosion. The formation of a strange star resulting from the accretion is also addressed. The newborn neutron star is assumed to move outward at a kick velocity of vns ~ 103 km s-1, and the accretion flow is treated as a dust flow. When the neutron star travels across the ejecta with high speed, it sweeps up material, and when the accreted mass has reached a critical value, the neutron star will undergo a phase transition,for instance, to become a strange star. Our results show that the accretion rate decreases in a complicated way in time, not just a power law dependence: it drops much faster than the power law derived by Colpi et al. We also found that the total accreted mass and the phase transition of the neutron star depend sensitively on the velocity of supernova ejecta.

  17. Delayed Neutrons Effect on Power Reactor with Variation of Fluid Fuel Velocity at MSR Fuji-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro Aji, Indarta; Pramuditya, Syeilendra; Novitrian; Irwanto, Dwi; Waris, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    As the nuclear reactor operate with liquid fuel, controlling velocity of the fuel flow on the Molten salt reactor very influence on the neutron kinetics in that reactor system. The effect of the pace fuel changes to the populations number of neutrons and power density on vertical direction (1 dimension) from the first until fifth year reactor operating had been analyzed on this research. This research had been conducted on MSR Fuji-12 with a two meters core high, and LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 as fuel composition respectively 71.78%-16%-11.86%-0.36%. Data of reactivity, neutron flux, and the macroscopic fission cross section obtained from ouput of SRAC (neutronic calculation code has been developed by JAEA, with JENDL-4.0 as data library on the SRAC calculation) was being used for the calculation process of this research. The calculation process of this research had been performed numerically by SOR (successive over relaxation) and finite difference methode, as well as using C programing language. From the calculation, regarding to the value of power density resulting from delayed neutrons, concluded that 20 m/s is the optimum fuel flow velocity in all the years reactor had operated. Where the increases number of power are inversely proportional with the fuel flow speed.

  18. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, D. H.; Field, J. E.; Hatarik, R.; Peterson, J. L.; Hartouni, E. P.; Spears, B. K.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2017-05-01

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF), yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to the bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences among several lines of sight. This paper will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of implosions.

  19. Improved measurement of the neutron absorption cross section for very low velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroffenegger, J.; Fierlinger, P.; Hollering, A.; Geltenbort, P.; Lauer, T.; Rauch, H.; Zechlau, T.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption cross section of natural Gd and isotopic enriched 157Gd for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) as a function of the velocity has been measured within a time-of-flight-experiment. Particular attention is paid to small velocities in the region of a few m/s. This is intended to determine the validity of the 1 / v-law governing absorption cross sections in this region and the resulting divergence at v = 0. The experiment does not show any significant violation of 1 / v for v > 3 m /s.

  20. Improved measurement of the neutron absorption cross section for very low velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schroffenegger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption cross section of natural Gd and isotopic enriched 157Gd for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN as a function of the velocity has been measured within a time-of-flight-experiment. Particular attention is paid to small velocities in the region of a few m/s. This is intended to determine the validity of the 1/v-law governing absorption cross sections in this region and the resulting divergence at v=0. The experiment does not show any significant violation of 1/v for v>3 m/s.

  1. Improved measurement of the neutron absorption cross section for very low velocities

    OpenAIRE

    J. Schroffenegger; Fierlinger, P.; Hollering, A.; Geltenbort, P; Lauer, T.(Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Technische Universität München, Garching, D-85748, Germany); Rauch, H.; Zechlau, T.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption cross section of natural Gd and isotopic enriched 157 Gd for ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) as a function of the velocity has been measured within a time-of-flight-experiment. Particular attention is paid to small velocities in the region of a few m/s. This is intended to determine the validity of the 1/v -law governing absorption cross sections in this region and the resulting divergence at v=0 . The experiment does not show any significant violation of 1/v for v>3 m/s .

  2. High space velocities of single radio pulsars versus low orbital eccentricities and masses of double neutron stars: Evidence for two different neutron star formation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio pulsars tend to be high-velocity objects, which implies that the majority of them received a velocity kick of several hundreds of km s(-1) at birth. However, six of the eight known double neutron stars in the galactic disk have quite low orbital eccentricities (0.085-0.27), indicating - taking

  3. High space velocities of single radio pulsars versus low orbital eccentricities and masses of double neutron stars: Evidence for two different neutron star formation mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio pulsars tend to be high-velocity objects, which implies that the majority of them received a velocity kick of several hundreds of km s(-1) at birth. However, six of the eight known double neutron stars in the galactic disk have quite low orbital eccentricities (0.085-0.27), indicating - taking

  4. The cold neutron tomography set-up at SINQ

    OpenAIRE

    Materna, T.; Baechler, Sébastien; Jolie, J; Masschaele, B.; DIERICK, M; Kardjilov, N.

    2005-01-01

    The cold neutron tomography station operated at SINQ (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland) is reviewed. The high neutron flux together with a set-up based on a scintillator screen and a CCD camera yielded fast and effective results with resolution down to 250 μm: tomography of small samples (up to 2 cm large) could be performed in less than an hour. The use of a velocity selector improved the contrast discrimination and allows dichromatic tomography. The station is moving to the new research...

  5. MeV-range velocity-space tomography from gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry measurements at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the measurement of a 2D MeV-range ion velocity distribution function by velocity-space tomography at JET. Deuterium ions were accelerated into the MeV-range by third harmonic ion cyclotron resonance heating. We made measurements with three neutron emission spectrometers and a high-...

  6. Neutron Scattering Collimation Wheel Instrument for Imaging Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Every, E.; Deyhim, A.

    2016-09-01

    The design of a state-of-the-art selector wheel instrument to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/ tomography) is discussed. The selector wheel is installed on the DINGO Radiography instrument at the Bragg Institute HB2 beamline at ANSTO in Sidney Aus. The selector wheel consists of a single axis drum filled with a wax/steel shielding mixture and six square cutouts for neutron optics and a larger solid shielding sector to act as a shutter. This paper focuses on the details of design and shielding of the selector wheel.

  7. Microscopic vortex velocity in the inner crust and outer core of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gügercinoğlu, Erbil; Alpar, M. Ali

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of the vortex motion in the superfluids of the inner crust and the outer core of neutron stars is a key ingredient in modelling a number of pulsar phenomena, including glitches and magnetic field evolution. After recalculating the microscopic vortex velocity in the inner crust, we evaluate the velocity for the vortices in the outer core for the first time. The vortex motion between pinning sites is found to be substantially faster in the inner crust than in the outer core, v_0^crust ˜ 107{ cm s^{-1}} ≫ v_0^core ˜ 1{ cm s^{-1}}. One immediate result is that vortex creep is always in the nonlinear regime in the outer core in contrast to the inner crust, where both nonlinear and linear regimes of vortex creep are possible. Other implications for pulsar glitches and magnetic field evolution are also presented.

  8. Microscopic Vortex Velocity in the Inner Crust and Outer Core of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gügercinoğlu, Erbil

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of the vortex motion in the superfluids of the inner crust and the outer core of neutron stars is a key ingredient in modeling a number of pulsar phenomena, including glitches and magnetic field evolution. After recalculating the microscopic vortex velocity in the inner crust, we evaluate the velocity for the vortices in the outer core for the first time. The vortex motion between pinning sites is found to be substantially faster in the inner crust than in the outer core, $v_0^{\\rm crust} \\sim 10^{7}\\mbox{\\cms} \\gg v_0^{\\rm core} \\sim 1\\mbox{\\cms}$. One immediate result is that vortex creep is always in the nonlinear regime in the outer core in contrast to the inner crust, where both nonlinear and linear regimes of vortex creep are possible. Other implications for pulsar glitches and magnetic field evolution are also presented.

  9. Impact of temperature-velocity distribution on fusion neutron peak shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, David

    2016-10-01

    Doppler broadening of the 14 MeV DT and 2.45 MeV DD fusion neutron lines has long been our best measure of temperature in a burning plasma. At the National Ignition Facility yields are high enough and our neutron spectrometers accurate enough that we see finer details of the peak shape. For example, we can measure the shift of the peak due to bulk motion of the plasma, and we see indications of non-thermal broadening, skew, and kurtosis of the peak caused by the variations of temperature and fluid velocity during burn. We can also distinguish spectral differences among several lines of sight. This talk will review the theory of fusion neutron line shape, show examples of non-Gaussian line shapes and directional variations in NIF data, and describe detailed spectral shapes we see in radhydro implosion simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. BCS-18A command decoder-selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laping, H.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes an 18-channel command decoder-selector which operates in conjunction with an HF command receiver to allow secure and reliable radio control of high altitude balloon payloads. A detailed technical description and test results are also included.

  11. Velocity autocorrelation by quantum simulations for direct parameter-free computations of the neutron cross sections. II. Liquid deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, E.; Neumann, M.; Bafile, U.; Celli, M.; Colognesi, D.; Bellissima, S.; Farhi, E.; Calzavara, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Very recently we showed that quantum centroid molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations of the velocity autocorrelation function provide, through the Gaussian approximation (GA), an appropriate representation of the single-molecule dynamic structure factor of liquid H2, as witnessed by a straightforward absolute-scale agreement between calculated and experimental values of the total neutron cross section (TCS) at thermal and epithermal incident energies. Also, a proper quantum evaluation of the self-dynamics was found to guarantee, via the simple Sköld model, a suitable account of the distinct (intermolecular) contributions that influence the neutron TCS of para-H2 for low-energy neutrons (below 10 meV). The very different role of coherent nuclear scattering in D2 makes the neutron response from this liquid much more extensively determined by the collective dynamics, even above the cold neutron range. Here we show that the Sköld approximation maintains its effectiveness in producing the correct cross section values also in the deuterium case. This confirms that the true key point for reliable computational estimates of the neutron TCS of the hydrogen liquids is, together with a good knowledge of the static structure factor, the modeling of the self part, which must take into due account quantum delocalization effects on the translational single-molecule dynamics. We demonstrate that both CMD and ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) simulations provide similar results for the velocity autocorrelation function of liquid D2 and, consequently, for the neutron double differential cross section and its integrals. This second investigation completes and reinforces the validity of the proposed quantum method for the prediction of the scattering law of these cryogenic liquids, so important for cold neutron production and related condensed matter research.

  12. A new small-angle neutron scattering spectrometer at China Mianyang research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Mei, E-mail: pm740509@163.com; Sun, Liangwei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Xie, Chaomei; Xia, Qingzhong; Yan, Guanyun; Tian, Qiang; Huang, Chaoqiang; Pang, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yun; Liu, Yaoguang; Kang, Wu; Gong, Jian

    2016-02-21

    A new pinhole small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) spectrometer, installed at the cold neutron source of the 20 MW China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR) in the Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, has been put into use since 2014. The spectrometer is equipped with a multi-blade mechanical velocity selector, a multi-beam collimation system, and a two-dimensional He-3 position sensitive neutron detector. The q-range of the spectrometer covers from 0.01 nm{sup −1} to 5.0 nm{sup −1}. In this paper, the design and characteristics of the SANS spectrometer are described. The q-resolution calculations, together with calibration measurements of silver behenate and a dispersion of nearly monodisperse poly-methyl-methacrylate nanoparticles indicate that our SANS spectrometer has a good performance and is now in routine service. - Highlights: • A new SANS spectrometer has been put into use since 2014 in China. • One MBR selector possesses a higher resolution compared with traditional selector is used. • The spectrometer has a good performance and is now in routinely service.

  13. Velocity-space sensitivities of neutron emission spectrometers at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade in deuterium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, A. S.; Binda, F.; Cazzaniga, C.; Eriksson, J.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Nocente, M.; Salewski, M.; Tardini, G.

    2017-07-01

    Future fusion reactors are foreseen to be heated by the energetic alpha particles produced in fusion reactions. For this to happen, it is important that the energetic ions are sufficiently confined. In present day fusion experiments, energetic ions are primarily produced using external heating systems such as neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. In order to diagnose these fast ions, several different fast-ion diagnostics have been developed and implemented in the various experiments around the world. The velocity-space sensitivities of fast-ion diagnostics are given by so-called weight functions. Here instrument-specific weight functions are derived for neutron emission spectrometry detectors at the tokamaks JET and ASDEX Upgrade for the 2.45 MeV neutrons produced in deuterium-deuterium reactions in deuterium plasmas. Using these, it is possible to directly determine which part of velocity space each detector observes.

  14. 中子单色器模拟分析研究%Simulation and Analysis of Spectrum Selection Affected by Neutron Monochromator's Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍合勇; 唐科; 唐彬; 刘斌; 曹超

    2014-01-01

    为研究单色器对中子能谱的选择规律,本文利用MCSTAS程序模拟分析了机械速度选择器与晶体单色器几个特征参数对中子能量选择影响。分析结果显示经机械速度选择器单色选择中子注量率要下降1~2个量级,而晶体单色器要下降2~3个量级。因此,对于单色化要求比较高选用晶体单色器,对于实验时间要求较高的选用机械速度选择器。%To comprehend the selective rule of monochromator for neutron spectrum , the paper analyzes the effects of several characteristic parameters on neutron energy selection .The simulated results indicate that ve-locity selector could get high neutron flux , whose energy width -broadening becomes larger along with selected neutron peak wavelength , and crystal monochromator could get high energy resolution , whose energy width -broadening becomes narrower along with selected neutron peak wavelength .So it is suggested that crystal mono-chromator can be selected if high energy resolution is required , and mechanical velocity selector can be used if high neutron flux is required .

  15. Development and performance test of small angle neutron spectrometer at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Soo; Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, Jeong Soo; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Choi, Byung Hoon; Choi, Young Hyun; Shin, Eun Joo; Park, Kook Nam

    2004-12-01

    The construction of Small Angle Neutron Spectrometer(SANS) at the CN beam port in HANARO was completed and has been opened to users in July 2001. the 2-D PSD (two dimensional position sensitive detector), the NVS (neutron velocity selector), the detector chamber rotation system, the detector horizontal moving system, the stepping motors, the beam shutter and the attenuator were fully tested and installed. The performance test of all the components was also completed. Wavelengths and resolutions of the neutron beam monochromatized by the NVS were calibrated using both the time-of-flight method and the diffraction measurement on standard material, the silver behenate. The relationship between the selector speed U[rpm] and the neutron wavelength {lambda}[A] was obtained as {lambda}[A]=0.11077+107171/U[rpm]. The controllers for the sample environments, the beam shutter and the stepping motors were constructed and its control programs for those controllers were also developed. The Beam test for the SANS has been finished and the characteristics of neutron beam was analyzed. The experimental methods of SANS and its data treatment method were established. The performance test of the HANARO SANS compared with that of foreign SANS's. shows that the HANARO SANS is quite well comparable with foreign SANS facilities.

  16. Use of zooming and pulseshaping for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Kehne, D. M.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317(2010)], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce ~ 1 Gbar shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is using the focal zoom capability of Nike and shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target to achieve higher densities and velocities. In-flight target density is inferred from target heating upon collision via DD neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE (NNSA) and Office of Naval Research. SAIC

  17. Optimizing pulse shaping and zooming for acceleration to high velocities and fusion neutron production on the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Zalesak, S. T.; Velikovich, A. L.; Oh, J.; Obenschain, S. P.; Arikawa, Y.; Watari, T.

    2010-11-01

    We will present results from follow-on experiments to the record-high velocities of 1000 km/s achieved on Nike [Karasik et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056317 (2010) ], in which highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene were made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Still higher velocities and higher target densities are required for impact fast ignition. The aim of these experiments is shaping the driving pulse to minimize shock heating of the accelerated target and using the focal zoom capability of Nike to achieve higher densities and velocities. Spectroscopic measurements of electron temperature achieved upon impact will complement the neutron time-of-flight ion temperature measurement. Work is supported by US DOE and Office of Naval Research.

  18. Velocity field measurement in gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with use of PIV and neutron radiography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y.; Mishima, K. [Kyoto Univ. Kumatori, Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan); Tobita, Y.; Suzuki, T. [O-arai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (Japan); Matsubayashi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Institute, Tokai Research Establishment (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Neutron radiography and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) techniques were applied to measurements of velocity field in gas-liquid metal two-phase flow. Visualization and measurements of two-phase flow were conducted using molten lead bismuth and nitrogen gas as working fluids and particles made of gold-cadmium (AuCd{sub 3}) inter-metallic alloy were employed as the tracer. Discrimination method between bubble and tracer images in two-phase flow was developed based on the {sigma}-scaling method. Time-averaged liquid velocity fields, gas velocity fields and void profile were calculated from discriminated images, respectively. From these measurements, the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture were clarified. (author)

  19. Analyses of silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, lead fluoride, bismuth as low-pass velocity filters for neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, D.; Holmryd, S.

    1969-01-01

    Transmission measurement of neutrons by filter materials for low energy neutrons is important for the study of structure and dynamics of condensed matter. Since only thermal neutrons are useful for such experiments, filter materials that transmit thermal neutrons while attenuating fast neutrons and gamma rays are of considerable interest.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Water-Soluble Carboxymethyl-Cyclodextrin Polymer as Capillary Electrophoresis Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The water-soluble carboxymethyl-cyclodextrin polymer (CM-CD polymer) was synthesized and used as capillary electrophoresis chiral selector.Verrapamil and thiopentorusodium were well separated using CM-CD polymer as chiral selector.

  1. Transductive versions of the LASSO and the Dantzig Selector

    CERN Document Server

    Alquier, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Transductive methods are useful in prediction problems when the training dataset is composed of a large number of unlabeled observations and a smaller number of labeled observations. In this paper, we propose an approach for developing transductive prediction procedures that are able to take advantage of the sparsity in the high dimensional linear regression. More precisely, we define transductive versions of the LASSO and the Dantzig Selector . These procedures combine labeled and unlabeled observations of the training dataset to produce a prediction for the unlabeled observations. We propose an experimental study of the transductive estimators, that shows that they improve the LASSO and Dantzig Selector in many situations, and particularly in high dimensional problems when the predictors are correlated. We then provide non-asymptotic theoretical guarantees for these estimation methods. Interestingly, our theoretical results show that the Transductive LASSO and Dantzig Selector satisfy sparsity inequalities ...

  2. A selector for structural isomers of neutral molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Filsinger, Frank; von Helden, Gert; Küpper, Jochen; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    We have selected and spatially separated the two conformers of 3-aminophenol (C$_6$H$_7$NO) present in a molecular beam. Analogous to the separation of ions based on their mass-to-charge ratios in a quadrupole mass filter, the neutral conformers are separated based on their different mass-to-dipole-moment ratios in an ac electric quadrupole selector. For a given ac frequency, the individual conformers experience different focusing forces, resulting in different transmissions through the selector. These experiments demonstrate that conformer-selected samples of large molecules can be prepared, offering new possibilities for the study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  3. Chiral Separation of Erythromycin as a New Chiral Selector on CE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Erythromycin as a new chiral selector was first used for chrial separation of four derivatives of biphenyldimethylester enantiomers on CE. The influence of pH, the chiral selector concentration and organic modifiers were preliminarily studied. Experiments show that the erythromycin as chiral selector is useful to CE.

  4. Regular Caratheodory-type selectors under no convexity assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chistyakov, VV

    2005-01-01

    We prove the existence of Caratheodory-type selectors (that is, measurable in the first variable and having certain regularity properties like Lipschitz continuity, absolute continuity or bounded variation in the second variable) for multifunctions mapping the product of a measurable space and an in

  5. Modulation spectrometry of neutrons with diffractometry applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hiismäki, Pekka

    1997-01-01

    Modulation spectrometry of neutrons refers to a measuring principle, characterized by classification of neutron histories in a probabilistic way, not the usual deterministic way. In order to accomplish this, neutron beams entering the sample are modulated by high-transmission, white-beam selectors of the multislit type, such as Fourier or statistical choppers or high-frequency-modulated spin-flippers. In this scheme it is impossible to decide in a unique way through which particular slit any single neutron passed, but the distribution of histories for a large population of neutrons can neverth

  6. Improving Security of Audio Watermarking in Image using Selector Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Fazli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel watermarking algorithm for improving the security and robustness of hiding audio data in an image. Multi resolution discrete wavelet transform is used for embedding the audio watermark in an image. In this context, security is quantified from an information theoretic point of view by means of the equivocation and information leakage of the secret parameters. The selector keys are used as a criterion to determine the location of appropriate wavelet blocks and wavelet coefficients for embedding the watermark. Also, simulations assess the security levels derived in the theoretical part of the paper. The experimental results demonstrate that using the selector keys enhance the security level of the watermark embedding for a variety of scenarios. The level of the algorithm robustness is shown by considering Normalized Correlation (NC between the original audio watermark and extracted watermark.

  7. Small-angle neutron scattering instrument of Institute for Solid State Physics, the Univeristy of Tokyo (SANS-U) and its application to biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuji; Imai, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shiro [Univ. of Tokyo, Tokai Naka Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    A small-angle neutron spectrometer (SANS-U) suitable for the study of mesoscopic structure in the field of polymer chemistry and biology, has been constructed at the guide hall of JRR-3M reactor at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The instrument is 32m long and utilizes a mechanical velocity selector and pinhole collimation to provide a continuous beam with variable wavelength in the range from 5 to 10{Angstrom}. The neutron detector is a 65 x 65cm{sup 2} 2D position sensitive proportional counter. The practical Q range of SANS-U is 0.0008 to 0.45{Angstrom}{sup -1}. The design, characteristics and performance of SANS-U are described with some biological studies using SANS-U.

  8. A Remark on the Lasso and the Dantzig Selector

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Yohann

    2011-01-01

    Numerous authors have established a connection between the Compressed Sensing problem without noise and the estimation of the Gelfand widths. This article shows that this connection is still true in the noisy case. Indeed, we investigate the lasso and the Dantzig selector in terms of the distortion of the design. This latter measures how far is the intersection between the kernel of the design matrix and the unit l1-ball from an l2-ball. In particular, we exhibit the weakest condition to get oracle inequalities in terms of the s-best term approximation.

  9. The efficient and unbiased estimation of nuclear size variability using the 'selector'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMillan, A M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1992-01-01

    The selector was used to make an unbiased estimation of nuclear size variability in one benign naevocellular skin tumour and one cutaneous malignant melanoma. The results showed that the estimates obtained using the selector were comparable to those obtained using the more time consuming Cavalieri...

  10. 47 CFR 76.70 - Exemption from input selector switch rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption from input selector switch rules. 76.70 Section 76.70 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO... Exemption from input selector switch rules. (a) In any case of cable systems serving communities where...

  11. Elimination of filamentous foaming by means of an aerobic selector in a waste water treatment plant; Eliminaciond el foaming filamentoso en una EDAR mediante un selector aerobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Carrasco, M. D.; Jorda Llanos, J.; Canas, P. P.

    2004-07-01

    Description of the experience realized in an activated sludge WWTP for the elimination of foaming produced in two different seasons and caused mainly by Nocardia sp. an Microthrix parvicela. Previously to the biological reactor, a selector is installed by means of converting the WWTP grit chamber into an oxic selector and analytical control in the selector is done observing the percentage of COD reduction which occurs in it. Respirometries are realized which provide more data to the experience and it is observed how radically DSVI decreases in activated sludge and the total disappearance of foaming in reactors and settling tanks after 35-40 days of selectors operation. This experience has been realized by Infilco, in a wastewater treatment plant which is being operated ant present. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. The upgrade of the cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the ILL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzl, K.; Schmidt, W.; Raymond, S.; Feilbach, H.; Mounier, C.; Vettard, B.; Brückel, T.

    2016-05-01

    After nearly 40 years of successful operation the cold three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, has been relocated to a new position and the primary spectrometer has been upgraded. Latest modern optical components are employed. A new guide in combination with a virtual source concept and a double focusing monochromator guarantee highest flux. With its high unpolarized and polarized neutron flux IN12 allows for demanding experiments. A velocity selector in the guide ensures a clean beam and a very low background. A gain in flux of about an order of magnitude at the sample position has been achieved compared to the previous instrument and IN12's wavelength range now extends far into the warmish region.

  13. The upgrade of the cold neutron three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the ILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmalzl, K., E-mail: schmalzl@ill.fr [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at ILL, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Schmidt, W. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Outstation at ILL, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble (France); Raymond, S. [Université Grenoble Alpes and CEA Grenoble, INAC MEM, 38054 Grenoble (France); Feilbach, H. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institut PGI 6, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mounier, C. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Vettard, B. [Université Grenoble Alpes and CEA Grenoble, INAC MEM, 38054 Grenoble (France); Brückel, T. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-05-21

    After nearly 40 years of successful operation the cold three-axis spectrometer IN12 at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France, has been relocated to a new position and the primary spectrometer has been upgraded. Latest modern optical components are employed. A new guide in combination with a virtual source concept and a double focusing monochromator guarantee highest flux. With its high unpolarized and polarized neutron flux IN12 allows for demanding experiments. A velocity selector in the guide ensures a clean beam and a very low background. A gain in flux of about an order of magnitude at the sample position has been achieved compared to the previous instrument and IN12's wavelength range now extends far into the warmish region.

  14. Penicillin G as a novel chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Shuchi; Park, Jung Hag

    2014-01-24

    The penicillin sub-class of β-lactam antibiotics has not been examined for its enantiodiscriminating abilities in capillary electrophoresis (CE) until date. The present work was therefore designed to evaluate penicillin G potassium salt (PenG) as an ion-pair chiral selector (CS) using CE for its several attributes, namely, high solubility in water and lower alcohols, structure allowing multiple interactions with analytes and cost-effectiveness. Systematic experiments were performed to investigate the effect of composition of background electrolyte, applied voltage and capillary temperature on chiral separation. Baseline resolutions of enantiomers of five basic chiral drugs (namely, darifenacin, citalopram, sertraline, propranolol and metoprolol) were attained using a background electrolyte composed of water:methanol (90:10, v/v) and consisting of 10.7 or 16.1mM CS at 20°C using an applied voltage of 5kV.

  15. Evolution of Grain Selection in Spiral Selector during Directional Solidification of Nickel-base Superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangbin Meng; Jinguo Li; Tao Jin; Xiaofeng Sun; Changbo Sun; Zhuangqi Hu

    2011-01-01

    The process of grain selection in the spiral selector was investigated by both a ProCAST simulation based on a cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model and experimental confirmation. The results show that the height of starter block, the spiral diameter and initial angle play an important role in grain selection. The dimension of selector should be maintained in a stable range to optimize the grain orientation and select a single crystal efficiently. A selector which can efficiently select a single crystal had been successfully designed. Grain orientation fluctuation in the spiral part was also studied by means of the variation of thermal condition.

  16. Tuning the instrument resolution using chopper and time of flight at the small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer KWS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Aurel; Székely, Noémi Kinga; Polachowski, Stephan; Leyendecker, Marko; Amann, Matthias; Buitenhuis, Johan; Drochner, Matthias; Engels, Ralf; Hanslik, Romuald; Kemmerling, Günter; Lindner, Peter; Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Pipich, Vitaliy; Willner, Lutz; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Richter, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    Following demand from the user community regarding the possibility of improving the experimental resolution, the dedicated high-intensity/extended Q-range SANS diffractometer KWS-2 of the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Center in Garching was equipped with a double-disc chopper with a variable opening slit window and time-of-flight (TOF) data acquisition option. The chopper used in concert with a dedicated high-intensity velocity selector enables the tuning at will of the wavelength resolution Δλ/λ within a broad range, from 20% (standard) down to 2%, in a convenient and safe manner following pre-planned or spontaneous decisions during the experiment. The new working mode is described in detail, and its efficiency is demonstrated on several standard samples with known properties and on a completely new crystallizable copolymer system, which were investigated using both the conventional (static) and TOF modes.

  17. Parallelism, Uniqueness, and Large-Sample Asymptotics for the Dantzig Selector

    CERN Document Server

    Dicker, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Dantzig selector (Candes and Tao, 2007) is a popular l1-regularization method for variable selection and estimation in linear regression. We present a very weak geometric condition on the observed predictors which is related to parallelism and, when satisfied, ensures the uniqueness of Dantzig selector estimators. The condition holds with probability 1, if the predictors are drawn from a continuous distribution. We discuss the necessity of this condition for uniqueness and also provide a closely related condition which ensures uniqueness of lasso estimators (Tibshirani, 1996). Large sample asymptotics for the Dantzig selector, i.e. almost sure convergence and the asymptotic distribution, follow directly from our uniqueness results and a continuity argument. The limiting distribution of the Dantzig selector is generally non-normal. Though our asymptotic results require that the number of predictors is fixed (similar to (Knight and Fu, 2000)), our uniqueness results are valid for an arbitrary number of pred...

  18. A New Class of Macrocyclic Chiral Selectors for Stereochemical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-11

    This report summarizes the work accomplished in the authors laboratories over the previous three years. During the funding period they have had 23 monographs published or in press, 1 book chapter, 1 patent issued and have delivered 28 invited seminars or plenary lectures on DOE sponsored research. This report covers the work that has been published (or accepted). The most notable aspect of this work involves the successful development and understanding of a new class of fused macrocyclic compounds as pseudophases and selectors in high performance separations (including high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC; capillary electrophoresis, CE; and thin layer chromatography, TLC). They have considerably extended their chiral biomarker work from amber to crude oil and coal. In the process of doing this we've developed several novel separation approaches. They finished their work on the new GSC-PLOT column which is now being used by researchers world-wide for the analysis of gases, light hydrocarbons and halocarbons. Finally, we completed basic studies on immobilizing a cyclodextrin/oligosiloxane hybrid on the wall of fused silica, as well as a basic study on the separation behavior of buckminster fullerene and higher fullerenes.

  19. Asymtotics of Dantzig Selector for a General Single-Index Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yan; GAI Yujie; ZHU Lixing

    2016-01-01

    As two popularly used variable selection methods,the Dantzig selector and the LASSO have been proved asymptotically equivalent in some scenarios.However,it is not the case in general for linear models,as disclosed in Gai,Zhu and Lin's paper in 2013.In this paper,it is further shown that generally the asymptotic equivalence is not true either for a general single-index model with random design of predictors.To achieve this goal,the authors systematically investigate necessary and sufficient conditions for the consistent model selection of the Dantzig selector.An adaptive Dantzig selector is also recommended for the cases where those conditions are not satisfied.Also,different from existing methods for linear models,no distributional assumption on error term is needed with a trade-off that more stringent condition on the predictor vector is assumed.A small scale simulation is conducted to examine the performances of the Dantzig selector and the adaptive Dantzig selector.

  20. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Lu, W; Zhang, W H; Cao, Y; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  1. The Reciprocal Principle of Selectand-Selector-Systems in Supramolecular Chromatography †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurig, Volker

    2016-11-15

    In selective chromatography and electromigration methods, supramolecular recognition of selectands and selectors is due to the fast and reversible formation of association complexes governed by thermodynamics. Whereas the selectand molecules to be separated are always present in the mobile phase, the selector employed for the separation of the selectands is either part of the stationary phase or is added to the mobile phase. By the reciprocal principle, the roles of selector and selectand can be reversed. In this contribution in honor of Professor Stig Allenmark, the evolution of the reciprocal principle in chromatography is reviewed and its advantages and limitations are outlined. Various reciprocal scenarios, including library approaches, are discussed in efforts to optimize selectivity in separation science.

  2. The design of wavelength selector for full-automatic ELISA analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Dong, Mingli; Zhu, Lianqing; Chang, Haitao; Li, Hong

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, ELISA technology has been developed rapidly and full-automatic ELISA analyzer, which is of significant practical value is widely used in the diagnosis of many diseases, such as, bacteria and viruses. Optical detection system is the hard core of fully automated ELISA analyzer and the key part of system is high-precision wavelength selector. The authors in this paper present the design of wavelength selector composed of light source, optical circuit plan, color filters and the module of signal acquisition. A control system for stepper motor which is used to choose the suitable color filters based on the microcontroller 8051 is introduced. From the results of experiment test, it can be seen that the wavelength selector is sufficient to meet the requirements of the full-automatic ELISA analyzer.

  3. Studies on a Q/A selector for the SECRAL electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Feng, Y. C.; Fang, X.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Cao, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators in the world because they are capable of producing high current beams of highly charged ions. However, the design of the Q/A selector system for these devices is challenging, because it must have a sufficient ion resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, this system has to be matched for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities. In this paper, research on the Q/A selector system at the SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) platform both in experiment and simulation is presented. Based on this study, a new Q/A selector system has been designed for SECRAL II. The features of the new design including beam simulations are also presented.

  4. Choice of a PISA selector in a hybrid algorithmic structure for the FJSSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Frutos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the choice of a PISA selector for a Hybrid Algorithm integrating it as a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (MOEA with a path-dependent search algorithm. The interaction between these components provides an efficient procedure for solving Multi-Objective Problems (MOPs in operations scheduling. In order to choose the selector, we consider both NSGA and SPEA as well as their successors (NSGAII and SPEAII. NSGAII and SPEAII are shown to be the most efficient candidates. On the other hand, for the path-dependent search at the end of each evolutionary phase we use the multi-objective version of Simulated Annealing.

  5. Extraction of Phenylalanine Phase Systems Containing Enantiomers by Aqueous Two Combinatorial Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 刘莉; 焦飞鹏; 王珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a better enantioselectivity of phenylalanine enantiomers and establish the optimal chiral ex- traction conditions, the distribution behavior was investigated in aqueous two-phase systems which were composed of polyethylene glycol and ammonium sulfate containing combinatorial chiral selector: β-cyclodextrin and HP-β-cyclodextrin. The influence of the molar concentration ratio of combinatorial chiral selectors, the total molar concentration of combinatorial chiral selectors, pH value, buffer type and its concentration were thoroughly studied, respectively. The results show that the enantioselectivity reaches 1.53 under the optimal chiral extraction conditions This extraction is a potential economical and effective way for chiral resolution.

  6. Anoxic selectors with regeneration in activated sludge waste water treatment processes; Selectores anoxicos con regeneracion en procesos de depuracion de aguas residuales por fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancho Seuma, L.; Lopetigue Garnica, J.; Paredes, J.A.; Alonso, E.; Plaza, F.I.; Diaz chozas, M.

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study is to produce a reduction in the concentration of filamentous bulking or foaming related microorganisms, such as usually appear in connection with nutrient elimination processes, where sludge retention times are high and loads are small. The Research Institute Centa has established, annexed to the sewage treatment plant Norte I. Seville, a pilot plant with the classical DN layout, and an anoxic selector, as well as a regeneration tank . This tank is meant to eliminate the remaining substratum associated with the cells after being settled in a high-concentration environment the selector. We endeavor therefore to select by kinetic and metabolic procedures the flock formers microorganisms to the expense of the filamentous microorganisms. (Author)

  7. Agreement between selectors at seven Eastern U.S. locations in the second field generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clone x location interactions are known to be large for many traits in potatoes. Early generation selection in northern breeding programs may eliminate clones that perform better in other locations. The purpose of this study was to examine the agreement between selectors in the second field genera...

  8. A Digitally Addressable Random-Access Image Selector and Random-Access Audio System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Donald L.; And Others

    The requirements of PLATO IV, a computer based education system at the University of Illinois, have led to the development of an improved, digitally addressable, random access image selector and a digitally addressable, random access audio device. Both devices utilize pneumatically controlled mechanical binary adders to position the mecahnical…

  9. Differences in Muscle Activation and Kinematics Between Cable-Based and Selectorized Weight Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorile, Joseph F; Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Hector H; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebecca C; Eltoukhy, Moataz M; Nargund, Renu S; Romero, Matthew A

    2017-02-01

    Signorile, JF, Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HH, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Eltoukhy, MM, Nargund, RS, and Romero, MA. Differences in muscle activation and kinematics between cable-based and selectorized weight training. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 313-322, 2017-Cable resistance training machines are showing resurgent popularity and allow greater number of degrees of freedom than typical selectorized equipment. Given that specific kinetic chains are used during distinct activities of daily living (ADL), cable machines may provide more effective interventions for some ADL, whereas others may be best addressed using selectorized equipment. This study examined differences in activity levels (root mean square of the EMG [rmsEMG]) of 6 major muscles (pectoralis major, PM; anterior deltoid, AD; biceps brachii, BB; rectus abdominis, RA; external obliques, EO; and triceps brachii, TB) and kinematics of multiple joints between a cable and standard selectorized machines during the biceps curl, the chest press, and the overhead press performed at 1.5 seconds per contractile stage. Fifteen individuals (9 men, 6 women; mean age ± SD, 24.33 ± 4.88 years) participated. Machine order was randomized. Significant differences favoring cable training were seen for PM and AD during biceps curl; BB, AD, and EO for chest press; and BB and EO during overhead press (p ≤ 0.05). Greater starting and ending angles were seen for the elbow and shoulder joints during selectorized biceps curl, whereas hip and knee starting and ending angles were greater for cable machine during chest and overhead presses (p < 0.0001). Greater range of motion (ROM) favoring the cable machine was also evident (p < 0.0001). These results indicate that utilization patterns of selected muscles, joint angles, and ROMs can be varied because of machine application even when similar exercises are used, and therefore, these machines can be used selectively in training programs requiring specific motor or biomechanical

  10. Radiative neutron capture as a counting technique at pulsed spallation neutron sources: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rhodes, N. J.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are attracting an increasing interest from scientists in various research fields, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and archaeometry. The success of these neutron scattering applications is stimulated by the development of higher performance instrumentation. The development of new techniques and concepts, including radiative capture based neutron detection, is therefore a key issue to be addressed. Radiative capture based neutron detectors utilize the emission of prompt gamma rays after neutron absorption in a suitable isotope and the detection of those gammas by a photon counter. They can be used as simple counters in the thermal region and (simultaneously) as energy selector and counters for neutrons in the eV energy region. Several years of extensive development have made eV neutron spectrometers operating in the so-called resonance detector spectrometer (RDS) configuration outperform their conventional counterparts. In fact, the VESUVIO spectrometer, a flagship instrument at ISIS serving a continuous user programme for eV inelastic neutron spectroscopy measurements, is operating in the RDS configuration since 2007. In this review, we discuss the physical mechanism underlying the RDS configuration and the development of associated instrumentation. A few successful neutron scattering experiments that utilize the radiative capture counting techniques will be presented together with the potential of this technique for thermal neutron diffraction measurements. We also outline possible improvements and future perspectives for radiative capture based neutron detectors in neutron scattering application at pulsed neutron sources.

  11. Measurements of association constants between enantiomers and chiral selectors by capillary gas chromatography. Theoretical and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, Pablo J; Keunchkarian, Sonia; Osorio Grisales, Jaiver; Castells, Cecilia B

    2014-01-10

    The association constants of several volatile enantiomers with octakis(3-O-butanoyl-2,6-di-O-pentyl)-γ-cyclodextrin at temperatures between 50 and 100 °C were measured by gas-liquid chromatography using capillary columns coated with different amounts of chiral selector dissolved in polysiloxane OV-1701 and prepared with a precisely determined phase ratio. Simple expressions were deduced to estimate the apparent distribution constants from accurate hold-up and retention times along with that known phase ratio at each temperature. The enantiomer-chiral selector association constants were then calculated from the linear regression of the apparent constants as a function of the chiral selector concentration. One aim of this study consisted in discussing all the experimental uncertainties inherent in the determination of enantiomer/selector association constants with chiral analytes, and how these fundamental measurements can be performed precisely without resorting to the use of reference solutes.

  12. Determination of Enantiomeric Purity of n-Pyrrolidinyl Phenylpropanol by Capillary Electrophoresis Using b-Cyclodextrin Polymer as Chiral Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Enantiomer of n-pyrrolidinyl phenylpropanol was studied by capillary electrophoresis using b-cyclodextrin polymer as chiral selector. We determined the enantiomeric excess value of n-pyrrolidinyl phenylpropanol with RSD 0.48%.

  13. Making classifying selectors work for foam elimination in the activated-sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Denny; Geary, Steve; Jones, Garr; McIntyre, Lori; Oppenheim, Stuart; Pedregon, Vick; Pope, Rod; Richards, Tyler; Voigt, Christine; Volpe, Gary; Willis, John; Witzgall, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Classifying selectors are used to control the population of foam-causing organisms in activated-sludge plants to prevent the development of nuisance foams. The term, classifying selector, refers to the physical mechanism by which these organisms are selected against; foam-causing organisms are enriched into the solids in the foam and their rapid removal controls their population at low levels in the mixed liquor. Foam-causing organisms are wasted "first" rather than accumulating on the surface of tanks and thereby being wasted "last", which is typical of the process. This concept originated in South Africa, where pilot studies showed that placement of a flotation tank for foam removal prior to secondary clarifiers would eliminate foam-causing organisms. It was later simplified in the United States by using the aeration in aeration tanks or aerated channels coupled with simple baffling and adjustable weirs to make continuous separation of nuisance organisms from the mixed liquor.

  14. Hollow fiber liquid-supported membrane technology for enantioseparation of racemic salbutamol by combinatorial chiral selectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Enantioseparation of salbutamol solute was carried out in liquid-supported membrane by using a polyvinylidene fluoride hollow-fiber module. The enantioselective transport of solute was facilitated by combinatorial chiral selectors, which were dissolved in toluene organic solvent. The effects of molar concentration ratios of salbutamol to combinatorial chiral selectors, and the pH value of buffer solution on enantioseparation were investigated. The results show that when the molar concentration ratio is 2: 1:1, the maximum separation factor and enantiomer excess are 1.49 and 19.74%, respectively, and the R-enantiomer flux is more than S-enantiomer; the pH value of buffer solution influences the performances of enantioseparartion obviously, and the appropriate range of pH value is7.0-7.2.

  15. Use of chiral amino acid ester-based ionic liquids as chiral selectors in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, Ioannis J; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the applicability of a chiral ionic liquid (CIL) as the sole chiral selector in CE was investigated for the first time. In particular, five amino acid ester-based CILs were synthesized and used as additives in the BGE in order to evaluate their chiral recognition ability. The performance of these CILs as the sole chiral selectors was evaluated by using 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2-diylhydrogenphosphate (BNP) as the analyte and by comparing the resolution values. Different parameters were examined, such as the alkyl group bulkiness and the configuration of the cation, the anion type of the CIL and its concentration, and the pH of the BGE, in order to optimize the separation of the enantiomers and to demonstrate the effect that each parameter has on the chiral-recognition ability of the CIL. Baseline separation of BNP within 13 min was achieved by using a BGE of 100 mM Tris/10 mM sodium tetraboratedecahydrate (pH 8) and a chiral selector of 60 mM l-alanine tert butyl ester lactate. The run-to-run and batch-to-batch reproducibilities were also evaluated by computing the %RSD values of the EOF and the two enantiomer peaks. In both cases, very good reproducibilities were observed, since all %RSD values were below 1%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Concept evaluation of a novel gear selector for automated manual transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zaimin; Kong, Guoling; Yu, Zhuoping; Chen, Xinbo; Chen, Xueping; Xin, Xiangyan

    2012-08-01

    The existing Automatic Mechanical Transmission (AMT), whether electrically or hydraulically actuated, integrates shift actuators with gearbox shell as one unit by installing actuators on the gearbox. The problem it brings about is that the modification of the gearbox shell would be required, which increases the cost of AMT system. This paper proposes a novel gear selector for AMT, the concept of which enables the automation of shift action remotely realized by DC motors through shifting cable that originally used on manual transmission vehicle. Evidently, the advantage of this concept is that the automation of manual transmission could be easily realized by replacing the shift lever with two motors while the original shifting cable and gearbox could be reserved. Then the cost and development period can be shorten remarkably. Firstly, the concept of the novel gear selector is introduced, then the detailed mathematical model of shifting process is studied, and system design and scheme selection of this concept are performed. Optimal control algorithm based on LQR for actuator position feedback control is introduced. The concept and control algorithm are verified on a sample car, and considering the influence of the long path of transmission mechanism, the validation of the stability of this concept is performed through calibration test on mountain pass, and the obtained results show the concept of the novel gear selector for AMT is feasible technically with strong robust on the shifting stability, and it shows enormous potential for industrialization.

  17. Light charged particle and neutron velocity spectra in coincidence with projectile fragments in the reaction sup 4 sup 0 Ar(44 A MeV)+ sup 2 sup 7 Al

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzanò, G; Geraci, M; Pagano, A; Aiello, S; Cunsolo, A; Fonte, R; Foti, A; Sperduto, M L; Volant, C; Charvet, J L; Dayras, R; Legrain, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a three source analysis of velocity spectra of light charged particles (LCP) and neutrons emitted in the reaction sup 4 sup 0 Ar+ sup 2 sup 7 Al at 44 A MeV. The light particle (LP) velocity spectra are studied as a function of the detection angle (1.5 deg. velocity and the intensity of each source are extracted as a function of the PLF charge. While the temperature parameters for PLF and target-like fragments (TLF) are very similar and show a dependence on the PLF charge, the temperature parameter for the intermediate source is approximately 15 MeV, independent of the PLF charge. Comparison with temperature values extracted from double isotopic ratios, shows an agreement only between the temperature values extracted from formula involving sup 3 He, sup 4 He, d, t ratios and the PLF proton temperature parameter. The characteristics of the PLF sources are derived. Present ...

  18. A magnetic trap for high-field seeking neutron spin states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. Brenner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A first experimental demonstration of a new type of magnetic trap for ultra-cold neutrons is presented. High-field seeking spin-states are trapped in a potential formed by the magnetic field of a straight wire and a repulsive coating on the wire surface. Life-times of the trapped neutrons of 60 s could be observed. This configuration can in principle be used to form bound states of the wave function on the surface of the wire to probe new forces at short distances. Further applications include the use as a guide and selector for perfectly polarized neutrons.

  19. A magnetic trap for high-field seeking neutron spin states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Th. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Chesnevskaya, S. [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fierlinger, P., E-mail: peter.fierlinger@tum.de [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gutsmiedl, E. [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lauer, T. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Rezai, K. [University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rothe, J. [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zechlau, T. [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zou, R. [University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-04

    A first experimental demonstration of a new type of magnetic trap for ultra-cold neutrons is presented. High-field seeking spin-states are trapped in a potential formed by the magnetic field of a straight wire and a repulsive coating on the wire surface. Life-times of the trapped neutrons of 60 s could be observed. This configuration can in principle be used to form bound states of the wave function on the surface of the wire to probe new forces at short distances. Further applications include the use as a guide and selector for perfectly polarized neutrons.

  20. Neuronal Cell Fate Specification by the Convergence of Different Spatiotemporal Cues on a Common Terminal Selector Cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gabilondo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Specification of the myriad of unique neuronal subtypes found in the nervous system depends upon spatiotemporal cues and terminal selector gene cascades, often acting in sequential combinatorial codes to determine final cell fate. However, a specific neuronal cell subtype can often be generated in different parts of the nervous system and at different stages, indicating that different spatiotemporal cues can converge on the same terminal selectors to thereby generate a similar cell fate. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying such convergence are poorly understood. The Nplp1 neuropeptide neurons in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord can be subdivided into the thoracic-ventral Tv1 neurons and the dorsal-medial dAp neurons. The activation of Nplp1 in Tv1 and dAp neurons depends upon the same terminal selector cascade: col>ap/eya>dimm>Nplp1. However, Tv1 and dAp neurons are generated by different neural progenitors (neuroblasts with different spatiotemporal appearance. Here, we find that the same terminal selector cascade is triggered by Kr/pdm>grn in dAp neurons, but by Antp/hth/exd/lbe/cas in Tv1 neurons. Hence, two different spatiotemporal combinations can funnel into a common downstream terminal selector cascade to determine a highly related cell fate.

  1. Integrated Channel Selector for Directing Fluid Flow Using Thermoreversible Gelation Controlled by a Digital Mirror Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Shirasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated channel selector system employing thermoreversible gelation of a polymer was developed. Here, we show a system with 3×3 arrayed microchannels having nine crossing points. Infrared laser irradiation was used to form gel areas at several crossing points in arranging a flow path from the inlet to one of the nine outlets passing through certain junctions and channels. The multipoint irradiation by the infrared laser was realized using a personal-computer-controlled digital mirror device. The system was demonstrated to be able to direct flow to all nine outlets. Finally, we achieved to produce flexible paths for flowing particles including side trips.

  2. Development of a 3D CFD model for velocity and concentration field of a jet flow in CANDU-6 moderator tank induced by high velocity injection of liquid neutron poison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo Wook; Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Hye Jeong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-05-15

    This report describes the development and validation work of developing a 3D CFD model for analyzing the liquid poison jet velocity and concentration which is necessary for the performance test of SDS2 of CANDU-6 among the forseeable problems expected in the CANDU-6 loaded with DUPIC fuel. As a boundary condition the liquid poison injection rate through each injection hole was given and the 3D CFD model for analyzing the downstream flow and concentration field is developed and validated. The injection rate is calculated by the ALITRIG code developed by AECL. As the ratio of the calandria tank and the injection hole drilled at the injection nozzle is as big as 2000, the grid generation for the calandria is very difficult as the number of the grid can easily exceed the computational load limit of the available work station. Thus to overcome this difficulty the inlet jet flow has been modeled as a source term of the mass, momentum and concentration at the grid near the real inlet. This modeling method enabled the analysis of the jet velocity and concentration possible within the computation limit of the available work station. And as the experimental data available for validating this model has only video taped pictures, and the jet height growth rate is estimated by the observer's subjective judgement, it was most difficult to convert the location of the jet front to the corresponding concentration value. Utilizing the experiment data from Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, the jet growth rate was validated and the result was very much encouraging. Based on the results the 3D CFD model developed in this report shows physically reasonable results and will be used for the analysis of SDS2 performance test along with the reactor physics codes.

  3. A hypothesis on Microthrix parvicella proliferation in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems with selector tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Mamais, Daniel; Andreadakis, Andreas; Stams, Alfons

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Microthrix parvicella for long-chain fatty acids uptake under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions as well as its ability to utilize volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids under anoxic and aerobic conditions. According to the results, a hypothesis on the competition between floc-forming microorganisms and M. parvicella for long-chain fatty acids uptake under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions was formulated. According to this hypothesis, M. parvicella exhibits similar long-chain fatty acids uptake capacity with floc-forming microorganisms even at relatively high floc loading values that are very often imposed at selector tanks. Following this hypothesis, the failure of selector tanks to provide for an effective M. parvicella control is evidenced. Based on the experimental results, the ability of M. parvicella to utilize long-chain fatty acids with rates comparable to those of floc formers, even in anoxic conditions, in conjunction with its lower acetate utilization rates, provides a good explanation regarding its preference to slowly biodegradable organic carbon compounds.

  4. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.; Drouin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B, Drou

  5. Determination of the enantiomeric purity of (-) terbutaline by capillary electrophoresis using cyclodextrins as chiral selectors in a polyethylene glycol gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Theo; Ensing, K

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed for determination of the enantiomeric purity of the therapeutic-pharmacological active (-)-enantiomer of terbutaline using cyclodextrins as a chiral selector dissolved in a removable liquid polyethylene glycol gel by use of capillary electrophoresis. The effect of temperature,

  6. Evaluation of sulfated maltodextrin as a novel anionic chiral selector for the enantioseparation of basic chiral drugs by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabani, Hadi; Mahyari, Mojtaba; Sahragard, Ali; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Shaabani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Introducing a new class of chiral selectors is an interesting work and this issue is still one of the hot topics in separation science and chirality. In this study, for the first time, sulfated maltodextrin (MD) was synthesized as a new anionic chiral selector and then it was successfully applied for the enantioseparation of five basic drugs (amlodipine, hydroxyzine, fluoxetine, tolterodine, and tramadol) as model chiral compounds using CE. This chiral selector has two recognition sites: a helical structure and a sulfated group which contribute to three corresponding driving forces; inclusion complexation, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen binding. Under the optimized condition (buffer solution: 50 mM phosphate (pH 3.0) and 2% w/v sulfated MD; applied voltage: 18 kV; temperature: 20°C), baseline enantioseparation was observed for all mentioned chiral drugs. When instead of sulfated MD neutral MD was used under the same condition, no enantioseparation was observed which means the resolution power of sulfated MD is higher than neutral MD due to the electrostatic interaction between sulfated groups and protonated chiral drugs. Also, the countercurrent mobility of negatively charged MD (sulfated MD) allows more interactions between the chiral selector and chiral drugs and this in turn results in a successful resolution for the enantiomers. Furthermore, a higher concentration of neutral MD (approximately five times) is necessary to achieve the equivalent resolution compared with the negatively charged MD.

  7. Separation of Undersampled Composite Signals Using the Dantzig Selector with Overcomplete Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-02

    3) If c is a solution to Model (3), then for any α, λ > 0 there exists a vector τ ∈ C2p such that c = prox 1 α‖·‖1 ( c− λ α A>τ ) and τ = ( I...Using the fixed-point characterization above, the (k + 1)th iteration of the prox - imity operator algorithm to find the solution of the Dantzig...selector model incorporating an overcomplete dictionary is  ck+1 = prox 1 α‖·‖1 ( ck − λαA >(2τk − τk−1) ) , τk+1 = ( I − proxιF ) ( Ack+1 + τk

  8. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Fan Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  9. Spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping-Fan; Guo, Yong, E-mail: guoy66@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Zhu, Rui [Department of Physics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2015-07-15

    We propose a spin selector based on periodic diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/nonmagnetic-barrier (DMS/NB) superlattices subjected to an external magnetic field. We find that the periodic DMS/NB superlattices can achieve 100% spin filtering over a dramatically broader range of incident energies than the diluted-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor (DMS/S) case studied previously. And the positions and widths of spin-filtering bands can be manipulated effectively by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system or the strength of external magnetic field. Such a compelling filtering feature stems from the introduction of nonmagnetic barrier and the spin-dependent giant Zeeman effect induced by the external magnetic field. We also find that the external electric field can exert a significant influence on the spin-polarized transport through the DMS/NB superlattices.

  10. Energy velocity and group velocity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇

    1995-01-01

    A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.

  11. Decoherence Free Neutron Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pushin, Dmitry A; Cory, David G

    2016-01-01

    Perfect single-crystal neutron interferometers are adversely sensitive to environmental disturbances, particularly mechanical vibrations. The sensitivity to vibrations results from the slow velocity of thermal neutrons and the long measurement time that are encountered in a typical experiment. Consequently, to achieve a good interference solutions for reducing vibration other than those normally used in optical experiments must be explored. Here we introduce a geometry for a neutron interferometer that is less sensitive to low-frequency vibrations. This design may be compared with both dynamical decoupling methods and decoherence-free subspaces that are described in quantum information processing. By removing the need for bulky vibration isolation setups, this design will make it easier to adopt neutron interferometry to a wide range of applications and increase its sensitivity.

  12. The crystal acceleration effect for cold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braginetz, Yu. P., E-mail: aiver@pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI (Russian Federation); Berdnikov, Ya. A. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Fedorov, V. V., E-mail: vfedorov@pnpi.spb.ru; Kuznetsov, I. A.; Lasitsa, M. V.; Semenikhin, S. Yu., E-mail: ssy@pnpi.spb.ru; Vezhlev, E. O.; Voronin, V. V., E-mail: vvv@pnpi.spb.ru [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    A new mechanism of neutron acceleration is discussed and studied experimentally in detail for cold neutrons passing through the accelerated perfect crystal with the energies close to the Bragg one. The effect arises due to the following reason. The crystal refraction index (neutron-crystal interaction potential) for neutron in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance sharply depends on the parameter of deviation from the exact Bragg condition, i.e. on the crystal-neutron relative velocity. Therefore the neutrons enter into accelerated crystal with one neutron-crystal interaction potential and exit with the other. Neutron kinetic energy cannot vary inside the crystal due to its homogeneity. So after passage through such a crystal neutrons will be accelerated or decelerated because of the different energy change at the entrance and exit crystal boundaries.

  13. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Heuvel, E. P. J. van den

    2007-01-01

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (< 0.27) indicating that their second-born neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the neutron stars received hardly any velocity kick at birth (Pfahl et al. 2002). The masses of the second-born neutron stars in five of the six low-eccentricity double neutron stars are remarkably low (...

  14. Enantiomeric Separation and Determination of the Enantiomeric Impurity of Armodafinil by Capillary Electrophoresis with Sulfobutyl Ether-β-cyclodextrin as Chiral Selector

    OpenAIRE

    Bingren Xiang; Yibing Ji; Suyun Xiang; Xiaojuan Zhou; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    A selective capillary electrophoresis method using sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector was developed and validated for the determination of the enantiomeric impurity of (R)-modafinil, i.e., armodafinil. Several parameters were optimized for a satisfactory enantioresolution, including the type and concentration of chiral selector and organic modifier, pH of background electrolyte (BGE), capillary temperature. The finally adopted condition was: 20 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH ...

  15. Chiral separation of the clinically important compounds fucose and pipecolic acid using CE: determination of the most effective chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistasi, Christoforos A; Stavrou, Ioannis J; Stefan-Van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P

    2013-09-01

    In this study, simple electrophoretic methods were developed for the chiral separation of the clinically important compounds fucose and pipecolic acid. In recent years, these analytes, and particularly their individual enantiomers, have attracted considerable attention due to their role in biological functions and disorders. The detectability and sensitivity of pipecolic acid and fucose were improved by reacting them with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) and 5-amino-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANSA), respectively. The enantioseparation conditions were optimized by initially investigating the type of the chiral selector. Different chiral selectors, such as polymeric surfactants and cyclodextrins, were used and the most effective ones were determined with regard to resolution and analysis time. A 10-mM β-cyclodextrin was able to separate the enantiomers of ANSA-DL-fucose and the polymeric surfactant poly(sodium N-undecanoyl-LL-leucine-valinate) was able to separate the enantiomers of FMOC-DL-pipecolic acid, with resolution values of 3.45 and 2.78, respectively. Additional parameters, such as the concentration and the pH of the background electrolyte (BGE), the concentration of the chiral selector, and the addition of modifiers were examined in order to optimize the separations. The addition of the chiral ionic liquid D-alanine tert-butyl ester lactate into the BGE was also investigated, for the first time, in order to improve resolution of the enantiomers.

  16. Brain-Specific Homeobox Factor as a Target Selector for Glucocorticoid Receptor in Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Kim, Juhee; Choi, Kwan Yong; Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The molecular basis underlying the physiologically well-defined orexigenic function of glucocorticoid (Gc) is unclear. Brain-specific homeobox factor (Bsx) is a positive regulator of the orexigenic neuropeptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in AgRP neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we show that in response to fasting-elevated Gc levels, Gc receptor (GR) and Bsx synergize to direct activation of AgRP transcription. This synergy is dictated by unique sequence features in a novel Gc response element in AgRP (AgRP-GRE). In contrast to AgRP-GRE, Bsx suppresses transactivation directed by many conventional GREs, functioning as a gene context-dependent modulator of GR actions or a target selector for GR. Consistent with this finding, AgRP-GRE drives fasting-dependent activation of a target gene specifically in GR+ Bsx+ AgRP neurons. These results define AgRP as a common orexigenic target gene of GR and Bsx and provide an opportunity to identify their additional common targets, facilitating our understanding of the molecular basis underlying the orexigenic activity of Gc and Bsx. PMID:23671185

  17. Sensitive Method for Enantioseparation of Rivastigmine with Highly Sulfated Cyclodextrin as Chiral Selector by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-Yan; XU Xing-Xiang; HU Zhi-De; KANG Jing-Wu

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive method for enantioseparation of a basic drug rivastigmine and determination of its optical impurity by capillary electrophoresis with highly sulfatedβ-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD) as the chiral selector is described. In general, enantioseparation of basic chiral compounds is carried out in acidic condition (pH 2.5) to prevent analytes from adsorption on the capillary wall. However, in the case of rivastigmine, the detection sensitivity was too limited to determine the optical impurity of S-rivastigmine lower than 1% when buffer pH was 2.5. It was found that the detection sensitivity was improved 1.6 times just by raising the buffer pH value from 2.5 to 5.8. The poor column efficiency due to the adsorption of the analytes on the capillary wall was resolved by using dynamical coating of the capillary wall with the linear polyacrylamide solution. The experimental parameters such as the concentration of HS-β-CD, buffer pH and buffer ionic strength were optimized, respectively. The method was validated in terms of repeatability, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Using the present method, the optical purity of nonracemic rivastigmine with the enantiomeric excess (ee) value of 99.14% was determined.

  18. Brain-specific homeobox factor as a target selector for glucocorticoid receptor in energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Kim, Sun-Gyun; Kim, Juhee; Choi, Kwan Yong; Lee, Seunghee; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Jae W

    2013-07-01

    The molecular basis underlying the physiologically well-defined orexigenic function of glucocorticoid (Gc) is unclear. Brain-specific homeobox factor (Bsx) is a positive regulator of the orexigenic neuropeptide, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in AgRP neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Here, we show that in response to fasting-elevated Gc levels, Gc receptor (GR) and Bsx synergize to direct activation of AgRP transcription. This synergy is dictated by unique sequence features in a novel Gc response element in AgRP (AgRP-GRE). In contrast to AgRP-GRE, Bsx suppresses transactivation directed by many conventional GREs, functioning as a gene context-dependent modulator of GR actions or a target selector for GR. Consistent with this finding, AgRP-GRE drives fasting-dependent activation of a target gene specifically in GR(+) Bsx(+) AgRP neurons. These results define AgRP as a common orexigenic target gene of GR and Bsx and provide an opportunity to identify their additional common targets, facilitating our understanding of the molecular basis underlying the orexigenic activity of Gc and Bsx.

  19. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  20. PRISE (PRImer SElector): software for designing sequence-selective PCR primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qi; Ruegger, Paul; Bent, Elizabeth; Chrobak, Marek; Borneman, James

    2008-03-01

    This report presents PRImer Selector (PRISE), a new software package that implements several features that improve and streamline the design of sequence-selective PCR primers. The PRISE design process involves two main steps. In the first step, target and non-target DNA sequences are identified. In the second step, primers are designed to amplify target (but not non-target) sequences. One important feature of PRISE is that it automates the task of placing primer-template mismatches at the 3' end of the primers - a property that is crucial for sequence selectivity. Once a list of candidate primers has been produced, sorting tools in PRISE speed up the selection process by allowing a user to sort the primers by properties such as amplicon length, GC content and sequence selectivity. PRISE can be used to design primers with a range of specificities, targeting individual sequences as well as diverse assemblages of genes. PRISE also allows user-defined primers to be analyzed, enabling their properties to be examined in relation to target and non-target sequences. The utility of PRISE was demonstrated by using it to design sequence-selective PCR primers for an rRNA gene from the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia.

  1. Neutron Repulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Oliver K.

    2011-01-01

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch...

  2. Uniformly rotating neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boshkayev, Kuantay

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter we review the recent results on the equilibrium configurations of static and uniformly rotating neutron stars within the Hartle formalism. We start from the Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations formulated and extended by Belvedere et al. (2012, 2014). We demonstrate how to conduct numerical integration of these equations for different central densities ${\\it \\rho}_c$ and angular velocities $\\Omega$ and compute the static $M^{stat}$ and rotating $M^{rot}$ masses, polar $R_p$ and equatorial $R_{\\rm eq}$ radii, eccentricity $\\epsilon$, moment of inertia $I$, angular momentum $J$, as well as the quadrupole moment $Q$ of the rotating configurations. In order to fulfill the stability criteria of rotating neutron stars we take into considerations the Keplerian mass-shedding limit and the axisymmetric secular instability. Furthermore, we construct the novel mass-radius relations, calculate the maximum mass and minimum rotation periods (maximum frequencies) of neutron stars. Eventually, we compare a...

  3. Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  4. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  5. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  6. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of β-Cyclodextrin Derivatized Ovalbumin Used as Chiral Selector in Pressure Capillary Electrochromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yu-hong; TANG Li; DAI Rong-ji; DENG Yu-lin; FU Ruo-nong

    2007-01-01

    Synthesis and properties of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin used as chiral selector were investigated.β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was synthesized using β-cyclodextrin and ovalbumin in the presence of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether in boric acid buffer at pH value 8.7 at 37 ℃.Amino group was coated on the internal surface of the silica capillary by sol-gel technology with triethoxylmethylsiloxane and (3-arninopropyl)trimethoxysiloxane.Covalent binding of β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin was performed by glutaraldehyde.Enantiomers of chlorpheniramine,phenylalanine and atropine were separated by pressure capillary electrochromatography column coated with β-cyclodextrin derivatized ovalbumin.

  8. Neutron Albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatovich, V K

    2005-01-01

    A new, algebraic, method is applied to calculation of neutron albedo from substance to check the claim that use of ultradispersive fuel and moderator of an active core can help to gain in size and mass of the reactor. In a model of isotropic distribution of incident and reflected neutrons it is shown that coherent scattering on separate grains in the case of thermal neutrons increases transport cross section negligibly, however it decreases albedo from a wall of finite thickness because of decrease of substance density. A visible increase of albedo takes place only for neutrons with wave length of the order of the size of a single grain.

  9. 大學圖書館選書人員之探討 The study of Selectors in Book Selection in University Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-ching Chu

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available 無It should be the goal of a university library to maintain a high quality and frequently used book collection. It depends on the intellectual judgement of selectors for the quality control of the book collection to support education and research. Whether a faculty or a librarian should be the selector is always an arguing issue. This article describes the characteristics of book selection in a university library, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of book collection selected by faculties and librarians. Also try to propose some solutions.

  10. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is

  11. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Balsalobre, Aurélio; Gauthier, Yves; Khetchoumian, Konstantin; L'honoré, Aurore; Vallette, Sophie; Brue, Thierry; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Meij, Björn; Drouin, Jacques

    2012-10-15

    The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland derive from the surface ectoderm. They provide a simple system to assess mechanisms of developmental identity established by tissue determinants. Each lobe contains a lineage expressing the hormone precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC): the corticotropes and melanotropes. The T-box transcription factor Tpit controls terminal differentiation of both lineages. We now report on the unique role of Pax7 as a selector of intermediate lobe and melanotrope identity. Inactivation of the Pax7 gene results in loss of melanotrope gene expression and derepression of corticotrope genes. Pax7 acts by remodeling chromatin and allowing Tpit binding to a new subset of enhancers for activation of melanotrope-specific genes. Thus, the selector function of Pax7 is exerted through pioneer transcription factor activity. Genome-wide, the Pax7 pioneer activity is preferentially associated with composite binding sites that include paired and homeodomain motifs. Pax7 expression is conserved in human and dog melanotropes and defines two subtypes of pituitary adenomas causing Cushing's disease. In summary, expression of Pax7 provides a unique tissue identity to the pituitary intermediate lobe that alters Tpit-driven differentiation through pioneer and classical transcription factor activities.

  12. Application of maltodextrin as chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis for quantification of amlodipine enantiomers in commercial tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojavan, Saeed; Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Behdad, Hamideh; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Mohammadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    Maltodextrin was investigated as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis of amlodipine (AM) enantiomers. For development of a stereoselective CE method, various effective parameters on the enantioseparation were optimized. The best results were achieved on an uncoated fused silica capillary at 20 °C using phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 4) containing 10% w/v maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent value 4-7). The UV detector was set at 214 nm and a constant voltage of 20 kV was applied. The range of quantitation was 2.5-250 µg/mL (R(2)  > 0.999) for both enantiomers. Intra- (n = 5) and interday (n = 3) relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 7%. The limits of quantitation and detection were 1.7 µg/mL and 0.52 µg/mL, respectively. Recoveries of R(+) and S(-) enantiomers from tablet matrix were 97.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The method was applied for the quantification of AM enantiomers in commercial tablets. Also, the enantioseparation capability of heparin was evaluated and the results showed that heparin did not have any chiral selector activity in this study.

  13. Neutron reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    films or films with magnetic properties. The reason is the peculiar property of neutron light since the mass of a neutron is close to the one of a proton, and since it bears a magnetic moment. The optical properties of matter, when interacting with neutrons, are described by a refractive index......Neutron (and X-ray) reflectometry constitute complementary interfacially sensitive techniques that open access to studying the structure within thin films of both soft and hard condensed matter. Film thickness starts oxide surfaces on bulk substrates, proceeding to (pauci-)molecular layers and up...... to hundreds of nanometers. Thickness resolution for flat surfaces is in the range of few Ǻngstrøm, and as a peculiar benefit, the presence and properties of buried interfaces are accessible. Focus here will be on neutron reflectometry, a technique that is unique in applications involving composite organic...

  14. Use of cold neutrons for condensed matter research at the neutron guide laboratory ELLA in Juelich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaetzler, R.; Monkenbusch, M. [Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Cold neutrons produced in the FRJ-2 DIDO reactor are guided into the external hall ELLA. It hosts 10 instruments that are red by three major neutron guides. Cold neutrons allow for diffraction and small angle scattering experiments resolving mesoscopic structures (1 to 100 nm). Contrast variation by isotopic substitution in chemically identical species yields information uniquely accessible bi neutrons. Inelastic scattering of cold neutrons allows investigating slow molecular motions because the low neutron velocity results in large relative velocity changes even at small energy transfers. The SANS machines and the HADAS reflectometer serve as structure probes and the backscattering BSS1 and spin-echo spectrometers NSE as main dynamics probes. Besides this the diffuse scattering instrument DNS and the lattice parameter determination instrument LAP deal mainly with crystals and their defects. Finally the beta-NMR and the EKN position allow for methods other than scattering employing nuclear reactions for solid state physics, chemistry and biology/medicine. (author)

  15. Neutron Star Motion in the Disk Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-Chun; A.Taani; PAN Yuan-Yue; WANG Jing; CAI Yan; LIU Gao-Chao; LUO A-Li; ZHANG Hong-Bo; ZHAO Yong-Heng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The neutron star motions are based on the undisturbed finitely thick galactic disk gravitational potential model.Two initial conditions,I.e.the locations and velocities,are considered.The Monte Carlo method is employed to separate rich diversities of the orbits of neutron stars into several sorts.The Poincaré section has the potential to play an important role in the diagnosis of the neutron star motion.It has been observed that the increasing ratio of the motion range vertical to the galactic plane to that parallel to the galactic plane results in the irregularity of neutron star motion.

  16. Double Neutron Stars: Evidence For Two Different Neutron-Star Formation Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, E.P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Six of the eight double neutron stars known in the Galactic disk have low orbital eccentricities (< 0.27) indicating that their second-born neutron stars received only very small velocity kicks at birth. This is similar to the case of the B-emission X-ray binaries, where a sizable fraction of the ne

  17. 6-O-(Hydroxypropyltrimethylammonia)-β-cyclodextrin with Low Degree of Substitution: Convenient Preparation and its Application as a Chiral Selector in Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A cationic cyclodextrin derivative 6-O-(hydroxypropyltrimethylammonia)-β-cyclodextrin (GTA-β-CD) with low degree of substitution was prepared through a convenient method in solid phase. The product could be used as a valuable chiral selector in the capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation of some acidic drug enantiomers such as naproxen, ofloxacin,ibuprofen and warfarin.

  18. Flow Visualisation by Condensing Steam – an Unusual Method Applied to Development of a Low Reynolds Number Fluidic Selector Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Tippetts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A visualization method so far not mentioned in the literature has been recently developed by the authors as a useful validation supplement to numerical flowfield computations in the design of microfluidic devices. The method is based upon water vapour condensation on device channel walls. It is extremely easy to set up with minimum expense – and yet it is very reliable. As an application example, the paper shows the method used in study of properties of a microfluidic valve intended for switching gaseous sample flows in a microfluidic selector sampling unit. A scaled-up model of the valve was built, as usual, in transparent acrylic material, making possible observation and photo-recording of the deposition and subsequent drying of the condensed droplets. The scaling-up slowed down the time scale enough for investigating the transition processes which takes place as the flow in the valve is switched on and off. 

  19. The 3-amino-derivative of gamma-cyclodextrin as chiral selector of Dns-amino acids in electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, A; Contino, A; Maccarrone, G; Messina, M; Cucinotta, V

    2009-04-24

    The enantioseparation of the enantiomeric pairs of 10 Dns derivatives of alpha-amino acids was successfully carried out by using for the first time the 3-amino derivative of the gamma-cyclodextrin. The effects of pH and selector concentration on the migration times and the resolutions of analytes were studied in detail. 3-Deoxy-3-amino-2(S),3(R)-gamma-cyclodextrin (GCD3AM) shows very good chiral recognition ability even at very low concentrations at all the three investigated values of pH, as shown by the very large values of selectivity and resolution towards several pairs of amino acids. The role played by the cavity, the substitution site and the protonation equilibria on the observed properties of chiral selectivity, on varying the specific amino acid involved, is discussed.

  20. Neutron radioactivity-Lifetime measurements of neutron-unbound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlbow, J.; Caesar, C.; Aumann, T.; Panin, V.; Paschalis, S.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.

    2017-09-01

    A new technique to measure the lifetime τ of a neutron-radioactive nucleus that decays in-flight via neutron emission is presented and demonstrated utilizing MonteCarlo simulations. The method is based on the production of the neutron-unbound nucleus in a target, which at the same time slows down the produced nucleus and the residual nucleus after (multi-) neutron emission. The spectrum of the velocity difference of neutron(s) and the residual nucleus has a characteristic shape, that allows to extract the lifetime. If the decay happens outside the target there will be a peak in the spectrum, while events where the decay is in the target show a broad flat distribution due to the continuous slowing down of the residual nucleus. The method itself and the analysis procedure are discussed in detail for the specific candidate 26O. A stack of targets with decreasing target thicknesses can expand the measurable lifetime range and improve the sensitivity by increasing the ratio between decays outside and inside the target. The simulations indicate a lower limit of measurable lifetime τ ∼ 0 . 2 ps for the given conditions.

  1. Neutron Repulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Manuel, Oliver K

    2011-01-01

    Earth is connected gravitationally, magnetically and electrically to its heat source - a neutron star that is obscured from view by waste products in the photosphere. Neutron repulsion is like the hot filament in an incandescent light bulb. Excited neutrons are emitted from the solar core and decay into hydrogen that glows in the photosphere like a frosted light bulb. Neutron repulsion was recognized in nuclear rest mass data in 2000 as the overlooked source of energy, the keystone of an arch that locked together these puzzling space-age observations: 1.) Excess 136Xe accompanied primordial helium in the stellar debris that formed the solar system (Fig. 1); 2.) The Sun formed on the supernova core (Fig. 2); 3.) Waste products from the core pass through an iron-rich mantle, selectively carrying lighter elements and lighter isotopes of each element into the photosphere (Figs. 3-4); and 4.) Neutron repulsion powers the Sun and sustains life (Figs. 5-7). Together these findings offer a framework for understanding...

  2. Magnetic field devices for neutron spin transport and manipulation in precise neutron spin rotation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Velázquez, M.; Barrón-Palos, L.; Crawford, C.; Snow, W. M.

    2017-05-01

    The neutron spin is a critical degree of freedom for many precision measurements using low-energy neutrons. Fundamental symmetries and interactions can be studied using polarized neutrons. Parity-violation (PV) in the hadronic weak interaction and the search for exotic forces that depend on the relative spin and velocity, are two questions of fundamental physics that can be studied via the neutron spin rotations that arise from the interaction of polarized cold neutrons and unpolarized matter. The Neutron Spin Rotation (NSR) collaboration developed a neutron polarimeter, capable of determining neutron spin rotations of the order of 10-7 rad per meter of traversed material. This paper describes two key components of the NSR apparatus, responsible for the transport and manipulation of the spin of the neutrons before and after the target region, which is surrounded by magnetic shielding and where residual magnetic fields need to be below 100 μG. These magnetic field devices, called input and output coils, provide the magnetic field for adiabatic transport of the neutron spin in the regions outside the magnetic shielding while producing a sharp nonadiabatic transition of the neutron spin when entering/exiting the low-magnetic-field region. In addition, the coils are self contained, forcing the return magnetic flux into a compact region of space to minimize fringe fields outside. The design of the input and output coils is based on the magnetic scalar potential method.

  3. Neutron scattering studies of crude oil viscosity reduction with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Enpeng

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a very powerful laboratory technique for micro structure research which is similar to the small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and light scattering for microstructure investigations in various materials. In small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique, the neutrons are elastically scattered by changes of refractive index on a nanometer scale inside the sample through the interaction with the nuclei of the atoms present in the sample. Because the nuclei of all atoms are compact and of comparable size, neutrons are capable of interacting strongly with all atoms. This is in contrast to X-ray techniques where the X-rays interact weakly with hydrogen, the most abundant element in most samples. The SANS refractive index is directly related to the scattering length density and is a measure of the strength of the interaction of a neutron wave with a given nucleus. It can probe inhomogeneities in the nanometer scale from 1nm to 1000nm. Since the SANS technique probes the length scale in a very useful range, this technique provides valuable information over a wide variety of scientific and technological applications, including chemical aggregation, defects in materials, surfactants, colloids, ferromagnetic correlations in magnetism, alloy segregation, polymers, proteins, biological membranes, viruses, ribosome and macromolecules. Quoting the Nobel committee, when awarding the prize to C. Shull and B. Brockhouse in 1994: "Neutrons tell you where the atoms are and what the atoms do". At NIST, there is a single beam of neutrons generated from either reactor or pulsed neutron source and selected by velocity selector. The beam passes through a neutron guide then scattered by the sample. After the sample chamber, there are 2D gas detectors to collect the elastic scattering information. SANS usually uses collimation of the neutron beam to determine the scattering angle of a neutron, which results in an even lower signal-to-noise ratio for

  4. Neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heger, G. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen, Inst. fuer Kristallographie, Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    X-ray diffraction using conventional laboratory equipment and/or synchrotron installations is the most important method for structure analyses. The purpose of this paper is to discuss special cases, for which, in addition to this indispensable part, neutrons are required to solve structural problems. Even though the huge intensity of modern synchrotron sources allows in principle the study of magnetic X-ray scattering the investigation of magnetic structures is still one of the most important applications of neutron diffraction. (author) 15 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs.

  5. Neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, N

    2003-01-01

    Various topics and issues on the neutronics of pulsed spallation neutron sources, mainly for neutron scattering experiments, are reviewed to give a wide circle of readers a better understanding of these sources in order to achieve a high neutronic performance. Starting from what neutrons are needed, what the spallation reaction is and how to produce slow-neutrons more efficiently, the outline of the target and moderator neutronics are explained. Various efforts with some new concepts or ideas have already been devoted to obtaining the highest possible slow-neutron intensity with desired pulse characteristics. This paper also reviews the recent progress of such efforts, mainly focused on moderator neutronics, since moderators are the final devices of a neutron source, which determine the source performance. Various governing parameters for neutron-pulse characteristics such as material issues, geometrical parameters (shape and dimensions), the target-moderator coupling scheme, the ortho-para-hydrogen ratio, po...

  6. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  7. Neutron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, James C., III; Richards, Wade J.; Shields, Kevin C.

    1995-07-01

    The McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's (MNRC) staff in conjunction with a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRDA) with the U.C. Santa Barbara facility has developed a system that can be used for aircraft inspection of jet engine blades. The problem was to develop an inspection system that can detect very low concentrations of hydrogen (i.e., greater than 100 ppm) in metal matricies. Specifically in Titanium alloy jet engine blades. Entrapment and precipitation of hydrogen in metals is an undesirable phenomenon which occurs in many alloys of steel and titanium. In general, metals suffer a loss of mechanical properties after long exposures to hydrogen, especially at high temperatures and pressures, thereby becoming embrittled. Neutron radiography has been used as a nondestructive testing technique for many years. Neutrons, because of their unique interactions with materials, are especially useful in the detection of hydrogen. They have an extremely high interaction cross section for low atomic number nuclei (i.e., hydrogen). Thus hydrogen in a metal matrix can be visualized using neutrons. Traditional radiography is sensitive to the total attenuation integrated over the path of radiation through the material. Increased sensitivity and quantitative cross section resolution can be obtained using three-dimensional volumetric imaging techniques such as tomography. The solution used to solve the problem was to develop a neutron tomography system. The neutron source is the McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's 1 MW TRIGA reactor. This paper describes the hardware used in the system as well as some of the preliminary results.

  8. Experiencias acerca de la utilización de un selector de contingencia en la planificación de la operación del SEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Barroso Baeza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra la utilidad de un selector de contingencias en tareas de planificación de la operación de lossistemas eléctricos de potencia, especialmente en sistemas longitudinales en los cuales es necesarioprever desde la etapa de planificación la seguridad de la operación con especial interés, dadas lasconsecuencias que pueden acarrear diversas contingencias. El selector forma parte de un paquete deprogramas empleado actualmente en el Despacho Nacional de Carga (DNC, para la planificación de laoperación del Sistema Electroenergético Nacional (SEN, se utiliza diariamente para los estudios de lascontingencias más críticas que pueden suceder en el sistema en diversos regímenes, con ello se logra elanálisis de la factibilidad de otorgar vías libres o garantizar que los operadores se encuentren bajo alertaante la ocurrencia de algunas contingencias que pudieran provocar serias violaciones a la seguridad delsistema.  This work shows the contingencies selector use in order to do the power system operation planning tasks,especially in longitudinal systems where is necessary to prevent from the planning level the security ofthe operation with very special interest because of the contingencies consequences. The selector belongto the programs package that is using to planning the National Electric Power System operation in theNational Control Center actually. The more critical contingencies can be study with this tools and becauseof that the feasibility of the permission over one transmission element of the system is analyzed. Thismethodology permit to refuse the permission or to put the operator in alert front some contingencies thatcould attempt versus the system security.

  9. Unhappiness and dissatisfaction in doctors cannot be predicted by selectors from medical school application forms: A prospective, longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personal statements and referees' reports are widely used on medical school application forms, particularly in the UK, to assess the suitability of candidates for a career in medicine. However there are few studies which assess the validity of such information for predicting unhappiness or dissatisfaction with a career in medicine. Here we combine data from a long-term prospective study of medical student selection and training, with an experimental approach in which a large number of assessors used a paired comparison technique to predict outcome. Methods Data from a large-scale prospective study of students applying to UK medical schools in 1990 were used to identify 40 pairs of doctors, matched by sex, for whom personal statements and referees' reports were available, and who in a 2002/3 follow-up study, one pair member was very satisfied and the other very dissatisfied with medicine as a career. In 2005, 96 assessors, who were experienced medical school selectors, doctors, medical students or psychology students, used information from the doctors' original applications to judge which member of each pair of doctors was the happier, more satisfied doctor. Results None of the groups of assessors were significantly different from chance expectations in using applicants' personal statements and the referees' reports to predict actual future satisfaction or dissatisfaction, the distribution being similar to binomial expectations. However judgements of pairs of application forms from pairs of doctors showed a non-binomial distribution, indicating consensus among assessors as to which doctor would be the happy doctor (although the consensus was wrong in half the cases. Assessors taking longer to do the task concurred more. Consensus judgements seem mainly to be based on referees' predictions of academic achievement (even though academic achievement is not actually a valid predictor of happiness or satisfaction. Conclusion

  10. Neutron reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2014-01-01

    to hundreds of nanometers. Thickness resolution for flat surfaces is in the range of few Ǻngstrøm, and as a peculiar benefit, the presence and properties of buried interfaces are accessible. Focus here will be on neutron reflectometry, a technique that is unique in applications involving composite organic...... of desired information. In the course, an introduction into the method and an overview on selected instruments at large scale facilities will be presented. Examples will be given that illustrate the potential of the method, mostly based on organic films. Results from the investigation of layered films...... and the detection on nanoscopic roughnesses will be shown. The potential of neutron reflectometry is not only of academic origin. It may turn out to be useful in the design and development of new functional materials even though it will never develop into a standard method to be applied in the product control...

  11. Neutron Standards Laboratory of the CIEMAT; Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Mendez V, R. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: karen.guzman.garcia@alumnos.upm.es [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    By means of a calculation series with Monte Carlo methods and the code MCNPX was characterized the neutrons field produced by the existent calibration sources in the Neutron Standards Laboratory of the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT). The laboratory has two neutron calibration sources one of {sup 241}AmBe and other {sup 252}Cf that are stored in a water pool. A detailed three-dimensional model of the room was built with the base of stainless steel remarking in the selector to the sources that situates them to 4 m of the floor to be irradiated on the irradiation table and the storage pool. Each one of the sources was defined on the model in its double steel encapsulated. The spectra were calculated with different cases with the purpose of to calculate the contribution of each element that impacts to the neutrons transport. The spectra of the calibration sources were calculated to different distances regarding the source from 0, 15, 35, 50 to 300 cm on the base and in a same way the values of the ambient dose equivalent using the approaches of the ICRP-74. The results show clearly that the great contribution in the modification of the spectrum is attributed to the walls, and floor of the Neutron Standards Laboratory installations. (Author)

  12. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a next-generation spallation neutron source for neutron scattering that is currently the most powerful neutron source in...

  13. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, neutron properties and elastic scattering, correlation functions measured by scattering experiments, symmetry of crystals, applications of neutron scattering, polarized-neutron scattering and polarization analysis, structural analysis, magnetic and lattice excitation studied by inelastic neutron scattering, macromolecules and self-assembly, dynamics of macromolecules, correlated electrons in complex transition-metal oxides, surfaces, interfaces, and thin films investigated by neutron reflectometry, nanomagnetism. (HSI)

  14. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  15. Neutron transport study of a beam port based dynamic neutron radiography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaial, Anas M.

    -Carlo simulations (using MCNP-4B code) are conducted to confirm the neutron parameters along the beam path and at the imaging plane. Good agreement between the analytical and the numerical values for the thermal neutron flux at the imaging plane to within 5% has been achieved. The MCNP simulations show that neutron back scattering, due to the presence of the back-wall biological shielding and the beam catcher, have an insignificant effect on the thermal neutron flux at the imaging plane, however, the epithermal and fast neutron fluxes have increased by 4-11%. Experimental results show that the thermal neutron flux is nearly uniform over an imaging area of 20.0-cm diameter. The thermal neutron flux ranges from 1.0x107 -- 1.26x107 n/cm 2-s at a reactor operating power of 3.0 MW. The measured value for the neutron-to-gamma ratio is 6.0x105 n/cm2-muSv and the Cadmium-ratio is observed to be 1.22. These values promote real-time neutron radiography with relatively high neutron attenuating materials such as light water and high-speed neutron radiography with relatively low neutron attenuating materials such as heavy water and Freon type fluids with a minimal contrast degradation resulting from non-thermal neutron content of the beam. A dynamic neutron radiography system has been developed and modified to obtain less neutron damage to the low-light level video camera. The system is used to visualize air-water two-phase flow in a natural-circulation loop to examine the dynamic capabilities of the radiography facility. Measurements of bubble velocity, void fraction, and phase distribution are successfully made. Single frames (˜33 ms) of neutron images were captured using the dynamic neutron radiography system for air-water two-phase flow. The system was able to resolve single bubbles interfaces with an image spatial resolution of approximately 0.44 mm. Thermal neutron detectors are placed at the periphery of the neutron beam to detect neutrons scattered by a non-flowing two-phase object

  16. The Deflector Selector: A Machine Learning Framework for Prioritizing Deflection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, Elmarie; Erasmus, Nicolas; Greenberg, Adam; Nesvold, Erika; Galache, Jose Luis; Dahlstrom, Eric; Marchis, Franck

    2016-10-01

    On 15 February, 2013, a ~15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred ~33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an impact course for Earth, an impact is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious question - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found?To help answer this question, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-impacting objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on impact probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from impacting the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to

  17. Energy-selective neutron imaging with high spatial resolution and its impact on the study of crystalline-structured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E. H.; Peetermans, S.; Josic, L.; Leber, H.; van Swygenhoven, H.

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline-structured materials with preferentially large grains were investigated by means of energy-selective neutron imaging methods (transmission radiography and tomography) under the conditions of the best possible spatial resolution at the ICON facility, SINQ, and PSI. Because of the cold spectrum at that beam line, access to the Bragg diffraction features was possible even when the energy resolution of the used selector device was only 15%. Grains with a size below the detector resolution (approximately 25 μm) are not visible, and a quasi-homogeneous contrast variation is found when the neutron energy is varied.In the cases of welded stainless steel samples and rolled Al plates, we obtained structural information from a very short exposure of approximately 60 s. Tomographic examinations of these samples at suitable neutron energies qualitatively verified the radiographic findings by showing the same features in the bulk. Comparison to common electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigations in selected regions of the samples provided a complete verification of the neutron-image data with respect to the grain size and the different grain orientations. The method of energy-selective neutron imaging provides an easy and straightforward approach for non-invasive material research that can be performed without any sample preparation if the most suitable neutron energy is chosen. Further studies will be necessary to extend the experimental data base to other materials with different crystal structures and grain sizes. A comparison to diffraction data will enhance the quantitative value of the investigations.

  18. Measurements of Neutron-absorbing Elements on Mercury's Surface with the MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Feldman, William C.; Goldsten, John O.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Blewett, David T.; Boynton, William V.; Evans, Larry G.; Nittler, Larry R.; Rhodes, Edgar A.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2010-05-01

    The Neutron Spectrometer (NS) on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission has made measurements of cosmic-ray-generated thermal neutrons during each of MESSENGER's three Mercury flybys. These thermal neutron data have allowed us to make the first direct measurements of Mercury's surface elemental composition. Specifically, we show that Mercury's surface is enriched in neutron-absorbing elements and has a measured macroscopic neutron absorption cross section of (70-130) × 10^(-4) cm^2/g, which is similar to the neutron absorption of lunar basalts from Mare Fecunditatis. The expected neutron-absorbing elements are Fe and Ti, with possible trace amounts of Gd and Sm. Fe and Ti, in particular, are important for understanding Mercury's formation and how its surface may have changed over time through magmatic processes. With the neutron Doppler filter technique - a neutron energy separation technique based on spacecraft velocity - we demonstrate that Mercury's surface composition cannot be matched by prior models having characteristically low abundances of Fe, Ti, Gd, and Sm. While neutron spectroscopy alone cannot separate the relative contributions of individual neutron-absorbing elements, these results provide strong new constraints on the nature of Mercury's surface materials. For example, if all the measured neutron absorption were due to the presence of a Fe-Ti oxide and that oxide were ilmenite, then Mercury's surface would have an ilmenite content of 14 to 31 wt.%. This result is in agreement with the inference from color imaging and visible-near-infrared spectroscopy that Mercury's overall low reflectance is consistent with a surface composition that is enriched in Fe-Ti oxides. The incorporation of substantial Fe and Ti in oxides would imply that the oxygen fugacity of basalts on Mercury is at the upper range of oxygen fugacity inferred for basalts on the Moon.

  19. Application of Diamond Nanoparticles in Low-Energy Neutron Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strelkov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond, with its exceptionally high optical nuclear potential and low absorption cross-section, is a unique material for a series of applications in VCN (very cold neutron physics and techniques. In particular, powder of diamond nanoparticles provides the best reflector for neutrons in the complete VCN energy range. It allowed also the first observation of quasi-specular reflection of cold neutrons (CN from disordered medium. Effective critical velocity for such a quasi-specular reflection is higher than that for the best super-mirror. Nano-diamonds survive in high radiation fluxes; therefore they could be used, under certain conditions, in the vicinity of intense neutron sources.

  20. Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.

  1. Neutron scattering. Lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Neutron sources, symmetry of crystals, diffraction, nanostructures investigated by small-angle neutron scattering, the structure of macromolecules, spin dependent and magnetic scattering, structural analysis, neutron reflectometry, magnetic nanostructures, inelastic scattering, strongly correlated electrons, dynamics of macromolecules, applications of neutron scattering. (HSI)

  2. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements (beyond iron) are formed in neutron capture nucleosynthesis processes. We have proposed a simple unified model to investigate the neutron capture nucleosynthesis in arbitrary neutron density environment. We have also investigated what neutron density is required to reproduce the measured abundance of nuclei assuming equilibrium processes. We found both of these that the medium neutron density has a particularly important role at neutron capture nucleosynthesis. About these results most of the nuclei can formed at medium neutron capture density environment e.g. in some kind of AGB stars. Besides these observations our model is capable to use educational purpose.

  3. Nuclear reactor neutron shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speaker, Daniel P; Neeley, Gary W; Inman, James B

    2017-09-12

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor pressure vessel and a nuclear reactor core comprising fissile material disposed in a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel. The lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel is disposed in a reactor cavity. An annular neutron stop is located at an elevation above the uppermost elevation of the nuclear reactor core. The annular neutron stop comprises neutron absorbing material filling an annular gap between the reactor pressure vessel and the wall of the reactor cavity. The annular neutron stop may comprise an outer neutron stop ring attached to the wall of the reactor cavity, and an inner neutron stop ring attached to the reactor pressure vessel. An excore instrument guide tube penetrates through the annular neutron stop, and a neutron plug comprising neutron absorbing material is disposed in the tube at the penetration through the neutron stop.

  4. Use of ultracold neutrons for condensed-matter studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A.

    1997-05-01

    Ultracold neutrons have such low velocities that they are reflected by most materials at all incident angles and can be stored in material bottles for long periods of time during which their intrinsic properties can be studied in great detail. These features have been mainly used for fundamental-physics studies including the detection of a possible neutron electric dipole moment and the precise determination of neutron-decay properties. Ultracold neutrons can also play a role in condensed-matter studies with the help of high-resolution spectrometers that use gravity as a strongly dispersive medium for low-velocity neutrons. Such studies have so far been limited by the low intensity of existing ultracold-neutron sources but could be reconsidered with more intense sources, which are now envisaged. This report provides a broad survey of the properties of ultracold neutrons (including their reflectivity by different types of samples), of ultracold-neutron spectrometers that are compared with other high-resolution instruments, of results obtained in the field of condensed matter with these instruments, and of neutron microscopes. All these subjects are illustrated by numerous examples.

  5. Application of PLC in control system of magnetism selector%PLC在磁选机控制系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小平

    2014-01-01

    把PLC应用到采矿设备磁选机控制系统中是一种有益尝试。本文详述了PLC在磁选机液压传动控制系统中的作用,具体的控制梯形图及控制电气原理。%In this article we discussed that the process of PLC in control system of magnetism selector come true, including control ladder diagram and electric control principle .

  6. Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Weapons Neutron Research Facility (WNR) provides neutron and proton beams for basic, applied, and defense-related research. Neutron beams with energies ranging...

  7. The Spacecraft Materials Selector: An Artificial Intelligence System for Preliminary Design Trade Studies, Materials Assessments, and Estimates of Environments Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, H. G.; Woll, S. L. B.

    2000-01-01

    Institutions need ways to retain valuable information even as experienced individuals leave an organization. Modern electronic systems have enough capacity to retain large quantities of information that can mitigate the loss of experience. Performance information for long-term space applications is relatively scarce and specific information (typically held by a few individuals within a single project) is often rather narrowly distributed. Spacecraft operate under severe conditions and the consequences of hardware and/or system failures, in terms of cost, loss of information, and time required to replace the loss, are extreme. These risk factors place a premium on appropriate choice of materials and components for space applications. An expert system is a very cost-effective method for sharing valuable and scarce information about spacecraft performance. Boeing has an artificial intelligence software package, called the Boeing Expert System Tool (BEST), to construct and operate knowledge bases to selectively recall and distribute information about specific subjects. A specific knowledge base to evaluate the on-orbit performance of selected materials on spacecraft has been developed under contract to the NASA SEE program. The performance capabilities of the Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) knowledge base are described. The knowledge base is a backward-chaining, rule-based system. The user answers a sequence of questions, and the expert system provides estimates of optical and mechanical performance of selected materials under specific environmental conditions. The initial operating capability of the system will include data for Kapton, silverized Teflon, selected paints, silicone-based materials, and certain metals. For situations where a mission profile (launch date, orbital parameters, mission duration, spacecraft orientation) is not precisely defined, the knowledge base still attempts to provide qualitative observations about materials performance and likely

  8. Determination of enantiomeric composition by negative-ion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using deprotonated N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids as chiral selectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Bobby N; Zu, Chengli; Koscho, Michael E

    2005-10-01

    The ability to use mixtures of deprotonated N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids as chiral selectors for the determination of enantiomeric composition by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry is demonstrated. For each experiment, two N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids were chosen such that each would have opposite selectivity for the enantiomers of the analyte. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, monitored in the negative ion mode, of solutions containing the two N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids, sodium hydroxide, and the analyte, in a one-to-one mixture of methanol and water, afford peaks in the mass spectrum that correspond to the deprotonated 1:1 analyte-selector complexes. The ratio of the intensities of the complexes in the mass spectrum can be related to the enantiomeric composition of the analyte. Additionally, the sense and extent of chiral recognition is consistent with chromatographic observations, using chiral stationary phases derived from N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)amino acids. Each analysis of enantiomeric composition requires less than 10 s to complete, indicating that this method has great potential for the development of fast-/high-throughput chiral analyses.

  9. Enantiomeric separation and determination of the enantiomeric impurity of armodafinil by capillary electrophoresis with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin as chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xiang, Suyun; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Ji, Yibing; Xiang, Bingren

    2011-12-30

    A selective capillary electrophoresis method using sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector was developed and validated for the determination of the enantiomeric impurity of (R)-modafinil, i.e., armodafinil. Several parameters were optimized for a satisfactory enantioresolution, including the type and concentration of chiral selector and organic modifier, pH of background electrolyte (BGE), capillary temperature. The finally adopted condition was: 20 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, containing 20 mmol/L sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin and 20% methanol, at temperature of 25 °C. A good resolution of 3.3 for the two enantiomers of modafinil was achieved by applying the optimal conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of (S)-modafinil were 1.25 μg/mL and 2.50 μg/mL, respectively. The established method was also proven to display good selectivity, repeatability, linearity and accuracy. Finally, the method was used to investigate the enantiomeric purity of armodafinil in bulk samples.

  10. Design of automatic data selector for microarray biosensor%微阵列生物传感器的自动数据选通器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘银松; 李向全; 张成伟; 张仁富; 孔谋夫

    2009-01-01

    为了让微阵列生物传感器的多路并行模拟信号能够分时的串行输出,以便后续电路处理,设计了一种自动数据选通器.该数据选通器主要由CMOS传输门和CMOS移位寄存器构成,能同时适用于数字信号与模拟信号.在0.6 pμm/Level 7 CMOS工艺条件下进行模拟,仿真结果表明:该数据选通器具有较高的性能.%In order to make the multiplex parallel analog signal of the microarray biosensor can be time-sharing output and is easier processed by next circuit, a automatic data selector is designed. This device is constituted by CMOS transmission and CMOS shift register and is able to apply to the digital signal and analog signal at the same time. Simulation is carried out with 0.6μm/Level 7 CMOS,the simulation results indicate that the data selector has a good performance.

  11. Inclusion Phenomena between the β-Cyclodextrin Chiral Selector and Trp-D,L, and Its Use on the Assembly of Solid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD and the chiral ionic liquids formed from β-cyclodextrin mono-6-deoxy-6-(3-methylimidazolium-β-cyclodextrin tosylate (β-CD-IL as chiral selectors is described. The inclusion phenomena between the β-cyclodextrin chiral selectors and D,L-tryptophan (D,L-Trp was studied. The inclusion compounds were prepared by grinding, and their properties analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The separation factor between β-CD and β-CD-IL with D,L-Trp was studied by the saturated solution method. This indicated a different binding capacity of β-CD and β-CD-IL to the two enantiomers. This result shows that the chiral ionic liquids have a higher separation factor because of their high solubility. The β-cyclodextrin chiral ionic liquids and CS were cross-linked and immobilized on an N6 membrane to form composite membranes. Adsorption experiments and permeation experiments were carried out. 105.43 mg D,L-Trp/g membrane was obtained.

  12. Enantiomeric Separation and Determination of the Enantiomeric Impurity of Armodafinil by Capillary Electrophoresis with Sulfobutyl Ether-β-cyclodextrin as Chiral Selector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingren Xiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A selective capillary electrophoresis method using sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector was developed and validated for the determination of the enantiomeric impurity of (R-modafinil, i.e., armodafinil. Several parameters were optimized for a satisfactory enantioresolution, including the type and concentration of chiral selector and organic modifier, pH of background electrolyte (BGE, capillary temperature. The finally adopted condition was: 20 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, containing 20 mmol/L sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin and 20% methanol, at temperature of 25 °C. A good resolution of 3.3 for the two enantiomers of modafinil was achieved by applying the optimal conditions. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ of (S-modafinil were 1.25 μg/mL and 2.50 μg/mL, respectively. The established method was also proven to display good selectivity, repeatability, linearity and accuracy. Finally, the method was used to investigate the enantiomeric purity of armodafinil in bulk samples.

  13. The LIM and POU homeobox genes ttx-3 and unc-86 act as terminal selectors in distinct cholinergic and serotonergic neuron types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifan; Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Nelson, Jessica C; Abe, Namiko; Gordon, Patricia; Lloret-Fernandez, Carla; Maicas, Miren; Flames, Nuria; Mann, Richard S; Colón-Ramos, Daniel A; Hobert, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive neuron type-specific terminal differentiation programs in the developing nervous system are often expressed in several distinct neuronal cell types, but to what extent they have similar or distinct activities in individual neuronal cell types is generally not well explored. We investigate this problem using, as a starting point, the C. elegans LIM homeodomain transcription factor ttx-3, which acts as a terminal selector to drive the terminal differentiation program of the cholinergic AIY interneuron class. Using a panel of different terminal differentiation markers, including neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes, neurotransmitter receptors and neuropeptides, we show that ttx-3 also controls the terminal differentiation program of two additional, distinct neuron types, namely the cholinergic AIA interneurons and the serotonergic NSM neurons. We show that the type of differentiation program that is controlled by ttx-3 in different neuron types is specified by a distinct set of collaborating transcription factors. One of the collaborating transcription factors is the POU homeobox gene unc-86, which collaborates with ttx-3 to determine the identity of the serotonergic NSM neurons. unc-86 in turn operates independently of ttx-3 in the anterior ganglion where it collaborates with the ARID-type transcription factor cfi-1 to determine the cholinergic identity of the IL2 sensory and URA motor neurons. In conclusion, transcription factors operate as terminal selectors in distinct combinations in different neuron types, defining neuron type-specific identity features.

  14. Superheated drop neutron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Roy, B; Roy, S C; Das, Mala

    2000-01-01

    Superheated drops are known to detect neutrons through the nucleation caused by the recoil nuclei produced by the interactions of neutrons with the atoms constituting the superheated liquid molecule. A novel method of finding the neutron energy from the temperature dependence response of SDD has been developed. From the equivalence between the dependence of threshold energy for nucleation on temperature of SDD and the dependence of dE/dx of the recoil ions with the energy of the neutron, a new method of finding the neutron energy spectrum of a polychromatic as well as monochromatic neutron source has been developed.

  15. Neutron streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1983-09-13

    Apparatus for improved sensitivity and time resolution of a neutron measurement. The detector is provided with an electrode assembly having a neutron sensitive cathode which emits relatively low energy secondary electrons. The neutron sensitive cathode has a large surface area which provides increased sensitivity by intercepting a greater number of neutrons. The cathode is also curved to compensate for differences in transit time of the neutrons emanating from the point source. The slower speeds of the secondary electrons emitted from a certain portion of the cathode are matched to the transit times of the neutrons impinging thereupon.

  16. High-velocity clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H

    1997-01-01

    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,

  17. Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...

  18. The neutron distribution system of the new ultra-cold neutron source at the FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlokka, Stephan; Frei, Andreas [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Techische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Fierlinger, Peter; Paul, Stephan [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Geltenbort, Peter [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are neutrons which are totally reflected from a given material surface. Typical energies of UCN are below 300 neV and velocities below 8 m/s. Thus they can be stored in material or magnetic bottles for several hundreds of seconds. As such, UCN are excellent laboratories to study fundamental parameters, e.g. the free neutron lifetime or the electric dipole moment of the neutron. The new UCN source foreseen at the FRM II will deliver high UCN densities to four experimental areas. Hence a mechanism to distribute as many UCN as possible to these areas is needed. We have developed a high efficiency UCN switch for this purpose. This talk reports about a series of measurements conducted with this switch. There have been three types of measurements, testing the transmission, storage and surface properties of the switch.

  19. Neutron anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, G.E. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The familiar extremes of crystalline material are single-crystals and random powders. In between these two extremes are polycrystalline aggregates, not randomly arranged but possessing some preferred orientation and this is the form taken by constructional materials, be they steel girders or the bones of a human or animal skeleton. The details of the preferred orientation determine the ability of the material to withstand stress in any direction. In the case of bone the crucial factor is the orientation of the c-axes of the mineral content - the crystals of the hexagonal hydroxyapatite - and this can readily be determined by neutron diffraction. In particular it can be measured over the volume of a piece of bone, utilizing distances ranging from 1mm to 10mm. The major practical problem is to avoid the intense incoherent scattering from the hydrogen in the accompanying collagen; this can best be achieved by heat-treatment and it is demonstrated that this does not affect the underlying apatite. These studies of bone give leading anatomical information on the life and activities of humans and animals - including, for example, the life history of the human femur, the locomotion of sheep, the fracture of the legs of racehorses and the life-styles of Neolithic tribes. We conclude that the material is placed economically in the bone to withstand the expected stresses of life and the environment. The experimental results are presented in terms of the magnitude of the 0002 apatite reflection. It so happens that for a random powder the 0002, 1121 reflections, which are neighboring lines in the powder pattern, are approximately equal in intensity. The latter reflection, being of manifold multiplicity, is scarcely affected by preferred orientation so that the numerical value of the 0002/1121 ratio serves quite accurately as a quantitative measure of the degree of orientation of the c-axes in any chosen direction for a sample of bone.

  20. Imaging with Scattered Neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Ballhausen, H.; Abele, H.; Gaehler, R.; Trapp, M.; Van Overberghe, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a novel experimental technique for neutron imaging with scattered neutrons. These scattered neutrons are of interest for condensed matter physics, because they permit to reveal the local distribution of incoherent and coherent scattering within a sample. In contrast to standard attenuation based imaging, scattered neutron imaging distinguishes between the scattering cross section and the total attenuation cross section including absorption. First successful low-noise millimeter-re...

  1. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  2. International Neutron Radiography Newsletter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    At the First World Conference on Neutron Radiography i t was decided to continue the "Neutron Radiography Newsletter", published previously by J.P. Barton, as the "International Neutron Radiography Newsletter" (INRNL), with J.C. Doraanus as editor. The British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing...

  3. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  4. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron scattering instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, P.A.; Daemen, L.L.; Hjelm, R.P. Jr.

    1998-12-01

    A code package consisting of the Monte Carlo Library MCLIB, the executing code MC{_}RUN, the web application MC{_}Web, and various ancillary codes is proposed as an open standard for simulation of neutron scattering instruments. The architecture of the package includes structures to define surfaces, regions, and optical elements contained in regions. A particle is defined by its vector position and velocity, its time of flight, its mass and charge, and a polarization vector. The MC{_}RUN code handles neutron transport and bookkeeping, while the action on the neutron within any region is computed using algorithms that may be deterministic, probabilistic, or a combination. Complete versatility is possible because the existing library may be supplemented by any procedures a user is able to code. Some examples are shown.

  6. Three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled simulation of MSR in steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Chenglong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); An, Hongzhen [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100082 (China); Zhang, Daling, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Qiu, Suizheng; Su, Guanghui; Tian, Wenxi; Wu, Yingwei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Developed a three dimensional coupled code for MSR. • Investigated the neutron distribution and thermal-hydraulic characters of the core under steady state condition. • Analyzed the influence of inlet temperature and inlet velocity to thermal-hydraulics characteristics of the reactor. - Abstract: MSR (molten salt reactor) uses liquid molten salt as the coolant and fuel solvent, making it the only liquid reactor among the six generation IV reactor types. As a liquid reactor the physical properties of the reactor are significantly influenced by the fuel salt flow therefore conventional analysis methods applied in solid fuel reactors are not applicable for this type of reactors. The present work developed a three dimensional neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled code and applied it to investigate the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the core in steady state condition based on neutron diffusion theory and numerical heat transfer. The code consists of two group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes and six group balance equations for delayed neutron precursors. The temperature distribution, neutron fluxes and delayed neutron precursors distribution of the core in steady state conditions was studied, and the result analyzed when inlet temperature and velocity were changed. From simulation it was found that the inlet temperature has little influence to neutron distribution however inlet velocity affects the delayed neutron distribution in steady state condition. The results provide some valuable information in design and research of this kind of reactor.

  7. Jets from Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    radiated away in gravitational waves, the hypermassive neutron star loses its support and collapses to a black hole.Plasma velocities turn around (51.5 ms)Initially the plasma was falling inward, but as the disk of neutron-star debris is accreted onto the black hole, energy is released. This turns the plasma near the black hole poles around and flings it outward.Magnetic field forms a helical funnel (62.5 ms)The fields near the poles of the black hole amplify as they are wound around, creating a funnel that provides the wall of the jet.Jet outflow extends to heights greater than 445 km (64.5 ms)The disk is all accreted and, since the fuel is exhausted, the outflow shuts off (within 100ms)Neutron-Star SuccessPlot showing the gravitational wave signature for one of the authors simulations. The moments of merger of the neutron stars and collapse to a black hole are marked. [Adapted from Ruiz et al. 2016]These simulations show that no initial black hole is needed to launch outflows; a merger of two neutron stars can result in an sGRB-like jet. Another interesting result is that the magnetic field configuration doesnt affect the formation of a jet: neutron stars with magnetic fields confined to their interiors launch jets as effectively as those with pulsar-like magnetic fields. The accretion timescale for both cases is consistent with the duration of an sGRB.While this simulation models milliseconds of real time, its enormously computationally challenging and takes months to simulate. The successes of this simulation represent exciting advances in numerical relativity, as well as in our understanding of the electromagnetic counterparts that may accompany gravitational waves.BonusCheck out this awesome video of the authors simulations. The colors differentiate the plasma density and the white lines depict the pulsar-like magnetic field that initially threads the two merging neutron stars. Watch as the neutron stars evolve through the different stages outlined above, eventually

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi for structure analysis with neutrons, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, neutron polarization analysis with tht time-of-flight spectrometer DNS, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering with the KWS-1 and KWS-2 diffractometers, the very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractrometer with focusing mirror KWS-3, the resonance spin-echo spectrometer RESEDA, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  10. Neutron scatter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Krenz, Kevin D.

    2010-06-22

    An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source has been described. This instrument can improve the signal to background compared to non imaging neutron detection techniques by a factor given by ratio of the angular resolution window to 4.pi.. In addition to being a neutron imager, this instrument will also be an excellent neutron spectrometer, and will be able to differentiate between different types of neutron sources (e.g. fission, alpha-n, cosmic ray, and D-D or D-T fusion). Moreover, the instrument is able to pinpoint the source location.

  11. Velocity selective optical pumping

    OpenAIRE

    Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.

    1982-01-01

    We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...

  12. Advances in neutron tomography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    W Treimer

    2008-11-01

    In the last decade neutron radiography (NR) and tomography (NCT) have experienced a number of improvements, due to the well-known properties of neutrons interacting with matter, i.e. the low attenuation by many materials, the strong attenuation by hydrogenous constituent in samples, the wavelength-dependent attenuation in the neighbourhood of Bragg edges and due to better 2D neutron detectors. So NR and NCT were improved by sophisticated techniques that are based on the attenuation of neutrons or on phase changes of the associated neutron waves if they pass through structured materials. Up to now the interaction of the neutron spin with magnetic fields in samples has not been applied to imaging techniques despite the fact that it was proposed many years ago. About ten years ago neutron depolarization as imaging signal for neutron radiography or tomography was demonstrated and in principle it works. Now one can present much improved test experiments using polarized neutrons for radiographic imaging. For this purpose the CONRAD instrument of the HMI was equipped with polarizing and analysing benders very similar to conventional scattering experiments using polarized neutrons. Magnetic fields in different coils and in samples (superconductors) at low temperatures could be visualized. In this lecture a summary about standard signals (attenuation) and the more `sophisticated' imaging signals as refraction, small angle scattering and polarized neutrons will be given.

  13. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  14. Selector-induced dynamic deracemization of a selectand-modified tropos BIPHEPO-ligand: application in the organocatalyzed asymmetric double-aldol-reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Frank; Trapp, Oliver

    2014-08-11

    Stereolabile interconverting catalysts open up the possibility of directing enantioselectivity in asymmetric synthesis by formation of diastereomeric complexes with chiral auxiliaries and deracemization. However, the stoichiometrically used auxilliaries can significantly limit the potential applications of such systems. We synthesized a new BIPHEPO tropos ligand containing achiral selectands in the backbone, which forms transient diastereomeric associates with amylose-tris-3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate as a selector and thus deracemizes. The enantiomerically enriched BIPHEPO obtained was successfully used in the organocatalytic asymmetric double aldol addition of substituted methyl ketones to form benzaldehyde. This strategy combines an on-column deracemization with the high stereoinduction of chiral biarylphosphineoxides and opens up new possibilities in the field of self-amplified asymmetric syntheses. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enantiomeric resolution of galanthamine and related drugs used in anti-Alzheimer therapy by means of capillary zone electrophoresis employing derivatized cyclodextrin selectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, A; Schuh, R; Brückner, A; Cvitkovich, B; Kremser, L; Jordis, U; Fröhlich, J; Küenburg, B; Czollner, L

    1999-07-01

    An analytical assay is presented for the determination of the enantiomeric composition of galanthamine and related synthetic and natural compounds. (-)-Galanthamine is isolated from Galanthus nivalis and is used in this optical pure form in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Recent efforts for a total synthesis of unichiral (-)-galanthamine is connected with the need for a fast and reliable assay for the determination of the optical purity of the end product, as well as for optimizing and controlling the final steps in total synthesis particularly the asymmetric transformation of narwedine. In this paper the enantiomeric resolution of these compounds is reported employing a capillary electrophoretic system with beta-cyclodextrin derived chiral selectors. With the proposed system a number of galanthamine and narwedine derived analogous compounds could be separated, including 1-bromo- and N-alkyl-substituted compounds.

  16. Direct Separation of Pregabalin Enantiomers Using a Zwitterionic Chiral Selector by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Mass Spectrometry and Ultraviolet Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Narayana Chennuru

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic resolution of pregabalin enantiomers has been often achieved by derivatization of the molecule, in order to reach enough sensitivity at low concentrations of the minor enantiomer present in the active principle. In the present article, the development and optimization of two liquid chromatographic methods are presented for the direct resolution of pregabalin enantiomers on a chiral stationary phase (CSP containing a zwitterionic selector derived from cinchona alkaloid and sulfonic acid (CHIRALPAK ZWIX. The key parameters for the separation as well as the compatibility of chromatographic conditions with different detection modes (ultraviolet and mass spectrometry were investigated. The resulting methods were found to be selective, of high performance and low limits of detection (2 µg/mL by UV and 1 ng/mL by MS, respectively and quantification (6 µg/mL by UV and 5 ng/mL by MS, respectively for the minor enantiomer which is considered as a chiral impurity.

  17. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Adhya, Souvik Priyam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  18. Relativistic Simulations of Eccentric Binary Neutron Star Mergers: One-arm Spiral Instability and Effects of Neutron Star Spin

    CERN Document Server

    East, William E; Pretorius, Frans; Shapiro, Stuart L

    2016-01-01

    We perform general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations of dynamical capture binary neutron star mergers, emphasizing the role played by the neutron star spin. Dynamical capture mergers may take place in globular clusters, as well as other dense stellar systems, where most neutron stars have large spins. We find significant variability in the merger outcome as a function of initial neutron star spin. For cases where the spin is aligned with the orbital angular momentum, the additional centrifugal support in the remnant hypermassive neutron star can prevent the prompt collapse to a black hole, while for antialigned cases the decreased total angular momentum can facilitate the collapse to a black hole. We show that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of ejected material, including the amount unbound with velocities greater than half the speed of light, leading to brighter electromagnetic signatures associated with kilonovae and interaction of the ejecta with the interstellar medium. Fur...

  19. Apparent Coulomb reacceleration of neutrons in electrodissociation of the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianconi, A.; Jeschonnek, S.; Nikolaev, N.N.; Zakharov, B.G. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy) Dipartimento Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia (Italy) IKP (Theorie), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH., D-52425 Juelich (Germany) L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, GSP-1, 117940, ul.-Kosygina 2, V-334 Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1995-03-01

    We demonstrate that the final state [ital p]-[ital n] interaction in the reaction of electrodissociation of the deuteron at large [ital Q][sup 2] in a static external field leads to the apparent reacceleration of neutrons. The shift of the neutron velocity from the velocity of the deuteron beam is related to the quantum-mechanical forward-backward asymmetry of the missing momentum distribution in the [sup 2]H ([ital e],[ital e][prime][ital p])[ital n] scattering.

  20. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  1. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  2. Diagnosing implosion velocity and ablator dynamics at NIF (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Anna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grim, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jungnam, Jerry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rundberg, Bob [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilhelmy, Jerry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Doug [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-07-09

    An enhanced understanding of the unique physics probed in a burning NIP capsule is important for both nuclear weapons physics and thermonuclear ignition. In this talk we introduce a new diagnostic idea, designed to measure dynamic aspects of the capsule implosion that are not currently accessible. The current set of diagnostics for the NIF experiments includes reaction history (a time resolved measure of the d + t burn), neutron time-of-flight and spectrometry and spatial imaging of the neutron production and scattering. Although valuable, this abbreviated set of diagnostics cannot determine key dynamical properties of the implosion, such as implosion velocity (v{sub impl}) and ablator thickness. To surpass the present limits of {approx} 10{sup 15} d+t reactions, it will be necessary to increase significantly the implosion energy delivered to the DT fuel by finely tuning the balance between the remaining (imploding) ablator mass and velocity. If too much mass remains, the implosion velocity will be too slow, and the subsecpwnt PdV work will not be sufficient to overcome cooling via conduction and radiation. If too little mass remains, hydrodynamic instabilities will occur, resulting in unpredictable and degraded performance. Detailed calculations suggest the ablator must reach an implosion velocity of 3-4 x 10{sup 7} cm/sec and an areal density of {rho}{Delta}R {approx}200 mg/cm{sup 2} in order to achieve ignition. The authors present a new scheme to measure these important quantities using neutron reactions on the ablator material. During the burn, the ablator is moving relative to the 14.1 MeV d+t neutrons that are traversing the capsule. The resulting neutron-ablator Doppler shift causes a few unique nuclear reactions to become sensitive detectors of the ablator velocity at peak burn time. The 'point-design' capsule at the NIF will be based on a {sup 9}Be ablator, and the {sup 9}Be(n,p){sup 9}Li reaction has an energy threshold of 14.2 MeV, making it

  3. Status of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  4. Propagation of a constant velocity fission wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinert, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The ideal nuclear fuel cycle would require no enrichment, minimize the need fresh uranium, and produce few, if any, transuranic elements. Importantly, the latter goal would be met without the reprocessing. For purely physical reasons, no reactor system or fuel cycle can meet all of these objectives. However, a traveling-wave reactor, if feasible, could come remarkably close. The concept is simple: a large cylinder of natural (or depleted) uranium is subjected to a fast neutron source at one end, the neutrons would transmute the uranium downstream and produce plutonium. If the conditions were right, a self-sustaining fission wave would form, producing yet more neutrons which would breed more plutonium and leave behind little more than short-lived fission products. Numerical studies have shown that fission waves of this type are also possible. We have derived an exact solution for the propagation velocity of a fission wave through fertile material. The results show that these waves fall into a class of traveling wave phenomena that have been encountered in other systems. The solution places a strict conditions on the shapes of the flux, diffusive, and reactive profiles that would be required for such a phenomenon to persist. The results are confirmed numerically.

  5. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  6. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shumaker, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Verbeke, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  7. The DIORAMA Neutron Emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, James Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    Emission of neutrons in a given event is modeled by the DioramaEmitterNeutron object, a subclass of the abstract DioramaEmitterModule object. The GenerateEmission method of this object is the entry point for generation of a neutron population for a given event. Shown in table 1, this method requires a number of parameters to be defined in the event definition.

  8. Neutron scattering. Experiment manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueckel, Thomas; Heger, Gernot; Richter, Dieter; Roth, Georg; Zorn, Reiner (eds.)

    2014-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The thermal triple-axis spectrometer PUMA, the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI, the hot-single-crystal diffractometer HEiDi, the three-axis spectrometer PANDA, the backscattering spectrometer SPHERES, the DNS neutron-polarization analysis, the neutron spin-echo spectrometer J-NSE, small-angle neutron scattering at KWS-1 and KWS-2, a very-small-angle neutron scattering diffractometer with focusing mirror, the reflectometer TREFF, the time-of-flight spectrometer TOFTOF. (HSI)

  9. Neutron-emission measurements at a white neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Data on the spectrum of neutrons emittcd from neutron-induced reactions are important in basic nuclear physics and in applications. Our program studies neutron emission from inelastic scattering as well as fission neutron spectra. A ''white'' neutron source (continuous in energy) allows measurements over a wide range of neutron energies all in one experiment. We use the tast neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for incident neutron energies from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV These experiments are based on double time-of-flight techniques to determine the energies of the incident and emitted neutrons. For the fission neutron measurements, parallel-plate ionization or avalanche detectors identify fission in actinide samples and give the required fast timing pulse. For inelastic scattering, gamma-ray detectors provide the timing and energy spectroscopy. A large neutron-detector array detects the emitted neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques are used to measure the energies of both the incident and emitted neutrons. Design considerations for the array include neutron-gamma discrimination, neutron energy resolution, angular coverage, segmentation, detector efficiency calibration and data acquisition. We have made preliminary measurements of the fission neutron spectra from {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np and {sup 239}Pu. Neutron emission spectra from inelastic scattering on iron and nickel have also been investigated. The results obtained will be compared with evaluated data.

  10. Crystal acceleration effect for cold neutrons in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia P. Braginetz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism of neutron acceleration is studied experimentally in detail for cold neutrons passing through the accelerated perfect crystal with the energies close to the Bragg one. The effect arises due to the following reason. The crystal refraction index (neutron–crystal interaction potential for neutron in the vicinity of the Bragg resonance sharply depends on the parameter of deviation from the exact Bragg condition, i.e. on the crystal–neutron relative velocity. Therefore the neutrons enter into the accelerated crystal with one neutron–crystal interaction potential and exit with the other. Neutron kinetic energy cannot vary inside the crystal due to its homogeneity. So, after passage through such a crystal, neutrons will be accelerated or decelerated because of the different energy change at the entrance and exit crystal boundaries.

  11. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.

    2000-01-01

    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  12. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  13. Numerical models for stationary superfluid neutron stars in general relativity with realistic equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Sourie, Aurélien; Novak, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical model for uniformly rotating superfluid neutron stars, for the first time with realistic microphysics including entrainment, in a fully general relativistic framework. We compute stationary and axisymmetric configurations of neutron stars composed of two fluids, namely superfluid neutrons and charged particles (protons and electrons), rotating with different rates around a common axis. Both fluids are coupled by entrainment, a non-dissipative interaction which in case of a non-vanishing relative velocity between the fluids, causes the fluid momenta being not aligned with the respective fluid velocities. We extend the formalism by Comer and Joynt (2003) in order to calculate the equation of state (EoS) and entrainment parameters for an arbitrary relative velocity. The resulting entrainment matrix fulfills all necessary sum rules and in the limit of small relative velocity our results agree with Fermi liquid theory ones, derived to lowest order in the velocity. This formalism is applied t...

  14. High current density and nonlinearity combination of selection device based on TaO(x)/TiO2/TaO(x) structure for one selector-one resistor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wootae; Park, Jubong; Kim, Seonghyun; Woo, Jiyong; Shin, Jungho; Choi, Godeuni; Park, Sangsu; Lee, Daeseok; Cha, Euijun; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hwang, Hyunsang

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate a high-performance selection device by utilizing the concept of crested oxide barrier to suppress the sneak current in bipolar resistive memory arrays. Using a TaO(x)/TiO(2)/TaO(x) structure, high current density over 10(7) A cm(-2) and excellent nonlinear characteristics up to 10(4) were successfully demonstrated. On the basis of the defect chemistry and SIMS depth profile result, we found that some Ta atoms gradually diffused into TiO(2) film, and consequently, the energy band of the TiO(2) film was symmetrically bent at the top and bottom TaO(x)/TiO(2) interfaces and modified as a crested oxide barrier. Furthermore, the one selector-one resistor device exhibited significant suppression of the leakage current, indicating excellent selector characteristics.

  15. Neutron resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsing, F

    2005-06-15

    The present document has been written in order to obtain the diploma 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches'. Since this diploma is indispensable to supervise thesis students, I had the intention to write a document that can be useful for someone starting in the field of neutron resonance spectroscopy. Although the here described topics are already described elsewhere, and often in more detail, it seemed useful to have most of the relevant information in a single document. A general introduction places the topic of neutron-nucleus interaction in a nuclear physics context. The large variations of several orders of magnitude in neutron-induced reaction cross sections are explained in terms of nuclear level excitations. The random character of the resonances make nuclear model calculation predictions impossible. Then several fields in physics where neutron-induced reactions are important and to which I have contributed in some way or another, are mentioned in a first synthetic chapter. They concern topics like parity nonconservation in certain neutron resonances, stellar nucleosynthesis by neutron capture, and data for nuclear energy applications. The latter item is especially important for the transmutation of nuclear waste and for alternative fuel cycles. Nuclear data libraries are also briefly mentioned. A second chapter details the R-matrix theory. This formalism is the foundation of the description of the neutron-nucleus interaction and is present in all fields of neutron resonance spectroscopy. (author)

  16. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  17. Neutron Star Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Wambach, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation I discuss two aspects of the neutron-matter equation of state. One relates to the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and empirical constraints on its slope parameter at saturation density. The second deals with spatially inhomogeneous chiral phases of deconfined quark matter in the inner core of a neutron star.

  18. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  19. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C. (Cambridge, MA); Shefer, Ruth E. (Newton, MA); Klinkowstein, Robert E. (Winchester, MA)

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the .sup.10 B(n,.alpha.).sup.7 Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  20. Neutron capture therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanch, J.C.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1999-11-02

    In one embodiment there is provided an application of the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li nuclear reaction or other neutron capture reactions for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This application, called Boron Neutron Capture Synovectomy (BNCS), requires substantially altered demands on neutron beam design than for instance treatment of deep seated tumors. Considerations for neutron beam design for the treatment of arthritic joints via BNCS are provided for, and comparisons with the design requirements for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of tumors are made. In addition, exemplary moderator/reflector assemblies are provided which produce intense, high-quality neutron beams based on (p,n) accelerator-based reactions. In another embodiment there is provided the use of deuteron-based charged particle reactions to be used as sources for epithermal or thermal neutron beams for neutron capture therapies. Many d,n reactions (e.g. using deuterium, tritium or beryllium targets) are very prolific at relatively low deuteron energies.

  1. Neutron Stars and Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Neutron stars are the most compact astronomical objects in the universe which are accessible by direct observation. Studying neutron stars means studying physics in regimes unattainable in any terrestrial laboratory. Understanding their observed complex phenomena requires a wide range of scientific disciplines, including the nuclear and condensed matter physics of very dense matter in neutron star interiors, plasma physics and quantum electrodynamics of magnetospheres, and the relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics of electron-positron pulsar winds interacting with some ambient medium. Not to mention the test bed neutron stars provide for general relativity theories, and their importance as potential sources of gravitational waves. It is this variety of disciplines which, among others, makes neutron star research so fascinating, not only for those who have been working in the field for many years but also for students and young scientists. The aim of this book is to serve as a reference work which not only review...

  2. THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

    2004-10-16

    Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

  3. Pocked surface neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-04-08

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  4. Neutron stars - General review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. G. W.; Canuto, V.

    1974-01-01

    A review is presented of those properties of neutron stars upon which there is general agreement and of those areas which currently remain in doubt. Developments in theoretical physics of neutron star interiors are summarized with particular attention devoted to hyperon interactions and the structure of interior layers. Determination of energy states and the composition of matter is described for successive layers, beginning with the surface and proceeding through the central region into the core. Problems encountered in determining the behavior of matter in the ultra-high density regime are discussed, and the effects of the magnetic field of a neutron star are evaluated along with the behavior of atomic structures in the field. The evolution of a neutron star is outlined with discussion centering on carbon detonation, cooling, vibrational damping, rotation, and pulsar glitches. The role of neutron stars in cosmic-ray propagation is considered.

  5. An ion-pair principle for enantioseparations of basic analytes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis using the di-n-butyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Qie-Nan; Yang, Geng-Liang; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2013-04-05

    A chiral recognition mechanism of ion-pair principle has been proposed in this study. It rationalized the enantioseparations of some basic analytes using the complex of di-n-butyl l-tartrate and boric acid as the chiral selector in methanolic background electrolytes (BGEs) by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE). An approach of mass spectrometer (MS) directly confirmed that triethylamine promoted the formation of negatively charged di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex chiral counter ion with a complex ratio of 2:1. And the negatively charged counter ion was the real chiral selector in the ion-pair principle enantioseparations. It was assumed that triethylamine should play its role by adjusting the apparent acidity (pH*) of the running buffer to a higher value. Consequently, the effects of various basic electrolytes including inorganic and organic ones on the enantioseparations in NACE were investigated. The results showed that most of the basic electrolytes tested were favorable for the enantioseparations of basic analytes using di-n-butyl l-tartrate-boric acid complex as the chiral ion-pair selector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  7. Velocities in Solar Pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.

    1996-05-01

    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  8. Optical polarizing neutron devices designed for pulsed neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, M.; Kurahashi, K.; Endoh, Y. [Tohoku Univ, Sendai (Japan); Itoh, S. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    We have designed two polarizing neutron devices for pulsed cold neutrons. The devices have been tested at the pulsed neutron source at the Booster Synchrotron Utilization Facility of the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. These two devices proved to have a practical use for experiments to investigate condensed matter physics using pulsed cold polarized neutrons.

  9. Precise determination of the degree of polarization of a cold neutron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastoll, H.; Schreckenbach, K. (Institut Laue - Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Baglin, C.; Bussiere, A.; Guillaud, J.P.; Kossakowski, R.; Liaud, P. (LAPP Annecy, 74 - Annecy (France))

    1991-08-15

    A cold neutron beam at the ILL High Flux Reactor was used to produce highly polarized neutrons by means of a bent supermirror polarizer. A following current sheet spin flipper allowed the change of the neutron spin direction relative to the guiding magnetic fields. The degree of polarization of the beam was measured as a function of the neutron velocity in the range 300-1500 m/s achieving an accuracy of 0.2% at typically 98% polarization. Two spin flippers and the permutation of three supermirror polarizers as polarizer/analyzer were employed. (orig.).

  10. Ultracold-neutron infrastructure for the gravitational spectrometer GRANIT

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Courtois, P; Kreuz, M; Mironov, S; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Soldner, T; Vezzu, F; Zimmer, O

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational spectrometer GRANIT will be set up at the Institut Laue Langevin. It will profit from the high ultracold neutron density produced by a dedicated source. A monochromator made of crystals from graphite intercalated with potassium will provide a neutron beam with 8.9 Angstrom incident on the source. The source employs superthermal conversion of cold neutrons in superfluid helium, in a vessel made from BeO ceramics with Be windows. A special extraction technique has been tested which feeds the spectrometer only with neutrons with a vertical velocity component v = 20 cm/s, thus keeping the density in the source high. This new source is expected to provide a density of up to R = 800 cm-3 for the spectrometer.

  11. The ultra-cold neutron laboratory at the FRM II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlokka, Stephan; Frei, Andreas [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fierlinger, Peter; Paul, Stephan [Physik-Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) are neutrons which are totally reflected from a given material surface. Typical energies of UCN are below 300 neV and velocities below 8 m/s. Thus they can be stored in material or magnetic bottles for several hundreds of seconds. As such, UCN are excellent laboratories to study fundamental parameters, e.g. the free neutron lifetime or the electric dipole moment of the neutron. At the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) a new source for UCN is currently being built. This talk will give an overview over the experimental facilities foreseen for this new source, as well as the current efforts for a complete test setup at the Maier-Leibnitz-Labor (MLL). The talk will also highlight a current experiment designed to study the irradiation effects on solid Deuterium during the operation of the UCN source.

  12. Fail-safe neutron shutter used for thermal neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, R.D.; Morris, R.A.

    1976-11-01

    A fail-safe, reliable, easy-to-use neutron shutter was designed, built, and put into operation at the Omega West Reactor, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The neutron shutter will be used primarily to perform thermal neutron radiography, but is also available for a highly collimated source of thermal neutrons (neutron flux = 3.876 x 10/sup 6/ (neutrons)/(cm/sup 2/.s)). Neutron collimator sizes of either 10.16 by 10.16 cm or 10.16 by 30.48 cm are available.

  13. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-05-01

    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  14. Slowly Rotating General Relativistic Superfluid Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2001-01-01

    We present a general formalism to treat slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars. As a first approximation, their matter content can be described in terms of a two-fluid model, where one fluid is the neutron superfluid, which is believed to exist in the core and inner crust of mature neutron stars, and the other fluid represents a conglomerate of all other constituents (crust nuclei, protons, electrons, etc.). We obtain a system of equations, good to second-order in the rotational velocities, that determines the metric and the matter variables, irrespective of the equation of state for the two fluids. In particular, allowance is made for the so-called entrainment effect, whereby the momentum of one constituent (e.g. the neutrons) carries along part of the mass of the other constituent. As an illustration of the developed framework, we consider a simplified equation of state for which the two fluids are described by different polytropes. We determine numerically the effects of the two flui...

  15. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  16. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean

    2000-04-01

    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  17. Preparative enantioseparation of propafenone by counter-current chromatography using di-n-butyl L-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shengqiang; Shen, Mangmang; Zheng, Ye; Chu, Chu; Li, Xing-Nuo; Yan, Jizhong

    2013-09-01

    This paper extends the research of the utilization of borate coordination complexes in chiral separation by counter-current chromatography (CCC). Racemic propafenone was successfully enantioseparated by CCC with di-n-butyl l-tartrate combined with boric acid as the chiral selector. The two-phase solvent system was composed of chloroform/ 0.05 mol/L acetate buffer pH 3.4 containing 0.10 mol/L boric acid (1:1, v/v), in which 0.10 mol/L di-n-butyl l-tartrate was added in the organic phase. The influence of factors in the enantioseparation of propafenone were investigated and optimized. A total of 92 mg of racemic propafenone was completely enantioseparated using high-speed CCC in a single run, yielding 40-42 mg of (R)- and (S)-propafenone enantiomers with an HPLC purity over 90-95%. The recovery for propafenone enantiomers from fractions of CCC was in the range of 85-90%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A versatile chiral selector for determination of enantiomeric composition of fluorescent and nonfluorescent chiral molecules using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alicia A; Fakayode, Sayo O; Lowry, Mark; Warner, Isiah M

    2009-02-01

    A fluorescent chiral molecular micelle (FCMM), poly (sodium N-undecanoyl-L-phenylalaninate) (poly-L-SUF), was developed as a chiral selector for enantiomeric recognition and determination of enantiomeric composition of four fluorescent and four nonfluorescent chiral molecules by use of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. The influence of FCMM concentration, buffer pH and complexation medium on FCMM-analyte host-guest complexation, and the emission spectral properties of the resulting complexes were investigated. The chiral interactions of the analytes,1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine, 1-(9-anthryl)-2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, propranolol, naproxen, chloromethyl menthyl ether (CME), citramalic acid, tartaric acid, and limonene (LIM), in the presence of poly-L-SUF were based on diastereomeric complex formation. The figures of merit obtained from the partial-least-squares regression modeling of the calibration samples suggested good prediction ability for the validation of six of the eight chiral analytes. Better host-guest complexation of the more hydrophobic molecules, CME and LIM, were obtained in methanol/water mixtures, resulting in better predictability of the regression models. Prediction ability of the models was evaluated by use of the root-mean-square percent relative error (RMS%RE) and was found to range from 1.77 to 15.80% (buffer), 1.26 to 7.95% (25:75 methanol/water), and 1.21 to 4.28% (75:25 methanol/water).

  19. Capillary Electrophoresis for the Simultaneous Determination of Metals by Using Ethylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid as Complexing Agent and Vancomycin as Complex Selector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THREEPROM, Jirasak; SOM-AUM, Waraporn; LIN, Jin-Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new separation system of capillary electrophoresis for the simultaneous determination of metals by using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) as complexing agent and employing vancomycin as complex selector was described. The Z-shape cell capillary electrophoresis was used to enhance the sensitivity for the determination of the complexes of Cu(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ), Co(Ⅱ) and Fe(Ⅲ) with EDTA. The partial filling method (co-current mode) was used in order to increase the selectivity of the electrophoretic method, meanwhile vancomycin was not present at the detector path during the detection of metal-EDTA complexes. The vancomycin concentration, phosphate concentration and pH of the buffer strongly influenced mobility, resolution and selectivity of the studied analytes. Under the optimal condition, the relative standard deviations (n=5) of the migration time and the peak area were less than 3.14% and 7.35%, respectively. Application of the Z-shape cell capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection and vancomycin loading led to the reliable determination of these metal ions in tap water and the recoveries were 97%-101%. The detection limits based on a signal to noise ratio of 3: 1 were found in the range of 2-10 μg·L-1.

  20. Influence of steric hindrance on enantioseparation of Dns-amino acids and pesticides on terguride based chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzátko, Ales; Cvak, Jan; Vaingátová, Silvie; Flieger, Miroslav

    2005-05-01

    Three urea derivatives of ergoline-based chiral selectors (CSs), differing in the size of the urea side chain, i.e. dimethyl- (CSI), diethyl- (CSII), and diisopropylurea (CSIII), were used to study the effect of steric hindrance on the enantioseparation of dansyl amino acids (Dns-AAs), pesticides, and mandelic acid under condition of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in linear polyacrylamide coated capillaries. A mixture of organic modifiers (MeOH/THF, 4:1 v/v) in a BGE consisting of 100 mM beta-alanine-acetate was used to increase the solubility of CSs up to 25 mM. The capillary was filled with CS (high UV absorption), and the inlet and outlet vials contained buffer solutions only. The best enantioseparation of Dns-AAs was achieved on CSI. Increased steric hindrance of the chiral binding site led to reduction of both enantioselectivity and resolution. The opposite pattern was observed for the separation of mandelic acid enantiomers, where the best enantioseparation and resolution was obtained with CSIII. Most of the pesticides studied reached maximum selectivity on the diethylurea ergoline derivative (CSII). Enantioseparation of fenoxaprop was found to be independent of steric hindrance.

  1. Diagnosing Implosion Velocity and Ablator Dynamics at NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Hayes, Anna; Jungman, Jerry; Wilson, Doug; Wilhelmy, Jerry; Bradley, Paul; Rundberg, Bob; Cerjan, Charlie

    2009-10-01

    An enhanced understanding of the environment in a burning NIF capsule is of interest to both astrophysics and thermonuclear ignition. In this talk we introduce a new diagnostic idea, designed to measure dynamic aspects of the capsule implosion that are not currently accessible. During the burn,the NIF capsule ablator is moving relative to the 14.1 MeV dt neutrons that are traversing the capsule. The resulting neutron-ablator Doppler shift causes a few unique nuclear reactions to become sensitive detectors of the ablator velocity at peak burn time. The ``point-design'' capsule at the NIF will be based on a ^9Be ablator, and the ^9Be(n,p)^9Li reaction has an energy threshold of 14.2 MeV, making it the ideal probe. As discussed in detail below, differences in the ablator velocity lead to significant differences in the rate of ^9Li production. We present techniques for measuring this ^9Li implosion velocity diagnostic at the NIF. The same experimental techniques, measuring neutron reactions on the ablator material, will allow us to determine other important dynamical quantities, such as the areal density and approximate thickness of the ablator at peak burn.

  2. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  3. Neutron scattering in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocchi, F. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1996-12-31

    Together with X-rays, thermal neutrons are the ideal probe to study the microscopic structure of condensed matter, however the precision attainable usually with neutrons for the measurement of atomic position correlation functions in liquids is, at least, one order of magnitude better than for X-rays. In order to measure properly the microscopic dynamics a wide range of momentum transfer with corresponding energy transfer must be available in the range of liquid state excitations. This again is only attainable, with good resolution, with neutrons. (author) 7 figs., 3 refs.

  4. Neutrons in soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Imae, Toyoko; Furusaka, Michihiro; Torikai, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    Neutron and synchrotron facilities, which are beyond the scale of the laboratory, and supported on a national level in countries throughout the world.  These tools for probing micro- and nano-structure research and on fast dynamics research of atomic location in materials have been key in the development of new polymer-based materials. Different from several existing professional books on neutron science, this book focuses on theory, instrumentation, an applications. The book is divided into five parts: Part 1 describes the underlying theory of neutron scattering. Part 2 desc

  5. Acceleration to high velocities and heating by impact using Nike KrF lasera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max; Weaver, J. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Watari, T.; Arikawa, Y.; Sakaiya, T.; Oh, J.; Velikovich, A. L.; Zalesak, S. T.; Bates, J. W.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Murakami, M.; Azechi, H.

    2010-05-01

    The Nike krypton fluoride laser [S. P. Obenschain, S. E. Bodner, D. Colombant, et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] is used to accelerate planar plastic foils to velocities that for the first time reach 1000 km/s. Collision of the highly accelerated deuterated polystyrene foil with a stationary target produces ˜Gbar shock pressures and results in heating of the foil to thermonuclear temperatures. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with ˜106 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2-3 keV.

  6. Slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with isospin dependent entrainment in a two-fluid model

    CERN Document Server

    Kheto, Apurba

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars including the entrainment effect in a two-fluid model, where one fluid represents the superfluid neutrons and the other is the charge-neutral fluid called the proton fluid, made of protons and electrons. The equation of state and the entrainment effect between the superfluid neutrons and the proton fluid are computed using a relativistic mean field (RMF) model where baryon-baryon interaction is mediated by the exchange of $\\sigma$, $\\omega$, and $\\rho$ mesons and scalar self interactions are also included. The equations governing rotating neutron stars in the slow rotation approximation are second order in rotational velocities of neutron and proton fluids. We explore the effects of the isospin dependent entrainment and the relative rotation between two fluids on the global properties of rotating superfluid neutron stars such as mass, shape, and the mass shedding (Kepler) limit within the RMF model with different parameter sets. ...

  7. Low-energy collective excitations in the neutron star inner crust

    CERN Document Server

    Chamel, N; Reddy, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the low-energy collective excitations of the neutron star inner crust, where a neutron superfluid coexists with a Coulomb lattice of nuclei. The dispersion relation of the modes is calculated systematically from a microscopic theory including neutron band structure effects. These effects are shown to lead to a strong mixing between the Bogoliubov-Anderson bosons of the neutron superfluid and the longitudinal crystal lattice phonons. In addition, the speed of the transverse shear mode is greatly reduced as a large fraction of superfluid neutrons are entrained by nuclei. Not only does the much smaller velocity of the transverse mode increase the specific heat of the inner crust, but it also decreases its electron thermal conductivity. These results may impact our interpretation of the thermal relaxation in accreting neutron stars. Due to strong mixing, the mean free path of the superfluid mode is found to be greatly reduced. Our results for the collective mode dispersion relations and their damping may...

  8. Neutron signal transfer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pleinert, H; Lehmann, E

    1999-01-01

    A new method called neutron signal transfer analysis has been developed for quantitative determination of hydrogenous distributions from neutron radiographic measurements. The technique is based on a model which describes the detector signal obtained in the measurement as a result of the action of three different mechanisms expressed by signal transfer functions. The explicit forms of the signal transfer functions are determined by Monte Carlo computer simulations and contain only the distribution as a variable. Therefore an unknown distribution can be determined from the detector signal by recursive iteration. This technique provides a simple and efficient tool for analysis of this type while also taking into account complex effects due to the energy dependency of neutron interaction and single and multiple scattering. Therefore this method provides an efficient tool for precise quantitative analysis using neutron radiography, as for example quantitative determination of moisture distributions in porous buil...

  9. Temperature of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Sachiko

    2016-07-01

    We start with a brief introduction to the historical background in the early pioneering days when the first neutron star thermal evolution calculations predicted the presence of neutron stars hot enough to be observable. We then report on the first detection of neutron star temperatures by ROSAT X-ray satellite, which vindicated the earlier prediction of hot neutron stars. We proceed to present subsequent developments, both in theory and observation, up to today. We then discuss the current status and the future prospect, which will offer useful insight to the understanding of basic properties of ultra-high density matter beyond the nuclear density, such as the possible presence of such exotic particles as pion condensates.

  10. Neutron Stars Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Heiselberg, H

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in neutron star theory and observation are discussed. Based on modern nucleon-nucleon potentials more reliable equations of state for dense nuclear matter have been constructed. Furthermore, phase transitions such as pion, kaon and hyperon condensation, superfluidity and quark matter can occur in cores of neutron stars. Specifically, the nuclear to quark matter phase transition and its mixed phases with intriguing structures is treated. Rotating neutron stars with and without phase transitions are discussed and compared to observed masses, radii and glitches. The observations of possible heavy $\\sim 2M_\\odot$ neutron stars in X-ray binaries and QPO's require relatively stiff equation of states and restrict strong phase transitions to occur at very high nuclear densities only.

  11. The intense neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W.B

    1966-07-01

    The presentation discusses both the economic and research contexts that would be served by producing neutrons in gram quantities at high intensities by electrical means without uranium-235. The revenue from producing radioisotopes is attractive. The array of techniques introduced by the multipurpose 65 megawatt Intense Neutron Generator project includes liquid metal cooling, superconducting magnets for beam bending and focussing, super-conductors for low-loss high-power radiofrequency systems, efficient devices for producing radiofrequency power, plasma physics developments for producing and accelerating hydrogen, ions at high intensity that are still far out from established practice, a multimegawatt high voltage D.C. generating machine that could have several applications. The research fields served relate principally to materials science through neutron-phonon and other quantum interactions as well as through neutron diffraction. Nuclear physics is served through {mu}-, {pi}- and K-meson production. Isotope production enters many fields of applied research. (author)

  12. Wave propagation and group velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1960-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  13. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Neutron scattering in dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudel, H. U.; Furrer, A.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer excitati......Insulating compounds containing dimers of transition metal and rare earth ions have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering (INS). Energy splittings can be directly determined, and the corresponding parameters are easily extracted from the experimental data. The intensities of dimer...

  15. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology.

  16. Neutron star kicks and their relationship to supernovae ejecta mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume that the velocity is given by vkick = α (Mejecta/Mremnant) + β . To test this simple relationship, we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different α and β values, and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of α = 70 km s-1 and β = 110 km s-1 reproduce the Hobbs et al. observed two-dimensional velocities, and α = 70 km s-1 and β = 120 km s-1 reproduce their inferred three-dimensional velocity distribution for nearby single neutron stars with ages less than 3 Myr. After testing isotropic, spin-axis aligned and orthogonal to spin-axis `kick' orientations, we find no statistical preference for a `kick' orientation. While ejecta mass cannot be the only factor that determines the velocity of supernova compact remnants, we suggest that it is a significant contributor and that the ejecta-based `kick' should replace the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution currently used in many population synthesis codes.

  17. Velocities of pulsars and neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1996-01-01

    We show that two long-standing astrophysical puzzles may have a simultaneous solution. Neutrino oscillations, biased by the magnetic field, alter the shape of the neutrinosphere in a cooling protoneutron star emerging from the supernova collapse. The resulting anisotropy in the momentum of outgoing neutrinos can be the origin of the observed proper motions of pulsars. Since the birth velocities generated this way are proportional to the strength of the magnetic field, this may also explain the observed isotropy of the gamma-ray bursts if they originate from old neutron stars. The connection between the motion of pulsars and neutrino oscillations results in a prediction for the \\tau neutrino mass of m(\

  18. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  19. Coded source neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  20. Coded source neutron imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

    2011-03-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100μm) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100μm and 10μm aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  1. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  2. Modifications to the pulsar kick velocity due to magnetic interactions in dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhya, S. P.; Roy, P. K.; Dutt-Mazumder, A. K.

    2014-02-01

    In this work we calculate the pulsar kick velocity of a magnetized neutron star (NS) composed of a degenerate quark matter core with non-Fermi liquid (NFL) correction. Both the leading order (LO) and next to LO (NLO) corrections to the kick velocity have been incorporated. In addition, the NFL corrections to the specific heat of magnetized quark matter have been presented. This has been taken into account to calculate the kick velocity of the NS. The results show a significant departure from the normal Fermi liquid estimates. The relation between radius and temperature has been shown with a kick velocity of 100 km s-1 with and without NFL corrections.

  3. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  4. MAGNETIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZALIZNYAK,I.A.; LEE,S.H.

    2004-07-30

    Much of our understanding of the atomic-scale magnetic structure and the dynamical properties of solids and liquids was gained from neutron-scattering studies. Elastic and inelastic neutron spectroscopy provided physicists with an unprecedented, detailed access to spin structures, magnetic-excitation spectra, soft-modes and critical dynamics at magnetic-phase transitions, which is unrivaled by other experimental techniques. Because the neutron has no electric charge, it is an ideal weakly interacting and highly penetrating probe of matter's inner structure and dynamics. Unlike techniques using photon electric fields or charged particles (e.g., electrons, muons) that significantly modify the local electronic environment, neutron spectroscopy allows determination of a material's intrinsic, unperturbed physical properties. The method is not sensitive to extraneous charges, electric fields, and the imperfection of surface layers. Because the neutron is a highly penetrating and non-destructive probe, neutron spectroscopy can probe the microscopic properties of bulk materials (not just their surface layers) and study samples embedded in complex environments, such as cryostats, magnets, and pressure cells, which are essential for understanding the physical origins of magnetic phenomena. Neutron scattering is arguably the most powerful and versatile experimental tool for studying the microscopic properties of the magnetic materials. The magnitude of the cross-section of the neutron magnetic scattering is similar to the cross-section of nuclear scattering by short-range nuclear forces, and is large enough to provide measurable scattering by the ordered magnetic structures and electron spin fluctuations. In the half-a-century or so that has passed since neutron beams with sufficient intensity for scattering applications became available with the advent of the nuclear reactors, they have became indispensable tools for studying a variety of important areas of modern

  5. Role of magnetic interactions in neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhya Souvik Priyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a calculation of the non-Fermi liquid correction to the specific heat of magnetized degenerate quark matter present at the core of the neutron star. The role of non-Fermi liquid corrections to the neutrino emissivity has been calculated beyond leading order. We extend our result to the evaluation of the pulsar kick velocity and cooling of the star due to such anomalous corrections and present a comparison with the simple Fermi liquid case.

  6. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  7. Fundamental neutron physics at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.

    1995-10-01

    Modern neutron sources and science share a common origin in mid-20th-century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for studying condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and justified) as tools for neutron scattering and materials science research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities performed at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high-flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high-power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for continuing this research.

  8. Radiography with polarised neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael L.

    2010-08-20

    In this thesis I present a new technique for the spatially resolved investigation of the magnetic properties of bulk samples. Standard one dimensional neutron depolarisation analysis is combined with neutron radiography to a method we call Neutron Depolarisation Imaging (NDI). The experimental setup which was installed at the neutron radiography beam line ANTARES at FRM II consists of a double crystal monochromator, neutron polariser, spin flipper, polarisation analyser and a position sensitive CCD detector. A comprehensive discussion of the requirements for these components is given and the limitations of the method are shown. The maximum spatial resolution which can be achieved with a neutron radiography setup is determined by the collimation of the neutron beam and the distance between sample and detector. Different types of polarisers have been tested and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A double crystal monochromator and a new type of polariser employing polarising neutron supermirrors based on the principle of an optical periscope were developed and tested during this work. Furthermore, NDI measurements on various samples of the weakly ferromagnetic materials Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al are presented. Neutron depolarisation radiography and tomography measurements were conducted with a spatial resolution as high as 0.3 mm on Pd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} and Ni{sub 3}Al samples. The feasibility of NDI experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 kbar was shown on a sample of Ni{sub 3}Al using a modified Cu:Be clamp cell. A decrease of the ordering temperature by 2 K under hydrostatic pressure was determined from the NDI measurements and shows the potential of the method for further high pressure experiments. Additionally a method was developed which in principle allows to obtain the intrinsic dependence of the ordering temperature T{sub C} on the ordered moment Ms from NDI measurements on inhomogeneous samples containing regions with

  9. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, R. L.

    2012-06-01

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov-Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov-Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott-Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction.

  10. Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-06

    This slide presentation explores single event effect, environmental neutron flux, system response, the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) neutron testing facility, examples of SEE measurements, and recent interest in thermal neutrons.

  11. The expression of the T-box selector gene midline in the leg imaginal disc is controlled by both transcriptional regulation and cell lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia C. Svendsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila Tbx20 homologs midline and H15 act as selector genes for ventral fate in Drosophila legs. midline and H15 expression defines the ventral domain of the leg and the two genes are necessary and sufficient for the development of ventral fate. Ventral-specific expression of midline and H15 is activated by Wingless (Wg and repressed by Decapentaplegic (Dpp. Here we identify VLE, a 5 kb enhancer that drives ventral specific expression in the leg disc that is very similar to midline expression. Subdivision of VLE identifies two regions that mediate both activation and repression and third region that only mediates repression. Loss- and gain-of-function genetic mosaic analysis shows that the activating and repressing regions respond to Wg and Dpp signaling respectively. All three repression regions depend on the activity of Mothers-against-decapentaplegic, a Drosophila r-Smad that mediates Dpp signaling, and respond to ectopic expression of the Dpp target genes optomoter-blind and Dorsocross 3. However, only one repression region is responsive to loss of schnurri, a co-repressor required for direct repression by Dpp-signaling. Thus, Dpp signaling restricts midline expression through both direct repression and through the activation of downstream repressors. We also find that midline and H15 expression are both subject to cross-repression and feedback inhibition. Finally, a lineage analysis indicates that ventral midline-expressing cells and dorsal omb-expressing cells do not mix during development. Together this data indicates that the ventral-specific expression of midline results from both transcriptional regulation and from a lack of cell-mixing between dorsal and ventral cells.

  12. Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?

    CERN Document Server

    De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels

    2016-01-01

    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...

  13. Neutron drip transition in accreting and nonaccreting neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Chamel, N; Zdunik, J L; Haensel, P

    2015-01-01

    The neutron-drip transition in the dense matter constituting the interior of neutron stars generally refers to the appearance of unbound neutrons as the matter density reaches some threshold density $\\rho_\\textrm{drip}$. This transition has been mainly studied under the cold catalyzed matter hypothesis. However, this assumption is unrealistic for accreting neutron stars. After examining the physical processes that are thought to be allowed in both accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars, suitable conditions for the onset of neutron drip are derived and general analytical expressions for the neutron drip density and pressure are obtained. Moreover, we show that the neutron-drip transition occurs at lower density and pressure than those predicted within the mean-nucleus approximation. This transition is studied numerically for various initial composition of the ashes from X-ray bursts and superbursts using microscopic nuclear mass models.

  14. Influence of the neutron transport tube on neutron resonance densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitatani Fumito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD is a non-destructive assay technique of nuclear materials in particle-like debris that contains various materials. An aim of NRD is to quantify nuclear materials in a melting fuel of Fukusima Daiichi plant, spent nuclear fuel and annihilation disposal fuel etc. NRD consists of two techniques of Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA and Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA or Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis (PGA. A density of nuclear material isotopes is decided with NRTA. The materials absorbing a neutron in a wide energy range such as boron in a sample are identified by NRCA/PGA. The information of NRCA/PGA is used in NRTA analysis to quantify nuclear material isotopes. A neutron time of flight (TOF method is used in NRD measurements. A facility, consisting of a neutron source, a neutron flight path, and a detector is required. A short flight path and a strong neutron source are needed to downsize such a facility and put NRD into practical use. A neutron transport tube covers a flight path to prevent noises. In order to investigate the effect of neutron transport tube and pulse width of a neutron source, we carried out NRTA experiments with a 2-m short neutron transport tube constructed at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute - Linear Accelerator (KURRI-LINAC, and impacts of shield of neutron transport tube and influence of pulse width of a neutron source were examined. A shield of the neutron transport tube reduced a background and had a good influence on the measurement. The resonance dips of 183W at 27 eV was successfully observed with a pulse width of a neutron source less than 2 μs.

  15. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-22

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  16. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Panes, Boris

    2011-01-01

    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  17. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Speckhard, Eric G; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming and proposed experiments will make significant improvements. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  18. The relevance of ambipolar diffusion for neutron star evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Akgün, Taner; Pons, José A.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2017-03-01

    We study ambipolar diffusion in strongly magnetized neutron stars, with special focus on the effects of neutrino reaction rates and the impact of a superfluid/superconducting transition in the neutron star core. For axisymmetric magnetic field configurations, we determine the deviation from β-equilibrium induced by the magnetic force and calculate the velocity of the slow, quasi-stationary, ambipolar drift. We study the temperature dependence of the velocity pattern and clearly identify the transition to a predominantly solenoidal flow. For stars without superconducting/superfluid constituents and with a mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic field of typical magnetar strength, we find that ambipolar diffusion proceeds fast enough to have a significant impact on the magnetic field evolution only at low core temperatures, T ≲ 1-2 × 108 K. The ambipolar diffusion time-scale becomes appreciably shorter when fast neutrino reactions are present, because the possibility to balance part of the magnetic force with pressure gradients is reduced. We also find short ambipolar diffusion time-scales in the case of superconducting cores for T ≲ 109 K, due to the reduced interaction between protons and neutrons. In the most favourable scenario, with fast neutrino reactions and superconducting cores, ambipolar diffusion results in advection velocities of several km kyr-1. This velocity can substantially reorganize magnetic fields in magnetar cores, in a way which can only be confirmed by dynamical simulations.

  19. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); CNR SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, n.132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Scherillo, A. [Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Facility Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Celentano, G. [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@enea.it [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics, Via Appia Nuova 31, 00040 Marino, Roma (Italy)

    2015-03-16

    A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

  20. Hybrid Superconducting Neutron Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, V; Cirillo, M; Lucci, M; Ottaviani, I; Scherillo, A; Celentano, G; Pietropaolo, A

    2014-01-01

    A new neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction 10B+n $\\rightarrow$ $\\alpha$+ 7Li , with $\\alpha$ and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the supercond...

  1. Neutron counting with cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  2. Neutron whispering gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery V.; Voronin, Alexei Yu.; Cubitt, Robert; Protasov, Konstantin V.

    2010-02-01

    The `whispering gallery' effect has been known since ancient times for sound waves in air, later in water and more recently for a broad range of electromagnetic waves: radio, optics, Roentgen and so on. It consists of wave localization near a curved reflecting surface and is expected for waves of various natures, for instance, for atoms and neutrons. For matter waves, it would include a new feature: a massive particle would be settled in quantum states, with parameters depending on its mass. Here, we present for the first time the quantum whispering-gallery effect for cold neutrons. This phenomenon provides an example of an exactly solvable problem analogous to the `quantum bouncer'; it is complementary to the recently discovered gravitationally bound quantum states of neutrons . These two phenomena provide a direct demonstration of the weak equivalence principle for a massive particle in a pure quantum state. Deeply bound whispering-gallery states are long-living and weakly sensitive to surface potential; highly excited states are short-living and very sensitive to the wall potential shape. Therefore, they are a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects.

  3. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  4. Virtual neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie Hougaard; Bruun, Jesper; May, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We describe how virtual experiments can be utilized in a learning design that prepares students for hands-on experiments at large-scale facilities. We illustrate the design by showing how virtual experiments are used at the Niels Bohr Institute in a master level course on neutron scattering....... In the last week of the course, students travel to a large-scale neutron scattering facility to perform real neutron scattering experiments. Through student interviews and survey answers, we argue, that the virtual training prepares the students to engage more fruitfully with experiments by letting them focus...... on physics and data rather than the overwhelming instrumentation. We argue that this is because they can transfer their virtual experimental experience to the real-life situation. However, we also find that learning is still situated in the sense that only knowledge of particular experiments is transferred...

  5. Direction sensitive neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlen, Steven; Fisher, Peter; Dujmic, Denis; Wellenstein, Hermann F.; Inglis, Andrew

    2017-01-31

    A neutron detector includes a pressure vessel, an electrically conductive field cage assembly within the pressure vessel and an imaging subsystem. A pressurized gas mixture of CF.sub.4, .sup.3He and .sup.4He at respective partial pressures is used. The field cage establishes a relatively large drift region of low field strength, in which ionization electrons generated by neutron-He interactions are directed toward a substantially smaller amplification region of substantially higher field strength in which the ionization electrons undergo avalanche multiplication resulting in scintillation of the CF.sub.4 along scintillation tracks. The imaging system generates two-dimensional images of the scintillation patterns and employs track-finding to identify tracks and deduce the rate and direction of incident neutrons. One or more photo-multiplier tubes record the time-profile of the scintillation tracks permitting the determination of the third coordinate.

  6. Neutron absorbing alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masayuki

    1998-12-04

    The neutron absorbing alloy of the present invention comprises Ti or an alloy thereof as a mother material, to which from 2 to 40% by weight of Hf and Gd within a range of from 4 to 50% by weight in total are added respectively. Ti is excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability, and produces no noxious intermetallic compound with Hf and Gd. In addition, since the alloy can incorporate a great quantity of Hf and Gd, a neutron absorbing material having excellent neutron absorbing performance than usual and excellent in specific strength, corrosion resistance and workability can be manufactured conveniently and economically not by a special manufacturing method. (T.M.)

  7. Carbon neutron star atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, V F; Pavlov, G G; Werner, K

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of measuring the basic parameters of neutron stars is limited in particular by uncertainties in chemical composition of their atmospheres. For example, atmospheres of thermally - emitting neutron stars in supernova remnants might have exotic chemical compositions, and for one of them, the neutron star in CasA, a pure carbon atmosphere has recently been suggested by Ho & Heinke (2009). To test such a composition for other similar sources, a publicly available detailed grid of carbon model atmosphere spectra is needed. We have computed such a grid using the standard LTE approximation and assuming that the magnetic field does not exceed 10^8 G. The opacities and pressure ionization effects are calculated using the Opacity Project approach. We describe the properties of our models and investigate the impact of the adopted assumptions and approximations on the emergent spectra.

  8. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  9. Larmor labeling of neutron spin using superconducting Wollaston prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fankang

    Neutron spin Larmor labeling using magnetic Wollaston prisms (WP) provides a way to overcome some of the limitations arising from the nature of neutron beams: low flux and divergence. Using superconducting films and tapes, a series of strong, well-defined shaped magnetic fields can be produced due to both the zero-resistance and Meissner effect in superconductors. Using finite element simulations, the criterion to build a superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism with high encoding efficiency and low Larmor phase aberrations are presented. To achieve a high magnetic field and simplify the maintenance, we optimize the design using careful thermal analysis. The measured neutron spin flipping efficiency is measured to be independent of both the neutron wavelength and energizing current, which is a significant improvement over other devices with similar functions. A highly linear variation of the Larmor phase is measured across the device, which ensures a highly uniform encoding of scattering angles into the neutron spin Larmor phase. Using two WPs, the correlation function for a colloidal silica sample was measured by spin echo modulated small angle neutron scattering (SEMSANS) and agrees well with other techniques. Using Monte Carlo code (McStas), we further investigated the SEMSANS setup and showed the requirements to improve its performance. We have proposed a new technique to implement neutron spin echo on a triple axis neutron spectrometer to achieve high resolution measurements of the lifetime of dispersive phonon excitations. The spin echo is tuned by appropriate choice of magnetic fields instead of physically tilting the coils used in traditional methods. This new approach allows a higher energy resolution and a larger effective tilting angle and hence larger group velocity to be measured.

  10. Atmospheres around Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Benz, Willy

    1994-12-01

    Interest in the behavior of atmospheres around neutron stars has grown astronomically in the past few years. Some of this interest arrived in the wake of the explosion of Supernova 1987A and its elusive remnant; spawning renewed interest in a method to insure material ``fall-back'' onto the adolescent neutron star in an effort to transform it into a silent black hole. However, the bulk of the activity with atmospheres around neutron stars is concentrated in stellar models with neutron star, rather than white dwarf, cores; otherwise known as Thorne-Zytkow objects. First a mere seed in the imagination of theorists, Thorne-Zytkow objects have grown into an observational reality with an ever-increasing list of formation scenarios and observational prospects. Unfortunately, the analytic work of Chevalier on supernova fall-back implies that, except for a few cases, the stellar simulations of Thorne-Zytkow objects are missing an important aspect of physics: neutrinos. Neutrino cooling removes the pressure support of these atmospheres, allowing accretion beyond the canonical Eddington rate for these objects. We present here the results of detailed hydrodynamical simulations in one and two dimensions with the additional physical effects of neutrinos, advanced equations of state, and relativity over a range of parameters for our atmosphere including entropy and chemical composition as well as a range in the neutron star size. In agreement with Chevalier, we find, under the current list of formation scenarios, that the creature envisioned by Thorne and Zytkow will not survive the enormous appetite of a neutron star. However, neutrino heating (a physical effect not considered in Chevalier's analysis) can play an important role in creating instabilities in some formation schemes, leading to an expulsion of matter rather than rapid accretion. By placing scrutiny upon the formation methods, we can determine the observational prospects for each.

  11. Pixelated neutron image plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapp, M.; Conrad, H.; von Seggern, H.

    2004-09-01

    Neutron image plates (NIPs) have found widespread application as neutron detectors for single-crystal and powder diffraction, small-angle scattering and tomography. After neutron exposure, the image plate can be read out by scanning with a laser. Commercially available NIPs consist of a powder mixture of BaFBr : Eu2+ and Gd2O3 dispersed in a polymer matrix and supported by a flexible polymer sheet. Since BaFBr : Eu2+ is an excellent x-ray storage phosphor, these NIPs are particularly sensitive to ggr-radiation, which is always present as a background radiation in neutron experiments. In this work we present results on NIPs consisting of KCl : Eu2+ and LiF that were fabricated into ceramic image plates in which the alkali halides act as a self-supporting matrix without the necessity for using a polymeric binder. An advantage of this type of NIP is the significantly reduced ggr-sensitivity. However, the much lower neutron absorption cross section of LiF compared with Gd2O3 demands a thicker image plate for obtaining comparable neutron absorption. The greater thickness of the NIP inevitably leads to a loss in spatial resolution of the image plate. However, this reduction in resolution can be restricted by a novel image plate concept in which a ceramic structure with square cells (referred to as a 'honeycomb') is embedded in the NIP, resulting in a pixelated image plate. In such a NIP the read-out light is confined to the particular illuminated pixel, decoupling the spatial resolution from the optical properties of the image plate material and morphology. In this work, a comparison of experimentally determined and simulated spatial resolutions of pixelated and unstructured image plates for a fixed read-out laser intensity is presented, as well as simulations of the properties of these NIPs at higher laser powers.

  12. POLARIZED NEUTRONS IN RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COURANT,E.D.

    1998-04-27

    There does not appear to be any obvious way to accelerate neutrons, polarized or otherwise, to high energies by themselves. To investigate the behavior of polarized neutrons the authors therefore have to obtain them by accelerating them as components of heavier nuclei, and then sorting out the contribution of the neutrons in the analysis of the reactions produced by the heavy ion beams. The best neutron carriers for this purpose are probably {sup 3}He nuclei and deuterons. A polarized deuteron is primarily a combination of a proton and a neutron with their spins pointing in the same direction; in the {sup 3}He nucleus the spins of the two protons are opposite and the net spin (and magnetic moment) is almost the same as that of a free neutron. Polarized ions other than protons may be accelerated, stored and collided in a ring such as RHIC provided the techniques proposed for polarized proton operation can be adapted (or replaced by other strategies) for these ions. To accelerate polarized particles in a ring, one must make provisions for overcoming the depolarizing resonances that occur at certain energies. These resonances arise when the spin tune (ratio of spin precession frequency to orbit frequency) resonates with a component present in the horizontal field. The horizontal field oscillates with the vertical motion of the particles (due to vertical focusing); its frequency spectrum is dominated by the vertical oscillation frequency and its modulation by the periodic structure of the accelerator ring. In addition, the magnet imperfections that distort the closed orbit vertically contain all integral Fourier harmonics of the orbit frequency.

  13. Velocity centroids as tracers of the turbulent velocity statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A E A

    2004-01-01

    We use the results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to emulate spectroscopic observations, and produce maps of variations of velocity centroids to study their scaling properties. We compare them with those of the underlying velocity field, and analytic predictions presented in a previous paper (Lazarian & Esquivel 2003). We tested, with success, a criteria for recovering velocity statistics from velocity centroids derived in our previous work. That is, if >> (where S is a 2D map of ``unnormalized'', v velocity, and I integrated intensity map -column density-), then the structure function of the centroids is dominated by the structure function of velocity. We show that it is possible to extract the velocity statistics using centroids for subsonic and mildly supersonic turbulence (e.g. Mach numbers ~2.5). While, towards higher Mach numbers other effects could affect significantly the statistics of centroids.

  14. Statistics of Velocity from Spectral Data Modified Velocity Centroids

    CERN Document Server

    Lazarian, A

    2003-01-01

    We address the problem of studying interstellar (ISM) turbulence using spectral line data. We construct a measure that we term modified velocity centroids (MVCs) and derive an analytical solution that relates the 2D spectra of the modified centroids with the underlying 3D velocity spectrum. We test our results using synthetic maps constructed with data obtained through simulations of compressible MHD turbulence. We prove that the MVCs are able to restore the underlying spectrum of turbulent velocity. We show that the modified velocity centroids (MVCs) are complementary to the the Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA) technique that we introduced earlier. Employed together they make determining of the velocity spectral index more reliable. At the same time we show that MVCs allow to determine velocity spectra when the underlying statistics is not a power law and/or the turbulence is subsonic.

  15. New compact neutron polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Th; Kennedy, S. J.; Hicks, T. J.; Mezei, F.

    A new type of a neutron polarizing bender was developed in co-operation with BENSC and ANSTO. It is based upon bent thin silicon wafers coated on one side with SiFeCo polarizing supermirrors and on the other side with Gd. Initial tests at BENSC in a 300 Oe magnetic field yielded a transmission of spin-up neutrons of about 55% over an angle range of 0.75° and flipping ratios > 30. Subsequent tests at ANSTO at 1200 Oe yielded a transmission of 48% with a flipping ratio > 45.

  16. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  17. Helium 3 neutron precision polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Measuring neutron polarization to a high degree of precision is critical for the next generation of neutron decay correlation experiments. Polarized neutrons are also used in experiments to probe the hadronic weak interaction which contributes a small portion (˜10-7) of the force between nucleons. Using a beam of cold neutrons at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), we polarized neutrons and measured their absolute polarization to ˜0.1%. Neutrons were polarized by passing them through a ^3He spin filter, relying on the maximally spin dependent 3He neutron absorption cross section. The neutron polarization can be determined by measuring the wavelength-dependent neutron transmission through the ^3He cell. An independent measurement of the neutron polarization was also obtained by passing the polarized beam through an RF spin flipper and a second polarized ^3He cell, used as an analyzer. To measure the efficiency of the spin flipper, the same measurements were made after reversing the ^3He polarization in the polarizer by using NMR techniques (adiabatic fast passage). We will show the consistency of these two measurements and the resulting precision of neutron polarimetry using these techniques.

  18. Neutron storage time measurement for the neutron EDM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, W. Clark; Ito, Takeyasu; Ramsey, John; Makela, Mark; Clayton, Steven; Hennings-Yeomans, Raul; Saidur Rahaman, M.; Currie, Scott; Womack, Todd; Sondheim, Walter; Cooper, Martin

    2010-11-01

    A new experiment to search for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is under development for installation at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oakridge National Laboratory. The experiment will use ultra-cold neutrons (UCN) stored in superfluid helium, along with ^3He atoms acting as a neutron spin analyzer and comagnetometer. One crucial factor affecting the ultimate sensitivity of the experiment is the neutron storage time that can be obtained in the acrylic measurement cell. The acrylic cell walls will be coated with deuterated polystyrene (dPS), which is expected to give a wall loss factor of ˜room temperature and below 20 K.

  19. Neutron recognition in LAND detector for large neutron multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Pawłowski, P; Leifels, Y; Trautmann, W; Adrich, P; Aumann, T; Bacri, C O; Barczyk, T; Bassini, R; Bianchin, S; Boiano, C; Boretzky, K; Boudard, A; Chbihi, A; Cibor, J; Czech, B; De Napoli, M; Ducret, J -E; Emling, H; Frankland, J D; Gorbinet, T; Hellström, M; Henzlova, D; Hlavac, S; Immè, J; Iori, I; Johansson, H; Kezzar, K; Kupny, S; Lafriakh, A; Fèvre, A Le; Gentil, E Le; Leray, S; Łukasik, J; Lühning, J; Lynch, W G; Lynen, U; Majka, Z; Mocko, M; Müller, W F J; Mykulyak, A; Orth, H; Otte, A N; Palit, R; Panebianco, S; Pullia, A; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Rossi, D; Salsac, M -D; Sann, H; Schwarz, C; Simon, H; Sfienti, C; Sümmerer, K; Tsang, M B; Verde, G; Veselsky, M; Volant, C; Wallace, M; Weick, H; Wiechula, J; Wieloch, A; Zwiegliński, B

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the LAND neutron detector is studied. Using an event-mixing technique based on one-neutron data obtained in the S107 experiment at the GSI laboratory, we test the efficiency of various analytic tools used to determine the multiplicity and kinematic properties of detected neutrons. A new algorithm developed recently for recognizing neutron showers from spectator decays in the ALADIN experiment S254 is described in detail. Its performance is assessed in comparison with other methods. The properties of the observed neutron events are used to estimate the detection efficiency of LAND in this experiment.

  20. Neutron beam imaging at neutron spectrometers at Dhruva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shraddha S.; Rao, Mala N.

    2012-06-01

    A low efficiency, 2-Dimensional Position Sensitive Neutron Detector based on delay line position encoding is developed. It is designed to handle beam flux of 106-107 n/cm2/s and for monitoring intensity profiles of neutron beams. The present detector can be mounted in transmission mode, as the hardware allows maximum neutron transmission in sensitive region. Position resolution of 1.2 mm in X and Y directions, is obtained. Online monitoring of beam images and intensity profile of various neutron scattering spectrometers at Dhruva are presented. It shows better dynamic range of intensity over commercial neutron camera and is also time effective over the traditionally used photographic method.

  1. A Drabkin-type spin resonator as tunable neutron beam monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piegsa, F.M., E-mail: florian.piegsa@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Ries, D. [ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Filges, U.; Hautle, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-09-11

    A Drabkin-type spin resonator was designed and successfully implemented at the multi-purpose beam line BOA at the spallation neutron source SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The device selectively acts on the magnetic moment of neutrons within an adjustable velocity band and hence can be utilized as a tunable neutron beam monochromator. Several neutron time-of-flight (TOF) spectra have been recorded employing various settings in order to characterize its performance. In a first test application the velocity dependent transmission of a beryllium filter was determined. In addition, we demonstrate that using an exponential current distribution in the spin resonator coil the side-maxima in the TOF spectra usually associated with a Drabkin setup can be strongly suppressed.

  2. Some Implications of Neutron Mirror Neutron Oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Nussinov, S

    2005-01-01

    We comment on a recently discussed possibility of oscillations between neutrons and degenerate mirror neutrons in the context of mirror models for particles and forces. It has been noted by Bento and Berezhiani that if these oscillations occurred at a rate of $\\tau^{-1}_{NN'}\\sim sec^{-1}$, it would help explain putative super GKZ cosmic ray events provided the temperature of the mirror radiation is $\\sim 0.3-0.4$ times that of familiar cosmic microwave background radiation. We discuss how such oscillation time scales can be realized in mirror models and find that the simplest nonsupersymmetric model for this idea requires the existence of a low mass (30-3000 GeV) color triplet scalar or vector boson. A supersymmetric model, where this constraint can be avoided is severely constrained by the requirement of maintaining a cooler mirror sector. We also find that the reheat temperature after inflation in generic models that give fast $n-n'$ oscillation be less than about 100 GeV in order to maintain the required ...

  3. Neutron Scattering Investigations of Correlated Electron Systems and Neutron Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sonja Lindahl

    are a unique probe for studying the atomic and molecular structure and dynamics of materials. Even though neutrons are very expensive to produce, the advantages neutrons provide overshadow the price. As neutrons interact weakly with materials compared to many other probes, e.g. electrons or photons......, it is possible to make a neutron scattering experiment through sample environment equipment like cryostats or pressure cells. Another advantage of neutron experiments is that the wavelength and energy of the neutron match the inter-atomic distances and basic excitations of solid materials. The scattering cross...... is not taken into account in previous reports on the field effect of magnetic scattering, since usually only L 0 is probed. A paper draft submitted for publication describing the results of elastic and inelastic neutron scattering experiments performed on the oxygen-doped La2CuO4+y HTSC is appended (Tc 40 K...

  4. Neutronic studies of the coupled moderators for spallation neutron sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Wen; Liang Jiu-Qing

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the neutronic performance of coupled moderators to be implemented in spallation neutron sources by Monte-Carlo simulation and give the slow neutron spectra for the cold and thermal moderators. CH4 moderator can provide slow neutrons with highly desirable characteristics and will be used in low-power spallation neutron soureces. The slow neutron intensity extracted from different angles has been calculated. The capability of moderation of liquid H2 is lower than H2O and liquid CH4 due to lower atomic number density of hydrogen but we can compensate for this disadvantage by using a premoderator. The H2O premoderator of 2cm thickness can reduce the heat deposition in the cold moderator by about 33% without spoiling the neutron pulse.

  5. Minimal information in velocity space

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, Guillaume

    1995-01-01

    Jaynes' transformation group principle is used to derive the objective prior for the velocity of a non-zero rest-mass particle. In the case of classical mechanics, invariance under the classical law of addition of velocities, leads to an improper constant prior over the unbounded velocity space of classical mechanics. The application of the relativistic law of addition of velocities leads to a less simple prior. It can however be rewritten as a uniform volumetric distribution if the relativistic velocity space is given a non-trivial metric.

  6. Rotational properties of hypermassive neutron stars from binary mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Hanauske, Matthias; Bovard, Luke; Rezzolla, Luciano; Font, José A; Galeazzi, Filippo; Stöcker, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Determining the differential-rotation law of compact stellar objects produced in binary neutron stars mergers or core-collapse supernovae is an old problem in relativistic astrophysics. Addressing this problem is important because it impacts directly on the maximum mass these objects can attain and hence on the threshold to black-hole formation under realistic conditions. Using the results from a large number of numerical simulations in full general relativity of binary neutron star mergers described with various equations of state and masses, we study the rotational properties of the resulting hypermassive neutron stars. We find that the angular-velocity distribution shows only a modest dependence on the equation of state, thus exhibiting the traits of "quasi-universality" found in other aspects of compact stars, both isolated and in binary systems. The distributions are characterized by an almost uniformly rotating core and a quasi-Keplerian "disk". Such a configuration is significantly different from the $...

  7. The host galaxy and environment of a neutron star merger

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Rowlinson, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Levan, A J; Gorosabel, J; Goldoni, P; Schulze, S; Zafar, T; Wiersema, K; Sanchez-Ramirez, R; Melandri, A; D'Avanzo, P; Oates, S; D'Elia, V; De Pasquale, M; Kruehler, T; van der Horst, A J; Xu, D; Watson, D; Piranomonte, S; Vergani, S; Milvang-Jensen, B; Kaper, L; Malesani, D; Fynbo, J P U; Cano, Z; Covino, S; Flores, H; Greiss, S; Hammer, F; Hartoog, O E; Hellmich, S; Heuser, C; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Mottola, S; Sparre, M; Sollerman, J; Tagliaferri, G; Tanvir, N R; Vestergaard, M; Wijers, R A M J

    2013-01-01

    The mergers of neutron stars have been predicted to cause an r-process supernova - a luminous near-infrared transient powered by the radioactive decay of freshly formed heavy metals. An r-process supernova, or kilonova, has recently been discovered coincident with the short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B, simultaneously confirming the widely-held theory of the origin of most short-durations GRBs in neutron star mergers. We report here the absorption spectrum of the afterglow of this GRB. From it we determine the redshift of the burst and the properties of the host galaxy and the environment in which the merger occurred. The merger is not associated with the most star-forming region of the galaxy; however, it did occur in a dense region, implying a rapid merger or a low natal kick velocity for the neutron star binary.

  8. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  9. Mergers of binary neutron stars with realistic spin

    CERN Document Server

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Tichy, Wolfgang; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of binary neutron stars have seen great advances in terms of physical detail and numerical quality. However, the spin of the neutron stars, one of the simplest global parameters of binaries, remains mostly unstudied. We present the first, fully nonlinear general relativistic dynamical evolutions of the last three orbits for constraint satisfying initial data of spinning neutron star binaries, with astrophysically realistic spins aligned and anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum. The initial data is computed with the constant rotational velocity approach. The dynamics of the systems is analyzed in terms of gauge-invariant binding energy vs. orbital angular momentum curves. By comparing to a binary black hole configuration we can estimate the different tidal and spin contributions to the binding energy for the first time. First results on the gravitational wave forms are presented. The phase evolution during the orbital motion is significantly affected by spin-orbit interactions, leading to d...

  10. Center for Neutron Research Project. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Copeland, G.L.; Difilippo, F.C.; Griess, J.C.; Gambill, W.R.; Moon, R.M.; Siman-Tov, I.I.

    1986-09-01

    The Center for Neutron Research (CNR) will provide the world's best facilities for the study of neutron scattering. The CNR will contain a very high flux reactor that will achieve an extremely high power density (between 4 and 8 MW/L). The reactor is to be fueled with uranium silicide and cooled, moderated, and reflected by D/sub 2/O. Initial reactor physics calculations indicate that a power level of 270 MW with a reactor core volume of 35 L will achieve a peak thermal flux in the reflector of 10/sup 20/ neutrons x m/sup -2/ x s/sup -1/. The reactor fuel will be contained in thin (1.3-mm) plates, similar to those employed in the very successful High-Flux Isotope Reactor, and will be graded in the axial and radial directions. Coolant velocity is to be 27 m/s, and core inlet pressure is to be 5.6 MPa. Maximum fuel centerline temperature will be approx.350/sup 0/C. Initial thermal-hydraulic studies indicate that some method of preventing the formation of aluminum oxide on the fuel clad is required if the highest performance is to be achieved. Tests to confirm these calculations are planned. One of the experimental facilities is to be a cold (10-MeV) neutron source. Calculations to determine the size of the source have been initiated, but additional cross-section data are needed. An abbreviated version of a tentative program plan for fiscal year 1987 and beyond is described. Total program expenditures are expected to be $40 million over 5 years.

  11. Visual control of walking velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles

    2011-06-01

    Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.

  12. Neutron Diffusion in a Space Lattice of Fissionable and Absorbing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feynman, R. P.; Welton, T. A.

    1946-08-27

    Methods are developed for estimating the effect on a critical assembly of fabricating it as a lattice rather than in the more simply interpreted homogeneous manner. An idealized case is discussed supposing an infinite medium in which fission, elastic scattering and absorption can occur, neutrons of only one velocity present, and the neutron m.f.p. independent of position and equal to unity with the unit of length used.

  13. A review on neutron reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Lee, Chang Hee; Shim, Hae Seop; Seong, Baek Seok

    1999-03-01

    This report contains principle and characteristic of neutron reflectometry. Therefore, in case of operating neutron reflectometer at HANARO in future, it will be a reference to the user who wishes to use the instrument effectively. Also, the current situation of neutron reflectometer operating in the world was examined. The detail of neutron reflectometer such as GANS(MURR), ADAM(ILL), POSY II(ANL), ROG(IRI) was described. The recent research situation on neutron reflectometry was also examined and it helps us to determine research field. (author)

  14. Neutron proton crystallography station (PCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kovalevsky, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson, Hannah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The PCS (Protein Crystallography Station) at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a unique facility in the USA that is designed and optimized for detecting and collecting neutron diffraction data from macromolecular crystals. PCS utilizes the 20 Hz spallation neutron source at LANSCE to enable time-of-flight measurements using 0.6-7.0 {angstrom} neutrons. This increases the neutron flux on the sample by using a wavelength range that is optimal for studying macromolecular crystal structures. The diagram below show a schematic of PCS and photos of the detector and instrument cave.

  15. Neutron detection efficiency determinations for the TUNL neutron-neutron and neutron-proton scattering-length measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, D.E. Gonzalez [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)], E-mail: crowell@tunl.duke.edu; Meneses, F. Salinas [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)], E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu; Crowell, A.S.; Howell, C.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Schmidt, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, D-38116, Braunschweig (Germany); Walter, R.L. [Department of Physics, Duke University and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)

    2009-02-11

    The methods employed and the results obtained from measurements and calculations of the detection efficiency for the neutron detectors used at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) in the simultaneous determination of the {sup 1}S{sub 0} neutron-neutron and neutron-proton scattering lengths a{sub nn} and a{sub np}, respectively, are described. Typical values for the detector efficiency were 0.3. Very good agreement between the different experimental methods and between data and calculation has been obtained in the neutron energy range below E{sub n}=13MeV.

  16. Cooling of Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorian H.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis for modeling the cooling evolution of compact stars starting from Boltzmann equations in curved space-time. We open a discussion on observational verification of different neutron star models by consistent statistics. Particular interest has the question of existence of quark matter deep inside of compact object, which has to have a specific influence on the cooling history of the star. Besides of consideration of several constraints and features of cooling evolution, which are susceptible of being critical for internal structure of hot compact stars we have introduced a method of extraction of the mass distribution of the neutron stars from temperature and age data. The resulting mass distribution has been compared with the one suggested by supernove simulations. This method can be considered as an additional checking tool for the consistency of theoretical modeling of neutron stars. We conclude that the cooling data allowed existence of neutron stars with quark cores even with one-flavor quark matter.

  17. New Neutron Dosimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    CERN has been operating an Individual Dosimetry Service for neutrons for about 35 years. The service was based on nuclear emulsions in the form of film packages which were developed and scanned in the Service. In 1999, the supplier of theses packages informed CERN that they will discontinue production of this material. TIS-RP decided to look for an external service provider for individual neutron dosimetry. After an extensive market survey and an invitation for tender, a supplier that met the stringent technical requirements set up by CERN's host states for personal dosimeters was identified. The new dosimeter is based on a track-etching technique. Neutrons have the capability of damaging plastic material. The microscopic damage centres are revealed by etching them in a strong acid. The resulting etch pits can be automatically counted and their density is proportional to dose equivalent from neutrons. On the technical side, the new dosimeter provides an improved independence of its response from energy and th...

  18. Neutron protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    X-ray diffraction of single crystal has enriched the knowledge of various biological molecules such as proteins, DNA, t-RNA, viruses, etc. It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron diffraction seems usable to directly determine the location of those hydrogen atoms. Here, neutron diffraction method was applied to structural analysis of hen egg-white lysozyme. Since the crystal size of a protein to analyze is generally small (5 mm{sup 3} at most), the neutron beam at the sample position in monochromator system was set to less than 5 x 5 mm{sup 2} and beam divergence to 0.4 degree or less. Neutron imaging plate with {sup 6}Li or Gd mixed with photostimulated luminescence material was used and about 2500 Bragg reflections were recorded in one crystal setting. A total of 38278 reflections for 2.0 A resolution were collected in less than 10 days. Thus, stereo views of Trp-111 omit map around the indol ring of Trp-111 was presented and the three-dimensional arrangement of 696H and 264D atoms in the lysozyme molecules was determined using the omit map. (M.N.)

  19. The relevance of ambipolar diffusion for neutron star evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Passamonti, Andrea; Pons, José A; Miralles, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    We study ambipolar diffusion in strongly magnetised neutron stars, with special focus on the effects of neutrino reaction rates and the impact of a superfluid/superconducting transition in the neutron star core. For axisymmetric magnetic field configurations, we determine the deviation from $\\beta-$equilibrium induced by the magnetic force and calculate the velocity of the slow, quasi-stationary, ambipolar drift. We study the temperature dependence of the velocity pattern and clearly identify the transition to a predominantly solenoidal flow. For stars without superconducting/superfluid constituents and with a mixed poloidal-toroidal magnetic field of typical magnetar strength, we find that ambipolar diffusion proceeds fast enough to have a significant impact on the magnetic field evolution only at low core temperatures, $T \\lesssim 1-2\\times10^8$ K. The ambipolar diffusion timescale becomes appreciably shorter when fast neutrino reactions are present, because the possibility to balance part of the magnetic f...

  20. Polar kicks and the spin period - eccentricity relation in double neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Willems, B; Kalogera, V; Belczynski, K

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a population synthesis study aimed at examining the role of spin-kick alignment in producing a correlation between the spin period of the first-born neutron star and the orbital eccentricity of observed double neutron star binaries in the Galactic disk. We find spin-kick alignment to be compatible with the observed correlation, but not to alleviate the requirements for low kick velocities suggested in previous population synthesis studies. Our results furthermore suggest low- and high-eccentricity systems may form through two distinct formation channels distinguished by the presence or absence of a stable mass transfer phase before the formation of the second neutron star. The presence of highly eccentric systems in the observed sample of double neutron stars may furthermore support the notion that neutron stars accrete matter when moving through the envelope of a giant companion.

  1. Neutron capture reactions at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredeweg, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is a 4π BaF2 array consisting of 160 active detector elements. The primary purpose of the array is to perform neutron capture cross section measurements on small (>~100 μg) and/or radioactive (DANCE we have performed neutron capture cross section measurements on a wide array of medium to heavy mass nuclides. Measurements to date include neutron capture cross sections on 241,243Am, neutron capture and neutron-induced fission cross sections and capture-to-fission ratio (α = σγ/σf) for 235U using a new fission-tagging detector as well as neutron capture cross sections for several astrophysics branch-point nuclei. Results from several of these measurements will be presented along with a discussion of additional physics information that can be extracted from the DANCE data.

  2. Nanostructure Neutron Converter Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Thibeault, Sheila A. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods for making a neutron converter layer are provided. The various embodiment methods enable the formation of a single layer neutron converter material. The single layer neutron converter material formed according to the various embodiments may have a high neutron absorption cross section, tailored resistivity providing a good electric field penetration with submicron particles, and a high secondary electron emission coefficient. In an embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by sequential supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In another embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by simultaneous supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In a further embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by in-situ metalized aerogel nanostructure development.

  3. Gamma neutron method applied to field measurement of hydrodynamic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, F.; Pappalardo, A.; Couchat, Ph.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma neutron method is applied to the study of solute movements during field irrigations under steady-state and transient hydrodynamic conditions. Two different types of behavior are discussed. In the first, the labeled water pulse velocity matches the conservation of the vertical rate of water and, when the deuterated water concentration profiles are mass-conservative, the experimental results are accurately described by the equation of dispersion. In the second, the pore water velocity differs considerably from that of strictly vertical displacements and the concentration profiles are not massconservative.

  4. Frame Dragging Effect on Properties of Rotating Neutron Stars with Strong Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yu-Wu; WEN De-Hua; HU Jian-Xun

    2008-01-01

    The general relativistic frame dragging effect on the properties, such as the moments of inertia and the radii of gyration of fast rotating neutron stars with a uniform strong magnetic field, is calculated accurate to the first order in the uniform angular velocity. The results show that compared with the corresponding non-rotating static spherical symmetric neutron star with a weaker magnetic field, a fast rotating neutron star (millisecond pulsar) with a stronger magnetic field has a relative smaller moment of inertia and radius of gyration.

  5. Numerical solutions of general-relativistic field equations for rapidly rotating neutron stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪君; 须重明

    1997-01-01

    Stationary axial symmetric equilibrium configurations rapidly rotating with uniform angular velocity in the framework of genera! relativity are considered. Sequences of models are numerically computed by means of a computer code that solves the full Einstein equations exactly. This code employs Neugebauer’s minimal surface formalism, where the field equations are equivalent to two-dimensional minimal surface equations for 4 metric potentials. The calculations are based upon 10 different equations of state. Results of various structures of neutron stars and the rotational effects on stellar structures and properties are reported. Finally some limits to equations of state of neutron stars and the stability for rapidly rotating relativistic neutron stars are discussed.

  6. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  7. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-12-13

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >10{sup 11} n{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  8. Neutron logging tool readings and neutron parameters of formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubek, Jan A.

    1995-03-01

    A case history of the calibration of neutron porosity tools is given in the paper. The calibration of neutron porosity tools is one of the most difficult, complicated, and time consuming tasks in the well logging operations in geophysics. A semi empirical approach to this problem is given in the paper. It is based on the correlation of the tool readings observed in known environments with the apparent neutron parameters sensed by the tools. The apparent neutron parameters are functions of the true neutron parameters of geological formations and of the borehole material, borehole diameter, and the tool position inside the borehole. The true integral neutron transport parameters are obtained by the multigroup diffusion approximation for slowing down of neutrons and by one thermal neutron group for the diffusion. In the latter, the effective neutron temperature is taken into account. The problem of the thermal neutron absorption cross section of rocks is discussed in detail from the point of view of its importance for the well logging results and for the experimental techniques being used.

  9. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  10. Neutron beam design for low intensity neutron and gamma-ray radioscopy using small neutron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, T

    2003-01-01

    Two small neutron sources of sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be radioisotopes were used for design of neutron beams applicable to low intensity neutron and gamma ray radioscopy (LINGR). In the design, Monte Carlo code (MCNP) was employed to generate neutron and gamma ray beams suited to LINGR. With a view to variable neutron spectrum and neutron intensity, various arrangements were first examined, and neutron-filter, gamma-ray shield and beam collimator were verified. Monte Carlo calculations indicated that with a suitable filter-shield-collimator arrangement, thermal neutron beam of 3,900 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with neutron/gamma ratio of 7x10 sup 7 , and 25 ncm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 with very large neutron/gamma ratio, respectively, could be produced by using sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf(122 mu g) and a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am-Be(37GBq)radioisotopes at the irradiation port of 35 cm from the neutron sources.

  11. Dynamical mass ejection from black hole-neutron star binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kyutoku, Koutarou; Okawa, Hirotada; Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We investigate properties of material ejected dynamically in the merger of black hole-neutron star binaries by numerical-relativity simulations. We systematically study dependence of ejecta properties on the mass ratio of the binary, spin of the black hole, and equation of state of the neutron-star matter. Dynamical mass ejection is driven primarily by tidal torque, and the ejecta is much more anisotropic than that from binary neutron star mergers. In particular, the dynamical ejecta is concentrated around the orbital plane with a half opening angle of 10deg--20deg and often sweeps only a half of the plane. The ejecta mass can be as large as ~0.1M_sun, and the velocity is subrelativistic with ~0.2--0.3c for typical cases. The ratio of the ejecta mass to the bound mass (disk and fallback components) becomes high and the ejecta velocity is large when the binary mass ratio is large, i.e., the black hole is massive. The remnant black hole-disk system receives a kick velocity of O(100)km/s due to the ejecta linear...

  12. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.

    2011-01-01

    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...... with a 90° angle on the vessel. Moreover secondary flow in the abdominal aorta is illustrated by scanning on the transversal axis....

  13. The Mystery of the Lonely Neutron Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    must have formed in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. However, most of these are now invisible, having since long cooled down and become completely inactive while fading out of sight. An unsual neutron star - RX J1856.5-3754 Some years ago, the X-ray source RX J1856.5-3754 was found by the German ROSAT X-ray satellite observatory. Later observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (cf. STScI-PR97-32 ) detected extremely faint optical emission from this source and conclusively proved that it is an isolated neutron star [3]. There is no sign of the associated supernova remnant and it must therefore be at least 100,000 years "old". Most interestingly, and unlike younger isolated neutron stars or neutron stars in binary stellar systems, RX J1856.5-3754 does not show any sign of activity whatsoever, such as variability or pulsations. As a unique member of its class, RX J1856.5-3754 quickly became the centre of great interest among astronomers. It apparently presented the first, very welcome opportunity to perform detailed studies of the structure of a neutron star, without the disturbing influence of ill-understood activity. One particular question arose immediately. The emission of X-rays indicates a very high temperature of RX J1856.5-3754 . However, from the moment of their violent birth, neutron stars are thought to lose energy and to cool down continuously. But then, how can an old neutron star like this one be so hot? One possible explanation is that some interstellar material, gas and/or dust grains, is being captured by its strong gravitational field. Such particles would fall freely towards the surface of the neutron star and arrive there with about half the speed of light. Since the kinetic energy of these particles is proportionate to the second power of the velocity, even small amounts of matter would deposit much energy upon impact, thereby heating the neutron star. The spectrum of RX J1856.5-3754 The new VLT study by van Kerkwijk and Kulkarni of RX J1856

  14. Neutron Scattering Investigations of Correlated Electron Systems and Neutron Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sonja Lindahl

    are a unique probe for studying the atomic and molecular structure and dynamics of materials. Even though neutrons are very expensive to produce, the advantages neutrons provide overshadow the price. As neutrons interact weakly with materials compared to many other probes, e.g. electrons or photons......, it is possible to make a neutron scattering experiment through sample environment equipment like cryostats or pressure cells. Another advantage of neutron experiments is that the wavelength and energy of the neutron match the inter-atomic distances and basic excitations of solid materials. The scattering cross...... magnetism. This is in contrast to what is observed as the critical temperature is slightly lower for this system compared to other co-doped systems, suggesting that the magnetic and superconducting phases co-exist. A published manuscript describes the study of magnetic and superconducting properties of Ba...

  15. Neutron-gamma competition for $\\beta$-delayed neutron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Mumpower, Matthew; Moller, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We present a coupled Quasi-particle Random Phase Approximation and Hauser-Feshbach (QRPA+HF) model for calculating delayed particle emission. This approach uses microscopic nuclear structure information which starts with Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the daughter nucleus, and then follows the statistical decay until the initial available excitation energy is exhausted. Explicitly included at each particle emission stage is $\\gamma$-ray competition. We explore this model in the context of neutron emission of neutron-rich nuclei and find that neutron-gamma competition can lead to both increases and decreases in neutron emission probabilities, depending on the system considered. A second consequence of this formalism is a prediction of more neutrons on average being emitted after $\\beta$-decay for nuclei near the neutron dripline compared to models that do not consider the statistical decay.

  16. Fast neutron imaging device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Vladimir; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Musatov, Igor V.

    2014-02-11

    A fast neutron imaging apparatus and method of constructing fast neutron radiography images, the apparatus including a neutron source and a detector that provides event-by-event acquisition of position and energy deposition, and optionally timing and pulse shape for each individual neutron event detected by the detector. The method for constructing fast neutron radiography images utilizes the apparatus of the invention.

  17. Progress of Neutron Bubble Detectors in CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Neutron bubble detector is the only personal neutron dosimeter which has adequate neutronsensitivity to meet the implications of the ICRP 60 recommendations for neutron dosimetry. It canmonitor the wide range of neutron energy, for example 100 eV to 10 MeV And it becomes a significanttool for neutron dose monitoring at the environment of nuclear energy.

  18. Measurement of neutron scattering lengths using neutron interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Chandra B.

    This thesis describes the details on building a new Neutron Interferometry and Optics Facility (NIOFa), the measurement of the incoherent neutron scattering length bi of 3He, and the measurement of the coherent neutron scattering length bc of 4He at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). A new monochromatic beamline and facility has been installed at the NCNR devoted to neutron interferometry in the research areas of spin control, spin manipulation, quantum mechanics, quantum information science, spintronics, and material science. This facility is possible in part because of advances in decoherence free subspace interferometer designs that have demonstrated consistent contrast in the presence of vibrational noise; a major environmental constraint that has prevented neutron interferometry from being applied at other neutron facilities. This new facility, NIOFa, is located in the guide hall of the NCNR upstream of the existing Neutron Interferometry and Optics Facility (NIOF) and has several advantages over the NIOF including higher incident flux, better neutron polarization, and increased accessibility. The measurement of the incoherent neutron scattering length bi of 3He was done using a (220) single silicon crystal skew symmetric interferometer. This experiment requires both a polarized beam and a polarized target. We report bi = -2.35 +/- 0.014 (stat.) +/- 0.014 (syst.). This experiment is a revision of the previous experiment which was done in 2008, and partially explains the non-zero phase shift seen in 2008 experiment even if target cell was completely unpolarized. The measurement of the coherent neutron scattering length b c of the 4He was done using a (111) single silicon crystal interferometer. The neutron interferometry and optics facility at NIST had been used previously to determine the coherent scattering lengths for n- 1H, n-2H, and n-3He to less than 1% relative uncertainty. We report bc of the 4He

  19. Neutron electric polarizability

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    We use the background field method to extract the "connected" piece of the neutron electric polarizability. We present results for quenched simulations using both clover and Wilson fermions and discuss our experience in extracting the mass shifts and the challenges we encountered when we lowered the quark mass. For the neutron we find that as the pion mass is lowered below $500\\MeV$, the polarizability starts rising in agreement with predictions from chiral perturbation theory. For our lowest pion mass, $m_\\pi=320\\MeV$, we find that $\\alpha_n = 3.8(1.3)\\times 10^{-4}\\fm^3$, which is still only one third of the experimental value. We also present results for the neutral pion; we find that its polarizability turns negative for pion masses smaller than $500\\MeV$ which is puzzling.

  20. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, C.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR.

  1. Neutron Scattering Stiudies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Gunter H.R.; Egan, James J

    2007-04-18

    This project covers four principal areas of research: Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering studies in odd-A terbium, thulium and other highly deformed nuclei near A=160 with special regard to interband transitions and to the investigation of the direct-interaction versus the compound-nucleus excitation process in these nuclei. Examination of new, fast photomultiplier tubes suitable for use in a miniaturized neutron-time-of-flight spectrometer. Measurement of certain inelastic cross sections of 238U. Determination of the multiplicity of prompt fission gamma rays in even-A fissile actinides. Energies and mean lives of fission isomers produced by fast fission of even-Z, even-A actinides. Study of the mean life of 7Be in different host matrices and its possible astro-physical significance.

  2. Neutrons from Antiproton Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    Background: Radiotherapy with Antiprotons is currently investigated by the AD-4/ACE collaboration. The hypothesis is that the additional energy released from the antiprotons annihilating at the target nuclei can enable a reduced dose in the entry channel of the primary beam. Furthermore an enhanced...... relative biological effect (RBE) has already been beam measured in spread out Bragg peaks of antiprotons, relative to that found in the plateau region. However, the antiproton annihilation process is associated with a substantial release of secondary particles which contribute to the dose outside...... the neutron spectrum. Additionally, we used a cylindrical polystyrene loaded with several pairs of thermoluminescent detectors containing Lithium-6 and Lithium-7, which effectively detects thermalized neutrons. The obtained results are compared with FLUKA imulations. Results: The results obtained...

  3. Neutron Transport Simulations for NIST Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangchen; BL2 Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Neutrons in stable nuclei can exist forever; a free neutron lasts for about 15 minutes on average before it beta decays to a proton, an electron, and an antineutrino. Precision measurements of the neutron lifetime test the validity of weak interaction theory and provide input into the theory of the evolution of light elements in the early universe. There are two predominant ways of measuring the neutron lifetime: the bottle method and the beam method. The bottle method measures decays of ultracold neutrons that are stored in a bottle. The beam method measures decay protons in a beam of cold neutrons of known flux. An improved beam experiment is being prepared at the National Institute of Science and Technology (Gaithersburg, MD) with the goal of reducing statistical and systematic uncertainties to the level of 1 s. The purpose of my studies was to develop computer simulations of neutron transport to determine the beam collimation and study the neutron distribution's effect on systematic effects for the experiment, such as the solid angle of the neutron flux monitor. The motivation for the experiment and the results of this work will be presented. This work was supported, in part, by a Grant to Gettysburg College from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute through the Precollege and Undergraduate Science Education Program.

  4. High-resolution neutron microtomography with noiseless neutron counting detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McPhate, J.B.; Vallerga, J.V.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [Nova Scientific Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States); Lehmann, E. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Butler, L.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dawson, M. [Helmholtz Centre Berlin for Materials and Energy (Germany)

    2011-10-01

    The improved collimation and intensity of thermal and cold neutron beamlines combined with recent advances in neutron imaging devices enable high-resolution neutron radiography and microtomography, which can provide information on the internal structure of objects not achievable with conventional X-ray imaging techniques. Neutron detection efficiency, spatial and temporal resolution (important for the studies of dynamic processes) and low background count rate are among the crucial parameters defining the quality of radiographic images and tomographic reconstructions. The unique capabilities of neutron counting detectors with neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) and with Timepix CMOS readouts providing high neutron detection efficiency ({approx}70% for cold neutrons), spatial resolutions ranging from 15 to 55 {mu}m and a temporal resolution of {approx}1 {mu}s-combined with the virtual absence of readout noise-make these devices very attractive for high-resolution microtomography. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of an MCP-Timepix detection system applied to microtomographic imaging, performed at the ICON cold neutron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. The high resolution and the absence of readout noise enable accurate reconstruction of texture in a relatively opaque wood sample, differentiation of internal tissues of a fly and imaging of individual {approx}400 {mu}m grains in an organic powder encapsulated in a {approx}700 {mu}m thick metal casing.

  5. Neutrons in the moon. [neutron flux and production rate calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblum, J. J.; Fireman, E. L.; Levine, M.; Aronson, A.

    1973-01-01

    Neutron fluxes for energies between 15 MeV and thermal at depths of 0 to 300 g/sq cm in the moon are calculated by the discrete ordinate mathod with the ANISN code. With the energy spectrum of Lingenfelter et al. (1972). A total neutron-production rate for the moon of 26 plus or minus neutrons/sq cm sec is determined from the Ar-37 activity measurements in the Apollo 16 drill string, which are found to have a depth dependence in accordance with a neutron source function that decreases exponentially with an attenuation length of 155 g/sq cm.

  6. Are there good probes for the di-neutron correlation in light neutron-rich nuclei?

    CERN Document Server

    Hagino, K

    2015-01-01

    The di-neutron correlation is a spatial correlation with which two valence neutrons are located at a similar position inside a nucleus. We discuss possible experimental probes for the di-neutron correlation. This includes the Coulomb breakup and the pair transfer reactions of neutron-rich nuclei, and the direct two-neutron decays of nuclei beyond the neutron drip-line.

  7. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  8. Neutrons are flying

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    View of the n_TOF tube with members of the design and construction team of the facility(from left to right: R. Magnin/LHC, E. Radermacher/EP, P. Cennini/EP and R. Cappi/PS). A new experimental facility was inaugurated at CERN on Wednesday 8 November. The neutron Time Of Flight (n_TOF) facility received its first protons from the PS at 10:55. With an intensity of 1 x 1011 protons per cycle on the n_TOF target, an intense neutron beam has been produced at CERN for the first time, opening the door to many new avenues of research including, for example, neutron induced cross-section measurements. The facility is an offspring of the work by Carlo Rubbia and his group on the novel idea of an Energy Amplifier. The basic idea was successfully tested at the PS with the FEAT experiment and later with the TARC experiment, where the feasibility of transmutation of long-lived products by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) was confirmed. This led to the possibility of radio-isotope production for medical applications, fo...

  9. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  10. Euratom Neutron Radiography Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1986-01-01

    In 1979 a Neutron Radiography Working Group (NRWG) was constituted within Buratom with the participation of all centers within the European Community at which neutron facilities were available. The main purpose of NRWG was to standardize methods and procedures used in neutron radiography of nuclear...... reactor fuel as well as establish standards for radiographic image quality of neutron radiographs. The NRWG meets once a year in each of the neutron radiography centers to review the progress made and draw plans for the future. Besides, ad-hoc sub-groups or. different topics within the field of neutron...... radiography are constituted. This paper reviews the activities and achievements of the NRWG and its sub-groups....

  11. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  12. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making...

  13. Instantaneous Velocity Using Photogate Timers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbeck, John

    2010-01-01

    Photogate timers are commonly used in physics laboratories to determine the velocity of a passing object. In this application a card attached to a moving object breaks the beam of the photogate timer providing the time for the card to pass. The length L of the passing card can then be divided by this time to yield the average velocity (or speed)…

  14. Kriging Interpolating Cosmic Velocity Field

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yu; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-01-01

    [abridge] Volume-weighted statistics of large scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in mass-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number $n_k$ of the nearby particles to interpolate and the density $n_P$ of the observed sample are investigated. (1) We find that Kriging induces $1\\%$ and $3\\%$ systematics at $k\\sim 0.1h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ when $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-2} ({\\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}$ and $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-3} ({\\rm Mpc...

  15. Neutron Imaging by Boric Acid

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, Fabio; Perconti, Walter; Petrucci, Andrea; Rosada, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new type of passive neutron detector based on the already existing one, CR39, is described. Its operation was verified by three different neutron sources: an Americium-Beryllium (Am241-Be) source; a TRIGA type nuclear reactor; and a fast neutron reactor called TAPIRO. The obtained results, reported here, positively confirm its operation and the accountability of the new developed detecting technique.

  16. NEUTRON IMAGING, RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOGRAPHY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH,G.C.

    2002-03-01

    Neutrons are an invaluable probe in a wide range of scientific, medical and commercial endeavors. Many of these applications require the recording of an image of the neutron signal, either in one-dimension or in two-dimensions. We summarize the reactions of neutrons with the most important elements that are used for their detection. A description is then given of the major techniques used in neutron imaging, with emphasis on the detection media and position readout principle. Important characteristics such as position resolution, linearity, counting rate capability and sensitivity to gamma-background are discussed. Finally, the application of a subset of these instruments in radiology and tomography is described.

  17. Centrifugal quantum states of neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Petukhov, A. K.; Protasov, K. V.; Voronin, A. Yu.

    2008-09-01

    We propose a method for observation of the quasistationary states of neutrons localized near a curved mirror surface. The bounding effective well is formed by the centrifugal potential and the mirror Fermi potential. This phenomenon is an example of an exactly solvable “quantum bouncer” problem that can be studied experimentally. It could provide a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, as well as quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects. We develop a formalism that describes quantitatively the neutron motion near the mirror surface. The effects of mirror roughness are taken into account.

  18. Ukraine experimental neutron source facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Bolshinsky, I.; Nekludov, I.; Karnaukhov, I. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (INL); (Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology)

    2008-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine has a plan to construct an experimental neutron source facility. The facility has been developed for producing medical isotopes, training young nuclear professionals, supporting the Ukraine nuclear industry, providing capability for performing reactor physics, material research, and basic science experiments. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA is collaborating with KIPT on developing this facility. A driven subcritical assembly utilizing the KIPT electron accelerator with a target assembly is used to generate the neutron source. The target assembly utilizes tungsten or uranium for neutron production through photonuclear reactions with 100-KW of electron beam power. The neutron source intensity, spectrum, and spatial distribution have been studied to maximize the neutron yield and satisfy different engineering requirements. The subcritical assembly is designed to obtain the highest possible neutron flux intensity with a subcriticality of 0.98. Low enrichment uranium is used for the fuel material because it enhances the neutron source performance. Safety, reliability, and environmental considerations are included in the facility conceptual design. Horizontal neutron channels are incorporated for performing basic research including cold neutron source. This paper describes the conceptual design and summarizes some of the related analyses.

  19. Ultra-Cold Neutrons (UCN)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers working at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center and eight other member institutions of an international collaboration are constructing the most intense...

  20. Reactor neutrons in nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Glorius, Jan; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Jentschel, Michael; Jurado, Beatriz; Käppeler, Franz; Köster, Ulli; Langer, Christoph; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Weigand, Mario

    2017-09-01

    The huge neutron fluxes offer the possibility to use research reactors to produce isotopes of interest, which can be investigated afterwards. An example is the half-lives of long-lived isotopes like 129I. A direct usage of reactor neutrons in the astrophysical energy regime is only possible, if the corresponding ions are not at rest in the laboratory frame. The combination of an ion storage ring with a reactor and a neutron guide could open the path to direct measurements of neutron-induced cross sections on short-lived radioactive isotopes in the astrophysically interesting energy regime.

  1. Measurement of neutron diffraction with compact neutron source RANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y.; Takamura, M.; Taketani, A.; Sunaga, H.; Otake, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, M.; Oba, Y.; Hama, T.

    2016-11-01

    Diffraction is used as a measurement technique for crystal structure. X-rays or electron beam with wavelength that is close to the lattice constant of the crystal is often used for the measurement. They have sensitivity in surface (0.01mm) of heavy metals due to the mean free path for heavy ions. Neutron diffraction has the probe of the internal structure of the heavy metals because it has a longer mean free path than that of the X-rays or the electrons. However, the neutron diffraction measurement is not widely used because large facilities are required in the many neutron sources. RANS (Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source) is developed as a neutron source which is usable easily in laboratories and factories. In RANS, fast neutrons are generated by 7MeV protons colliding on a Be target. Some fast neutrons are moderated with polyethylene to thermal neutrons. The thermal neutrons of 10meV which have wavelength of 10nm can be used for the diffraction measurement. In this study, the texture evolution in steels was measured with RANS and the validity of the compact neutron source was proved. The texture of IF steel sheets with the thickness of 1.0mm was measured with 10minutes run. The resolution is 2% and is enough to analyze a evolution in texture due to compression/tensile deformation or a volume fraction of two phases in the steel sample. These results have proven the possibility to use compact neutron source for the analysis of mesoscopic structure of metallic materials.

  2. T-violation in neutron optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Y. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Experimental method to detect a T-odd correlation term in neutron propagation through a nuclear target is discussed. The correlation term is between the neutron spin, neutron momentum and nuclear spin. (author)

  3. Fundamental physics research and neutron interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioffe, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of the use of an extremely sensitive neutron interferometry technique for the study of electromagnetic structure of the neutron and the parity non-conservative effects in neutron spin rotation is discussed. (author)

  4. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    KAUST Repository

    Decker, Luke

    2014-08-05

    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  5. Neutron Star Kicks and their Relationship to Supernovae Ejecta Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, J C

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple model to explain the velocity of young neutron stars. We attempt to confirm a relationship between the amount of mass ejected in the formation of the neutron star and the `kick' velocity imparted to the compact remnant resulting from the process. We assume the velocity is given by $v_{\\rm kick}=\\alpha\\,(M_{\\rm ejecta} / M_{\\rm remnant}) + \\beta\\,$. To test this simple relationship we use the BPASS (Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis) code to create stellar population models from both single and binary star evolutionary pathways. We then use our Remnant Ejecta and Progenitor Explosion Relationship (REAPER) code to apply different $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ values and three different `kick' orientations then record the resulting velocity probability distributions. We find that while a single star population provides a poor fit to the observational data, the binary population provides an excellent fit. Values of $\\alpha=70\\, {\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$ and $\\beta=110\\,{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$ reproduce the \\c...

  6. Calculating and measuring thermal neutrons exiting from neutron diffractometers collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Tafazolee, K

    2000-01-01

    process, effectiveness of them are studied for the enhancement of the available system. Final conclusion from the simulation process, indicates that the heavy water with the thickness of 50 to 60 cm. is the best moderator for gaining the better thermal neutrons flux for enhancement of P.N.D. in the T.R.R. Powder Neutron Diffractometer y (P.N.D.) is relatively good and practical way for identification of the 3 dimensional construction of materials. In order to exploit the capabilities of this method, in one of the neutron beam of the Tehran Research Reactor (T.R.R.), a collimator embedded inside the concrete wall, direct the neutrons produced in the core reactor towards a monochromator e. Neutrons having been monochromated by 2 nd collimator are then directed towards the sample. Then the pattern of diffracted neutrons from the sample are studied. In order to make the best out of it, neutrons coming to sit on the sample must be of the thermal type. That means the number/amount of thermal neutrons flux in compar...

  7. Probing neutron star physics using accreting neutron stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patruno A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We give an obervational overview of the accreting neutron stars systems as probes of neutron star physics. In particular we focus on the results obtained from the periodic timing of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars in outburst and from the measurement of X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars during quiescence. In the first part of this overview we show that the X-ray pulses are contaminated by a large amount of noise of uncertain origin, and that all these neutron stars do not show evidence of spin variations during the outburst. We present also some recent developments on the presence of intermittency in three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars and investigate the reason why only a small number of accreting neutron stars show X-ray pulsations and why none of these pulsars shows sub-millisecond spin periods. In the second part of the overview we introduce the observational technique that allows the study of neutron star cooling in accreting systems as probes of neutron star internal composition and equation of state. We explain the phenomenon of the deep crustal heating and present some recent developments on several quasi persistent X-ray sources where a cooling neutron star has been observed.

  8. Sequential measurements of environmental neutron energy spectrum and neutron dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunomiya, Tomoya; Nakamura, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Terunuma, Kazutaka; Hirabayashi, Naoya; Sato, Youichi; Abe, Sigeru; Rasolonjatovo A.H, Danielle [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    From April 2001, neutron energy spectra and neutron dose were sequentially measured using 5'' -rem counter and {sup 3}He multi-moderator spectrometer (Boner boll) at Kawauchi-campus of Tohoku University. These data were collected about the relation between the dose level and the solar activities. (author)

  9. Magnetic correlations in oxides: Neutron diffraction and neutron depolarization study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S M Yusuf

    2008-10-01

    We have studied magnetic correlations in several oxide materials that belong to colossal magnetoresistive, naturally occurring layered oxide showing low-dimensional magnetic ordering, solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials, and magnetic nanoparticles using neutron diffraction and neutron depolarization techniques. In this paper, an overview of some of these results is given.

  10. Synovectomy by Neutron capture; Sinovectomia por captura de neutrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Torres M, C. [Centro Regional de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The Synovectomy by Neutron capture has as purpose the treatment of the rheumatoid arthritis, illness which at present does not have a definitive curing. This therapy requires a neutron source for irradiating the articulation affected. The energy spectra and the intensity of these neutrons are fundamental since these neutrons induce nuclear reactions of capture with Boron-10 inside the articulation and the freely energy of these reactions is transferred at the productive tissue of synovial liquid, annihilating it. In this work it is presented the neutron spectra results obtained with moderator packings of spherical geometry which contains in its center a Pu{sup 239} Be source. The calculations were realized through Monte Carlo method. The moderators assayed were light water, heavy water base and the both combination of them. The spectra obtained, the average energy, the neutron total number by neutron emitted by source, the thermal neutron percentage and the dose equivalent allow us to suggest that the moderator packing more adequate is what has a light water thickness 0.5 cm (radius 2 cm) and 24.5 cm heavy water (radius 26.5 cm). (Author)

  11. Time-resolved neutron imaging at ANTARES cold neutron beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S; Tittelmeier, K; Schillinger, B; Schulz, M; Lerche, M; Feller, W B

    2015-01-01

    In non-destructive evaluation with X-rays light elements embedded in dense, heavy (or high-Z) matrices show little contrast and their structural details can hardly be revealed. Neutron radiography, on the other hand, provides a solution for those cases, in particular for hydrogenous materials, owing to the large neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and uncorrelated dependency of neutron cross section on the atomic number. The majority of neutron imaging experiments at the present time is conducted with static objects mainly due to the limited flux intensity of neutron beamline facilities and sometimes due to the limitations of the detectors. However, some applications require the studies of dynamic phenomena and can now be conducted at several high intensity beamlines such as the recently rebuilt ANTARES beam line at the FRM-II reactor. In this paper we demonstrate the capabilities of time resolved imaging for repetitive processes, where different phases of the process can be imaged simultaneously and...

  12. Application of imaging plate neutron detector to neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Fujine, S; Kamata, M; Etoh, M

    1999-01-01

    As an imaging plate neutron detector (IP-ND) has been available for thermal neutron radiography (TNR) which has high resolution, high sensitivity and wide range, some basic characteristics of the IP-ND system were measured at the E-2 facility of the KUR. After basic performances of the IP were studied, images with high quality were obtained at a neutron fluence of 2 to 7x10 sup 8 n cm sup - sup 2. It was found that the IP-ND system with Gd sub 2 O sub 3 as a neutron converter material has a higher sensitivity to gamma-ray than that of a conventional film method. As a successful example, clear radiographs of the flat view for the fuel side plates with boron burnable poison were obtained. An application of the IP-ND system to neutron radiography (NR) is presented in this paper.

  13. High-flux neutron source based on a liquid-lithium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, S.; Feinberg, G.; Paul, M.; Arenshtam, A.; Berkovits, D.; Kijel, D.; Nagler, A.; Eliyahu, I.; Silverman, I.

    2013-04-01

    A prototype compact Liquid Lithium Target (LiLiT), able to constitute an accelerator-based intense neutron source, was built. The neutron source is intended for nuclear astrophysical research, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in hospitals and material studies for fusion reactors. The LiLiT setup is presently being commissioned at Soreq Nuclear research Center (SNRC). The lithium target will produce neutrons through the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction and it will overcome the major problem of removing the thermal power generated by a high-intensity proton beam, necessary for intense neutron flux for the above applications. The liquid-lithium loop of LiLiT is designed to generate a stable lithium jet at high velocity on a concave supporting wall with free surface toward the incident proton beam (up to 10 kW). During off-line tests, liquid lithium was flown through the loop and generated a stable jet at velocity higher than 5 m/s on the concave supporting wall. The target is now under extensive test program using a high-power electron-gun. Up to 2 kW electron beam was applied on the lithium flow at velocity of 4 m/s without any flow instabilities or excessive evaporation. High-intensity proton beam irradiation will take place at SARAF (Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility) superconducting linear accelerator currently in commissioning at SNRC.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  15. Analysis on Fault Phase Selector for Cross Country Fault of Parallel Transmission Lines%平行线路跨线故障选相元件的动作分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐海洋; 宋国兵; 樊占峰

    2016-01-01

    同走廊架设平行线路广泛应用于输电系统中。与单回线故障相比,跨线故障的故障特征发生变化,因而传统选相元件存在错选故障相的风险。考虑平行线路之间的零序互感作用,提出分别利用戴维南等效和构造存在耦合的复合序网络计算跨线非接地故障和接地故障时故障点处的序电流,进而分析选相元件的动作情况。以两端无电气连接的同杆并架双回线为例,通过对不同跨线故障类型情况下序电流关系式的分析,得出了零序负序电流选相元件的选相情况在跨线非接地故障时仅与故障类型有关,在跨线接地故障时不仅与故障类型有关,而且与回线间互感作用的强弱及零序、正序等值阻抗的比值有关;相电流差突变量选相元件通常情况下能够正确选相的结论。PSCAD仿真结果验证了跨线故障分析方法及选相元件分析结果的正确性。%Parallel transmission lines on the same corridor are commonly used in the transmission system.When a cross country fault occurs,the traditional fault phase selector may not correctly identify the fault phases due to the changes of fault characteristics.An algorithm for the calculation of the sequence currents at the fault point is proposed according to Thevenin”s theorem and the sequence currents at the location of the protection relay are obtained with superposition principle.Finally,the formulas on the relation between sequence currents at the fault point are deduced.Based on the double-circuit transmission lines on the same tower without electrical connection at both ends,it is found that the applicability of the positive and negative sequence current phase selector is related to fault types under cross country non-earth fault conditions,while that under cross country earth fault conditions are related to fault types,mutual inductance as well as the ratio of equivalent zero sequence impedance and positive

  16. Handbook of neutron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Utsuro, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Written by authors with an international reputation, acknowledged expertise and teaching experience, this is the most up-to-date resource on the field. The text is clearly structured throughout so as to be readily accessible, and begins by looking at scattering of a scalar particle by one-dimensional systems. The second section deals with the scattering of neutrons with spin in one-dimensional potentials, while the third treats dynamical diffraction in three-dimensional periodic media. The final two sections conclude with incoherent and small angle scattering, and some problems of quantum mech

  17. Advanced Neutron Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christl, Mark; Dobson, Chris; Norwood, Joseph; Kayatin, Matthew; Apple, Jeff; Gibson, Brian; Dietz, Kurt; Benson, Carl; Smith, Dennis; Howard, David; hide

    2013-01-01

    Energetic neutron measurements remain a challenge for space science investigations and radiation monitoring for human exploration beyond LEO. We are investigating a new composite scintillator design that uses Li6 glass scintillator embedded in a PVT block. A comparison between Li6 and Boron 10 loaded scintillators are being studied to assess the advantages and shortcomings of these two techniques. We present the details of the new Li6 design and results from the comparison of the B10 and Li6 techniques during exposures in a mixed radiation field produced by high energy protons interacting in a target material.

  18. On Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Luiz L

    2014-01-01

    In this work we review the formalism normally used in the literature about the effects of density-dependent magnetic fields on the properties of neutron stars, expose some ambiguities that arise and propose a way to solve the related problem. Our approach uses a different prescription for the calculation of the pressure based on the chaotic field formalism for the stress tensor and also a different way of introducing a variable magnetic field, which depends on the energy density rather than on the baryonic density.

  19. Higher velocity, high-foot implosions on the National Ignition Facility laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Döppner, T.; Ma, T.; Park, H.-S.; Barrios Garcia, M. A.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    By increasing the velocity in “high foot” implosions [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014); Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014); Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility laser, we have nearly doubled the neutron yield and the hotspot pressure as compared to the implosions reported upon last year. The implosion velocity has been increased using a combination of the laser (higher power and energy), the hohlraum (depleted uranium wall material with higher opacity and lower specific heat than gold hohlraums), and the capsule (thinner capsules with less mass). We find that the neutron yield from these experiments scales systematically with a velocity-like parameter of the square root of the laser energy divided by the ablator mass. By connecting this parameter with the inferred implosion velocity (v), we find that for shots with primary yield >1 × 10{sup 15} neutrons, the total yield ∼ v{sup 9.4}. This increase is considerably faster than the expected dependence for implosions without alpha heating (∼v{sup 5.9}) and is additional evidence that these experiments have significant alpha heating.

  20. Comparison of mid-velocity fragment formation with projectile-like decay

    CERN Document Server

    Hudan, S; Davin, B; Larochelle, Y; Xu, H; Beaulieu, L; Lefort, T; Yañez, R; De Souza, R T; Charity, R J; Sobotka, L G; Liu, T X; Liu, X D; Lynch, W G; Shomin, R; Tan, W P; Tsang, M B; Molen, A V; Wagner, A; Xi, H F

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs: 3<=Z<=20) produced in mid-peripheral and central collisions are compared. We compare IMFs detected at mid-velocity with those evaporated from the excited projectile-like fragment (PLF*). On average, the IMFs produced at mid-velocity are larger in atomic number, exhibit broader transverse velocity distributions, and are more neutron-rich as compared to IMFs evaporated from the PLF*. In contrast, comparison of mid-velocity fragments associated with mid-peripheral and central collisions reveals that their characteristics are remarkably similar despite the difference in impact parameter. The characteristics of mid-velocity fragments are consistent with low-density formation of the fragments. Neutron deficient isotopes of even Z elements manifest higher kinetic energies than heavier isotopes of the same element for both PLF* and mid-velocity emission. This result may be due to the decay of long-lived excited states in the field of the emitting system.

  1. High power neutron production targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  2. Neutron imaging of radioactive sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, F.; Karimzadeh, S.; Zawisky, M.

    2008-08-01

    Isotopic neutron sources have been available for more than six decades. At the Atomic Institute in Vienna, operating a 250 kW TRIGA reactor, different neutron sources are in use for instrument calibration and fast neutron applications but we have only little information about their construction and densities. The knowledge of source design is essential for a complete MCNP5 modeling of the experiments. Neutron radiography (NR) and neutron tomography (NT) are the best choices for the non-destructive inspection of the source geometry and homogeneity. From the transmission analysis we gain information about the shielding components and the densities of the radio-isotopes in the cores. Three neutron sources, based on (alpha, n) reaction, have been investigated, two 239PuBe sources and one 241AmBe source. In the NR images the internal structure was clearly revealed using high-resolving scintillation and imaging plate detectors. In one source tablet a crack was detected which causes asymmetric neutron emission. The tomography inspection of strong absorbing materials is more challenging due to the low beam intensity of 1.3x105 n/cm2s at our NT instrument, and due to the beam hardening effect which requires an extension of reconstruction software. The tomographic inspection of a PuBe neutron source and appropriate measures for background and beam hardening correction are presented.

  3. Physics of Neutron Star Crusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamel Nicolas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed.

  4. Axion emission from neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, N.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that axion emission from neutron stars is the dominant energy-loss mechanism for a range of values of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry-breaking scale (F) not excluded by previous constraints. This gives the possibility of obtaining a better bound on F from measurements of surface temperature of neutron stars.

  5. Neutrons for technology and science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeppli, G.

    1995-10-01

    We reviewed recent work using neutrons generated at nuclear reactors an accelerator-based spallation sources. Provided that large new sources become available, neutron beams will continue to have as great an impact on technology and science as in the past.

  6. Neutron and P, T symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Y. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    New ideas for experiments to improve the T-violation limit by a factor of 10 to 100 is discussed for a intensive spallation neutron source. The methods to improve the limit of the right-handed current and the neutron lifetime are also discussed. (author)

  7. Neutron Absorption in Geological Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvhøiden, G.; Andersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal neutron absorption cross section of geological samples is determined with the steady state neutron source method. Cross section measurements of North Sea sediments demonstrate that also materials with high contents of clay minerals may be investigated with the steady state method.

  8. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar

    2017-09-01

    This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes of neutron stars. The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars.

  9. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  10. Investigation of Isfahan miniature neutron source reactor (MNSR) for boron neutron capture therapy by MCNP simulation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Z. Kalantari; H Tavakoli; Nami, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the important neutron sources for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a nuclear reactor. It needs a high flux of epithermal neutrons. The optimum conditions of the neutron spectra for BNCT are provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this paper, Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) as a neutron source for BNCT was investigated. For this purpose, we designed a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for the reactor and the neutron transport from the core of the reactor t...

  11. First results of micro-neutron tomography by use of a focussing neutron lens

    CERN Document Server

    Masschaele, B; Cauwels, P; Dierick, M; Jolie, J; Mondelaers, W

    2001-01-01

    Since the appearance of high flux neutron beams, scientists experimented with neutron radiography. This high beam flux combined with modern neutron to visible light converters leads to the possibility of performing fast neutron micro-tomography. The first results of cold neutron tomography with a neutron lens are presented in this article. Samples are rotated in the beam and the projections are recorded with a neutron camera. The 3D reconstruction is performed with cone beam reconstruction software.

  12. Validated Densitometric TLC-Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of (R)- and (S)-Citalopram and its Related Substances Using Macrocyclic Antibiotic as a Chiral Selector: Application to the Determination of Enantiomeric Purity of Escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Suzan Mahmoud

    2012-03-01

    A novel economic procedure for the simultaneous stereospecific separation and analysis of (R)- and (S)-citalopram and its related substances or impurities has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on silica gel 60 F254 plates with acetonitrile: methanol: water (15:2.5:2.5: v/v/v) as a mobile phase containing 1.5 mM norvancomycin or 2.5 mM vancomycin as a selector at ambient temperature. (R)- and (S)-citalopram enantiomers in presence of its related substances; citalopram citadiol and citalopram N-oxide were well separated with significant Rf values of 0.33 ± 0.02, 0.85 ± 0.02, 0.45 ± 0.02 and 0.22 ± 0.02, respectively. The spots were detected with either iodine vapor, or by use of a UV lamp followed by densitometric measurement at 239 nm. All variables affecting the resolution, such as concentration of chiral selectors, mobile phase system at different temperatures and pH-values were investigated and the conditions were optimized. Calibration plots for analysis of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers were linear in the range of 0.2-16.8 μg/10 μl (R≥0.9994, n=6) with acceptable precision (%RSDescitalopram, respectively). The limit of detection and quantification were 0.08 μg/10 μl and 0.25 μg/10 μl, respectively, for (R)- and (S)-citalopram. The proposed method is simple, selective, and robust and can be applied for quantitative determination of enantiomeric purity of (R)- and (S)-citalopram (escitalopram) as well as the related impurities in drug substances and pharmaceutical preparations. The method can be useful to investigate adulteration of pure isomer with the cheep racemic form.

  13. Neutrino Velocity and Neutrino Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Minakata, H

    2012-01-01

    We study distances of propagation and the group velocities of the muon neutrinos in the presence of mixing and oscillations assuming that Lorentz invariance holds. Oscillations lead to distortion of the $\

  14. Statistics of Centroids of Velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Esquivel, A

    2009-01-01

    We review the use of velocity centroids statistics to recover information of interstellar turbulence from observations. Velocity centroids have been used for a long time now to retrieve information about the scaling properties of the turbulent velocity field in the interstellar medium. We show that, while they are useful to study subsonic turbulence, they do not trace the statistics of velocity in supersonic turbulence, because they are highly influenced by fluctuations of density. We show also that for sub-Alfv\\'enic turbulence (both supersonic and subsonic) two-point statistics (e.g. correlation functions or power-spectra) are anisotropic. This anisotropy can be used to determine the direction of the mean magnetic field projected in the plane of the sky.

  15. Measuring neutron spectra in radiotherapy using the nested neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglieri, Robert, E-mail: robert.maglieri@mail.mcgill.ca; Evans, Michael; Seuntjens, Jan; Kildea, John [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H4A 3J1 (Canada); Licea, Angel [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5S9 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Out-of-field neutron doses resulting from photonuclear interactions in the head of a linear accelerator pose an iatrogenic risk to patients and an occupational risk to personnel during radiotherapy. To quantify neutron production, in-room measurements have traditionally been carried out using Bonner sphere systems (BSS) with activation foils and TLDs. In this work, a recently developed active detector, the nested neutron spectrometer (NNS), was tested in radiotherapy bunkers. Methods: The NNS is designed for easy handling and is more practical than the traditional BSS. Operated in current-mode, the problem of pulse pileup due to high dose-rates is overcome by measuring current, similar to an ionization chamber. In a bunker housing a Varian Clinac 21EX, the performance of the NNS was evaluated in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and dose-rate effects. Using a custom maximum-likelihood expectation–maximization algorithm, measured neutron spectra at various locations inside the bunker were then compared to Monte Carlo simulations of an identical setup. In terms of dose, neutron ambient dose equivalents were calculated from the measured spectra and compared to bubble detector neutron dose equivalent measurements. Results: The NNS-measured spectra for neutrons at various locations in a treatment room were found to be consistent with expectations for both relative shape and absolute magnitude. Neutron fluence-rate decreased with distance from the source and the shape of the spectrum changed from a dominant fast neutron peak near the Linac head to a dominant thermal neutron peak in the moderating conditions of the maze. Monte Carlo data and NNS-measured spectra agreed within 30% at all locations except in the maze where the deviation was a maximum of 40%. Neutron ambient dose equivalents calculated from the authors’ measured spectra were consistent (one standard deviation) with bubble detector measurements in the treatment room. Conclusions: The NNS may

  16. Grand Unification in Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to `isolated neutron stars,' from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, in celebration of its tenth anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical `grand unification' of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  17. Grand unification of neutron stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2010-04-20

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical "grand unification" of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra's next decade in this field.

  18. Grand unification of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2010-01-01

    The last decade has shown us that the observational properties of neutron stars are remarkably diverse. From magnetars to rotating radio transients, from radio pulsars to isolated neutron stars, from central compact objects to millisecond pulsars, observational manifestations of neutron stars are surprisingly varied, with most properties totally unpredicted. The challenge is to establish an overarching physical theory of neutron stars and their birth properties that can explain this great diversity. Here I survey the disparate neutron stars classes, describe their properties, and highlight results made possible by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, in celebration of its 10th anniversary. Finally, I describe the current status of efforts at physical “grand unification” of this wealth of observational phenomena, and comment on possibilities for Chandra’s next decade in this field. PMID:20404205

  19. Neutron protein crystallography in JAERI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Tanaka

    2004-07-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in proteins. After developing an original neutron detector (neutron imaging plate) and a novel practical neutron monochromator (elastically bent perfect Si monochromator), BIX-type diffractometers which were equipped with these tools were e±ciently constructed at JRR-3 in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Japan and they have finished many protein crystallographic measurements and interesting results have come one after another. At the same time a method of growing large protein single crystals and a database of hydrogen and hydration have also been developed. In the near future, a pulsed neutron diffractometer for biological macromolecules has been proposed at J-PARC in JAERI.

  20. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie

    2015-10-01

    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  1. Event Detection by Velocity Pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose velocity pyramid for multimediaevent detection. Recently, spatial pyramid matching is proposed to in-troduce coarse geometric information into Bag of Features framework,and is eective for static image recognition and detection. In video, notonly spatial information but also temporal information, which repre-sents its dynamic nature, is important. In order to fully utilize it, wepropose velocity pyramid where video frames are divided into motionalsub-regions. Our meth...

  2. The measurements of thermal neutron flux distribution in a paraffin phantom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parisa Akhlaghi; Laleh Rafat-Motavalli; Seyed Hashem Miri-Hakimabad

    2013-05-01

    The term `thermal flux' implies a Maxwellian distribution of velocity and energy corresponding to the most probable velocity of 2200 ms-1 at 293.4 K. In order to measure the thermal neutron flux density, the foil activation method was used. Thermal neutron flux determination in paraffin phantom by counting the emitted rays of indium foils with two different detectors (Geiger–Muller counter and NaI(Tl)) was the aim of this project. The relative differences of the outcome of the experiments were between 2.5% and 5%. The final results were compared with MCNP4C outputs and the best agreement was generated using NaI(Tl) by a minimum discrepancy of about 0.6% for the foil placed 8.5 cm from the neutron source.

  3. Neutron matter, neutron pairing, and neutron drops based on chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Thomas

    2016-10-19

    The physics of neutron-rich systems is of great interest in nuclear and astrophysics. Precise knowledge of the properties of neutron-rich nuclei is crucial for understanding the synthesis of heavy elements. Infinite neutron matter determines properties of neutron stars, a final stage of heavy stars after a core-collapse supernova. It also provides a unique theoretical laboratory for nuclear forces. Strong interactions are determined by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, QCD is non-perturbative at low energies and one presently cannot directly calculate nuclear forces from it. Chiral effective field theory circumvents these problems and connects the symmetries of QCD to nuclear interactions. It naturally and systematically includes many-nucleon forces and gives access to uncertainty estimates. We use chiral interactions throughout all calculation in this thesis. Neutron stars are very extreme objects. The densities in their interior greatly exceed those in nuclei. The exact composition and properties of neutron stars is still unclear but they consist mainly of neutrons. One can explore neutron stars theoretically with calculations of neutron matter. In the inner core of neutron stars exist very high densities and thus maybe exotic phases of matter. To investigate whether there exists a phase transition to such phases even at moderate densities we study the chiral condensate in neutron matter, the order parameter of chiral symmetry breaking, and find no evidence for a phase transition at nuclear densities. We also calculate the more extreme system of spin-polarised neutron matter. With this we address the question whether there exists such a polarised phase in neutron stars and also provide a benchmark system for lattice QCD. We find spin-polarised neutron matter to be an almost non-interacting Fermi gas. To understand the cooling of neutron stars neutron pairing is of great importance. Due to the high densities especially triplet pairing is of interest. We

  4. The acceleration of a neutron in a static electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappelletti, R.L., E-mail: ron.cappelletti@nist.gov [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-06-18

    We show that when a non-relativistic neutron travels in a static electric field, the acceleration vector operator is perpendicular to the velocity operator. Kinetic energy is conserved. A spin-dependent field term in the canonical momentum gives rise to a non-dispersive contribution to the quantum mechanical (Aharonov–Casher) phase. This motion differs from that in a static magnetic field which has no field term in the canonical momentum and no conservation of kinetic energy. For the geometry of the Aharonov–Casher effect, there is no acceleration, while in Mott–Schwinger scattering, the acceleration causes a spin-dependent change in neutron direction. -- Highlights: ► Acceleration of a neutron in an E field is orthogonal to velocity. KE is conserved. ► For the Aharonov–Casher (AC) effect, acceleration is 0. ► The AC phase arises from the field term in the canonical momentum. ► In a static B field there is no field term in the canonical momentum. ► In a static B field KE is exchanged with Zeeman energy to conserve energy.

  5. Methods for Neutron Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockhouse, Bertram N.

    1961-01-09

    The appropriate theories and the general philosophy of methods of measurement and treatment of data neutron spectrometry are discussed. Methods of analysis of results for liquids using the Van Hove formulation, and for crystals using the Born-von Karman theory, are reviewed. The most useful of the available methods of measurement are considered to be the crystal spectrometer methods and the pulsed monoenergetic beam/time-of-flight method. Pulsed-beam spectrometers have the advantage of higher counting rates than crystal spectrometers, especially in view of the fact that simultaneous measurements in several counters at different angles of scattering are possible in pulsed-beam spectrometers. The crystal spectrometer permits several valuable new types of specialized experiments to be performed, especially energy distribution measurements at constant momentum transfer. The Chalk River triple-axis crystal-spectrometer is discussed, with reference to its use in making the specialized experiments. The Chalk River rotating crystal (pulsed-beam) spectrometer is described, and a comparison of this type instrument with other pulsed-beam spectrometers is made. A partial outline of the theory of operation of rotating-crystal spectrometers is presented. The use of quartz-crystal filters for fast neutron elimination and for order elimination is discussed. (auth)

  6. Fast neutron environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Lu, Ping; Brewer, Luke N. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA); Goods, Steven Howard (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Foiles, Stephen Martin; Puskar, Joseph David; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Doyle, Barney Lee; Boyce, Brad Lee; Clark, Blythe G.

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this LDRD project is to develop a rapid first-order experimental procedure for the testing of advanced cladding materials that may be considered for generation IV nuclear reactors. In order to investigate this, a technique was developed to expose the coupons of potential materials to high displacement damage at elevated temperatures to simulate the neutron environment expected in Generation IV reactors. This was completed through a high temperature high-energy heavy-ion implantation. The mechanical properties of the ion irradiated region were tested by either micropillar compression or nanoindentation to determine the local properties, as a function of the implantation dose and exposure temperature. In order to directly compare the microstructural evolution and property degradation from the accelerated testing and classical neutron testing, 316L, 409, and 420 stainless steels were tested. In addition, two sets of diffusion couples from 316L and HT9 stainless steels with various refractory metals. This study has shown that if the ion irradiation size scale is taken into consideration when developing and analyzing the mechanical property data, significant insight into the structural properties of the potential cladding materials can be gained in about a week.

  7. Neutron-Mirror Neutron Oscillations in a Residual Gas Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varriano, Louis; Kamyshkov, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    A precise measurement of the neutron lifetime is important for calculating the rate at which nucleosynthesis occurred after the Big Bang. The history of neutron lifetime measurements has demonstrated impressive continuous improvement in experimental technique and in accuracy. However, two most precise recent measurements performed by different techniques differ by about 3 standard deviations. This difference of 9.2 seconds can possibly be resolved by future experiments, but it may also be evidence of a mirror matter effect present in these experiments. Both mirror matter, a candidate for dark matter, and ordinary matter can have similar properties and self-interactions but will interact only gravitationally with each other, in accordance with observational evidence of dark matter. Three separate experiments have been performed in the last decade to detect the possibility of neutron-mirror neutron oscillations. This work provides a formalism for understanding the interaction of the residual gas in an experiment with ultra-cold neutrons. This residual gas effect was previously considered negligible but can have a significant impact on the probability of neutron-mirror neutron transition.

  8. Multiple-wavelength neutron holography with pulsed neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Ohoyama, Kenji; Happo, Naohisa; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Shinya; Harada, Masahide; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Nitani, Hiroaki; Shishido, Toetsu; Yubuta, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    Local structures around impurities in solids provide important information for understanding the mechanisms of material functions, because most of them are controlled by dopants. For this purpose, the x-ray absorption fine structure method, which provides radial distribution functions around specific elements, is most widely used. However, a similar method using neutron techniques has not yet been developed. If one can establish a method of local structural analysis with neutrons, then a new frontier of materials science can be explored owing to the specific nature of neutron scattering-that is, its high sensitivity to light elements and magnetic moments. Multiple-wavelength neutron holography using the time-of-flight technique with pulsed neutrons has great potential to realize this. We demonstrated multiple-wavelength neutron holography using a Eu-doped CaF2 single crystal and obtained a clear three-dimensional atomic image around trivalent Eu substituted for divalent Ca, revealing an interesting feature of the local structure that allows it to maintain charge neutrality. The new holography technique is expected to provide new information on local structures using the neutron technique.

  9. The accelerator neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatov, D.; Koshkarev, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Makarov, A.; Ostreinov, Yu; Shchudlo, I.; Sorokin, I.; Sycheva, T.; Taskaev, S.; Zaidi, L.

    2016-11-01

    The accelerator based epithermal neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is proposed, created and used in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. In 2014, with the support of the Russian Science Foundation created the BNCT laboratory for the purpose to the end of 2016 get the neutron flux, suitable for BNCT. For getting 3 mA 2.3 MeV proton beam, was created a new type accelerator - tandem accelerator with vacuum isolation. On this moment, we have a stationary proton beam with 2.3 MeV and current 1.75 mA. Generation of neutrons is carried out by dropping proton beam on to lithium target as a result of threshold reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be. Established facility is a unique scientific installation. It provides a generating of neutron flux, including a monochromatic energy neutrons, gamma radiation, alpha-particles and positrons, and may be used by other research groups for carrying out scientific researches. The article describes an accelerator neutron source, presents and discusses the result of experiments and declares future plans.

  10. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, A B; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; McCluskey, M; Mastrosimone, D; Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  11. Determining Absolute Polarization of Ultracold Neutrons in the UCNA Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Eric; UCNA Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The UCNA experiment uses the decay of trapped ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the angular correlation A between the emitted electron's momentum and the direction of the neutron's spin. For a precision measurement of A, a similarly precise determination of the equilibrium neutron polarization is required. By utilizing UCN, transport through a large (7T) B field provides 100 % polarization, and a spin flipper allows state selection during loading phases. This spin flipper also measures the equilibrium polarization of the UCN population present in the spectrometer, after each hour-long beta-counting cycle. By including a neutron reflecting shutter the leading uncertainty in polarimetry measurements prior to 2011, resulting from the residual background population, was reduced to near zero. However, this modification also introduces new systematic corrections, requiring new run types to quantify. Among these corrections are effects from the spin flipper efficiency, spectral velocity conditioning, and depolarization feeding. We will review the analytic underpinning for these contributions, discuss additional measurements required to quantify these parameters, and present a Monte-Carlo analysis to determine the corrected depolarized fraction, and associated uncertainty. Supported by NSF and DOE.

  12. Impact-driven shock waves and thermonuclear neutron generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus' kov, S Yu; Demchenko, N N; Doskoch, I Ya; Rozanov, V B [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Azechi, H; Murakami, M; Sakaiya, T; Watari, T [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zmitrenko, N V, E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.r [Institute for Mathematical Modeling of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-15

    Impact-driven shock waves, thermonuclear plasma and neutron yield were investigated. The results of 2D numerical simulations and Gekko/HIPER laser experiments on the collision of a laser-accelerated disk-projectile with a massive target, both containing (CD){sub n}-material, are discussed. A two-temperature model of the non-equilibrium plasma created by impact-driven shock waves due to the collision of a laser-accelerated planar projectile with a massive target was developed and used for analysis of the numerical and experimental results. The model defines the characteristics of shock waves and plasmas (including their lifetime) as well as neutron yields in both the colliding objects as functions of velocity, density and mass of the projectile-impactor just before collision. The neutron yield generated during the period of laser-driven acceleration of the impactor was also determined. Two effects were discovered that exert a substantial influence on the plasma parameters and neutron yield. The first of them relates to the formation of the pre-impact state of the impactor. It decreases the projectile density due to thermal expansion of its matter through a free boundary during the period of laser-driven acceleration. The other relates to the formation of impact-produced plasma. Predominant heating of the ion component of plasma leads to the existence of a non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma during the period of electron-ion relaxation.

  13. Neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the first stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sneden, Christopher, E-mail: iur@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that metal-poor stars enhanced in carbon but containing low levels of neutron-capture elements may have been among the first to incorporate the nucleosynthesis products of the first generation of stars. We have observed 16 stars with enhanced carbon or nitrogen using the MIKE Spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory and the Tull Spectrograph on the Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundance patterns for these stars. Strontium, yttrium, zirconium, barium, europium, ytterbium, and other heavy elements are detected. In four stars, these heavy elements appear to have originated in some form of r-process nucleosynthesis. In one star, a partial s-process origin is possible. The origin of the heavy elements in the rest of the sample cannot be determined unambiguously. The presence of elements heavier than the iron group offers further evidence that zero-metallicity rapidly rotating massive stars and pair instability supernovae did not contribute substantial amounts of neutron-capture elements to the regions where the stars in our sample formed. If the carbon- or nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor stars with low levels of neutron-capture elements were enriched by products of zero-metallicity supernovae only, then the presence of these heavy elements indicates that at least one form of neutron-capture reaction operated in some of the first stars.

  14. Neutron/muon correlation functions to improve neutron detection capabilities outside nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinario, Donald Thomas

    The natural neutron background rate is largely due to cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and the subsequent neutron emission from the interaction products. The neutron background is part of a larger cosmic radiation shower that also includes electrons, gamma rays, and muons. Since neutrons interact much differently than muons in building materials, the muon and neutron fluence rates in the natural background can be compared to the measured muon and neutron fluence rate when shielded by common building materials. The simultaneous measurement of muon and neutron fluence rates might allow for an earlier identification of man-made neutron sources, such as hidden nuclear materials. This study compares natural background neutron rates to computer simulated neutron rates shielded by common structural and building materials. The characteristic differences between neutrons and muons resulted in different attenuation properties under the same shielded conditions. Correlation functions between cosmic ray generated neutrons and muons are then used to predict neutron fluence rates in different urban environments.

  15. Measurement of neutron excitation functions using wide energy neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevestam, Goeran [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail: goeran.loevestam@ec.europa.eu; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gamboni, Thierry; Gasparro, Joel; Geerts, Wouter; Jaime, Ricardo; Lindahl, Patric; Oberstedt, Stephan [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tagziria, Hamid [EC-JRC-Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Italy)

    2007-10-11

    A technique for measuring neutron excitation functions using wide energy neutron beams is explored. Samples are activated with a set of neutron fields, each covering a relatively wide energy interval and created using an ion accelerator and conventional nuclear reactions. Measured activities are determined using gamma-ray spectrometry and reduced to excitation curves using spectrum unfolding. The technique is demonstrated on the measurement of the excitation function curve up to 5.6 MeV for {sup 113}In(n,n'){sup 113}In{sup m} using the {sup 115}In(n,n'){sup 115}In{sup m} reaction as an internal standard.

  16. Neutron scattering instruments for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, R.K.; Fornek, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Herwig, K.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a 1 MW pulsed spallation source for neutron scattering planned for construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This facility is being designed as a 5-laboratory collaboration project. This paper addresses the proposed facility layout, the process for selection and construction of neutron scattering instruments at the SNS, the initial planning done on the basis of a reference set of ten instruments, and the plans for research and development (R and D) to support construction of the first ten instruments and to establish the infrastructure to support later development and construction of additional instruments.

  17. Design of multidirectional neutron beams for boron neutron capture synovectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierga, D.P.; Yanch, J.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Shefer, R.E. [Newton Scientific, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS) is a potential application of the {sup 10}B(n, a) {sup 7}Li reaction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The target of therapy is the synovial membrane. Rheumatoid synovium is greatly inflamed and is the source of the discomfort and disability associated with the disease. The BNCS proposes to destroy the synovium by first injecting a boron-labeled compound into the joint space and then irradiating the joint with a neutron beam. This study discusses the design of a multidirectional neutron beam for BNCS.

  18. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan

    2014-02-01

    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  19. Neutron generator for the array borehole logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHong-Bo; ZhongZhen-Qian; 等

    1998-01-01

    The performance mechanism of the array neutron generator to be used to porosity logging is presented.The neutron generator utilizes a drive-in target ceramic neutron tube,which cursts nerutron with fast-slow period selectively pressure.Regulation of the neutron tube is accomplished by pulse width modulation.The high voltage power supply is poerated at optimum frequency.

  20. Neutron detector and fabrication method thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Harish B.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Ovechkina, Olena E.

    2016-08-16

    A neutron detector and a method for fabricating a neutron detector. The neutron detector includes a photodetector, and a solid-state scintillator operatively coupled to the photodetector. In one aspect, the method for fabricating a neutron detector includes providing a photodetector, and depositing a solid-state scintillator on the photodetector to form a detector structure.

  1. NERO-The Neutron Emission Ratio Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Giuseppe; Pereira, Jorque; Hosmer, Paul; Kratz, Karl Ludvig; Montes, Fernando; Reeder, Paul; Santi, Peter; Schatz, Hendrik

    2007-10-01

    The Neutron Emission Ratio Observer (NERO), has been constructed for the use at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory to work in conjunction with the NSCL Beta Counting System in order to detect β-delayed neutrons. The design of the detector provides high and flat efficiency for a wide range of neutron energies, as well as a low neutron background.

  2. Colliding Neutron Stars as the Source of Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Where do the heavy elements the chemical elements beyond iron in our universe come from? One of the primary candidate sources is the merger of two neutron stars, but recent observations have cast doubt on this model. Can neutron-star mergers really be responsible?Elements from Collisions?Periodic table showing the origin of each chemical element. Those produced by the r-process are shaded orange and attributed to supernovae in this image; though supernovae are one proposed source of r-process elements, an alternative source is the merger of two neutron stars. [Cmglee]When a binary-neutron-star system inspirals and the two neutron stars smash into each other, a shower of neutrons are released. These neutrons are thought to bombard the surrounding atoms, rapidly producing heavy elements in what is known as r-process nucleosynthesis.So could these mergers be responsible for producing the majority of the universes heavy r-process elements? Proponents of this model argue that its supported by observations. The overall amount of heavy r-process material in the Milky Way, for instance, is consistent with the expected ejection amounts from mergers, based both on predicted merger rates for neutron stars in the galaxy, and on the observed rates of soft gamma-ray bursts (which are thought to accompany double-neutron-star mergers).Challenges from Ultra-Faint DwarfsRecently, however, r-process elements have been observed in ultra-faint dwarf satellite galaxies. This discovery raises two major challenges to the merger model for heavy-element production:When neutron stars are born during a core-collapse supernova, mass is ejected, providing the stars with asymmetric natal kicks. During the second collapse in a double-neutron-star binary, wouldnt the kick exceed the low escape velocity of an ultra-faint dwarf, ejecting the binary before it could merge and enrich the galaxy?Ultra-faint dwarfs have very old stellar populations and the observation of r-process elements in these stars

  3. Nuclear Masses and Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kreim, Susanne; Lunney, David; Schaffner-Bielich, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Precision mass spectrometry of neutron-rich nuclei is of great relevance for astrophysics. Masses of exotic nuclides impose constraints on models for the nuclear interaction and thus affect the description of the equation of state of nuclear matter, which can be extended to describe neutron-star matter. With knowledge of the masses of nuclides near shell closures, one can also derive the neutron-star crustal composition. The Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE has recently achieved a breakthrough measuring the mass of 82Zn, which allowed constraining neutron-star crust composition to deeper layers (Wolf et al., PRL 110, 2013). We perform a more detailed study on the sequence of nuclei in the outer crust of neutron stars with input from different nuclear models to illustrate the sensitivity to masses and the robustness of neutron-star models. The dominant role of the N=50 and N=82 closed neutron shells for the crustal composition is confirmed.

  4. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  5. Neutron star structure from QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Eduardo S.; Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-03-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  6. Neutron star structure from QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, Eduardo S; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities.

  7. Neutron Transmission through Sapphire Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapphire crystals are excellent filters of fast neutrons, while at the same time exhibit moderate to very little absorption at smaller energies. We have performed an extensive series of measurements in order to quantify the above effect. Alongside our experiments, we have performed a series...... of simulations, in order to reproduce the transmission of cold neutrons through sapphire crystals. Those simulations were part of the effort of validating and improving the newly developed interface between the Monte-Carlo neutron transport code MCNP and the Monte Carlo ray-tracing code McStas....

  8. Neutron Imaging Developments at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hunter, James F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schirato, Richard C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swift, Alicia L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ickes, Timothy Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ward, William Carl [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Losko, Adrian Simon [University of California at Berkeley; Tremsin, Anton [University of California at Berkeley; Sevanto, Sanna Annika [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Espy, Michelle A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickman, Lee Thoresen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Malone, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-10-29

    Thermal, epithermal, and high-energy neutrons are available from two spallation sources at the 800 MeV proton accelerator. Improvements in detectors and computing have enabled new capabilities that use the pulsed beam properties at LANSCE; these include amorphous Si (aSi) detectors, intensified charge-coupled device cameras, and micro-channel plates. Applications include water flow in living specimens, inclusions and fission products in uranium oxide, and high-energy neutron imaging using an aSi flat panel with ZnS(Ag) scintillator screen. images of a metal/plastic cylinder from photons, low-energy and high-energy neutrons are compared.

  9. Neutron flux measurements around PLT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zankl, G.; Strachan, J.D.; Lewis, R.; Pettus, W.; Schmotzer, J.

    1980-09-01

    Using Indium activation foils, the toroidal and poloidal neutron emission patterns were determined for PLT plasmas which include ICRF and neutral beam heating. The activities produced the /sup 115/In (n,n') /sup 115m/In reaction were determined by counting the 336 keV ..gamma.. line of the /sup 115m/In decay. This activation cross section falls just below 2.5 MeV so that the influence of scattered neutrons of degraded energies is reduced. From the magnitude of the activity, the absolute calibration of the PLT fusion neutron emission is obtained with less than or equal to 40% accuracy.

  10. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.

  11. Neutron Star Physics and EOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lattimer James M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron stars are important because measurement of their masses and radii will determine the dense matter equation of state. They will constrain the nuclear matter symmetry energy, which controls the neutron star matter pressure and the interior composition, and will influence the interpretation of nuclear experiments. Astrophysical observations include pulsar timing, X-ray bursts, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, pulse profiles from millisecond pulsars, neutrino observations from gravitational collapse supernovae,and gravitational radiation from compact object mergers. These observations will also constrain the neutron star interior, including the properties of superfluidity there, and determine the existence of a possible QCD phase transition.

  12. New Techniques in Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas Okkels

    Neutron scattering is an important experimental technique in amongst others solid state physics, biophysics, and engineering. This year construction of European Spallation Source (ESS) was commenced in Lund, Sweeden. The facility will use a new long pulsed source principle to obtain higher...... potential performance than any existing facility, however in order to use this pulse structure optimally many existing neutron scattering instruments will need to be redesigned. This defense will concentrate on the design and optimization of the inverse time-of-flight cold neutron spectrometer CAMEA...

  13. Neutron scattering and hydrogen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Ramirez-Cuesta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen has been identified as a fuel of choice for providing clean energy for transport and other applications across the world and the development of materials to store hydrogen efficiently and safely is crucial to this endeavour. Hydrogen has the largest scattering interaction with neutrons of all the elements in the periodic table making neutron scattering ideal for studying hydrogen storage materials. Simultaneous characterisation of the structure and dynamics of these materials during hydrogen uptake is straightforward using neutron scattering techniques. These studies will help us to understand the fundamental properties of hydrogen storage in realistic conditions and hence design new hydrogen storage materials.

  14. Neutron star structure from QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Kurkela, Aleksi [PH-TH, Case C01600, CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Stavanger, Faculty of Science Technology, Stavanger (Norway); Vuorinen, Aleksi [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    In this review article, we argue that our current understanding of the thermodynamic properties of cold QCD matter, originating from first principles calculations at high and low densities, can be used to efficiently constrain the macroscopic properties of neutron stars. In particular, we demonstrate that combining state-of-the-art results from Chiral Effective Theory and perturbative QCD with the current bounds on neutron star masses, the Equation of State of neutron star matter can be obtained to an accuracy better than 30% at all densities. (orig.)

  15. Research on Prompt Neutron Multiplicity Distribution at Thermal Neutrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The prompt neutron multiplicity distribution as a function of mass of fission fragments ν(A) was studied using the semi-empirical method of excitation energy distributions between the two fission

  16. A direct experimental limit on neutron -- mirror neutron oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ban, G; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Bodek, K; Kistryn, S; Kuzniak, M; Zejma, J; Khomutov, N; Knowles, P; Rebetez, M; Weis, A; Plonka, C; Rogel, G; Quéméner, G; Rebreyend, D; Roccia, S; Tur, M; Daum, M; Henneck, R; Heule, S; Kasprzak, M; Kirch, K; Knecht, A; Mtchedlishvili, A; Zsigmond, G

    2007-01-01

    In case a mirror world with a copy of our ordinary particle spectrum would exist, the neutron n and its degenerate partner, the mirror neutron ${\\rm n'}$, could potentially mix and undergo ${\\rm nn'}$ oscillations. The interaction of an ordinary magnetic field with the ordinary neutron would lift the degeneracy between the mirror partners, diminish the ${\\rm n'}$-amplitude in the n-wavefunction and, thus, suppress its observability. We report an experimental comparison of ultracold neutron storage in a trap with and without superimposed magnetic field. No influence of the magnetic field is found and a limit on the oscillation time $\\tau_{\\rm nn'} > 103$ s (95% C.L.) is derived.

  17. Neutron Lifetime Measurement Using Magnetically Trapped Ultracold Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffer, Craig; Huffman, P. R.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Hughes, P. P.; Mumm, H. P.; Thompson, A. K.; Coakley, K.; Yue, A. T.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The neutron beta-decay lifetime is important in both nuclear astrophysics and in understanding weak interactions in the framework of the Standard Model. An experiment based at the NIST Center for Neutron Research was designed to address statistical and systematic limitations of former measurements. In our approach, a beam of 0.89 nm neutrons is incident on a superfluid 4He target within the minimum field region of an Ioffe-type magnetic trap. Some of the neutrons are subsequently downscattered by single phonons in the helium to low energies (decays the energetic electron produces a scintillation signal in the helium that is detected in real time using photomultiplier tubes. The current measurement is limited by larger than expected systematic corrections. We will discuss the result of the latest dataset and comment on the potential of future measurements.

  18. Modulating the Neutron Flux from a Mirror Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D D

    2011-09-01

    A 14-MeV neutron source based on a Gas-Dynamic Trap will provide a high flux of 14 MeV neutrons for fusion materials and sub-component testing. In addition to its main goal, the source has potential applications in condensed matter physics and biophysics. In this report, the author considers adding one more capability to the GDT-based neutron source, the modulation of the neutron flux with a desired frequency. The modulation may be an enabling tool for the assessment of the role of non-steady-state effects in fusion devices as well as for high-precision, low-signal basic science experiments favoring the use of the synchronous detection technique. A conclusion is drawn that modulation frequency of up to 1 kHz and modulation amplitude of a few percent is achievable. Limitations on the amplitude of modulations at higher frequencies are discussed.

  19. Neutronic design of the ITER radial neutron camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA Centro Ricerche, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: petrizzi@frascati.enea.it; Barnsley, R. [EFDA CSU-Garching (Germany); Bertalot, L.; Esposito, B. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA Centro Ricerche, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Haskell, H. [ITER International Team, Garching (Germany); Mainardi, E.; Marocco, D.; Podda, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA Centro Ricerche, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Walker, C. [ITER International Team, Garching (Germany); Villari, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA Centro Ricerche, C.P. 65, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    This paper summarizes the work, performed in the frame of various EFDA contracts during 2004-2005, on the design review and upgrade of the ITER radial neutron camera (RNC). The RNC, which should provide information on the spatial distribution and energy spectrum of the neutron emission, consists of an ex-vessel system (fan-like collimator with 12 x 3 lines of sights) and an in-vessel system with further 9 lines for a full coverage of the plasma. A Monte Carlo code (MCNP) has been used for the neutronic calculations. The basic ITER model has been developed from the CATIA drawings to include the RNC with all details relevant for the neutronic analysis. In the model the collimator diameters have been set to 2 and 4 cm, respectively, for the ex-vessel and in-vessel systems. A detailed space dependent fusion neutron source (DD and DT phases in various plasma scenarios) has been used with a consistent ion temperature radial profile. A special variance reduction treatment has been developed so that neutrons reach the far regions in the high collimated neutron beam and score with a satisfying statistical error. Neutron and photon fluxes and spectra have been calculated. Approximately, one neutron out of 10{sup 11} emitted in all the plasma reaches a single ex-vessel detector. Therefore, for an emission rate of 1.8 x 10{sup 20} n/s (corresponding to 500 MW fusion power) the flux on the detectors is in the range (1-5) x 10{sup 8} n/(cm{sup 2} s) depending on the poloidal orientation. The fraction of scattered neutrons (>1 MeV) is lower than few % of the total. A measurement simulation software tool (MSST) performing asymmetric Abel inversion of simulated measured neutron signals has also been developed for line of sight and design optimization. Combining information from MCNP calculations and MSST, it has been possible to evaluate the performance of the RNC, check whether the present design of the RNC meets the measurement requirements and optimize the RNC design.

  20. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  1. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrang, Farshid

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis we focus on applications of neutron activation of oxygen for several purposes: A) measuring the water level in a laboratory tank, B) measuring the water flow in a pipe system set-up, C) analysing the oxygen in combustion products formed in a modern gasoline SI engine, and D) measuring on-line the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. A) Water level measurements. The purpose of this work was to perform radiation based water level measurements, aimed at nuclear reactor vessels, on a laboratory scale. A laboratory water tank was irradiated by fast neutrons from a neutron generator. The water was activated at different water levels and the water level was decreased. The produced gamma radiation was measured using two detectors at different heights. The results showed that the method is suitable for measurement of water level and that a relatively small experimental set-up can be used for developing methods for water level measurements in real boiling water reactors based on activated oxygen in the water. B) Water flows in pipe. The goal in this work was to investigate the asymmetric distribution of activity in flow measurements with pulsed neutron activation (PNA) in a laboratory piping system. Earlier investigations had shown a discrepancy between the measured velocity of the activated water by PNA and the true mean velocity in the pipe. This discrepancy decreased with larger distances from the activation point. It was speculated that the induced activity in the pipe did not distribute homogeneously. With inhomogeneous radial distribution of activity in combination with a velocity profile in the pipe, the activated water may not have the same velocity as the mean velocity of water in the pipe. To study this phenomenon, a water-soluble colour was injected into a transparent pipe for simulation of the transport of the activated water. The radial concentration of the colour, at different distances from the activation point, was determined. The result

  2. INFLUENCE OF SCATTERED NEUTRON RADIATION ON METROLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF АТ140 NEUTRON CALIBRATION FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Komar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today facilities with collimated radiation field are widely used as reference in metrological support of devices for neutron radiation measurement. Neutron fields formed by radionuclide neutron sources. The aim of this research was to study characteristics of experimentally realized neutron fields geometries on АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility using Monte Carlo method.For calibration, we put a device into neutron field with known flux density or ambient equivalent dose rate. We can form neutron beam from radionuclide fast-neutron source in different geometries. In containercollimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility we can install special inserts to gather fast-neutron geometry or thermal-neutron geometry. We need to consider neutron scattering from air and room’s walls. We can conduct measurements of neutron field characteristics in several points and get the other using Monte Carlo method.Thermal neutron collimator forms a beam from radionuclide source with a significant amount of neutrons with thermal energies. From found relationship between full neutron flux and distance to neutron source we see that inverse square law is violated. Scattered radiation contribution into total flux increases when we are moving away from neutron source and significantly influences neutron fields characteristics. While source is exposed in shadow-cone geometry neutron specter has pronounced thermal component from wall scattering.In this work, we examined main geometry types used to acquire reference neutron radiation using radionuclide sources. We developed Monte Carlo model for 238Pu-Be neutron source and АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility’s container-collimator. We have shown the most significant neutron energy distribution factor to be scattered radiation from room’s walls. It leads to significant changes of neutron radiation specter at a distance from the source. When planning location, and installing the facility we should consider

  3. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  4. Damping and Decoherence in Neutron Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Kerbikov, B O; Kamyshkov, Y A; Varriano, L J

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is made of the role played by the gas environment in neutron-mirror-neutron and neutron-antineutron oscillations. In the first process the interaction with the ambient medium induces a refraction energy shift which plays the role of an extra magnetic field. In the second process antineutron annihilation in practice might lead to strong decoherence, which should be taken into account in experiments with free neutrons looking for the neutron to antineutron transformation.

  5. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    CERN Document Server

    Modanese, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the hypothetical existence of superluminal signals would imply the logical possibility of active causal violation: an observer in relative motion with respect to a primary source could in principle emit secondary superluminal signals (triggered by the primary ones) which go back in time and deactivate the primary source before the initial emission. This is a direct consequence of the structure of the Lorentz transformations, sometimes called "Regge-Tolman paradox". It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity of the moving observer required to produce the causality violation. When applied to some recent claims of slight superluminal propagation, this formula yields a required velocity very close to the speed of light; this raises some doubts about the real physical observability of such violations. We re-compute this velocity requirement introducing a realistic delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that for -any- delay it...

  6. Signal velocity in oscillator arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.

  7. Acceleration to High Velocities and Heating by Impact Using Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Max

    2009-11-01

    Shock ignition, impact ignition, as well as higher intensity conventional hot spot ignition designs reduce driver energy requirement by pushing the envelope in laser intensity and target implosion velocities. This talk will describe experiments that for the first time reach target velocities in the range of 700 -- 1000 km/s. The highly accelerated planar foils of deuterated polystyrene, some with bromine doping, are made to collide with a witness foil to produce extreme shock pressures and result in heating of matter to thermonuclear temperatures. Target acceleration and collision are diagnosed using large field of view monochromatic x-ray imaging with backlighting as well as bremsstrahlung self-emission. The impact conditions are diagnosed using DD fusion neutron yield, with over 10^6 neutrons produced during the collision. Time-of-flight neutron detectors are used to measure the ion temperature upon impact, which reaches 2 -- 3 keV. The experiments are performed on the Nike facility, reconfigured specifically for high intensity operation. The short wavelength and high illumination uniformity of Nike KrF laser uniquely enable access to this new parameter regime. Intensities of (0.4 -- 1.2) x 10^15 W/cm^2 and pulse durations of 0.4 -- 2 ns were utilized. Modeling of the target acceleration, collision, and neutron production is performed using the FAST3D radiation hydrodynamics code with a non-LTE radiation model. Work is supported by US Department of Energy.

  8. Neutron resonance parameters of dysprosium isotopes using neutron capture yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U.; Cho, M. H. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Namkung, W. [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. N. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Inst. Of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Dysprosium is used in the field of nuclear reactor system because it has a very large thermal neutron absorption cross-section. The dysprosium alloyed with special stainless steels is attractive for control in nuclear reactor because of the ability to absorb neutrons readily without swelling or contracting over time and its high melting point. Dysprosium is also one of fission products from the thermal fission of {sup 234}U, {sup 233}U, and {sup 239}Pu. The fission products are accumulated in the reactor core by the burn-up of the nuclear fuel and the poison effect is increased. Therefore, it is required to understand how Dysprosium as both a poison and an absorbing material in the control rod has an effect on the neutron population in a nuclear reactor system over all energy regions. Neutron Capture experiments on Dy isotopes were performed at the electron linear accelerator (LINAC) facility of the Rensselear Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in the neutron energy region from 10 eV to 1 keV. Resonance parameters were extracted by fitting the neutron capture data using the SAMMY multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code.

  9. ^3He neutron spin filters for polarized neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wangchun; Borchers, Julie; Chen, Ying; O'Donovan, Kevin; Erwin, Ross; Lynn, Jeffrey; Majkrzak, Charles; McKenney, Sarah; Gentile, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Polarized neutron scattering (PNS) is a powerful tool that probes the magnetic structures in a wide variety of magnetic materials. Polarized ^3He gas, produced by optical pumping, can be used to polarize or analyze neutron beams because of the strong spin dependence of the neutron absorption cross section for ^3He. Polarized ^3He neutron spin filters (NSF) have been of great interest in PNS community due to recent significant improvement of their performance. Here I will discuss successful applications using ^3He NSFs in polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) and triple-axis spectrometry (TAS). In PNR, a ^3He NSF in conjunction with a position-sensitive detector allows for efficient polarization analysis of off-specular scattering over a broad range of reciprocal space. In TAS, a ^3He NSF in combination with a double focusing pyrolytic graphite monochromator provides greater versatility and higher intensity compared to a Heusler polarizer. Finally I will present the results from patterned magnetically-coupled thin films in PNR and our first ``proof-of-principle'' experiment in TAS, both of which were performed using ^3He NSF(s) at the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  10. On the magnetic field evolution time-scale in superconducting neutron star cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Akgün, Taner; Pons, José A.; Miralles, Juan A.

    2017-08-01

    We revisit the various approximations employed to study the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in neutron star cores and discuss their limitations and possible improvements. A recent controversy on the correct form of the induction equation and the relevant evolution time-scale in superconducting neutron star cores is addressed and clarified. We show that this ambiguity in the estimation of time-scales arises as a consequence of nominally large terms that appear in the induction equation, but which are, in fact, mostly irrotational. This subtlety leads to a discrepancy by many orders of magnitude when velocity fields are absent or ignored. Even when internal velocity fields are accounted for, only the solenoidal part of the electric field contributes to the induction equation, which can be substantially smaller than the irrotational part. We also argue that stationary velocity fields must be incorporated in the slow evolution of the magnetic field as the next level of approximation.

  11. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  12. Applications of Neutron Bubble Dosimeters for Neutron Dose Monitoring in Mixed n-γ Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Bubble dosimeter is a promising technology in the field of neutron dosimetry. It provides real-time monitoring of neutron dose, stable energy response over wide range of neutron energy, and a very low

  13. Gamma/neutron competition above the neutron separation energy in delayed neutron emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the β-decay properties of some well known delayed neutron emitters an experiment was performed in 2009 at the IGISOL facility (University of Jyväskylä in Finland using Total Absorption γ-ray Spectroscopy (TAGS technique. The aim of these measurements is to obtain the full β-strength distribution below the neutron separation energy (Sn and the γ/neutron competition above. This information is a key parameter in nuclear technology applications as well as in nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure. Preliminary results of the analysis show a significant γ-branching ratio above Sn.

  14. Proton Fraction in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丰收; 陈列文

    2001-01-01

    The proton fraction in β-stable neutron stars is investigated within the framework of the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock theory using the extended Skyrme effective interaction for the first time. The calculated results show that the proton fraction disappears at high density, which implies that the pure neutron matter may exist in the interior of neutron stars. The incompressibility of the nuclear equation-of-state is shown to be more important to determine the proton fraction. Meanwhile, it is indicated that the addition of muons in neutron stars will change the proton fraction. It is also found that the higher-order terms of the nuclear symmetry energy have obvious effects on the proton fraction and the parabolic law of the nuclear symmetry energy is not enough to determine the proton fraction.

  15. Theory of neutron star magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis Michel, F

    1990-01-01

    An incomparable reference for astrophysicists studying pulsars and other kinds of neutron stars, "Theory of Neutron Star Magnetospheres" sums up two decades of astrophysical research. It provides in one volume the most important findings to date on this topic, essential to astrophysicists faced with a huge and widely scattered literature. F. Curtis Michel, who was among the first theorists to propose a neutron star model for radio pulsars, analyzes competing models of pulsars, radio emission models, winds and jets from pulsars, pulsating X-ray sources, gamma-ray burst sources, and other neutron-star driven phenomena. Although the book places primary emphasis on theoretical essentials, it also provides a considerable introduction to the observational data and its organization. Michel emphasizes the problems and uncertainties that have arisen in the research as well as the considerable progress that has been made to date.

  16. Materials for spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, W.F.; Daemen, L.L. [comps.

    1996-03-01

    The Workshop on Materials for Spallation Neutron Sources at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, February 6 to 10, 1995, gathered scientists from Department of Energy national laboratories, other federal institutions, universities, and industry to discuss areas in which work is needed, successful designs and use of materials, and opportunities for further studies. During the first day of the workshop, speakers presented overviews of current spallation neutron sources. During the next 3 days, seven panels allowed speakers to present information on a variety of topics ranging from experimental and theoretical considerations on radiation damage to materials safety issues. An attempt was made to identify specific problems that require attention within the context of spallation neutron sources. This proceedings is a collection of summaries from the overview sessions and the panel presentations.

  17. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquada, John M., E-mail: jtran@bnl.gov; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-15

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations.

  18. Radiation shielding for neutron guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersez, T.; Braoudakis, G.; Osborn, J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Models of the neutron guide shielding for the out of bunker guides on the thermal and cold neutron beam lines of the OPAL Reactor (ANSTO) were constructed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP 4B. The neutrons that were not reflected inside the guides but were absorbed by the supermirror (SM) layers were noted to be a significant source of gammas. Gammas also arise from neutrons absorbed by the B, Si, Na and K contained in the glass. The proposed shielding design has produced compact shielding assemblies. These arrangements are consistent with safety requirements, floor load limits, and cost constraints. To verify the design a prototype was assembled consisting of 120 mm thick Pb(96%)Sb(4%) walls resting on a concrete block. There was good agreement between experimental measurements and calculated dose rates for bulk shield regions.

  19. BPS Skyrmions as neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Sanchez-Guillen, J; Vazquez, R; Wereszczynski, A

    2014-01-01

    The BPS Skyrme model has been demonstrated already to provide a physically intriguing and quantitatively reliable description of nuclear matter. Indeed, the model has both the symmetries and the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, and thus represents a field theoretic realization of the "liquid droplet" model of nuclear matter. In addition, the classical soliton solutions together with some obvious corrections (spin-isospin quantization, Coulomb energy, proton-neutron mass difference) led to an accurate modeling of nuclear binding energies for heavier nuclei. These results lead to the rather obvious proposal to try to describe also neutron stars by the BPS Skyrme model coupled to gravity. We find that the resulting self-gravitating BPS Skyrmions provide an excellent description of neutron stars when the parameter values of the model are extracted from nuclear physics. Specifically, the maximum possible mass of a neutron star before black-hole formation sets in is several solar masses, the precise value...

  20. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  1. Neutron metrology in the HFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorbraak, W.P.; Freudenreich, W.E.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Verhagen, H.W.

    1991-10-01

    Neutron fluence rate and gamma dose data are presented for the first series of experiments at the filtered HFR beam HB11 at full reactor power. Measurements were performed on two beagle dogs and one cylindrical phantom. The main results for thermal and epithermal fluence rates, physical neutron dose and gamma dose are presented in the tables 1 and 2. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs.; 8 tabs.

  2. Neutron metrology in the HFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voorbraak, W.P.; Freudenreich, W.E.; Paardekooper, A.; Stecher-Rasmussen, F.; Verhagen, H.W.

    1991-11-01

    Results are presented of the ECN measurements at the filtered HFR beam HB11. The neutron measurements took place in the free beam at full power. Several gamma measurements were performed at full power under different conditions. The neutron spectrum was obtained by adjusting a calculated spectrum with experimental results from activation foils. The gamma data were obtained with thermoluminescent dosimeters. (author). 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs.

  3. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  4. Neutron Star News and Puzzles

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-01-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. In this article, I give a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Recent and on-going research on neutron stars in which the group built from scratch by Gerry at Stony Brook has made significant strides are reviewed. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  5. Neutron star news and puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-08-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  6. Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following about the Advanced Neutron Source: Project Management; Research and Development; Fuel Development; Corrosion Loop Tests and Analyses; Thermal-Hydraulic Loop Tests; Reactor Control and Shutdown Concepts; Critical and Subcritical Experiments; Material Data, Structural Tests, and Analysis; Cold-Source Development; Beam Tube, Guide, and Instrument Development; Hot-Source Development; Neutron Transport and Shielding; I & C Research and Development; Design; and Safety.

  7. Interfering with the neutron spin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha

    2004-07-01

    Charge neutrality, a spin $\\dfrac{1}{2}$ and an associated magnetic moment of the neutron make it an ideal probe of quantal spinor evolutions. Polarized neutron interferometry in magnetic field Hamiltonians has thus scored several firsts such as direct verification of Pauli anticommutation, experimental separation of geometric and dynamical phases and observation of non-cyclic amplitudes and phases. This paper provides a flavour of the physics learnt from such experiments.

  8. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaz, P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)], E-mail: pedrovaz@itn.pt

    2009-10-15

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  9. Effects of the neutron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcober, V. (Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)); Martinez Ruis, F.; Manuzi, M.A. (Dpto. de Traumatologia Centro Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to the cortical bone neutron irradiation subject and to the effect of the irradiation on the mechanical properties of bone considered as a composite material is presented. Only the special case of the simple flexion has been treated. The evolution of the load-deflection curve as a function of the epithermal neutron dose has been studied. Some hypotheses on the role performed by the organic and mineral phases are introduced.

  10. Neutron transport simulation (selected topics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, P.

    2009-10-01

    Neutron transport simulation is usually performed for criticality, power distribution, activation, scattering, dosimetry and shielding problems, among others. During the last fifteen years, innovative technological applications have been proposed (Accelerator Driven Systems, Energy Amplifiers, Spallation Neutron Sources, etc.), involving the utilization of intermediate energies (hundreds of MeV) and high-intensity (tens of mA) proton accelerators impinging in targets of high Z elements. Additionally, the use of protons, neutrons and light ions for medical applications (hadrontherapy) impose requirements on neutron dosimetry-related quantities (such as kerma factors) for biologically relevant materials, in the energy range starting at several tens of MeV. Shielding and activation related problems associated to the operation of high-energy proton accelerators, emerging space-related applications and aircrew dosimetry-related topics are also fields of intense activity requiring as accurate as possible medium- and high-energy neutron (and other hadrons) transport simulation. These applications impose specific requirements on cross-section data for structural materials, targets, actinides and biologically relevant materials. Emerging nuclear energy systems and next generation nuclear reactors also impose requirements on accurate neutron transport calculations and on cross-section data needs for structural materials, coolants and nuclear fuel materials, aiming at improved safety and detailed thermal-hydraulics and radiation damage studies. In this review paper, the state-of-the-art in the computational tools and methodologies available to perform neutron transport simulation is presented. Proton- and neutron-induced cross-section data needs and requirements are discussed. Hot topics are pinpointed, prospective views are provided and future trends identified.

  11. Properties of Rotating Neutron Star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh K. Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the nuclear equation of states for a large variety of relativistic and non-relativistic force parameters, we calculate the static and rotating masses and radii of neutron stars. From these equation of states, we evaluate the properties of rotating neutron stars, such as rotational frequencies, moment of inertia, quadrupole deformation parameter, rotational ellipticity and gravitational wave strain amplitude. The estimated gravitational wave strain amplitude of the star is found to be~sim 10-23.

  12. Outline of spallation neutron source engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Noboru [Center for Neutron Science, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Slow neutrons such as cold and thermal neutrons are unique probes which can determine structures and dynamics of condensed matter in atomic scale. The neutron scattering technique is indispensable not only for basic sciences such as condensed matter research and life science, but also for basic industrial technology in 21 century. It is believed that to survive in the science-technology competition in 21 century would be almost impossible without neutron scattering. However, the intensity of neutrons presently available is much lower than synchrotron radiation sources, etc. Thus, R and D of intense neutron sources become most important. The High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project is now being promoted jointly by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, but there has so far been no good text which covers all the aspects of pulsed spallation neutron sources. The present review was prepare aiming at giving a better understanding on pulsed spallation neutron sources not only to neutron source researchers but also more widely to neutron scattering researchers and accelerator scientists in this field. The contents involve, starting from what is neutron scattering and what neutrons are necessary for neutron scattering, what is the spallation reaction, how to produce neutrons required for neutron scattering more efficiently, target-moderator-reflector neutronics and its engineering, shielding, target station, material issues, etc. The author have engaged in R and D of pulsed apallation neutron sources and neutron scattering research using them over 30 years. The present review is prepared based on the author's experiences with useful information obtained through ICANS collaboration and recent data from the JSNS (Japanese Spallation Neutron Source) design team. (author)

  13. Tachoastrometry: astrometry with radial velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquini, L; Lombardi, M; Monaco, L; Leão, I C; Delabre, B

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of composite systems (e.g., spectroscopic binaries) contain spatial information that can be retrieved by measuring the radial velocities (i.e., Doppler shifts) of the components in four observations with the slit rotated by 90 degrees in the sky. By using basic concepts of slit spectroscopy we show that the geometry of composite systems can be reliably retrieved by measuring only radial velocity differences taken with different slit angles. The spatial resolution is determined by the precision with which differential radial velocities can be measured. We use the UVES spectrograph at the VLT to observe the known spectroscopic binary star HD 188088 (HIP 97944), which has a maximum expected separation of 23 milli-arcseconds. We measure an astrometric signal in radial velocity of 276 \\ms, which corresponds to a separation between the two components at the time of the observations of 18 $\\pm2$ milli-arcseconds. The stars were aligned east-west. We describe a simple optical device to simultaneously record p...

  14. Neutron spectrum for neutron capture therapy in boron; Espectro de neutrones para terapia por captura de neutrones en boro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina C, D.; Soto B, T. G. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Basicas, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Baltazar R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Programa de Doctorado en Ingenieria y Tecnologia Aplicada, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: dmedina_c@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive of brain tumors and is difficult to treat by surgery, chemotherapy or conventional radiation therapy. One treatment alternative is the Neutron Capture Therapy in Boron, which requires a beam modulated in neutron energy and a drug with {sup 10}B able to be fixed in the tumor. When the patients head is exposed to the neutron beam, they are captured by the {sup 10}B and produce a nucleus of {sup 7}Li and an alpha particle whose energy is deposited in the cancer cells causing it to be destroyed without damaging the normal tissue. One of the problems associated with this therapy is to have an epithermal neutrons flux of the order of 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2}-sec, whereby irradiation channels of a nuclear research reactor are used. In this work using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra obtained in the radial irradiation channel of the TRIGA Mark III reactor are calculated when inserting filters whose position and thickness have been modified. From the arrangements studied, we found that the Fe-Cd-Al-Cd polyethylene filter yielded a ratio between thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes of 0.006 that exceeded the recommended value (<0.05), and the dose due to the capture gamma rays is lower than the dose obtained with the other arrangements studied. (Author)

  15. Neutron Imaging Developments at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ron; Hunter, James; Schirato, Richard; Vogel, Sven; Swift, Alicia; Ickes, Tim; Ward, Bill; Losko, Adrian; Tremsin, Anton

    2015-10-01

    Neutron imaging is complementary to x-ray imaging because of its sensitivity to light elements and greater penetration of high-Z materials. Energy-resolved neutron imaging can provide contrast enhancements for elements and isotopes due to the variations with energy in scattering cross sections due to nuclear resonances. These cross section differences exist due to compound nuclear resonances that are characteristic of each element and isotope, as well as broader resonances at higher energies. In addition, multi-probe imaging, such as combined photon and neutron imaging, is a powerful tool for discerning properties and features in materials that cannot be observed with a single probe. Recently, we have demonstrated neutron imaging, both radiography and computed tomography, using the moderated (Lujan Center) and high-energy (WNR facility) neutron sources at LANSCE. Flat panel x-ray detectors with suitable scintillator-converter screens provide good sensitivity for both low and high neutron energies. Micro-Channel-Plate detectors and iCCD scintillator camera systems that provide the fast time gating needed for energy-resolved imaging have been demonstrated as well. Examples of recent work will be shown including fluid flow in plants and imaging through dense thick objects. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, and performed by Los Alamos National Security LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. Forming images with thermal neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Thermal neutrons passing through air have scattering lengths of about 20 meters. At further distances, the majority of neutrons emanating from a moderated source will scatter multiple times in the air before being detected, and will not retain information about the location of the source, except that their density will fall off somewhat faster than 1/r2. However, there remains a significant fraction of the neutrons that will travel 20 meters or more without scattering and can be used to create an image of the source. A few years ago, a proof-of-principle "camera" was demonstrated that could produce images of a scene containing sources of thermalized neutrons and could locate a source comparable in strength with an improvised nuclear device at ranges over 60 meters. The instrument makes use of a coded aperture with a uniformly redundant array of openings, analogous to those used in x-ray and gamma cameras. The detector is a position-sensitive He-3 proportional chamber, originally used for neutron diffraction. A neutron camera has many features in common with those designed for non-focusable photons, as well as some important differences. Potential applications include detecting nuclear smuggling, locating non-metallic land mines, assaying nuclear waste, and surveying for health physics purposes.

  17. a Portable Pulsed Neutron Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulakis, A.; Androulakis, G. C.; Clark, E. L.; Hassan, S. M.; Lee, P.; Chatzakis, J.; Bakarezos, M.; Dimitriou, V.; Petridis, C.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.

    2014-02-01

    The design and construction of a pulsed plasma focus device to be used as a portable neutron source for material analysis such as explosive detection using gamma spectroscopy is presented. The device is capable of operating at a repetitive rate of a few Hz. When deuterium gas is used, up to 105 neutrons per shot are expected to be produced with a temporal pulse width of a few tens of nanoseconds. The pulsed operation of the device and its portable size are its main advantage in comparison with the existing continuous neutron sources. Parts of the device include the electrical charging unit, the capacitor bank, the spark switch (spark gap), the trigger unit and the vacuum-fuel chamber / anode-cathode. Numerical simulations are used for the simulation of the electrical characteristics of the device including the scaling of the capacitor bank energies with total current, the pinch current, and the scaling of neutron yields with energies and currents. The MCNPX code is used to simulate the moderation of the produced neutrons in a simplified geometry and subsequently, the interaction of thermal neutrons with a test target and the corresponding prompt γ-ray generation.

  18. The Neutron Star Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2014-01-01

    Neutron stars are a very diverse population, both in their observational and their physical properties. They prefer to radiate most of their energy at X-ray and gamma-ray wavelengths. But whether their emission is powered by rotation, accretion, heat, magnetic fields or nuclear reactions, they are all different species of the same animal whose magnetic field evolution and interior composition remain a mystery. This article will broadly review the properties of inhabitants of the neutron star zoo, with emphasis on their high-energy emission. XXX Neutron stars are found in a wide variety of sources, displaying an amazing array of behavior. They can be isolated or in binary systems, accreting, heating, cooling, spinning down, spinning up, pulsing, flaring and bursting. The one property that seems to determine their behavior most strongly is their magnetic field strength, structure and evolution. The hot polar caps, bursts and flares of magnetars are likely due to the rapid decay and twisting of their superstrong magnetic fields, whose very existence requires some kind of early dynamo activity. The intermediate-strength magnetic fields of RPPs determines their spin-down behavior and radiation properties. However, the overlap of the magnetar and RPP populations is not understood at present. Why don't high-field RPPs burst or flare? Why don't lower-field magnetars sometimes behave more like RPPs? INS may be old magnetars whose high fields have decayed, but they do not account for the existence of younger RPPs with magnetar-strength fields. Not only the strength of the magnetic field but also its configuration may be important in making a NS a magnetar or a RPP. Magnetic field decay is a critical link between other NS populations as well. "Decay" of the magnetic field is necessary for normal RPPs to evolve into MSPs through accretion and spin up in LMXBs. Some kind of accretion-driven field reduction is the most likely mechanism, but it is controversial since it is not

  19. The Laue diffraction method to search for a neutron EDM. Experimental test of the sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.V. E-mail: vfedorov@mail.pnpi.spb.ru; Lapin, E.G.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Petoukhov, A.K.; Semenikhin, S.Yu.; Soldner, T.; Tasset, F.; Voronin, V.V

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of an experiment to search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) by Laue diffraction in crystals without a center of symmetry was tested. At the PF1A beam of the ILL reactor a record time delay of {tau}{approx}2 ms for the passage of neutrons through a quartz crystal was reached for the (1 1 0) plane and diffraction angles equal to 88.5 degrees. That corresponds to an effective neutron velocity in the crystal of 20 m/s, while the velocity of the incident neutron was 800 m/s. It was shown experimentally that the value {tau}N{sup 1/2}, determining the method's sensitivity, has a maximum for the Bragg angle equal to 86 deg. The results allow us to estimate the statistical sensitivity of the method for the neutron EDM. For the PF1B beam of the ILL reactor the sensitivity can reach {approx}6x10{sup -25} e cm per day for the available quartz crystal.

  20. The spatial distribution of old neutron stars in the Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distributions of old neutron stars (NSs) with ages 109 to 1010 yr in our Galaxy are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation under two different initial random velocity models.It is found that the scale heights of the distribution increase with the Galactic radial distance.The location of the peak of the NS distribution is closer to the Galactic center than that of their progenitors.The results from our detailed numerical analysis reveal that there is resemblance between the simulated old NS distribution and the structure of the observed HI disk.

  1. Neutron measurements in ITER using the Radial Neutron Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocco, D.; Esposito, B.; Moro, F.

    2012-03-01

    The Radial Neutron Camera (RNC) is one of the key diagnostic systems of the ITER international fusion experiment. It is designed to measure the uncollided 14 MeV and 2.5 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion reactions taking place in the ITER plasma through an array of 45 detectors positioned along collimated lines of sight. Scintillators and diamonds coupled to fast digital acquisition electronics are among the detectors presently considered for the RNC. The RNC will provide spatially resolved measurements of several plasma parameters needed for fusion power estimation, plasma control and plasma physics studies. The line-integrated RNC neutron fluxes are used to evaluate the local profile of the neutron emission (neutron emissivity, s-1m-3) and therefore the total neutron yield and the birth profile of the alpha particles. The temperature profile of the bulk ions can be derived from the Doppler broadened widths of the RNC line-integrated spectra, that also provide insight on the supra-thermal ions produced by the injection in the plasma of electromagnetic waves and neutral particles. The RNC emissivity and temperature measurements can be employed to estimate the composition of the ITER fuel, namely the ratio between the tritium and deuterium densities. Data processing techniques involving spatial inversion and spectra unfolding are necessary to deduce the profile quantities from the line-integrated RNC measurements. The expected performances of the RNC as a diagnostic for the neutron emissivity/ion temperature/fuel ratio profile (measurement range, time resolution, accuracy, precision) have been estimated by means of synthetic data simulating actual RNC measurements. The results of the simulations, together with an overall description of the diagnostic and of the measurement techniques, are presented.

  2. A new probe of neutron skin thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-Yan; ZHOU Pei; FANG De-Qing; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; CHEN Jin-Gen; GUO Wei; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Hong-Wei; ZHANG Guo-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between neutron-to-proton yield ratio (R) and neutron skin thickness (δ) in neutron-rich projectile induced reactions is investigated within the framework of the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. The density distribution of the Droplet model is embedded in the initialization of the neutron and proton densities in the present IQMD model. By adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutron density in the Droplet model for the projectile, the relationship between the neutron skin thickness and the corresponding R is obtained. The results show strong linear correlation between R and δ for neutron-rich Ca and Ni isotopes. It is suggested that R may be used as an experimental observable to extract δ for neutron-rich nuclei, which is very interesting in the study of the nuclear structure of exotic nuclei, the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter in astrophysics, etc.

  3. PGNAA neutron source moderation setup optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jinzhao

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to design a prompt {\\gamma}-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) thermal neutron output setup using MCNP5 computer code. In these simulations the moderator materials, reflective materials and structure of the PGNAA 252Cf neutrons of thermal neutron output setup were optimized. Results of the calcuations revealed that the thin layer paraffin and the thick layer of heavy water moderated effect is best for 252Cf neutrons spectrum. The new design compared with the conventional neutron source design, the thermal neutron flux and rate were increased by 3.02 times and 3.27 times. Results indicate that the use of this design should increase the neutron flux of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis significantly.

  4. Compilation of Existing Neutron Screen Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chrysanthopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fast neutron spectra in new reactors is expected to induce a strong impact on the contained materials, including structural materials, nuclear fuels, neutron reflecting materials, and tritium breeding materials. Therefore, introduction of these reactors into operation will require extensive testing of their components, which must be performed under neutronic conditions representative of those expected to prevail inside the reactor cores when in operation. Due to limited availability of fast reactors, testing of future reactor materials will mostly take place in water cooled material test reactors (MTRs by tailoring the neutron spectrum via neutron screens. The latter rely on the utilization of materials capable of absorbing neutrons at specific energy. A large but fragmented experience is available on that topic. In this work a comprehensive compilation of the existing neutron screen technology is attempted, focusing on neutron screens developed in order to locally enhance the fast over thermal neutron flux ratio in a reactor core.

  5. Spatiotemporal velocity-velocity correlation function in fully developed turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Canet, Léonie; Wschebor, Nicolás; Balarac, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence is an ubiquitous phenomenon in natural and industrial flows. Since the celebrated work of Kolmogorov in 1941, understanding the statistical properties of fully developed turbulence has remained a major quest. In particular, deriving the properties of turbulent flows from a mesoscopic description, that is from Navier-Stokes equation, has eluded most theoretical attempts. Here, we provide a theoretical prediction for the {\\it space and time} dependent velocity-velocity correlation function of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence from the field theory associated to Navier-Stokes equation with stochastic forcing. This prediction is the analytical fixed-point solution of Non-Perturbative Renormalisation Group flow equations, which are exact in a certain large wave-number limit. This solution is compared to two-point two-times correlation functions computed in direct numerical simulations. We obtain a remarkable agreement both in the inertial and in the dissipative ranges.

  6. EFFECT OF VELOCITY ON DUCTILITY UNDER HIGH VELOCITY FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LI Chunfeng

    2007-01-01

    The ring expansion procedures over various forming velocities are calculated with ANSYS software in order to show the effect of forming velocity on ductility of rate insensitive materials. Ring expansion procedures are simplified to one-dimensional tension by constraining the radial deformation, with element birth and death method, fracture problem of circular ring are considered. The calculated results show that for insensitive materials of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy, fracture strain increases corresponding to the increase of forming velocity. This trend agrees well with experimental results, and indicates inertia is the key factor to affect ductility; With element birth and death methods, fracture problems can be solved effectively. Experimental studies on formability of tubular workpieces are also conducted, experimental results show that the formability of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy under electromagnetic forming is higher than that under quasistatic forming, according to the characteristics of electromagnetic forming, the forming limit diagrams of the two materials tube are also built respectively, this is very important to promote the development of electromagnetic forming and guide the engineering practices.

  7. Neutronic effects on tungsten-186 double neutron capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Marc Alan

    Rhenium-188, a daughter product of tungsten-188, is an isotope of great interest in therapeutic nuclear medicine, being used in dozens of laboratory and clinical investigations worldwide. Applications include various cancer therapy strategies, treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, prevention of restenosis following coronary artery angioplasty, and palliation of bone pain associated with cancer metastases. With its half-life of 17 hours, 2.12 MeV (maximum) beta-particle emission, chemical similarity to technetium-99m (the most widely used diagnostic radioisotope), and its availability in a convenient tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator system, rhenium-188 is a superb candidate for a broad range of applications. Production of 188W is typically via double neutron capture by 186W in a high flux nuclear reactor, predominantly the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. Experience at HFIR has shown that production yields (measured in Ci of 188W produced per g of 186W target) decrease considerably as target size increases. While the phenomenon of neutron resonance self-shielding would be expected to produce such an effect, temperature effects on neutron flux distribution and neutron capture rates may also be involved. Experimental investigations of these phenomena have not been previously performed. The work presented in this thesis evaluates the factors that contribute to the decrease in 188W yield from both theoretical and experimental standpoints. Neutron self-shielding and temperature effects were characterized to develop a strategy for target design that would optimize production yield, an important factor in minimizing health care costs. It was determined that decrease in yield due to neutron self-shielding can be attributed to depletion of epithermal neutrons at resonant energies, most significantly within the initial 0.4 mm depth of the target. The results from these studies further show that 188W yield in the interior of the

  8. Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Faber

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

  9. Neutrons and Fundamental Symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, Bradley [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-11

    The research supported by this project addressed fundamental open physics questions via experiments with subatomic particles. In particular, neutrons constitute an especially ideal “laboratory” for fundamental physics tests, as their sensitivities to the four known forces of nature permit a broad range of tests of the so-called “Standard Model”, our current best physics model for the interactions of subatomic particles. Although the Standard Model has been a triumphant success for physics, it does not provide satisfactory answers to some of the most fundamental open questions in physics, such as: are there additional forces of nature beyond the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces?, or why does our universe consist of more matter than anti-matter? This project also contributed significantly to the training of the next generation of scientists, of considerable value to the public. Young scientists, ranging from undergraduate students to graduate students to post-doctoral researchers, made significant contributions to the work carried out under this project.

  10. Neutron Reactions in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, R; Käppeler, F

    2014-01-01

    The quest for the origin of matter in the Universe had been the subject of philosophical and theological debates over the history of mankind, but quantitative answers could be found only by the scientific achievements of the last century. A first important step on this way was the development of spectral analysis by Kirchhoff and Bunsen in the middle of the 19$^{\\rm th}$ century, which provided first insight in the chemical composition of the sun and the stars. The energy source of the stars and the related processes of nucleosynthesis, however, could be revealed only with the discoveries of nuclear physics. A final breakthrough came eventually with the compilation of elemental and isotopic abundances in the solar system, which are reflecting the various nucleosynthetic processes in detail. This review is focusing on the mass region above iron, where the formation of the elements is dominated by neutron capture, mainly in the slow ($s$) and rapid ($r$) processes. Following a brief historic account and a sketc...

  11. Low-background detection of fission neutrons produced by pulsed neutron interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Flammang, Robert W.; Seidel, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements designed to detect shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) have been carried out using a pulsed 8.5-MeV neutron source. Fission-neutron counts were detected as a function of time in the intervals between 100-μs neutron bursts at burst frequencies of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. The pulse timing sequences were chosen to optimize detection of fission neutrons produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission in the SNM. Fission neutrons were detected directly as proton, carbon, and silicon recoils in silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor fast neutron detectors. SiC detectors recorded neutron counts during and immediately following the source neutron bursts, allowing detection of fission neutrons with short (120 μs) die-away times. The SiC detectors demonstrated excellent background discrimination with more than 2000 neutron counts observed in time intervals where zero background counts were detected.

  12. Performances of Neutron Scattering Spectrometers on a Compact Neutron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrèges, Xavier; Ott, Frédéric; Chauvin, Nicolas; Schwindling, Jérôme; Letourneau, Alain; Marchix, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    There is currently a big effort put into the operation and construction of world class neutron scattering facilities (SNS and SNS-TS2 in the US, J-PARC in Japan, ESS in Europe, CSS in China, PIK in Russia). On the other hand, there exists a network of smaller neutron scattering facilities which play a key role in creating a large neutron scattering community who is able to efficiently use the existing facilities. With the foreseen closure of the ageing nuclear research reactors, especially in Europe there is a risk of seeing a shrinking of the community who would then be able to use efficiently the world class facilities. There is thus a reflection being conducted in several countries for the replacement of smaller research reactors with low energy accelerator based sources. We consider here a reference design for a compact neutron source based on existing accelerator components. We estimate the performances of various types of neutron scattering instruments built around such a source. The results suggest tha...

  13. Measuring Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Sections without Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, L. A.; Schiller, A.; Cooper, J. R.; Hoffman, R. D.; McMahan, M. A.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Mitchell, G.; Tavukcu, E.; Guttormsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on radioactive nuclei play a significant role in nuclear astrophysics and many other applied nuclear physics topics. However, the majority of these cross sections are impossible to measure due to the high-background of the targets and the low-intensity of neutron beams. We have explored the possibility of using charged-particle transfer reactions to form the same "pre-compound" nucleus as one formed in a neutron-induced reaction in order to measure the relative decay probabilities of the nucleus as a function of energy. Multiplying these decay probabilities by the neutron absorption cross section will then produce the equivalent neutron-induced reaction cross section. In this presentation I will explore the validity of this "surrogate reaction" technique by comparing results from the recent 157Gd(3He,axng)156-xGd experiment using STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) at GAMMASPHERE with reaction model calculations for the 155Gd(n,xng)156-xGd. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts number W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL), AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and the Norwegian Research Council (Oslo).

  14. Precision Neutron Scattering Length Measurements with Neutron Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, M. G.; Arif, M.; Jacobson, D. L.; Pushin, D. A.; Abutaleb, M. O.; Shahi, C. B.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Black, T. C.

    2011-10-01

    Since its inception, single-crystal neutron interferometry has often been utilized for precise neutron scattering length, b, measurements. Scattering length data of light nuclei is particularly important in the study of few nucleon interactions as b can be predicted by two + three nucleon interaction (NI) models. As such they provide a critical test of the accuracy 2+3 NI models. Nuclear effective field theories also make use of light nuclei b in parameterizing mean-field behavior. The NIST neutron interferometer and optics facility has measured b to less than 0.8% relative uncertainty in polarized 3He and to less than 0.1% relative uncertainty in H, D, and unpolarized 3He. A neutron interferometer consists of a perfect silicon crystal machined such that there are three separate blades on a common base. Neutrons are Bragg diffracted in the blades to produce two spatially separate (yet coherent) beam paths much like an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A gas sample placed in one of the beam paths of the interferometer causes a phase difference between the two paths which is proportional to b. This talk will focus on the latest scattering length measurement for n-4He which ran at NIST in Fall/Winter 2010 and is currently being analyzed.

  15. Antibodies as Tailor-Made Chiral Selectors: an Interdisciplinary Approach to Enantiomer Separation and Detection%抗体作为特制的手性选择剂:一个跨学科的对映体分离和检测手段

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOFSTETTER Heike; HOFSTETTER Oliver

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that the configurational isomers of biologically active compounds, e.g., nutrients, pesticides, and drugs, may exhibit different activities in a chiral environment such as the human body. Although the majority of drugs presently in development are chiral, analytical and preparative methods for the quantitative determination and purification of stereoisomers still lag behind. One reason is that commonly used chiral selectors for the direct resolution of enantiomers are not tailor-made for a specific analyte. The identification of suitable selectors for a particular pair of enantiomers still requires considerable experimentation and is generally demanding with regard to material, time and labor. The rational design of chiral host molecules, therefore, represents a challenge in facilitating enantiomer analysis. In this article, we describe how a combination of techniques ranging from organic synthesis to molecular biology yields antibodies of predetermined specificity and stereoselectivity that can be used as tailor-made chiral selectors for the chromatographic separation of enantiomers and their sensitive detection in immunosensors.

  16. Solar Neutrons and the Earth's Radiation Belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, R E; Flamm, E J

    1964-04-17

    The intensity and spectrum of solar neutrons in the vicinity of the earth are calculated on the assumption that the low-energy protons recently detected in balloon and satellite flights are products of solar neutron decay. The solar-neutron flux thus obtained exceeds the global average cosmic-ray neutron leakage above 10 Mev, indicating that it may be an important source of both the inner and outer radiation belts. Neutron measurements in the atmosphere are reviewed and several features of the data are found to be consistent with the estimated solar neutron spectrum.

  17. Corrections in the gold foil activation method for determination of neutron beam density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1967-01-01

    example for a reactor beam transmitted through a 30 cm Bi filter. The effective cross section differs 0.5% from the capture cross section at 2200 m/s. For a 20 mg/cm2 Au foil the correction for beam attenuation and hardening through the foil is 0.7% and the activity correction is 1.5%.......A finite foil thickness and deviation in the cross section from the 1ν law imply corrections in the determination of neutron beam densities by means of foil activation. These corrections, which depend on the neutron velocity distribution, have been examined in general and are given in a specific...

  18. Neutron spectrometry--historical review and present status

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, F D

    2002-01-01

    Methods of neutron field spectrometry, other than those depending on the use of pulsed neutron sources, are surveyed. Neutron spectrometers are compared with particular reference to characteristics such as energy resolution, useful energy range, neutron detection efficiency and response functions.

  19. Signal velocity for anomalous dispersive waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1983-03-11

    The concept of signal velocity for dispersive waves is usually identified with that of group velocity. When the dispersion is anomalous, this interpretation is not correct since the group velocity can assume nonphysical values. In this note, by using the steepest descent method first introduced by Brillouin, the phase velocity is shown to be the signal velocity when the dispersion is anomalous in the full range of frequencies.

  20. Hydrodynamics of coalescing binary neutron stars ellipsoidal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, D; Lai, Dong; Shapiro, Stu

    1994-01-01

    We employ an approximate treatment of dissipative hydrodynamics in three dimensions to study the coalescence of binary neutron stars driven by the emission of gravitational waves. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids obeying a polytropic equation of state; all internal fluid velocities are assumed to be linear functions of the coordinates. The hydrodynamic equations then reduce to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes of the ellipsoids, the internal velocity parameters and the binary orbital parameters. Gravitational radiation reaction and viscous dissipation are both incorporated. We set up exact initial binary equilibrium configurations and follow the transition from the quasi-static, secular decay of the orbit at large separation to the rapid dynamical evolution of the configurations just prior to contact. A hydrodynamical instability resulting from tidal interactions significantly accelerates the coalescence at small separation, leading to app...

  1. The integration of angular velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...

  2. The Pulsar Kick Velocity Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, B M S; Hansen, Brad M. S.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sample of pulsar proper motions, taking detailed account of the selection effects of the original surveys. We treat censored data using survival statistics. From a comparison of our results with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the mean birth speed of a pulsar is 250-300 km/s, rather than the 450 km/s foundby Lyne & Lorimer (1994). The resultant distribution is consistent with a maxwellian with dispersion $ \\sigma_v = 190 km/s$. Despite the large birth velocities, we find that the pulsars with long characteristic ages show the asymmetric drift, indicating that they are dynamically old. These pulsars may result from the low velocity tail of the younger population, although modified by their origin in binaries and by evolution in the galactic potential.

  3. Multilogarithmic velocity renormalization in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We reexamine the effect of long-range Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle velocity in graphene. Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach with partial bosonization in the forward scattering channel and momentum transfer cutoff scheme, we calculate the quasiparticle velocity, v (k ) , and the quasiparticle residue, Z , with frequency-dependent polarization. One of our most striking results is that v (k ) ∝ln[Ck(α ) /k ] where the momentum- and interaction-dependent cutoff scale Ck(α ) vanishes logarithmically for k →0 . Here k is measured with respect to one of the charge neutrality (Dirac) points and α =2.2 is the strength of dimensionless bare interaction. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the so-obtained multilogarithmic singularity is reconcilable with the perturbative expansion of v (k ) in powers of the bare interaction.

  4. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.

    1989-03-01

    The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

  5. High velocity collisions of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald F.; Mattson, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are a unique class of material with highly functionalizable surfaces and exciting applications. With a large surface-to-volume ratio and potentially high surface tension, shocked nanoparticles might display unique materials behavior. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity NP collisions under a variety of conditions. NPs composed of diamond-C, cubic-BN, and diamond-Si were considered with particle sizes up to 3.5 nm diameter. Additional simulations involved NPs that were destabilized by incorporating internal strain. The initial spherical NP structures were carved out of bulk crystals while the NPs with internal strain were constructed as a dense core (compressive strain) encompassed by a thin shell (tensile strain). Both on-axis and off-axis collisions were simulated at 10 km/s relative velocity. The amount of internal strain was artificially increased by creating a dense inner core with bond lengths compressed up to 8%. Collision dynamics, shock propagation, and fragmentation will be analyzed, but the simulation are ongoing and results are not finalized. The effect of material properties, internal strain, and collision velocity will be discussed.

  6. Neutron Tomography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, William Riley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Neutron imaging is an incredibly powerful tool for non-destructive sample characterization and materials science. Neutron tomography is one technique that results in a three-dimensional model of the sample, representing the interaction of the neutrons with the sample. This relies both on reliable data acquisition and on image processing after acquisition. Over the course of the project, the focus has changed from the former to the latter, culminating in a large-scale reconstruction of a meter-long fossilized skull. The full reconstruction is not yet complete, though tools have been developed to improve the speed and accuracy of the reconstruction. This project helps to improve the capabilities of LANSCE and LANL with regards to imaging large or unwieldy objects.

  7. 2013 Review of Neutron and Non-Neutron Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, N. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-05-23

    The results of a review and evaluation of neutron and non-neutron nuclear data published in the scientific literature over the past three years since the ISRD-14 Symposium has been performed and the highlights are presented. Included in the data review are the status of new chemical elements, new measurements of the isotopic composition for many chemical elements and the resulting change in the atomic weight values. New half-life measurements for both short-lived and longlived nuclides, some alpha decay and double beta decay measurements for quasistable nuclides are discussed. The latest evaluation of atomic masses has been published. Data from new measurements on the very heavy (trans-meitnerium) elements are discussed and tabulated. Data on various recent neutron cross section and resonance integral measurements are discussed and tabulated.

  8. Fission-neutrons source with fast neutron-emission timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusev, G., E-mail: rusev@lanl.gov; Baramsai, B.; Bond, E.M.; Jandel, M.

    2016-05-01

    A neutron source with fast timing has been built to help with detector-response measurements. The source is based on the neutron emission from the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. The time is provided by registering the fission fragments in a layer of a thin scintillation film with a signal rise time of 1 ns. The scintillation light output is measured by two silicon photomultipliers with rise time of 0.5 ns. Overall time resolution of the source is 0.3 ns. Design of the source and test measurements using it are described. An example application of the source for determining the neutron/gamma pulse-shape discrimination by a stilbene crystal is given.

  9. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    A rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star is one possible outcome when two smaller neutron stars merge. [Casey Reed/Penn State University]When two neutron stars collide, the new object that they make can reveal information about the interior physics of neutron stars. New theoretical work explores what we should be seeing, and what it can teach us.Neutron Star or Black Hole?So far, the only systems from which weve detected gravitational waves are merging black holes. But other compact-object binaries exist and are expected to merge on observable timescales in particular, binary neutron stars. When two neutron stars merge, the resulting object falls into one of three categories:a stable neutron star,a black hole, ora supramassive neutron star, a large neutron star thats supported by its rotation but will eventually collapse to a black hole after it loses angular momentum.Histograms of the initial (left) and final (right) distributions of objects in the authors simulations, for five different equations of state. Most cases resulted primarily in the formation of neutron stars (NSs) or supramassive neutron stars (sNSs), not black holes (BHs). [Piro et al. 2017]Whether a binary-neutron-star merger results in another neutron star, a black hole, or a supramassive neutron star depends on the final mass of the remnant and what the correct equation of state is that describes the interiors of neutron stars a longstanding astrophysical puzzle.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Anthony Piro (Carnegie Observatories) estimated which of these outcomes we should expect for mergers of binary neutron stars. The teams results along with future observations of binary neutron stars may help us to eventually pin down the equation of state for neutron stars.Merger OutcomesPiro and collaborators used relativistic calculations of spinning and non-spinning neutron stars to estimate the mass range that neutron stars would have for several different realistic equations of

  10. Neutron scattering instrumentation for biology at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Conventional wisdom holds that since biological entities are large, they must be studied with cold neutrons, a domain in which reactor sources of neutrons are often supposed to be pre-eminent. In fact, the current generation of pulsed spallation neutron sources, such as LANSCE at Los Alamos and ISIS in the United Kingdom, has demonstrated a capability for small angle scattering (SANS) - a typical cold- neutron application - that was not anticipated five years ago. Although no one has yet built a Laue diffractometer at a pulsed spallation source, calculations show that such an instrument would provide an exceptional capability for protein crystallography at one of the existing high-power spoliation sources. Even more exciting is the prospect of installing such spectrometers either at a next-generation, short-pulse spallation source or at a long-pulse spallation source. A recent Los Alamos study has shown that a one-megawatt, short-pulse source, which is an order of magnitude more powerful than LANSCE, could be built with today`s technology. In Europe, a preconceptual design study for a five-megawatt source is under way. Although such short-pulse sources are likely to be the wave of the future, they may not be necessary for some applications - such as Laue diffraction - which can be performed very well at a long-pulse spoliation source. Recently, it has been argued by Mezei that a facility that combines a short-pulse spallation source similar to LANSCE, with a one-megawatt, long-pulse spallation source would provide a cost-effective solution to the global shortage of neutrons for research. The basis for this assertion as well as the performance of some existing neutron spectrometers at short-pulse sources will be examined in this presentation.

  11. Bow Shocks from Neutron Stars Scaling Laws and HST Observations of the Guitar Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, S

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of high-velocity neutron stars with the interstellar medium produces bow shock nebulae, where the relativistic neutron star wind is confined by ram pressure. We present multi-wavelength observations of the Guitar Nebula, including narrow-band H-alpha imaging with HST/WFPC2, which resolves the head of the bow shock. The HST observations are used to fit for the inclination of the pulsar velocity vector to the line of sight, and to determine the combination of spindown energy loss, velocity, and ambient density that sets the scale of the bow shock. We find that the velocity vector is most likely in the plane of the sky. We use the Guitar Nebula and other observed neutron star bow shocks to test scaling laws for their size and H-alpha emission, discuss their prevalence, and present criteria for their detectability in targeted searches. The set of H-alpha bow shocks shows remarkable consistency, in spite of the expected variation in ambient densities and orientations. Together, they support the ass...

  12. Neutron Science Project at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, is proposing the Neutron Science Project which aims at bringing about scientific and technological innovation in the fields of basic science and nuclear technology for the 21st century, using high intense spallation neutron source. The research areas to be promoted by the project are neutron structural biology, material science, nuclear physics and various technology developments for accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radionuclides which are associated with nuclear power generation. JAERI has been carrying out a R and D program for the partitioning and transmutation with the intention to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle backend. The accelerator-driven transmutation study is also covered with this program. In the present stage of the project, a conceptual design is being prepared for a research complex utilizing spallation neutrons, including a high intensity pulsed and steady spallation neutron source with 1.5 GeV and 8 MW superconducting proton linac. The idea and facility plan of the project is described, including the status of technological development of the accelerator, target and facilities. (author)

  13. Neutron Skins and Halo Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnard, J; Zuker, A P

    2016-01-01

    The strong dependence of Coulomb energies on nuclear radii makes it possible to extract the latter from calculations of the former. The resulting estimates of neutron skins indicate that two mechanisms are involved. The first one---isovector monopole polarizability---amounts to noting that when a particle is added to a system it drives the radii of neutrons and protons in different directions, tending to equalize the radii of both fluids independently of the neutron excess. This mechanism is well understood and the Duflo-Zuker (small) neutron skin values derived 14 years ago are consistent with recent measures and estimates. The alternative mechanism involves halo orbits whose huge sizes tend to make the neutron skins larger and have a subtle influence on the radial behavior of $sd$ and $pf$ shell nuclei. In particular, they account for the sudden rise in the isotope shifts of nuclei beyond $N=28$ and the near constancy of radii in the $A=40-56$ region. This mechanism, detected here for the first time, is not...

  14. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In this paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE (Binary Star Evolution) population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 yr. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1-1 per cent of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  15. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In the present paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 years. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1 - 1% of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  16. Old and new neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruderman, M.

    1984-09-01

    The youngest known radiopulsar in the rapidly spinning magnetized neutron star which powers the Crab Nebula, the remnant of the historical supernova explosion of 1054 AD. Similar neutron stars are probably born at least every few hundred years, but are less frequent than Galactic supernova explosions. They are initially sources of extreme relativistic electron and/or positron winds (approx.10/sup 38/s/sup -1/ of 10/sup 12/ eV leptons) which greatly decrease as the neutron stars spin down to become mature pulsars. After several million years these neutron stars are no longer observed as radiopulsars, perhaps because of large magnetic field decay. However, a substantial fraction of the 10/sup 8/ old dead pulsars in the Galaxy are the most probable source for the isotropically distributed ..gamma..-ray burst detected several times per week at the earth. Some old neutron stars are spun-up by accretion from companions to be resurrected as rapidly spinning low magnetic field radiopulsars. 52 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Intense pulsed neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IPNS Progress Report 10th Anniversary Edition is being published in recognition of the first ten years of successful IPNS operation. To emphasize the significance of this milestone, we wanted this report to stand apart from the previous IPNS Progress Reports, and the best way to do this, we thought, was to make the design and organization of the report significantly different. In their articles, authors were asked to emphasize not only advances made since IPNS began operating but also the groundwork that was laid at its predecessor facilities - Argonne's ZING-P and ZING-P' prototype pulsed neutron sources and CP-5 reactor. Each article stands as a separate chapter in the report, since each represents a particular instrument or class of instruments, system, technique, or area of research. In some cases, contributions were similar to review articles in scientific journals, complete with extensive lists of references. Ten-year cumulative lists of members of IPNS committees and of scientists who have visited or done experiments at IPNS were assembled. A list of published and 'in press' articles in journals, books, and conference proceedings, resulting from work done at IPNS during the past ten years, was compiled. And archival photographs of people and activities during the ten-year history of IPNS were located and were used liberally throughout the report. The titles of the chapters in this report are: accelerator; computer; radiation effects; powder; stress; single crystal; superconductivity; amorphous; small angle; reflection; quasielastic; inelastic; inelastic magnetic; deep inelastic; user program; the future; and publications.

  18. Neutron scattering from -Ce at epithermal neutron energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A P Murani

    2008-10-01

    Neutron scattering data, using neutrons of incident energies as high as 2 eV, on -Ce and -Ce-like systems such as CeRh2, CeNi2, CeFe24, CeRu2, and many others that point clearly to the substantially localized 4f electronic state in these systems are reviewed. The present interpretation is contrary to the widely held view that the 4f electrons in these systems form a narrow itinerant electron 4f band.

  19. Calculations to support JET neutron yield calibration: Modelling of neutron emission from a compact DT neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čufar, Aljaž; Batistoni, Paola; Conroy, Sean; Ghani, Zamir; Lengar, Igor; Milocco, Alberto; Packer, Lee; Pillon, Mario; Popovichev, Sergey; Snoj, Luka

    2017-03-01

    At the Joint European Torus (JET) the ex-vessel fission chambers and in-vessel activation detectors are used as the neutron production rate and neutron yield monitors respectively. In order to ensure that these detectors produce accurate measurements they need to be experimentally calibrated. A new calibration of neutron detectors to 14 MeV neutrons, resulting from deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas, is planned at JET using a compact accelerator based neutron generator (NG) in which a D/T beam impinges on a solid target containing T/D, producing neutrons by DT fusion reactions. This paper presents the analysis that was performed to model the neutron source characteristics in terms of energy spectrum, angle-energy distribution and the effect of the neutron generator geometry. Different codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron sources are compared and sensitivities to uncertainties in the generator's internal structure analysed. The analysis was performed to support preparation to the experimental measurements performed to characterize the NG as a calibration source. Further extensive neutronics analyses, performed with this model of the NG, will be needed to support the neutron calibration experiments and take into account various differences between the calibration experiment and experiments using the plasma as a source of neutrons.

  20. Velocity Correction and Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of Light Screen Velocity Measuring Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bin; ZUO Zhao-lu; HOU Wen

    2012-01-01

    Light screen velocity measuring method with unique advantages has been widely used in the velocity measurement of various moving bodies.For large air resistance and friction force which the big moving bodies are subjected to during the light screen velocity measuring,the principle of velocity correction was proposed and a velocity correction equation was derived.A light screen velocity measuring method was used to measure the velocity of big moving bodies which have complex velocity attenuation,and the better results were gained in practical tests.The measuring uncertainty after the velocity correction was calculated.