WorldWideScience

Sample records for neutron sensors based

  1. Electronic neutron sensor based on coincidence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelaud, B.; Decossas, J.L.; Mokhtari, F.; Vareille, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The last symposium on neutron dosimetry which took place in Paris in November 1995 have shown again that it doesn't exist any individual active neutron dosemeter. The state of art on electronic device, the needs of the nuclear power industry in individual neutron monitoring and the new trends of The last symposium on neutron dosimetry which took place in Paris in November 1995 have shown again that it doesn't exist any individual active neutron dosemeter. The state of art on electronic device, the needs of the nuclear power industry in individual neutron monitoring and the new trends of researches were presented. They confirm the relevance of our studies in progress in the C2M team of the University of Limoges. The aim of this work is to realize an individual electronic neutron dosemeter. The device in the progress of being development will operate either as a dosemeter or as ratemeter giving H p (10) and H p (10) either as a spectrometer permitting to characterize the primary neutron beam. (author)

  2. A variety of neutron sensors based on scintillating glass waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.

    1995-05-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has fabricated cerium-activated, lithium-silicate glass scintillating fiber neutron sensors via a hot-downdraw process. These fibers typically have a transmission length (e -1 length) of greater than 2 meters. The underlying physics of, the properties of, and selected devices incorporating these fibers are described. These fibers constitute an enabling technology for a wide variety of neutron sensors

  3. A review of nanostructured based radiation sensors for neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Pervaiz; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif [Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Currently radiation sensors with various mechanisms such as radio thermo luminescence, radiographic and radiochromic film, semiconductor and ionization have been used for the detection of nuclear radiation. Sensitivity, handling procedure, heating condition, energy response, nonlinearity, polarization, non-uniform electric field, high bias voltage and spatial resolution due to large physical size are some of the key issues faced by these sensors. Due to the excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been researched as sensing elements in the sensors to overcome the mentioned problems. However CNTs are found to pose different problems, arising from the uncontrolled helicity and small cross-sectional area. Therefore, alternative sensing elements are still been sought after and the possibility of using boron nitride nanotubes for sensing neutron is considered in this review.

  4. Characteristics of SiC neutron sensor spectrum unfolding process based on Bayesian inference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetnar, Jerzy; Krolikowski, Igor [Faculty of Energy and Fuels AGH - University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ottaviani, L. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Aix-Marseille University, Case 231 -13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with SiC detector signal interpretation in neutron radiation measurements in mixed neutron gamma radiation fields, which is called the detector inverse problem or the spectrum unfolding, and it aims in finding a representation of the primary radiation, based on the measured detector signals. In our novel methodology we resort to Bayesian inference approach. In the developed procedure the resultant spectra is unfolded form detector channels reading, where the estimated neutron fluence in a group structure is obtained with its statistical characteristic comprising of standard deviation and correlation matrix. In the paper we present results of unfolding process for case of D-T neutron source in neutron moderating environment. Discussions of statistical properties of obtained results are presented as well as of the physical meaning of obtained correlation matrix of estimated group fluence. The presented works has been carried out within the I-SMART project, which is part of the KIC InnoEnergy R and D program. (authors)

  5. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Sentkerestiova, J.; Bem, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10 16 cm -2 was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  6. Stability of the Hall sensors performance under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Hron, M.; Stockel, J.; Viererbl, L.; Vsolak, R.; Cerva, V.; Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R.; Vayakis, G.

    2004-01-01

    A principally new diagnostic method must be developed for magnetic measurements in steady state regime of operation of fusion reactor. One of the options is the use of transducers based on Hall effect. The use of Hall sensors in ITER is presently limited by their questionable radiation and thermal stability. Issues of reliable operation in ITER like radiation and thermal environment are addressed in the paper. The results of irradiation tests of candidate Hall sensors in LVR-15 and IBR-2 experimental fission reactors are presented. Stable operation (deterioration of sensitivity below one percent) of the specially prepared sensors was demonstrated during irradiation by the total fluence of 3.10 16 n/cm 2 in IBR-2 reactor. Increasing the total neutron fluence up to 3.10 17 n/cm 2 resulted in deterioration of the best sensor's output still below 10% as demonstrated during irradiation in LVR-15 fission reactor. This level of neutron is already higher than the expected ITER life time neutron fluence for a sensor location just outside the ITER vessel. (authors)

  7. Dendrimer sensors probed with neutron reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaye, Hamish; Smith, Arthur R.G.; Burn, Paul L.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Meredith, Paul; Gentle, Ian R.; James, Michael; Nelson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Oxidative photoluminescence (PL) quenching utilizing conjugated polymers as the sensing has proved to be one of the best of many methods for sensing explosive analytes.[1] However are a number of issues that can make polymers difficult to work with, including complex morphologies reproducibility of syntheses, and the need to include elaborate structures to reduce the packing of the polymer chains. Dendrimers, consisting of a core, dendrons, and surface groups, address these issues by being monodisperse and modular in their design. Determining how analytes are sequestered into thin films is important for solid-state sensors. We show that thin (230 ± 30 A ) and thick (750 ± 50 A) films of a first-generation dendrimer comrised of 2-ethylhexyloxy surface groups, biphenyl-based dendrons, and a 9,9,9',9'-tetra-n-propyl-2,2'-bifluorene core, can rapidly and reversibly detect p-nitrotoll oxidative luminescence quenching. For both the thin and thick films the PL is quenched by just 4 s . Combined PL and neutron reflectometry measurements on pristine and analyte-satura showed that during the adsorption process the films swelled, being on average 4% thicker for thin and thick dendrimer films. At the same time the PL was completely quenched. On removal of the analyte the films returned to their original thickness and scattering length density, and the restored, showing that the sensing process was fully reversible.

  8. Novel 3D silicon sensors for neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendicino, R; Betta, G-F Dalla; Palma, M Dalla; Perillo, E; Povoli, M; Quaranta, A; Boscardin, M; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Carturan, S; Cinausero, M; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; , University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Physics and Astronomy ''G.Galilei, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy))" >Collazuol, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report a novel 3D sensor structure to be used as a neutron detector in combination with an organic converter material based on polysiloxane. The first prototypes of the proposed device are presented, with emphasis on the experimental characterization. Selected results from the functional tests (with alpha particle source and pulsed laser scans) are discussed with the aid of TCAD simulations

  9. Gamma and Neutron Irradiation of Semitransparent Amorphous Silicon Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabe, J.; Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Fuentes, J.; Gandia, J.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Garcia, N.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.; Fenyvesi, A.; Molnar, J.; Sohler, D.

    1999-12-01

    Semitransparent amorphous silicon sensors are key elements for laser light 2D position reconstruction in the CMS multipoint alignment link system. Some of the sensors have to work in very hard radiation environment. We have irradiated with gammas, up to 10 Mrad, and neutrons, up to 10 ''14 cm''-2, two different type of sensors and measured their change in performance. (Author) 10 refs

  10. Manufacturing of thermal neutron sensor using pMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Seung Ho

    2005-05-01

    A pMOSFET sensor having a Gadolinium converter has been invented successfully as a slow neutron sensor that is sensitive to neutron energy down to 0.025 eV. The Gd layer converts low energy neutrons to ionizing radiation of which the amount is proportional to neutron dose. Ionising radiation from neutron reactions changes the charge state of the gate oxide of the pMOSFET. The Gd-pMOSFETs were tested at a neutron beam port of HANARO research reactor and a 60 CO irradiation facility to investigate slow neutron response and gamma response, respectively. The voltage change was proportional to the accumulated slow neutron dose. The results from Gd coupled MOSFET neutron dosemeters shows an excellent sensitivity (15 - 16mV/cGy) and linearity to thermal neutrons with negligible background contamination. The results demonstrate the outstanding performance of the Gd coupled MOSFET neutron dosemeters clearly. The Gd-pMOSFET can also be used in a mixed radiation field by subtracting the voltage change of a pMOSFET without Gd from that of the Gd-pMOSFET

  11. Electronic dosimetry and neutron metrology by CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstalle, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims at demonstrating the possibility to use active pixel sensors as operational neutron dosemeters. To do so, the sensor that has been used has to be γ-transparent and to be able to detect neutrons on a wide energy range with a high detection efficiency. The response of the device, made of the CMOS sensor MIMOSA-5 and a converter in front of the sensor (polyethylene for fast neutron detection and 10 B for thermal neutron detection), has been compared with Monte Carlo simulations carried out with MCNPX and GEANT4. These codes have been before-hand validated to check they can be used properly for our application. Experiments to characterize the sensor have been performed at IPHC and at IRSN/LMDN (Cadarache). The results of the sensor irradiation to photon sources and mixed field ( 241 AmBe source) show the γ-transparency of the sensor by applying an appropriate threshold on the deposited energy (around 100 keV). The associated detection efficiency is satisfactory with a value of 10 -3 , in good agreement with MCNPX and GEANT4. Other features of the device have been tested with the same source, like the angular response. The last part of this work deals with the detection of thermal neutrons (eV-neutrons). Assays have been done in Cadarache (IRSN) with a 252 Cf source moderated with heavy water (with and without cadmium shell). Results asserted a very high detection efficiency (up to 6*10 -3 for a pure 10 B converter) in good agreement with GEANT4. (author)

  12. SIMULATED 8 MeV NEUTRON RESPONSE FUNCTIONS OF A THIN SILICON NEUTRON SENSOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko; Nunomiya, Tomoya; Aoyama, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-12-22

    Neutron response functions of a thin silicon neutron sensor are simulated using PHITS2 and MCNP6 codes for an 8 MeV neutron beam at angles of incidence of 0°, 30° and 60°. The contributions of alpha particles created from the 28Si(n,α)25Mg reaction and the silicon nuclei scattered elastically by neutrons in the silicon sensor have not been well reproduced using the MCNP6 code. The 8 MeV neutron response functions simulated using the PHITS2 code with an accurate event generator mode are in good agreement with experimental results and include the contributions of the alpha particles and silicon nuclei. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Accelerator based continuous neutron source.

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, S M; Ruggiero, A G

    2003-01-01

    Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate pr...

  14. Development of an Improved Direct Neutron Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeVert, Francis

    1997-01-01

    ... of 2.5 MeV and a 14 MeV neutron generator. The conductive polymer film was inserted between two structural elements consisting of quartz plates of polyethylene prisms with electrode structures formed with conductive paints or other conductive...

  15. ISFET based enzyme sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the results that have been reported on ISFET based enzyme sensors. The most important improvement that results from the application of ISFETs instead of glass membrane electrodes is in the method of fabrication. Problems with regard to the pH dependence of the response and the

  16. Neutron irradiation characteristic tests of oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiura, Nobuo; Endou, Yasuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Saito, Junichi; Souzawa, Shizuo; Ooka, Norikazu; Kobiyama, Mamoru.

    1997-03-01

    In the Department of JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the in-situ measuring technique of oxygen potential has been being developed to study the chemical behavior of high burn-up fuel base-irradiated in the Light Water Reactor. In this test for development of the technique, oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte stabilized by MgO, CaO and Y 2 O 3 , named MSZ, CSZ and YSZ, respectively, were irradiated by neutrons in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) of JAERI and the characteristics of electromotive force of these sensors under and after irradiation were discussed. From the experimental results, the electromotive force of YSZ sample under irradiation decreased with an increase in irradiation fluence within a range of neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) up to 1 x 10 23 m -2 . The electromotive force of MSZ sensor irradiated with neutron fluences (E>1 MeV) up to 9 x 10 21 m -2 was almost equal to the theoretical value of the electromotive force. It was shown that after irradiation, a decrease in the electromotive force of CSZ sensor was smaller than those of MSZ and YSZ sensors, although the electromotive forces of MSZ, CSZ and YSZ sensors were smaller than the theoretical value. (author)

  17. Evaluation of using a phototransistor as a neutron sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Luiz A.P., E-mail: fbarros@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: lasantos@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, (CRCN/NE-CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Antonio Filho, Joao, E-mail: jaf@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate some effects on the TEKT5400S phototransistor about the electrical and optical characteristics when it is exposed to the radiation from a neutron source of {sup 241} Am-{sup 9}Be, and therefore the study aims to verify if the phototransistor can be used as a neutron sensor. The neutrons interact with the crystal structure of the device yielding displacement of atoms in the semiconductor, creating defects in the phototransistor and these defects can modify its electrical state. To have a triplicate sample, five sets of three phototransistor were irradiated: one of them in thermal neutrons, three sets in fast neutrons, and the latter one was irradiated in a {sup 60} Co source to verify the contribution of gamma radiation in the device response. To understand the changes in the crystal structure, it was measured the dark current of the device, I, and plotting its (IxV) curve which is known in instrumentation as the characteristic curve of the electronic device. This technique aims to check how the phototransistor response is: the effect of accumulated dose; optical properties changing; and its permanence over time. The results showed that the device has some changing in the electrical and optical properties. It was also found that the response depends on the dose, D; it is linear up to 0.64 Gy; and the damage caused by the irradiation process is irreversible. Actually, such a damage is the parameter that is used to estimate the received dose by the phototransistor. Then one can conclude that a phototransistor type works as a neutron sensor depending on the knowledge of the the electrical state of the device, i.e., it is a function of its calibration curve: D(I). (author)

  18. Compensation scheme for online neutron detection using a Gd-covered CdZnTe sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.dumazert@cea.fr; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim

    2017-06-11

    The development of portable and personal neutron dosimeters requires compact and efficient radiation sensors. Gd-157, Gd-155 and Cd-113 nuclei present the highest cross-sections for thermal neutron capture among natural isotopes. In order to allow for the exploitation of the low and medium-energy radiative signature of the said captures, the contribution of gamma background radiation, falling into the same energy range, needs to be cancelled out. This paper introduces a thermal neutron detector based on a twin-dense semiconductor scheme. The neutron-sensitive channel takes the form of a Gd-covered CdZnTe crystal, a high density and effective atomic number detection medium. The background compensation will be carried out by means of an identical CdZnTe sensor with a Tb cover. The setting of a hypothesis test aims at discriminating the signal generated by the signature of thermal neutron captures in Gd from statistical fluctuations over the compensation of both independent channels. The measurement campaign conducted with an integrated single-channel chain and two metal Gd and Tb covers, under Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations, provides first quantitative results on gamma-rejection and neutron sensitivity. The described study of concept gives grounds for a portable, online-compatible device, operable in conventional to controlled environments.

  19. Base neutron noise in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaly, G.; Albrecht, R.W.; Dailey, D.J.; Fry, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable activity has been devoted in recent years to the use of neutron noise for investigation of problems in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The investigators have found that neutron noise provides an effective way to monitor reactor internal vibrations such as vertical and lateral core motion; core support barrel and thermal shield shell modes, bending modes of fuel assemblies, and control rod vibrations. However, noise analysts have also concluded that diagnosis of a problem is easier if baseline data for normal plant operation is available. Therefore, the authors have obtained ex-core neutron noise signatures from eight PWRs to determine the similarity of signatures between plants and to build a base of data to determine the sources of neutron noise and thus the potential diagnostic information contained in the data. It is concluded that: (1) ex-core neutron noise contains information about the vibration of components in the pressure vessel; (2) baseline signature acquisition can aid understanding of plant specific vibration frequencies and provide a bases for diagnosis of future problems if they occur; and (3) abnormal core support barrel vibration can most likely be detected over and above the plant-to-plant signature variation observed thus far

  20. Neutron Irradiation Tests of Calibrated Cryogenic Sensors at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Junquera, T; Thermeau, J P; Casas-Cubillos, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the advancement of a program being carried out in view of selecting the cryogenic temperature sensors to be used in the LHC accelerator. About 10,000 sensors will be installed around the 26.6 km LHC ring, and most of them will be exposed to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. The following thermometric sensors : carbon resistors, thin films, and platinum resistors, have been exposed to high neutron fluences (>10$^15$ n/cm$^2$) at the ISN (Grenoble, France) Cryogenic Irradiation Test Facility. A cryostat is placed in a shielded irradiation vault where a 20 MeV deuteron beam hits a Be target, resulting in a well collimated and intense neutron beam. The cryostat, the on-line acquisition system, the temperature references and the main characteristics of the irradiation facility are described. The main interest of this set-up is its ability to monitor online the evolution of the sensors by comparing its readout with temperature references that are in principle insensitive to t...

  1. Accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimov, R.; Bayanov, B.; Belchenko, Yu.; Belov, V.; Davydenko, V.; Donin, A.; Dranichnikov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kandaurov, I; Kraynov, G.; Krivenko, A.; Kudryavtsev, A.; Kursanov, N.; Savkin, V.; Shirokov, V.; Sorokin, I.; Taskaev, S.; Tiunov, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk) and the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk) have proposed an accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture and fast neutron therapy for hospital. Innovative approach is based upon vacuum insulation tandem accelerator (VITA) and near threshold 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be neutron generation. Pilot accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. In the present report, the pilot facility design is presented and discussed. Design features of facility components are discussed. Results of experiments and simulations are presented. Complete experimental tests are planned by the end of the year 2005

  2. Numeric modeling of HfO2 neutron flux sensor parameters during sensor burnup in the RBMK-1500 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkevicius, A.; Remeikis, V.

    2001-01-01

    The isotopic composition of hafnium in the radial neutron flux sensor of the RBMK-1500 reactor, the rates of the neutron absorption on Hf isotopes and the neutron spectrum in the sensor were numerically modeled. The sequence SAS2 (Shielding Analysis Sequence) from the package SCALE 4.3 was used for calculations. It has been obtained that the main neutron absorber 167 Er isotope practically burns up completely at the 18 MW d/kgU burnup depth, and at that time the capture rate of thermal neutrons in erbium decreases ten-fold. The average neutron flux density was calculated 7.6*10 13 neutrons. Cm -2 S -1 in the RBMK-1500 reactor grating, when the nuclear fuel enriched with 235 U by 2.4% and with Er by 0.4% is used in a fuel assembly. When the sensor burnup reaches 28 MW d/kgU, the neutron absorption rate of 178 Hf exceeds the rate of 177 Hf. The overall neutron absorption rate in hafnium decreases 2.53 times due to the sensor burnup to 56 MW d/kgU. The corrective factors ξ d (I) at different integral flux I of the sensors were calculated. The obtained dependence ξ d (I) calculated numerically was compared to the experimental one determined by processing repeated calibration results of Hf sensors in RBMK-1500 reactors, as well as compared to the theoretical one currently used in the Ignalina NPP special mathematical algorithms. (author)

  3. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C. B. [Radiation Science Department, Necsa, PO Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-12-13

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >10{sup 11} n{center_dot}s{sup -1}. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  4. Use of accelerator based neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    With the objective of discussing new requirements related to the use of accelerator based neutron generators an Advisory Group meeting was held in October 1998 in Vienna. This meeting was devoted to the specific field of the utilization of accelerator based neutron generators. This TECDOC reports on the technical discussions and presentations that took place at this meeting and reflects the current status of neutron generators. The 14 MeV neutron generators manufactured originally for neutron activation analysis are utilised also for nuclear structure and reaction studies, nuclear data acquisition, radiation effects and damage studies, fusion related studies, neutron radiography

  5. Intercomparison of cosmic-ray neutron sensors and water balance monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Zacharias, Steffen; Womack, Gary; Köhli, Markus; Desilets, Darin; Oswald, Sascha E.; Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Kögler, Simon; Remmler, Paul; Kasner, Mandy; Denk, Astrid; Dietrich, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Sensor-to-sensor variability is a source of error common to all geoscientific instruments that needs to be assessed before comparative and applied research can be performed with multiple sensors. Consistency among sensor systems is especially critical when subtle features of the surrounding terrain are to be identified. Cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNSs) are a recent technology used to monitor hectometre-scale environmental water storages, for which a rigorous comparison study of numerous co-located sensors has not yet been performed. In this work, nine stationary CRNS probes of type CRS1000 were installed in relative proximity on a grass patch surrounded by trees, buildings, and sealed areas. While the dynamics of the neutron count rates were found to be similar, offsets of a few percent from the absolute average neutron count rates were found. Technical adjustments of the individual detection parameters brought all instruments into good agreement. Furthermore, we found a critical integration time of 6 h above which all sensors showed consistent dynamics in the data and their RMSE fell below 1 % of gravimetric water content. The residual differences between the nine signals indicated local effects of the complex urban terrain on the scale of several metres. Mobile CRNS measurements and spatial simulations with the URANOS neutron transport code in the surrounding area (25 ha) have revealed substantial sub-footprint heterogeneity to which CRNS detectors are sensitive despite their large averaging volume. The sealed and constantly dry structures in the footprint furthermore damped the dynamics of the CRNS-derived soil moisture. We developed strategies to correct for the sealed-area effect based on theoretical insights about the spatial sensitivity of the sensor. This procedure not only led to reliable soil moisture estimation during dry-out periods, it further revealed a strong signal of intercepted water that emerged over the sealed surfaces during rain events. The

  6. Optical Fiber Grating based Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis differenct optical fiber gratings are used for sensor purposes. If a fiber with a core concentricity error (CCE) is used, a directional dependent bend sensor can be produced. The CCE direction can be determined by means of diffraction. This makes it possible to produce long......-period gratings in a fiber with a CCE direction parallel or perpendicular to the writing direction. The maximal bending sensitivity is independent on the writing direction, but the detailed bending response is different in the two cases. A temperature and strain sensor, based on a long-period grating and two...... sampled gratings, was produced and investigated. It is based on the different temperature and strain response of these gratings. Both a transfer matrix method and an overlap calculation is performed to explain the sensor response. Another type of sensor is based on tuning and modulation of a laser...

  7. GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitors for spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, G.; Claps, G.; Caniello, R.; Cazzaniga, C.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Tardocchi, M.; Vassallo, E.; Gorini, G.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Nowak, G.; Stoermer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new large area and high flux thermal neutron detectors for future neutron spallation sources, like the European Spallation Source (ESS) is motivated by the problem of 3 He shortage. In the framework of the development of ESS, GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) is one of the detector technologies that are being explored as thermal neutron sensors. A first prototype of GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitor (bGEM) has been built during 2012. The bGEM is a triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with an aluminum cathode coated by 1μm thick B 4 C layer used to convert thermal neutrons to charged particles through the 10 B(n, 7 Li)α nuclear reaction. This paper describes the results obtained by testing a bGEM detector at the ISIS spallation source on the VESUVIO beamline. Beam profiles (FWHM x =31 mm and FWHM y =36 mm), bGEM thermal neutron counting efficiency (≈1%), detector stability (3.45%) and the time-of-flight spectrum of the beam were successfully measured. This prototype represents the first step towards the development of thermal neutrons detectors with efficiency larger than 50% as alternatives to 3 He-based gaseous detectors

  8. High sensitivity MOSFET-based neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Konstantakos, V.; Zamani, M.; Siskos, S.; Laopoulos, T.; Sarrabayrouse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A new dosemeter based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor sensitive to both neutrons and gamma radiation was manufactured at LAAS-CNRS Laboratory, Toulouse, France. In order to be used for neutron dosimetry, a thin film of lithium fluoride was deposited on the surface of the gate of the device. The characteristics of the dosemeter, such as the dependence of its response to neutron dose and dose rate, were investigated. The studied dosemeter was very sensitive to gamma rays compared to other dosemeters proposed in the literature. Its response in thermal neutrons was found to be much higher than in fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  9. High Neutron Fluence Survivability Testing of Advanced Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Klemer, Daniel; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation for the reported research was to support NASA space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. The purpose of the high-neutron fluence testing was to demonstrate the survivability of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in a fission reactor environment. 520 FBGs were installed in the Ford reactor at the University of Michigan. The reactor was operated for 1012 effective full power hours resulting in a maximum neutron fluence of approximately 5x1019 n/cm2, and a maximum gamma dose of 2x103 MGy gamma. This work is significant in that, to the knowledge of the authors, the exposure levels obtained are approximately 1000 times higher than for any previously published experiment. Four different fiber compositions were evaluated. An 87% survival rate was observed for fiber Bragg gratings located at the fuel centerline. Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR), originally developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, can be used to interrogate several thousand low-reflectivity FBG strain and/or temperature sensors along a single optical fiber. A key advantage of the OFDR sensor technology for space nuclear power is the extremely low mass of the sensor, which consists of only a silica fiber 125μm in diameter. The sensors produced using this technology will fill applications in nuclear power for current reactor plants, emerging Generation-IV reactors, and for space nuclear power. The reported research was conducted by Luna Innovations and was funded through a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center

  10. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  11. Cyclotron-based neutron source for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Tsutsui, H.; Ogasawara, T.; Fujita, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Maruhashi, A. [Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) have developed a cyclotron-based neutron source for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). It was installed at KURRI in Osaka prefecture. The neutron source consists of a proton cyclotron named HM-30, a beam transport system and an irradiation and treatment system. In the cyclotron, H- ions are accelerated and extracted as 30 MeV proton beams of 1 mA. The proton beams is transported to the neutron production target made by a beryllium plate. Emitted neutrons are moderated by lead, iron, aluminum and calcium fluoride. The aperture diameter of neutron collimator is in the range from 100 mm to 250 mm. The peak neutron flux in the water phantom is 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 109 neutrons/cm{sup 2}/sec at 20 mm from the surface at 1 mA proton beam. The neutron source have been stably operated for 3 years with 30 kW proton beam. Various pre-clinical tests including animal tests have been done by using the cyclotron-based neutron source with {sup 10}B-p-Borono-phenylalanine. Clinical trials of malignant brain tumors will be started in this year.

  12. Lithium-based neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yursova, L.

    1977-01-01

    The problems of using scintillation lithium-based detectors (LiJ(Eu) and 6 LiJ(Eu)), as well as lithium glasses for neutron detection are described. As compared with the glasses the LiJ(Eu) monocrystal possesses substantially higher energy resolution, its luminescence yield is considerably higher (in some cases ten fold), its application makes possible gamma radiation discrimination with the energy approximately four times higher and its higher specific mass ensures better efficiency of gamma radiation counting. The only 6 LiJ(Eu) drawback is its high hydroscopicity as well as its possibility to be used only in a limited temperature range (maximum temperature +35 deg C). The lithium glass can be used (with the exception of spectrometric measurements and radiation mixed regions measurement) with more than 1 MeV gamma radiation energy in a wide temperature range, in agressive, corroding and acid media

  13. Polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, C.; Periaswami, G.; Mathews, C.K.; Shankar, P.

    1993-01-01

    A polymer based amperometric hydrogen sensor has been developed for measuring hydrogen in argon. Polyvinyl alcohol-phosphoric acid serves as the solid electrolyte for proton conduction. The electrolyte is sandwiched between two palladium films. Short circuit current between the film at room temperature is measured and is found to be linearly dependant on hydrogen concentration in argon to which one side of the film is exposed. The other side is exposed to air. The response time of the sensor is found to be improved on application of a D.C. potential of 200 mV in series. The sensitivity of the sensor is in ppm range. This may be sufficient for monitoring cover gas hydrogen in FBTR. Work is underway to improve the long-term stability of the sensor. (author)

  14. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  15. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovic, Vladivoj [A.C.T.d.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: valkovic@irb.hr; Sudac, Davorin [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Bijenicka c.54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matika, Dario [Institute for Researches and Development of Defense Systems, Ilica 256b, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-04-15

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator.

  16. Scintillating-Glass-Fiber neutron sensors, their application and performance for plutonium detection and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, R.S.; Richardson, B.; Morichi, M.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Most neutron detection sensors presently employ 3 He gas-filled detectors. Despite their excellent performance and widespread use, there are significant limitations to this technology. A significant alternative neutron sensor utilizing neutron-active material incorporated into a glass scintillator is presented that offers novel commercial sensors not possible or practical with gas tube technology. The scintillating optical fiber permits sensors with a multitude of sizes ranging from devices of a single fiber of 150μm to sensors with tens of thousands of fibers with areas as large as 5m 2 depending on the neutron flux to be measured. A second significant advantage is the use of high-speed electronics that allow a greater dynamic range, not possible with gas detectors. These sensors are flexible, conformable and less sensitive to vibration that optimizes the source-to-detector geometry and provides robust performance in field applications. The glass-fibers are sensitive to both gamma rays and neutrons. However the coincidence electronics are optimized for neutron to gamma ray discrimination allowing very sensitive measurements with a low false-alarm rate. Applications include SNM surveillance, material control and accountability (MC and A), safeguard inspections, Pu health physics / bioassay and environmental characterization. (author)

  17. Accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Iwasa, Hirokatsu; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    1979-01-01

    An accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron source was constructed. The accelerator is a 35 MeV electron linear accelerator with 1 kW average beam power. The cold neutron beam intensity at a specimen is equivalent to that of a research reactor of 10 14 n/cm 2 .s thermal flux in the case of the quasi-elastic neutron scattering measurements. In spite of some limitations to the universal uses, it has been demonstrated by this facility that the modest capacity accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron source is a highly efficient cold neutron source with low capital investment. Design philosophy, construction details, performance and some operational experiences are described. (author)

  18. Neutron matter, neutron pairing, and neutron drops based on chiral effective field theory interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Thomas

    2016-10-19

    calculate the pairing gaps in neutron matter and provide uncertainty estimates. The formation of heavy elements in the early universe proceeds through the rapid neutron-capture process. This process requires precise knowledge of the properties of very neutron-rich nuclei, which are unstable and at present not accessible in experiments. Thus, one can explore their properties only with theoretical calculations. Currently the only approach to the properties of all nuclei are energy-density functionals (EDFs). All EDFs used today are based on phenomenological models and fits to stable nuclei, which makes their predictive power for unknown (neutron-rich) nuclei unclear. Deriving an ab initio EDF directly from the nuclear forces is an important goal of nuclear theory. A promising approach is the optimised effective potential (OEP) method. We take a step into that direction and calculate neutron drops within the OEP formalism. In addition to the exact-exchange approximation we study for the first time the effect of second-order contributions and compare to quantum Monte Carlo and other results.

  19. Advances in neutron based bulk explosive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozani, Tsahi; Strellis, Dan

    2007-08-01

    Neutron based explosive inspection systems can detect a wide variety of national security threats. The inspection is founded on the detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted as the result of neutron interactions with materials. Generally these are gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering reactions in most materials and fast and thermal neutron fission in fissile (e.g.235U and 239Pu) and fertile (e.g.238U) materials. Cars or trucks laden with explosives, drugs, chemical agents and hazardous materials can be detected. Cargo material classification via its main elements and nuclear materials detection can also be accomplished with such neutron based platforms, when appropriate neutron sources, gamma ray spectroscopy, neutron detectors and suitable decision algorithms are employed. Neutron based techniques can be used in a variety of scenarios and operational modes. They can be used as stand alones for complete scan of objects such as vehicles, or for spot-checks to clear (or validate) alarms indicated by another inspection system such as X-ray radiography. The technologies developed over the last two decades are now being implemented with good results. Further advances have been made over the last few years that increase the sensitivity, applicability and robustness of these systems. The advances range from the synchronous inspection of two sides of vehicles, increasing throughput and sensitivity and reducing imparted dose to the inspected object and its occupants (if any), to taking advantage of the neutron kinetic behavior of cargo to remove systematic errors, reducing background effects and improving fast neutron signals.

  20. Bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ke; Liu, Rui Qiang

    2007-11-01

    In this work a Bluetooth-based wireless sensor network is proposed. In this bluetooth-based wireless sensor networks, information-driven star topology and energy-saved mode are used, through which a blue master node can control more than seven slave node, the energy of each sensor node is reduced and secure management of each sensor node is improved.

  1. Results on photon and neutron irradiation of semitransparent amorphous-silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Carabe, J; Ferrando, A; Fuentes, J; Gandia, J J; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Molinero, A; Oller, J C; Arce, P; Calvo, E; Figueroa, C F; García, N; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Vila, I; Virto, A L; Fenyvesi, A; Molnár, J; Sohler, D

    2000-01-01

    Semitransparent amorphous-silicon sensors are basic elements for laser 2D position reconstruction in the CMS multipoint alignment link system. Some of the sensors have to work in a very hard radiation environment. Two different sensor types have been irradiated with /sup 60/Co photons (up to 100 kGy) and fast neutrons (up to 10/sup 15 / cm/sup -2/), and the subsequent change in their performance has been measured. (13 refs).

  2. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  3. Fast neutron dosimeter with wide base silicon diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lu

    1986-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a wide base silicon diode fast neutron dosimeter with wide measuring range and good energy response to fast neutron. It is suitable to be used to detect fast neutrons in the mixed field of γ-ray, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons

  4. Model-based sensor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milgram, J.; Dormoy, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    Running a nuclear power plant involves monitoring data provided by the installation's sensors. Operators and computerized systems then use these data to establish a diagnostic of the plant. However, the instrumentation system is complex, and is not immune to faults and failures. This paper presents a system for detecting sensor failures using a topological description of the installation and a set of component models. This model of the plant implicitly contains relations between sensor data. These relations must always be checked if all the components are functioning correctly. The failure detection task thus consists of checking these constraints. The constraints are extracted in two stages. Firstly, a qualitative model of their existence is built using structural analysis. Secondly, the models are formally handled according to the results of the structural analysis, in order to establish the constraints on the sensor data. This work constitutes an initial step in extending model-based diagnosis, as the information on which it is based is suspect. This work will be followed by surveillance of the detection system. When the instrumentation is assumed to be sound, the unverified constraints indicate errors on the plant model. (authors). 8 refs., 4 figs

  5. Reputation-based secure sensor localization in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingsha; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Xingye; Zhang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Ting; Fu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Location information of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is very important, for it makes information that is collected and reported by the sensor nodes spatially meaningful for applications. Since most current sensor localization schemes rely on location information that is provided by beacon nodes for the regular sensor nodes to locate themselves, the accuracy of localization depends on the accuracy of location information from the beacon nodes. Therefore, the security and reliability of the beacon nodes become critical in the localization of regular sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a reputation-based security scheme for sensor localization to improve the security and the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments. In our proposed scheme, the reputation of each beacon node is evaluated based on a reputation evaluation model so that regular sensor nodes can get credible location information from highly reputable beacon nodes to accomplish localization. We also perform a set of simulation experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reputation-based security scheme. And our simulation results show that the proposed security scheme can enhance the security and, hence, improve the accuracy of sensor localization in hostile or untrusted environments.

  6. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zujun; Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 × 10 8 n/cm 2 s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 × 10 11 , 5 × 10 11 , and 1 × 10 12 n/cm 2 , respectively. The mean dark signal (K D ), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V N ), saturation output signal voltage (V S ), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike

  7. Improving calibration and validation of cosmic-ray neutron sensors in the light of spatial sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schrön

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years the method of cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS has gained popularity among hydrologists, physicists, and land-surface modelers. The sensor provides continuous soil moisture data, averaged over several hectares and tens of decimeters in depth. However, the signal still may contain unidentified features of hydrological processes, and many calibration datasets are often required in order to find reliable relations between neutron intensity and water dynamics. Recent insights into environmental neutrons accurately described the spatial sensitivity of the sensor and thus allowed one to quantify the contribution of individual sample locations to the CRNS signal. Consequently, data points of calibration and validation datasets are suggested to be averaged using a more physically based weighting approach. In this work, a revised sensitivity function is used to calculate weighted averages of point data. The function is different from the simple exponential convention by the extraordinary sensitivity to the first few meters around the probe, and by dependencies on air pressure, air humidity, soil moisture, and vegetation. The approach is extensively tested at six distinct monitoring sites: two sites with multiple calibration datasets and four sites with continuous time series datasets. In all cases, the revised averaging method improved the performance of the CRNS products. The revised approach further helped to reveal hidden hydrological processes which otherwise remained unexplained in the data or were lost in the process of overcalibration. The presented weighting approach increases the overall accuracy of CRNS products and will have an impact on all their applications in agriculture, hydrology, and modeling.

  8. Improving calibration and validation of cosmic-ray neutron sensors in the light of spatial sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhli, Markus; Scheiffele, Lena; Iwema, Joost; Bogena, Heye R.; Lv, Ling; Martini, Edoardo; Baroni, Gabriele; Rosolem, Rafael; Weimar, Jannis; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Rebmann, Corinna; Oswald, Sascha E.; Dietrich, Peter; Schmidt, Ulrich; Zacharias, Steffen

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years the method of cosmic-ray neutron sensing (CRNS) has gained popularity among hydrologists, physicists, and land-surface modelers. The sensor provides continuous soil moisture data, averaged over several hectares and tens of decimeters in depth. However, the signal still may contain unidentified features of hydrological processes, and many calibration datasets are often required in order to find reliable relations between neutron intensity and water dynamics. Recent insights into environmental neutrons accurately described the spatial sensitivity of the sensor and thus allowed one to quantify the contribution of individual sample locations to the CRNS signal. Consequently, data points of calibration and validation datasets are suggested to be averaged using a more physically based weighting approach. In this work, a revised sensitivity function is used to calculate weighted averages of point data. The function is different from the simple exponential convention by the extraordinary sensitivity to the first few meters around the probe, and by dependencies on air pressure, air humidity, soil moisture, and vegetation. The approach is extensively tested at six distinct monitoring sites: two sites with multiple calibration datasets and four sites with continuous time series datasets. In all cases, the revised averaging method improved the performance of the CRNS products. The revised approach further helped to reveal hidden hydrological processes which otherwise remained unexplained in the data or were lost in the process of overcalibration. The presented weighting approach increases the overall accuracy of CRNS products and will have an impact on all their applications in agriculture, hydrology, and modeling.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF A THIN SILICON SENSOR FOR ACTIVE NEUTRON PERSONAL DOSEMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, M; Nunomiya, T; Nakamura, T; Matsumoto, T; Masuda, A

    2016-09-01

    A thin silicon sensor has been developed for active neutron personal dosemeters for use by aircrews and first responders. This thin silicon sensor is not affected by the funneling effect, which causes detection of cosmic protons and over-response to cosmic neutrons. There are several advantages to the thin silicon sensor: a decrease in sensitivity to gamma rays, an improvement of the energy detection limit for neutrons down to 0.8 MeV and an increase in the sensitivity to fast neutrons. Neutron response functions were experimentally obtained using 2.5 and 5 MeV monoenergy neutron beams and a (252)Cf neutron source. Simulation results using the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code agree quite well with the experimental ones when an energy deposition region shaped like a circular truncated cone is used in place of a cylindrical region. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-01-01

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  11. An accelerator based steady state neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.J.; Johnson, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Using high current, c.w. linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the Accelerator Based Neutron Research Facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 10 16 n/cm 2 .s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of multi-beam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs

  12. Image-based occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry

    2015-05-19

    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  13. Three new nondestructive evaluation tools based on high flux neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.R.; Raine, D.; Peascoe, R.; Wright, M.

    1997-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation methods and systems based on specific attributes of neutron interactions with materials are being developed. The special attributes of neutrons are low attenuation in most engineering materials, strong interaction with low Z elements, and epithermal neutron absorption resonances. The three methods under development at ORNL include neutron based tomography and radiography; through thickness, nondestructive texture mapping; and internal, noninvasive temperature measurement. All three techniques require high flux sources such as the High Flux Isotope Reactor, a steady state source, or the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, a pulsed neutron source. Neutrons are quite penetrating in most engineering materials and thus can be useful to detect internal flaws and features. Hydrogen atoms, such as in a hydrocarbon fuel, lubricant, or a metal hydride, are relatively opaque to neutron transmission and thus neutron based tomography/radiography is ideal to image their presence. Texture, the nonrandom orientation of crystalline grains within materials, can be mapped nondestructively using neutron diffraction methods. Epithermal neutron resonance absorption is being studied as a noncontacting temperature sensor. This paper highlights the underlying physics of the methods, progress in development, and the potential benefits for science and industry of the three facilities

  14. Larmor-precession based neutron scattering instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The Larmor precession of the neutron spin in a magnetic field allows the attachment of a Larmor clock to every neutron. Such Larmor labelling opens the possibility for the development of unusual neutron scattering techniques, where the energy (momentum) resolution does not require the initial and final states to be well selected. This principally allows for achievement of very high energy (momentum) resolution that is not feasible at all with conventional neutron scattering techniques, because the required neutron beam monochromatization (collimation) will result in intolerable intensity losses. Such decoupling of resolution and collimation allows, for example, for a significant increase in the luminosity of small-angle scattering or high-resolution diffractometers; the fact that opens new perspectives for their implementation at middle flux neutron sources. Different kinds of Larmor clock-based instrumentation, particularly two alternative NSE techniques using rotating and time-gradient magnetic field arrangements, which can be considered as inexpensive and affordable alternatives to present day NSE techniques, will be discussed and results of simulations and first experiments will be presented. (author)

  15. Neutron-based portable drug probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P. C.; Vourvopoulos, G.; Ball Howard, J.; Paschal, J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous measurements, a probe prototype for contraband detection utilizing the neutron technique of Pulsed Fast-Thermal Neutron Analysis (PFTNA) is being constructed. The prototype weighs less than 45 kg and is composed of a probe (5 cm diameter), a power pack and a data acquisition and display system. The probe is designed to be inserted in confined spaces such as the boiler of a ship or a tanker truck filled with liquid. The probe provides information on a) the elemental content, and b) the density variations of the interrogated object. By measuring elemental content, the probe can differentiate between innocuous materials and drugs. Density variations can be found through fast neutron transmission. In all cases, hidden drugs are identified through the measurement of the elemental content of the object, and the comparison of expected and measured elemental ratios

  16. Synchrotron based spallation neutron source concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 20 years, rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) have been used very productively to generate short-pulse thermal neutron beams for neutron scattering research by materials science communities in Japan (KENS), the UK (ISIS) and the US (IPNS). The most powerful source in existence, ISIS in the UK, delivers a 160-kW proton beam to a neutron-generating target. Several recently proposed facilities require proton beams in the MW range to produce intense short-pulse neutron beams. In some proposals, a linear accelerator provides the beam power and an accumulator ring compresses the pulse length to the required ∼ 1 micros. In others, RCS technology provides the bulk of the beam power and compresses the pulse length. Some synchrotron-based proposals achieve the desired beam power by combining two or more synchrotrons of the same energy, and others propose a combination of lower and higher energy synchrotrons. This paper presents the rationale for using RCS technology, and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of synchrotron-based spallation sources

  17. Proposed Brookhaven accelerator-based neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Batchelor, K.; Chasman, R.; Rheaume, R.

    1976-01-01

    The d-Li Neutron Source concept, which includes a high-current dueteron linac, is an outgrowth of attempts made to use the BNL, 200-MeV proton linac BLIP facility to do radiation damage studies. It included a 100 mA, 30-MeV deuteron linear accelerator and a fast-flowing liquid lithium jet as the target. The latest design is not very different, except that the current is now 200 mA and the linac energy has been raised to 35 MeV. Both parameters, were changed to optimize the effectiveness of the facility with respect to flux, experimental volume and match to 14 MeV neutron-radiation-damage effects. The proposed Brookhaven Accelerator-based Neutron Generator is described with particular emphasis on the linear accelerator. The proposed facility is a practical and efficient way of producing the intense, high energy neutron beams needed for CTR material studies. The accelerator and liquid-metal technologies are well proven, state-of-the-art technologies. The fact that no new technology is required guarantees the possibility of meeting construction schedules, and more importantly, guarantees a high level of operational reliability

  18. Development of fast neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Chia Jia, E-mail: gei-i-kani@hotmail.com; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai, E-mail: sunchai.n@chula.ac.th [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok, THAILAND 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    Due to the high installation cost, the safety concern and the immobility of the research reactors, the neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator is proposed. Since the neutrons generated from a portable neutron generator are mostly the fast neutrons, the system is emphasized on using the fast neutrons for the purpose of conducting the radiography. In order to suppress the influence of X-ray produced by the neutron generator, a combination of a shielding material sandwiched between two identical imaging plates is used. A binary XOR operation is then applied for combining the information from the imaging plates. The raw images obtained confirm that the X-ray really has a large effect and that XOR operation can help enhance the effect of the neutrons.

  19. Micro technology based sun sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Pedersen, Martin; Fléron, René

    2003-01-01

    various payloads and platforms. The conventional and commercial actuators and attitude sensors are in most cases not suited for these satellites, which again lead to new design considerations. Another important property is the launch cost, which can be kept relatively low as a result of the concept....... This fact enables students to get hands-on experience with satellite systems design and project management. This paper describes the attitude control and determination system of a Danish student satellite (DTUsat), with main focus on the two-axis MOEMS sun sensor developed. On the magnetotorquer controlled...... DTUsat sun sensors are needed along with a magnetometer to obtain unambiguous attitude determination for the ACDS and the payloads - an electrodynamic tether and a camera. The accuracy needed was not obtainable by employing conventional attitude sensors. Hence a linear slit sensor was designed...

  20. New neutron detector based on micromegas technology for ADS projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriamonje, Samuel; Andriamonje, Gregory; Aune, Stephan; Ban, Gilles; Breaud, Stephane; Blandin, Christophe; Ferrer, Esther; Geslot, Benoit; Giganon, Arnaud; Giomataris, Ioannis; Jammes, Christian; Kadi, Yacine; Laborie, Philippe; Lecolley, Jean Francois; Pancin, Julien; Riallot, Marc; Rosa, Roberto; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Steckmeyer, Jean Claude; Tillier, Joel

    2006-01-01

    A new neutron detector based on Micromegas technology has been developed for the measurement of the simulated neutron spectrum in the ADS project. After the presentation of simulated neutron spectra obtained in the interaction of 140 MeV protons with the spallation target inside the TRIGA core, a full description of the new detector configuration is given. The advantage of this detector compared to conventional neutron flux detectors and the results obtained with the first prototype at the CELINA 14 MeV neutron source facility at CEA-Cadarache are presented. The future developments of operational Piccolo-Micromegas for fast neutron reactors are also described

  1. New neutron detector based on micromegas technology for ADS projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamonje, Samuel [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: sandriamonje@cea.fr; Andriamonje, Gregory [IXL-Universite Bordeaux 1-BAT. A31-351 cours de la Liberation-F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Aune, Stephan [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ban, Gilles [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Breaud, Stephane [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Blandin, Christophe [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Ferrer, Esther [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Geslot, Benoit [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Giganon, Arnaud [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Giomataris, Ioannis [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jammes, Christian [CEA/DEN/Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France); Kadi, Yacine [CERN CH 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Laborie, Philippe [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Lecolley, Jean Francois [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Pancin, Julien [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Riallot, Marc [CEA-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rosa, Roberto [ENEA-Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 00060 Rome (Italy); Sarchiapone, Lucia [CERN CH 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Steckmeyer, Jean Claude [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Tillier, Joel [CNRS/IN2P3 LPC Caen, 6 Boulevard Marechal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2006-06-23

    A new neutron detector based on Micromegas technology has been developed for the measurement of the simulated neutron spectrum in the ADS project. After the presentation of simulated neutron spectra obtained in the interaction of 140 MeV protons with the spallation target inside the TRIGA core, a full description of the new detector configuration is given. The advantage of this detector compared to conventional neutron flux detectors and the results obtained with the first prototype at the CELINA 14 MeV neutron source facility at CEA-Cadarache are presented. The future developments of operational Piccolo-Micromegas for fast neutron reactors are also described.

  2. Change of neutron flow sensors effectiveness in the course of reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Kotov, V.M.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: IGR reactor is a reactor of thermal capacity type. During the operation, uranium-graphite core can be heated up to 1500 deg. C and reactivity can be changed considerably. Core dimensions are comparatively small. Amount of control rods, providing required reactivity, is not big as well. Increasing of core temperature leads to the rise of neutrons path length in its basic material - graphite. Change of temperature is not even. All this causes the non-conservation of neutron flows ratio in irradiated sample and in the place of reactor power sensors installation. Deviations in this ratio were registered during the number of reactor experiments. Empiric corrections can be introduced in order to decrease influence of change of neutron flow effectiveness upon provision of required parameters of investigated matters load. However, dependence of these corrections upon many factors can lead to the increasing of instability of process control. Previous experiment-calculated experiments showed inequality of neutron field in the place of sensors location (up to tens of percent), low effectiveness of experimental works, carried out without access to the individual reactor laying elements. Imperfection during the experiment was an idea of possibility to connect distribution of out of reactor neutron flow and control rods position. Subsequent analysis showed that for the development of representative phenomenon model it is necessary to take into account reactor operation dynamic subject to unevenness of heating of individual laying parts. Elemental calculations showed that temperature laying effects in the change of neutron outer field are great. Algorithm of calculations for the change of outer filed and field of investigated fabrication includes calculation of neutron-physic reactor characteristics interlacing with calculations of thermal-physic reactor characteristics, providing correlation of temperature fields for neutron-physic calculations. In the course of such

  3. Scintillator Based Coded-Aperture Imaging for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Sean-C.; Gamage, Kelum-A-A.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we are going to assess the variations of neutron images using a series of Monte Carlo simulations. We are going to study neutron images of the same neutron source with different source locations, using a scintillator based coded-aperture system. The Monte Carlo simulations have been conducted making use of the EJ-426 neutron scintillator detector. This type of detector has a low sensitivity to gamma rays and is therefore of particular use in a system with a source that emits a mixed radiation field. From the use of different source locations, several neutron images have been produced, compared both qualitatively and quantitatively for each case. This allows conclusions to be drawn on how suited the scintillator based coded-aperture neutron imaging system is to detecting various neutron source locations. This type of neutron imaging system can be easily used to identify and locate nuclear materials precisely. (authors)

  4. Integrated Temperature Sensors based on Heat Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vroonhoven, C.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and implementation of a new class of integrated temperature sensors, based on heat diffusion. In such sensors, temperature is sensed by measuring the time it takes for heat to diffuse through silicon. An on-chip thermal delay can be determined by geometry and

  5. SU-8 Based Piezoresistive Mechanical Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Vestergaard, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first SU-8 based piezoresistive mechanical sensor. Conventionally, silicon has been used as a piezoresistive material due to its high gauge factor and thereby high sensitivity to strain changes in a sensor. By using the fact that SU-8 is much softer than silicon and that a gold...

  6. Model-Based Method for Sensor Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh

    2012-01-01

    Fault detection, diagnosis, and prognosis are essential tasks in the operation of autonomous spacecraft, instruments, and in situ platforms. One of NASA s key mission requirements is robust state estimation. Sensing, using a wide range of sensors and sensor fusion approaches, plays a central role in robust state estimation, and there is a need to diagnose sensor failure as well as component failure. Sensor validation can be considered to be part of the larger effort of improving reliability and safety. The standard methods for solving the sensor validation problem are based on probabilistic analysis of the system, from which the method based on Bayesian networks is most popular. Therefore, these methods can only predict the most probable faulty sensors, which are subject to the initial probabilities defined for the failures. The method developed in this work is based on a model-based approach and provides the faulty sensors (if any), which can be logically inferred from the model of the system and the sensor readings (observations). The method is also more suitable for the systems when it is hard, or even impossible, to find the probability functions of the system. The method starts by a new mathematical description of the problem and develops a very efficient and systematic algorithm for its solution. The method builds on the concepts of analytical redundant relations (ARRs).

  7. Recent Advances in Paper-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Chow

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based sensors are a new alternative technology for fabricating simple, low-cost, portable and disposable analytical devices for many application areas including clinical diagnosis, food quality control and environmental monitoring. The unique properties of paper which allow passive liquid transport and compatibility with chemicals/biochemicals are the main advantages of using paper as a sensing platform. Depending on the main goal to be achieved in paper-based sensors, the fabrication methods and the analysis techniques can be tuned to fulfill the needs of the end-user. Current paper-based sensors are focused on microfluidic delivery of solution to the detection site whereas more advanced designs involve complex 3-D geometries based on the same microfluidic principles. Although paper-based sensors are very promising, they still suffer from certain limitations such as accuracy and sensitivity. However, it is anticipated that in the future, with advances in fabrication and analytical techniques, that there will be more new and innovative developments in paper-based sensors. These sensors could better meet the current objectives of a viable low-cost and portable device in addition to offering high sensitivity and selectivity, and multiple analyte discrimination. This paper is a review of recent advances in paper-based sensors and covers the following topics: existing fabrication techniques, analytical methods and application areas. Finally, the present challenges and future outlooks are discussed.

  8. Scattered Neutron Tomography Based on A Neutron Transport Inverse Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Charlton

    2007-01-01

    Neutron radiography and computed tomography are commonly used techniques to non-destructively examine materials. Tomography refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object from either transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions

  9. Fast neutron background characterization with the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, John R., E-mail: john.davis@usma.edu [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); The United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States); Brubaker, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    In an effort to characterize the fast neutron radiation background, 16 EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells were installed in the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) to collect data in the San Francisco Bay Area. Each fast neutron event was associated with specific weather metrics (pressure, temperature, absolute humidity) and GPS coordinates. The expected exponential dependence of the fast neutron count rate on atmospheric pressure was demonstrated and event rates were subsequently adjusted given the measured pressure at the time of detection. Pressure adjusted data was also used to investigate the influence of other environmental conditions on the neutron background rate. Using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) coastal area lidar data, an algorithm was implemented to approximate sky-view factors (the total fraction of visible sky) for points along RadMAPs route. Three areas analyzed in San Francisco, Downtown Oakland, and Berkeley all demonstrated a suppression in the background rate of over 50% for the range of sky-view factors measured. This effect, which is due to the shielding of cosmic-ray produced neutrons by surrounding buildings, was comparable to the pressure influence which yielded a 32% suppression in the count rate over the range of pressures measured.

  10. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  11. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    cleansing approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to the limited storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency, effectiveness and adaptability.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the sensor data before using it to answer queries or conduct data analysis. Popular data...

  12. Research of accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changkai; Ma Yingjie; Tang Xiaobin; Xie Qin; Geng Changran; Chen Da

    2013-01-01

    Background: 7 Li (p, n) reaction of high neutron yield and low threshold energy has become one of the most important neutron generating reactions for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Purpose Focuses on neutron yield and spectrum characteristics of this kind of neutron generating reaction which serves as an accelerator-based neutron source and moderates the high energy neutron beams to meet BNCT requirements. Methods: The yield and energy spectrum of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7 Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are researched using the Monte Carlo code-MCNPX2.5.0. And the energy and angular distribution of differential neutron yield by 2.5-MeV incident proton are also given in this part. In the following part, the character of epithermal neutron beam generated by 2.5-MeV incident protons is moderated by a new-designed moderator. Results: Energy spectra of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7 Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are got through the simulation and calculation. The best moderator thickness is got through comparison. Conclusions: Neutron beam produced by accelerator-based 7 Li(p, n) reaction, with the bombarding beam of 10 mA and the energy of 2.5 MeV, can meet the requirement of BNCT well after being moderated. (authors)

  13. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Teresa H [Castro Valley, CA; Berry, Nina M [Tracy, CA

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  14. A risk-based sensor placement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ronald W.; Kulesz, James J.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors to protect population against the exposure to, and effects of, known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure at standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats detected by sensors placed in prior iterations are removed from consideration in subsequent iterations. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor. This is the fraction of the total risk accounted for by placement of the sensor. Thus, the criteria for halting the iterative process can be the number of sensors available, a threshold marginal utility value, and/or a minimum cumulative utility achieved with all sensors

  15. Observability-Based Guidance and Sensor Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Brian T.

    Control system performance is highly dependent on the quality of sensor information available. In a growing number of applications, however, the control task must be accomplished with limited sensing capabilities. This thesis addresses these types of problems from a control-theoretic point-of-view, leveraging system nonlinearities to improve sensing performance. Using measures of observability as an information quality metric, guidance trajectories and sensor distributions are designed to improve the quality of sensor information. An observability-based sensor placement algorithm is developed to compute optimal sensor configurations for a general nonlinear system. The algorithm utilizes a simulation of the nonlinear system as the source of input data, and convex optimization provides a scalable solution method. The sensor placement algorithm is applied to a study of gyroscopic sensing in insect wings. The sensor placement algorithm reveals information-rich areas on flexible insect wings, and a comparison to biological data suggests that insect wings are capable of acting as gyroscopic sensors. An observability-based guidance framework is developed for robotic navigation with limited inertial sensing. Guidance trajectories and algorithms are developed for range-only and bearing-only navigation that improve navigation accuracy. Simulations and experiments with an underwater vehicle demonstrate that the observability measure allows tuning of the navigation uncertainty.

  16. Sensor-based learning support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years sensor devices have become increasingly popular. Everyday objects which previously seemed to be unanimated, are turning into smart devices with the capability to sense the environment, integrate and present digital information and services for nearly every situation and context. The

  17. Nanowire-based gas sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Wong, C.K.Y.; Yuan, C.A.; Zhang, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gas sensors fabricated with nanowires as the detecting elements are powerful due to their many improved characteristics such as high surface-to-volume ratios, ultrasensitivity, higher selectivity, low power consumption, and fast response. This paper gives an overview on the recent process of the

  18. A carbon nanotube-based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, Kh S; Saleem, M; Khan, Adam; Qasuria, T A; Mateen, A; Karieva, Z M

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a carbon nanotube (CNT)-based Al/CNT/Al pressure sensor was designed, fabricated and investigated. The sensor was fabricated by depositing CNTs on an adhesive elastic polymer tape and placing this in an elastic casing. The diameter of multiwalled nanotubes varied between 10 and 30 nm. The nominal thickness of the CNT layers in the sensors was in the range ∼300-430 μm. The inter-electrode distance (length) and the width of the surface-type sensors were in the ranges 4-6 and 3-4 mm, respectively. The dc resistance of the sensors decreased 3-4 times as the pressure was increased up to 17 kN m -2 . The resistance-pressure relationships were simulated.

  19. Chemical Sensors Based on Cyclodextrin Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoshi, Tomoki; Harada, Akira

    2008-08-25

    This review focuses on chemical sensors based on cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives. This has been a field of classical interest, and is now of current interest for numerous scientists. First, typical chemical sensors using chromophore appended CDs are mentioned. Various "turn-off" and "turn-on" fluorescent chemical sensors, in which fluorescence intensity was decreased or increased by complexation with guest molecules, respectively, were synthesized. Dye modified CDs and photoactive metal ion-ligand complex appended CDs, metallocyclodextrins, were also applied for chemical sensors. Furthermore, recent novel approaches to chemical sensing systems using supramolecular structures such as CD dimers, trimers and cooperative binding systems of CDs with the other macrocycle [2]rotaxane and supramolecular polymers consisting of CD units are mentioned. New chemical sensors using hybrids of CDs with p-conjugated polymers, peptides, DNA, nanocarbons and nanoparticles are also described in this review.

  20. Toward Sensor-Based Context Aware Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Takada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information.

  1. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James

    2009-01-01

    range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system......In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...

  2. Pixel pitch and particle energy influence on the dark current distribution of neutron irradiated CMOS image sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc; Goiffon, Vincent; Virmontois, Cédric; Raine, Mélanie; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Molina, Romain; Magnan, Pierre; Gilard, Olivier

    2016-02-22

    The dark current produced by neutron irradiation in CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) is investigated. Several CIS with different photodiode types and pixel pitches are irradiated with various neutron energies and fluences to study the influence of each of these optical detector and irradiation parameters on the dark current distribution. An empirical model is tested on the experimental data and validated on all the irradiated optical imagers. This model is able to describe all the presented dark current distributions with no parameter variation for neutron energies of 14 MeV or higher, regardless of the optical detector and irradiation characteristics. For energies below 1 MeV, it is shown that a single parameter has to be adjusted because of the lower mean damage energy per nuclear interaction. This model and these conclusions can be transposed to any silicon based solid-state optical imagers such as CIS or Charged Coupled Devices (CCD). This work can also be used when designing an optical imager instrument, to anticipate the dark current increase or to choose a mitigation technique.

  3. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  4. LPG based all plastic pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, R.; Leon-Saval, S.

    2015-01-01

    A prototype all-plastic pressure sensor is presented and characterized for potential use as an endoscope. The sensor is based on Long Period Gratings (LPG) inscribed with a CO2 laser in 6-ring microstructured PMMA fiber. Through a latex coated, plastic 3D-printed transducer pod, external pressure...... is converted to longitudinal elongation of the pod and therefore of the fiber containing the LPG. The sensor has been characterised for pressures of up to 160 mBar in an in-house built pressure chamber. Furthermore, the influence of the fiber prestrain, fiber thickness and the effect of different glues...

  5. Gas Sensors Based on Electrodeposited Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Lakard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemically deposited polymers, also called “synthetic metals”, have emerged as potential candidates for chemical sensing due to their interesting and tunable chemical, electrical, and structural properties. In particular, most of these polymers (including polypyrrole, polyaniline, polythiophene and their derivatives can be used as the sensitive layer of conductimetric gas sensors because of their conducting properties. An important advantage of polymer-based gas sensors is their efficiency at room temperature. This characteristic is interesting since most of the commercially-available sensors, usually based on metal oxides, work at high temperatures (300–400 °C. Consequently, polymer-based gas sensors are playing a growing role in the improvement of public health and environment control because they can lead to gas sensors operating with rapid detection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity in atmospheric conditions. In this review, the recent advances in electrodeposited polymer-based gas sensors are summarized and discussed. It is shown that the sensing characteristics of electrodeposited polymers can be improved by chemical functionalization, nanostructuration, or mixing with other functional materials to form composites or hybrid materials.

  6. Relational-Based Sensor Data Cleansing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2015-01-01

    approaches, such as classification, prediction and moving average, are not suited for embedded sensor devices, due to their limit storage and processing capabilities. In this paper, we propose a sensor data cleansing approach using the relational-based technologies, including constraints, triggers...... and granularity-based data aggregation. The proposed approach is simple but effective to cleanse different types of dirty data, including delayed data, incomplete data, incorrect data, duplicate data and missing data. We evaluate the proposed strategy to verify its efficiency and effectiveness.......Today sensors are widely used in many monitoring applications. Due to some random environmental effects and/or sensing failures, the collected sensor data is typically noisy. Thus, it is critical to cleanse the data before using it for answering queries or for data analysis. Popular data cleansing...

  7. Test plan for a live drum survey using the gamma-neutron sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Roybal, L.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with the Gamma/Neutron Sensor (GNS), which that was designed and built for infield assay at an excavation site. The performance tests will be performed in Building WMF-628 in the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on stored 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant. The GNS is mounted on a wooden pallet that will allow horizontal and vertical scans of the stacked drums. Scanning speed and GNS sensitivity for gamma and neutron radiation fields will be estimated. Effects of temperature, electronic, and acoustic noise will be evaluated. Two- and three-dimensional plots of radiation field as a function of position will be developed from the data

  8. Neutron Sources for Standard-Based Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radev, Radoslav [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McLean, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The DHS TC Standards and the consensus ANSI Standards use 252Cf as the neutron source for performance testing because its energy spectrum is similar to the 235U and 239Pu fission sources used in nuclear weapons. An emission rate of 20,000 ± 20% neutrons per second is used for testing of the radiological requirements both in the ANSI standards and the TCS. Determination of the accurate neutron emission rate of the test source is important for maintaining consistency and agreement between testing results obtained at different testing facilities. Several characteristics in the manufacture and the decay of the source need to be understood and accounted for in order to make an accurate measurement of the performance of the neutron detection instrument. Additionally, neutron response characteristics of the particular instrument need to be known and taken into account as well as neutron scattering in the testing environment.

  9. Prospect for application of compact accelerator-based neutron source to neutron engineering diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yoshimasa, E-mail: yoshimasa.ikeda@riken.jp [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Taketani, Atsushi; Takamura, Masato; Sunaga, Hideyuki [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kumagai, Masayoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo City University, Setagaya, Tokyo 158-8857 (Japan); Oba, Yojiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Otake, Yoshie [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [Materials Sciences Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    A compact accelerator-based neutron source has been lately discussed on engineering applications such as transmission imaging and small angle scattering as well as reflectometry. However, nobody considers using it for neutron diffraction experiment because of its low neutron flux. In this study, therefore, the neutron diffraction experiments are carried out using Riken Accelerator-driven Compact Neutron Source (RANS), to clarify the capability of the compact neutron source for neutron engineering diffraction. The diffraction pattern from a ferritic steel was successfully measured by suitable arrangement of the optical system to reduce the background noise, and it was confirmed that the recognizable diffraction pattern can be measured by a large sampling volume with 10 mm in cubic for an acceptable measurement time, i.e. 10 min. The minimum resolution of the 110 reflection for RANS is approximately 2.5% at 8 μs of the proton pulse width, which is insufficient to perform the strain measurement by neutron diffraction. The moderation time width at the wavelength corresponding to the 110 reflection is estimated to be approximately 30 μs, which is the most dominant factor to determine the resolution. Therefore, refinements of the moderator system to decrease the moderation time by decreasing a thickness of the moderator or by applying the decoupler system or application of the angular dispersive neutron diffraction technique are important to improve the resolution of the diffraction experiment using the compact neutron source. In contrast, the texture evolution due to plastic deformation was successfully observed by measuring a change in the diffraction peak intensity by RANS. Furthermore, the volume fraction of the austenitic phase in the dual phase mock specimen was also successfully evaluated by fitting the diffraction pattern using a Rietveld code. Consequently, RANS has been proved to be capable for neutron engineering diffraction aiming for the easy access

  10. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP. Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for evaluating derived parameters. The results show that the selected MISO structure outperforms the unselected MISO structure and it shows energy efficient performance than SISO structure after a certain distance.

  11. Superintensive pulse slow neutron source SIN based on kaon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmichkov, N.V.; Laptev, V.D.; Matveev, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    Possibility of intensive pulse slow neutron source creation based on 45-GeV proton synchrotron of K-meson factory, planned to construction in INR AS USSR is considered. Calculated peak thermal neutrons flux density value, averaged on 'radiating' light-water moderator surface of 100 cm 2 is 6.6 x 10 17 neutrons/(cm 2 sec) for pulse duration of 35 microseconds. (author)

  12. Accelerator-based epithermal neutron sources for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Thomas E; Yanch, Jacquelyn C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of low-energy light ion accelerator-based neutron sources (ABNSs) for the treatment of brain tumors through an intact scalp and skull using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A major advantage of an ABNS for BNCT over reactor-based neutron sources is the potential for siting within a hospital. Consequently, light-ion accelerators that are injectors to larger machines in high-energy physics facilities are not considered. An ABNS for BNCT is composed of: (1) the accelerator hardware for producing a high current charged particle beam, (2) an appropriate neutron-producing target and target heat removal system (HRS), and (3) a moderator/reflector assembly to render the flux energy spectrum of neutrons produced in the target suitable for patient irradiation. As a consequence of the efforts of researchers throughout the world, progress has been made on the design, manufacture, and testing of these three major components. Although an ABNS facility has not yet been built that has optimally assembled these three components, the feasibility of clinically useful ABNSs has been clearly established. Both electrostatic and radio frequency linear accelerators of reasonable cost (approximately 1.5 M dollars) appear to be capable of producing charged particle beams, with combinations of accelerated particle energy (a few MeV) and beam currents (approximately 10 mA) that are suitable for a hospital-based ABNS for BNCT. The specific accelerator performance requirements depend upon the charged particle reaction by which neutrons are produced in the target and the clinical requirements for neutron field quality and intensity. The accelerator performance requirements are more demanding for beryllium than for lithium as a target. However, beryllium targets are more easily cooled. The accelerator performance requirements are also more demanding for greater neutron field quality and intensity. Target HRSs that are based on submerged-jet impingement and

  13. Wearable PPG sensor based alertness scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jishnu; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Sahoo, Saswata; Tiwari, Vijay Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying mental alertness in today's world is important as it enables the person to adopt lifestyle changes for better work efficiency. Miniaturized sensors in wearable devices have facilitated detection/monitoring of mental alertness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) offer one such opportunity by providing information about one's daily alertness levels without requiring any manual interference from the user. In this paper, a smartwatch based alertness estimation system is proposed. Data collected from PPG sensor of smartwatch is processed and fed to machine learning based model to get a continuous alertness score. Utility functions are designed based on statistical analysis to give a quality score on different stages of alertness such as awake, long sleep and short duration power nap. An intelligent data collection approach is proposed in collaboration with the motion sensor in the smartwatch to reduce battery drainage. Overall, our proposed wearable based system provides a detailed analysis of alertness over a period in a systematic and optimized manner. We were able to achieve an accuracy of 80.1% for sleep/awake classification along with alertness score. This opens up the possibility for quantifying alertness levels using a single PPG sensor for better management of health related activities including sleep.

  14. Accelerator-based neutron source and its future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Neutrons are useful tool for the material science and also for the industrial applications. Now, high intensity neutron sources based on MW class big accelerators are under commissioning in Japan, Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) at J-PARC and in the US, SNS. Such high power neutron sources required the moderators that can be used under high radiation field and also give high neutronic performance. We have been performing experimental and Monte Carlo simulation studies to develop the cold neutron moderator systems for the high power sources since it is becoming important for materials and life science. Hydrogen is the unique candidate at the present stage due to its high resistibility to the radiation. It was indicated the para hydrogen moderator gave a good neutronic performance by experimental results. On the other hand, in the future, low power neutron sources are recognized to be useful to perform sprouting experiments and to promote the neutron science. The moderator systems need a concept different from the high power source. Therefore, we studied neutronic performances of the mesitylene and the methane moderators to get high intensity in a definite area on the moderator surface. Single groove moderators were studied and optimal geometry and the intensity gain were obtained. The mesitylene moderator gave a rather good performance compared to the methane moderator. (author)

  15. Improved Neutron Scintillators Based on Nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesel, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    The development work conducted in this SBIR has so far not supported the premise that using nano-particles in LiFZnS:Ag foils improves their transparency to 420 (or other frequency) light. This conclusion is based solely on the light absorption properties of LiFZnS foils fabricated from nano- and from micro-particles. Furthermore, even for the case of the Gd 2 O 3 foils, the transmission of 420 nm light gained by using nano-particles all but disappears as the foil thickness is increased beyond about 0.2 mm, a practical scintillator thickness. This was not immediately apparent from the preliminary study since no foils thicker than about 0.04 mm were produced. Initially it was believed that the failure to see an improvement by using nano-particles for the LiFZnS foils was caused by the clumping of the particles in Toluene due to the polarity of the ZnS particles. However, we found, much to our surprise, that nano-particle ZnS alone in polystyrene, and in Epoxy, had worse light transmission properties than the micro-particle foils for equivalent thickness and density foils. The neutron detection measurements, while disappointing, are attributable to our inability to procure or fabricate Bulk Doped ZnS nanoparticles. The cause for the failure of nano-particles to improve the scintillation light, and hence improved neutron detection efficiency, is a fundamental one of light scattering within the scintillator. A consequence of PartTec's documentation of this is that several concepts for the fabrication of improved 6 LiFZnS scintillators were formulated that will be the subject of a future SBIR submission.

  16. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed; Saini, Sudhir Kumar; Sharma, Daya Shankar; Agarwal, Pankaj B.

    2016-01-01

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  17. Pristine carbon nanotubes based resistive temperature sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Bayazeed, E-mail: bayazeed786@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Jamia Millia Islamia (New Delhi, India) (India); Saini, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirsaini1310@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Sharma, Daya Shankar, E-mail: dssharmanit15@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology (MANIT, Bhopal, India) (India); Agarwal, Pankaj B., E-mail: agarwalbpankj@gmail.com [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI, Pilani, India) (India); Academy for Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR, Delhi, India) (India)

    2016-04-13

    A good sensor must be highly sensitive, faster in response, of low cost cum easily producible, and highly reliable. Incorporation of nano-dimensional particles/ wires makes conventional sensors more effective in terms of fulfilling the above requirements. For example, Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are promising sensing element because of its large aspect ratio, unique electronic and thermal properties. In addition to their use for widely reported chemical sensing, it has also been explored for temperature sensing. This paper presents the fabrication of CNTs based temperature sensor, prepared on silicon substrate using low cost spray coating method, which is reliable and reproducible method to prepare uniform CNTs thin films on any substrate. Besides this, simple and inexpensive method of preparation of dispersion of single walled CNTs (SWNTs) in 1,2 dichlorobenzene by using probe type ultrasonicator for debundling the CNTs for improving sensor response were used. The electrical contacts over the dispersed SWNTs were taken using silver paste electrodes. Fabricated sensors clearly show immediate change in resistance as a response to change in temperature of SWNTs. The measured sensitivity (change in resistance with temperature) of the sensor was found ∼ 0.29%/°C in the 25°C to 60°C temperature range.

  18. Thermal neutron detectors based on complex oxide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Volkov, V; Chernikov, V; Zelenskaya, O

    2002-01-01

    The ways of improvement of spectrometric quality of CWO and GSO crystals have been investigated with the aim of their application in thermal neutron detectors based on radiation capture reactions. The efficiency of the neutron detection by these crystals was measured, and the obtained data were compared with the results for sup 6 LiI(Tl) crystals. It is shown that the use of complex oxide crystals and neutron-absorption filters for spectrometry of thermal and resonance neutrons could be a promising method in combination with computer data processing. Numerical calculations are reported for spectra of gamma-quanta due to radiation capture of the neutrons. To compensate for the gamma-background lines, we used a crystal pair of heavy complex oxides with different sensitivity to neutrons.

  19. IEC-based neutron generator for security inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Wu, L.; Kim, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Use of a combined X-ray and neutron source for security inspections based on Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion is discussed. Current inspection systems typically use X-ray techniques, but thermal neutron analysis (TNA) and fast neutron analysis (FNA), allow expanded detection of certain types of explosives. The integrated unit proposed here uses three separate IEC sources producing 14 and 2.45 MeV neutrons plus soft X-rays. This combination allows multiple detection methods with the composite signal analysis being done by a fuzzy logic system, significantly reducing false signals. (author)

  20. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  1. CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor using glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Takashi; Takahashi, Masayuki; Uejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Keita; Kawamura, Toshikazu; Ohta, Yasumi; Motoyama, Mayumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Okitsu, Teru; Takeuchi, Shoji; Ohta, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A CMOS image sensor-based implantable glucose sensor based on an optical-sensing scheme is proposed and experimentally verified. A glucose-responsive fluorescent hydrogel is used as the mediator in the measurement scheme. The wired implantable glucose sensor was realized by integrating a CMOS image sensor, hydrogel, UV light emitting diodes, and an optical filter on a flexible polyimide substrate. Feasibility of the glucose sensor was verified by both in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  2. Sensor Fusion-based Event Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) community has witnessed an application focus shift. Although, monitoring was the initial application of wireless sensor networks, in-network data processing and (near) real-time actuation capability have made wireless sensor networks suitable candidate for

  3. Theoretical and experimental study of the dark signal in CMOS image sensors affected by neutron radiation from a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; Ma, Wuying; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2017-12-01

    The CMOS image sensors (CISs) are irradiated with neutron from a nuclear reactor. The dark signal in CISs affected by neutron radiation is studied theoretically and experimentally. The Primary knock-on atoms (PKA) energy spectra for 1 MeV incident neutrons are simulated by Geant4. And the theoretical models for the mean dark signal, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and dark signal distribution versus neutron fluence are established. The results are found to be in good agreement with the experimental outputs. Finally, the dark signal in the CISs under the different neutron fluence conditions is estimated. This study provides the theoretical and experimental evidence for the displacement damage effects on the dark signal CISs.

  4. A High Temperature-Tolerant and Radiation-Resistant In-Core Neutron Sensor for Advanced Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lei [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Miller, Don [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-01-23

    The objectives of this project are to develop a small and reliable gallium nitride (GaN) neutron sensor that is capable of withstanding high neutron fluence and high temperature, isolating gamma background, and operating in a wide dynamic range. The first objective will be the understanding of the fundamental materials properties and electronic response of a GaN semiconductor materials and device in an environment of high temperature and intense neutron field. To achieve such goal, an in-situ study of electronic properties of GaN device such as I-V, leakage current, and charge collection efficiency (CCE) in high temperature using an external neutron beam will be designed and implemented. We will also perform in-core irradiation of GaN up to the highest yet fast neutron fluence and an off-line performance evaluation.

  5. A High Temperature-Tolerant and Radiation-Resistant In-Core Neutron Sensor for Advanced Reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Miller, Don

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop a small and reliable gallium nitride (GaN) neutron sensor that is capable of withstanding high neutron fluence and high temperature, isolating gamma background, and operating in a wide dynamic range. The first objective will be the understanding of the fundamental materials properties and electronic response of a GaN semiconductor materials and device in an environment of high temperature and intense neutron field. To achieve such goal, an in-situ study of electronic properties of GaN device such as I-V, leakage current, and charge collection efficiency (CCE) in high temperature using an external neutron beam will be designed and implemented. We will also perform in-core irradiation of GaN up to the highest yet fast neutron fluence and an off-line performance evaluation.

  6. Fuzzy-Based Sensor Fusion for Cognitive Radio-Based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensor fusion is employed to integrate the acquired data from diverse sensors to provide a unified interpretation. The best and most salient advantage of sensor fusion is to obtain high-level information in both statistical and definitive aspects, which cannot be attained by a single sensor. In this paper, we propose a novel sensor fusion technique based on fuzzy theory for our earlier proposed Cognitive Radio-based Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (CR-VASNET. In the proposed technique, we considered four input sensor readings (antecedents and one output (consequent. The employed mobile nodes in CR-VASNET are supposed to be equipped with diverse sensors, which cater to our antecedent variables, for example, The Jerk, Collision Intensity, and Temperature and Inclination Degree. Crash_Severity is considered as the consequent variable. The processing and fusion of the diverse sensory signals are carried out by fuzzy logic scenario. Accuracy and reliability of the proposed protocol, demonstrated by the simulation results, introduce it as an applicable system to be employed to reduce the causalities rate of the vehicles’ crashes.

  7. A shielding design for an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, A.E.; Blue, T.E. E-mail: blue.1@osu.edu; Woollard, J.E

    2004-11-01

    Research in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at The Ohio State University Nuclear Engineering Department has been primarily focused on delivering a high quality neutron field for use in BNCT using an accelerator-based neutron source (ABNS). An ABNS for BNCT is composed of a proton accelerator, a high-energy beam transport system, a {sup 7}Li target, a target heat removal system (HRS), a moderator assembly, and a treatment room. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of a shielded moderator assembly design, in terms of material requirements necessary to adequately protect radiation personnel located outside a treatment room for BNCT, over an unshielded moderator assembly design.

  8. A neutron spectrum unfolding computer code based on artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, J.M.; Reyes Alfaro, A.; Reyes Haro, A.; Cervantes Viramontes, J.M.; Vega-Carrillo, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer consists of a thermal neutron sensor placed at the center of a number of moderating polyethylene spheres of different diameters. From the measured readings, information can be derived about the spectrum of the neutron field where measurements were made. Disadvantages of the Bonner system are the weight associated with each sphere and the need to sequentially irradiate the spheres, requiring long exposure periods. Provided a well-established response matrix and adequate irradiation conditions, the most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. The drawbacks associated with traditional unfolding procedures have motivated the need of complementary approaches. Novel methods based on Artificial Intelligence, mainly Artificial Neural Networks, have been widely investigated. In this work, a neutron spectrum unfolding code based on neural nets technology is presented. This code is called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry with Artificial Neural networks unfolding code that was designed in a graphical interface. The core of the code is an embedded neural network architecture previously optimized using the robust design of artificial neural networks methodology. The main features of the code are: easy to use, friendly and intuitive to the user. This code was designed for a Bonner Sphere System based on a 6 LiI(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. The main feature of the code is that as entrance data, for unfolding the neutron spectrum, only seven rate counts measured with seven Bonner spheres are required; simultaneously the code calculates 15 dosimetric quantities as well as the total flux for radiation protection purposes. This code generates a full report with all information of the unfolding

  9. Recent Developments in GEM-Based Neutron Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenboonruang, K.

    2014-01-01

    The gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector is a relatively new gaseous detector that has been used for less than 20 years. Since the discovery in 1997 by F. Sauli, the GEM detector has shown excellent properties including high rate capability, excellent resolutions, low discharge probability, and excellent radiation hardness. These promising properties have led the GEM detector to gain popularity and attention amongst physicists and researchers. In particular, the GEM detector can also be modified to be used as a neutron detector by adding appropriate neutron converters. With properties stated above and the need to replace the expensive 3 He-based neutron detectors, the GEM-based neutron detector will be one of the most powerful and affordable neutron detectors. Applications of the GEM-based neutron detectors vary from researches in nuclear and particle physics, neutron imaging, and national security. Although several promising progresses and results have been shown and published in the past few years, further improvement is still needed in order to improve the low neutron detection efficiency (only a few percent) and to widen the possibilities for other uses.

  10. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  11. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  12. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...

  13. Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  14. Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  15. Graphene-Paper Based Electrochemical Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab; Cao, Xianyi

    2017-01-01

    in electrochemical sensors and energy technologies amongothers. In this chapter, we present some examples to overview recent advances in theresearch and development of two-dimensional (2D) graphene papers as new materialsfor electrochemical sensors. The chapter covers the design, fabrication, functionalizationand...... functionalization ofgraphene papers with polymer and nanoscale functional building blocks for electrochemical-sensing purposes. In terms of electrochemical-sensing applications, the emphasis ison enzyme-graphene and nanoparticle-graphene paper-based systems for the detectionof glucose. We finally conclude...

  16. Toward CMOS image sensor based glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine Pramila; Kim, Sanghyo

    2012-09-07

    Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a powerful tool for biosensing applications. In this present study, CMOS image sensor has been exploited for detecting glucose levels by simple photon count variation with high sensitivity. Various concentrations of glucose (100 mg dL(-1) to 1000 mg dL(-1)) were added onto a simple poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chip and the oxidation of glucose was catalyzed with the aid of an enzymatic reaction. Oxidized glucose produces a brown color with the help of chromogen during enzymatic reaction and the color density varies with the glucose concentration. Photons pass through the PDMS chip with varying color density and hit the sensor surface. Photon count was recognized by CMOS image sensor depending on the color density with respect to the glucose concentration and it was converted into digital form. By correlating the obtained digital results with glucose concentration it is possible to measure a wide range of blood glucose levels with great linearity based on CMOS image sensor and therefore this technique will promote a convenient point-of-care diagnosis.

  17. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Aminur Rahman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on recent contributions in the development of the electrochemical sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs. CNTs have unique mechanical and electronic properties, combined with chemical stability, and behave electrically as a metal or semiconductor, depending on their structure. For sensing applications, CNTs have many advantages such as small size with larger surface area, excellent electron transfer promoting ability when used as electrodes modifier in electrochemical reactions, and easy protein immobilization with retention of its activity for potential biosensors. CNTs play an important role in the performance of electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Various methods have been developed for the design of sensors using CNTs in recent years. Herein we summarize the applications of CNTs in the construction of electrochemical sensors and biosensors along with other nanomaterials and conducting polymers.

  18. ECCE Toolkit: Prototyping Sensor-Based Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bellucci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Building and exploring physical user interfaces requires high technical skills and hours of specialized work. The behavior of multiple devices with heterogeneous input/output channels and connectivity has to be programmed in a context where not only the software interface matters, but also the hardware components are critical (e.g., sensors and actuators. Prototyping physical interaction is hindered by the challenges of: (1 programming interactions among physical sensors/actuators and digital interfaces; (2 implementing functionality for different platforms in different programming languages; and (3 building custom electronic-incorporated objects. We present ECCE (Entities, Components, Couplings and Ecosystems, a toolkit for non-programmers that copes with these issues by abstracting from low-level implementations, thus lowering the complexity of prototyping small-scale, sensor-based physical interfaces to support the design process. A user evaluation provides insights and use cases of the kind of applications that can be developed with the toolkit.

  19. Gas Sensors Based on Molecular Imprinting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Qingju

    2017-07-04

    Molecular imprinting technology (MIT); often described as a method of designing a material to remember a target molecular structure (template); is a technique for the creation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with custom-made binding sites complementary to the target molecules in shape; size and functional groups. MIT has been successfully applied to analyze; separate and detect macromolecular organic compounds. Furthermore; it has been increasingly applied in assays of biological macromolecules. Owing to its unique features of structure specificity; predictability; recognition and universal application; there has been exploration of the possible application of MIPs in the field of highly selective gas sensors. In this present study; we outline the recent advances in gas sensors based on MIT; classify and introduce the existing molecularly imprinted gas sensors; summarize their advantages and disadvantages; and analyze further research directions.

  20. Physiological roles of acid-base sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis is essential for life. The macromolecules upon which living organisms depend are sensitive to pH changes, and physiological systems use the equilibrium between carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and protons to buffer their pH. Biological processes and environmental insults are constantly challenging an organism's pH; therefore, to maintain a consistent and proper pH, organisms need sensors that measure pH and that elicit appropriate responses. Mammals use multiple sensors for measuring both intracellular and extracellular pH, and although some mammalian pH sensors directly measure protons, it has recently become apparent that many pH-sensing systems measure pH via bicarbonate-sensing soluble adenylyl cyclase.

  1. Electrospinning cellulose based nanofibers for sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartker, Steven

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens have recently become a serious threat to the food and water supply. A biosensor based on an electrochemical immunoassay has been developed for detecting food borne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. These sensors consist of several materials including, cellulose, cellulose nitrate, polyaniline and glass fibers. The current sensors have not been optimized in terms of microscale architecture and materials. The major problem associated with the current sensors is the limited concentration range of pathogens that provides a linear response on the concentration conductivity chart. Electrospinning is a process that can be used to create a patterned fiber mat design that will increase the linear range and lower the detection limit of these sensors by improving the microscale architecture. Using the electrospinning process to produce novel mats of cellulose nitrate will offer improved surface area, and the cellulose nitrate can be treated to further improve chemical interactions required for sensor activity. The macro and micro architecture of the sensor is critical to the performance of the sensors. Electrospinning technology can be used to create patterned architectures of nanofibers that will enhance sensor performance. To date electrospinning of cellulose nitrate has not been performed and optimization of the electrospinning process will provide novel materials suitable for applications such as filtration and sensing. The goal of this research is to identify and elucidate the primary materials and process factors necessary to produce cellulose nitrate nanofibers using the electrospinning process that will improve the performance of biosensors. Cellulose nitrate is readily dissolved in common organic solvents such as acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF) and N,N dimethylformamide (DMF). These solvents can be mixed with other latent solvents such as ethanol and other alcohols to provide a solvent system with good electrospinning behavior

  2. A neutron spectrum unfolding computer code based on artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Rodríguez, J. M.; Reyes Alfaro, A.; Reyes Haro, A.; Cervantes Viramontes, J. M.; Vega-Carrillo, H. R.

    2014-02-01

    The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer consists of a thermal neutron sensor placed at the center of a number of moderating polyethylene spheres of different diameters. From the measured readings, information can be derived about the spectrum of the neutron field where measurements were made. Disadvantages of the Bonner system are the weight associated with each sphere and the need to sequentially irradiate the spheres, requiring long exposure periods. Provided a well-established response matrix and adequate irradiation conditions, the most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. The drawbacks associated with traditional unfolding procedures have motivated the need of complementary approaches. Novel methods based on Artificial Intelligence, mainly Artificial Neural Networks, have been widely investigated. In this work, a neutron spectrum unfolding code based on neural nets technology is presented. This code is called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry with Artificial Neural networks unfolding code that was designed in a graphical interface. The core of the code is an embedded neural network architecture previously optimized using the robust design of artificial neural networks methodology. The main features of the code are: easy to use, friendly and intuitive to the user. This code was designed for a Bonner Sphere System based on a 6LiI(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. The main feature of the code is that as entrance data, for unfolding the neutron spectrum, only seven rate counts measured with seven Bonner spheres are required; simultaneously the code calculates 15 dosimetric quantities as well as the total flux for radiation protection purposes. This code generates a full report with all information of the unfolding in

  3. Measurement channel of neutron flow based on software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, T.; Benitez R, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the thermal power in nuclear reactors is based mainly on the measurement of the neutron flow. The presence of these in the reactor core is associated to neutrons released by the fission reaction of the uranium-235. Once moderate, these neutrons are precursors of new fissions. This process it is known like chain reaction. Thus, the power to which works a nuclear reactor, he is proportional to the number of produced fissions and as these depend on released neutrons, also the power is proportional to the number of present neutrons. The measurement of the thermal power in a reactor is realized with called instruments nuclear channels. To low power (level source), these channels measure the individual counts of detected neutrons, whereas to a medium and high power, they measure the electrical current or fluctuation of the same one that generate the fission neutrons in ionization chambers especially designed to detect neutrons. For the case of TRIGA reactors, the measurement channels of neutron flow use discreet digital electronic technology makes some decades already. Recently new technological tools have arisen that allow developing new versions of nuclear channels of simple form and compacts. The present work consists of the development of a nuclear channel for TRIGA reactors based on the use of the correlated signal of a fission chamber for ample interval. This new measurement channel uses a data acquisition card of high speed and the data processing by software that to the being installed in a computer is created a virtual instrument, with what spreads in real time, in graphic and understandable form for the operator, the power indication to which it operates the nuclear reactor. This system when being based on software, offers a major versatility to realize changes in the signal processing and power monitoring algorithms. The experimental tests of neutronic power measurement show a reliable performance through seven decades of power, with a

  4. Neutron diffraction measurements at the INES diffractometer using a neutron radiative capture based counting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festa, G. [Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@roma2.infn.it [Centro NAST, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma (Italy); Grazzi, F.; Barzagli, E. [CNR-ISC Firenze (Italy); Scherillo, A. [CNR-ISC Firenze (Italy); ISIS facility Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS facility Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-21

    The global shortage of {sup 3}He gas is an issue to be addressed in neutron detection. In the context of the research and development activity related to the replacement of {sup 3}He for neutron counting systems, neutron diffraction measurements performed on the INES beam line at the ISIS pulsed spallation neutron source are presented. For these measurements two different neutron counting devices have been used: a 20 bar pressure squashed {sup 3}He tube and a Yttrium-Aluminum-Perovskite scintillation detector. The scintillation detector was coupled to a cadmium sheet that registers the prompt radiative capture gamma rays generated by the (n,{gamma}) nuclear reactions occurring in cadmium. The assessment of the scintillator based counting system was done by performing a Rietveld refinement analysis on the diffraction pattern from an ancient Japanese blade and comparing the results with those obtained by a {sup 3}He tube placed at the same angular position. The results obtained demonstrate the considerable potential of the proposed counting approach based on the radiative capture gamma rays at spallation neutron sources.

  5. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki, E-mail: miyajima@nict.go.jp [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Hidaka, Mutsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a {sup 10}B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a {sup 10}B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with {sup 10}B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  6. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Ishida, Takekazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a "1"0B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a "1"0B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with "1"0B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  7. Radiation hardness of GaAs sensors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šagátová, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.sagatova@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia); Zaťko, Bohumír; Dubecký, František [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Ly Anh, Tu [Faculty of Applied Science, University of Technology VNU HCM, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nečas, Vladimír; Sedlačková, Katarína; Pavlovič, Márius [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Fülöp, Marko [University Centre of Electron Accelerators, Slovak Medical University, Ku kyselke 497, 911 06 Trenčín (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation hardness of SI GaAs detectors against gamma-rays, neutrons and electrons was compared. • Good agreement was achieved between the experimental results and displacement damage factor of different types of radiation. • CCE and FWHM first slightly improved (by 1–8%) and just then degraded with the cumulative dose. • An increase of detection efficiency with cumulative dose was observed. - Abstract: Radiation hardness of semi-insulating GaAs detectors against {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, fast neutrons and 5 MeV electrons was compared. Slight improvements in charge collection efficiency (CCE) and energy resolution in FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) were observed at low doses with all kinds of radiation followed by their degradation. The effect occurred at a dose of about 10 Gy of neutrons (CCE improved by 1%, FWHM by 5% on average), at 1 kGy of electrons (FWHM decreased by 3% on average) and at 10 kGy of gamma-rays (CCE raised by 5% and FWHM dropped by 8% on average), which is in agreement with the relative displacement damage of the used types of radiation. Gamma-rays of MeV energies are 1000-times less damaging than similar neutrons and electrons about 10-times more damaging than photons. On irradiating the detectors with neutrons and electrons, we observed a global increase in their detection efficiency, which was caused probably by enlargement of the active detector area as a consequence of created radiation defects in the base material. Detectors were still functional after a dose of 1140 kGy of ∼1 MeV photons, 104 kGy of 5 MeV electrons but only up to 0.576 kGy of fast (∼2 to 30 MeV) neutrons.

  8. Model-based Sensor Data Acquisition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Sathe, Saket; Papaioannou, Thanasis G.; Jeung, Ho Young; Aberer, Karl

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, due to the proliferation of sensor networks, there has been a genuine need of researching techniques for sensor data acquisition and management. To this end, a large number of techniques have emerged that advocate model-based sensor data acquisition and management. These techniques use mathematical models for performing various, day-to-day tasks involved in managing sensor data. In this chapter, we survey the state-of-the-art techniques for model-based sensor data acquisition...

  9. Experimental and mathematical simulation techniques for determining an in-situ response testing method for neutron sensors used in reactor power plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behbahani, A.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical neutron sensor response model and methods for transient response measurements of neutron sensors (compensated ionization chamber), including possible in-situ techniques have been developed and evaluated to meet the provisions of Draft Standard ISA Sd67.06, IEEE 338-1977, and NRC Guide 1.118. One in-situ method requires the perturbation of the high voltage detector (sensor) power supply and measurement of the sensor response. The response to a perturbation of the power supply is related to the response of the sensor to a transient change in neutron flux. Random signal analysis is another in-situ technique to monitor the neutron sensor response. In this method the power spectrum of the inherent fluctuations from the neutron sensor output (current in CIC) are measured and evaluated. Transient response techniques (including in-situ methods) are experimentally and analytically evaluated to identify the mechanisms which may cause degradation in the response of the neutron sensors. The objective of the experimental evaluation was to correlate the measured response time using transient radiation flux changes and power supply perturbation. The objective of the analytical model of the different sensor response was to predict response time and degradation mechanisms

  10. Red Emitting Phenyl-Polysiloxane Based Scintillators for Neutron Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Palma, Matteo; Quaranta, Alberto; Marchi, Tommaso; Gramegna, Fabiana; Cinausero, Marco; Carturan, Sara; Collazuol, Gianmaria

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the performances of new red emitting phenyl- substituted polysiloxane based scintillators are described. Three dyes were dispersed in a phenyl-polysiloxane matrix in order to shift the scintillation wavelength towards the red part of the visible spectrum. PPO, Lumogen Violet (BASF) and Lumogen Red (BASF) were mixed to the starting resins with different wt. % and the analysis of the different samples was performed by means of fluorescence measurements. The scintillation yield to alpha particles at the different dye ratios was monitored by detecting either the full spectrum or the red part of the emitted light. Finally, thin red scintillators with selected compositions were coupled to Avalanche Photodiode sensors, which are usually characterized by higher efficiency in the red part of the spectrum. An increased light output of about 17% has been obtained comparing the red scintillators to standard blue emitting systems. Preliminary results on the detection of fast neutrons with the APD-red scintillator system are also presented. (authors)

  11. Optical Slot-Waveguide Based Biochemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot-waveguides allow light to be guided and strongly confined inside a nanometer-scale region of low refractive index. Thus stronger light-analyte interaction can be obtained as compared to that achievable by a conventional waveguide, in which the propagating beam is confined to the high-refractive-index core of the waveguide. In addition, slot-waveguides can be fabricated by employing CMOS compatible materials and technology, enabling miniaturization, integration with electronic, photonic and fluidic components in a chip, and mass production. These advantages have made the use of slot-waveguides for highly sensitive biochemical optical integrated sensors an emerging field. In this paper, recent achievements in slot-waveguide based biochemical sensing will be reviewed. These include slot-waveguide ring resonator based refractometric label-free biosensors, label-based optical sensing, and nano-opto-mechanical sensors.

  12. A neutron spectrum unfolding code based on iterative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the version 3.0 of the neutron spectrum unfolding code called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry from Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (NSDUAZ), is presented. This code was designed in a graphical interface under the LabVIEW programming environment and it is based on the iterative SPUNIT iterative algorithm, using as entrance data, only the rate counts obtained with 7 Bonner spheres based on a 6 Lil(Eu) neutron detector. The main features of the code are: it is intuitive and friendly to the user; it has a programming routine which automatically selects the initial guess spectrum by using a set of neutron spectra compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Besides the neutron spectrum, this code calculates the total flux, the mean energy, H(10), h(10), 15 dosimetric quantities for radiation protection porpoises and 7 survey meter responses, in four energy grids, based on the International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. This code generates a full report in html format with all relevant information. In this work, the neutron spectrum of a 241 AmBe neutron source on air, located at 150 cm from detector, is unfolded. (Author)

  13. Automatic read out system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.P.; Parihar, A.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Mohan, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ) has developed superheated emulsion technology for neutron and gamma measurements. The laboratory has attempted to develop reader system to display neutron dose and dose rate based on acoustic technique. The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurements using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit consisted of piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PIC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I 2 C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following peripheral units interfaced to microcontroller temperature and battery monitoring, display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to 241 Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported

  14. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensor-based interior modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, M.; Hoffman, R.; Johnson, A.; Osborn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Robots and remote systems will play crucial roles in future decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of nuclear facilities. Many of these facilities, such as uranium enrichment plants, weapons assembly plants, research and production reactors, and fuel recycling facilities, are dormant; there is also an increasing number of commercial reactors whose useful lifetime is nearly over. To reduce worker exposure to radiation, occupational and other hazards associated with D ampersand D tasks, robots will execute much of the work agenda. Traditional teleoperated systems rely on human understanding (based on information gathered by remote viewing cameras) of the work environment to safely control the remote equipment. However, removing the operator from the work site substantially reduces his efficiency and effectiveness. To approach the productivity of a human worker, tasks will be performed telerobotically, in which many aspects of task execution are delegated to robot controllers and other software. This paper describes a system that semi-automatically builds a virtual world for remote D ampersand D operations by constructing 3-D models of a robot's work environment. Planar and quadric surface representations of objects typically found in nuclear facilities are generated from laser rangefinder data with a minimum of human interaction. The surface representations are then incorporated into a task space model that can be viewed and analyzed by the operator, accessed by motion planning and robot safeguarding algorithms, and ultimately used by the operator to instruct the robot at a level much higher than teleoperation

  16. Soft Sensors and Actuators based on Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shanshan

    The focus of this research is using novel bottom-up synthesized nanomaterials and structures to build up devices for wearable sensors and soft actuators. The applications of the wearable sensors towards motion detection and health monitoring are investigated. In addition, flexible heaters for bimorph actuators and stretchable patches made of microgel depots containing drug-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) for stretch-triggered wearable drug delivery are studied. Considerable efforts have been made to achieve highly sensitive and wearable sensors that can simultaneously detect multiple stimuli such as stretch, pressure, temperature or touch. Highly stretchable multifunctional sensors that can detect strain (up to 50%), pressure (up to 1 MPa) and finger touch with good sensitivity, fast response time ( 40 ms) and good pressure mapping function were developed. The sensors were demonstrated for several wearable applications including monitoring thumb movements and knee motions, illustrating the potential utilities of such sensors in robotic systems, prosthetics, healthcare and flexible touch panels. In addition to mechanical sensors, a wearable skin hydration sensor made of silver nanowires (AgNWs) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix was demonstrated based on skin impedance measurement. The hydration sensors were packaged into a flexible wristband for skin hydration monitoring and a chest patch consisting of a strain sensor, three electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes and a skin hydration sensor for multimodal sensing. The wearable wristband and chest patch may be used for low-cost, wireless and continuous sensing of skin hydration and other health parameters. Two representative applications of the nanomaterials for soft actuators were investigated. In the first application on bimorph actuation, low-voltage and extremely flexible electrothermal bimorph actuators were fabricated in a simple, efficient and scalable process. The bimorph actuators were made of flexible Ag

  17. Characterization of proton and neutron irradiated low resistivity p-on-n magnetic Czochralski ministrip sensors and diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacifico, Nicola; Dolenc Kittelmann, Irena; Fahrer, Manuel; Moll, Michael; Militaru, Otilia

    2011-01-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements were performed on low resistivity (280Ωcm) n-bulk, p-readout magnetic Czochralski ministrip sensors and diodes. The detectors were irradiated with neutrons and 24 GeV/c protons up to a total NIEL equivalent fluence of 8×10 15 /cm 2 . The study was addressed to assess the radiation tolerance of the detectors up to fluences expected in the next generations of High Energy Physics experiments. The charge collection efficiency after irradiation was found to be much higher than for standard FZ silicon p-in-n sensors. The underlying physics of this remarkable result was investigated by performing Edge-TCT measurements on one of the neutron irradiated ministrip sensors to extract detailed informations about the field and efficiency profiles of the detector.

  18. Characterization of proton and neutron irradiated low resistivity p-on-n magnetic Czochralski ministrip sensors and diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacifico, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.pacifico@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc Kittelmann, Irena; Fahrer, Manuel; Moll, Michael [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Militaru, Otilia [UCL, Louvain (Belgium)

    2011-12-01

    Transient Current Technique (TCT) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements were performed on low resistivity (280{Omega}cm) n-bulk, p-readout magnetic Czochralski ministrip sensors and diodes. The detectors were irradiated with neutrons and 24 GeV/c protons up to a total NIEL equivalent fluence of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}. The study was addressed to assess the radiation tolerance of the detectors up to fluences expected in the next generations of High Energy Physics experiments. The charge collection efficiency after irradiation was found to be much higher than for standard FZ silicon p-in-n sensors. The underlying physics of this remarkable result was investigated by performing Edge-TCT measurements on one of the neutron irradiated ministrip sensors to extract detailed informations about the field and efficiency profiles of the detector.

  19. Neutron accident dosimeter based on SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palfalvi, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    1998-01-01

    A sandwich type track etch detector of CR-39 was developed utilizing neutron-proton recoil and (n,α) reactions. Applying gold and Cd filters this system turns into a threshold detector and also it combines the albedo and the direct detection methods; thus it becomes possible to detect neutrons in three or more energy ranges depending on the number of gold degraders of different thickness allowing dose assessment with an uncertainty of about 20%, as blank tests have proved when a single gold foil of 20 μm thick was used. (author)

  20. Neutron generator based on adiabatic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, I.N.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Panov, D.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Shatalov, G.E.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possibility of 14 MeV neutron generator (NG) production on the basis of axial-symmetric adiabatic trap with MHD cusped armature for the testing of materials and elements of the DT reactor first wall and blanket structure is discussed. General requirements to NG are formulated. It is shown that the NG variant discussed meets the requirements formulated. Approximate calculation of the NG parameters has shown that total energy consumption by the generator does not exceed 220 MW at neutron flux specific capacity of 2.5 MW/m 2 and radiation test area of 5-6 m 2

  1. New neutron-based isotopic analytical methods; An explorative study of resonance capture and incoherent scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perego, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two novel neutron-based analytical techniques have been treated in this thesis, Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA), employing a pulsed neutron source, and Neutron Incoherent Scattering (NIS), making use of a cold neutron source. With the NRCA method isotopes are identified by the

  2. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  3. Soil-Carbon Measurement System Based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orion, I.; Wielopolski, L.

    2002-01-01

    Increase in the atmospheric CO 2 is associated with concurrent increase in the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. For better understanding of the carbon cycle it is imperative to establish a better and extensive database of the carbon concentrations in various soil types, in order to develop improved models for changes in the global climate. Non-invasive soil carbon measurement is based on Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS). This method has been used successfully to measure total body carbon in human beings. The system consists of a pulsed neutron generator that is based on D-T reaction, which produces 14 MeV neutrons, a neutron flux monitoring detector and a couple of large NaI(Tl), 6'' diameter by 6'' high, spectrometers [4]. The threshold energy for INS reaction in carbon is 4.8 MeV. Following INS of 14 MeV neutrons in carbon 4.44 MeV photons are emitted and counted during a gate pulse period of 10 μsec. The repetition rate of the neutron generator is 104 pulses per sec. The gamma spectra are acquired only during the neutron generator gate pulses. The INS method for soil carbon content measurements provides a non-destructive, non-invasive tool, which can be optimized in order to develop a system for in field measurements

  4. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Fiber Ring Laser Demodulation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Ge; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wang, Peng-Zhao; Wang, Jian-Zhang

    2018-02-08

    A review for optical fiber sensors based on fiber ring laser (FRL) demodulation technology is presented. The review focuses on the principles, main structures, and the sensing performances of different kinds of optical fiber sensors based on FRLs. First of all, the theory background of the sensors has been discussed. Secondly, four different types of sensors are described and compared, which includes Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) typed sensors, Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) typed sensors, Sagnac typed sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) typed sensors. Typical studies and main properties of each type of sensors are presented. Thirdly, a comparison of different types of sensors are made. Finally, the existing problems and future research directions are pointed out and analyzed.

  5. Performance of UWB Array-Based Radar Sensor in a Multi-Sensor Vehicle-Based Suit for Landmine Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarovoy, A.; Savelyev, T.; Zhuge, X.; Aubry, P.; Ligthart, L.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Tettelaar, P.; Breejen, E. de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, integration of an UWB array-based timedomain radar sensor in a vehicle-mounted multi-sensor system for landmine detection is described. Dedicated real-time signal processing algorithms are developed to compute the radar sensor confidence map which is used for sensor fusion.

  6. Waypoint Generation Based on Sensor Aimpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    United States Government . AFIT/GAE/ENV/09-M01 WAYPOINT GENERATION BASED ON SENSOR AIMPOINT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Aeronautical...BATCAM. Aviones physics parameters for the Procerus testbed, the Unicorn UAV, were provided by Procerus, which allowed another simulated MAV to 48 be...flown in the HIL tests. The AFIT Advanced Navigation Technologies (ANT) Center did not own a Unicorn UAV, so it could not be flown in flight tests

  7. Paper-Based Active Tactile Sensor Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qize; Zhong, Junwen; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Yao, Xu; Wang, Bo; Li, Wenbo; Wu, Nan; Liu, Kang; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Jun

    2015-11-25

    A paper-based active tactile sensor -array (PATSA) with a dynamic sensitivity of 0.35 V N(-1) is demonstrated. The pixel position of the PATSA can be routed by analyzing the real-time recording voltages in the pressing process. The PATSA performance, which remains functional when removing partial areas, reveals that the device has a potential application to customized electronic skins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Neutron based evaluation in support of NEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bourke, Mark Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Losko, Adrian Simon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    The primary objective of the Advanced Non-Destructive fuel Examination (ANDE) work package is to develop capability that has the potential to accelerate insight and development of ceramic and metallic fuels. Establishing unique validation opportunities for new models is a key component of this effort. To explore opportunities a series of interactions were held with NEAMS modelers at LANL. The focus was to identify experiments that draw on the unique capabilities of neutron scattering and imaging for studies of nuclear fuel particularly in areas where experimental data can be valuable for of models validation. The neutron characterization techniques applied in the ANDE program span length scales from millimeter to micrometer to angstroms. Spatial heterogeneities of interest include cracks, pores and inclusions, crystal structure, phase composition, stoichiometry texture, chemistry and atomic thermal motion. Neutrons offer characterization opportunities that are distinct from other probes such as X-rays, electrons or protons. This report describes a variety of opportunities whereby neutron data can be related to models and lists some opportunities.

  9. Biological and chemical sensors based on graphene materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Dong, Xiaochen; Chen, Peng

    2012-03-21

    Owing to their extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties, graphene and its derivatives have stimulated exploding interests in their sensor applications ever since the first isolation of free-standing graphene sheets in year 2004. This article critically and comprehensively reviews the emerging graphene-based electrochemical sensors, electronic sensors, optical sensors, and nanopore sensors for biological or chemical detection. We emphasize on the underlying detection (or signal transduction) mechanisms, the unique roles and advantages of the used graphene materials. Properties and preparations of different graphene materials, their functionalizations are also comparatively discussed in view of sensor development. Finally, the perspective and current challenges of graphene sensors are outlined (312 references).

  10. Calculations of accelerator-based neutron sources characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertytchnyi, R.G.; Shorin, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources (T(p,n), D(d;n), T(d;n) and Li (p,n)-reactions) are widely used in experiments on measuring the interaction cross-sections of fast neutrons with nuclei. The present work represents the code for calculation of the yields and spectra of neutrons generated in (p, n)- and ( d; n)-reactions on some targets of light nuclei (D, T; 7 Li). The peculiarities of the stopping processes of charged particles (with incident energy up to 15 MeV) in multilayer and multicomponent targets are taken into account. The code version is made in terms of the 'SOURCE,' a subroutine for the well-known MCNP code. Some calculation results for the most popular accelerator- based neutron sources are given. (authors)

  11. Current status of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Vento, V. Thatar; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J.M.; Valda, A.A.; Ilardo, J.C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M.E.; Somacal, H.R.; Estrada, L.; Sandin, J.C. Suarez; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Padulo, J.; Minsky, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality, which is becoming increasingly widespread due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has a long tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a second-generation promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we describe the current situation worldwide as far as the use of accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT is concerned (so-called Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT). In particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. (author)

  12. Sensor-based material tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  13. Carbon Nanotube-Based Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, M

    2016-04-27

    The need to sense gases and vapors arises in numerous scenarios in industrial, environmental, security and medical applications. Traditionally, this activity has utilized bulky instruments to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information on the constituents of the gas mixture. It is ideal to use sensors for this purpose since they are smaller in size and less expensive; however, their performance in the field must match that of established analytical instruments in order to gain acceptance. In this regard, nanomaterials as sensing media offer advantages in sensitivity, preparation of chip-based sensors and construction of electronic nose for selective detection of analytes of interest. This article provides a review of the use of carbon nanotubes in gas and vapor sensing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Omar; Kashanianfard, Mani; Ramahi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. PMID:25835188

  15. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Siddiqui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide.

  16. Commissioning of accelerator based boron neutron capture therapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.; Wakita, A.; Okamoto, H.; Igaki, H.; Itami, J.; Ito, M.; Abe, Y.; Imahori, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment method using a nuclear reaction of 10 B(n, α) 7 Li. BNCT can be deposited the energy to a tumor since the 10 B which has a higher cross-section to a neutron is high is concentrated on the tumor. It is different from conventional radiation therapies that BNCT expects higher treatment effect to radiation resistant tumors since the generated alpha and lithium particles have higher radiological biological effectiveness. In general, BNCT has been performed in research nuclear reactor. Thus, BNCT is not widely applied in a clinical use. According to recent development of accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy system, the system has an adequate flux of neutrons. Therefore, National Cancer Canter Hospital, Tokyo, Japan is planning to install accelerator based BNCT system. Protons with 2.5 MeV are irradiated to a lithium target system to generate neutrons. As a result, thermal load of the target is 50 kW since current of the protons is 20.0 mA. Additionally, when the accelerator-based BNCT system is installed in a hospital, the facility size is disadvantage in term of neutron measurements. Therefore, the commissioning of the BNCT system is being performed carefully. In this article, we report about the commissioning. (author)

  17. Total variation-based neutron computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Richard C.; Bilheux, Hassina; Toops, Todd; Nafziger, Eric; Finney, Charles; Splitter, Derek; Archibald, Rick

    2018-05-01

    We perform the neutron computed tomography reconstruction problem via an inverse problem formulation with a total variation penalty. In the case of highly under-resolved angular measurements, the total variation penalty suppresses high-frequency artifacts which appear in filtered back projections. In order to efficiently compute solutions for this problem, we implement a variation of the split Bregman algorithm; due to the error-forgetting nature of the algorithm, the computational cost of updating can be significantly reduced via very inexact approximate linear solvers. We present the effectiveness of the algorithm in the significantly low-angular sampling case using synthetic test problems as well as data obtained from a high flux neutron source. The algorithm removes artifacts and can even roughly capture small features when an extremely low number of angles are used.

  18. Adaptive Sensing Based on Profiles for Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiteru Ishida

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a profile-based sensing framework for adaptive sensor systems based on models that relate possibly heterogeneous sensor data and profiles generated by the models to detect events. With these concepts, three phases for building the sensor systems are extracted from two examples: a combustion control sensor system for an automobile engine, and a sensor system for home security. The three phases are: modeling, profiling, and managing trade-offs. Designing and building a sensor system involves mapping the signals to a model to achieve a given mission.

  19. The stationary neutron radiography system: a TRIGA-based production neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesworth, Robert H.; Hagmann, Dean B.

    1988-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is under contract to construct a Stationary Neutron Radiography System (SNRS) - on a turnkey basis - at McClellan Air Force Base in Sacramento, California. The SNRS is a custom designed neutron radiography system which will utilize a 1000 KW TRIGA reactor as the neutron source. The partially below-ground reactor will be equipped with four inclined beam tubes originating near the top of the reactor graphite reflector and installed tangential to the reactor core to provide a strong current of thermal neutrons with minimum gamma ray contamination. The inclined beam tubes will terminate in four large bays and will interface with rugged component positioning systems designed to handle intact aircraft wings, other honeycomb aircraft structures, and pyrotechnics. The SNRS will be equipped with real-time, near real-time, and film radiographic imaging systems to provide a broad spectrum of capability for detection of entrained moisture or corrosion in large aircraft panels. GA is prime contractor to the Air Force for the SNRS and is specifically responsible for the TRIGA reactor system and a portion of the neutron beam system design. Science Applications International Corporation and the Lionakis-Beaumont Design Group are principal subcontractors to GA on the project. (author)

  20. Evaluation of moderator assemblies for use in an accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollard, J.E.; Blue, T.E.; Gupta, N.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The neutron fields produced by several moderator assemblies were evaluated using both in-phantom and in-air neutron field assessment parameters. The parameters were used to determine the best moderator assembly, from among those evaluated, for use in the accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy. For a 10-mA proton beam current and the specified treatment parameters, a moderator assembly consisting of a BeO moderator and a Li 2 CO 3 reflector was found to be the best moderator assembly whether the comparison was based on in-phantom or in-air neutron field assessment parameters. However, the parameters were discordant regarding the moderator thickness. The in-phantom neutron field assessment parameters predict 20 cm of BeO as the best moderator thickness, whereas the in-air neutron field assessment parameters predict 25 cm of BeO as the best moderator thickness

  1. Experimental characterization of semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Bortot, D.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Lorenzoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN—Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sacco, D. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); INAIL—DIT, Via di Fontana Candida 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Buonomo, B. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Palomba, M.; Grossi, A. [ENEA Triga RC-1C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S. Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2015-04-21

    In the framework of NESCOFI@BTF and NEURAPID projects, active thermal neutron detectors were manufactured by depositing appropriate thickness of {sup 6}LiF on commercially available windowless p–i–n diodes. Detectors with different radiator thickness, ranging from 5 to 62 μm, were manufactured by evaporation-based deposition technique and exposed to known values of thermal neutron fluence in two thermal neutron facilities exhibiting different irradiation geometries. The following properties of the detector response were investigated and presented in this work: thickness dependence, impact of parasitic effects (photons and epithermal neutrons), linearity, isotropy, and radiation damage following exposure to large fluence (in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2})

  2. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  3. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Hu; Xu, Xuezhu; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly

  4. Electrochemical sensors based on polyconjugated conducting polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotti, G. (Ist. di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy))

    1992-09-01

    An overview of the applications of polyconjugated conducting polymers to electrochemical sensors is given. Gas sensors, ion sensors, and biosensors (non-enzyme and enzyme sensors) are presented and discussed. The role of the polymer as enzyme host and mediator of charge transfer is particularly emphasized in the light of recent results. (orig.).

  5. Body-Sensor-Network-Based Spasticity Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, Berno J E; Luken, Markus; Heitzmann, Daniel; Wolf, Sebastian I; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Spasticity is a common disorder of the skeletal muscle with a high incidence in industrialised countries. A quantitative measure of spasticity using body-worn sensors is important in order to assess rehabilitative motor training and to adjust the rehabilitative therapy accordingly. We present a new approach to spasticity detection using the Integrated Posture and Activity Network by Medit Aachen body sensor network (BSN). For this, a new electromyography (EMG) sensor node was developed and employed in human locomotion. Following an analysis of the clinical gait data of patients with unilateral cerebral palsy, a novel algorithm was developed based on the idea to detect coactivation of antagonistic muscle groups as observed in the exaggerated stretch reflex with associated joint rigidity. The algorithm applies a cross-correlation function to the EMG signals of two antagonistically working muscles and subsequent weighting using a Blackman window. The result is a coactivation index which is also weighted by the signal equivalent energy to exclude positive detection of inactive muscles. Our experimental study indicates good performance in the detection of coactive muscles associated with spasticity from clinical data as well as measurements from a BSN in qualitative comparison with the Modified Ashworth Scale as classified by clinical experts. Possible applications of the new algorithm include (but are not limited to) use in robotic sensorimotor therapy to reduce the effect of spasticity.

  6. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pacholski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.

  7. Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholski, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential. PMID:23571671

  8. Neutronics assessment of thorium-based fuel assembly in SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shichang; Cai, Jiejin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel thorium-based fuel assembly for SCWR has been introduced and investigated. • Neutronic properties of three thorium fuels have been studied, compared with UO 2 fuel. • The thorium-based fuel has advantages on fuel utilization and lower MAs generation. -- Abstract: Aiming to take advantage of neutron spectrum of SCWR, a novel thorium-based fuel assembly for SCWR is introduced in this paper. The neutronic characteristics of the introduced fuel assembly with three different thorium fuel types have been investigated using the “dragon” codes. The parameters in different working conditions, such as infinite multiplication factors, radial power peaking factor, temperature coefficient of reactivity and their relation with the operation period have been assessed by comparing with conventional uranium assembly. Moreover, the moderator-to-fuel ratio (MFR) was changed in order to investigate its influence on the neutronic characteristics of fuel assembly. Results show that the thorium-based fuel has advantages on both efficient fuel utilization and lower minor actinide generation, with some similar neutronic properties to the uranium fuel

  9. Liquid Li based neutron source for BNCT and science application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiike, H.; Murata, I.; Iida, T.; Yoshihashi, S.; Hoashi, E.; Kato, I.; Hashimoto, N.; Kuri, S.; Oshiro, S.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid lithium (Li) is a candidate material for a target of intense neutron source, heat transfer medium in space engines and charges stripper. For a medical application of BNCT, epithermal neutrons with least energetic neutrons and γ-ray are required so as to avoid unnecessary doses to a patient. This is enabled by lithium target irradiated by protons at 2.5 MeV range, with utilizing the threshold reaction of "7Li(p,n)"7Be at 1.88 MeV. In the system, protons at 2.5 MeV penetrate into Li layer by 0.25 mm with dissipating heat load near the surface. To handle it, thin film flow of high velocity is important for stable operation. For the proton accelerator, electrostatic type of the Schnkel or the tandem is planned to be employed. Neutrons generated at 0.6 MeV are gently moderated to epithermal energy while suppressing accompanying γ-ray minimum by the dedicated moderator assembly. - Highlights: • Liquid lithium (Li) is a candidate material for a target of intense neutron source. • An accelerator based neutron source with p-liquid Li target for boron neutron capture therapy is under development in Osaka University, Japan. • In our system, the harmful radiation dose due to rays and fast neutrons will be suppressed very low. • The system performance are very promising as a state of art cancer treatment system. • The project is planned as a joint undertaking between industries and Osaka University.

  10. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  11. Unfolding code for neutron spectrometry based on neural nets technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R.

    2012-10-01

    The most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. The drawbacks associated with traditional unfolding procedures have motivated the need of complementary approaches. Novel methods based on Artificial Neural Networks have been widely investigated. In this work, a neutron spectrum unfolding code based on neural nets technology is presented. This unfolding code called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry by means of Artificial Neural Networks was designed in a graphical interface under LabVIEW programming environment. The core of the code is an embedded neural network architecture, previously optimized by the R obust Design of Artificial Neural Networks Methodology . The main features of the code are: is easy to use, friendly and intuitive to the user. This code was designed for a Bonner Sphere System based on a 6 Lil(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. The main feature of the code is that as entrance data, only seven rate counts measurement with a Bonner spheres spectrometer are required for simultaneously unfold the 60 energy bins of the neutron spectrum and to calculate 15 dosimetric quantities, for radiation protection porpoises. This code generates a full report in html format with all relevant information. (Author)

  12. Unfolding code for neutron spectrometry based on neural nets technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz R, J. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: morvymm@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The most delicate part of neutron spectrometry, is the unfolding process. The derivation of the spectral information is not simple because the unknown is not given directly as a result of the measurements. The drawbacks associated with traditional unfolding procedures have motivated the need of complementary approaches. Novel methods based on Artificial Neural Networks have been widely investigated. In this work, a neutron spectrum unfolding code based on neural nets technology is presented. This unfolding code called Neutron Spectrometry and Dosimetry by means of Artificial Neural Networks was designed in a graphical interface under LabVIEW programming environment. The core of the code is an embedded neural network architecture, previously optimized by the {sup R}obust Design of Artificial Neural Networks Methodology{sup .} The main features of the code are: is easy to use, friendly and intuitive to the user. This code was designed for a Bonner Sphere System based on a {sup 6}Lil(Eu) neutron detector and a response matrix expressed in 60 energy bins taken from an International Atomic Energy Agency compilation. The main feature of the code is that as entrance data, only seven rate counts measurement with a Bonner spheres spectrometer are required for simultaneously unfold the 60 energy bins of the neutron spectrum and to calculate 15 dosimetric quantities, for radiation protection porpoises. This code generates a full report in html format with all relevant information. (Author)

  13. Hydrogel-based sensor for CO2 measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, S.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogel-based sensor is presented for CO2 measurements. The sensor consists of a pressure sensor and porous silicon cover. A pH-sensitive hydrogel is confined between the two parts. Furthermore the porous cover contains a bicarbonate solution and a gaspermeable membrane. CO2 reacts with the

  14. Optimum filter-based discrimination of neutrons and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Moslem; Prenosil, Vaclav; Cvachovec, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    An optimum filter-based method for discrimination of neutrons and gamma-rays in a mixed radiation field is presented. The existing filter-based implementations of discriminators require sample pulse responses in advance of the experiment run to build the filter coefficients, which makes them less practical. Our novel technique creates the coefficients during the experiment and improves their quality gradually. Applied to several sets of mixed neutron and photon signals obtained through different digitizers using stilbene scintillator, this approach is analyzed and its discrimination quality is measured. (authors)

  15. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  16. Low Power and High Sensitivity MOSFET-Based Pressure Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhao-Hua; Ren Tian-Ling; Zhang Yan-Hong; Han Rui-Rui; Liu Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Based on the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) stress sensitive phenomenon, a low power MOSFET pressure sensor is proposed. Compared with the traditional piezoresistive pressure sensor, the present pressure sensor displays high performances on sensitivity and power consumption. The sensitivity of the MOSFET sensor is raised by 87%, meanwhile the power consumption is decreased by 20%. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elkington

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors.

  18. Micro-scale characterization of a CMOS-based neutron detector for in-phantom measurements in radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbor, Nicolas; Higueret, Stephane; Husson, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The CMOS sensor AlphaRad has been designed at the IPHC Strasbourg for real-time monitoring of fast and thermal neutrons over a full energy spectrum. Completely integrated, highly transparent to photons and optimized for low power consumption, this sensor offers very interesting characteristics for the study of internal neutrons in radiation therapy with anthropomorphic phantoms. However, specific effects related to the CMOS metal substructure and to the charge collection process of low energy particles must be carefully estimated before being used for medical applications. We present a detailed characterization of the AlphaRad chip in the MeV energy range using proton and alpha micro-beam experiments performed at the AIFIRA facility (CENBG, Bordeaux). Two-dimensional maps of the charge collection were carried out on a micro-metric scale to be integrated into a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of the system. The gamma rejection, as well as the fast and thermal neutrons separation, were studied using both simulation and experimental data. The results highlight the potential of a future system based on CMOS sensor for in-phantom neutron detection in radiation therapies.

  19. Monitoring Landscape Scale Soil Water Content with Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors: Validation and Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahbi, Ammar; Avery, William A.; Dercon, Gerd; Heng, Lee; Weltin, Georg; Franz, Trenton E.; Strauss, Peter; Oismueller, Markus; Desilets, Darin

    2017-01-01

    Increasing populations growth combined with climate change are putting pressure on water resources and agricultural systems around the world. The need for effective water management strategies designed to maximize water use efficiency has made access to soil water content (SWC) information crucial to the global community. This work builds upon ongoing research that began in December 2013 in which a stationary Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor (CRNS) was used to monitor SWC within an agricultural system located in north central Austria. Past work at this study site at Petzenkirchen, Austria (100 km west of Vienna) has focused on the calibration and validation of the CRNS technology, and has shown the CRNS to reliably estimate SWC on a large scale (circle with radius of cca. 250 m) when compared to other methods of estimating SWC. This was determined via comparisons of insitu soil sampling, time domain reflectometry (TDR), and time domain transmissivity (TDT) of SWC with estimates of SWC determined from the CRNS. However, questions remain regarding the effective use of the CRNS technology.

  20. Second-Generation Thermal Neutron Activation Sensor for Confirmatory Land-Mine Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward Clifford; Harry Ing; John McFee; H. Robert Andrews; Tom Cousins

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Improved Land-Mine Detector System (ILDS), a vehicle-mounted nonmetallic land-mine detector. The ILDS consists of a custom teleoperated vehicle carrying an infrared imager, an electromagnetic induction detector, and a ground probing radar-which scan the ground in front of the vehicle. Custom navigation and data fusion software combine information from scanning sensors and navigation systems to detect and automatically track suspect targets until the confirmation detector at the rear of the system is positioned to within 30 cm of the target location. The confirmation detector, using thermal neutron activation (TNA) to detect bulk nitrogen in explosives, then dwells over the target for 10 to 120 s. In U.S. government tests (summer 1998), the ILDS advanced development model (ADM) placed first or second out of five competitors on every test. The construction of the second-generation TNA detector and preliminary testing should be complete by March 2000. Testing on real mines is expected to start in summer 2000

  1. Automatic readout system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.P.; Parihar, A.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Mohan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurement using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic during the nucleation. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit, piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PlC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I 2 C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following microcontroller peripheral units viz temperature monitoring, battery monitoring, LCD display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to 241 Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported. (author)

  2. All-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Lwin, Richard; Leon-Saval, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We present a feasibility study and a prototype of an all-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor. The sensor is based on long period gratings inscribed for the first time to the best of our knowledge by a CO2 laser in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microstructured fibers and coupled to a pod......-like transducer that converts pressure to strain. The sensor prototype was characterized for pressures up to 150 mbars, and various parameters related to its construction were also characterized in order to enhance sensitivity. We consider this sensor in the context of future applications in endoscopic pressure...... sensors....

  3. Test of sup 3 He-based neutron polarizers at NIST

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G L; Thompson, A K; Chowdhuri, Z; Dewey, M S; Snow, W M; Wietfeldt, F E

    2000-01-01

    Neutron spin filters based on polarized sup 3 He are useful over a wide neutron energy range and have a large angular acceptance among other advantages. Two optical pumping methods, spin-exchange and metastability-exchange, can produce the volume of highly polarized sup 3 He gas required for such neutron spin filters. We report a test of polarizers based on each of these two methods on a new cold, monochromatic neutron beam line at the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

  4. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Nanoparticle-Embedded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs in scientific applications has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last few years. The use of NPs can help researchers to tune the physical characteristics of the sensing coating (thickness, roughness, specific area, refractive index, etc. leading to enhanced sensors with response time or sensitivity better than traditional sensing coatings. Additionally, NPs also offer other special properties that depend on their nanometric size, and this is also a source of new sensing applications. This review focuses on the current status of research in the use of NPs within coatings in optical fiber sensing. Most used sensing principles in fiber optics are briefly described and classified into several groups: absorbance-based sensors, interferometric sensors, fluorescence-based sensors, fiber grating sensors, and resonance-based sensors, among others. For each sensor group, specific examples of the utilization of NP-embedded coatings in their sensing structure are reported.

  5. Neutron imaging system based on a video camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.

    2004-01-01

    The non-destructive testing with cold, thermal, epithermal or fast neutrons is nowadays more and more useful because the world-wide level of industrial development requires considerably higher standards of quality of manufactured products and reliability of technological processes especially where any deviation from standards could result in large-scale catastrophic consequences or human loses. Thanks to their properties, easily obtained and very good discrimination of the materials that penetrate, the thermal neutrons are the most used probe. The methods involved for this technique have advanced from neutron radiography based on converter screens and radiological films to neutron radioscopy based on video cameras, that is, from static images to dynamic images. Many neutron radioscopy systems have been used in the past with various levels of success. The quality of an image depends on the quality of the neutron beam and the type of the neutron imaging system. For real time investigations there are involved tube type cameras, CCD cameras and recently CID cameras that capture the image from an appropriate scintillator through the agency of a mirror. The analog signal of the camera is then converted into digital signal by the signal processing technology included into the camera. The image acquisition card or frame grabber from a PC converts the digital signal into an image. The image is formatted and processed by image analysis software. The scanning position of the object is controlled by the computer that commands the electrical motors that move horizontally, vertically and rotate the table of the object. Based on this system, a lot of static image acquisitions, real time non-destructive investigations of dynamic processes and finally, tomographic investigations of the small objects are done in a short time. A system based on a CID camera is presented. Fundamental differences between CCD and CID cameras lie in their pixel readout structure and technique. CIDs

  6. Chemical sensors based on surface charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasebi, Amirmasoud; Kruse, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The focus of this review is an introduction to chemiresistive chemical sensors. The general concept of chemical sensors is briefly introduced, followed by different architectures of chemiresistive sensors and relevant materials. For several of the most common systems, the fabrication of the active materials used in such sensors and their properties are discussed. Furthermore, the sensing mechanism, advantages, and limitations of each group of chemiresistive sensors are briefly elaborated. Compared to electrochemical sensors, chemiresistive sensors have the key advantage of a simpler geometry, eliminating the need for a reference electrode. The performance of bulk chemiresistors can be improved upon by using freestanding ultra-thin films (nanomaterials) or field effect geometries. Both of those concepts have also been combined in a gateless geometry, where charge transport though a percolation network of nanomaterials is modulated via adsorbate doping.

  7. Development of lithium target for accelerator based neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taskaev, Sergey; Bayanov, Boris; Belov, Victor; Zhoorov, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Pilot innovative accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy of cancer is now of the threshold of its operation at the BINP, Russia. One of the main elements of the facility is lithium target producing neutrons via threshold 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction at 25 kW proton beam with energies 1.915 MeV or 2.5 MeV. The main problems of lithium target were determined to be: 7 Be radioactive isotope activation keeping lithium layer solid, presence of photons due to proton inelastic scattering on lithium nuclei, and radiation blistering. The results of thermal test of target prototype were presented as previous NCT Congress. It becomes clear that water is preferable for cooling the target, and that lithium target 10 cm in diameter is able to run before melting. In the present report, the conception of optimal target is proposed: thin metal disk 10 cm in diameter easy for detaching, with evaporated thin layer of pure lithium from the side of proton beam exposure, its back being intensively cooled with turbulent water flow to maintain lithium layer solid. Design of the target for the neutron source constructed at BINP is shown. The results of investigation of radiation blistering and lithium layer are presented. Target unit of facility is under construction now, and obtaining neutrons is expected in nearest future. (author)

  8. Experimental investigation of thermal neutron analysis based landmine detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jun; Chu Chengsheng; Ding Ge; Xiang Qingpei; Hao Fanhua; Luo Xiaobing

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, the prompt gamma-rays neutron activation analysis method is wildly used in coal analysis and explosive detection, however there were less application about landmine detection using neutron method especially in the domestic research. Purpose: In order to verify the feasibility of Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) method used in landmine detection, and explore the characteristic of this technology. Methods: An experimental system of TNA landmine detection was built based on LaBr 3 (Ce) fast scintillator detector and 252 Cf isotope neutron source. The system is comprised of the thermal neutron transition system, the shield system, and the detector system. Results: On the basis of the TNA, the wide energy area calibration method especially to the high energy area was investigated, and the least detection time for a typical mine was defined. In this study, the 72-type anti-tank mine, the 500 g TNT sample and several interferential objects are tested in loess, red soil, magnetic soil and sand respectively. Conclusions: The experimental results indicate that TNA is a reliable demining method, and it can be used to confirm the existence of Anti-Tank Mines (ATM) and large Anti-Personnel Mines (APM) in complicated condition. (authors)

  9. Neutron shielding material based on colemanite and epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, K.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a need for compact shielding design such as self-shielding of a PET cyclotron or up-gradation of radiation machinery in existing facilities. In these cases, high performance shielding materials are needed. Concrete or polyethylene have been used for a neutron shield. However, for compact shielding, they fall short in terms of performance or durability. Therefore, a new type of neutron shielding material based on epoxy resin and colemanite has been developed. Slab attenuation experiments up to 40 cm for the new shielding material were carried out using a 252 Cf neutron source. Measurement was carried out using a REM-counter, and compared with calculation. The results show that the shielding performance is better than concrete and polyethylene mixed with 10 wt% boron oxide. From the result, we confirmed that the performance of the new material is suitable for practical use. (authors)

  10. Accelerator-based cold neutron sources and their cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuhiko; Yanai, Masayoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshikazu.

    1985-01-01

    We have developed and installed two accelerator-based cold neutron sources within a electron linac at Hokkaido University and a proton synchrotoron at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Solid methane at 20K was adopted as the cold moderator. The methane condensing heat exchangers attached directly to the moderator chambers were cooled by helium gas, which was kept cooled in refrigerators and circulated by ventilation fans. Two cold neutron sources have operated smoothly and safely for the past several years. In this paper we describe some of the results obtained in the preliminary experiments by using a modest capacity refrigerator, the design philosophy of the cooling system for the pulsed cold neutron sources, and outline of two facilities. (author)

  11. Logic based feature detection on incore neutron spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Kiss, S.; Bende-Farkas, S. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics)

    1993-04-01

    A general framework for detecting features of incore neutron spectra with a rule-based methodology is presented. As an example, we determine the meaningful peaks in the APSD-s. This work is part of a larger project, aimed at developing a noise diagnostic expert system. (Author).

  12. Basic concepts underlying fast-neutron-based contraband interrogation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.L.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    All accelerator-based fast-neutron contraband interrogation systems have many closely interrelated subsystems, whose performance parameters will be critically interdependent. For optimal overall performance, a systems analysis design approach is required. This paper provides a general overview of the interrelationships and the tradeoffs to be considered for optimization of nonaccelerator subsystems

  13. A new, 13C-based material for neutron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanenko, A.I.; Anikeeva, O.B.; Gorbachev, R.V.; Zhmurikov, E.I.; Gubin, K.V.; Logachev, P.V.; Avilov, M.S.; Tsybulya, S.V.; Kryukova, G.N.; Burgina, E.B.; Tecchio, L.

    2005-01-01

    A 13 C-based neutron-target material is investigated using X-ray diffraction, IR absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical (conductivity, magnetoresistance, and Hall effect) measurements before and after high-power electron irradiation for various lengths of time [ru

  14. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  15. Pilot Operation of Ex-core Neutron Sensors of Divers Shutdown System (DSS) Unit 2 Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakshtonis, Z.; Krivoshei, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Ignalina Safety Assessment, which was completed in December 1996, recommended the installation of a diverse shutdown system on the 2nd unit at Ignalina. During the PPR-2004 in the DSS project are created two independent shutdown systems by separating the absorber rods into two independent groups as follows: 1. One system (designated AZ) consists of the existing 24 BAZ rods and 49 AZ/BSM rods that together are used for reliable reactor shutdown (including Control and Protection System (CPS) circuit voiding accident). This system performs the emergency protection function. 2. The other system (designated BSM) comprises the remaining absorber rods and the 49 AZ/BSM rods. Thus 49 AZ/BSM rods are actuated from AZ initiating equipment as well as from BSM initiating equipment. The BSM system performs the normal reactor shutdown function and is able to ensure long-term maintenance of the reactor in the sub-critical state. Along with implementation of DSS was modernized existing Emergency Process Protection System, which was divided into two independent Sets of initiating equipment. The DSS is independent and diverse initiating equipment from the existing 1st Set equipment; with each set having its own independent in-core and ex-core sensors for measurement of neutron flux and process parameters. The 2nd Set of initiating equipment for measuring ex-core neutron flux, was modernized with new design of 4 Ex-Core detectors each have a single low level neutron flux detector and two high range neutron detectors. They are comprising: 1. A fission chamber which operates in pulse mode to cover the low flux levels. 2. A compensated ionisation chamber in current mode to operate at high flux level. This detector is doubled to give a measurement of the axial deviation. Two detectors are enough to produce the axial power deviation. The results of testing and analysis of pilot operation of ex-core neutron sensors of DSS will be shown on the Report. (author)

  16. Vehicle Fault Diagnose Based on Smart Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhining, Li; Peng, Wang; Jianmin, Mei; Jianwei, Li; Fei, Teng

    In the vehicle's traditional fault diagnose system, we usually use a computer system with a A/D card and with many sensors connected to it. The disadvantage of this system is that these sensor can hardly be shared with control system and other systems, there are too many connect lines and the electro magnetic compatibility(EMC) will be affected. In this paper, smart speed sensor, smart acoustic press sensor, smart oil press sensor, smart acceleration sensor and smart order tracking sensor were designed to solve this problem. With the CAN BUS these smart sensors, fault diagnose computer and other computer could be connected together to establish a network system which can monitor and control the vehicle's diesel and other system without any duplicate sensor. The hard and soft ware of the smart sensor system was introduced, the oil press, vibration and acoustic signal are resampled by constant angle increment to eliminate the influence of the rotate speed. After the resample, the signal in every working cycle could be averaged in angle domain and do other analysis like order spectrum.

  17. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Chemical Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Arunpama B.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional thermal conductivity gauges (e.g. Pirani gauges) lend themselves to applications such as leak detectors, or in gas chromatographs for identifying various gas species. However, these conventional gauges are physically large, operate at high power, and have a slow response time. A single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWNT)-based chemical sensing gauge relies on differences in thermal conductance of the respective gases surrounding the CNT as it is voltage-biased, as a means for chemical identification. Such a sensor provides benefits of significantly reduced size and compactness, fast response time, low-power operation, and inexpensive manufacturing since it can be batch-fabricated using Si integrated-circuit (IC) process technology.

  18. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Almeida, A.T. [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dep. Eng. Electrotecnica; Fisk, W.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  19. Neural network-based sensor signal accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, M. C.

    2000-10-16

    A strategy has been developed to computationally accelerate the response time of a generic electronic sensor. The strategy can be deployed as an algorithm in a control system or as a physical interface (on an embedded microcontroller) between a slower responding external sensor and a higher-speed control system. Optional code implementations are available to adjust algorithm performance when computational capability is limited. In one option, the actual sensor signal can be sampled at the slower rate with adaptive linear neural networks predicting the sensor's future output and interpolating intermediate synthetic output values. In another option, a synchronized collection of predictors sequentially controls the corresponding synthetic output voltage. Error is adaptively corrected in both options. The core strategy has been demonstrated with automotive oxygen sensor data. A prototype interface device is under construction. The response speed increase afforded by this strategy could greatly offset the cost of developing a replacement sensor with a faster physical response time.

  20. Experimental Investigation on Admittance-Based Piezoelectric Sensor Diagnostic Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyejin; Park, Tongil; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques based on the use of active-sensing piezoelectric (PZT) materials have received considerable attention. The validation of the PZT functionality during SHM operation is critical to successfully implementing a reliable SHM system. In this study, we investigated several parameters that affect the admittance-based sensor diagnostic process. We experimentally identified the temperature dependency of the active-sensor diagnostic process. We found that the admittance-based sensor diagnostic process can differentiate the adhesion conditions of bonding materials that are used to install a PZT on a structure, which is important when designing a sensor diagnostic process for an SHM system.

  1. Development of GaN-based micro chemical sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Prokopuk, Nicholas; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based on III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  2. Optimize Etching Based Single Mode Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Dr. Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a description of etching process for fabrication single mode optical fiber sensors. The process of fabrication demonstrates an optimized etching based method to fabricate single mode fiber (SMF) optic sensors in specified constant time and temperature. We propose a single mode optical fiber based temperature sensor, where the temperature sensing region is obtained by etching its cladding diameter over small length to a critical value. It is observed that th...

  3. Development of GaN-based microchemical sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopuk, Nicholas; Son, Kyung-Ah; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  4. THE GAS SENSORS BASED ON ZINC OXIDE (THE REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Bugayova, M. E.; Koval, V. M.; Lashkarev, G. V.; Lazorenko, V. I.; Karpina, V. A.; Khranovskyy, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    The wide range of gas sensor application, in particular, in a mining industry for detection of outflow of gases, the control of gas emissions over an atmosphere at the industrial enterprises, in housing and communal services, in home appliances makes actual the review. As the systematized analysis of gas sensor based on ZnO has not being carried out — this work is of interest for development of chemical sensors based on zinc compound with high sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The resis...

  5. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  6. Chemical Sensors Based on Optical Ring Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Margie; Manfreda, Allison; Mansour, Kamjou; Lin, Ying; Ksendzov, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong evanescent-wave coupling between the outer polymer layer and the electromagnetic field propagating along the waveguide core. By virtue of this coupling, the chemically induced change in index of refraction of the polymer causes a measurable shift in the resonance peaks of the ring. In a prototype that has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this sensor concept, the ring resonator is a dielectric optical waveguide laid out along a closed path resembling a racetrack (see Figure 1). The prototype was fabricated on a silicon substrate by use of standard techniques of thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, photolithography, etching, and spin coating. The prototype resonator waveguide features an inner cladding of SiO2, a core of SixNy, and a chemical-sensing outer cladding of ethyl cellulose. In addition to the ring Chemical sensors based on optical ring resonators are undergoing development. A ring resonator according to this concept is a closed-circuit dielectric optical waveguide. The outermost layer of this waveguide, analogous to the optical cladding layer on an optical fiber, is a made of a polymer that (1) has an index of refraction lower than that of the waveguide core and (2) absorbs chemicals from the surrounding air. The index of refraction of the polymer changes with the concentration of absorbed chemical( s). The resonator is designed to operate with relatively strong

  7. Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festa, G; Andreani, C; Pietropaolo, A; Grazzi, F; Scherillo, A; Barzagli, E; Sutton, L F; Bognetti, L; Bini, A; Schooneveld, E

    2013-01-01

    A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics. (paper)

  8. Eddy current probe development based on a magnetic sensor array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacher, F.

    2007-06-01

    This research deals with in the study of the use of innovating magnetic sensors in eddy current non destructive inspection. The author reports an analysis survey of magnetic sensor performances. This survey enables the selection of magnetic sensor technologies used in non destructive inspection. He presents the state-of-the-art of eddy current probes exploiting the qualities of innovating magnetic sensors, and describes the methods enabling the use of these magnetic sensors in non destructive testing. Two main applications of innovating magnetic sensors are identified: the detection of very small defects by means of magneto-resistive sensors, and the detection of deep defects by means of giant magneto-impedances. Based on the use of modelling, optimization, signal processing tools, probes are manufactured for these both applications

  9. Pressure sensor based on distributed temperature sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2002-01-01

    A differential pressure sensor has been realized with thermal readout. The thermal readout allows simultaneous measurement of the membrane deflection due to a pressure difference and measurement of the absolute pressure by operating the structure as a Pirani pressure sensor. The measuring of the

  10. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Rata, Debanshu; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for

  11. A MEMS SOI-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, B.; Li, H. F.; Yang, H.; Song, D. L.; Bai, X. W.; Zhao, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a SOI (silicon-on-insulator)-based piezoresistive fluid flow sensor is presented; the presented flow sensor mainly consists of a nylon sensing head, stainless steel cantilever beam, SOI sensor chip, printed circuit board, half-cylinder gasket, and stainless steel shell. The working principle of the sensor and some detailed contrastive analysis about the sensor structure were introduced since the nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam have distinct influence on the sensor performance; the structure of nylon sensing head and stainless steel cantilever beam is also discussed. The SOI sensor chip was fabricated using micro-electromechanical systems technologies, such as reactive ion etching and low pressure chemical vapor deposition. The designed fluid sensor was packaged and tested; a calibration installation system was purposely designed for the sensor experiment. The testing results indicated that the output voltage of the sensor is proportional to the square of the fluid flow velocity, which is coincident with the theoretical derivation. The tested sensitivity of the sensor is 3.91 × 10-4 V ms2/kg.

  12. Humidity detection using chitosan film based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, T. I.; Nainggolan, I.; Dalimunthe, D.; Balyan, M.; Cuana, R.; Khanifah, S.

    2018-02-01

    A humidity sensor made of the natural polymer chitosan has been successfully fabricated in the film form by a solution casting method. Humidity testing was performed by placing a chitosan film sensor in a cooling machine room, model KT-2000 Ahu. The testing results showed that the output voltage values of chitosan film sensor increased with the increase in humidity percentage. For the increase in humidity percentage from 30 to 90% showed that the output voltage of chitosan film sensor increased from 32.19 to 138.75 mV. It was also found that the sensor evidenced good repeatability and stability during the testing. Therefore, chitosan has a great potential to be used as new sensing material for the humidity detection of which was cheaper and environmentally friendly.

  13. Resource Discovery in Activity-Based Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucur, Doina; Bardram, Jakob

    This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networks...... (ABSNs) knowledge about their usage even at the network layer. ABSN redesigns classical network-level service discovery protocols to include and use this logical structuring of the network for a more practically applicable service discovery scheme. Noting that in practical settings activity-based sensor...

  14. Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Rochat, Michel; Beck, Mattias; Faist, Jerome

    2002-09-01

    There is an increasing need in many chemical sensing applications ranging from industrial process control to environmental science and medical diagnostics for fast, sensitive, and selective gas detection based on laser spectroscopy. The recent availability of novel pulsed and cw quantum cascade distributed feedback (QC-DFB) lasers as mid-infrared spectroscopic sources address this need. A number of spectroscopic techniques have been demonstrated. For example, the authors have employed QC-DFB lasers for the monitoring and quantification of several trace gases and isotopic species in ambient air at ppmv and ppbv levels by means of direct absorption, wavelength modulation, cavity enhanced and cavity ringdown spectroscopy. In this work, pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB lasers operating at ~15.6 μm were characterized for spectroscopic gas sensing applications. A new method for wavelength scanning based on the repetition rate modulation was developed. A non-wavelength-selective pyroelectric detector was incorporated in the gas sensor giving an advantage of room-temperature operation and low cost. Absorption lines of CO2 and H2O were observed in ambient air providing information about the concentration of these species.

  15. Sensitivity Enhancement of FBG-Based Strain Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiya; Chen, Yiyang; Tan, Yuegang; Zhou, Zude; Li, Tianliang; Mao, Jian

    2018-05-17

    A novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based strain sensor with a high-sensitivity is presented in this paper. The proposed FBG-based strain sensor enhances sensitivity by pasting the FBG on a substrate with a lever structure. This typical mechanical configuration mechanically amplifies the strain of the FBG to enhance overall sensitivity. As this mechanical configuration has a high stiffness, the proposed sensor can achieve a high resonant frequency and a wide dynamic working range. The sensing principle is presented, and the corresponding theoretical model is derived and validated. Experimental results demonstrate that the developed FBG-based strain sensor achieves an enhanced strain sensitivity of 6.2 pm/με, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis result. The strain sensitivity of the developed sensor is 5.2 times of the strain sensitivity of a bare fiber Bragg grating strain sensor. The dynamic characteristics of this sensor are investigated through the finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests. The developed sensor exhibits an excellent strain-sensitivity-enhancing property in a wide frequency range. The proposed high-sensitivity FBG-based strain sensor can be used for small-amplitude micro-strain measurement in harsh industrial environments.

  16. Using Neutron-based techniques to investigate battery behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, James C.; Goonetilleke, Damien; Sharma, Neeraj; Peterson, Vanessa K.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of portable electronic devices has given rise to increasing demand for reliable high energy density storage in the form of batteries. Today, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are the leading technology as they offer high energy density and relatively long lifetimes. Despite their widespread adoption, Li-ion batteries still suffer from significant degradation in their performance over time. The most obvious degradation in lithium-ion battery performance is capacity fade – where the capacity of the battery reduces after extended cycling. This talk will focus on how in situ time-resolved neutron powder diffraction (NPD) can be used to gain a better understanding of the structural changes which contribute to the observed capacity fade. The commercial batteries studied each feature different electrochemical and storage histories that are precisely known, allowing us to elucidate the tell-tale signs of battery degradation using NPD and relate these to battery history. Moreover, this talk will also showcase the diverse use of other neutron-based techniques such as neutron imaging to study electrolyte concentrations in lead-acid batteries, and the use of quasi-elastic neutron scattering to study Na-ion dynamics in sodium-ion batteries.

  17. Patient Posture Monitoring System Based on Flexible Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring patients using vision cameras can cause privacy intrusion problems. In this paper, we propose a patient position monitoring system based on a patient cloth with unobtrusive sensors. We use flexible sensors based on polyvinylidene fluoride, which is a flexible piezoelectric material. Theflexiblesensorsareinsertedintopartsclosetothekneeandhipoftheloosepatientcloth. We measure electrical signals from the sensors caused by the piezoelectric effect when the knee and hip in the cloth are bent. The measured sensor outputs are transferred to a computer via Bluetooth. We use a custom-made program to detect the position of the patient through a rule-based algorithm and the sensor outputs. The detectable postures are based on six human motions in and around a bed. The proposed system can detect the patient positions with a success rate over 88 percent for three patients.

  18. Heme-based sensors in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, K R

    1999-04-01

    The past several years have been witness to a staggering rate of advancement in the understanding of how organisms respond to changes in the availability of diatomic molecules that are toxic and/or crucial to survival. Heme-based sensors presently constitute the majority of the proteins known to sense NO, O2 and CO and to initiate the chemistry required to adapt to changes in their availabilities. Knowledge of the three characterized members of this class, soluble guanylate cyclase, FixL and CooA, has grown substantially during the past year. The major advances have resulted from a broad range of approaches to elucidation of both function and mechanism. They include growth in the understanding of the interplay between the heme and protein in soluble guanylate cyclase, as well as alternate means for its stimulation. Insight into the O2-induced structural changes in FixL has been supplied by the single crystal structure of the heme domain of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Finally, the ligation environment and ligand interchange that facilitates CO sensing by CooA has been established by spectroscopic and mutagenesis techniques.

  19. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateu, Batirtze Prats; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L; Kainz, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  20. Sensor-based assessment of herbicide effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streibig, Jens Carl; Rasmussen, Jesper; Andújar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Non-destructive assessment of herbicide effects may be able to support integrated weed management. To test whether effects of herbicides on canopy variables could be detected by sensors, two crops were used as models and treated with herbicides at BBCH 20 using a logarithmic sprayer. Twelve days...... after spraying at BBCH 25 and 42 days after sowing, nine sensor systems scanned a spring barley and an oilseed rape field experiment sown at different densities and sprayed with increasing field rates of glyphosate and tribenuron-methyl. The objective was to compare ED50s for crops and weeds derived...... by the different sensors in relation to crop density and herbicides. Although sensors were not directly developed to detect herbicide symptoms, they all detected changes in canopy colours or height and crop density. Generally ED50s showed the same pattern in response to crop density within herbicide...

  1. Graphene based strain sensor with LCP substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, M.; Yang, H. S.; Xia, Y. H.

    2018-02-01

    A flexible strain sensor constructed by an efficient, low-cost fabrication strategy is presented in this paper. It is assembled by adhering grid-like graphene on LCP substrate. Kinds of measurement setup have been designed to verify that the proposed flexible sensor device is suitable to be used in health monitoring system. From the experiment results, it can be proved that the sensor exhibits the following features: ultra-light, relatively good sensitivity, high reversibility, superior physical robustness, easy fabrication. With the great performance of this flexible strain sensor, it is considered to play an important role in body monitoring, structural health monitoring system, fatigue detection and healthcare systems in the near future.

  2. Biomimetic virus-based colourimetric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Woo; Chung, Woo-Jae; Heo, Kwang; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Lee, Byung Yang; Wang, Eddie; Zueger, Chris; Wong, Winnie; Meyer, Joel; Kim, Chuntae; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Won-Geun; Zemla, Marcin; Auer, Manfred; Hexemer, Alexander; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2014-01-01

    Many materials in nature change colours in response to stimuli, making them attractive for use as sensor platform. However, both natural materials and their synthetic analogues lack selectivity towards specific chemicals, and introducing such selectivity remains a challenge. Here we report the self-assembly of genetically engineered viruses (M13 phage) into target-specific, colourimetric biosensors. The sensors are composed of phage-bundle nanostructures and exhibit viewing-angle independent colour, similar to collagen structures in turkey skin. On exposure to various volatile organic chemicals, the structures rapidly swell and undergo distinct colour changes. Furthermore, sensors composed of phage displaying trinitrotoluene (TNT)-binding peptide motifs identified from a phage display selectively distinguish TNT down to 300 p.p.b. over similarly structured chemicals. Our tunable, colourimetric sensors can be useful for the detection of a variety of harmful toxicants and pathogens to protect human health and national security.

  3. Stargate-based Acoustic Sensor Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Hanbiao Wang; Kung Yao; Deborah Estrin

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate the study of the wireless sensor network for demanding acoustic monitoring of long distance sources, we recently have also started working on the development of a new generation of wireless acoustic sensor network platform using the Stargate nodes. The 400 MHz PXA-255 XScale processor and the 64 MB SDRAM provide the Stargate platform a decent processing capability. The VX Pocket 440 sound card with four external microphones are attached to each Stargate node through the PCMCIA s...

  4. Microfluidic sensors based on perforated cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole

    Arbejdet presenteret i denne PhD afhandling omhandler udviklingen af en mikrofluide sensor basered på bjælke teknologi. Bjælkerne er fremstillet i den negative photo-resist SU-8 og i SiN. I bjælkerne er der inkorporeret et array af huller. To nye sensorer er udviklet på baggrund af de perforerede...

  5. Robotic Hand Controlling Based on Flexible Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Süleyman; Üser, Yavuz; Mercan, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Today's technology has increased the interest in robotic systems andincrease the number of studies realized in this area.  There are many studies on robotic systems inseveral fields to facilitate human life in the literature. In this study, arobot hand is designed to repeat finger movements depending upon flexiblesensors mounted on any wearable glove. In the literature, various sensors thatdetect the finger movement are used. The sensor that detects the angle of thefingers has b...

  6. Thin film CdTe based neutron detectors with high thermal neutron efficiency and gamma rejection for security applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.; Murphy, J.W. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Kim, J. [Korean Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Rozhdestvenskyy, S.; Mejia, I. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Park, H. [Korean Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Allee, D.R. [Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85284 (United States); Quevedo-Lopez, M. [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Gnade, B., E-mail: beg031000@utdallas.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Solid-state neutron detectors offer an alternative to {sup 3}He based detectors, but suffer from limited neutron efficiencies that make their use in security applications impractical. Solid-state neutron detectors based on single crystal silicon also have relatively high gamma-ray efficiencies that lead to false positives. Thin film polycrystalline CdTe based detectors require less complex processing with significantly lower gamma-ray efficiencies. Advanced geometries can also be implemented to achieve high thermal neutron efficiencies competitive with silicon based technology. This study evaluates these strategies by simulation and experimentation and demonstrates an approach to achieve >10% intrinsic efficiency with <10{sup −6} gamma-ray efficiency.

  7. pH sensor based on boron nitride nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Bando, Y; Zhao, L; Zhi, C Y; Golberg, D

    2009-10-14

    A submicrometer-sized pH sensor based on biotin-fluorescein-functionalized multiwalled BN nanotubes with anchored Ag nanoparticles is designed. Intrinsic pH-dependent photoluminescence and Raman signals in attached fluorescein molecules enhanced by Ag nanoparticles allow this novel nanohybrid to perform as a practical pH sensor. It is able to work in a submicrometer-sized space. For example, the sensor may determine the environmental pH of sub-units in living cells where a traditional optical fiber sensor fails because of spatial limitations.

  8. pH sensor based on boron nitride nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Q; Bando, Y; Zhao, L; Zhi, C Y; Golberg, D

    2009-01-01

    A submicrometer-sized pH sensor based on biotin-fluorescein-functionalized multiwalled BN nanotubes with anchored Ag nanoparticles is designed. Intrinsic pH-dependent photoluminescence and Raman signals in attached fluorescein molecules enhanced by Ag nanoparticles allow this novel nanohybrid to perform as a practical pH sensor. It is able to work in a submicrometer-sized space. For example, the sensor may determine the environmental pH of sub-units in living cells where a traditional optical fiber sensor fails because of spatial limitations.

  9. Development of sensor system for indoor location based service implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Joo Heon; Lee, Kyung Ho [Kookmin Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    This paper introduces a sensor system based on indoor locations in order to implement the Building Energy Management System. This system consists of a thermopile sensor and an ultrasonic sensor. The sensor module is rotated by 360 .deg. and yawed up and down by two electric motors. Therefore, it can simultaneously detect the number and location of the inhabitants in the room. It uses wireless technology to communicate with the building manager or the smart home server, and it can save electric energy by controlling the lighting system or heating/air conditioning equipment automatically. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system by applying it to a real environment.

  10. Development of sensor system for indoor location based service implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Joo Heon; Lee, Kyung Ho

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a sensor system based on indoor locations in order to implement the Building Energy Management System. This system consists of a thermopile sensor and an ultrasonic sensor. The sensor module is rotated by 360 .deg. and yawed up and down by two electric motors. Therefore, it can simultaneously detect the number and location of the inhabitants in the room. It uses wireless technology to communicate with the building manager or the smart home server, and it can save electric energy by controlling the lighting system or heating/air conditioning equipment automatically. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system by applying it to a real environment

  11. Parallel Microcracks-based Ultrasensitive and Highly Stretchable Strain Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjadi, Morteza; Turan, Mehmet; Clementson, Cameron P; Sitti, Metin

    2016-03-02

    There is an increasing demand for flexible, skin-attachable, and wearable strain sensors due to their various potential applications. However, achieving strain sensors with both high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a grand challenge. Here, we propose highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensors based on the reversible microcrack formation in composite thin films. Controllable parallel microcracks are generated in graphite thin films coated on elastomer films. Sensors made of graphite thin films with short microcracks possess high gauge factors (maximum value of 522.6) and stretchability (ε ≥ 50%), whereas sensors with long microcracks show ultrahigh sensitivity (maximum value of 11,344) with limited stretchability (ε ≤ 50%). We demonstrate the high performance strain sensing of our sensors in both small and large strain sensing applications such as human physiological activity recognition, human body large motion capturing, vibration detection, pressure sensing, and soft robotics.

  12. Dynamic Sensor Management Algorithm Based on Improved Efficacy Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic sensor management algorithm based on improved efficacy function is proposed to solve the multi-target and multi-sensory management problem. The tracking task precision requirements (TPR, target priority and sensor use cost were considered to establish the efficacy function by weighted sum the normalized value of the three factors. The dynamic sensor management algorithm was accomplished through control the diversities of the desired covariance matrix (DCM and the filtering covariance matrix (FCM. The DCM was preassigned in terms of TPR and the FCM was obtained by the centralized sequential Kalman filtering algorithm. The simulation results prove that the proposed method could meet the requirements of desired tracking precision and adjust sensor selection according to target priority and cost of sensor source usage. This makes sensor management scheme more reasonable and effective.

  13. A Wildlife Monitoring System Based on Wireless Image Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junguo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Survival and development of wildlife sustains the balance and stability of the entire ecosystem. Wildlife monitoring can provide lots of information such as wildlife species, quantity, habits, quality of life and habitat conditions, to help researchers grasp the status and dynamics of wildlife resources, and to provide basis for the effective protection, sustainable use, and scientific management of wildlife resources. Wildlife monitoring is the foundation of wildlife protection and management. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN technology has become the most popular technology in the field of information. With advance of the CMOS image sensor technology, wireless sensor networks combined with image sensors, namely Wireless Image Sensor Networks (WISN technology, has emerged as an alternative in monitoring applications. Monitoring wildlife is one of its most promising applications. In this paper, system architecture of the wildlife monitoring system based on the wireless image sensor networks was presented to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional monitoring methods. Specifically, some key issues including design of wireless image sensor nodes and software process design have been studied and presented. A self-powered rotatable wireless infrared image sensor node based on ARM and an aggregation node designed for large amounts of data were developed. In addition, their corresponding software was designed. The proposed system is able to monitor wildlife accurately, automatically, and remotely in all-weather condition, which lays foundations for applications of wireless image sensor networks in wildlife monitoring.

  14. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been developed for the determination of Fe3+ at pH 5.0. The emission wavelength of the grape skin sensor occurs at 680 nm and the excitation wavelength at 421 nm. The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of ...

  15. Combine harvester monitor system based on wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    A measurement method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) was developed to monitor the working condition of combine harvester for remote application. Three JN5139 modules were chosen for sensor data acquisition and another two as a router and a coordinator, which could create a tree topology netwo...

  16. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    Sensor Network (WSN) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based...time to assess the source and predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless

  17. A capacitive rf power sensor based on mems technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Existing power sensors for RF signals are based on thermistors, diodes and thermocouples. These power sensors are used as terminating devices and therefore they dissipate the complete incoming signal. Furthermore, new telecommunication systems require low weight, volume and power consumption and a

  18. POF based glucose sensor incorporating grating wavelength filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Aasmul, Søren; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    AND RESEARCH IN POLYMER OPTICAL DEVICES; TRIPOD. Within the domain of TRIPOD, research is conducted on "Plastic Optical Fiber based Glucose Sensors Incorporating Grating Wavelength Filters". Research will be focused to optimized fiber tips for better coupling efficiency, reducing the response time of sensor...

  19. In plane optical sensor based on organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.M; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Sharpe, R.B.A.; Allard, B.A.M.; Wieringa, F.P.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Meulendijks, N.M.M.; Jansen, H.; Schoo, H.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sensors based on organic electronic devices are emerging in a wide range of application areas. Here we present a sensor platform using organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) as active components. By means of lamination and interconnection technology the functional foils

  20. Footprint Characteristics of Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors for Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Köhli, Markus; Zreda, Marek; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    Cosmic-ray neutron sensing is a unique and an increasingly accepted method to monitor the effective soil water content at the field scale. The technology is famous for its low maintenance, non-invasiveness, continuous measurement, and most importantly, for its large footprint. Being more representative than point data and finer resolved than remote-sensing products, cosmic-ray neutron derived soil moisture products provide unrivaled advantage for mesoscale hydrologic and land surface models. The method takes advantage of neutrons induced by cosmic radiation which are extraordinarily sensitive to hydrogen and behave like a hot gas. Information about nearby water sources are quickly mixed in a domain of tens of hectares in air. Since experimental determination of the actual spatial extent is hardly possible, scientists have applied numerical models to address the footprint characteristics. We have revisited previous neutron transport simulations and present a modified conceptual design and refined physical assumptions. Our revised study reveals new insights into probing distance and water sensitivity of detected neutrons under various environmental conditions. These results sharpen the range of interpretation concerning the spatial extent of integral soil moisture products derived from cosmic-ray neutron counts. Our findings will have important impact on calibration strategies, on scales for data assimilation and on the interpolation of soil moisture data derived from mobile cosmic-ray neutron surveys.

  1. Determination of the spatial response of neutron based analysers using a Monte Carlo based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tickner, James

    2000-01-01

    One of the principal advantages of using thermal neutron capture (TNC, also called prompt gamma neutron activation analysis or PGNAA) or neutron inelastic scattering (NIS) techniques for measuring elemental composition is the high penetrating power of both the incident neutrons and the resultant gamma-rays, which means that large sample volumes can be interrogated. Gauges based on these techniques are widely used in the mineral industry for on-line determination of the composition of bulk samples. However, attenuation of both neutrons and gamma-rays in the sample and geometric (source/detector distance) effects typically result in certain parts of the sample contributing more to the measured composition than others. In turn, this introduces errors in the determination of the composition of inhomogeneous samples. This paper discusses a combined Monte Carlo/analytical method for estimating the spatial response of a neutron gauge. Neutron propagation is handled using a Monte Carlo technique which allows an arbitrarily complex neutron source and gauge geometry to be specified. Gamma-ray production and detection is calculated analytically which leads to a dramatic increase in the efficiency of the method. As an example, the method is used to study ways of reducing the spatial sensitivity of on-belt composition measurements of cement raw meal

  2. A conceptual design of neutron tumor therapy reactor facility with a YAYOI based fast neutron source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; An, Shigehiro.

    1983-01-01

    Fast neutron is known as one of useful radiations for radiation therapy of tumors. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of tumors which makes use of 10 B(n, α) 7 Li reaction of 10 B compounds selectively attached to tumor cells with thermal and intermediate neutrons is another way of neutron based radiation therapy which is, above all, attractive enough to kill tumor cells selectively sparing normal tissue. In Japan, BNCT has already been applied and leaned to be effective. After more than a decade operational experiences and the specific experiments designed for therapeutical purposes, in this paper, a conceptual design of a special neutron therapy reactor facility based on YAYOI - fast neutron source reactor of Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo - modified to provide an upward beam of fast and intermediate neutrons is presented. Emphasis is placed on the in-house nature of facility and on the coordinating capability of biological and physical researches as well as maintenances of the facility. (author)

  3. Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Based MEMS Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Arora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic sensors exhibiting good sensitivity was fabricated using MEMS technology having piezoelectric zinc oxide as a dielectric between two plates of capacitor. Thin film zinc oxide has structural, piezoelectric and optical properties for surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW devices. Oxygen effficient films are transparent and insulating having wide applications for sensors and transducers. A rf sputtered piezoelectric ZnO layer transforms the mechanical deflection of a thin etched silicon diaphragm into a piezoelectric charge. For 25-micron thin diaphragm Si was etched in tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution using bulk micromachining. This was followed by deposition of sandwiched structure composed of bottom aluminum electrode, sputtered 3 micron ZnO film and top aluminum electrode. A glass having 1 mm diameter hole was bonded on backside of device to compensate sound pressure in side the cavity. The measured value of central capacitance and dissipation factor of the fabricated MEMS acoustic sensor was found to be 82.4pF and 0.115 respectively, where as the value of ~176 pF was obtained for the rim capacitance with a dissipation factor of 0.138. The response of the acoustic sensors was reproducible for the devices prepared under similar processing conditions under different batches. The acoustic sensor was found to be working from 30Hz to 8KHz with a sensitivity of 139µV/Pa under varying acoustic pressure.

  4. Multipoint sensor based on fiber Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Zepeda, O; Munoz-Aguirre, S; Beltran-Perez, G; Castillo-Mixcoatl, J

    2011-01-01

    In some control and industrial measurement systems of physical variables (pressure, temperature, flow, etc) it is necessary one system and one sensor to control each process. On the other hand, there are systems such as PLC (Programmable Logic Control), which can process several signals simultaneously. However it is still necessary to use one sensor for each variable. Therefore, in the present work the use of a multipoint sensor to solve such problem has been proposed. The sensor consists of an optical fiber laser with two Fabry-Perot cavities constructed using fiber Bragg gratings (FBG). In the same system is possible to measure changes in two variables by detecting the intermodal separation frequency of each cavity and evaluate their amplitudes. The intermodal separation frequency depends on each cavity length. The sensor signals are monitored through an oscilloscope or a PCI card and after that acquired by PC, where they are analyzed and displayed. Results of the evaluation of the intermodal frequency separation peak amplitude behavior with FBG stretching are presented.

  5. M13 Bacteriophage Based Protein Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hun

    Despite significant progress in biotechnology and biosensing, early detection and disease diagnosis remains a critical issue for improving patient survival rates and well-being. Many of the typical detection schemes currently used possess issues such as low sensitivity and accuracy and are also time consuming to run and expensive. In addition, multiplexed detection remains difficult to achieve. Therefore, developing advanced approaches for reliable, simple, quantitative analysis of multiple markers in solution that also are highly sensitive are still in demand. In recent years, much of the research has primarily focused on improving two key components of biosensors: the bio-recognition agent (bio-receptor) and the transducer. Particular bio-receptors that have been used include antibodies, aptamers, molecular imprinted polymers, and small affinity peptides. In terms of transducing agents, nanomaterials have been considered as attractive candidates due to their inherent nanoscale size, durability and unique chemical and physical properties. The key focus of this thesis is the design of a protein detection and identification system that is based on chemically engineered M13 bacteriophage coupled with nanomaterials. The first chapter provides an introduction of biosensors and M13 bacteriophage in general, where the advantages of each are provided. In chapter 2, an efficient and enzyme-free sensor is demonstrated from modified M13 bacteriophage to generate highly sensitive colorimetric signals from gold nanocrystals. In chapter 3, DNA conjugated M13 were used to enable facile and rapid detection of antigens in solution that also provides modalities for identification. Lastly, high DNA loadings per phage was achieved via hydrozone chemistry and these were applied in conjunction with Raman active DNA-gold/silver core/shell nanoparticles toward highly sensitive SERS sensing.

  6. Resource Discovery in Activity-Based Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucur, Doina; Bardram, Jakob

    This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networ....... ABSN enhances the generic Extended Zone Routing Protocol with logical sensor grouping and greatly lowers network overhead during the process of discovery, while keeping discovery latency close to optimal.......This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networks...... (ABSNs) knowledge about their usage even at the network layer. ABSN redesigns classical network-level service discovery protocols to include and use this logical structuring of the network for a more practically applicable service discovery scheme. Noting that in practical settings activity-based sensor...

  7. Fully wireless pressure sensor based on endoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Mori, Hirohito; Nakagawa, Tomoaki; Takao, Hidekuni

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the result of developing a fully wireless pressure sensor based on endoscopy images for an endoscopic surgery is reported for the first time. The sensor device has structural color with a nm-scale narrow gap, and the gap is changed by air pressure. The structural color of the sensor is acquired from camera images. Pressure detection can be realized with existing endoscope configurations only. The inner air pressure of the human body should be measured under flexible-endoscope operation using the sensor. Air pressure monitoring, has two important purposes. The first is to quantitatively measure tumor size under a constant air pressure for treatment selection. The second purpose is to prevent the endangerment of a patient due to over transmission of air. The developed sensor was evaluated, and the detection principle based on only endoscopy images has been successfully demonstrated.

  8. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  9. Towards Hydrological Applications of Stationary and Roving Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors in the Light of Spatial Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, M.; Köhli, M.; Rosolem, R.; Baroni, G.; Bogena, H. R.; Brenner, J.; Zink, M.; Rebmann, C.; Oswald, S. E.; Dietrich, P.; Samaniego, L. E.; Zacharias, S.

    2017-12-01

    Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensing (CRNS) has become a promising and unique method to monitor water content at an effective scale of tens of hectares in area and tens of centimeters in depth. The large footprint is particularly beneficial for hydrological models that operate at these scales.However, reliable estimates of average soil moisture require a detailed knowledge about the sensitivity of the signal to spatial inhomogeneity within the footprint. From this perspective, the large integrating volume challenges data interpretation, validation, and calibration of the sensor. Can we still generate reliable data for hydrological applications? One of the top challenges in the last years was to find out where the signal comes from, and how sensitive it is to spatial variabilities of moisture. Neutron physics simulations have shown that the neutron signal represents a non-linearly weighted average of soil water in the footprint. With the help of the so-called spatial sensitivity functions it is now possible to quantify the contribution of certain regions to the neutron signal. We present examples of how this knowledge can help (1) to understand the contribution of irrigated and sealed areas in the footprint, (2) to improve calibration and validation of the method, and (3) to even reveal excess water storages, e.g. from ponding or rain interception.The spatial sensitivity concept can also explain the influence of dry roads on the neutron signal. Mobile surveys with the CRNS rover have been a common practice to measure soil moisture patterns at the kilometer scale. However, dedicated experiments across agricultural fields in Germany and England have revealed that field soil moisture is significantly underestimated when moving the sensor on roads. We show that knowledge about the spatial sensitivity helps to correct survey data for these effects, depending on road material, width, and distance from the road. The recent methodological advances allow for improved signal

  10. Design and simulation of an optimized e-linac based neutron source for BNCT research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durisi, E.; Alikaniotis, K.; Borla, O.; Bragato, F.; Costa, M.; Giannini, G.; Monti, V.; Visca, L.; Vivaldo, G.; Zanini, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper is focused on the study of a novel photo-neutron source for BNCT preclinical research based on medical electron Linacs. Previous studies by the authors already demonstrated the possibility to obtain a mixed thermal and epithermal neutron flux of the order of 10"7 cm"−"2 s"−"1. This paper investigates possible Linac’s modifications and a new photo-converter design to rise the neutron flux above 5 10"7 cm"−"2 s"−"1, also reducing the gamma contamination. - Highlights: • Proposal of a mixed thermal and epithermal (named hyperthermal) neutron source based on medical high energy electron Linac. • Photo-neutron production via Giant Dipole Resonance on high Z materials. • MCNP4B-GN simulations to design the photo-converter geometry maximizing the hyperthermal neutron flux and minimizing the fast neutron and gamma contaminations. Hyperthermal neutron field suitable for BNCT preclinical research.

  11. Development of a Fresnel lens for cold neutrons based on neutron refractive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, T.; Morita, S.; Moriyasu, S.; Yamagata, Y.; Ohmori, H.; Takizawa, Y.; Shimizu, H.M.; Hirota, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Ino, T.; Furusaka, M.; Suzuki, J.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for cold neutrons, which are made of vitreous silica and have an effective potential of (90.1-2.7x10 -4 i) neV. In the case of compound refractive optics, neutron absorption by the material deteriorates lens performance. Thus, to prevent an increase in neutron absorption with increasing beam size, we have developed Fresnel lenses using the electrolytic in-process dressing grinding technique. The lens characteristics were carefully investigated with experimental and numerical simulation studies. The lenses functioned as a neutron focusing lens, and the focal length of 14 m was obtained with a 44-element series of the Fresnel lenses for 10 A neutrons. Moreover, good neutron transmission of 0.65 for 15 A neutrons was obtained due to the shape effect. According to comprehensive analysis of the obtained results, it is possible to realize a CRL for practical use by choosing a suitable lens shape and material

  12. A practical neutron shielding design based on data-base interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, S.H.; Sheu, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron shielding design is an important part of the construction of nuclear reactors and high-energy accelerators. Neutron shielding design is also indispensable in the packaging and storage of isotopic neutron sources. Most efforts in the development of neutron shielding design have been concentrated on nuclear reactor shielding because of its huge mass and strict requirement of accuracy. Sophisticated computational tools, such as transport and Monte Carlo codes and detailed data libraries have been developed. In principle, now, neutron shielding, in spite of its complexity, can be designed in any detail and with fine accuracy. However, in most practical cases, neutron shielding design is accomplished with simplified methods. Unlike practical gamma-ray shielding design, where exponential attenuation coupled with buildup factors has been applied effectively and accurately, simplified neutron shielding design, either by using removal cross sections or by applying charts or tables of transmission factors such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 38 (Ref. 1) for general neutron protection or to NCRP 51 (Ref. 2) for accelerator neutron shielding, is still very primitive and not well established. The available data are limited in energy range, materials, and thicknesses, and the estimated results are only roughly accurate. It is the purpose of this work to establish a simple, convenient, and user-friendly general-purpose computational tool for practical preliminary neutron shielding design that is reasonably accurate. A wide-range (energy, material, and thickness) data base of dose transmission factors has been generated by applying one-dimensional transport calculations in slab geometry

  13. INGDB-90. The International Neutron Nuclear Data Base for geophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.; McLaughline, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the contents of the International Neutron Nuclear Data Base for applications in nuclear geophysics, such as borehole logging and mineral analysis. It contains neutron cross-section data from 19 elements and their isotopes of primary importance in geophysics, plus a data file with neutron spectra of three frequently used neutron sources. The INGDB-90 file is available, cost free, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section on PC diskettes or on magnetic tape. (author). 9 refs

  14. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  15. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasri, Marwah; Elleithy, Khaled; Alajlan, Abrar

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes. PMID:26712766

  16. A general framework for sensor-based human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köping, Lukas; Shirahama, Kimiaki; Grzegorzek, Marcin

    2018-04-01

    Today's wearable devices like smartphones, smartwatches and intelligent glasses collect a large amount of data from their built-in sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes. These data can be used to identify a person's current activity and in turn can be utilised for applications in the field of personal fitness assistants or elderly care. However, developing such systems is subject to certain restrictions: (i) since more and more new sensors will be available in the future, activity recognition systems should be able to integrate these new sensors with a small amount of manual effort and (ii) such systems should avoid high acquisition costs for computational power. We propose a general framework that achieves an effective data integration based on the following two characteristics: Firstly, a smartphone is used to gather and temporally store data from different sensors and transfer these data to a central server. Thus, various sensors can be integrated into the system as long as they have programming interfaces to communicate with the smartphone. The second characteristic is a codebook-based feature learning approach that can encode data from each sensor into an effective feature vector only by tuning a few intuitive parameters. In the experiments, the framework is realised as a real-time activity recognition system that integrates eight sensors from a smartphone, smartwatch and smartglasses, and its effectiveness is validated from different perspectives such as accuracies, sensor combinations and sampling rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensor Fusion Based Model for Collision Free Mobile Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Almasri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous mobile robots have become a very popular and interesting topic in the last decade. Each of them are equipped with various types of sensors such as GPS, camera, infrared and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors are used to observe the surrounding environment. However, these sensors sometimes fail and have inaccurate readings. Therefore, the integration of sensor fusion will help to solve this dilemma and enhance the overall performance. This paper presents a collision free mobile robot navigation based on the fuzzy logic fusion model. Eight distance sensors and a range finder camera are used for the collision avoidance approach where three ground sensors are used for the line or path following approach. The fuzzy system is composed of nine inputs which are the eight distance sensors and the camera, two outputs which are the left and right velocities of the mobile robot’s wheels, and 24 fuzzy rules for the robot’s movement. Webots Pro simulator is used for modeling the environment and the robot. The proposed methodology, which includes the collision avoidance based on fuzzy logic fusion model and line following robot, has been implemented and tested through simulation and real time experiments. Various scenarios have been presented with static and dynamic obstacles using one robot and two robots while avoiding obstacles in different shapes and sizes.

  18. Proposal for an accelerator-based neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.

    1975-07-01

    An Accelerator-based Neutron Generator is described that consists of a 30-MeV deuteron linear accelerator using a flowing liquid lithium target. With a continuous deuteron current of 100 milliamperes, a source intensity of more than 10 16 neutrons per second will be produced. The neutrons will be emitted in a roughly collimated beam. The proposed facility can be divided into two areas: the 30-MeV linear accelerator and the multiple-target experimental area. The 30-MeV accelerator will consist of eight rf accelerating cavities in a single vacuum tank, each cavity being powered by its own rf power amplifier operating at 50 MHz. To shield the beam bunches from the rf field when it is in the decelerating direction, 66 ''drift tubes'' will be included; the drift-tube structures will include quadrupole magnets which will keep the beam focused. The accelerator will produce a continuous beam of 100 milliamperes. Beam power will thus be 3.0 megawatts; total power including rf losses in the accelerating cavities will be 4.5 megawatts. The injectors for the linear accelerator will be two 500-kV dc accelerators, one for injection of D + ions and the other for D - ions. They can be used simultaneously or one can serve as a spare in case of breakdown or maintenance of the other. (U.S.)

  19. PELAN - a transportable, neutron-based UXO identification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1998-01-01

    An elemental characterization method is used to differentiate between inert projectiles and UXO's. This method identifies in a non-intrusive, nondestructive manner, the elemental composition of the projectile contents. Most major and minor chemical elements within the interrogated object (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, phosphorus, chlorine, arsenic, etc.) are identified and quantified. The method is based on PELAN - Pulsed Elemental Analysis with Neutrons. PELAN uses pulsed neutrons produced from a compact, sealed tube neutron generator. Using an automatic analysis computer program, the quantities of each major and minor chemical element are determined. A decision-making tree identifies the object by comparing its elemental composition with stored elemental composition libraries of substances that could be contained within the projectile. In a series of blind tests, PELAN was able to identify without failure, the contents of each shell placed in front of it. The PELAN probe does not need to be in contact with the interrogated projectile. If the object is buried, the interrogation can take place in situ provided the probe can be inserted a few centimeters from the object's surface. (author)

  20. Quantum sensors based on single diamond defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelezko Fedor

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond are promising sensors able to detect electric and magnetic fields at nanoscale. Here we report on the detection of biomolecules using magnetic noise induced by their electron and nuclear spins. Presented results show first steps towards establishing novel sensing technology for visualizing single proteins and study of their dynamics. (author)

  1. CVD-Graphene-Based Flexible, Thermoelectrochromic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Januszko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea behind this work was demonstrated in a form of a new thermoelectrochromic sensor on a flexible substrate using graphene as an electrically reconfigurable thermal medium (TEChrom™. Our approach relies on electromodulation of thermal properties of graphene on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET via mechanical destruction of a graphene layer. Graphene applied in this work was obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD technique on copper substrate and characterized by Raman and scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Electrical parameters of graphene were evaluated by the van der Pauw method on the transferred graphene layers onto SiO2 substrates by electrochemical delamination method. Two configurations of architecture of sensors, without and with the thermochromic layer, were investigated, taking into account the increase of voltage from 0 to 50 V and were observed by thermographic camera to define heat energy. Current-voltage characteristics obtained for the sensor with damaged graphene layer are linear, and the resistivity is independent from the current applied. The device investigated under 1000 W/m2 exhibited rise of resistivity along with increased temperature. Flexible thermoelectrochromic device with graphene presented here can be widely used as a sensor for both the military and civil monitoring.

  2. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,; Dongmei, [Boulder, CO; Medlin, J William [Boulder, CO; McDaniel, Anthony H [Livermore, CA; Bastasz, Robert J [Livermore, CA

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  3. X-ray detectors based on image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.P.R.

    1983-01-01

    X-ray detectors based on image sensors are described and a comparison is made between the advantages and the disadvantages of such a kind of detectors with the position sensitive detectors. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Applying Sensor-Based Technology to Improve Construction Safety Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyuan; Cao, Tianzhuo; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2017-08-11

    Construction sites are dynamic and complicated systems. The movement and interaction of people, goods and energy make construction safety management extremely difficult. Due to the ever-increasing amount of information, traditional construction safety management has operated under difficult circumstances. As an effective way to collect, identify and process information, sensor-based technology is deemed to provide new generation of methods for advancing construction safety management. It makes the real-time construction safety management with high efficiency and accuracy a reality and provides a solid foundation for facilitating its modernization, and informatization. Nowadays, various sensor-based technologies have been adopted for construction safety management, including locating sensor-based technology, vision-based sensing and wireless sensor networks. This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive review of previous studies in this field to acknowledge useful findings, identify the research gaps and point out future research directions.

  5. Reviewing Automated Sensor-Based Visitor Tracking Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Lærke; Bentsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The method of timing and tracking has a long history within visitor studies and exhibition evaluation. With an increase in indoor tracking research, sensor-based positioning tool usage in museums has grown, as have expectations regarding the efficacy of technological sensing systems. This literat......The method of timing and tracking has a long history within visitor studies and exhibition evaluation. With an increase in indoor tracking research, sensor-based positioning tool usage in museums has grown, as have expectations regarding the efficacy of technological sensing systems...... methods in terms of obtained level of detail, accuracy, level of obtrusiveness, automation of data entry, ability to time concurrent behaviors, and amount of observer training needed. Although individual sensor-based and traditional, observational methods had both strengths and weaknesses, all sensor......-based timing and tracking methods provided automated data entry and the opportunity to track a number of visitors simultaneously regardless of the available personnel....

  6. Planar Laser-Based QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS trace gas detection scheme is reported in this paper. A cylindrical lens was employed for near-infrared laser focusing. The laser beam was shaped as a planar line laser between the gap of the quartz tuning fork (QTF prongs. Compared with a spherical lens-based QEPAS sensor, the cylindrical lens-based QEPAS sensor has the advantages of easier laser beam alignment and a reduction of stringent stability requirements. Therefore, the reported approach is useful in long-term and continuous sensor operation.

  7. Laser-based gas sensors keep moisture out of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2006-07-15

    Natural gas often contains contaminants that cause corrosion, and long-term deterioration, and must be cleaned and brought to pipeline standards before it can be delivered to high-pressure, long-distance pipelines. Many older sensors produce false data that can result in contaminated gas getting through. This article presented details of the SpectraSensor, a new laser-based sensor technology used by the El Paso Natural Gas Company (EPNG). The SpectraSensor is comprised of a tunable diode laser (TDL) based technology developed by the National American Space Agency (NASA). The gas analyzer provides non-contact measurement of moisture, carbon dioxide, and other corrosives in natural gas pipelines, and the tunable laser-based gas sensors are fast, accurate, and flexible. Producers can monitor El Paso's gas analyzer readings by capturing the electronic signal from El Paso's unit via a SCADA system and view the readings from control rooms. While initial purchase price is higher than more problematic surface-based gas sensors, an evaluation of the technology has indicated that maintenance savings alone may provide an almost immediate return on investments. Unlike electrochemical and crystal gas sensors, laser-based gas analyzers do not come into direct contact with any substances, a fact which practically eliminates maintenance and operational costs. Studies have shown that the cost of operating conventional electrochemical sensors can result in a cumulative annual expense exceeding $50,000 per unit including labour; recalibration and rebuilding; back-up sensor heads; and gas dehydration and tariffs. 1 fig.

  8. Low Humidity Characteristics of Polymer-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Polymer-based capacitive humidity sensors emerged around 40 years ago; nevertheless, they currently constitute large part of sensors’ market within a range of medium (climatic and industrial) humidity 20−80%RH due to their linearity, stability and cost-effectiveness. However, for low humidity values (0−20%RH) that type of sensor exhibits increasingly nonlinear characteristics with decreasing of humidity values. This paper presents the results of some experimental trials of CMOS polymer-based ...

  9. Elastomeric polymer resonant waveguide grating based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Fuchuan; Xie, Antonio Jou; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an elastomeric polymer resonant waveguide grating structure to be used as a pressure sensor. The applied pressure is measured by optical resonance spectrum peak shift. The sensitivity—as high as 86.74 pm psi −1 or 12.58 pm kPa −1 —has been experimentally obtained from a fabricated sensor. Potentially, the sensitivity of the demonstrated sensor can be tuned to different pressure ranges by the choices of elastic properties and layer thicknesses of the waveguide and cladding layers. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and indicate that the dominant effect on the sensor is the change of grating period when external pressure is applied. Based on the two-dimensional planar structure, the demonstrated sensor can be used to measure applied surface pressure optically, which has potential applications for optical ultrasound imaging and pressure wave detection/mapping

  10. Sensor network based vehicle classification and license plate identification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rosten, Edward J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod K [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Typically, for energy efficiency and scalability purposes, sensor networks have been used in the context of environmental and traffic monitoring applications in which operations at the sensor level are not computationally intensive. But increasingly, sensor network applications require data and compute intensive sensors such video cameras and microphones. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of two such systems: a vehicle classifier based on acoustic signals and a license plate identification system using a camera. The systems are implemented in an energy-efficient manner to the extent possible using commercially available hardware, the Mica motes and the Stargate platform. Our experience in designing these systems leads us to consider an alternate more flexible, modular, low-power mote architecture that uses a combination of FPGAs, specialized embedded processing units and sensor data acquisition systems.

  11. Preliminary design of GDT-based 14 MeV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Hongfei; Chen Dehong; Wang Hui; Wang Fuqiong; Jiang Jieqiong; Wu Yican; Chen Yiping

    2012-01-01

    To meet the need of D-T fusion neutron source for fusion material testing, design goals were presented in this paper according to the international requirements of neutron source for fusion material testing. A preliminary design scheme of GDT-based 14 MeV neutron source was proposed, and a physics model of the neutron source was built based on progress of GDT experiments. Two preliminary design schemes (i. e. FDS-GDT1, FDS-GDT2) were designed; among which FDS-GDT2 can be used for fusion material testing with neutron first wall loading of 2 MW/m 2 . (authors)

  12. Electrical characterization of FBK small-pitch 3D sensors after γ-ray, neutron and proton irradiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Boscardin, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Mendicino, R.; Seidel, S.; Sultan, D. M. S.

    2017-11-01

    In view of applications in the tracking detectors at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), we have developed a new generation of 3D pixel sensors featuring small-pitch (50 × 50 or 25 × 100 μ m2) and thin active layer (~ 100 μ m). Owing to the very short inter-electrode distance (~ 30 μ m), charge trapping effects can be strongly mitigated, making these sensors extremely radiation hard. However, the downscaled sensor structure also lends itself to high electric fields as the bias voltage is increased, motivating investigation of leakage current increase in order to prevent premature electrical breakdown due to impact ionization. In order to assess the characteristics of heavily irradiated samples, using 3D diodes as test devices, we have carried out a dedicated campaign that included several irradiations (γ -rays, neutrons, and protons) at different facilities. In this paper, we report on the electrical characterization of a subset of the irradiated samples, also in comparison to their pre-irradiation properties. Results demonstrate that hadron irradiated devices can be safely operated at a voltage high enough to allow for full depletion (hence high efficiency) also at the maximum fluence foreseen at the HL-LHC.

  13. Optical hydrogen sensors based on metal-hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaman, M.; Westerwaal, R.; Schreuders, H.; Dam, B.

    2012-06-01

    For many hydrogen related applications it is preferred to use optical hydrogen sensors above electrical systems. Optical sensors reduce the risk of ignition by spark formation and are less sensitive to electrical interference. Currently palladium and palladium alloys are used for most hydrogen sensors since they are well known for their hydrogen dissociation and absorption properties at relatively low temperatures. The disadvantages of palladium in sensors are the low optical response upon hydrogen loading, the cross sensitivity for oxygen and carbon, the limited detection range and the formation of micro-cracks after some hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles. In contrast to Pd, we find that the use of magnesium or rear earth bases metal-hydrides in optical hydrogen sensors allow tuning of the detection levels over a broad pressure range, while maintaining a high optical response. We demonstrate a stable detection layer for detecting hydrogen below 10% of the lower explosion limit in an oxygen rich environment. This detection layer is deposited at the bare end of a glass fiber as a micro-mirror and is covered with a thin layer of palladium. The palladium layer promotes the hydrogen uptake at room temperature and acts as a hydrogen selective membrane. To protect the sensor for a long time in air a final layer of a hydrophobic fluorine based coating is applied. Such a sensor can be used for example as safety detector in automotive applications. We find that this type of fiber optic hydrogen sensor is also suitable for hydrogen detection in liquids. As example we demonstrate a sensor for detecting a broad range of concentrations in transformer oil. Such a sensor can signal a warning when sparks inside a high voltage power transformer decompose the transformer oil over a long period.

  14. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  15. Modeling Sensor Reliability in Fault Diagnosis Based on Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijuan Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor data fusion plays an important role in fault diagnosis. Dempster–Shafer (D-R evidence theory is widely used in fault diagnosis, since it is efficient to combine evidence from different sensors. However, under the situation where the evidence highly conflicts, it may obtain a counterintuitive result. To address the issue, a new method is proposed in this paper. Not only the statistic sensor reliability, but also the dynamic sensor reliability are taken into consideration. The evidence distance function and the belief entropy are combined to obtain the dynamic reliability of each sensor report. A weighted averaging method is adopted to modify the conflict evidence by assigning different weights to evidence according to sensor reliability. The proposed method has better performance in conflict management and fault diagnosis due to the fact that the information volume of each sensor report is taken into consideration. An application in fault diagnosis based on sensor fusion is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis from 81.19% to 89.48% compared to the existing methods.

  16. A Review of Microfiber-Based Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanvisa Talataisong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical microfiber-based temperature sensors have been proposed for many applications in a variety of industrial uses, including biomedical, geological, automotive, and defense applications. This increasing demand for these micrometric devices is attributed to their large dynamic range, high sensitivity, fast-response, compactness and robustness. Additionally, they can perform in-situ measurements remotely and in harsh environments. This paper presents an overview of optical microfibers, with a focus on their applications in temperature sensing. This review broadly divides microfiber-based temperature sensors into two categories: resonant and non-resonant microfiber sensors. While the former includes microfiber loop, knot and coil resonators, the latter comprises sensors based on functionally coated/doped microfibers, microfiber couplers, optical gratings and interferometers. In the conclusions, a summary of reported performances is presented.

  17. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors

  18. A resonant force sensor based on ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Claudia; Fortuna, Luigi; Giannone, Pietro; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2008-02-01

    In this paper a novel force sensor, based on ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs), is presented. The system has DC sensing capabilities and is able to work in the range of a few millinewtons. IPMCs are emerging materials used to realize motion actuators and sensors. An IPMC strip is activated in a beam fixed/simply-supported configuration. The beam is tightened at the simply-supported end by a force. This influences the natural resonant frequency of the beam; the value of the resonant frequency is used in the proposed system to estimate the force applied in the axial direction. The performance of the system based on the IPMC material has proved to be comparable with that of sensors based on other sensing mechanisms. This suggests the possibility of using this class of polymeric devices to realize PMEMS (plastic micro electrical mechanical systems) sensors.

  19. Flexible Piezoelectric Sensor-Based Gait Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most motion recognition research has required tight-fitting suits for precise sensing. However, tight-suit systems have difficulty adapting to real applications, because people normally wear loose clothes. In this paper, we propose a gait recognition system with flexible piezoelectric sensors in loose clothing. The gait recognition system does not directly sense lower-body angles. It does, however, detect the transition between standing and walking. Specifically, we use the signals from the flexible sensors attached to the knee and hip parts on loose pants. We detect the periodic motion component using the discrete time Fourier series from the signal during walking. We adapt the gait detection method to a real-time patient motion and posture monitoring system. In the monitoring system, the gait recognition operates well. Finally, we test the gait recognition system with 10 subjects, for which the proposed system successfully detects walking with a success rate over 93 %.

  20. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person's identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm

  1. A Solar Position Sensor Based on Image Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas, Adolfo; Velázquez, Nicolás; Villa-Angulo, Carlos; Acuña, Alexis; Rosales, Pedro; Suastegui, José

    2017-07-29

    Solar collector technologies operate with better performance when the Sun beam direction is normal to the capturing surface, and for that to happen despite the relative movement of the Sun, solar tracking systems are used, therefore, there are rules and standards that need minimum accuracy for these tracking systems to be used in solar collectors' evaluation. Obtaining accuracy is not an easy job, hence in this document the design, construction and characterization of a sensor based on a visual system that finds the relative azimuth error and height of the solar surface of interest, is presented. With these characteristics, the sensor can be used as a reference in control systems and their evaluation. The proposed sensor is based on a microcontroller with a real-time clock, inertial measurement sensors, geolocation and a vision sensor, that obtains the angle of incidence from the sunrays' direction as well as the tilt and sensor position. The sensor's characterization proved how a measurement of a focus error or a Sun position can be made, with an accuracy of 0.0426° and an uncertainty of 0.986%, which can be modified to reach an accuracy under 0.01°. The validation of this sensor was determined showing the focus error on one of the best commercial solar tracking systems, a Kipp & Zonen SOLYS 2. To conclude, the solar tracking sensor based on a vision system meets the Sun detection requirements and components that meet the accuracy conditions to be used in solar tracking systems and their evaluation or, as a tracking and orientation tool, on photovoltaic installations and solar collectors.

  2. Theory and application of a measurement-while-drilling neutron porosity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, R.F.; Barnett, W.C.; Paske, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe the first MWD compensated neutron porosity measurement service (CNO) which employs a dual-spaced, borehole-compensated detector system to measure neutron-capture gamma rays. CNO service, when combined with existing MWD gamma ray and resistivity services, provides the basic data necessary for calculation of water saturation from MWD logs, making it possible to replace wireline logs in many situations with resulting savings in both logging costs and associated rig time. This is particularly cost effective when drilling high angle offshore development wells and in other high cost development drilling

  3. Temperature and pH sensors based on graphenic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, P; Calisi, N; Melai, B; Cortigiani, B; Mannini, M; Caneschi, A; Lorenzetti, G; Paoletti, C; Lomonaco, T; Paolicchi, A; Scataglini, I; Dini, V; Romanelli, M; Fuoco, R; Di Francesco, F

    2017-05-15

    Point-of-care applications and patients' real-time monitoring outside a clinical setting would require disposable and durable sensors to provide better therapies and quality of life for patients. This paper describes the fabrication and performances of a temperature and a pH sensor on a biocompatible and wearable board for healthcare applications. The temperature sensor was based on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) layer that changed its electrical resistivity with the temperature. When tested in a human serum sample between 25 and 43°C, the sensor had a sensitivity of 110±10Ω/°C and an error of 0.4±0.1°C compared with the reference value set in a thermostatic bath. The pH sensor, based on a graphene oxide (GO) sensitive layer, had a sensitivity of 40±4mV/pH in the pH range between 4 and 10. Five sensor prototypes were tested in a human serum sample over one week and the maximum deviation of the average response from reference values obtained by a glass electrode was 0.2pH units. For biological applications, the temperature and pH sensors were successfully tested for in vitro cytotoxicity with human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) over 24h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Research on Bridge Sensor Validation Based on Correlation in Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the false alarm and alarm failure caused by sensor malfunction or failure, it has been critical to diagnose the fault and analyze the failure of the sensor measuring system in major infrastructures. Based on the real time monitoring of bridges and the study on the correlation probability distribution between multisensors adopted in the fault diagnosis system, a clustering algorithm based on k-medoid is proposed, by dividing sensors of the same type into k clusters. Meanwhile, the value of k is optimized by a specially designed evaluation function. Along with the further study of the correlation of sensors within the same cluster, this paper presents the definition and corresponding calculation algorithm of the sensor’s validation. The algorithm is applied to the analysis of the sensor data from an actual health monitoring system. The result reveals that the algorithm can not only accurately measure the failure degree and orientate the malfunction in time domain but also quantitatively evaluate the performance of sensors and eliminate error of diagnosis caused by the failure of the reference sensor.

  5. ANALYTICAL MODELING OF INNOVATIVE SENSOR PLACEMENT STRATEGY FOR CORONA-BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN H. EKAL

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs applications are increasing rapidly, thanks to their broad potential in ecological monitoring, biomedical health monitoring, data gathering and many others. Imbalance energy of sensors causes significant reduction in the lifetime of the network. In many-to-one communication (corona WSNs, sensor nodes located nearby the data collector (sink forward data sensed data received from other nodes, hence, having heavier workloads. These nodes consume more energy than the others, leading to quicker energy depletion.Consequently, this results in energy hole problem, where the network becomes separate islands, which affect the lifetime of the network negatively. When this situation occurs, the sensed data will not be forwarded to the intended sink; accordingly, the network will not be able to completely fulfil its required tasks. In this paper, an effective sensors placement strategy is proposed to avoid or alleviate energy hole problem in such type of WSNs. The proposed strategy aims to improve, scale, and balance the energy consumption among sensor nodes and to maximize the network lifetime, by sustaining the network coverage and connectivity. To achieve this aim, the number of sensors should be optimized to create sub-balanced coronas in the sense of energy consumption, while satisfying the network coverage and connectivity requirements. The theoretical design and modelling of the proposed sensors placement strategy promise a considerable improvement in the lifetime of corona-based networks. The Experimental evaluation results have shown that the proposed sensors placement strategy is capable to increase the network lifetime considerably compared to conventional uniform strategy.

  6. A genetic algorithm based method for neutron spectrum unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Vitisha; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-03-01

    An approach to neutron spectrum unfolding based on a stochastic evolutionary search mechanism - Genetic Algorithm (GA) is presented. It is tested to unfold a set of simulated spectra, the unfolded spectra is compared to the output of a standard code FERDOR. The method was then applied to a set of measured pulse height spectrum of neutrons from the AmBe source as well as of emitted neutrons from Li(p,n) and Ag(C,n) nuclear reactions carried out in the accelerator environment. The unfolded spectra compared to the output of FERDOR show good agreement in the case of AmBe spectra and Li(p,n) spectra. In the case of Ag(C,n) spectra GA method results in some fluctuations. Necessity of carrying out smoothening of the obtained solution is also studied, which leads to approximation of the solution yielding an appropriate solution finally. Few smoothing techniques like second difference smoothing, Monte Carlo averaging, combination of both and gaussian based smoothing methods are also studied. Unfolded results obtained after inclusion of the smoothening criteria are in close agreement with the output obtained from the FERDOR code. The present method is also tested on a set of underdetermined problems, the outputs of which is compared to the unfolded spectra obtained from the FERDOR applied to a completely determined problem, shows a good match. The distribution of the unfolded spectra is also studied. Uncertainty propagation in the unfolded spectra due to the errors present in the measurement as well as the response function is also carried out. The method appears to be promising for unfolding the completely determined as well as underdetermined problems. It also has provisions to carry out the uncertainty analysis. (author)

  7. Chemical sensors based on molecularly modified metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haick, Hossam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of molecularly modified metal nanoparticles in or as chemical sensors. This paper attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in sensors based on molecularly modified metal nanoparticles, including those established upon electrochemical, optical, surface Plasmon resonance, piezoelectric and electrical transduction approaches. Finally, this paper discusses briefly the main advantages and disadvantages of each of the presented class of sensors. (review article)

  8. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  9. Nanostructured Polypyrrole-Based Ammonia and Volatile Organic Compound Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Šetka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the fabrication of efficient nanostructured polymer-based sensors with special focus on polypyrrole. The correlation between physico-chemical parameters, mainly morphology of various polypyrrole nanostructures, and their sensitivity towards selected gas and volatile organic compounds (VOC is provided. The different approaches of polypyrrole modification with other functional materials are also discussed. With respect to possible sensors application in medicine, namely in the diagnosis of diseases via the detection of volatile biomarkers from human breath, the sensor interaction with humidity is described as well. The major attention is paid to analytes such as ammonia and various alcohols.

  10. Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Sensors based on GMR'S for detection of subsurface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, J.; Ribes, B.; Vazquez, J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of magneto resistive sensors, GMR, as receptors in eddy current probe has certain advantages over the use of conventional inductive sensors, which puts an alternative for the detection of subsurface defects in metal components with thick materials. It has carried out a study of the most important characteristics of these sensors, which has enabled the manufacture of several probes based on OMR. In this paper we analyze different configurations and present the results of the analysis on several blocks with different defects in materials.

  12. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented

  13. SERS-based pesticide detection by using nanofinger sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ansoon; Barcelo, Steven J.; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Simple, sensitive, and rapid detection of trace levels of extensively used and highly toxic pesticides are in urgent demand for public health. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based sensor was designed to achieve ultrasensitive and simple pesticide sensing. We developed a portable sensor system composed of high performance and reliable gold nanofinger sensor strips and a custom-built portable Raman spectrometer. Compared to the general procedure and previously reported studies that are limited to laboratory settings, our analytical method is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective. Based on the SERS results, the chemical interaction of two pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and thiabendazole (TBZ), with gold nanofingers was studied to determine a fingerprint for each pesticide. The portable SERS-sensor system was successfully demonstrated to detect CPF and TBZ pesticides within 15 min with a detection limit of 35 ppt in drinking water and 7 ppb on apple skin, respectively.

  14. Flexible textile-based strain sensor induced by contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the contact effects are used as the key sensing element to develop flexible textile-structured strain sensors. The structures of the contact are analyzed theoretically and the contact resistances are investigated experimentally. The electromechanical properties of the textiles are investigated to find the key factors which determine the sensitivity, repeatability, and linearity of the sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the change of contact resistance induced by the change of the configuration of the textiles. In order to improve the performance of the textile strain sensor, the contact resistance is designed based on the electromechanical properties of the fabric. It can be seen from the results that the performance of the sensor is largely affected by the structure of the contacts, which are determined by the morphology of fiber surface and the structures of the yarn and fabric. (paper)

  15. A high sensitivity nanomaterial based SAW humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, T-T; Chou, T-H [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tatung University, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wutt@ndt.iam.ntu.edu.tw

    2008-04-21

    In this paper, a highly sensitive humidity sensor is reported. The humidity sensor is configured by a 128{sup 0}YX-LiNbO{sub 3} based surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonator whose operating frequency is at 145 MHz. A dual delay line configuration is realized to eliminate external temperature fluctuations. Moreover, for nanostructured materials possessing high surface-to-volume ratio, large penetration depth and fast charge diffusion rate, camphor sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (PANI) nanofibres are synthesized by the interfacial polymerization method and further deposited on the SAW resonator as selective coating to enhance sensitivity. The humidity sensor is used to measure various relative humidities in the range 5-90% at room temperature. Results show that the PANI nanofibre based SAW humidity sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity and short-term repeatability.

  16. Hydrogel-based piezoresistive sensor for the detection of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Erfkamp

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a low-cost sensor for the detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages, which combines alcohol-sensitive hydrogels based on acrylamide and bisacrylamide and piezoresistive sensors. For reproducible measurements, the reversible swelling and deswelling of the hydrogel were shown via microscopy. The response time of the sensor depends on the swelling kinetics of the hydrogel. The selectivity of the hydrogel was tested in different alcohols. In order to understand the influence of monomer and crosslinker content on the swelling degree and on the sensitivity of the hydrogels, gels with variable concentrations of acrylamide and bisacrylamide were synthesized and characterized in different aqueous solutions with alcohol contents. The first measurements of such hydrogel-based piezoresistive ethanol sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity and a short response time over several measuring cycles.

  17. Laboratory test of an APS-based sun sensor prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Perrotta, Alessandro; Grassi, Michele

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with design and prototype development of an Active Pixel Sensor - based miniature sun sensor and a laboratory facility for its indoor test and calibration. The miniature sun sensor is described and the laboratory test facility is presented in detail. The major focus of the paper is on tests and calibration of the sensor. Two different calibration functions have been adopted. They are based, respectively, on a geometrical model, which has required least-squares optimisation of system physical parameters estimates, and on neural networks. Calibration results are presented for the above solutions, showing that accuracy in the order of 0.01° has been achieved. Neural calibration functions have attained better performance thanks to their intrinsic auto-adaptive structure.

  18. Ultrasensitive, Stretchable Strain Sensors Based on Fragmented Carbon Nanotube Papers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2017-01-17

    The development of strain sensors featuring both ultra high sensitivity and high stretchability is still a challenge. We demonstrate that strain sensors based on fragmented single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) paper embedded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) can sustain their sensitivity even at very high strain levels (with a gauge factor of over 10(7) at 50% strain). This record sensitivity is ascribed to the low initial electrical resistance (5-28 Omega) of the SWCNT paper and the wide change in resistance (up to 10(6) Omega) governed by the percolated network of SWCNT in the cracked region. The sensor response remains nearly unchanged after 10 000 strain cycles at 20% proving the robustness of this technology. This fragmentation based sensing system brings opportunities to engineer highly sensitive stretchable sensors.

  19. Electrical Properties of MWCNT/HDPE Composite-Based MSM Structure Under Neutron Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasani, H.; Khodabakhsh, R.; Taghi Ahmadi, M.; Rezaei Ochbelagh, D.; Ismail, Razali

    2017-04-01

    Because of their low cost, low energy consumption, high performance, and exceptional electrical properties, nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes are suitable for use in many applications such as sensing systems. In this research work, a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure based on a multiwall carbon nanotube/high-density polyethylene (MWCNT/HDPE) nanocomposite is introduced as a neutron sensor. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, and infrared spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the morphology and structure of the fabricated device. Current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic modeling showed that the device can be assumed to be a reversed-biased Schottky diode, if the voltage is high enough. To estimate the depletion layer length of the Schottky contact, impedance spectroscopy was employed. Therefore, the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of the MSM system were used to obtain electrical parameters such as the carrier mobility and dielectric constant. Experimental observations of the MSM structure under irradiation from an americium-beryllium (Am-Be) neutron source showed that the current level in the device decreased significantly. Subsequently, current pulses appeared in situ I- V and current-time ( I- t) curve measurements when increasing voltage was applied to the MSM system. The experimentally determined depletion region length as well as the space-charge-limited current mechanism for carrier transport were compared with the range for protons calculated using Monte Carlo n-particle extended (MCNPX) code, yielding the maximum energy of recoiled protons detectable by the device.

  20. Novel gas sensors based on carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayago, I; Aleixandre, M; Horrillo, M C; Fernandez, M J; Gutierrez, J; Terrado, E; Lafuente, E; Maser, W K; Benito, A M; Martinez, M T; Munoz, E; Urriolabeitia, E P; Navarro, R

    2008-01-01

    Novel resistive gas sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks as the active sensing element nave been investigated for gas detection. SWNTs networks were fabricated by airbrushing on alumina substrates. As-produced- and Pd-decorated SWNT materials were used as sensitive layers for the detection of NO 2 and H 2 , respectively. The studied sensors provided good response to NO 2 and H 2 as well as excellent selectivities to interfering gases.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer/Metal Organic Framework Based Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes recent advances in the concept of molecular imprinting using metal organic frameworks (MOF for development of chemical sensors. Two main strategies regarding the fabrication, performance and applications of recent sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers associated with MOF are presented: molecularly imprinted MOF films and molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using MOF as core. The associated transduction modes are also discussed. A brief conclusion and future expectations are described herein.

  2. Fiber optic based optical tomography sensor for monitoring plasma uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benck, Eric C.; Etemadi, Kasra

    2001-01-01

    A new type of fiber optic based optical tomography sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of plasma uniformity. Optical tomography inverts optical emission measurements into the actual plasma distribution without assuming radial symmetry. The new sensor is designed to operate with only two small windows and acquire the necessary data in less than a second. Optical tomography is being tested on an ICP-GEC RF plasma source. Variations in plasma uniformity are measured as a function of different plasma conditions

  3. Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Md. Golam; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, Muhammad Sajjadur; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of energy source in a sensor node is most desirable criteria for prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP). We introduce a new concept called head-set, consists of one active cluster head and some other associate cluster heads within a cluster. The head-set members are responsible for control and management of the network. Results show that t...

  4. Sensor fusion-based map building for mobile robot exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribo, M.

    2000-01-01

    To carry out exploration tasks in unknown or partially unknown environments, a mobile robot needs to acquire and maintain models of its environment. In doing so, several sensors of same nature and/or heterogeneous sensor configurations may be used by the robot to achieve reliable performances. However, this in turn poses the problem of sensor fusion-based map building: How to interpret, combine and integrate sensory information in order to build a proper representation of the environment. Specifically, the goal of this thesis is to probe integration algorithms for Occupancy Grid (OG) based map building using odometry, ultrasonic rangefinders, and stereo vision. Three different uncertainty calculi are presented here which are used for sensor fusion-based map building purposes. They are based on probability theory, Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, and fuzzy set theory. Besides, two different sensor models are depicted which are used to translate sensing data into range information. Experimental examples of OGs built from real data recorded by two robots in office-like environment are presented. They show the feasibility of the proposed approach for building both sonar and visual based OGs. A comparison among the presented uncertainty calculi is performed in a sonar-based framework. Finally, the fusion of both sonar and visual information based of the fuzzy set theory is depicted. (author)

  5. A Dosimetry Study of Deuterium-Deuterium Neutron Generator-based In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Daniel; Liu, Yingzi; Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott; Nie, Linda H

    2015-12-01

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator that produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 × 10(8) ± 30% s(-1). A moderator/reflector/shielding [5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite and 5.7 cm borated (HDPE)] assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and the photon dose was measured by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10-min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 ± 0.8 mSv for neutrons and 4.2 ± 0.2 mSv for photons for 10 min; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  6. A Calibration Report for Wireless Sensor-Based Weatherboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthoni Masinde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa contains the highest number of people affected by droughts. Although this can easily be mitigated through the provision of timely, reliable and relevant weather forecasts, the sparse network of weather stations in most of these countries makes this difficult. Rapid development in wireless sensor networks has resulted in weatherboards capable of capturing weather parameters at the micro-level. Although these weatherboards offer a viable solution to Africa’s drought, the acceptability of such data by meteorologists is only possible if these sensors are calibrated and their field readiness scientifically evaluated. This is the contribution of this paper; we present results of a calibration exercise that was carried out to: (1 measure and correct lag, random and systematic errors; (2 determine if Perspex was an ideal material for building sensor boards’ enclosures; and (3 identify sensor boards’ battery charging and depletion rates. The result is a calibration report detailing actual error and uncertainty values for atmospheric pressure, humidity and temperature sensors, as well as the recharge and discharge curves of the batteries. The results further ruled out the use of Perspex for enclosing the sensor boards. These experiments pave the way for the design and implementation of a sensor-based weather monitoring system (SenseWeather that was piloted in two regions in Kenya.

  7. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc. PMID:26569244

  8. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Cabrera, Carolina; Morón, Alberto; García, Alfonso; González, Mercedes

    2015-11-11

    Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a "simple" and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  9. Magnetic Sensors Based on Amorphous Ferromagnetic Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are many types of sensors that are used in lots of applications. Among these, magnetic sensors are a good alternative for the detection and measurement of different phenomena because they are a “simple” and readily available technology. For the construction of such devices there are many magnetic materials available, although amorphous ferromagnetic materials are the most suitable. The existence in the market of these materials allows the production of different kinds of sensors, without requiring expensive manufacture investments for the magnetic cores. Furthermore, these are not fragile materials that require special care, favouring the construction of solid and reliable devices. Another important feature is that these sensors can be developed without electric contact between the measuring device and the sensor, making them especially fit for use in harsh environments. In this review we will look at the main types of developed magnetic sensors. This work presents the state of the art of magnetic sensors based on amorphous ferromagnetic materials used in modern technology: security devices, weapon detection, magnetic maps, car industry, credit cards, etc.

  10. Design of Oil Viscosity Sensor Based on Plastic Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Muhammad; Arifin, A.

    2018-03-01

    A research of plastic optical fiber based sensors have been studied for measurement of oil viscosity. This sensor was made with straight configuration, U configuration, and gamma configuration have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. Viscosity sensor was made, dipped into an oil sample with a concentration of viscosity percentage about 270 mPa.s - 350 mPa.s. The light from the LED propagated into the optical fiber, then it was received by the photodetector converted to output power. When plastic optical fiber dipped into an oil sample, viscosity of oil affect increase of refractive index on optical fiber resulting in a bigger loss of power so the light intensity will be smaller, consequences the measured output power will be smaller. Sensitivity and resolution viscosity sensor without cladding peel showed the best result rather than viscosity sensor with cladding peel. The best result in the measurement showed in gamma configuration with 3 cm length of cladding peel and the diameter of bending 0,25 cm is the range 103,090 nWatt, sensitivity 1,289 nWatt/mPa.s, and resolution 0,776 mPa.s. This method is effectively and efficiently used as an oil viscosity sensor with high sensitivity and resolution.

  11. Inertial Sensor-Based Gait Recognition: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprager, Sebastijan; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), inertial sensors have become widely used in the research of wearable gait analysis due to several factors, such as being easy-to-use and low-cost. Considering the fact that each individual has a unique way of walking, inertial sensors can be applied to the problem of gait recognition where assessed gait can be interpreted as a biometric trait. Thus, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has a great potential to play an important role in many security-related applications. Since inertial sensors are included in smart devices that are nowadays present at every step, inertial sensor-based gait recognition has become very attractive and emerging field of research that has provided many interesting discoveries recently. This paper provides a thorough and systematic review of current state-of-the-art in this field of research. Review procedure has revealed that the latest advanced inertial sensor-based gait recognition approaches are able to sufficiently recognise the users when relying on inertial data obtained during gait by single commercially available smart device in controlled circumstances, including fixed placement and small variations in gait. Furthermore, these approaches have also revealed considerable breakthrough by realistic use in uncontrolled circumstances, showing great potential for their further development and wide applicability. PMID:26340634

  12. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-01-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended

  13. Elements for successful sensor-based process control {Integrated Metrology}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephanie Watts

    1998-11-01

    Current productivity needs have stimulated development of alternative metrology, control, and equipment maintenance methods. Specifically, sensor applications provide the opportunity to increase productivity, tighten control, reduce scrap, and improve maintenance schedules and procedures. Past experience indicates a complete integrated solution must be provided for sensor-based control to be used successfully in production. In this paper, Integrated Metrology is proposed as the term for an integrated solution that will result in a successful application of sensors for process control. This paper defines and explores the perceived four elements of successful sensor applications: business needs, integration, components, and form. Based upon analysis of existing successful commercially available controllers, the necessary business factors have been determined to be strong, measurable industry-wide business needs whose solution is profitable and feasible. This paper examines why the key aspect of integration is the decision making process. A detailed discussion is provided of the components of most importance to sensor based control: decision-making methods, the 3R's of sensors, and connectivity. A metric for one of the R's (resolution) is proposed to allow focus on this important aspect of measurement. A form for these integrated components which synergistically partitions various aspects of control at the equipment and MES levels to efficiently achieve desired benefits is recommended.

  14. A Review of Carbon Nanotubes-Based Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors have attracted intensive research interest due to the demand of sensitive, fast response, and stable sensors for industry, environmental monitoring, biomedicine, and so forth. The development of nanotechnology has created huge potential to build highly sensitive, low cost, portable sensors with low power consumption. The extremely high surface-to-volume ratio and hollow structure of nanomaterials is ideal for the adsorption of gas molecules. Particularly, the advent of carbon nanotubes (CNTs has fuelled the inventions of gas sensors that exploit CNTs' unique geometry, morphology, and material properties. Upon exposure to certain gases, the changes in CNTs' properties can be detected by various methods. Therefore, CNTs-based gas sensors and their mechanisms have been widely studied recently. In this paper, a broad but yet in-depth survey of current CNTs-based gas sensing technology is presented. Both experimental works and theoretical simulations are reviewed. The design, fabrication, and the sensing mechanisms of the CNTs-based gas sensors are discussed. The challenges and perspectives of the research are also addressed in this review.

  15. Electrochemical sensors and biosensors based on less aggregated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xiangjie; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Liping

    2017-03-15

    As a novel single-atom-thick sheet of sp 2 hybridized carbon atoms, graphene (GR) has attracted extensive attention in recent years because of its unique and remarkable properties, such as excellent electrical conductivity, large theoretical specific surface area, and strong mechanical strength. However, due to the π-π interaction, GR sheets are inclined to stack together, which may seriously degrade the performance of GR with the unique single-atom layer. In recent years, an increasing number of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors are reported, which may reflect that GR has been considered as a kind of hot and promising electrode material for electrochemical sensor and biosensor construction. However, the active sites on GR surface induced by the irreversible GR aggregations would be deeply secluded inside the stacked GR sheets and therefore are not available for the electrocatalysis. So the alleviation or the minimization of the aggregation level for GR sheets would facilitate the exposure of active sites on GR and effectively upgrade the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Less aggregated GR with low aggregation and high dispersed structure can be used in improving the electrochemical activity of GR-based electrochemical sensors or biosensors. In this review, we summarize recent advances and new progress for the development of electrochemical sensors based on less aggregated GR. To achieve such goal, many strategies (such as the intercalation of carbon materials, surface modification, and structural engineering) have been applied to alleviate the aggregation level of GR in order to enhance the performance of GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Finally, the challenges associated with less aggregated GR-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors as well as related future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of a nTHGEM-based thermal neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Zhou, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Xiong, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Yu-Guang; Zhou, Liang; Xu, Hong; Yang, Gui-An; Wang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jin-Jie; Sun, Zhi-Jia; Hu, Bi-Tao

    2016-07-01

    With new generation neutron sources, traditional neutron detectors cannot satisfy the demands of the applications, especially under high flux. Furthermore, facing the global crisis in 3He gas supply, research on new types of neutron detector as an alternative to 3He is a research hotspot in the field of particle detection. GEM (Gaseous Electron Multiplier) neutron detectors have high counting rate, good spatial and time resolution, and could be one future direction of the development of neutron detectors. In this paper, the physical process of neutron detection is simulated with Geant4 code, studying the relations between thermal conversion efficiency, boron thickness and number of boron layers. Due to the special characteristics of neutron detection, we have developed a novel type of special ceramic nTHGEM (neutron THick GEM) for neutron detection. The performance of the nTHGEM working in different Ar/CO2 mixtures is presented, including measurements of the gain and the count rate plateau using a copper target X-ray source. A detector with a single nTHGEM has been tested for 2-D imaging using a 252Cf neutron source. The key parameters of the performance of the nTHGEM detector have been obtained, providing necessary experimental data as a reference for further research on this detector. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11127508, 11175199, 11205253, 11405191), Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, CAEP (2013DB06, 2013BB04) and CAS (YZ201512)

  17. Development of a Fresnel lens for cold neutrons based on neutron refractive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Oku, T; Moriyasu, S; Yamagata, Y; Ohmori, H; Takizawa, Y; Shimizu, H M; Hirota, T; Kiyanagi, Y; Ino, T; Furusaka, M; Suzuki, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for cold neutrons, which are made of vitreous silica and have an effective potential of (90.1-2.7x10 sup - sup 4 i) neV. In the case of compound refractive optics, neutron absorption by the material deteriorates lens performance. Thus, to prevent an increase in neutron absorption with increasing beam size, we have developed Fresnel lenses using the electrolytic in-process dressing grinding technique. The lens characteristics were carefully investigated with experimental and numerical simulation studies. The lenses functioned as a neutron focusing lens, and the focal length of 14 m was obtained with a 44-element series of the Fresnel lenses for 10 A neutrons. Moreover, good neutron transmission of 0.65 for 15 A neutrons was obtained due to the shape effect. According to comprehensive analysis of the obtained results, it is possible to realize a CRL for practical use by choosing a suitable lens shape and material.

  18. Optical Fibre Temperature Sensor Based On A Blackbody Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypszer, Ryszard; Plucinski, Jerzy; Wierzba, Henryk J.

    1990-01-01

    The principle of operation of the fibre optical temperature sensor based on a blackbody radiation and its construction model is given in the paper. A quartz rod of 0.6 mm diameter and 20 cm length with a blackbody cavity at the one end was used to construct the sensor. The cavity was made by vacuum evaporation of a chromium layer and a silicone monooxide layer was used as a protection. Infrared radiation is transmitted by the fibre optic to the detection circuit. This sensor enables temperature measurement from 400 to 1200°C. The range of measurement is determined by the detection sensitivity and by rod softening. The resolution is of the order of 10-2°C. The sensor calibration was done by using PtRh1O-Pt thermocouple.

  19. A sensitive, handheld vapor sensor based on microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Hedden, D. L.; Gehl, A.; Boiadjiev, V. I.; Hawk, J. E.; Farahi, R. H.; Thundat, T.; Houser, E. J.; Stepnowski, S.; McGill, R. A.; Deel, L.; Lareau, R. T.

    2004-11-01

    We report the development of a handheld sensor based on piezoresistive microcantilevers that does not depend on optical detection, yet has high detection sensitivity. The sensor is able to detect vapors from the plastic explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate and hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine at levels below 10 parts per trillion within few seconds of exposure under ambient conditions. A differential measurement technique has yielded a rugged sensor that is unaffected by vibration and is able to function as a "sniffer." The microelectromechanical system sensor design allows for the incorporation of hundreds of microcantilevers with suitable coatings in order to achieve sufficient selectivity in the future, and thus could provide an inexpensive, unique platform for the detection of chemical, biological, and explosive materials.

  20. Research on Stealthy Headphone Detector Based on Geomagnetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of stealth headphone detector based on geomagnetic sensor has been developed to deal with the stealth headphones which are small, extremely stealthy and hard to detect. The U.S. PNI geomagnetic sensor is chosen to obtain magnetic field considering the strong magnetic performance of stealth headphones. The earth’s magnetic field at the geomagnetic sensor is eliminated by difference between two geomagnetic sensors, and then weak variations of magnetic field is detected. STM8S103K2 is chosen as the central controlling chip, which is connected to LED, buzzer and LCD 1602. As shown by the experimental results, the probe is not liable to damage by the magnetic field and the developed device has high sensitivity, low False Positive Rate (FAR and satisfactory reliability.

  1. Wireless overhead line temperature sensor based on RF cavity resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafourian, Maryam; Nezhad, Abolghasem Zeidaabadi; Bridges, Greg E; Thomson, Douglas J

    2013-01-01

    The importance of maximizing power transfer through overhead transmission lines necessitates the use of dynamic power control to keep transmission line temperatures within acceptable limits. Excessive conductor operating temperatures lead to an increased sag of the transmission line conductor and may reduce their expected life. In this paper, a passive wireless sensor based on a resonant radio frequency (RF) cavity is presented which can be used to measure overhead transmission line temperature. The temperature sensor does not require a power supply and can be easily clamped to the power line with an antenna attached. Changing temperature causes a change of cavity dimensions and a shift in resonant frequency. The resonant frequency of the cavity can be interrogated wirelessly. This temperature sensor has a resolution of 0.07 °C and can be interrogated from distances greater than 4.5 m. The sensor has a deviation from linearity of less than 2 °C. (paper)

  2. Impedance-based damage assessment using piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Mi-Sun; Yoo, Seung-Jae; Lee, In; Song, Jae-Hoon; Yang, Jae-Won

    2011-04-01

    Recently structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are being focused because they make it possible to assess the health of structures at real-time in many application fields such as aircraft, aerospace, civil and so on. Piezoelectric materials are widely used for sensors of SHM system to monitor damage of critical parts such as bolted joints. Bolted joints could be loosened by vibration, thermal cycling, shock, corrosion, and they cause serious mechanical failures. In this paper, impedance-based method using piezoelectric sensors was applied for real-time SHM. A steel beam specimen fastened by bolts was tested, and polymer type piezoelectric materials, PVDFs were used for sensors to monitor the condition of bolted joint connections. When structure has some damage, for example loose bolts, the impedance of PVDF sensors showed different tendency with normal structure which has no loose bolts. In the case of loose bolts, impedance values are decreased and admittance values are increased.

  3. Whitelists Based Multiple Filtering Techniques in SCADA Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT consists of several tiny devices connected together to form a collaborative computing environment. Recently IoT technologies begin to merge with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA sensor networks to more efficiently gather and analyze real-time data from sensors in industrial environments. But SCADA sensor networks are becoming more and more vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to increased connectivity. To safely adopt IoT technologies in the SCADA environments, it is important to improve the security of SCADA sensor networks. In this paper we propose a multiple filtering technique based on whitelists to detect illegitimate packets. Our proposed system detects the traffic of network and application protocol attacks with a set of whitelists collected from normal traffic.

  4. A Microring Resonator Based Negative Permeability Metamaterial Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Zhong Lan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs. The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity.

  5. Measuring intracellular redox conditions using GFP-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Ostergaard, Henrik; Winther, Jakob R

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen the development of methods for analyzing the redox conditions in specific compartments in living cells. These methods are based on genetically encoded sensors comprising variants of Green Fluorescent Protein in which vicinal cysteine residues have been introduced at solvent......-exposed positions. Several mutant forms have been identified in which formation of a disulfide bond between these cysteine residues results in changes of their fluorescence properties. The redox sensors have been characterized biochemically and found to behave differently, both spectroscopically and in terms...... of redox properties. As genetically encoded sensors they can be expressed in living cells and used for analysis of intracellular redox conditions; however, which parameters are measured depends on how the sensors interact with various cellular redox components. Results of both biochemical and cell...

  6. Mass Tracking with a MEMS-based Gravity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Mukherjee, A.; Warren, T.; Charalambous, C.; Calcutt, S. B.; Standley, I.

    2017-12-01

    We achieve the first demonstration of the dynamic location of a moving mass using a MEMS sensor to detect gravity. The sensor is based on a microseismometer developed for planetary geophysics. In an updated version of the original Cavendish experiment the noise floor of the sensor, at 0.25 µgal/rtHz, allows the determination of the dynamic gravitational field from the motion of the mass of an oscillating pendulum. Using the determined noise floor we show that this performance should be sufficient for practical subsurface gravity surveying, in particular detection of 50-cm diameter pipes up to 10 m below the surface. Beyond this specific application, this sensor with a mass of less than 250 g per axis represents a new technology that opens up the possibility of drone deloyments for gravity mapping.

  7. Focused Ion Beam Nanopatterning for Carbon Nanotube Ropes Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera LA FERRARA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Focused Ion Beam (FIB technology has been used to realize electrode patterns for contacting Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs ropes for chemical gas sensor applications. Two types of transducers, based on a single rope and on bundles, have been realized starting from silicon/Si3N4 substrate. Electrical behaviour, at room temperature, in toxic gas environments, has been investigated and compared to evaluate contribution of a single rope based sensor respect to bundles one. For all the devices, upon exposure to NO2 and NH3, the conductance has been found to increase or decrease respectively. Conductance signal is stronger for sensor based on bundles, but it also evident that response time in NO2 is faster for device based on a single rope. FIB technology offers, then, the possibility to contact easily a single sensitive nanowire, as carbon nanotube rope.

  8. A Polymer Optical Fiber Temperature Sensor Based on Material Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo; Frizera-Netoc, Anselmo; Marques, Carlos; Pontes, Maria José

    2018-01-19

    This paper presents a polymer optical fiber (POF)-based temperature sensor. The operation principle of the sensor is the variation in the POF mechanical properties with the temperature variation. Such mechanical property variation leads to a variation in the POF output power when a constant stress is applied to the fiber due to the stress-optical effect. The fiber mechanical properties are characterized through a dynamic mechanical analysis, and the output power variation with different temperatures is measured. The stress is applied to the fiber by means of a 180° curvature, and supports are positioned on the fiber to inhibit the variation in its curvature with the temperature variation. Results show that the sensor proposed has a sensitivity of 1.04 × 10 -3 °C -1 , a linearity of 0.994, and a root mean squared error of 1.48 °C, which indicates a relative error of below 2%, which is lower than the ones obtained for intensity-variation-based temperature sensors. Furthermore, the sensor is able to operate at temperatures up to 110 °C, which is higher than the ones obtained for similar POF sensors in the literature.

  9. Fabrication of strain gauge based sensors for tactile skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Joshua R.; Zhang, Ruoshi; Wei, Danming; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    Fabricating cost effective, reliable and functional sensors for electronic skins has been a challenging undertaking for the last several decades. Application of such skins include haptic interfaces, robotic manipulation, and physical human-robot interaction. Much of our recent work has focused on producing compliant sensors that can be easily formed around objects to sense normal, tension, or shear forces. Our past designs have involved the use of flexible sensors and interconnects fabricated on Kapton substrates, and piezoresistive inks that are 3D printed using Electro Hydro Dynamic (EHD) jetting onto interdigitated electrode (IDE) structures. However, EHD print heads require a specialized nozzle and the application of a high-voltage electric field; for which, tuning process parameters can be difficult based on the choice of inks and substrates. Therefore, in this paper we explore sensor fabrication techniques using a novel wet lift-off photolithographic technique for patterning the base polymer piezoresistive material, specifically Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) or PEDOT:PSS. Fabricated sensors are electrically and thermally characterized, and temperaturecompensated designs are proposed and validated. Packaging techniques for sensors in polymer encapsulants are proposed and demonstrated to produce a tactile interface device for a robot.

  10. A smart sensor-based vision system: implementation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elouardi, A; Bouaziz, S; Dupret, A; Lacassagne, L; Klein, J O; Reynaud, R

    2006-01-01

    One of the methods of solving the computational complexity of image-processing is to perform some low-level computations on the sensor focal plane. This paper presents a vision system based on a smart sensor. PARIS1 (Programmable Analog Retina-like Image Sensor1) is the first prototype used to evaluate the architecture of an on-chip vision system based on such a sensor coupled with a microcontroller. The smart sensor integrates a set of analog and digital computing units. This architecture paves the way for a more compact vision system and increases the performances reducing the data flow exchanges with a microprocessor in control. A system has been implemented as a proof-of-concept and has enabled us to evaluate the performance requirements for a possible integration of a microcontroller on the same chip. The used approach is compared with two architectures implementing CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) and interfaced to the same microcontroller. The comparison is related to image processing computation time, processing reliability, programmability, precision, bandwidth and subsequent stages of computations

  11. A smart sensor-based vision system: implementation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elouardi, A; Bouaziz, S; Dupret, A; Lacassagne, L; Klein, J O; Reynaud, R [Institute of Fundamental Electronics, Bat. 220, Paris XI University, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-04-21

    One of the methods of solving the computational complexity of image-processing is to perform some low-level computations on the sensor focal plane. This paper presents a vision system based on a smart sensor. PARIS1 (Programmable Analog Retina-like Image Sensor1) is the first prototype used to evaluate the architecture of an on-chip vision system based on such a sensor coupled with a microcontroller. The smart sensor integrates a set of analog and digital computing units. This architecture paves the way for a more compact vision system and increases the performances reducing the data flow exchanges with a microprocessor in control. A system has been implemented as a proof-of-concept and has enabled us to evaluate the performance requirements for a possible integration of a microcontroller on the same chip. The used approach is compared with two architectures implementing CMOS active pixel sensors (APS) and interfaced to the same microcontroller. The comparison is related to image processing computation time, processing reliability, programmability, precision, bandwidth and subsequent stages of computations.

  12. APTAMER-BASED SERRS SENSOR FOR THROMBIN DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H; Baker, B R; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Pagba, C V; Laurence, T A; Lane, S M; Lee, L P; Tok, J B

    2008-07-02

    We describe an aptamer-based Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) sensor with high sensitivity, specificity, and stability for the detection of a coagulation protein, human a-thrombin. The sensor achieves high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 100 pM by monitoring the SERRS signal change upon the single step of thrombin binding to immobilized thrombin binding aptamer. The selectivity of the sensor is demonstrated by the specific discrimination of thrombin from other protein analytes. The specific recognition and binding of thrombin by the thrombin binding aptamer is essential to the mechanism of the aptamer-based sensor, as shown through measurements using negative control oligonucleotides. In addition, the sensor can detect 1 nM thrombin in the presence of complex biofluids, such as 10% fetal calf serum, demonstrating that the immobilized, 5{prime}-capped, 3{prime}-capped aptamer is sufficiently robust for clinical diagnostic applications. Furthermore, the proposed sensor may be implemented for multiplexed detection using different aptamer-Raman probe complexes.

  13. Spectrum shaping assessment of accelerator-based fusion neutron sources to be used in BNCT treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Daquino, G. G.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo modelling of an irradiation facility, for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) application, using a set of advanced type, accelerator based, 3H(d,n) 4He (D-T) fusion neutron source device is presented. Some general issues concerning the design of a proper irradiation beam shaping assembly, based on very hard energy neutron source spectrum, are reviewed. The facility here proposed, which represents an interesting solution compared to the much more investigated Li or Be based accelerator driven neutron source could fulfil all the medical and safety requirements to be used by an hospital environment.

  14. Neutron detector based on lithiated sol-gel glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, S; Miller, L F; Dai, S

    2002-01-01

    A neutron detector technology is demonstrated based on sup 6 Li/ sup 1 sup 0 B doped sol-gel glass. The detector is a sol-gel glass film coated silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). The ionized charged particles from (n, alpha) reactions in the sol-gel film enter the SBD and are counted. Data showing that gamma-ray pulse amplitudes interfere with identifying charged particles that exit the film layer with energies below the gamma-ray energy is presented. Experiments were performed showing the effect of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays on the SBD detector. The reaction product energies of the triton and alpha particles from sup 6 Li are significantly greater than the energies of the Compton electrons from high-energy gamma rays, allowing the measurement of neutrons in a high gamma background. The sol-gel radiation detection technology may be applicable to the characterization of transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel and to the monitoring of stored plutonium.

  15. Kriging-based algorithm for nuclear reactor neutronic design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, Stephanie; Forget, Benoit; Hu, Lin-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Kriging-based algorithm was selected to guide research reactor optimization. ► We examined impacts of parameter values upon the algorithm. ► The best parameter values were incorporated into a set of best practices. ► Algorithm with best practices used to optimize thermal flux of concept. ► Final design produces thermal flux 30% higher than other 5 MW reactors. - Abstract: Kriging, a geospatial interpolation technique, has been used in the present work to drive a search-and-optimization algorithm which produces the optimum geometric parameters for a 5 MW research reactor design. The technique has been demonstrated to produce an optimal neutronic solution after a relatively small number of core calculations. It has additionally been successful in producing a design which significantly improves thermal neutron fluxes by 30% over existing reactors of the same power rating. Best practices for use of this algorithm in reactor design were identified and indicated the importance of selecting proper correlation functions.

  16. IBM-PC-based reactor neutronics analysis package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wessol, D.E.; Grimesey, R.A.; Parsons, D.K.; Wheeler, F.J.; Yoon, W.Y.; Lake, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical advances over the past few years have led to a situation where a wide range of complex scientific computations can now be done on properly configured microcomputers such as the IBM-PC (personal computer). For a number of reasons, including security, economy, and user convenience, the development of a comprehensive system of reactor neutronics codes suitable for operation on the IBM-PC has been undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It is anticipated that a PC-based code system could also have wide applicability in the nuclear engineering education community since conversion of software generated by national laboratories and others to college and university mainframe hardware has historically been a time-consuming process that has sometimes met with only limited success. This paper discusses the philosophy behind the INEL reactor neutronics PC code system and describes those parts of the system that are currently complete, those that are now under development, and those that are still in the planning stage

  17. A scalable pressure sensor based on an electrothermally and electrostatically operated resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Alcheikh, Nouha; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Ilyas, Saad; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a pressure sensor based on the convective cooling of the air surrounding an electrothermally heated resonant bridge. Unlike conventional pressure sensors that rely on diaphragm deformation in response to pressure, the sensor does

  18. Humidity Response of Polyaniline Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta PANDEY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper presents hitherto unreported humidity sensing capacity of emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. Humidity plays a major role in different processes in industries ranging from food to electronic goods besides human comfort and therefore its monitoring is an essential requirement during various processes. Polyaniline has a wide use for making sensors as it can be easily synthesized and has long stability. Polyaniline is synthesized here by chemical route and is found to sense humidity as it shows variation in electrical resistance with variation in relative humidity. Results are presented here for a range of 15 to 90 RH%. The resistance falls from 5.8 to 0.72 Giga ohms as RH varies from 15 to 65 % and then falls to 13.9 Mega ohms as RH approaches 90 %. The response and recovery times are also measured.

  19. Neutron Detection with Large Plastic Scintillators for RPM Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corre, G.; Boudergui, K.; Sannie, G.; Kondrasovs, V.

    2015-01-01

    Homeland security requests the use Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM). They must be able to detect and differentiate gamma and neutron radiation. Gamma detection is required for illicit transportation of radioactive matter detection. Neutron detection is important to control nonproliferation of enriched material. Manufacturers worldwide propose sensors based on 3 He which give the actual state of art in term of neutron detection. The imminent shortage of 3 He forces manufacturers to find viable alternative. From 10 years sensors providers have the challenge to replace previous 3 He detectors that are known to be the most commonly deployed neutron sensor. As 3 He detectors can only detect neutron, they must be completed with gamma detector. The proposed approach is based on pulse time correlation between adjacent sensors from signal collected by EJ200 plastic scintillators. Results obtained during FP7 Scintilla project test campaigns show the system relevance for replacement of today's 3 He detectors. (authors)

  20. Environmentally Sensitive Fluorescent Sensors Based on Synthetic Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Choulier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors allow the direct detection of molecular analytes, by associating a biological receptor with a transducer able to convert the analyte-receptor recognition event into a measurable signal. We review recent work aimed at developing synthetic fluorescent molecular sensors for a variety of analytes, based on peptidic receptors labeled with environmentally sensitive fluorophores. Fluorescent indicators based on synthetic peptides are highly interesting alternatives to protein-based sensors, since they can be synthesized chemically, are stable, and can be easily modified in a site-specific manner for fluorophore coupling and for immobilization on solid supports.

  1. Optical sensor array platform based on polymer electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetse, Marc M.; Rensing, Peter A.; Sharpe, Ruben B. A.; van Heck, Gert T.; Allard, Bart A. M.; Meulendijks, Nicole N. M. M.; Kruijt, Peter G. M.; Tijdink, Marcel W. W. J.; De Zwart, René M.; Houben, René J.; Enting, Erik; van Veen, Sjaak J. J. F.; Schoo, Herman F. M.

    2007-10-01

    Monitoring of personal wellbeing and optimizing human performance are areas where sensors have only begun to be used. One of the reasons for this is the specific demands that these application areas put on the underlying technology and system properties. In many cases these sensors will be integrated in clothing, be worn on the skin, or may even be placed inside the body. This implies that flexibility and wearability of the systems is essential for their success. Devices based on polymer semiconductors allow for these demands since they can be fabricated with thin film technology. The use of thin film device technology allows for the fabrication of very thin sensors (e.g. integrated in food product packaging), flexible or bendable sensors in wearables, large area/distributed sensors, and intrinsically low-cost applications in disposable products. With thin film device technology a high level of integration can be achieved with parts that analyze signals, process and store data, and interact over a network. Integration of all these functions will inherently lead to better cost/performance ratios, especially if printing and other standard polymer technology such as high precision moulding is applied for the fabrication. In this paper we present an optical transmission sensor array based on polymer semiconductor devices made by thin film technology. The organic devices, light emitting diodes, photodiodes and selective medium chip, are integrated with classic electronic components. Together they form a versatile sensor platform that allows for the quantitative measurement of 100 channels and communicates wireless with a computer. The emphasis is given to the sensor principle, the design, fabrication technology and integration of the thin film devices.

  2. Application of a sensor array based on capillary-attached conductive gas sensors for odor identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahraminejad, Behzad; Basri, Shahnor; Isa, Maryam; Hambali, Zarida

    2010-01-01

    An electronic nose based on an array of capillary-attached conductive gas sensors was fabricated. The identification ability of the developed structure was investigated by employing different categories of simple and complex odor databases. Feature data sets were generated from the dynamic and steady state responses of the sensor array to the applied odor databases. Combinations of different feature extraction and classification methods were used to detect target gases. Validation of each technique was evaluated. Achievements of the study proved high classification rates of the fabricated e-nose in odor identification. It was indicated that gas identification is possible by applying the early selected portion of transient responses of the developed sensor array. The ability of the mentioned structure in analyzing gas mixtures was also investigated. The results presented high accuracy in the classification of gas mixtures

  3. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosteo, S.; Curzio, G.; d'Errico, F.; Nath, R.; Tinti, R.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in 10B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast neutron beam, generated by 7 MeV deuterons impinging on a thick target of beryllium. The neutron field was characterized at several deuteron energies (3.0-6.5 MeV) in an experimental structure installed at the Van De Graaff accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, in Italy. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluences were measured with activation techniques and fast neutron spectra were determined with superheated drop detectors (SDD). These neutron spectrometry and dosimetry studies indicated that the fast neutron dose is unacceptably high in the current design. Modifications to the current design to overcome this problem are presented.

  4. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  5. Two reports: (i) Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission. (ii) Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.M.; Isaev, S.G.; Goverdovski, A.A.; Pshakin, G.M.

    1998-10-01

    The document includes the following two reports: 'Correlation properties of delayed neutrons from fast neutron induced fission' and 'Method and set-up for measurements of trace level content of heavy fissionable elements based on delayed neutron counting. A separate abstract was prepared for each report

  6. Range-Based Localization in Mobile Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dil, B.J.; Dil, B.; Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Romer, K.; Karl, H.; Mattern, F.

    2006-01-01

    Localization schemes for wireless sensor networks can be classified as range-based or range-free. They differ in the information used for localization. Range-based methods use range measurements, while range-free techniques only use the content of the messages. None of the existing algorithms

  7. Aptamer based electrochemical sensors for emerging environmental pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar eHAYAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contaminants monitoring is one of the key issues in understanding and managing hazards to human health and ecosystems. In this context, aptamer based electrochemical sensors have achieved intense significance because of their capability to resolve a potentially large number of problems and challenges in environmental contamination. An aptasensor is a compact analytical device incorporating an aptamer (oligonulceotide as the sensing element either integrated within or intimately associated with a physiochemical transducer surface. Nucleic acid is well known for the function of carrying and passing genetic information, however, it has found a key role in analytical monitoring during recent years. Aptamer based sensors represent a novelty in environmental analytical science and there are great expectations for their promising performance as alternative to conventional analytical tools. This review paper focuses on the recent advances in the development of aptamer based electrochemical sensors for environmental applications with special emphasis on emerging pollutants.

  8. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hye-Mi; Sim, Jin Woo; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun; Chang, Won Seok

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate

  9. Carbon nanotube based pressure sensor for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Hye-Mi [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Jin Woo [Advanced Nano Technology Ltd., Seoul 132-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jinhyeong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jongju; Baik, Seunghyun [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Department of Energy Science and School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Won Seok, E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Nanomechanical Systems Research Division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The electromechanical change of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. • Fabrication of CNT field-effect transistor on flexible substrate. • CNT based FET integrated active pressure sensor. • The integrated device yields an increase in the source-drain current under pressure. - Abstract: A pressure sensor was developed based on an arrangement of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) supported by a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The VACNTs embedded in the PDMS matrix were structurally flexible and provided repeated sensing operation due to the high elasticities of both the polymer and the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The conductance increased in the presence of a loading pressure, which compressed the material and induced contact between neighboring CNTs, thereby producing a dense current path and better CNT/metal contacts. To achieve flexible functional electronics, VACNTs based pressure sensor was integrated with field-effect transistor, which is fabricated using sprayed semiconducting carbon nanotubes on plastic substrate.

  10. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U.

    2017-11-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  11. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, Necip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Yola, Mehmet Lütfi, E-mail: mehmetyola@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sinop University, Sinop (Turkey); Eren, Tanju [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey)

    2016-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of citrinin. • The nanomaterial and citrinin-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods. - Abstract: In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10{sup −12}–1.0 × 10{sup −10} M and 2.0 × 10{sup −13} M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  12. Sensitive determination of citrinin based on molecular imprinted electrochemical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Necip; Yola, Mehmet Lütfi; Eren, Tanju

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is developed for the sensitive detection of citrinin. • The nanomaterial and citrinin-imprinted surfaces were characterized by several methods. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is sensitive and selective in analysis of food. • Citrinin-imprinted electrochemical sensor is preferred to the other methods. - Abstract: In this report, a novel molecular imprinted voltammetric sensor based on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) involved in a polyoxometalate (H_3PW_1_2O_4_0, POM) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was prepared for the determination of citrinin (CIT). The developed surfaces were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. CIT imprinted GCE was prepared via electropolymerization process of 80.0 mM pyrrole as monomer in the presence of phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) containing 20.0 mM CIT. The linearity range and the detection limit of the developed method were calculated as 1.0 × 10"−"1"2–1.0 × 10"−"1"0 M and 2.0 × 10"−"1"3 M, respectively. In addition, the voltammetric sensor was applied to rye samples. The stability and selectivity of the voltammetric sensor were also reported.

  13. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Manjarrez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration.

  14. Ionic Liquid based polymer electrolytes for electrochemical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Altšmíd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric NO2 printed sensor with a new type of solid polymer electrolyte and a carbon working electrode has been developed. The electrolytes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [EMIM][N(Tf2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF4] ionic liquids were immobilized in poly(vinylidene fluoride matrix [PVDF]. The analyte, gaseous nitrogen dioxide, was detected by reduction at -500 mV vs. platinum pseudoreference electrode. The sensors showed a linear behavior in the whole tested range, i.e., 0 - 5 ppm and their sensitivities were in order of 0.3 x∙10-6 A/ppm. The sensor sensitivity was influenced by the electric conductivity of printing formulation; the higher the conductivity, the higher the sensor sensitivity. The rise/recovery times were in order of tens of seconds. The use of  screen printing technology and platinum pseudoreference electrode simplify the sensor fabrication and it does not have any negative effect on the sensor stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7371

  15. Resonant Magnetic Field Sensors Based On MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz A.; García-Ramírez, Pedro J.; Manjarrez, Elías

    2009-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows the integration of magnetic field sensors with electronic components, which presents important advantages such as small size, light weight, minimum power consumption, low cost, better sensitivity and high resolution. We present a discussion and review of resonant magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. In practice, these sensors exploit the Lorentz force in order to detect external magnetic fields through the displacement of resonant structures, which are measured with optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive sensing techniques. From these, the optical sensing presents immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and reduces the read-out electronic complexity. Moreover, piezoresistive sensing requires an easy fabrication process as well as a standard packaging. A description of the operation mechanisms, advantages and drawbacks of each sensor is considered. MEMS magnetic field sensors are a potential alternative for numerous applications, including the automotive industry, military, medical, telecommunications, oceanographic, spatial, and environment science. In addition, future markets will need the development of several sensors on a single chip for measuring different parameters such as the magnetic field, pressure, temperature and acceleration. PMID:22408480

  16. Optimization of modal filters based on arrays of piezoelectric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, Carlos C Jr; Trindade, Marcelo A

    2009-01-01

    Modal filters may be obtained by a properly designed weighted sum of the output signals of an array of sensors distributed on the host structure. Although several research groups have been interested in techniques for designing and implementing modal filters based on a given array of sensors, the effect of the array topology on the effectiveness of the modal filter has received much less attention. In particular, it is known that some parameters, such as size, shape and location of a sensor, are very important in determining the observability of a vibration mode. Hence, this paper presents a methodology for the topological optimization of an array of sensors in order to maximize the effectiveness of a set of selected modal filters. This is done using a genetic algorithm optimization technique for the selection of 12 piezoceramic sensors from an array of 36 piezoceramic sensors regularly distributed on an aluminum plate, which maximize the filtering performance, over a given frequency range, of a set of modal filters, each one aiming to isolate one of the first vibration modes. The vectors of the weighting coefficients for each modal filter are evaluated using QR decomposition of the complex frequency response function matrix. Results show that the array topology is not very important for lower frequencies but it greatly affects the filter effectiveness for higher frequencies. Therefore, it is possible to improve the effectiveness and frequency range of a set of modal filters by optimizing the topology of an array of sensors. Indeed, using 12 properly located piezoceramic sensors bonded on an aluminum plate it is shown that the frequency range of a set of modal filters may be enlarged by 25–50%

  17. Adaptive inferential sensors based on evolving fuzzy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Plamen; Kordon, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    A new technique to the design and use of inferential sensors in the process industry is proposed in this paper, which is based on the recently introduced concept of evolving fuzzy models (EFMs). They address the challenge that the modern process industry faces today, namely, to develop such adaptive and self-calibrating online inferential sensors that reduce the maintenance costs while keeping the high precision and interpretability/transparency. The proposed new methodology makes possible inferential sensors to recalibrate automatically, which reduces significantly the life-cycle efforts for their maintenance. This is achieved by the adaptive and flexible open-structure EFM used. The novelty of this paper lies in the following: (1) the overall concept of inferential sensors with evolving and self-developing structure from the data streams; (2) the new methodology for online automatic selection of input variables that are most relevant for the prediction; (3) the technique to detect automatically a shift in the data pattern using the age of the clusters (and fuzzy rules); (4) the online standardization technique used by the learning procedure of the evolving model; and (5) the application of this innovative approach to several real-life industrial processes from the chemical industry (evolving inferential sensors, namely, eSensors, were used for predicting the chemical properties of different products in The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, TX). It should be noted, however, that the methodology and conclusions of this paper are valid for the broader area of chemical and process industries in general. The results demonstrate that well-interpretable and with-simple-structure inferential sensors can automatically be designed from the data stream in real time, which predict various process variables of interest. The proposed approach can be used as a basis for the development of a new generation of adaptive and evolving inferential sensors that can address the

  18. Development and characterization of a neutron detector based on a lithium glass–polymer composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Kukharev, V.; Foster, A.; Meddeb, A. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Trivelpiece, C. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ounaies, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jovanovic, I., E-mail: ijovanovic@psu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-06-11

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a neutron scintillation detector based on a Li-glass–polymer composite that utilizes a combination of pulse height and pulse shape discrimination (PSD) to achieve high gamma rejection. In contrast to fast neutron detection in a PSD medium, we combine two scintillating materials that do not possess inherent neutron/gamma PSD properties to achieve effective PSD/pulse height discrimination in a composite material. Unlike recoil-based fast neutron detection, neutron/gamma discrimination can be robust even at low neutron energies due to the high Q-value neutron capture on {sup 6}Li. A cylindrical detector with a 5.05 cm diameter and 5.08 cm height was fabricated from scintillating 1 mm diameter Li-glass rods and scintillating polyvinyltoluene. The intrinsic efficiency for incident fission neutrons from {sup 252}Cf and gamma rejection of the detector were measured to be 0.33% and less than 10{sup −8}, respectively. These results demonstrate the high selectivity of the detector for neutrons and provide motivation for prototyping larger detectors optimized for specific applications, such as detection and event-by-event spectrometry of neutrons produced by fission.

  19. Monte Carlo N-particle simulation of neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Xu, J; Liu, T; Ouyang, X

    2012-10-01

    To simulate the neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination by Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) 4C code. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge. They are 20 times more effective than electrons or γ-rays in killing anthrax spores on surfaces and inside closed containers. Neutrons emitted from a (252)Cf neutron source are in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A 2.5 MeV D-D neutron generator can create neutrons at up to 10(13) n s(-1) with current technology. All these enable an effective and low-cost method of killing anthrax spores. There is no effect on neutron energy deposition on the anthrax sample when using a reflector that is thicker than its saturation thickness. Among all three reflecting materials tested in the MCNP simulation, paraffin is the best because it has the thinnest saturation thickness and is easy to machine. The MCNP radiation dose and fluence simulation calculation also showed that the MCNP-simulated neutron fluence that is needed to kill the anthrax spores agrees with previous analytical estimations very well. The MCNP simulation indicates that a 10 min neutron irradiation from a 0.5 g (252)Cf neutron source or a 1 min neutron irradiation from a 2.5 MeV D-D neutron generator may kill all anthrax spores in a sample. This is a promising result because a 2.5 MeV D-D neutron generator output >10(13) n s(-1) should be attainable in the near future. This indicates that we could use a D-D neutron generator to sterilise anthrax contamination within several seconds.

  20. Towards Scalable Strain Gauge-Based Joint Torque Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Imperio, Mariapaola; Cannella, Ferdinando; Caldwell, Darwin G.; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    During recent decades, strain gauge-based joint torque sensors have been commonly used to provide high-fidelity torque measurements in robotics. Although measurement of joint torque/force is often required in engineering research and development, the gluing and wiring of strain gauges used as torque sensors pose difficulties during integration within the restricted space available in small joints. The problem is compounded by the need for a scalable geometric design to measure joint torque. In this communication, we describe a novel design of a strain gauge-based mono-axial torque sensor referred to as square-cut torque sensor (SCTS), the significant features of which are high degree of linearity, symmetry, and high scalability in terms of both size and measuring range. Most importantly, SCTS provides easy access for gluing and wiring of the strain gauges on sensor surface despite the limited available space. We demonstrated that the SCTS was better in terms of symmetry (clockwise and counterclockwise rotation) and more linear. These capabilities have been shown through finite element modeling (ANSYS) confirmed by observed data obtained by load testing experiments. The high performance of SCTS was confirmed by studies involving changes in size, material and/or wings width and thickness. Finally, we demonstrated that the SCTS can be successfully implementation inside the hip joints of miniaturized hydraulically actuated quadruped robot-MiniHyQ. This communication is based on work presented at the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots (CLAWAR). PMID:28820446

  1. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Li, Xiao-Bo; Lopa, Nasrin Siraj; Ahn, Sang Jung; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective. PMID:25664436

  2. Electrochemical DNA Hybridization Sensors Based on Conducting Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahbubur Rahman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymers (CPs are a group of polymeric materials that have attracted considerable attention because of their unique electronic, chemical, and biochemical properties. This is reflected in their use in a wide range of potential applications, including light-emitting diodes, anti-static coating, electrochromic materials, solar cells, chemical sensors, biosensors, and drug-release systems. Electrochemical DNA sensors based on CPs can be used in numerous areas related to human health. This review summarizes the recent progress made in the development and use of CP-based electrochemical DNA hybridization sensors. We discuss the distinct properties of CPs with respect to their use in the immobilization of probe DNA on electrode surfaces, and we describe the immobilization techniques used for developing DNA hybridization sensors together with the various transduction methods employed. In the concluding part of this review, we present some of the challenges faced in the use of CP-based DNA hybridization sensors, as well as a future perspective.

  3. Progress in triboluminescence-based smart optical sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olawale, David O.; Dickens, Tarik; Sullivan, William G.; Okoli, Okenwa I.; Sobanjo, John O.; Wang, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research work has been done in recent times to apply the triboluminescence (TL) phenomenon for damage detection in engineering structures. Of particular note are the various attempts to apply it in the detection of impact damages in composites and aerospace structures. This is because TL-based sensor systems have a great potential for wireless, in-situ and distributed (WID) structural health monitoring when fully developed. This review article highlights development and the current state-of-the-art in the application of TL-based sensor systems. The underlying mechanisms believed to be responsible for triboluminescence, particularly in zinc sulfide manganese, a highly triboluminescent material, are discussed. The challenges militating against the full exploitation and field application of TL sensor systems are also identified. Finally, viable solutions and approaches to address these challenges are enumerated. - Highlights: → The underlying mechanisms believed to be responsible for triboluminescence. → State-of-the-art in the development and application of TL-based sensor systems. → The challenges militating against the full exploitation and field application of TL sensor systems are identified. → Viable solutions and approaches to address these challenges are enumerated.

  4. Optimisation of the neutron source based on gas dynamic trap for transmutation of radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, Andrey V.

    2012-06-01

    The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in collaboration with the Russian and foreign organizations develop the project of 14 MeV neutron source, which can be used for fusion material studies and for other application. The projected neutron source of plasma type is based on the plasma Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT), which is a special magnetic mirror system for plasma confinement. Presented work continues the subject of development the GDT-based neutron source (GDT-NS) for hybrid fusion-fission reactors. The paper presents the results of recent numerical optimization of such neutron source for transmutation of the long-lives radioactive wastes in spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Optical Sensors based on Raman Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernshøj, Kit Drescher

    Formålet med denne afhandling er at give en systematisk og uddybende videnskabelig diskussion af molekylær Raman spredning, som kan danne grundlag for udviklingen af molekylespecifikke optiske sensorer til on-site, ikke-destruktiv måling. Afhandlingen falder i tre dele, to teoriafsnit, hvor første...... del omhandler den tilgangelige molekylære information ved overfladeforstærket resonans Raman spredning (SERRS), samt hvordan adgangen til denne information kan optimeres. Anden del omhandler, hvordan det molekylære informationsindhold kan forøges ved at kombinere polariserede Raman og resonans Raman...... målinger på frie molekyler med multivariat analyse. I tredje og sidste del, som er et eksperimentelt afsnit, præsenteres og diskuteres overfladeforstærkede Raman målinger (SERS) på tre udvalgte pesticider. Afhandlingen indledes med en diskussion af teorien bag SERRS med speciel fokus på den molekylære...

  6. Fast humidity sensors based on CeO2 nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, X Q; Wang, C; Yu, H C; Wang, Y G; Wang, T H

    2007-01-01

    Fast humidity sensors are reported that are based on CeO 2 nanowires synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Both the response and recovery time are about 3 s, and are independent of the humidity. The sensitivity increases gradually as the humidity increases, and is up to 85 at 97% RH. The resistance decreases exponentially with increasing humidity, implying ion-type conductivity as the humidity sensing mechanism. A model based on the morphology and surface energy of the nanowires is given to explain these results further. Our experimental results indicate a pathway to improving the performance of humidity sensors

  7. Measurement of angular distribution of neutron flux for the 6 MeV race-track microtron based pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T.; Pethe, S.N.; Krishnan, R. [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-09-15

    The 6 MeV race track microtron based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products, where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. Electrons impinges on a e-{gamma} target to generate bremsstrahlung radiations, which further produces neutrons by photonuclear reaction in {gamma}-n target. The optimisation of these targets along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium at different scattering angles. Angular distribution of neutron flux indicates that the flux decreases with increase in the angle and are in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation.

  8. Microcomputer-based pneumatic controller for neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Sand, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    A microcomputer-based pneumatic controller for neutron activation analysis was designed and built at the Savannah River Laboratory for analysis of large numbers of geologic samples for locating potential supplies of uranium ore for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. In this system, commercially available microcomputer logic modules are used to transport sample capsules through a network of pressurized air lines. The logic modules are interfaced to pneumatic valves, solenoids, and photo-optical detectors. The system operates from programs stored in firmware (permanent software). It also commands a minicomputer and a hard-wired pulse height analyzer for data collection and bookkeeping tasks. The advantage of the system is that major system changes can be implemented in the firmware with no hardware changes. This report describes the hardware, firmware, and software for the electronics system

  9. Data acquisition system for linear PSD based neutron diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, S.S.; Borkar, S.P.; Behere, Anita; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Single or multi-PSD configurations are used in different neutron diffractometer setups. A data acquisition system is developed to serve the gross requirements of all the diffractometer setups. It is also customized to specific requirements of different setups. The hardware is developed as a Transputer based add-on card. Most of the hardware functionality is handled in the Transputer program thus improving throughput of the system. The card can handle 16 RDCs, a few motor controls and on/off controls. The software comprises of a front-end Windows98 application, a Transputer program and a device driver. The data acquisition system performs data acquisition, analysis, display and storage. Analysis includes converting raw data of linear PSD to equiangular format, merging and clubbing the data to make a continuous equiangular spectrum. Calibration of individual PSD is a crucial activity in correctly merging the data coming from PSDs. (author)

  10. Kernel-based noise filtering of neutron detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Moon Ghu; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Eun Ki

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes recently developed techniques for effective filtering of neutron detector signal noise. In this paper, three kinds of noise filters are proposed and their performance is demonstrated for the estimation of reactivity. The tested filters are based on the unilateral kernel filter, unilateral kernel filter with adaptive bandwidth and bilateral filter to show their effectiveness in edge preservation. Filtering performance is compared with conventional low-pass and wavelet filters. The bilateral filter shows a remarkable improvement compared with unilateral kernel and wavelet filters. The effectiveness and simplicity of the unilateral kernel filter with adaptive bandwidth is also demonstrated by applying it to the reactivity measurement performed during reactor start-up physics tests

  11. A FIFO based neutron arrival time collection technique for assay of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, R.; Saisubalakshmi, D.; Venkatasubramani, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The system assays plutonium by counting the time correlated neutrons emitted by the spontaneous fissions of the even-even Pu isotopes in the presence of random neutron background, originating principally from (a,n) reactions in the material. The correlation technique discussed in this paper utilizes twofold neutron coincidence counting but the system is proposed to be enhanced for neutron multiplicity counting. A microcontroller based data acquisition system has been developed using a couple of fast FIFO 2kX9 bit memory ICs and a 16 bit counter for identifying time-correlated neutrons. Since the neutron pulses are arriving at a rapid rate, the incoming pulses are buffered in the FIFO and then transferred to PC by the microcontroller through the parallel port. The correlation analysis based on this time arrival information is done in the PC off-line. (author)

  12. Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is...Final Technical Report BRBAA08-Per5-Y-1-2-0030 Title: “Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination ” Grant...Analysis  .............................................................................................  23   6.   Gamma-ray Discrimination

  13. Flexible Graphene-Based Wearable Gas and Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Eric; Meyyappan, M; Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2017-10-11

    Wearable electronics is expected to be one of the most active research areas in the next decade; therefore, nanomaterials possessing high carrier mobility, optical transparency, mechanical robustness and flexibility, lightweight, and environmental stability will be in immense demand. Graphene is one of the nanomaterials that fulfill all these requirements, along with other inherently unique properties and convenience to fabricate into different morphological nanostructures, from atomically thin single layers to nanoribbons. Graphene-based materials have also been investigated in sensor technologies, from chemical sensing to detection of cancer biomarkers. The progress of graphene-based flexible gas and chemical sensors in terms of material preparation, sensor fabrication, and their performance are reviewed here. The article provides a brief introduction to graphene-based materials and their potential applications in flexible and stretchable wearable electronic devices. The role of graphene in fabricating flexible gas sensors for the detection of various hazardous gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), hydrogen (H 2 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and humidity in wearable technology, is discussed. In addition, applications of graphene-based materials are also summarized in detecting toxic heavy metal ions (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including nitrobenzene, toluene, acetone, formaldehyde, amines, phenols, bisphenol A (BPA), explosives, chemical warfare agents, and environmental pollutants. The sensitivity, selectivity and strategies for excluding interferents are also discussed for graphene-based gas and chemical sensors. The challenges for developing future generation of flexible and stretchable sensors for wearable technology that would be usable for the Internet of Things (IoT) are also highlighted.

  14. On the e-linac-based neutron yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatyan, G.G.; Nikolenko, V.G.; Popov, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    We treat neutron generating in high atomic number materials due to the photonuclear reactions induced by the Bremsstrahlung of an electron beam produced by linear electron accelerator (e-linac). The dependence of neutron yield on the electron energy and the irradiated sample size is considered for various sample materials. The calculations are performed without resort to the so-called 'numerical Monte Carlo simulation'. The acquired neutron yields are well correlated with the data asserted in investigations performed at a number of the e-linac-driven neutron sources

  15. CMOS-Based Neutron Spectroscopic Dosimeter (CNSD), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monitoring space radiation and the dose received by astronauts is important, especially for future long-duration missions. Neutrons contribute a significant...

  16. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Cain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package.

  17. Validation of Underwater Sensor Package Using Feature Based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Christopher; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Robotic vehicles working in new, unexplored environments must be able to locate themselves in the environment while constructing a picture of the objects in the environment that could act as obstacles that would prevent the vehicles from completing their desired tasks. In enclosed environments, underwater range sensors based off of acoustics suffer performance issues due to reflections. Additionally, their relatively high cost make them less than ideal for usage on low cost vehicles designed to be used underwater. In this paper we propose a sensor package composed of a downward facing camera, which is used to perform feature tracking based visual odometry, and a custom vision-based two dimensional rangefinder that can be used on low cost underwater unmanned vehicles. In order to examine the performance of this sensor package in a SLAM framework, experimental tests are performed using an unmanned ground vehicle and two feature based SLAM algorithms, the extended Kalman filter based approach and the Rao-Blackwellized, particle filter based approach, to validate the sensor package. PMID:26999142

  18. Prediction-based Dynamic Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Ma, Jun-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Dao-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption is a critical constraint in wireless sensor networks. Focusing on the energy efficiency problem of wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a method of prediction-based dynamic energy management. A particle filter was introduced to predict a target state, which was adopted to awaken wireless sensor nodes so that their sleep time was prolonged. With the distributed computing capability of nodes, an optimization approach of distributed genetic algorithm and simulated annealing was proposed to minimize the energy consumption of measurement. Considering the application of target tracking, we implemented target position prediction, node sleep scheduling and optimal sensing node selection. Moreover, a routing scheme of forwarding nodes was presented to achieve extra energy conservation. Experimental results of target tracking verified that energy-efficiency is enhanced by prediction-based dynamic energy management.

  19. Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Grid Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the key issues for wireless sensor network trust model and describes a method to build a wireless sensor network, such as the definition of trust for wireless sensor networks, computing and credibility of trust model application. And for the problem that nodes are vulnerable to attack, this paper proposed a grid-based trust algorithm by deep exploration trust model within the framework of credit management. Algorithm for node reliability screening and rotation schedule to cover parallel manner based on the implementation of the nodes within the area covered by trust. And analyze the results of the size of trust threshold has great influence on the safety and quality of coverage throughout the coverage area. The simulation tests the validity and correctness of the algorithm.

  20. Optical Graphene Gas Sensors Based on Microfibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has become a bridge across optoelectronics, mechanics, and bio-chemical sensing due to its unique photoelectric characteristics. Moreover, benefiting from its two-dimensional nature, this atomically thick film with full flexibility has been widely incorporated with optical waveguides such as fibers, realizing novel photonic devices including polarizers, lasers, and sensors. Among the graphene-based optical devices, sensor is one of the most important branch, especially for gas sensing, as rapid progress has been made in both sensing structures and devices in recent years. This article presents a comprehensive and systematic overview of graphene-based microfiber gas sensors regarding many aspects including sensing principles, properties, fabrication, interrogating and implementations.

  1. Nanomaterials-based electrochemical sensors for nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xueping; Hu, Hui; Wang, Shengfu; Hu, Shengshui

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical sensing has been demonstrated to represent an efficient way to quantify nitric oxide (NO) in challenging physiological environments. A sensing interface based on nanomaterials opens up new opportunities and broader prospects for electrochemical NO sensors. This review (with 141 refs.) gives a general view of recent advances in the development of electrochemical sensors based on nanomaterials. It is subdivided into sections on (i) carbon derived nanomaterials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphenes, fullerenes), (ii) metal nanoparticles (including gold, platinum and other metallic nanoparticles); (iii) semiconductor metal oxide nanomaterials (including the oxides of titanium, aluminum, iron, and ruthenium); and finally (iv) nanocomposites (such as those formed from carbon nanomaterials with nanoparticles of gold, platinum, NiO or TiO 2 ). The various strategies are discussed, and the advances of using nanomaterials and the trends in NO sensor technology are outlooked in the final section. (author)

  2. Prediction-based Dynamic Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a critical constraint in wireless sensor networks. Focusing on the energy efficiency problem of wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes a method of prediction-based dynamic energy management. A particle filter was introduced to predict a target state, which was adopted to awaken wireless sensor nodes so that their sleep time was prolonged. With the distributed computing capability of nodes, an optimization approach of distributed genetic algorithm and simulated annealing was proposed to minimize the energy consumption of measurement. Considering the application of target tracking, we implemented target position prediction, node sleep scheduling and optimal sensing node selection. Moreover, a routing scheme of forwarding nodes was presented to achieve extra energy conservation. Experimental results of target tracking verified that energy-efficiency is enhanced by prediction-based dynamic energy management.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Based Impedimentric Sensor for Theophylline Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratautaite, Vilma; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Haenen, Ken; Nesládek, Milos; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Baleviciute, Ieva; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensor based on polypyrrole imprinted by theophylline (MIP) deposited on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond was developed. • This structure was applied as impedimetric sensor sensitive for theophylline. • Optimal polymer formation conditions suitable for MIP formation were elaborated. • Some analytical parameters were determined and evaluated. - Abstract: In this study development of impedimetric sensor based on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD:O) modified with theophylline imprinted polypyrrole is described. Hydrogen peroxide induced chemical formation of polypyrrole molecularly imprinted by theophylline was applied for the modification of conducting silicon substrate covered by B:NCD:O film. Non-imprinted polypyrrole layer was formed on similar substrate in order to prove efficiency of imprinted polypyrrole. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied for the evaluation of analyte-induced changes in electrochemical capacitance/resistance. The impact of polymerization duration on the capacitance of impedimetric sensor was estimated. A different impedance behavior was observed at different ratio of polymerized monomer and template molecule in the polymerization media. The influence of ethanol as additive to polymerization media on registered changes in capacitance/resistance was evaluated. Degradation of sensor stored in buffer solution was evaluated

  4. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  5. MEMS-based sensors for post-earthquake damage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, M; Zonta, D; Trapani, D [DIMS, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123, Trento (Italy); Athanasopoulos, N; Garetsos, A; Stratakos, Y E [Advanced Microwave Systems Ltd, 2, 25th Martiou Street, 17778 Athens (Greece); Amditis, A J; Bimpas, M [ICCS, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, 15773 Zografou (Greece); Ulieru, D, E-mail: daniele.zonta@unitn.it [SITEX 45 SRL, 114 Ghica Tei Blvd, 72235 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-19

    The evaluation of seismic damage is today almost exclusively based on visual inspection, as building owners are generally reluctant to install permanent sensing systems, due to their high installation, management and maintenance costs. To overcome this limitation, the EU-funded MEMSCON project aims to produce small size sensing nodes for measurement of strain and acceleration, integrating Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags in a single package that will be attached to reinforced concrete buildings and will transmit data using a wireless interface. During the first phase of the project completed so far, sensor prototypes were produced by assembling preexisting components. This paper outlines the device operating principles, production scheme and operation at both unit and network levels. It also reports on validation campaigns conducted in the laboratory to assess system performance. Accelerometer sensors were tested on a reduced scale metal frame mounted on a shaking table, while strain sensors were embedded in both reduced and full-scale reinforced concrete specimens undergoing increasing deformation cycles up to extensive damage and collapse. The performance of the sensors developed for the project and their applicability to long-term seismic monitoring are discussed.

  6. Commercial Applications at FRM II Based on Neutron Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberg, H.; Draack, A.; Kastenmuller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its design as a heavy water moderated reactor with a very compact core FRM II, Germany's most modern and most powerful research reactor, offers excellent conditions for basic research using beam tubes. On the other hand it is equipped with various irradiation facilities to be used mainly for industrial purposes. From the very beginning of reactor operation a dedicated department had been implemented in order to provide a neutron irradiation service to interested parties on a commercial basis. As of today the most widely used application is Si doping. The semiautomatic doping facility accepts ingots with diameters between 125 mm and 200 mm and a maximum height of 500 mm. The irradiation channel is located deep in the heavy water tank and exhibits a ratio of thermal/fast neutron flux density of > 1000. This value allows the doping of Si to a target resistivity as high as 1100 Ωcm within the tight limits regarding accuracy and homogeneity specified by the customer. Typically the throughput of Si doped in FRM II sums up to about 15 t/year. Another topic of growing importance is the use of FRM II aiming the production of radioisotopes mainly for the radiopharmaceutical industry. The maybe most challenging example is the production of Lu-177 n. c. a. based on the irradiation of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to a high fluence of thermal neutrons of typically 1.5E20 cm{sup -2}. The Lu-177 activity delivered to the customer is in the range of 750 GBq. With respect to further processing it turned out to be a highly advantageous to have the laboratories of ITG, the company extracting the Lu-177 from the freshly irradiated Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} on site FRM II. Further irradiation facilities are available at FRM II in order to allow the activation of samples for analytical purposes or to irradiate samples for geochronological investigations using the fission track technique. Finally a project on the future installation of a facility dedicated to the irradiation of U-targets for

  7. New thermal neutron solid-state electronic detector based on HgI2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamud, M.; Burshtein, Z.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development of a new solid-state electronic neutron detector, based on HgI 2 single crystals. Incident neutrons are absorbed in high neutron absorbing foils, such as cadmium or gadolinium, which are placed in front of a HgI 2 detector. Gamma rays, emitted as a result of the neutron absorbtion, are then absorbed in the HgI 2 , generating free charge carriers, which are collected by the electric field. The advantage of this system lies in it's manufacturing simplicity, low weight and small physical dimensions, compared to gas-filled conventional neutron detectors. The disadvantage is that the system does not discriminate between gamma rays and neutrons. A method to minimize this disadvantage is pointed out. It is as well possible to count neutrons by direct exposure of the HgI 2 to neutrons. The neutron-to-gamma transformation in that case takes place by the material nuclei themselves. This method, however, is impractical due to the interference of delayed radioactivity whose origin are 129 I nuclei. They are generated from 128 I by absorbing a neutron, and decay with a 25 min half lifetime involving gamma emissions. (author)

  8. A neutron amplifier: prospects for reactor-based waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanovsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    A design concept and characteristics for an epithermal breeder controlled by variable feedback and external neutron source intensity are presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform radioactive waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors (HFSR) that have primary system size, power density and cost comparable to a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Another approach for actinide transmutation is a molten salt subcritical reactor proposed by Russian scientists. To increase neutron source intensity the HFSR is divided into two zones: a booster and a blanket with solid and liquid fuels. A neutron gate (absorber and moderator) imposed between two zones permits fast neutrons from the booster to flow to the blanket. Neutrons moving in the reverse direction are moderated and absorbed in the absorber zone. In the HFSR, neptunium-plutonium fuel is circulated in the booster and blanket, and americium-curium in the absorber zone and outer reflector. Use of a liquid actinide fuel permits transport of the delayed-neutron emitters from the blanket to the booster, where they can provide additional neutrons (source-dominated mode) or all the necessary excitation without an external neutron source (self-amplifying mode). With a blanket neutron multiplication gain of 20 and a booster gain of 50, an external neutron source rate of at least 10 15 n/s (0.7 MW D-T or 2.5 MW electron beam power) is needed to control the HFSR that produces 300 MWt. Most of the power could be generated in the blanket that burns about 100 kg of actinides a year. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of HFSR design aspects including the wave model of observed relativistic phenomena, plant seismic diagnostics, fission electric cells (FEC) with a multistage collector (anode) and layered cathode. (author)

  9. High performance liquid-level sensor based on mPOFBG for aircraft applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2015-01-01

    A high performance liquid-level sensor based on microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (mPOFBG) array sensors is reported in detail. The sensor sensitivity is found to be 98pm/cm of liquid, enhanced by more than a factor of 9 compared to a reported silica fiber-based sensor....

  10. Optical fiber pressure sensor based on fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongcao

    In oil field, it is important to measure the high pressure and temperature for down-hole oil exploration and well-logging, the available traditional electronic sensor is challenged due to the harsh, flammable environment. Recently, applications based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor in the oil industry have become a popular research because of its distinguishing advantages such as electrically passive operation, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high resolution, insensitivity to optical power fluctuation etc. This thesis is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the design of high pressure sensor based on FBG is described. Several sensing elements based on FBG for high pressure measurements have been proposed, for example bulk-modulus or free elastic modulus. But the structure of bulk-modulus and free elastic modulus is relatively complex and not easy to fabricate. In addition, the pressure sensitivity is not high and the repeatability of the structure has not been investigated. In this thesis, a novel host material of carbon fiber laminated composite (CFLC) for high pressure sensing is proposed. The mechanical characteristics including principal moduli in three directions and the shape repeatability are investigated. Because of it's Young's modulus in one direction and anisotropic characteristics, the pressure sensor made by CFLC has excellent sensitivity. This said structure can be used in very high pressure measurement due to carbon fiber composite's excellent shape repetition even under high pressure. The experimental results show high pressure sensitivity of 0.101nm/MPa and high pressure measurement up to 70MPa. A pressure sensor based on CFLC and FBG with temperature compensation has been designed. In the second section, the design of low pressure sensor based on FBG is demonstrated. Due to the trade off between measurement range and sensitivity, a sensor for lower pressure range needs more sensitivity. A novel material of carbon

  11. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-08-28

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  12. Image-Based Environmental Monitoring Sensor Application Using an Embedded Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyeup Paek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet’s built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  13. Prompt gamma-based neutron dosimetry for Am-Be and other workplace neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udupi, Ashwini; Panikkath, Priyada; Sarkar, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    A new field-deployable technique for estimating the neutron ambient dose equivalent H*(10) by using the measured prompt gamma intensities emitted from borated high-density polyethylene (BHDPE) and the combination of normal HDPE and BHDPE with different configurations have been evaluated in this work. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code has been employed to calculate the responses from the prompt gammas emitted due to the monoenergetic neutrons interacting with boron, hydrogen, and carbon nuclei. A suitable linear combination of these prompt gamma responses (dose conversion coefficient (DCC)-estimated) is generated to approximate the International Commission on Radiological Protection provided DCC using the cross-entropy minimization technique. In addition, the shape and configurations of the HDPE and BHDPE combined system are optimized using the FLUKA code simulation results. The proposed method is validated experimentally, as well as theoretically, using different workplace neutron spectra with a satisfactory outcome. (author)

  14. Recent Advances in Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM has gained exceptional importance in the fields of (biosensors, material science, environmental monitoring, and electrochemistry based on the phenomenal development in QCM-based sensing during the last two decades. This review provides an overview of recent advances made in QCM-based sensors, which have been widely employed in a plethora of applications for the detection of chemicals, biomolecules and microorganisms.

  15. CBHRP: A Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, M. G.; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, M. Sajjadur; Ullah, Sk. Enayet

    2012-01-01

    A new two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP) is proposed in this paper. It is an extension of LEACH routing protocol. We introduce cluster head-set idea for cluster-based routing where several clusters are formed with the deployed sensors to collect information from target field. On rotation basis, a head-set member receives data from the neighbor nodes and transmits the aggregated results to the distance base station. This protocol ...

  16. Study of photoconductor-based radiological image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumont, Francois

    1989-01-01

    Because of the evolution of medical imaging techniques to digital Systems, it is necessary to replace radiological film which has many drawbacks, by a detector quite as efficient and quickly giving a digitizable signal. The purpose of this thesis is to find new X-ray digital imaging processes using photoconductor materials such as amorphous selenium. After reviewing the principle of direct radiology and functions to be served by the X-ray sensor (i.e. detection, memory, assignment, visualization), we explain specification. We especially show the constraints due to the object to be radiographed (condition of minimal exposure), and to the reading signal (electronic noise detection associated with a reading frequency). As a result of this study, a first photoconductor sensor could be designed. Its principle is based on photo-carrier trapping at dielectric-photoconductor structure interface. The reading System needs the scanning of a laser beam upon the sensor surface. The dielectric-photoconductor structure enabled us to estimate the possibilities offered by the sensor and to build a complete x-ray imaging System. The originality of thermo-dielectric sensor, that was next studied, is to allow a thermal assignment reading. The chosen System consists in varying the ferroelectric polymer capacity whose dielectric permittivity is weak at room temperature. The thermo-dielectric material was studied by thermal or Joule effect stimulation. During our experiments, trapping was found in a sensor made of amorphous selenium between two electrodes. This new effect was performed and enabled us to expose a first interpretation. Eventually, the comparison of these new sensor concepts with radiological film shows the advantage of the proposed solution. (author) [fr

  17. The $\\mu$TPC Method: Improving the Position Resolution of Neutron Detectors Based on MPGDs

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Birch, Jens; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Höglund, Carina; Hultman, Lars; Iakovidis, George; Oliveri, Eraldo; Oksanen, Esko; Ropelewski, Leszek; Thuiner, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Due to the Helium-3 crisis, alternatives to the standard neutron detection techniques are becoming urgent. In addition, the instruments of the European Spallation Source (ESS) require advances in the state of the art of neutron detection. The instruments need detectors with excellent neutron detection efficiency, high-rate capabilities and unprecedented spatial resolution. The Macromolecular Crystallography instrument (NMX) requires a position resolution in the order of 200 um over a wide angular range of incoming neutrons. Solid converters in combination with Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) are proposed to meet the new requirements. Charged particles rising from the neutron capture have usually ranges larger than several millimetres in gas. This is apparently in contrast with the requirements for the position resolution. In this paper, we present an analysis technique, new in the field of neutron detection, based on the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) concept. Using a standard Single-GEM with the catho...

  18. Fast neutron spectrometry based on proton detection in CR-39 detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dajko, G.; Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a home-made proton-sensitive CR-39 track detector called MA-ND/p. Using this and the n-p scattering process the performance of a fast neutron spectrometer has been studied by applying two different methods. These are based on track density determinations by using varying radiator thicknesses at constant etching time and by using varying etching times at fixed radiator thickness, respectively. For both methods studied a computer programme is made to calculate the theoretically expected neutron sensitivity as a function of neutron energy. For both methods the neutron sensitivities, expressed in terms of observable etched proton tracks per neutron, are determined experimentally for 3.3 and 14.7 MeV neutron energies. The theoretical and experimental data obtained are compared.

  19. Fast neutron spectrometry based on proton detection in CR-39 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajko, G.; Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a home-made proton-sensitive CR-39 track detector called MA-ND/p. Using this and the n-p scattering process the performance of a fast neutron spectrometer has been studied by applying two different methods. These are based on track density determinations by using varying radiator thicknesses at constant etching time and by using varying etching times at fixed radiator thickness, respectively. For both methods studied a computer programme is made to calculate the theoretically expected neutron sensitivity as a function of neutron energy. For both methods the neutron sensitivities, expressed in terms of observable etched proton tracks per neutron, are determined experimentally for 3.3 and 14.7 MeV neutron energies. The theoretical and experimental data obtained are compared. (author)

  20. Response of LET spectrometer based on track etching at some neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Frantisek; Brabcova, Katerina; Jadrnickova, Iva

    2008-01-01

    There is still need to develop upgrade, and test further methods able to characterise the external exposure to neutrons. This contribution presents further results obtained with the goal to enlarge and upgrade the possibility of neutron dosimetry and microdosimetry with a LET spectrometer based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED). As TED we have used several types of polyallyldiglycolcarbonates (PADC). The PADC detectors have been exposed in: high energy neutron beams at iThemba facility, Cape Town, South Africa, and in monoenergetic neutron beams at JRC Geel, Belgium. The studies have been performed in the frame of the ESA supported project DOBIES. (author)

  1. Semiconductor-based electret sensors for sound and pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorthuyzen, J.A.; Bergveld, Piet; Sprenkels, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The theory and experimental results for integrated electret-based silicon sensors for the detection of sound and pressure are presented. A silicon electret microphone for use in hearing-aids is described. It has an experimentally determined sensitivity of 19 mV/Pa in the frequency range of 50 Hz to

  2. Connected Dominating Set Based Topology Control in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are now widely used for monitoring and controlling of systems where human intervention is not desirable or possible. Connected Dominating Sets (CDSs) based topology control in WSNs is one kind of hierarchical method to ensure sufficient coverage while reducing redundant connections in a relatively crowded network.…

  3. Durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The design of durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) is described. After modification of an ion-sensitive FET (ISFET) with a polysiloxane membrane matrix, it is possible to attach all electroactive components covalently. Preliminary results of measurements with a

  4. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Boyi [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Zhu, Yong, E-mail: y.zhu@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia); Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Dao, Dzung Viet [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  5. Novel rf power sensor based on capacitive MEMS technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, L.J.; Visser, Eelke; Sesé, J.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Flokstra, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We present the theory, design, fabrication of and first measurements on a novel power for radio frequency (rf) signals, based on capacitive measurements. The novelty of this sensor is thtat it measures the force that is created between the rf signal and a grounded membrande suspended above the line

  6. Hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium alloy nanosheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Boyi; Zhu, Yong; Chen, Youping; Song, Han; Huang, Pengcheng; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrogen sensor based on palladium-yttrium (Pd-Y) alloy nanosheet. Zigzag-shaped Pd-Y nanosheet with a thickness of 19.3 nm was deposited on a quartz substrate by using an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. The atomic ratio of palladium to yttrium in the nanosheet was 0.92/0.08. The fabrication process was simple and low-cost, and the sensor can be mass-produced. The experimental results show the sensor has a superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility. The resistive-based hydrogen detection mechanism in this research is much simpler and more compact compared to the optical-based detection method. - Highlights: • Pd-Y sensing element was fabricated using a magnetron sputtering system and shadow mask. • The Pd-Y compound consisted of 92% Pd and 8% Y. • The fabrication process was simple, low-cost, and mass-production compatible. • The sensor showed superior sensitivity, reversibility, and reproducibility to hydrogen gas. • The device is more compact than the optical-based counterpart.

  7. Activity recognition based on inertial sensors for ambient assisted living

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, K.; Owusu, E.; Bastani, V.; Marcenaro, L.; Hu, J.; Regazzoni, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) aims to create innovative technical solutions and services to support independent living among older adults, improve their quality of life and reduce the costs associated with health and social care. AAL systems provide health monitoring through sensor based

  8. Java-based mobile agent platforms for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, F.; Carbone, A.; Fortino, G.; Galzarano, S.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview and comparison of mobile agent platforms for the development of wireless sensor network applications. In particular, the architecture, programming model and basic performance of two Java-based agent platforms, Mobile Agent Platform for Sun SPOT (MAPS) and Agent

  9. Gamma-Free Neutron Detector Based upon Lithium Phosphate Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Wallace

    2007-01-01

    A gamma-free neutron-sensitive scintillator is needed to enhance radiation sensing and detection for nonproliferation applications. Such a scintillator would allow very large detectors to be placed at the perimeter of spent-fuel storage facilities at commercial nuclear power plants, so that any movement of spontaneously emitted neutrons from spent nuclear fuel or weapons grade plutonium would be noted in real-time. This task is to demonstrate that the technology for manufacturing large panels of fluor-doped plastic containing lithium-6 phosphate nanoparticles can be achieved. In order to detect neutrons, the nanoparticles must be sufficiently small so that the plastic remains transparent. In this way, the triton and alpha particles generated by the capture of the neutron will result in a photon burst that can be coupled to a wavelength shifting fiber (WLS) producing an optical signal of about ten nanoseconds duration signaling the presence of a neutron emitting source

  10. Advances in the development of Cr-39 based neutron dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    A combination thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and track etch dosimeter (TED), which can be used for detecting neutrons over a wide energy range, has been developed through recent research in passive neutron dosimetery. This dosimeter uses Li-600 TLDs to detect thermal and low energy neutrons reflected from the body, and the TED polymer of CR-39, to detect fast neutrons from proton recoil interactions with the polyethylene radiator or with CR-39 itself. Some form of the combination dosimeter is currently in use at several US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and its use is expected to expand over the next year to include all DOE facilities where significant neutron exposures may occur. The extensive research conducted on the TED component over the past six years has continually focused on material improvements, reduction in processing time and dosimeter handling, and ease of sample readout with the goal of automating the process as much as possible. 1 fig

  11. FLEXIBLE PH SENSOR WITH POLYANILINE LAYER BASED ON IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Cheng-Hsin; Wu, Hsun-Pei; Chen, Cheng-Ho; Wu, Peng-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A flexible sensor with conducting polyaniline layer for detecting pH value based on the impedance measurement is fabricated and demonstrated in this study. The pH sensor consists of an interdigital electrode array on a flexible printed circuit and a thin-film polyaniline as the sensing layer. As the conductivity of polyaniline depends on the redox state, the impedance change of the polyaniline after it has reacted with different pH value solutions works as the sensing mechanism. In order to o...

  12. Water Pollution Detection Based on Hypothesis Testing in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution detection is of great importance in water conservation. In this paper, the water pollution detection problems of the network and of the node in sensor networks are discussed. The detection problems in both cases of the distribution of the monitoring noise being normal and nonnormal are considered. The pollution detection problems are analyzed based on hypothesis testing theory firstly; then, the specific detection algorithms are given. Finally, two implementation examples are given to illustrate how the proposed detection methods are used in the water pollution detection in sensor networks and prove the effectiveness of the proposed detection methods.

  13. Wireless Sensor Networks Data Processing Summary Based on Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyun Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a newly proposed theory, compressive sensing (CS is commonly used in signal processing area. This paper investigates the applications of compressed sensing (CS in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. First, the development and research status of compressed sensing technology and wireless sensor networks are described, then a detailed investigation of WSNs research based on CS are conducted from aspects of data fusion, signal acquisition, signal routing transmission, and signal reconstruction. At the end of the paper, we conclude our survey and point out the possible future research directions.

  14. A fluid density sensor based on a resonant tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Dao, Dzung Viet; Woodfield, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A fluid density sensor based on resonance frequency change of a metallic tube is presented. The sensor has been developed without using a complex micro-fabrication process. The sensor is able to identify fluid types/contaminations and improve the performance by reducing testing time, decreasing complexity of testing equipment and reducing sample sizes. The sensor can measure the resonance frequency of its own structure and determine the change in resonance frequency due to the subsequent sample inside the tube. Numerical modelling, analytical modelling and physical testing of a prototype sensor showed comparable results for both the magnitude and resonance frequency shift. The modelling results yielded a resonance frequency shift of 200 Hz from 9.87 kHz to 9.67 kHz after the water was filled into the tube. The actual testing illustrated a resonance frequency change of 280 Hz from 9.11 kHz to 8.83 kHz. The ultimate aim of the work is to determine resonance frequencies of desired samples at a level that could detect genetic disease on a cellular level. (paper)

  15. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed.

  16. Ratiometric Alcohol Sensor based on a Polymeric Nile Blue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sterilizable ratiometric fluorescent ethanol sensor with sensitivity over a wide range (0-100% of ethanol concentration v/v. The sensor is composed of a near infra red fluorescent solvatochromic dye, nile blue methacrylamide polymerized into a polyethylene (glycol dimethacrylate matrix. The dye can typically exhibit two or more wavelength dependent shifts in the fluorescence intensities based on its different micropolar environments. Two different concentrations of the nile blue methacrylamide dye were prepared and polymerized into homogenous films. The fluorescence properties of the two different films were investigated with a view to determining their ethanol sensing capabilities. The sensor was immersed in a water-ethanol solvent mixture. Excitation of the dye was performed at 470 nm. The range of emission wavelengths was 480-800 nm. The ratio of the fluorescence intensities at 620 nm and 554 nm was obtained for ethanol concentrations varying from 0-100% and the calibration curve of the ratiometric fluorescence intensities over the entire concentration range of ethanol was plotted. A ratiometric intensity change of over 33% has been obtained for pure ethanol compared to that obtained for pure water. The sensor response was rapid (≤10 minutes. The sterilizable ethanol sensor exhibits good potential for on-line monitoring of the ethanol generated in an LB fermentation chamber.

  17. A Blade Tip Timing Method Based on a Microwave Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Blade tip timing is an effective method for blade vibration measurements in turbomachinery. This method is increasing in popularity because it is non-intrusive and has several advantages over the conventional strain gauge method. Different kinds of sensors have been developed for blade tip timing, including optical, eddy current and capacitance sensors. However, these sensors are unsuitable in environments with contaminants or high temperatures. Microwave sensors offer a promising potential solution to overcome these limitations. In this article, a microwave sensor-based blade tip timing measurement system is proposed. A patch antenna probe is used to transmit and receive the microwave signals. The signal model and process method is analyzed. Zero intermediate frequency structure is employed to maintain timing accuracy and dynamic performance, and the received signal can also be used to measure tip clearance. The timing method uses the rising and falling edges of the signal and an auto-gain control circuit to reduce the effect of tip clearance change. To validate the accuracy of the system, it is compared experimentally with a fiber optic tip timing system. The results show that the microwave tip timing system achieves good accuracy.

  18. Pulsed electric field sensor based on original waveform measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Wu Wei; Cheng Yinhui; Zhou Hui; Li Baozhong; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    The paper introduces the differential and original waveform measurement principles for pulsed E-field, and develops an pulsed E-field sensor based on original waveform measurement along with its theoretical correction model. The sensor consists of antenna, integrator, amplifier and driver, optic-electric/electric-optic conversion module and transmission module. The time-domain calibration in TEM cell indicates that, its risetime response is shorter than 1.0 ns, and the output pulse width at 90% of the maximum amplitude is wider than 10.0 μs. The output amplitude of the sensor is linear to the electric field intensity in a dynamic range of 20 dB. The measurement capability can be extended to 10 V/m or 50 kV/m by changing the system's antenna and other relative modules. (authors)

  19. Ultrafast Dynamic Pressure Sensors Based on Graphene Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shanbiao; Wu, Xing; Zhang, Dongdong; Guo, Congwei; Wang, Peng; Hu, Weida; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Xu, Hejun; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Jian; Chu, Junhao

    2017-07-19

    Mechanical flexible electronic skin has been focused on sensing various physical parameters, such as pressure and temperature. The studies of material design and array-accessible devices are the building blocks of strain sensors for subtle pressure sensing. Here, we report a new and facile preparation of a graphene hybrid structure with an ultrafast dynamic pressure response. Graphene oxide nanosheets are used as a surfactant to prevent graphene restacking in aqueous solution. This graphene hybrid structure exhibits a frequency-independent pressure resistive sensing property. Exceeding natural skin, such pressure sensors, can provide transient responses from static up to 10 000 Hz dynamic frequencies. Integrated by the controlling system, the array-accessible sensors can manipulate a robot arm and self-rectify the temperature of a heating blanket. This may pave a path toward the future application of graphene-based wearable electronics.

  20. External Force Estimation for Teleoperation Based on Proprioceptive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique del Sol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes an approach to external force estimation for telerobotic control in radioactive environments by the use of an identified manipulator model and pressure sensors, without employing a force/torque sensor. The advantages of - and need for - force feedback have been well-established in the field of telerobotics, where electrical and back-drivable manipulators have traditionally been used. This research proposes a methodology employing hydraulic robots for telerobotics tasks based on a model identification scheme. Comparative results of a force sensor and the proposed approach using a hydraulic telemanipulator are presented under different conditions. This approach not only presents a cost effective solution but also a methodology for force estimation in radioactive environments, where the dose rates limit the use of electronic devices such as sensing equipment.

  1. Optical Sensor Based on a Single CdS Nanobelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 104, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  2. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian

    2014-04-23

    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions.

  3. Optofluidic refractive index sensor based on partial reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhang; Wang, Yichuan; Ye, Meiying; Fang, Wei; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a novel optofluidic refractive index (RI) sensor with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range based on partial reflection. Benefited from the divergent incident light and the output fibers with different tilting angles, we have achieved highly sensitive RI sensing in a wide range from 1.33 to 1.37. To investigate the effectiveness of this sensor, we perform a measurement of RI with a resolution of ca. 5.0×10-5 refractive index unit (RIU) for ethylene glycol solutions. Also, we have measured a series of liquid solutions by using different output fibers, achieving a resolution of ca. 0.52 mg/mL for cane surge. The optofluidic RI sensor takes advantage of the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, small footprint, and low sample consumption, as well as the efficient fluidic sample delivery, making it useful for applications in the food industry.

  4. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M G; Neves, L A; Zafalon, G F D; Valêncio, C; Pinto, A R; Nascimento, M Z

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  5. [Active crop canopy sensor-based nitrogen diagnosis for potato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Li, Fei; Qin, Yong-Lin; Fan, Ming-Shou

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, two potato experiments involving different N rates in 2011 were conducted in Wuchuan County and Linxi County, Inner Mongolia. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected by an active GreenSeeker crop canopy sensor to estimate N status of potato. The results show that the NDVI readings were poorly correlated with N nutrient indicators of potato at vegetative Growth stage due to the influence of soil background. With the advance of growth stages, NDVI values were exponentially related to plant N uptake (R2 = 0.665) before tuber bulking stage and were linearly related to plant N concentration (R2 = 0.699) when plant fully covered soil. In conclusion, GreenSeeker active crop sensor is a promising tool to estimate N status for potato plants. The findings from this study may be useful for developing N recommendation method based on active crop canopy sensor.

  6. Transformer Temperature Measurment Using Optical Fiber Based Microbend Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika YADAV

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of transformers proves to be very expensive and inconvenient because it takes a lot of time for their replacement. During breakdown the industry also incurs heavy losses because of stoppage in production line. A system for monitoring the temperature of transformers is required. Existing sensors cannot be used for monitoring the temperature of transformers because they are sensitive to electrical signals and can cause sparking which can trigger fire since there is oil in transformers cooling coils. Optical fibers are electrically inert so this system will prove to be ideal for this application. Results of investigations carried out by simulating a configuration of Optical Fiber Temperature Sensor for transformers based on microbending using Matlab as a simulation tool to evaluate the effectiveness of this sensor have been communicated through this manuscript. The results are in the form of graphs of intensity modulation vs. the temperature.

  7. A Neuron Model Based Ultralow Current Sensor System for Bioapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Arifuzzman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultralow current sensor system based on the Izhikevich neuron model is presented in this paper. The Izhikevich neuron model has been used for its superior computational efficiency and greater biological plausibility over other well-known neuron spiking models. Of the many biological neuron spiking features, regular spiking, chattering, and neostriatal spiny projection spiking have been reproduced by adjusting the parameters associated with the model at hand. This paper also presents a modified interpretation of the regular spiking feature in which the firing pattern is similar to that of the regular spiking but with improved dynamic range offering. The sensor current ranges between 2 pA and 8 nA and exhibits linearity in the range of 0.9665 to 0.9989 for different spiking features. The efficacy of the sensor system in detecting low amount of current along with its high linearity attribute makes it very suitable for biomedical applications.

  8. Photonic Crystal Fibre SERS Sensors Based on Silver Nanoparticle Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Guo, Xie; Yong-Hua, Lu; Pei, Wang; Kai-Qun, Lin; Jie, Yan; Hai, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A photonic crystal fibre (PCF) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed based on silver nanoparticle colloid. Analyte solution and silver nanoparticles are injected into the air holes of PCF by a simple modified syringe to overcome mass-transport constraints, allowing more silver nanoparticles involved in SERS activity. This sensor offers significant benefit over the conventional SERS sensor with high flexibility, easy manufacture. We demonstrate the detection of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules with the injecting way and the common dipping measurement. The injecting way shows obviously better results than the dipping one. Theoretical analysis indicates that this PCF SERS substrate offers enhancement of about 7 orders of magnitude in SERS active area

  9. Designing and testing a laser-based vibratory sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, G.

    2018-04-01

    Sensor technology has proved its importance, not only in the range of few-meter applications in different fields, but in micro, nano, atomic and sub-atomic-sized objects. The present work describes the designing of a laser-based vibratory sensor using a He-Ne laser as the signal source. The received characteristics of the signal are mainly the frequency and amplitude of the vibration from which the physical parameters such as energy, power and absorption coefficients of the material are determined, which enables us to provide information of the hidden target or object. This laboratory-designed sensor finds application in different local phenomena as well as laboratory practical activity for students.

  10. A microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverter, Ferran; Casas, Òscar

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses a low-cost microcontroller-based interface circuit for lossy capacitive sensors, i.e. sensors whose parasitic conductance (G x ) is not negligible. Such a circuit relies on a previous circuit also proposed by the authors, in which the sensor is directly connected to a microcontroller without using either a signal conditioner or an analogue-to-digital converter in the signal path. The novel circuit uses the same hardware, but it performs an additional measurement and executes a new calibration technique. As a result, the sensitivity of the circuit to G x decreases significantly (a factor higher than ten), but not completely due to the input capacitances of the port pins of the microcontroller. Experimental results show a relative error in the capacitance measurement below 1% for G x x ) shows the effectiveness of the circuit

  11. Estimating spacecraft attitude based on in-orbit sensor measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Britt; Lyn-Knudsen, Kevin; Mølgaard, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    of 2014/15. To better evaluate the performance of the payload, it is desirable to couple the payload data with the satellite's orientation. With AAUSAT3 already in orbit it is possible to collect data directly from space in order to evaluate the performance of the attitude estimation. An extended kalman...... filter (EKF) is used for quaternion-based attitude estimation. A Simulink simulation environment developed for AAUSAT3, containing a "truth model" of the satellite and the orbit environment, is used to test the performance The performance is tested using different sensor noise parameters obtained both...... from a controlled environment on Earth as well as in-orbit. By using sensor noise parameters obtained on Earth as the expected parameters in the attitude estimation, and simulating the environment using the sensor noise parameters from space, it is possible to assess whether the EKF can be designed...

  12. The use of large area silicon sensors for thermal neutron detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, R.L.; Swanson, F.; Kesselman, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of large area planar silicon detectors coupled with gadolinium foils has been investigated to develop a thermal neutron detector having a large area-efficiency (Aε) product. Noise levels due to high detector capacitance limit the size of silicon detectors that can be utilized. Calculations using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, have been made to determine the variation of intrinsic detection efficiency as a function of the discriminator threshold level required to eliminate the detector noise. Measurements of the noise levels for planar silicon detectors of various resistivities (400, 3000 and 5000 Ω cm) have been made and the optimal detector area-efficiency products have been determined. The response of a Si-Gd-Si sandwich detector with areas between 1 cm 2 and 10.5 cm 2 is presented and the effects of the detector capacitance and reverse current are discussed. ((orig.))

  13. The use of large area silicon sensors for thermal neutron detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, R.L. (Research and Development Center, Mail Stop: A01-26, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States)); Swanson, F. (Research and Development Center, Mail Stop: A01-26, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States)); Kesselman, M. (Research and Development Center, Mail Stop: A01-26, Grumman Aerospace Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States))

    1994-12-30

    The use of large area planar silicon detectors coupled with gadolinium foils has been investigated to develop a thermal neutron detector having a large area-efficiency (A[epsilon]) product. Noise levels due to high detector capacitance limit the size of silicon detectors that can be utilized. Calculations using the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, have been made to determine the variation of intrinsic detection efficiency as a function of the discriminator threshold level required to eliminate the detector noise. Measurements of the noise levels for planar silicon detectors of various resistivities (400, 3000 and 5000 [Omega] cm) have been made and the optimal detector area-efficiency products have been determined. The response of a Si-Gd-Si sandwich detector with areas between 1 cm[sup 2] and 10.5 cm[sup 2] is presented and the effects of the detector capacitance and reverse current are discussed. ((orig.))

  14. Development of a Waterproof Crack-Based Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on PDMS Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong Kyung; Yang, Seongjin; Cho, Seong J; Jeon, Hyungkook; Lim, Geunbae

    2018-04-12

    This paper details the design of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-shielded waterproof crack-based stretchable strain sensor, in which the electrical characteristics and sensing performance are not influenced by changes in humidity. This results in a higher number of potential applications for the sensor. A previously developed omni-purpose stretchable strain (OPSS) sensor was used as the basis for this work, which utilizes a metal cracking structure and provides a wide sensing range and high sensitivity. Changes in the conductivity of the OPSS sensor, based on humidity conditions, were investigated along with the potential possibility of using the design as a humidity sensor. However, to prevent conductivity variation, which can decrease the reliability and sensing ability of the OPSS sensor, PDMS was utilized as a shielding layer over the OPSS sensor. The PDMS-shielded OPSS sensor showed approximately the same electrical characteristics as previous designs, including in a high humidity environment, while maintaining its strain sensing capabilities. The developed sensor shows promise for use under high humidity conditions and in underwater applications. Therefore, considering its unique features and reliable sensing performance, the developed PDMS-shielded waterproof OPSS sensor has potential utility in a wide range of applications, such as motion monitoring, medical robotics and wearable healthcare devices.

  15. Development of a Waterproof Crack-Based Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on PDMS Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Kyung Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design of a poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS-shielded waterproof crack-based stretchable strain sensor, in which the electrical characteristics and sensing performance are not influenced by changes in humidity. This results in a higher number of potential applications for the sensor. A previously developed omni-purpose stretchable strain (OPSS sensor was used as the basis for this work, which utilizes a metal cracking structure and provides a wide sensing range and high sensitivity. Changes in the conductivity of the OPSS sensor, based on humidity conditions, were investigated along with the potential possibility of using the design as a humidity sensor. However, to prevent conductivity variation, which can decrease the reliability and sensing ability of the OPSS sensor, PDMS was utilized as a shielding layer over the OPSS sensor. The PDMS-shielded OPSS sensor showed approximately the same electrical characteristics as previous designs, including in a high humidity environment, while maintaining its strain sensing capabilities. The developed sensor shows promise for use under high humidity conditions and in underwater applications. Therefore, considering its unique features and reliable sensing performance, the developed PDMS-shielded waterproof OPSS sensor has potential utility in a wide range of applications, such as motion monitoring, medical robotics and wearable healthcare devices.

  16. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďuran, Ivan; Bolshakova, I.; Viererbl, L.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Holyaka, R.; Lahodová, Z.; Bém, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 10 (2010), 10E122-10E122 ISSN 0034-6748. [Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics/18th./. Wildwood, 16.05.2010-20.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Galvanomagnetic Sensor * Fusion Reactor * Magnetic Diagnostics * Radiation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  17. Palladium coated fibre Bragg grating based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasinathan, M.; Sosamma, S.; Kishore, S.; Elumalai, V.; Krishnan, R.; Babu Rao, C.; Dash, Sitaram; Murali, N.; Jayakumar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Detection of steam generator leaks in fast nuclear reactors is carried out by monitoring hydrogen in argon cover-gas. Hydrogen released during sodium cleaning of fast reactor components is required to be monitored. Hydrogen sensors with good sensitivity, stability and response time are required for all the above applications. We report a new type of hydrogen sensor with a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) coated with palladium thin film which is used to detect the leak of hydrogen gas in the Steam Generator (SG) module of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). If water leaks into sodium, it results in sodium-water reaction. In this reaction hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are formed. Due to the explosive risk of hydrogen system, hydrogen sensors are of great interest in this case. It is known that hydrogen forms an explosive mixture with air once its concentration exceeds beyond the explosion limit of four percent. The advantages of FBG based hydrogen sensor over the other hydrogen sensors are its inherent property of safety from sparking, immunity to ambient electromagnetic interference. The sensing mechanism in this device is based on mechanical strain that is induced in the palladium coating when it absorbs hydrogen. This process physically stretches the grating and causes the grating period and grating's refractive index, to change. The Bragg wavelength shift is directly proportional to the strain induced and can be directly related to the percentage of hydrogen exposure. The online monitoring of palladium thin film coating on FBG is carried out and recorded the wavelength change and strain induced on the FBG. A hydrogen sensor set up have been fabricated which consists of SS vessel of capacity 10 litres, provided with pressure gauge, Argon filling line with a valve, Hydrogen injection line with flange, a vent line with valve and Hydrogen sensor fixing point. The Palladium coated FBG based Hydrogen sensor is tested in this experimental facility in the exposure of hydrogen in

  18. Tactile sensor of hardness recognition based on magnetic anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyun; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Qingguang; Rao, Huanle; Xu, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Hardness, as one kind of tactile sensing, plays an important role in the field of intelligent robot application such as gripping, agricultural harvesting, prosthetic hand and so on. Recently, with the rapid development of magnetic field sensing technology with high performance, a number of magnetic sensors have been developed for intelligent application. The tunnel Magnetoresistance(TMR) based on magnetoresistance principal works as the sensitive element to detect the magnetic field and it has proven its excellent ability of weak magnetic detection. In the paper, a new method based on magnetic anomaly detection was proposed to detect the hardness in the tactile way. The sensor is composed of elastic body, ferrous probe, TMR element, permanent magnet. When the elastic body embedded with ferrous probe touches the object under the certain size of force, deformation of elastic body will produce. Correspondingly, the ferrous probe will be forced to displace and the background magnetic field will be distorted. The distorted magnetic field was detected by TMR elements and the output signal at different time can be sampled. The slope of magnetic signal with the sampling time is different for object with different hardness. The result indicated that the magnetic anomaly sensor can recognize the hardness rapidly within 150ms after the tactile moment. The hardness sensor based on magnetic anomaly detection principal proposed in the paper has the advantages of simple structure, low cost, rapid response and it has shown great application potential in the field of intelligent robot.

  19. Chain-based communication in cylindrical underwater wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Nadeem; Jafri, Mohsin Raza; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2015-02-04

    Appropriate network design is very significant for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Application-oriented UWSNs are planned to achieve certain objectives. Therefore, there is always a demand for efficient data routing schemes, which can fulfill certain requirements of application-oriented UWSNs. These networks can be of any shape, i.e., rectangular, cylindrical or square. In this paper, we propose chain-based routing schemes for application-oriented cylindrical networks and also formulate mathematical models to find a global optimum path for data transmission. In the first scheme, we devise four interconnected chains of sensor nodes to perform data communication. In the second scheme, we propose routing scheme in which two chains of sensor nodes are interconnected, whereas in third scheme single-chain based routing is done in cylindrical networks. After finding local optimum paths in separate chains, we find global optimum paths through their interconnection. Moreover, we develop a computational model for the analysis of end-to-end delay. We compare the performance of the above three proposed schemes with that of Power Efficient Gathering System in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) and Congestion adjusted PEGASIS (C-PEGASIS). Simulation results show that our proposed 4-chain based scheme performs better than the other selected schemes in terms of network lifetime, end-to-end delay, path loss, transmission loss, and packet sending rate.

  20. Chain-Based Communication in Cylindrical Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate network design is very significant for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs. Application-oriented UWSNs are planned to achieve certain objectives. Therefore, there is always a demand for efficient data routing schemes, which can fulfill certain requirements of application-oriented UWSNs. These networks can be of any shape, i.e., rectangular, cylindrical or square. In this paper, we propose chain-based routing schemes for application-oriented cylindrical networks and also formulate mathematical models to find a global optimum path for data transmission. In the first scheme, we devise four interconnected chains of sensor nodes to perform data communication. In the second scheme, we propose routing scheme in which two chains of sensor nodes are interconnected, whereas in third scheme single-chain based routing is done in cylindrical networks. After finding local optimum paths in separate chains, we find global optimum paths through their interconnection. Moreover, we develop a computational model for the analysis of end-to-end delay. We compare the performance of the above three proposed schemes with that of Power Efficient Gathering System in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS and Congestion adjusted PEGASIS (C-PEGASIS. Simulation results show that our proposed 4-chain based scheme performs better than the other selected schemes in terms of network lifetime, end-to-end delay, path loss, transmission loss, and packet sending rate.

  1. Time-frequency feature analysis and recognition of fission neutrons signal based on support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jing; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Tang Yuelin; Zhou Mi

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interdependent relationship between fission neutrons ( 252 Cf) and fission chain ( 235 U system), the paper presents the time-frequency feature analysis and recognition in fission neutron signal based on support vector machine (SVM) through the analysis on signal characteristics and the measuring principle of the 252 Cf fission neutron signal. The time-frequency characteristics and energy features of the fission neutron signal are extracted by using wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and then applied to training and classification by means of support vector machine based on statistical learning theory. The results show that, it is effective to obtain features of nuclear signal via wavelet decomposition and de-noising wavelet packet decomposition, and the latter can reflect the internal characteristics of the fission neutron system better. With the training accomplished, the SVM classifier achieves an accuracy rate above 70%, overcoming the lack of training samples, and verifying the effectiveness of the algorithm. (authors)

  2. Designing research of fast neutron radiation field based on the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenzhong; Zhang Xiaomin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Tsinghua University experimental nuclear reactor neutron source, this research designed moderate theory technical scheme, and the thickness of materials in the scheme were selected by means of Monte Carlo simulating method. An fast neutron radiation field was gained. (authors)

  3. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    chemiresistor device and used as a chemical sensor, where its resistance is temporarily modified while exposed to chemical compounds. The inherent, broad selective nature of graphene is demonstrated by testing a sensor against a diverse set of volatile organic compounds and also against a set of chemically similar compounds. The sensor exhibits excellent selectivity and is capable of achieving high classification accuracies. The kinetics of the sensor's response are further investigated revealing a relationship between the transient behavior of the response curve and physiochemical properties of the compounds, such as the molar mass and vapor pressure. This kinetic information is also shown to provide important information for further pattern recognition and classification, which is demonstrated by increased classification accuracy of very similar compounds. Covalent modification of the graphene surface is demonstrated by means of plasma treatment and free radical exchange, and sensing performance compared to an unmodified graphene sensor. Finally, the first example of a graphene-based, cross-reactive chemical sensor array is demonstrated by applying various polymers as coatings over an array of graphene sensors. The sensor array is tested against a variety of compounds, including the complex odor of Scotch whiskies, where it is capable of perfect classification of 10 Scotch whiskey variations.

  4. Compressive sensing based wireless sensor for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuequan; Zou, Zilong; Li, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Data loss is a common problem for monitoring systems based on wireless sensors. Reliable communication protocols, which enhance communication reliability by repetitively transmitting unreceived packets, is one approach to tackle the problem of data loss. An alternative approach allows data loss to some extent and seeks to recover the lost data from an algorithmic point of view. Compressive sensing (CS) provides such a data loss recovery technique. This technique can be embedded into smart wireless sensors and effectively increases wireless communication reliability without retransmitting the data. The basic idea of CS-based approach is that, instead of transmitting the raw signal acquired by the sensor, a transformed signal that is generated by projecting the raw signal onto a random matrix, is transmitted. Some data loss may occur during the transmission of this transformed signal. However, according to the theory of CS, the raw signal can be effectively reconstructed from the received incomplete transformed signal given that the raw signal is compressible in some basis and the data loss ratio is low. This CS-based technique is implemented into the Imote2 smart sensor platform using the foundation of Illinois Structural Health Monitoring Project (ISHMP) Service Tool-suite. To overcome the constraints of limited onboard resources of wireless sensor nodes, a method called random demodulator (RD) is employed to provide memory and power efficient construction of the random sampling matrix. Adaptation of RD sampling matrix is made to accommodate data loss in wireless transmission and meet the objectives of the data recovery. The embedded program is tested in a series of sensing and communication experiments. Examples and parametric study are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the embedded program as well as to show the efficacy of CS-based data loss recovery for real wireless SHM systems.

  5. Transparent plastic scintillators for neutron detection based on lithium salicylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabe, Andrew N.; Glenn, Andrew M.; Carman, M. Leslie; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Transparent plastic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination containing "6Li salicylate have been synthesized by bulk polymerization with a maximum "6Li loading of 0.40 wt%. Photoluminescence and scintillation responses to gamma-rays and neutrons are reported herein. Plastics containing "6Li salicylate exhibit higher light yields and permit a higher loading of "6Li as compared to previously reported plastics based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. However, pulse shape discrimination performance is reduced in lithium salicylate plastics due to the requirement of adding more nonaromatic monomers to the polymer matrix as compared to those based on lithium 3-phenylsalicylate. Reduction in light yield and pulse shape discrimination performance in lithium-loaded plastics as compared to pulse shape discrimination plastics without lithium is interpreted in terms of energy transfer interference by the aromatic lithium salts. - Highlights: • Plastic scintillator with 0.4% "6Li loading is reported using lithium salicylate. • Influence of lithium salts on the scintillation mechanism is explored. • New lithium-loaded scintillator provides improved light yield and reduced cost.

  6. Tests of a silicon wafer based neutron collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cussen, L.D.; Vale, C.J.; Anderson, I.S.; Hoeghoj, P.

    2001-01-01

    A Soller slit neutron collimator has been prepared by stacking 160 μm thick single crystal silicon wafers coated on one surface with 4 μm of gadolinium metal. The collimator has an angular width of 20 min full width at half maximum and an effective length of 2.75 cm. The collimator has beam dimensions of 1 cm wide by 5.3 cm high. Tests at neutron wavelengths 7.5A and 1.8A showed a peak transmission of 88% within 2% of the optimum theoretical possibility. The background suppression in the wings is comparable with that of conventional neutron collimators

  7. Tests of a silicon wafer based neutron collimator

    CERN Document Server

    Cussen, L D; Anderson, I S; Hoeghoj, P

    2001-01-01

    A Soller slit neutron collimator has been prepared by stacking 160 mu m thick single crystal silicon wafers coated on one surface with 4 mu m of gadolinium metal. The collimator has an angular width of 20 min full width at half maximum and an effective length of 2.75 cm. The collimator has beam dimensions of 1 cm wide by 5.3 cm high. Tests at neutron wavelengths 7.5A and 1.8A showed a peak transmission of 88% within 2% of the optimum theoretical possibility. The background suppression in the wings is comparable with that of conventional neutron collimators.

  8. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a flooding-based protocol with the goal to improve the performance and the energy efficiency. The first idea considers the node position information in order to reduce the number of relays that may apply flood...

  9. Influence of temperature and humidity on carbon based printed flexible sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the response of two different types of novel printed sensors towards the change in temperature and humidity. The electrodes of all the sensors were based on carbon materials. Followed by the design and fabrication of the sensors, the responses of the sensors were analyzed for different temperature and humidity conditions in an incubator. These results provide a podium to enhance the alternation of the fabrication procedure of carbon-based printed sensors.

  10. IBE-Lite: a lightweight identity-based cryptography for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chiu C; Wang, Haodong; Zhong, Sheng; Li, Qun

    2009-11-01

    A body sensor network (BSN) is a network of sensors deployed on a person's body for health care monitoring. Since the sensors collect personal medical data, security and privacy are important components in a BSN. In this paper, we developed IBE-Lite, a lightweight identity-based encryption suitable for sensors in a BSN. We present protocols based on IBE-Lite that balance security and privacy with accessibility and perform evaluation using experiments conducted on commercially available sensors.

  11. Comparative VOCs sensing performance for conducting polymer and porphyrin functionalized carbon nanotubes based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Kunal; Rushi, Arti; Ghosh, Prasanta; Shirsat, Mahendra

    2018-05-01

    We report sensors for detection of ethyl alcohol, a prominent volatile organic compound (VOC). Single walled carbon nanotubes were selected as main sensing backbone. As efficiency of sensor is dependent upon the choice of sensing materials, the performances of conducting polymer and porphyrin based sensors were compared. Chemiresistive sensing modality was adopted to observe the performance of sensors. It has been found that porphyrin based sensor shows higher affinity towards ethyl alcohol.

  12. A Survey of Model-based Sensor Data Acquisition and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Sathe, Saket; Papaioannou, Thanasis; Jeung, Hoyoung; Aberer, Karl

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, due to the proliferation of sensor networks, there has been a genuine need of researching techniques for sensor data acquisition and management. To this end, a large number of techniques have emerged that advocate model-based sensor data acquisition and management. These techniques use mathematical models for performing various, day-to-day tasks involved in managing sensor data. In this chapter, we survey the state-of-the-art techniques for model-based sensor data acquisition...

  13. Influence of temperature and humidity on carbon based printed flexible sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Nag, Anindya; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the response of two different types of novel printed sensors towards the change in temperature and humidity. The electrodes of all the sensors were based on carbon materials. Followed by the design and fabrication of the sensors, the responses of the sensors were analyzed for different temperature and humidity conditions in an incubator. These results provide a podium to enhance the alternation of the fabrication procedure of carbon-based printed sensors.

  14. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hannah E. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  15. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10 7 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF 3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  16. Smart sensor-based geospatial architecture for dike monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herle, S.; Becker, R.; Blankenbach, J.

    2016-04-01

    Artificial hydraulic structures like dams or dikes used for water level regulations or flood prevention are continuously under the influence of the weather and variable river regimes. Thus, ongoing monitoring and simulation is crucial in order to determine the inner condition. Potentially life-threatening situations, in extreme case a failure, must be counteracted by all available means. Nowadays flood warning systems rely exclusively on water level forecast without considering the state of the structure itself. Area-covering continuous knowledge of the inner state including time dependent changes increases the capability of recognizing and locating vulnerable spots for early treatment. In case of a predicted breach, advance warning time for alerting affected citizens can be extended. Our approach is composed of smart sensors integrated in a service-oriented geospatial architecture to monitor and simulate artificial hydraulic structures continuously. The sensors observe the inner state of the construction like the soil moisture or the stress and deformation over time but also various external influences like water levels or wind speed. They are interconnected in distributed network architecture by a so-called sensor bus system based on lightweight protocols like Message Queue Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN). These sensor data streams are transferred into an OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) data structure providing high-level geo web services to end users. Bundled with 3rd party geo web services (WMS etc.) powerful processing and simulation tools can be invoked using the Web Processing Service (WPS) standard. Results will be visualized in a geoportal allowing user access to all information.

  17. A ferrofluid based artificial tactile sensor with magnetic field control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, T.I., E-mail: tatiana.volkova@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Böhm, V., E-mail: valter.boehm@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Naletova, V.A., E-mail: naletova@imec.msu.ru [Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kaufhold, T., E-mail: tobias.kaufhold@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Becker, F., E-mail: felix.becker@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Zeidis, I., E-mail: igor.zeidis@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Zimmermann, K., E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a tactile sensor inspired by biological hairs of mammals. The working principle is based on the effect of the magnetic force exerted on a paramagnetic body submerged into a ferrofluid volume under the influence of a nonuniform magnetic field. The deflection of the sensor's rod caused by external mechanical stimuli may be unambiguously identified by the distortion of the magnetic field, which occurs due to the motion of the attached body in the ferrofluid. The magnetic force acting on the body is evaluated experimentally and theoretically for the nonuniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The controlled oscillations of the rod are realised by applying a nonuniform magnetic field of periodically altering direction. - Highlights: • A design approach of a tactile sensor inspired by special mammalian hairs is presented. • The working principle is based on magnetic properties of a ferrofluid in magnetic fields. • The magnetic force acting on a body submerged into a ferrofluid volume is evaluated. • External mechanical stimuli may be identified by the distortion of the magnetic field. • The controlled whisking-like oscillations of the sensor's rod are realised experimentally.

  18. A ferrofluid based artificial tactile sensor with magnetic field control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, T.I.; Böhm, V.; Naletova, V.A.; Kaufhold, T.; Becker, F.; Zeidis, I.; Zimmermann, K.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a tactile sensor inspired by biological hairs of mammals. The working principle is based on the effect of the magnetic force exerted on a paramagnetic body submerged into a ferrofluid volume under the influence of a nonuniform magnetic field. The deflection of the sensor's rod caused by external mechanical stimuli may be unambiguously identified by the distortion of the magnetic field, which occurs due to the motion of the attached body in the ferrofluid. The magnetic force acting on the body is evaluated experimentally and theoretically for the nonuniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The controlled oscillations of the rod are realised by applying a nonuniform magnetic field of periodically altering direction. - Highlights: • A design approach of a tactile sensor inspired by special mammalian hairs is presented. • The working principle is based on magnetic properties of a ferrofluid in magnetic fields. • The magnetic force acting on a body submerged into a ferrofluid volume is evaluated. • External mechanical stimuli may be identified by the distortion of the magnetic field. • The controlled whisking-like oscillations of the sensor's rod are realised experimentally.

  19. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  20. Model based, sensor directed remediation of underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, B.; Drotning, W.; Thunborg, S.

    1991-01-01

    Sensor rich, intelligent robots which function with respect to models of their environment have significant potential to reduce the time and cost for the cleanup of hazardous waste while increasing operator safety. Sandia National Laboratories is performing experimental investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of removing waste stored tanks. This paper describes the experimental environment employed at Saudi with particular attention to the computing and software control environment. Intelligent system control is achieved though the integration of extensive geometric and kinematic world models with real-time sensor based control. All operator interactions with the system are validate all operator commands before execution to provide a safe operation. Sensing is used to add information to the robot system's world model and to allow sensor based sensor control during selected operations. The results of a first Critical Feature Test are reported and the potential for applying advanced intelligent control concepts to the removal of waste in storage tanks is discussed

  1. Corrosion Sensor Development for Condition-Based Maintenance of Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Rinaldi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft routinely operate in atmospheric environments that, over time, will impact their structural integrity. Material protection and selection schemes notwithstanding, recurrent exposure to chlorides, pollution, temperature gradients, and moisture provide the necessary electrochemical conditions for the development and profusion of corrosion in aircraft structures. For aircraft operators, this becomes an important safety matter as corrosion found in a given aircraft must be assumed to be present in all of that type of aircraft. This safety protocol and its associated unscheduled maintenance requirement drive up the operational costs of the fleet and limit the availability of the aircraft. Hence, there is an opportunity at present for developing novel sensing technologies and schemes to aid in shifting time-based maintenance schedules towards condition-based maintenance procedures. In this work, part of the ongoing development of a multiparameter integrated corrosion sensor is presented. It consists of carbon nanotube/polyaniline polymer sensors and commercial-off-the-shelf sensors. It is being developed primarily for monitoring environmental and material factors for the purpose of providing a means to more accurately assess the structural integrity of aerospace aluminium alloys through fusion of multiparameter sensor data. Preliminary experimental test results are presented for chloride ion concentration, hydrogen gas evolution, humidity variations, and material degradation.

  2. Development of neutron detector using sensor type surface barrier with (n,p) and (n,α) converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, Tufic

    1999-01-01

    A Si semiconductor detector, surface barrier type, with a slim film of a converter material capable to produce charged particles was used as a sensor of neutrons in an environment of a zero power reactor. Two types of converters were used to improve the detection efficiency: (1) the polyethylene, n(CH 2 ), which produces recoil protons from the (n,p) interaction and, (2) the 10 B which generates a particle from the (n,alpha) reaction. The optimal thickness of those converters was determined experimentally and specifically for the polyethylene a mathematical model R(ips) = ε p · N 0 ·(1-e -Σ·Χ ) ·e -μ ·Χ + ε n · N 0 · -Σ · Χ was used to fit to the experimental data. For the polyethylene converter the thickness was of 0.058 cm (62.64 mg.cm -2 ) while for the 10 B it was equal to 6.55 [μm (1.54 mg.cm -2 ). The converter of polyethylene or 10 B improved the detection efficiency to a factor of 4.7 and 3.0 respectively. The comparison of the spectrum of the background radiation with the spectra of the recoil protons and the a radiation from the 10 B it was concluded that the polyethylene presented better performance than the 10 B converter. (author)

  3. Thermal-Signature-Based Sleep Analysis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Seba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a new technique in the sleep analysis domain. Sleep is defined as a periodic physiological state during which vigilance is suspended and reactivity to external stimulations diminished. We sleep on average between six and nine hours per night and our sleep is composed of four to six cycles of about 90 min each. Each of these cycles is composed of a succession of several stages of sleep that vary in depth. Analysis of sleep is usually done via polysomnography. This examination consists of recording, among other things, electrical cerebral activity by electroencephalography (EEG, ocular movements by electrooculography (EOG, and chin muscle tone by electromyography (EMG. Recordings are made mostly in a hospital, more specifically in a service for monitoring the pathologies related to sleep. The readings are then interpreted manually by an expert to generate a hypnogram, a curve showing the succession of sleep stages during the night in 30s epochs. The proposed method is based on the follow-up of the thermal signature that makes it possible to classify the activity into three classes: “awakening,” “calm sleep,” and “restless sleep”. The contribution of this non-invasive method is part of the screening of sleep disorders, to be validated by a more complete analysis of the sleep. The measure provided by this new system, based on temperature monitoring (patient and ambient, aims to be integrated into the tele-medicine platform developed within the framework of the Smart-EEG project by the SYEL–SYstèmes ELectroniques team. Analysis of the data collected during the first surveys carried out with this method showed a correlation between thermal signature and activity during sleep. The advantage of this method lies in its simplicity and the possibility of carrying out measurements of activity during sleep and without direct contact with the patient at home or hospitals.

  4. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1998-01-01

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (10 9 n/cm 2 /s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin (∼ 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target ∼ 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies (∼ 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV

  5. Distance Based Method for Outlier Detection of Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distance based method for the outlier detection of body sensor networks. Firstly, we use a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE to calculate the probability of the distance to k nearest neighbors for diagnosed data. If the probability is less than a threshold, and the distance of this data to its left and right neighbors is greater than a pre-defined value, the diagnosed data is decided as an outlier. Further, we formalize a sliding window based method to improve the outlier detection performance. Finally, to estimate the KDE by training sensor readings with errors, we introduce a Hidden Markov Model (HMM based method to estimate the most probable ground truth values which have the maximum probability to produce the training data. Simulation results show that the proposed method possesses a good detection accuracy with a low false alarm rate.

  6. Aptamer-Based Paper Strip Sensor for Detecting Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woo-Ri; Sekhon, Simranjeet Singh; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Ko, Jung Ho; Ahn, Ji-Young; Min, Jiho; Kim, Yang-Hoon

    2018-05-14

    Aptamer-based paper strip sensor for detecting Vibrio fischeri was developed. Our method was based on the aptamer sandwich assay between whole live cells, V. fischeri and DNA aptamer probes. Following 9 rounds of Cell-SELEX and one of the negative-SELEX, V. fischeri Cell Aptamer (VFCA)-02 and -03 were isolated, with the former showing approximately 10-fold greater avidity (in the subnanomolar range) for the target cells when arrayed on a surface. The colorimetric response of a paper sensor based on VFCA-02 was linear in the range of 4 × 10 1 to 4 × 10 5 CFU/mL of target cell by using scanning reader. The linear regression correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) was 0.9809. This system shows promise for use in aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticle probes in paper strip format for in-field detection of marine bioindicating bacteria.

  7. Towards radiation hard converter material for SiC-based fast neutron detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S.; Upadhyay, C.; Nagaraj, C. P.; Venkatesan, A.; Devan, K.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulations have been carried out to study the neutron detection efficiency of the various neutron to other charge particle (recoil proton) converter materials. The converter material is placed over Silicon Carbide (SiC) in Fast Neutron detectors (FNDs) to achieve higher neutron detection efficiency as compared to bare SiC FNDs. Hydrogenous converter material such as High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is preferred over other converter materials due to the virtue of its high elastic scattering reaction cross-section for fast neutron detection at room temperature. Upon interaction with fast neutrons, hydrogenous converter material generates recoil protons which liberate e-hole pairs in the active region of SiC detector to provide a detector signal. The neutron detection efficiency offered by HDPE converter is compared with several other hydrogenous materials viz., 1) Lithium Hydride (LiH), 2) Perylene, 3) PTCDA . It is found that, HDPE, though providing highest efficiency among various studied materials, cannot withstand high temperature and harsh radiation environment. On the other hand, perylene and PTCDA can sustain harsh environments, but yields low efficiency. The analysis carried out reveals that LiH is a better material for neutron to other charge particle conversion with competent efficiency and desired radiation hardness. Further, the thickness of LiH has also been optimized for various mono-energetic neutron beams and Am-Be neutron source generating a neutron fluence of 109 neutrons/cm2. The optimized thickness of LiH converter for fast neutron detection is found to be ~ 500 μm. However, the estimated efficiency for fast neutron detection is only 0.1%, which is deemed to be inadequate for reliable detection of neutrons. A sensitivity study has also been done investigating the gamma background effect on the neutron detection efficiency for various energy threshold of Low-Level Discriminator (LLD). The detection

  8. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, B.; Olah, L.; Csikai, J. E-mail: csikai@falcon.phys.klte.hu

    2001-06-01

    Systematic measurements were carried out on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons combined with the thermal neutron reflection method for the identification of land mines and illicit drugs via he detection of H, C, N, and O elements as their major constituents. While ur present results show that these methods are capable of indicating the anomalies in bulky materials and observation of the major elements, e termination of the exact atom fractions needs further investigation.

  9. Neutron-based techniques for detection of explosives and drugs

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly, B; Csikai, J

    2001-01-01

    Systematic measurements were carried out on the possible use of elastically backscattered Pu-Be neutrons combined with the thermal neutron reflection method for the identification of land mines and illicit drugs via he detection of H, C, N, and O elements as their major constituents. While ur present results show that these methods are capable of indicating the anomalies in bulky materials and observation of the major elements, e termination of the exact atom fractions needs further investigation.

  10. Small accelerator-based pulsed cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, Richard C.

    1997-09-01

    Small neutron sources could be used by individual researchers with the convenience of an adequate local facility. Although these sources would produce lower fluxes than the national facilities, for selected applications, the convenience and availability may overcome the limitations on source strength. Such sources might also be useful for preliminary testing of ideas before going to a larger facility. Recent developments in small, high-current pulsed accelerators makes possible such a local source for pulsed cold neutrons.

  11. Pulsed neutron source based on accelerator-subcritical-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Noda, Akira; Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Okamoto, Hiromi; Shirai, Toshiyuki [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research

    1997-03-01

    A new pulsed neutron source which consists of a 300MeV proton linac and a nuclear fuel subcritical assembly is proposed. The proton linac produces pulsed spallation neutrons, which are multipied by the subcritical assembly. A prototype proton linac that accelerates protons up to 7MeV has been developed and a high energy section of a DAW structure is studied with a power model. Halo formations in high intensity beam are also being studied. (author)

  12. Wheel-Based Ice Sensors for Road Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.; Carl, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Wheel-based sensors for detection of ice on roads and approximate measurement of the thickness of the ice are under development. These sensors could be used to alert drivers to hazardous local icing conditions in real time. In addition, local ice-thickness measurements by these sensors could serve as guidance for the minimum amount of sand and salt required to be dispensed locally onto road surfaces to ensure safety, thereby helping road crews to utilize their total supplies of sand and salt more efficiently. Like some aircraft wing-surface ice sensors described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles, the wheelbased ice sensors are based, variously, on measurements of changes in capacitance and/or in radio-frequency impedance as affected by ice on surfaces. In the case of ice on road surfaces, the measurable changes in capacitance and/or impedance are attributable to differences among the electric permittivities of air, ice, water, concrete, and soil. In addition, a related phenomenon that can be useful for distinguishing between ice and water is a specific transition in the permittivity of ice at a temperature- dependent frequency. This feature also provides a continuous calibration of the sensor to allow for changing road conditions. Several configurations of wheel-based ice sensors are under consideration. For example, in a simple two-electrode capacitor configuration, one of the electrodes would be a circumferential electrode within a tire, and the ground would be used as the second electrode. Optionally, the steel belts that are already standard parts of many tires could be used as the circumferential electrodes. In another example (see figure), multiple electrodes would be embedded in rubber between the steel belt and the outer tire surface. These electrodes would be excited in alternating polarities at one or more suitable audio or radio frequencies to provide nearly continuous monitoring of the road surface under the tire. In still another

  13. FPGA-Based Embedded Motion Estimation Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyi Wei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate real-time motion estimation is very critical to many computer vision tasks. However, because of its computational power and processing speed requirements, it is rarely used for real-time applications, especially for micro unmanned vehicles. In our previous work, a FPGA system was built to process optical flow vectors of 64 frames of 640×480 image per second. Compared to software-based algorithms, this system achieved much higher frame rate but marginal accuracy. In this paper, a more accurate optical flow algorithm is proposed. Temporal smoothing is incorporated in the hardware structure which significantly improves the algorithm accuracy. To accommodate temporal smoothing, the hardware structure is composed of two parts: the derivative (DER module produces intermediate results and the optical flow computation (OFC module calculates the final optical flow vectors. Software running on a built-in processor on the FPGA chip is used in the design to direct the data flow and manage hardware components. This new design has been implemented on a compact, low power, high performance hardware platform for micro UV applications. It is able to process 15 frames of 640×480 image per second and with much improved accuracy. Higher frame rate can be achieved with further optimization and additional memory space.

  14. Development of a lithium fluoride zinc sulfide based neutron multiplicity counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowles, Christian; Behling, Spencer; Baldez, Phoenix; Folsom, Micah; Kouzes, Richard; Kukharev, Vladislav; Lintereur, Azaree; Robinson, Sean; Siciliano, Edward; Stave, Sean; Valdez, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Past 3He shortages led to investigations into replacement options for neutron detectors in systems that previously used 3He-based technologies. The goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of a full-scale lithium fluoride with silver activated zinc sulfide (LiF/ZnS) based neutron multiplicity counter. The LiF/ZnS based neutron multiplicity counter (LiNMC) was developed based on an iterative process between modeling and experimental measurements. Each active region of the LiNMC contains five sheets of LiF/ZnS sandwiched between six sheets of wavelength shifting plastic to form neutron detection stacks. The wavelength shifted scintillation light was collected by photomultiplier tubes located on each end of the stacks. Twelve such detector stacks were placed around a sample chamber in a square arrangement with lithiated high density polyethylene blocks in the corners to reflect high energy neutrons and capture low energy neutrons. Preliminary calibration with a 252Cf neutron source showed that the LiNMC was able to achieve 36% neutron detection efficiency (ε) and an 11.7 μs neutron die-away time (τ) for a doubles Figure-of-merit (ε2/ τ) of 109. This is the highest doubles Figure-of-merit performance measured to-date for a 3He-free neutron multiplicity counter system. By the end of this project, the LiNMC’s basic components were integrated into a single laboratory scale system capable of proof-of-concept measurements.

  15. MEMS based Low Cost Piezoresistive Microcantilever Force Sensor and Sensor Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, H J; Kim, Hyun Tae; Roy, Rajarshi; Desai, Jaydev P

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we report fabrication and characterization of a low-cost MEMS based piezoresistive micro-force sensor with SU-8 tip using laboratory made silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. To prepare SOI wafer, silicon film (0.8 µm thick) was deposited on an oxidized silicon wafer using RF magnetron sputtering technique. The films were deposited in Argon (Ar) ambient without external substrate heating. The material characteristics of the sputtered deposited silicon film and silicon film annealed at different temperatures (400-1050°C) were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The residual stress of the films was measured as a function of annealing temperature. The stress of the as-deposited films was observed to be compressive and annealing the film above 1050°C resulted in a tensile stress. The stress of the film decreased gradually with increase in annealing temperature. The fabricated cantilevers were 130 µm in length, 40 µm wide and 1.0 µm thick. A series of force-displacement curves were obtained using fabricated microcantilever with commercial AFM setup and the data were analyzed to get the spring constant and the sensitivity of the fabricated microcantilever. The measured spring constant and sensitivity of the sensor was 0.1488N/m and 2.7mV/N. The microcantilever force sensor was integrated with an electronic module that detects the change in resistance of the sensor with respect to the applied force and displays it on the computer screen.

  16. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  17. BIOME: An Ecosystem Remote Sensor Based on Imaging Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David L.; Hammer, Philip; Smith, William H.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Until recent times, optical remote sensing of ecosystem properties from space has been limited to broad band multispectral scanners such as Landsat and AVHRR. While these sensor data can be used to derive important information about ecosystem parameters, they are very limited for measuring key biogeochemical cycling parameters such as the chemical content of plant canopies. Such parameters, for example the lignin and nitrogen contents, are potentially amenable to measurements by very high spectral resolution instruments using a spectroscopic approach. Airborne sensors based on grating imaging spectrometers gave the first promise of such potential but the recent decision not to deploy the space version has left the community without many alternatives. In the past few years, advancements in high performance deep well digital sensor arrays coupled with a patented design for a two-beam interferometer has produced an entirely new design for acquiring imaging spectroscopic data at the signal to noise levels necessary for quantitatively estimating chemical composition (1000:1 at 2 microns). This design has been assembled as a laboratory instrument and the principles demonstrated for acquiring remote scenes. An airborne instrument is in production and spaceborne sensors being proposed. The instrument is extremely promising because of its low cost, lower power requirements, very low weight, simplicity (no moving parts), and high performance. For these reasons, we have called it the first instrument optimized for ecosystem studies as part of a Biological Imaging and Observation Mission to Earth (BIOME).

  18. ENERGY OPTIMIZATION IN CLUSTER BASED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SHANKAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are made up of sensor nodes which are usually battery-operated devices, and hence energy saving of sensor nodes is a major design issue. To prolong the networks lifetime, minimization of energy consumption should be implemented at all layers of the network protocol stack starting from the physical to the application layer including cross-layer optimization. Optimizing energy consumption is the main concern for designing and planning the operation of the WSN. Clustering technique is one of the methods utilized to extend lifetime of the network by applying data aggregation and balancing energy consumption among sensor nodes of the network. This paper proposed new version of Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, protocols called Advanced Optimized Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (AOLEACH, Optimal Deterministic Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (ODLEACH, and Varying Probability Distance Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (VPDL combination with Shuffled Frog Leap Algorithm (SFLA that enables selecting best optimal adaptive cluster heads using improved threshold energy distribution compared to LEACH protocol and rotating cluster head position for uniform energy dissipation based on energy levels. The proposed algorithm optimizing the life time of the network by increasing the first node death (FND time and number of alive nodes, thereby increasing the life time of the network.

  19. Nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Kim, Woo Young; Shim, Hyun Bin; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-09-01

    A nanoporous Pirani sensor based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the performance of the sensor and the porosity of the AAO membrane is characterized with a theoretical model. The proposed Pirani sensor is composed of a metallic resistor on a suspended nanoporous membrane, which simultaneously serves as the sensing area and the supporting structure. The AAO membrane has numerous vertically-tufted nanopores, resulting in a lower measurable pressure limit due to both the increased effective sensing area and the decreased effective thermal loss through the supporting structure. Additionally, the suspended AAO membrane structure, with its outer periphery anchored to the substrate, known as a closed-type design, is demonstrated using nanopores of AAO as an etch hole without a bulk micromachining process used on the substrate. In a CMOS-compatible process, a 200 μm × 200 μm nanoporous Pirani sensor with porosity of 25% was capable of measuring the pressure from 0.1 mTorr to 760 Torr. With adjustment of the porosity of the AAO, the measurable range could be extended toward lower pressures of more than one decade compared to a non-porous membrane with an identical footprint.

  20. A Microring Temperature Sensor Based on the Surface Plasmon Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A structure of microring sensor suitable for temperature measurement based on the surface plasmon wave is put forward in this paper. The sensor uses surface plasmon multilayer waveguiding structure in the vertical direction and U-shaped microring structure in the horizontal direction and utilizes SOI as the thermal material. The transfer function derivation of the structure of surface plasmon microring sensor is according to the transfer matrix method. While the change of refractive index of Si is caused by the change of ambient temperature, the effective refractive index of the multilayer waveguiding structure is changed, resulting in the drifting of the sensor output spectrum. This paper focuses on the transmission characteristics of multilayer waveguide structure and the impact on the output spectrum caused by refractive index changes in temperature parts. According to the calculation and simulation, the transmission performance of the structure is stable and the sensitivity is good. The resonance wavelength shift can reach 0.007 μm when the temperature is increased by 100 k and FSR can reach about 60 nm. This structure achieves a high sensitivity in the temperature sense taking into account a wide range of filter frequency selections, providing a theoretical basis for the preparation of microoptics.

  1. Smartphone-based quantitative measurements on holographic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili Moghaddam, Gita; Lowe, Christopher Robin

    2017-01-01

    The research reported herein integrates a generic holographic sensor platform and a smartphone-based colour quantification algorithm in order to standardise and improve the determination of the concentration of analytes of interest. The utility of this approach has been exemplified by analysing the replay colour of the captured image of a holographic pH sensor in near real-time. Personalised image encryption followed by a wavelet-based image compression method were applied to secure the image transfer across a bandwidth-limited network to the cloud. The decrypted and decompressed image was processed through four principal steps: Recognition of the hologram in the image with a complex background using a template-based approach, conversion of device-dependent RGB values to device-independent CIEXYZ values using a polynomial model of the camera and computation of the CIEL*a*b* values, use of the colour coordinates of the captured image to segment the image, select the appropriate colour descriptors and, ultimately, locate the region of interest (ROI), i.e. the hologram in this case, and finally, application of a machine learning-based algorithm to correlate the colour coordinates of the ROI to the analyte concentration. Integrating holographic sensors and the colour image processing algorithm potentially offers a cost-effective platform for the remote monitoring of analytes in real time in readily accessible body fluids by minimally trained individuals.

  2. Smartphone-based quantitative measurements on holographic sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Khalili Moghaddam

    Full Text Available The research reported herein integrates a generic holographic sensor platform and a smartphone-based colour quantification algorithm in order to standardise and improve the determination of the concentration of analytes of interest. The utility of this approach has been exemplified by analysing the replay colour of the captured image of a holographic pH sensor in near real-time. Personalised image encryption followed by a wavelet-based image compression method were applied to secure the image transfer across a bandwidth-limited network to the cloud. The decrypted and decompressed image was processed through four principal steps: Recognition of the hologram in the image with a complex background using a template-based approach, conversion of device-dependent RGB values to device-independent CIEXYZ values using a polynomial model of the camera and computation of the CIEL*a*b* values, use of the colour coordinates of the captured image to segment the image, select the appropriate colour descriptors and, ultimately, locate the region of interest (ROI, i.e. the hologram in this case, and finally, application of a machine learning-based algorithm to correlate the colour coordinates of the ROI to the analyte concentration. Integrating holographic sensors and the colour image processing algorithm potentially offers a cost-effective platform for the remote monitoring of analytes in real time in readily accessible body fluids by minimally trained individuals.

  3. Research of detection depth for graphene-based optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Sun, Jialve; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2018-03-01

    Graphene-based optical sensors have been developed for research into the biological intercellular refractive index (RI) because they offer greater detection depths than those provided by the surface plasmon resonance technique. In this Letter, we propose an experimental approach for measurement of the detection depth in a graphene-based optical sensor system that uses transparent polydimethylsiloxane layers with different thicknesses. The experimental results show that detection depths of 2.5 μm and 3 μm can be achieved at wavelengths of 532 nm and 633 nm, respectively. These results prove that graphene-based optical sensors can realize long-range RI detection and are thus promising for use as tools in the biological cell detection field. Additionally, we analyze the factors that influence the detection depth and provide a feasible approach for detection depth control based on adjustment of the wavelength and the angle of incidence. We believe that this approach will be useful in RI tomography applications.

  4. Sensor-based automated docking of large waste canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Sensor-based programmable robots have the potential to speed up remote manipulation operations while protecting operators from exposure to radiation. Conventional master/slave manipulators have proven to be very slow in performing precision remote operations. In addition, inadvertent collisions of remotely manipulated objects with their environment increase the hazards associated with remote handling. This paper describes the development of a robotic system for the sensor-based automated remote manipulation and precision docking of large payloads. Computer vision and proximity sensing are used to control the precision docking of a large object with a passive target cavity. Specifically, a container of nuclear spent fuel on a transport vehicle is mated with an emplacement door on a vertical storage borehole at a waste repository

  5. The Design of Tools for Sketching Sensor-Based Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Lunding, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Lasse Steenbock

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we motivate, present, and give an initial evaluation of DUL Radio, a small wireless toolkit for sketching sensor-based interaction. In the motivation, we discuss the purpose of this specific platform, which aims to balance ease-of-use (learning, setup, initialization), size, speed......, flexibility and cost, aimed at wearable and ultra-mobile prototyping where fast reaction is needed (e.g. in controlling sound), and we discuss the general issues facing this category of embodied interaction design tools. We then present the platform in more detail, both regarding hard- ware and software....... In the brief evaluation, we present our initial experiences with the platform both in design projects and in teaching. We conclude that DUL Radio does seem to be a relatively easy-to-use tool for sketching sensor-based interaction compared to other solutions, but that there are many ways to improve it. Target...

  6. A ph sensor based on a flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Ding

    pH sensor is an essential component used in many chemical, food, and bio-material industries. Conventional glass electrodes have been used to construct pH sensors, however, have some disadvantages. Glass electrodes are easily affected by alkaline or HF solution, they require a high input impedance pH meter, they often exhibit a sluggish response. In some specific applications, it is also difficult to use glass electrodes for in vivo biomedical or food monitoring applications due to the difficulty of size miniaturization, planarization and polymerization based on current manufacturing technologies. In this work, we have demonstrated a novel flexible pH sensor based on low-cost sol-gel fabrication process of iridium oxide (IrOx) sensing film (IROF). A pair of flexible miniature IrOx/AgCl electrode generated the action potential from the solution by electrochemical mechanism to obtain the pH level of the reagent. The fabrication process including sol-gel, thermal oxidation, and the electro-plating process of the silver chloride (AgCl) reference electrode were reported in the work. The IrOx film was verified and characterized using electron dispersive analysis (EDAX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The flexible pH sensor's performance and characterization have been investigated with different testing parameters such as sensitivity, response time, stability, reversibility, repeatability, selectivity and temperature dependence. The flexible IrOx pH sensors exhibited promising sensing performance with a near-Nernstian response of sensitivity which is between --51.1mV/pH and --51.7mV/pH in different pH levels ranging from 1.5 to 12 at 25°C. Two applications including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) diagnosis and food freshness wireless monitoring using our micro-flexible IrOx pH sensors were demonstrated. For the GERD diagnosing system, we embedded the micro flexible pH sensor on a 1.2cmx3.8cm of the capsule size of wireless sensor

  7. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1997-01-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  8. A research plan based on high intensity proton accelerator Neutron Science Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Motoharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A plan called Neutron Science Research Center (NSRC) has been proposed in JAERI. The center is a complex composed of research facilities based on a proton linac with an energy of 1.5GeV and an average current of 10mA. The research facilities will consist of Thermal/Cold Neutron Facility, Neutron Irradiation Facility, Neutron Physics Facility, OMEGA/Nuclear Energy Facility, Spallation RI Beam Facility, Meson/Muon Facility and Medium Energy Experiment Facility, where high intensity proton beam and secondary particle beams such as neutron, pion, muon and unstable radio isotope (RI) beams generated from the proton beam will be utilized for innovative researches in the fields on nuclear engineering and basic sciences. (author)

  9. A neutron spectrometer based on temperature variations in superheated drop compositions

    CERN Document Server

    Apfel, R E

    2002-01-01

    The response of superheated drop detectors (SDDs) to neutron radiation varies in a self-consistent manner with variations in temperature and pressure, making such compositions suitable for neutron spectrometry. The advantage of this approach is that the response functions of candidate materials versus energy as the temperature or pressure is varied are nested and have distinct thresholds, with no thermal neutron response. These characteristics permit unfolding without the uncertainties associated with other spectrometry techniques, where multiple solutions are possible, thus requiring an initial guess of the spectrum. A spectrometer was developed based on the well-established technology for acoustic sensing of bubble events interfaced with a proportional-integral-derivative temperature controller. The active monitor for neutrons, called REMbrandt sup T sup M , was used as the platform for controlling temperature on a SDD probe and for data acquisition, thereby automating the process of measuring the neutron e...

  10. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  11. Block-Based Compressed Sensing for Neutron Radiation Image Using WDFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal compression method for neutron radiation image should have high compression ratio while keeping more details of the original image. Compressed sensing (CS, which can break through the restrictions of sampling theorem, is likely to offer an efficient compression scheme for the neutron radiation image. Combining wavelet transform with directional filter banks, a novel nonredundant multiscale geometry analysis transform named Wavelet Directional Filter Banks (WDFB is constructed and applied to represent neutron radiation image sparsely. Then, the block-based CS technique is introduced and a high performance CS scheme for neutron radiation image is proposed. By performing two-step iterative shrinkage algorithm the problem of L1 norm minimization is solved to reconstruct neutron radiation image from random measurements. The experiment results demonstrate that the scheme not only improves the quality of reconstructed image obviously but also retains more details of original image.

  12. Plasmonic Sensors Based on Doubly-Deposited Tapered Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín González-Cano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR transducers based on tapered fibers that have been developed in the last years is presented. The devices have proved their good performance (specifically, in terms of sensitivity and their versatility and they are a very good option to be considered as basis for any kind of chemical and biological sensor. The technology has now reached its maturity and here we summarize some of the characteristics of the devices produced.

  13. Sensor Based Motion Tracking and Recognition in Martial Arts Training

    OpenAIRE

    Agojo, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    In various martial arts, competitors are interested in quantifying and categorising techniques which are exercised during training. The implementation of embedded systems into training gear, especially a portable wireless body worn system, based on inertial sensors, facilitates the quantification and categorisation of forces and accelerations involved during the training of martial arts. The scope of this paper is to give a brief overview of contemporary technology and devices, describe key m...

  14. Optical sensor in planar configuration based on multimode interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blahut, Marek

    2017-08-01

    In the paper a numerical analysis of optical sensors based on multimode interference in planar one-dimensional step-index configuration is presented. The structure consists in single-mode input and output waveguides and multimode waveguide which guide only few modes. Material parameters discussed refer to a SU8 polymer waveguide on SiO2 substrate. The optical system described will be designed to the analysis of biological substances.

  15. High sensitivity hydrogen sensors based on GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Grym, Jan; Žďánský, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1661-1663 ISSN 1610-1642. [16th International Semiconducting and Insulating Materials Conference (SIMC-XVI). Stockholm, 19.06.2011-23.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10021 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Pt nanoparticles * Graphite based Schottky diodes * Hydrogen sensor * GaN Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. Polymer-based stress sensor with integrated readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jacob; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Vettiger, P.

    2002-01-01

    softer than silicon and that a gold resistor is easily incorporated in SU-8, we have proven that a SU-8-based cantilever sensor is almost as sensitive to stress changes as the silicon piezoresistive cantilever. First, the surface stress sensing principle is discussed, from which it can be shown......, noise and device failure. The characterization shows that there is a good agreement between the expected and the obtained performance....

  17. Device for measuring the dose rate of pulsed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, A.

    2009-01-01

    The author presents a new apparatus, developed in collaboration by Berthold Technologies and the German company DESY, allowing neutron pulsed fields to be measured. It is based on the activation by high energy neutrons of carbon 12 present in the sensor materials, and on the decay of short life radionuclides produced by this activation. The detection principle and system are briefly presented

  18. Neutron instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Yuchi, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    The neutron instrumentation system of this invention can greatly reduce the possibility that the shutdown flux is increased greater than a predetermiend value to cause scram due to vibrations caused by earthquakes or shocks in the neutron instrumentation system without injuring the reactor safety. That is, a sensor having a zero sensitivity to a neutron flux which is an object to be detected by the sensor (dummy sensor) is used together with a conventional sensor (a sensor having predetermined sensitivity to a neutron flux as an object to be measured ----- true sensor). Further, identical signal transmission cables, connector and the signal processing circuits are used for both of true sensor and the dummy sensor. The signal from the dummy sensor is subtracted from the signal from the true sensor at the output of the signal processing circuit. Since the output of the dummy sensor is zero during normal operation, the subtracted value is the same as the value from the true sensor. If the true sensor causes an output with the reason other than the neutron flux, this is outputted also from the dummy sensor but does not appear in the subtracted value. (I.S.)

  19. Emotion and Cognitive Reappraisal Based on GSR Wearable Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minjia; XIE Lun; WANG Zhiliang; REN Fuji

    2017-01-01

    Various wearable equipment enables us to measure people behavior by physiological signals. In our research, we present one gal-vanic skin reaction (GSR) wearable sensor which can analyze human emotions based on cognition reappraisal. First, We research the factors of emotional state transition in Arousal-Valence-Stance(AVS) emotional space. Second, the influence of the cognition on emotional state transition is considered, and the reappraisal factor based on Gross regulation theory is established to correct the effectiveness from cognitive reappraisal ability to emotional state transition. Third, based on the previous work, we establish a GSR emotion sensing system for predicting emotional state transition and considering the correlation between GSR signals and emotions. Finally, an overall wearable sensor layout is built. In the experiment part, we invited 30 college students to wear our GSR sensors and watch 14 kinds of affective videos. We recorded their GSR signals while asking them to record their emotional states synchronously. The experiment results show different reappraisal factors can predict subjects'emotional state transition well and indirectly confirm the feasibility of the Gross regulation theory.

  20. Efficient Vector-Based Forwarding for Underwater Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks in the following aspects: low bandwidth, high latency, node mobility, high error probability, and 3-dimensional space. These new features bring many challenges to the network protocol design of UWSNs. In this paper, we tackle one fundamental problem in UWSNs: robust, scalable, and energy efficient routing. We propose vector-based forwarding (VBF, a geographic routing protocol. In VBF, the forwarding path is guided by a vector from the source to the target, no state information is required on the sensor nodes, and only a small fraction of the nodes is involved in routing. To improve the robustness, packets are forwarded in redundant and interleaved paths. Further, a localized and distributed self-adaptation algorithm allows the nodes to reduce energy consumption by discarding redundant packets. VBF performs well in dense networks. For sparse networks, we propose a hop-by-hop vector-based forwarding (HH-VBF protocol, which adapts the vector-based approach at every hop. We evaluate the performance of VBF and HH-VBF through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that VBF achieves high packet delivery ratio and energy efficiency in dense networks and HH-VBF has high packet delivery ratio even in sparse networks.