WorldWideScience

Sample records for neutrino electron scattering

  1. Neutrino oscillations and neutrino-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.; Rosen, S.P.

    1980-10-01

    Neutrino flavor oscillations can significantly alter the cross section for neutrino-electron scattering. As a result, such oscillations can affect the comparison between existing reactor data and theories of neutral-current processes. They may also lead to strikingly large effects in high-energy accelerator experiments

  2. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  3. Neutrino-Electron Scattering in MINERvA for Constraining the NuMI Neutrino Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaewon [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is used as a reference process to constrain the neutrino flux at the Main Injector (NuMI) beam observed by the MINERvA experiment. Prediction of the neutrino flux at accelerator experiments from other methods has a large uncertainty, and this uncertainty degrades measurements of neutrino oscillations and neutrino cross-sections. Neutrino-electron elastic scattering is a rare process, but its cross-section is precisely known. With a sample corresponding to $3.5\\times10^{20}$ protons on target in the NuMI low-energy neutrino beam, a sample of $120$ $\

  4. Can neutrino-electron scattering tell us whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1988-04-01

    There has recently been interest in the possibility that neutrino-electron scattering experiments could determine whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles by providing information on their electromagnetic structure. We try to explain why studies of neutrino electromagnetic structure actually cannot distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. 9 refs

  5. Neutrino-electron scattering and the choice between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We consider the scattering of solar neutrinos by electrons as a means for distinguishing between MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. In terms of the ratio R between the observed cross-section and that for pure electron-type neutrinos, we find that some correlation between the value R and the appropriate solution. 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. Polarized electron-muon neutrino scattering to electron and neutrino in noncommutative space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Ettefaghi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For neutrino scattering from polarized electron, the weak interaction term in the cross section is significantly suppressed by the polarized term. The magnetic moment term does not receive any correction from the electron polarization. Hence, the study of the magnetic moment of neutrinos through scattering from the polarized electron leads to a stronger bound on the neutrino magnetic moment compared with the unpolarized case. On the other hand, neutrinos which are electrically neutral can couple directly with photons in Noncommutative (NC QED. In this paper, we calculate the NC QED corrections on this scattering are calculated. The phase difference between the NC term and the polarized weak interaction term is π/2. Therefore, the NC term does not destroy the above suppression.

  7. Neutrino-electron scattering. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We present here a progress report on an experiment to measure the cross section for nu/sub μ/e scattering at the Brookhaven AGS. A wide band focussing horn is used with a neutrino beam energy centered at 1.5 GeV. We have in hand measurements with nu/sub μ/ and anti nu/sub μ/ beams but we present preliminary data on the nu/sub μ/ beam running only. We also measure the reactions: nu/sub μ/ + n → μ - + p and nu/sub e/ + n → e - + p which will be used in normalization and in background estimation

  8. Azimuthal asymmetry of recoil electrons in neutrino-electron elastic scattering as signature of neutrino nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobkow, W.; Blaut, A. [University of Wroclaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we analyze the theoretically possible scenario beyond the standard model in order to show how the presence of the exotic scalar, tensor, V + A weak interactions in addition to the standard vector-axial (V - A) ones may help to distinguish the Dirac from Majorana neutrinos in the elastic scattering of an (anti)neutrino beam off the unpolarized electrons in the relativistic limit. We assume that the incoming (anti)neutrino beam comes from the polarized muon decay at rest and is the left-right chiral superposition with assigned direction of the transversal spin polarization with respect to the production plane. Our analysis is carried out for the flavour (current) neutrino eigenstates. It means that the transverse neutrino polarization estimates are the same both for the Dirac and Majorana cases. We display that the azimuthal asymmetry in the angular distribution of recoil electrons is generated by the interference terms between the standard and exotic couplings, which are proportional to the transversal (anti)neutrino spin polarization and independent of the neutrino mass. This asymmetry for the Majorana neutrinos is larger than for the Dirac ones. We also indicate the possibility of utilizing the azimuthal asymmetry measurements to search for the new CP-violating phases. Our study is based on the assumption that the possible detector (running for 1 year) has the shape of a flat circular ring, while the intense neutrino source is located in the centre of the ring and polarized perpendicularly to the ring. In addition, the large low-threshold, real-time detector is able to measure with a high resolution both the polar angle and the azimuthal angle of outgoing electron momentum. Our analysis is model-independent and consistent with the current upper limits on the non-standard couplings. (orig.)

  9. Angular distribution in electron-neutrino scattering and the anomalous magnetic moment of the neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Aydin, Z.Z.

    1988-08-01

    Some implications of the anomalous magnetic moment a υ of the neutrino are discussed, in particular the differential cross-sections of the electron-neutrino (antineutrino) scattering, (υ e and υ μ ), of the magnetic model is compared with the standard model in order to set better limits on a υ . (author). 18 refs, 2 figs

  10. On neutrino and antineutrino scattering by electrons, and by partons

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, J S

    1975-01-01

    Assuming a non-derivative point interaction, and Born approximation, there are some simple relations between neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons or partons. They have been observed already, for some special cases, in the results of explicit calculations. Here they are obtained from simple and general considerations. (8 refs).

  11. On neutrino and antineutrino scattering by electrons, and by partons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.; Dass, G.V.

    1975-09-01

    Assuming a non-derivative point interaction, and Born approximation, there are some simple relations between neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons or partons. They have been observed already, for some special cases, in the results of explicit calculations. Here they are obtained from simple general considerations. (author)

  12. MUNU: study of the neutrino-electron scattering; MUNU: etude de la diffusion neutrino-electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerna, C

    2000-11-01

    MUNU is an experiment dedicated to electron-neutrino scattering studies and in particular to neutrino magnetic moment search at a nuclear power plant in Bugey (France). MUNU is based on a gaseous time projection chamber (TPC) immersed in 8 tons of liquid scintillator acting as an active anti-Compton shielding. A preliminary analysis of the first results of this experiment corresponding to about 24 days of data collecting draws a line on the value of the neutrino magnetic moment: {mu}{sub {nu}}-bar{sub {sub e}} {<=} 1.97 10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B} (68% confidence level). All along this work, it is shown that the combined use of a TPC and of a light detection system is valuable for discriminating particles and for discarding signals from background noise.

  13. Energy dependence of solar-neutrino--electron scattering as a test of neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The energy dependence of ν-e scattering of solar neutrinos is investigated in the framework of neutrino oscillations and the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect. It is shown that, with sufficient data, it will be possible to establish unambiguously whether neutrino oscillations are actually occurring and whether the electron neutrino oscillates into active or inactive (sterile) neutrino flavors

  14. Neutrino-electron scattering and the choice between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.; Gelb, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the scattering of solar neutrinos by electrons as a means for distinguishing between different MSW solutions of the solar neutrino problem. In terms of the ratio R between the observed cross-section and that for pure electron-type neutrinos, some correlation between the value of R and each solution is found. A value of R ≤ 1/3 implies that the adiabatic solution is correct, while values between 1/3 and 3/5 are consistent with the large angle solution. A value close to 1/2 is also consistent with the non-adiabatic solution, and a value less than (1/6 - 1/7) implies oscillations into sterile neutrinos

  15. Electrons for Neutrinos: Using Electron Scattering to Develop New Energy Reconstruction for Future Deuterium-Based Neutrino Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adrian; Schmookler, Barak; Papadopoulou, Afroditi; Schmidt, Axel; Hen, Or; Khachatryan, Mariana; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    Using wide phase-space electron scattering data, we study a novel technique for neutrino energy reconstruction for future neutrino oscillation experiments. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments require detailed understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions, which are complicated by the underlying nuclear physics that governs the process. One area of concern is that neutrino energy must be reconstructed event-by-event from the final-state kinematics. In charged-current quasielastic scattering, Fermi motion of nucleons prevents exact energy reconstruction. However, in scattering from deuterium, the momentum of the electron and proton constrain the neutrino energy exactly, offering a new avenue for reducing systematic uncertainties. To test this approach, we analyzed d (e ,e' p) data taken with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab Hall B and made kinematic selection cuts to obtain quasielastic events. We estimated the remaining inelastic background by using d (e ,e' pπ-) events to produce a simulated dataset of events with an undetected π-. These results demonstrate the feasibility of energy reconstruction in a hypothetical future deuterium-based neutrino detector. Supported by the Paul E. Gray UROP Fund, MIT.

  16. Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in electron-neutrino scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahcall, J.N.; Gelb, J.M.; Rosen, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate the influence of resonant neutrino scattering [the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect] in the Sun and in the Earth on measurable quantities in solar-neutrino--electron scattering experiments. The MSW effect reduces the expected rate for 8 B-neutrino--electron scattering by a factor that ranges from --0.8 to --0.2 if resonant scattering is the correct explanation for the discrepancy between observation and calculation in the /sup 37/Cl experiment. The Earth can produce a significant diurnal effect for certain values of the neutrino mixing angle and mass difference

  17. Problems in neutrino electron scattering with 1-GeV neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Neutrino physics has often been limited by lack of events. This limitation has been not so much for events in total, but for events in selected channels. The basic strategy for dealing with this issue has been to build massive detectors in which target and event detection have been combined. This strategy has been very successful, but it does carry the difficulty that, given a large detector mass, financial limitations apply to the detail with which events may be detected and reconstructed. At KAON some of these difficulties will be alleviated by the increase in neutrino flux, which may make the construction of smaller and more specialized detectors feasible. At the Lake Louise workshop a great deal of interest was expressed in neutrino electron scattering; we shall describe here the limitations of the BNL detector as they emerged in the measurement of sin 2 Θ w at BNL. In this context the knowledge of the beam was an intrinsic part of this experimental systematic errors, and we start with a description of the beam

  18. Neutrino-electron scattering with a new source of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, J; Delepine, D; Napsuciale, M; Yebra, A

    2016-01-01

    According to previous works, there is a possibility for increasing the difference between Dirac and Majorana cross section for a neutrino-electron scattering process if we take into account that the neutrino longitudinal polarization can be different from minus one. In this work, we study the difference between Dirac and Majorana scattering process but we introduce an additional effective interaction that depends on complex coupling constants for the neutrinos. Thus, in this more general case, we have two additional parameters, the phase of the neutrino couplings and one parameter ϵ related to the effective coupling of the new interaction. (paper)

  19. Elastic neutrino-electron scattering: a progress report on Exp734 at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Amako, K.

    1983-01-01

    I will report preliminary results on elastic neutrino-electron scattering from data taken with the 200 ton segmented liquid scintillator - proportional drift-tube neutrino detector at Brookhaven. Features of the detector (such as the active target and long radiation length) permit a uniquely clean signal. Prospects of results from the completed analysis and further data taking are discussed

  20. Electron-neutrino scattering: neutrino magnetic moment and solar neutrino spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenier, M.; Bagieu, G.; Barnoux, C.; Bon Nguyen, R.; Brissot, R.; Guerre-Chaley, B.; Laborie, J.M.; Koang, D.H.; Lebrun, D.; Stutz, A.; Vignon, B.

    1997-01-01

    We have built a low background detector based on a gas time projection chamber surrounded by an active anti-Compton shielding. The detector is installed near a nuclear reactor at Bugey for the experimental study of ν e bar, e - scattering. (authors)

  1. Study of radiative corrections with application to the electron-neutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.S. de.

    1977-01-01

    The radiative correction method is studied which appears in Quantum Field Theory, for some weak interaction processes. e.g., Beta decay and muon decay. Such a method is then applied to calculate transition probability for the electron-neutrino scattering using the U-A theory as a base. The calculations of infrared and ultraviolet divergences are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Measurement of neutrino electron scattering and inverse beta-decay of carbon using neutrinos from stopped muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer, D.A.

    1992-04-01

    Electron-neutrino electron elastic scattering and two-body electron- neutrino carbon scattering reactions were observed using a 15 ton fine-grained detector and neutrinos from μ + decay at rest. The data was obtained during an exposure to neutrinos produced in LAMPF proton beam-stop. Based on identification of 262±46 ν e e - events the total cross-section for ν e e - → ν e e - was measured to be σ(ν e E - ) = (3.09±0.54(stat)±0.39(syst)) x 10 -43 cm 2 . The interference between the weak charged and neutral currents was measured for the first time. The interference was found to be destructive, with a magnitude 0.97±0.22 times the value predicted by the WSG theory. The total cross-section was also used to measure sin 2 θ W = 0.24±0.06(stat)±0.04(syst). The data restricts the maximum allowed value of the neutrino magnetic moment to be less than 1.3 x 10 -9 Bohr magnetrons for ν e and 8.8 x 10 -10 for ν mu . In a separate analysis, 182±22 12 C(ν e ,e - ) 12 N(gs) events with subsequent 12 N(β + ) 12 C were observed, corresponding to a total cross-section, σ(ν e 12 C → e - 12 N(gs)) = (1.03 ± 0.12(stat) ± 0.10(sys)) x10 -41 cm 2 . This was the first observation of ν e -induced transitions between specific nuclear states. The results is good agreement with theoretical predictions

  3. Muon-Neutrino Electron Elastic Scattering and a Search for the Muon-Neutrino Magnetic Moment in the NOvA Near Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Biao [Southern Methodist U.

    2017-01-01

    We use the NOvA near detector and the NuMI beam at Fermilab to study the neutrino- electron elastic scattering and the muon neutrino magnetic process beyond the Standard Model physics. The particle identications of neutrino on electron elastic scattering are trained by using the multi-layer neural networks. This thesis provides a general discussion of this technique and shows a good agreement between data and MC for the neutrino-electron elastic weak scattering. So that beneting from the precise cross-section of this channel, we are able to tune the neutrino beam ux simulation in the future. Giving the exposure of 3:62 1020 POT in the NOvA near detector, we report 1:58 10

  4. Neutrino scattering and the reactor antineutrino anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Estela; Cañas, Blanca; Miranda, Omar; Parada, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Low energy threshold reactor experiments have the potential to give insight into the light sterile neutrino signal provided by the reactor antineutrino anomaly and the gallium anomaly. In this work we analyze short baseline reactor experiments that detect by elastic neutrino electron scattering in the context of a light sterile neutrino signal. We also analyze the sensitivity of experimental proposals of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CENNS) detectors in order to exclude or confirm the sterile neutrino signal with reactor antineutrinos.

  5. Study of neutrino-electron scattering at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Using a beam stop source of ν e from stopped μ + A decay located at the Clinton B. Anderson Meson Physics Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a measurement of the reaction ν e + e - → ν e +e - was performed. In the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow model of electroweak interactions, the above reaction is mediated both by the exchange of a Z boson (neutral-current) and the exchange of a W boson (charged-current), and is thus sensitive to the interference between these two exchanges. A total of 304 ± 49 ν x e events are identified of which 254 ± 50 are attributed to ν e e elastic scattering. The observed event rate rules out the opposite sign of the interference by 4.6σ and is consistent with the interference predicted by the WSG model. The measured cross-section is σ(ν e e) = |11.8 ± 2.5(stat) ± 1.2(syst)| x 10 -42 cm 2 x E ν (GeV) with a measured Weinberg angle of sin 2 Θ ω = 0.31 ± 0.08 (stat) ±0.03(syst)

  6. Measurements of sin2 θ/sub w/ from studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    This talk is intended as a brief report on studies of the elastic scattering of neutrinos by protons and electrons. Measurements of the ratios of muon antineutrino and muon neutrino elastic scattering on protons, and the corresponding ratio for elastic scattering on electrons minimize systematic experimental errors, and lead directly to values of the fundamental parameter of the electroweak interaction, the Weinberg Angle, with minimal ambiguity. Accordingly, the principal motivation in carrying out these studies was the desire to obtain and compare precise values of the Weinberg Angle from both the semileptonic and leptonic reactions as still another test of the basic validity of the standard electroweak theory. 10 refs., 11 figs

  7. Angular distributions of neutrino and antineutrino scatterings by electrons and gauge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    Assuming a nonderivative point interaction, and Born approximation, the complete angular distributions for the scatterings of neutrinos and antineutrinos by electrons are obtained from only simple general considerations, without explicit calculation; generalisation to parton targets is noted. Two pairs of simple constraints on the angular distributions can be violated only if the interaction has a helicity-flipping component; this can serve to disfavour the large class of models which are purely helicity-conserving. Comparison is made with some explicit calculations done for some special cases of some of the results. (author)

  8. Deeply Virtual Neutrino Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the extension of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process into the weak interaction sector. Standard electromagnetic Compton scattering provides a unique tool for studying hadrons, which is one of the most fascinating frontiers of modern science. In this process the relevant Compton scattering amplitude probes the hadron structure by means of two quark electromagnetic currents. We argue that replacing one of the currents with the weak interaction current can promise a new insight. The paper is organized as follows. In Sec. II we briefly discuss the features of the handbag factorization scheme. We introduce a new set of phenomenological functions, known as generalized parton distributions (GPDs) [1-6], and discuss some of their basic properties in Sec. III. An application of the GPD formalism to the neutrino-induced deeply virtual Compton scattering in the kinematics relevant to future high-intensity neutrino experiments is given in Sec. IV. The cross section results are presented in Sec. V. Finally, in Sec. VI we draw some conclusions and discuss future prospects. Some of the formal results in this paper have appeared in preliminary reports in Refs. [7] and [8], whereas a comprehensive analysis of the weak neutral and weak charged current DVCS reactions in collaboration with W. Melnitchouk and A. Radyushkin has been presented in Ref. [9

  9. Electron-neutrino scattering off nuclei from two different theoretical perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M.; Ericson, M.; Pandey, V.; Van Cuyck, T.; Van Dessel, N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze charged-current electron-neutrino cross sections on Carbon. We consider two different theoretical approaches, on one hand the Continuum Random Phase Approximation (CRPA) which allows a description of giant resonances and quasielastic excitations, on the other hand the RPA-based calculations which are able to describe multinucleon emission and coherent and incoherent pion production as well as quasielastic excitations. We compare the two approaches in the genuine quasielastic channel, and find a satisfactory agreement between them at large energies while at low energies the collective giant resonances show up only in the CRPA approach. We also compare electron-neutrino cross sections with the corresponding muon-neutrino ones in order to investigate the impact of the different charged-lepton masses. Finally, restricting to the RPA-based approach we compare the sum of quasielastic, multinucleon emission, coherent and incoherent one-pion production cross sections (folded with the electron-neutrino T2K ...

  10. Electron Neutrino Charged-Current Quasielastic Scattering in the MINERvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Rochester U.

    2015-10-28

    The electron-neutrino charged-current quasielastic (CCQE) cross section on nuclei is an important input parameter to appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments. Current experiments typically work from the muon neutrino cross section and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for the electron neutrino cross section, but to date there has been no experimental verification of the estimates for this channel at an energy scale appropriate to such experiments. We present the first measurement of an exclusive reaction in few-GeV electron neutrino interactions, namely, the cross section for a CCQE-like process, made using the MINERvA detector. The result is given as differential cross-sections vs. the electron energy, electron angle, and square of the four-momentum transferred to the nucleus, $Q^2$. We also compute the ratio to a muon neutrino cross-section in $Q^2$ from MINERvA. We find satisfactory agreement between this measurement and the predictions of the GENIE generator.

  11. Electron-neutrino scattering off nuclei from two different theoretical perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Jachowicz, N.; Ericson, M.; Pandey, V.; Van Cuyck, T.; Van Dessel, N.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze charged-current electron-neutrino cross sections on carbon. We consider two different theoretical approaches, on one hand the continuum random phase approximation (CRPA) which allows a description of giant resonances and quasielastic excitations, on the other hand the RPA-based calculations which are able to describe multinucleon emission and coherent and incoherent pion production as well as quasielastic excitations. We compare the two approaches in the genuine quasielastic channel, and find a satisfactory agreement between them at large energies while at low energies the collective giant resonances show up only in the CRPA approach. We also compare electron-neutrino cross sections with the corresponding muon-neutrino ones in order to investigate the impact of the different charged-lepton masses. Finally, restricting to the RPA-based approach, we compare the sum of quasielastic, multinucleon emission, coherent, and incoherent one-pion production cross sections (folded with the electron-neutrino T2K flux) with the charged-current inclusive electron-neutrino differential cross sections on carbon measured by T2K. We find a good agreement with the data. The multinucleon component is needed in order to reproduce the T2K electron-neutrino inclusive cross sections.

  12. Limit on flavor-changing neutral currents from a measurement of neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Allen, R.C.; Chen, H.H.; Hausammann, R.; Lee, W.P.; Lu, X.; Mahler, H.J.; Wang, K.C.; Bowles, T.J.; Burman, R.L.; Carlini, R.D.; Cochran, D.R.F.; Doe, P.J.; Frank, J.S.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Piasetzky, E.

    1992-01-01

    From a measurement of the absolute cross section in ν ee - elastic scattering we have set a limit on flavor-changing neutral currents in the neutrino sector. We find that an off-diagonal, flavor-changing coupling is limited to 1-f ee <0.35 (90% C.L.)

  13. A proposal for a precision test of the standard model by neutrino-electron scattering (Large /hacek C/erenkov Detector Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.C.; Lu, X-Q.; Gollwitzer, K.

    1988-04-01

    A precision measurement of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from a beam stop neutrino source at LAMPF is proposed. The total error in sin 2 θ/sub W/ is estimated to be +-0.89/percent/. The experiment also will be sensitive to neutrino oscillations and supernova-neutrino bursts, and should set improved limits on the neutrino-charge radius and magnetic-dipole moment. The detector consists of a 2.5-million-gallon tank of water with approximately 14,000 photomultiplier tubes lining the surfaces of the tank. Neutrino-electron scattering events will be observed from the /hacek C/erenkov radiation emitted by the electrons in the water. 19 refs

  14. A proposal for a precision test of the standard model by neutrino-electron scattering (Large /hacek C/erenkov Detector Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.C.; Lu, X-Q.; Gollwitzer, K.; Igo, G.J.; Gulmez, E.; Whitten, C.; VanDalen, G.; Layter, J.; Fung, Sun Yui; Shen, B.C.

    1988-04-01

    A precision measurement of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from a beam stop neutrino source at LAMPF is proposed. The total error in sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ is estimated to be +-0.89/percent/. The experiment also will be sensitive to neutrino oscillations and supernova-neutrino bursts, and should set improved limits on the neutrino-charge radius and magnetic-dipole moment. The detector consists of a 2.5-million-gallon tank of water with approximately 14,000 photomultiplier tubes lining the surfaces of the tank. Neutrino-electron scattering events will be observed from the /hacek C/erenkov radiation emitted by the electrons in the water. 19 refs.

  15. An effective potential for electron-nucleus scattering in neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung in neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofengeim, D D; Kaminker, A D; Yakovlev, D G

    2015-01-01

    We derive an analytic approximation for the emissivity of neutrino-pair bremsstrahlung (NPB) due to scattering of electrons by atomic nuclei in a neutron star (NS) crust of any realistic composition. The emissivity is expressed through generalized Coulomb logarithm by introducing an effective potential of electron-nucleus scattering. In addition, we study the conditions at which NPB in the crust is affected by strong magnetic fields and outline the main effects of the fields on neutrino emission in NSs. The results can be used for modelling of many phenomena in NSs, such as cooling of young isolated NSs, thermal relaxation of accreting NSs with overheated crust in soft X-ray transients and evolution of magnetars. (paper)

  16. Neutrinos in the Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    I will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron consists of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron consists of the mass in the energy of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass of the electron, its charge, its spin and its magnetic moment We have also determined the rest masses of the muon neutrino and the electron neutrino

  17. Resonant neutrino scattering: An impossible experiment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, D.; Sumikama, T.; Ogura, M.; Mittig, W.; Shiraki, A.; Ichikawa, Y.; Kimura, H.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Nakai, Y.; Hussein, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental feasibility was investigated for the resonant scattering of monoenergetic neutrinos emitted in the two-body β decay. A simple general formula shows that the resonance cross section can be as large as of the order of 10 -17 cm 2 . The Moessbauer setup using a solid crystal was examined with a focus on the electronic structure of the emitter and the absorber. Based on realistic calculations, we show that interactions of valence electrons in the solid lead to a level broadening of the atomic ground state, which considerably suppresses the resonant scattering of neutrinos.

  18. Some consequences of a scale-breaking model in electron and neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Pacheco, A.; Grifols, J.A.; Schmidt, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    Electron and neutrino deep inelastic processes, extending a simple parton model explanation of the approach to scaling observed in electroproduction at large x are analyzed. The model is successful in fitting the present experimental data without any explicit effects from asymptotic freedom or new quarks. This model has a large q 2 behaviour which is quite different from that expected in asymptotic freedom (AF) theories and comparisons to data can be used to sharpen any experimental demonstration of AF effects. Of course, the model is consistent with AF and both effects could be present

  19. A new determination of the electroweak mixing angle from muon-neutrino-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiregat, D.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Bergsma, F.; Binder, U.; Burkard, H.; Eisenberg, Y.; Flegel, W.; Grote, H.; Mouthuy, T.; Oeveras, H.; Panman, J.; Santacesaria, R.; Winter, K.; Zacek, G.; Zacek, V.; Beyer, R.; Blobel, V.; Buesser, F.W.; Foos, C.; Gerland, L.; Layda, T.; Niebergall, F.; Raedel, G.; Staehelin, P.; Tadsen, A.; Voss, T.; Gorbunov, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Khovansky, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Rosanov, A.; Lippich, W.; Nathaniel, A.; Staude, A.; Capone, A.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Dore, U.; Frenkel-Rambaldi, A.; Loverre, P.F.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, D.

    1989-01-01

    We are reporting on a new determination of sin 2 θ W from the ratio of ν μ e to anti ν μ e scattering cross sections. A new detector designed for this purpose was exposed to the Wide Band Neutrino Beam of the 450 GeV CERN SPS. An analysis of data taken in 1987 and 1988 is presented based on 762 ν μ e and 1017 anti ν μ e events. From the ratio of σ(ν μ e) to σ(anti ν μ e) we determined sin 2 θ W =0.233±0.012(stat)±0.008(syst) without radiative corrections. With radiative corrections for m t =m H =100 GeV we find sin 2 θ W =0.232±0.012(stat)±0.008(syst). (orig.)

  20. An improved determination of the elektroweak mixing angle from muon-neutrino electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiregat, D.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Binder, U.; Burkard, H.; Dore, U.; Flegel, W.; Grote, H.; Mouthuy, T.; Oeveras, H.; Panman, J.; Santacesaria, R.; Winter, K.; Zacek, G.; Zacek, V.; Beyer, R.; Buesser, F.W.; Foos, C.; Gerland, L.; Layda, T.; Niebergall, F.; Raedel, G.; Staehelin, P.; Tadsen, A.; Voss, T.; Gorbunov, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Khovansky, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Rozanov, A.; Lippich, W.; Nathaniel, A.; Staude, A.; Capone, A.; De Pedis, D.; Di Capua, E.; Frenkel-Rambaldi, A.; Loverre, P.F.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, D.

    1991-01-01

    We are reporting an improved determination of the electroweak mixing angle sin 2 Θ w from the ratio of v μ e to ν μ e to ν μ e scattering cross sections. The CHARM II detector was exposed to neutrino and antineutrino wide band beams at the 450 GeV CERN SPS. Including new data collected in 1989 we have obtained 1316±56 ν μ e and 1453±62 anti ν μ e events. From the ratio of the visible cross sections we determined sin 2 Θ 0 =0.239±0.009 (stat)±0.007 (syst.) without radiative corrections and g V e /g A e =0.047±0.046. Combining this last result with recent results on g A e at LEP we obtain g V e =-0.023±0.023. (orig.)

  1. Neutrino oscillations and antiνsub(e)-e scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halls, B.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Electron antineutrino-electron scattering is modified in the presence of neutrino mixing and neutrino oscillation. In the Weinberg-Salam model the results for reactor antineutrinos are insensitive to the degree of mixing, to the extent that the experiment of Reines, Gurr and Sobel cannot differentiate between no oscillation and complete disappearance of the electron antineutrinos from the beam

  2. Final-state interactions and superscaling in the semi-relativistic approach to quasielastic electron and neutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, J. E.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Udias, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The semi-relativistic approach to electron and neutrino quasielastic scattering from nuclei is extended to include final-state interactions. Starting with the usual nonrelativistic continuum shell model, the problem is relativized by using the semi-relativistic expansion of the current in powers of the initial nucleon momentum and relativistic kinematics. Two different approaches are considered for the final-state interactions: the Smith-Wambach 2p-2h damping model and the Dirac-equation-based potential extracted from a relativistic mean-field plus the Darwin factor. Using the latter, the scaling properties of (e,e ' ) and (ν μ ,μ - ) cross sections for intermediate momentum transfers are investigated

  3. Neutrino proton scattering and the isosinglet term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Elastic neutrino proton scattering is sensitive to the SU(3) axial isosinglet term which is in turn dependent on the strangeness content of the proton. The uncertainties in the analysis of a neutrino proton elastic scattering experiment are discussed, and an experiment which is insensitive to many of the difficulties of the previous experiment is described

  4. Renormalization effects on neutrino--electron scattering in the Weinberg-Salam theory of leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomonson, P.; Ueda, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The renormalization program for nu-bar/sub mu/-e (or ν/sub mu/-e) scattering is formulated in the Weinberg-Salam theory. The explicit calculation is carried out in the one-loop approximation. With the aid of the continuous-dimension regularization method, both ultraviolet and infrared divergences can be removed in the unitary gauge. Numerical results are discussed

  5. Detection of supernova neutrinos by neutrino-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beacom, John F.; Farr, Will M.; Vogel, Petr

    2002-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν+p→ν+p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from ν(bar sign) e +p→e + +n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , ν(bar sign) μ , and ν(bar sign) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  6. Experimental study of inclusive deep inelastic neutrino--proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.; DiBianca, F.A.; Cundy, D.C.; Dunaitsev, A.; Efremenko, V.; Ermolov, P.; Fowler, W.; Hanft, R.; Harigel, G.; Huson, F.R.; Kolganov, V.; Mukhin, A.; Nezrick, F.A.; Rjabov, Y.; Scott, W.G.; Smart, W.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; French, H.; Louis, W.; Roe, B.P.; Seidl, A.A.; Velde, J.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    A neutrino--proton scattering experiment has been performed at Fermilab by using a wide-band horn-focused neutrino beam and the 15-ft bubble chamber filled with hydrogen. For the inclusive reaction ν/sub μ/ + p → μ - + hadrons, the mean value of Q 2 is found to increase linearly with energy, as is expected from Bjorken scaling, and a fit to the data gives 2 > = (0.18 +- 0.01) E. The distribution in the Bjorken scaling variable x shows evidence for deviations from predictions based on electron-scattering data and the quark-parton model

  7. Comparing neutrino and antineutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The charged current interaction is considered. The present situation with respect to the indications of new physics at high energies, especially in the context of what can be learned by comparing neutrino with antineutrino production is reviewed

  8. Detection of supernova neutrinos with neutrino-iron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samana, A. R.; Bertulani, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    The ν e - 56 Fe cross section is evaluated in the projected quasiparticle random phase approximation (PQRPA). This model solves the puzzle observed in RPA for nuclei with mass around 12 C, because it is the only RPA model that treats the Pauli Principle correctly. The cross sections as a function of the incident neutrino energy are compared with recent theoretical calculations of similar models. The average cross section weighted with the flux spectrum yields a good agreement with the experimental data. The expected number of events in the detection of supernova neutrinos is calculated for the LVD detector, leading to an upper limit for the electron neutrino energy of particular importance in this experiment

  9. Neutrino coherent forward scattering and its index of refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is pointed out that, if neutrinos are to maintain coherence over the required distance for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar-neutrino problem, effects arising from neutrino multiple scattering must be considered. We give a simple derivation for the neutrino index of refraction that takes into account this effect. The same method is also shown to be useful for situations with varying matter densities and neutrino mixing. We also examine the question whether the coherence of propagating neutrinos in matter will be affected by switching on an external magnetic field, assuming neutrinos have a large magnetic moment

  10. Parity violation in deep inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1979-11-01

    Neutral currents in electron scattering and the Weinberg-Salam model are reviewed. This generally accepted model is consistent with experimental results from neutrino interactions; an appropriate deep inelastic electron scattering experiment would measure couplings that don't involve neutrinos to see if they are also correctly described by the theory. The SLAC-Yale experiment measures a difference in the e-d inelastic cross section for right- and left-handed electrons. The polarized source, beam monitors, scattering experiment, checks of helicity dependence, and results are described. It is concluded that the data obtained are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model, and that the best value of sin 2 theta/sub W/ for these data is in excellent agreement with the average values of that parameter deduced from neutrino experiments. Future experiments with polarized electrons are discussed. 12 figures, 2 tables

  11. Neutrino oscillation study in the muon neutrinoelectron neutrino channel at the Brookhaven accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astier, P.

    1987-09-01

    The E816 experiment described in this thesis is devoted to a neutrino oscillation search at the Brookhaven AGS. The method used here is to look with a fine grained calorimeter for the appearence of electron neutrino in a muon neutrino beam. After recalling the theoretical treatment of the neutrino mass problem, the experimental phenomenology of massive neutrinos and more specifically neutrino oscillations is reviewed. The experiment itself is then extensively described, both on the technical side (detector, beam, simulation) and on the analysis side. In particular the statistical separation of the electromagnetic showers from electrons - our signal - and from photons - our background - treated in detail. The present analysis is based on 2/3 of the final statistics and it leads to the - preliminary - observation of an electron excess in the neutrino interactions yielding 19 ± 15.6 (stat) ± 7 (syst) [fr

  12. Electron scattering from tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuss, M C; Sanz, A G; García, G; Muñoz, A; Oller, J C; Blanco, F; Do, T P T; Brunger, M J; Almeida, D; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-01-01

    Electron scattering from Tetrahydrofuran (C 4 H 8 O) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following a mixed experimental and theoretical approach, total scattering, elastic scattering and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  13. Measurement of the electroweak coupling of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, M.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes the analysis of the events induced by elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on electrons and interprets the results in terms of the coupling strength of (anti)neutrino on electrons. The data for this analysis were obtained with the electronic calorimeter of the CHARM (Amsterdam, Cern, Hamburg, Moscow, Rome) collaboration during the wide band neutrino beam exposures of 1979, 1980 and 1981 in the neutrino facility of the SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, Geneva, Switzerland). In chapter 1 a historical overview of the early neutrino physics and a description of the phenomenological Lagrangian is given, followed by an introduction to the electroweak unification model. The neutrino detector of the CHARM collaboration is described in chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with the on-line monitoring system of this detector which has been under the responsibility of the author. The wide band neutrino facility of the CERN SPS is described in chapter 4, followed by a discussion of the experimental method to measure the neutrino energy spectra of the neutrino beams. The electromagnetic shower development process is reviewed in chapter 5 and is followed by a description of the technique that was used to separate showers of electromagnetic and hadronic origin. Chapter 6 discusses the observed signal of the (anti)neutrinos scattering on electrons and interprets these events in terms of the parameters related to the strength of the coupling of neutrinos to electrons. (Auth.)

  14. Differential cross sections for neutrino scattering on 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, E.

    1996-01-01

    Differential cross sections for neutrino scattering on 12 C are calculated within the (continuum) random phase approximation model. The charged current (ν e ,e - ) and (ν μ ,μ - ) capture reactions on 12 C are measured by the LSND Collaboration at LAMPF. We investigate and discuss the merits of such studies, especially the information that can be extracted from data for differential neutrino scattering cross sections. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. A letter of intent for a neutrino scattering experiment on the booster neutrino meanline: FINeSSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, B.T.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Yale U.

    2005-03-01

    The experiment described in this Letter of Intent provides a decisive measurement of {Delta}s, the spin of the nucleon carried by strange quarks. This is crucial as, after more than thirty years of study, the spin contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon is still not understood. The interpretation of {Delta}s measurements from inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments using charged leptons suffers from two questionable techniques; an assumption of SU(3)-flavor symmetry, and an extrapolation into unmeasured kinematic regions, both of which provide ample room for uncertain theoretical errors in the results. The results of recent semi-inclusive DIS data from HERMES paint a somewhat different picture of the contribution of strange quarks to the nucleon spin than do the inclusive results, but since HERMES does not make use of either of the above-mentioned techniques, then the results are somewhat incomparable. What is required is a measurement directly probing the spin contribution of the strange quarks in the nucleon. Neutrino experiments provide a theoretically clean and robust method of determining {Delta}s by comparing the neutral current interaction, which is isoscalar plus isovector, to the charged current interaction, which is strictly isovector. A past experiment, E734, performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, has pioneered this effort. Building on what they have learned, we present an experiment which achieves a measurement to {+-} 0.025 using neutrino scattering, and {+-} 0.04 using anti-neutrino scattering, significantly better than past measurements. The combination of the neutrino and anti-neutrino data, when combined with the results of the parity-violating electron-nucleon scattering data, will produce the most significant result for {Delta}s. This experiment can also measure neutrino cross sections in the energy range required for accelerator-based precision oscillation measurements. Accurate measurements of cross sections have been

  16. Measurement of Nuclear Dependence in Inclusive Charged Current Neutrino Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, Brian George [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Neutrino experiments use heavy nuclei (C, Fe, Pb) to achieve necessary statistics. However, the use of heavy nuclei exposes these experiments to the nuclear dependence of neutrino-nucleus cross sections, which are poorly known and difficult to model. This dissertation presents an analysis of the nuclear dependence of inclusive chargedcurrent neutrino scattering using events in carbon, iron, lead, and scintillator targets of the MINERvA detector. MINERvA (Main INjector ExpeRiment for -A) is a few-GeV neutrinonucleus scattering experiment at Fermilab.

  17. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurm, M.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goeger-Neff, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lewke, T.; Meindl, Q.; Moellenberg, R.; Oberauer, L.; Potzel, W.; Tippmann, M.; Todor, S.; Winter, J. [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lachenmaier, T.; Traunsteiner, C. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Undagoitia, T. Marrodan [Physik-Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Str., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurstr. 189, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  18. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Göger-Neff, M; Hofmann, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lewke, T; Marrodán Undagoitia, T; Meindl, Q; Möllenberg, R; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Tippmann, M; Todor, S; Traunsteiner, C; Winter, J

    2010-05-01

    For liquid-scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance. The present paper reports on laboratory measurements of the optical scattering lengths of the organic solvents phenylxylylethane, linear alkylbenzene (LAB), and dodecane, which are under discussion for next-generation experiments such as SNO+ (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), HanoHano, or LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). Results comprise the wavelength range of 415-440 nm. The contributions from Rayleigh and Mie scattering as well as from absorption/re-emission processes are discussed. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector.

  19. Pseudoscalar form factors in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Mawatari, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the pseudoscalar transition form factors of nucleon for quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering via the charged current interactions. Although the pseudoscalar form factors play an important role for the τ production in neutrino-nucleon scattering, these are not known well. In this Letter, we examine their effects in quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production and find that the cross section, Q 2 distribution, and spin polarization of the produced τ ± leptons are quite sensitive to the pseudoscalar form factors

  20. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic ν e and ν-bar e fluxes and on the number of events for ν e + C 12 , ν e + O 16 , ν e + Ar 40 and ν-bar e + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  1. Supernova relic electron neutrinos and anti-neutrinos in future large-scale observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpe, C.; Welzel, J. [Institut de Physique Nuclueaire, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2007-07-01

    We investigate the signal from supernova relic neutrinos in future large scale observatories, such as MEMPHYS (UNO, Hyper-K), LENA and GLACIER, at present under study. We discuss that complementary information might be gained from the observation of supernova relic electron antineutrinos and neutrinos using the scattering on protons on one hand, and on nuclei such as oxygen, carbon or argon on the other hand. When determining the relic neutrino fluxes we also include, for the first time, the coupling of the neutrino magnetic moment to magnetic fields within the core collapse supernova. We present numerical results on both the relic {nu}{sub e} and {nu}-bar{sub e} fluxes and on the number of events for {nu}{sub e} + C{sup 12}, {nu}{sub e} + O{sup 16}, {nu}{sub e} + Ar{sup 40} and {nu}-bar{sub e} + p for various oscillation scenarios. The observation of supernova relic neutrinos might provide us with unique information on core-collapse supernova explosions, on the star formation history and on neutrino properties, that still remain unknown. (authors)

  2. Electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenares, Rafael; Fuss, Martina C; García, Gustavo; Oller, Juan C; Muñoz, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; Almeida, Diogo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Electron scattering from pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) was investigated over a wide range of energies. Following different experimental and theoretical approaches, total, elastic and ionization cross sections as well as electron energy loss distributions were obtained.

  3. Interaction of electron neutrino with LSD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Semenov, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction of electron neutrino flux, originating in the rotational collapse mechanism on the first stage of Supernova burst, with the LSD detector components, such as 56Fe (a large amount of this metal is included in as shielding material) and liquid scintillator barNnH2n+2, is being investigated. Both charged and neutral channels of neutrino reaction with 12barN and 56Fe are considered. Experimental data, giving the possibility to extract information for nuclear matrix elements calculation are used. The number of signals, produced in LSD by the neutrino pulse of Supernova 1987A is determined. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  4. Magnetic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    We briefly review some of the motivations, early results, and techniques of magnetic elastic and inelastic electron-nucleus scattering. We then discuss recent results, especially those acquired at high momentum transfers. 50 refs., 19 figs

  5. Gaseous Detector with Sub-keV Threshold to Study Neutrino Scattering at Low Recoil Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomatin, A. E.; Petukhov, V. V.; Kopylov, A. V.; Orekhov, I. V.

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous detector with a sub-keV electron equivalent threshold is a very perspective tool for the precision measurement of the neutrino magnetic moment and for observing coherent scattering of neutrinos on nuclei. The progress in the development of low noise electronics makes it possible to register the rare events at the threshold less than 100 eV. The construction of the gaseous detector is given and the typical pulses with amplitudes of a few eV observed on a bench scale installation are presented. The possible implications for future experiments are discussed

  6. Quasi-elastic Neutrino Scattering - an Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2011-01-01

    A non-technical overview of charge current quasi-elastic neutrino interaction is presented. Many body computations of multinucleon ejection which is proposed to explain recent large axial mass measurements are discussed. A few comments on recent experimental results reported at NuInt11 workshop are included.

  7. Study of electron and neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers-in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates

  8. Coherent scattering of neutrinos by 'nuclear pasta' in dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Hidetaka

    2007-01-01

    We examine coherent scattering cross section of neutrino and nucleon systems via weak-neutral current at subnuclear densities, which will be important in supernova cores. Below melting density and temparature of nuclei, nuclear shape becomes rodlike and slablike; this is called nuclear 'pasta'. Transition of structure will greatly influence coherent effects which can not easily be predicted. We calculate static structure factor of nuclear matter using data of several nuclear models, and discuss the effects of existence of nuclear pasta on neutrino opacity in hot dense matter

  9. Extracting limits for the difuse non-electron neutrino flux from SNO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguez, B.S.R.; Kemp, E.; Peres, O.L.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2009-07-01

    Full text. There is a prediction of a diffuse neutrino flux yield from the time integration of all supernova already exploded in the past governed by stellar formation and supernovae occurrence rates. The spectral characteristics of these neutrinos differ from those from recent supernovae mainly in two features: the reduction in their fluxes and their energy 'redshift' due the expansion of the universe. Thus, despite the fact that one single supernova is a transient state, their cumulative effect produces a steady flux of diffuse neutrinos everywhere in universe. These neutrinos have never been observed before. Only upper limits on their fluxes have been reported by the collaborations operating neutrino telescopes. Recently the SNO experiment have made an analysis where the total flux of diffuse electron neutrinos has an upper limit of phi{sub e} <= 61-93 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, depending on a specific supernova model. At the present, the best limit for the diffuse flux of non-electron neutrinos is phi{sub x} <= 10{sub 4} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, resulted from an analysis of the Super-Kamiokande data. In this work we have extended the SNO analysis including the elastic scattering on electrons via neutral current interactions to extract information on diffuse flux of the non-electron neutrino flavours (i.e. muon and tauon neutrinos). We make a comparison among our results and others from different experiments (LVD, SK, LSD). (author)

  10. Spin and electroweak effects in the neutrino-electron interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerimov, B.K.; Safin, M.Yu.; Haidar, N.; Tikhomirov, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental data on elastic ν-bar e e - scattering with reactor antineutrinos are also analysed. νe - and ν-bare - scattering are highly sensitive to values of the EM moments of neutrinos. The results obtained give following bounds on the values of neutrino EM moments: f 2ν (0), g 2ν (0) -11

  11. Atom electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.

    1976-01-01

    Green Lippmann-Schwinger functions operator representations, derivation of perturbation method using Green function and atom electron scattering, are discussed. It is concluded that by using complex coordinate places where resonances occur, can be accurately identified. The resonance can be processed further for practical purposes, for example for the separation of atom. (RUW)

  12. Electron Scattering on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.

    1987-01-01

    Selected electron scattering experiments on the deuteron system are discussed. The main advantages of the electromagnetic probe are recalled. The deuteron A(q 2 ) structure function is analyzed and found to be very sensitive to the neutron electric form factor. Electrodisintegration of the deuteron near threshold is presented as evidence for the importance of meson exchange currents in nuclei [fr

  13. Parity violating electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Previous measurements of parity violation in electron scattering are reviewed with particular emphasis on experimental techniques. Significant progress in the attainment of higher precision is evident in these efforts. These pioneering experiments provide a basis for consideration of a future program of such measurements. In this paper some future plans and possibilities in this field are discussed

  14. Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, Herald W.

    2011-01-01

    Personal perspective and recollections by the author discuss the Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino at a Savannah River reactor in 1956. First presented at the Neutrino Santa Fe 2006 Conference.

  15. Observation of muon-electron pairs in neutrino reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.

    1980-05-01

    The present thesis describes the observation of muon-electron pairs in neutrino reactions. This experiment was performed using an optical multiplate spark chamber in the broad band neutrino beam of the CERN proton synchrotron. (orig.) [de

  16. NuSTEC White Paper: Status and Challenges of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; et al.

    2017-06-12

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments requires a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  17. NuSTEC1 White Paper: Status and challenges of neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Barbaro, M. B.; Cherdack, D.; Christy, M. E.; Coloma, P.; Donnelly, T. W.; Dytman, S.; de Gouvêa, A.; Hill, R. J.; Huber, P.; Jachowicz, N.; Katori, T.; Kronfeld, A. S.; Mahn, K.; Martini, M.; Morfín, J. G.; Nieves, J.; Perdue, G. N.; Petti, R.; Richards, D. G.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, T.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2018-05-01

    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments require a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  18. Electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1991-07-01

    The coupled-channels-optical method has been implemented using two different approximations to the optical potential. The half-on-shell optical potential involves drastic approximations for numerical feasibility but still gives a good semiquantitative description of the effect of uncoupled channels on electron scattering from hydrogen, helium and sodium. The distorted-wave optical potential makes no approximations other than the weak coupling approximation for uncoupled channels. In applications to hydrogen and sodium it shows promise of describing scattering phenomena excellently at all energies. 27 refs., 5 figs

  19. Charged-Current Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering off the Even Molybdenum Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ydrefors

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrinos from supernovae constitute important probes of both the currently unknown supernova mechanisms and of neutrino properties. Reliable information about the nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos is therefore crucial. In this work, we compute the cross sections for the charged-current neutrino-nucleus scattering off the even-even molybdenum isotopes. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are subsequently calculated by folding the cross sections with a Fermi-Dirac distribution.

  20. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W.; Barker, D.; Beck, R.; Carroll, T.J.; Cesar, J.; Cushman, P.; Dent, J.B.; De Rijck, S.; Dutta, B.; Flanagan, W.; Fritts, M.; Gao, Y.; Harris, H.R.; Hays, C.C.; Iyer, V.

    2017-01-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5–20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  1. Background studies for the MINER Coherent Neutrino Scattering reactor experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnolet, G.; Baker, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Barker, D. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Beck, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Carroll, T.J.; Cesar, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Cushman, P. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dent, J.B. [Department of Physics, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); De Rijck, S. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Dutta, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Flanagan, W. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Fritts, M. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gao, Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Department of Physics & Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit 48201 (United States); Harris, H.R.; Hays, C.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Iyer, V. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni - 752050 (India); and others

    2017-05-01

    The proposed Mitchell Institute Neutrino Experiment at Reactor (MINER) experiment at the Nuclear Science Center at Texas A&M University will search for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering within close proximity (about 2 m) of a 1 MW TRIGA nuclear reactor core using low threshold, cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors. Given the Standard Model cross section of the scattering process and the proposed experimental proximity to the reactor, as many as 5–20 events/kg/day are expected. We discuss the status of preliminary measurements to characterize the main backgrounds for the proposed experiment. Both in situ measurements at the experimental site and simulations using the MCNP and GEANT4 codes are described. A strategy for monitoring backgrounds during data taking is briefly discussed.

  2. Electron scattering off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gattone, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    Two recently developed aspects related to the scattering of electrons off nuclei are presented. On the one hand, a model is introduced which emphasizes the relativistic aspects of the problem in the impulse approximation, by demanding strict maintenance of the algebra of the Poincare group. On the other hand, the second model aims at a more sophisticated description of the nuclear response in the case of collective excitations. Basically, it utilizes the RPA formalism with a new development which enables a more careful treatment of the states in the continuum as is the case for the giant resonances. Applications of both models to the description of elastic scattering, inelastic scattering to discrete levels, giant resonances and the quasi-elastic region are discussed. (Author) [es

  3. Radiative corrections to neutrino deep inelastic scattering revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, Andrej B.; Bardin, Dmitry Yu.; Kalinovskaya, Lidia V.

    2005-01-01

    Radiative corrections to neutrino deep inelastic scattering are revisited. One-loop electroweak corrections are re-calculated within the automatic SANC system. Terms with mass singularities are treated including higher order leading logarithmic corrections. Scheme dependence of corrections due to weak interactions is investigated. The results are implemented into the data analysis of the NOMAD experiment. The present theoretical accuracy in description of the process is discussed

  4. On the radiative corrections to the neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardin, D.Yu.; Dokuchaeva, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    A unique set of formulae is presented for the radiative corrections to the double differential cross section of deep inelastic neutrino scattering in channels of charged and neutral currents within a simple quark parton model in a renormalization scheme on mass-shell. It is shown that these cross sections when being integrated up to the one-dimensional distribution or up to the total cross section reproduce many results existing in the literature

  5. 180° electron scattering at the S-DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann-Cosel, Peter von

    2016-01-01

    The contribution discusses features of the 180deg system at the S-DALINAC its experimental program on transverse electron scattering with emphasis on topics of relevance for the description of neutrino interaction with nuclei. Examples discussed include the quenching of spin-isospin modes common to vector and axial coupling and M1 strength distributions for the modeling of neutral-current neutrino-nucleus interactions. (author)

  6. Recent advances and open questions in neutrino-induced quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G.T., E-mail: garvey@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Harris, D.A., E-mail: dharris@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510-5011 (United States); Tanaka, H.A., E-mail: tanaka@phas.ubc.ca [Institute of Particle Physics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Tayloe, R., E-mail: rtayloe@indiana.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana University, 727 E. Third St., Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States); Zeller, G.P., E-mail: gzeller@fnal.gov [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL, 60510-5011 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations. A recent workshop hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Theory at the University of Washington (INT-13-54W) examined experimental and theoretical developments in neutrino–nucleus interactions and related measurements from electron and pion scattering. We summarize the discussions at the workshop pertaining to the aforementioned issues in quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production, particularly where there was consensus on the highest priority issues to be resolved and the path towards resolving them.

  7. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world's first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density ...

  8. Prediction for neutrino-electron cross-sections in Weinberg's model for weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1971-01-01

    Weinberg's theory of purely leptonic weak interactions can be tested in neutrino-electron scattering experiments. Cross-sections must be measured as a function of the energy of the recoil electron. If Weinberg's theory is correct, then the masses of the intermediate vector bosons can be derived from

  9. The electron-neutrino system, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kox, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Relativistic kinetic gas theory is applied to a mixture of electrons and electronic neutrinos. The phenomena of diffusion are especially studied in this system, assuming properties comparable to those of the universe in the lepton era as assumed in the hot big bang theory: a hot (Tapproximately 10 12 K), dense (n = 10 38 ) mixture, colliding elastically. An expression for the diffusion coefficient is derived and numerical values are computed as a function of the reduced temperature z -1 = kT/mc 2 , assuming equal number densities

  10. Nuclear pasta in hot dense matter and its implications for neutrino scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, Alessandro; Margueron, Jérôme; Roberts, Luke F.; Reddy, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    The abundance of large clusters of nucleons in neutron-rich matter at subnuclear density is found to be greatly reduced by finite-temperature effects when matter is close to β equilibrium, compared to the case where the electron fraction is fixed at Ye>0.1 , as often considered in the literature. Large nuclei and exotic nonspherical nuclear configurations called pasta, favored in the vicinity of the transition to uniform matter at T =0 , dissolve at a relatively low temperature Tu as protons leak out of nuclei and pasta. For matter at β equilibrium with a negligible neutrino chemical potential we find that Tuβ≃4 ±1 MeV for realistic equations of state. This is lower than the maximum temperature Tmaxβ≃9 ±1 MeV at which nuclei can coexist with a gas of nucleons and can be explained by a change in the nature of the transition to uniform matter called retrograde condensation. An important new finding is that coherent neutrino scattering from nuclei and pasta makes a modest contribution to the opacity under the conditions encountered in supernovas and neutron star mergers. This is because large nuclear clusters dissolve at most relevant temperatures, and at lower temperatures, when clusters are present, Coulomb correlations between them suppress coherent neutrino scattering off individual clusters. Implications for neutrino signals from galactic supernovas are briefly discussed.

  11. Measurement of the Charged-Current Quasi-Elastic Cross-Section for Electron Neutrinos on a Hydrocarbon Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolcott, Jeremy [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Appearance-type neutrino oscillation experiments, which observe the transition from muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos, promise to help answer some of the fundamental questions surrounding physics in the post-Standard-Model era. Because they wish to observe the interactions of electron neutrinos in their detectors, and because the power of current results is typically limited by their systematic uncertainties, these experiments require precise estimates of the cross-section for electron neutrino interactions. Of particular interest is the charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) process, which gures signi cantly in the composition of the reactions observed at the far detector. However, no experimental measurements of this crosssection currently exist for electron neutrinos; instead, current experiments typically work from the abundance of muon neutrino CCQE cross-section data and apply corrections from theoretical arguments to obtain a prediction for electron neutrinos. Veri cation of these predictions is challenging due to the di culty of constructing an electron neutrino beam, but the advent of modern high-intensity muon neutrino beams|together with the percent-level electron neutrino impurity inherent in these beams| nally presents the opportunity to make such a measurement. We report herein the rst-ever measurement of a cross-section for an exclusive state in electron neutrino scattering, which was made using the MINER A detector in the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. We present the electron neutrino CCQE di erential cross-sections, which are averaged over neutrinos of energies 1-10 GeV (with mean energy of about 3 GeV), in terms of various kinematic variables: nal-state electron angle, nal-state electron energy, and the square of the fourmomentum transferred to the nucleus by the neutrino , Q2. We also provide a total cross-section vs. neutrino energy. While our measurement of this process is found to be in agreement with the predictions of the GENIE

  12. Bookshelf (Neutrino Interactions with Electrons and Protons - Edited by Alfred K. Mann)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luigi Di Lella

    1994-01-01

    Subtitled 'an account of an Experimental Program in Particle Physics in the 1980s', this book is a collection of 13 reprinted papers presenting experimental results from experiment E-734 originally proposed in 1978 to measure the elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos from electrons and protons using the neutrino beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This experiment took data during the 1980s and the apparatus was dismantled in 1990. Its main results cover measurements of the weak mixing angle, and some measurements which were not in the original proposal, such as limits on the electromagnetic properties of the muon neutrino and on the mixing between electron- and muon-neutri-nos. The collaboration, with 35 physicists participating, included Osaka and KEK and was the earliest formal collaboration in high energy physics between American and Japanese institutions. This book gives only a very partial account of neutrino physics in the 1980s. Because of the relatively low neutrino energy of only few GeV, E- 734 physics did not include the study of deep inelastic scattering which has greatly contributed to the understanding of the nucleon structure in terms of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. Furthermore, because of the low event rate at the low neutrino energy, most of the E-734 results have been superseded by the more precise results obtained by higher energy neutrino experiments at CERN and Fermilab, however with the exceptions of the limits on neutrino mixing and of the measurement of the neutral current cross-section for neutrino and antineutrino elastic scattering. It is not clear to me why the American Institute of Physics has chosen to publish this book in a series 'Key Papers in Physics'.

  13. Electron scattering on molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingerden, B. van.

    1980-01-01

    The author considers scattering phenomena which occur when a beam of electrons interacts with a molecular hydrogen gas of low density. Depending on the energy loss of the scattered electrons one can distinguish elastic scattering, excitation and (auto)ionization of the H 2 -molecule. The latter processes may also lead to dissociation. These processes are investigated in four experiments in increasing detail. (Auth.)

  14. Are solar neutrinos detected by living things

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering of electrons by solar neutrinos induces an inherently detectable noise frequency approximately 100 Hz per gram of active mammalian brain tissue based on a scattering cross section previously shown to satisfactorily explain the Davis solar neutrino experiment. (Auth.)

  15. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations from upward throughgoing muon multiple scattering in MACRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Bakari, D.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Brigida, M.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Caruso, R.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Choudhary, B.C.; Coutu, S.; Cozzi, M.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; Derkaoui, J.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giorgini, M.; Grassi, M.; Grillo, A.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katsavounidis, I.; Kearns, E.; Kim, H.; Kumar, A.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Longo, M.J.; Loparco, F.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Margiotta, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C.W.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rrhioua, A.; Satriano, C.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra, P.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J.L.; Sulak, L.R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Vakili, M.; Walter, C.W.; Webb, R

    2003-07-24

    The energy of atmospheric neutrinos detected by MACRO was estimated using multiple Coulomb scattering of upward throughgoing muons. This analysis allows a test of atmospheric neutrino oscillations, relying on the distortion of the muon energy distribution. These results have been combined with those coming from the upward throughgoing muon angular distribution only. Both analyses are independent of the neutrino flux normalization and provide strong evidence, above the 4{sigma} level, in favour of neutrino oscillations.

  16. Electroweak physics and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.; Hwang, W.Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    The electroweak theory is developed and applied to electron scattering from nucleons and light nuclei. It is shown that these scatterings can be used to test the standard theory and probe structure effects. 33 refs., 5 figs

  17. A precise determination of the electroweak mixing angle from semileptonic neutrino scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lanceri, Livio

    1987-01-01

    After the discovery of the weak neutral current,' great efforts were undertaken to test the prediction of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model that stated that the coupling in all neutral current phenomena depends on one single parameter, $sin^{2}\\Theta_{w}$. Indeed, a unique value of this parameter can explain the couplings measured in many different processes, including leptonic and semileptonic neutrino scattering, asymmetries in electron-nucleon, electron-positron, and muon interactions, parity violating effects in atomic transitions, and the masses of the W and z bosons. $^{2}$

  18. Quasi-elastic Charm Production In Neutrino-nucleon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bischofberger, M

    2005-01-01

    A study of quasi elastic charm production in charged current neutrino-nucleon scattering is presented. A sample of about 1.3 million interactions recorded with the NOMAD detector in the CERN SPS wide band neutrino beam has been searched for quasi elastically produced charmed baryons ( L+c,Sc and S*c ). The search has been performed in two exclusive decay channels of the L+c, both including a L . Also, the semi-inclusive decay channels L+c,Sc,S *c→L+X have been studied. Kinematic selection criteria have been chosen in order to obtain samples enriched with quasi elastic charm events. Signal efficiencies and background expectations have been estimated by Monte Carlo simulations. The observed number of events in each searched channel has been found to agree with the background expectation from charged and neutral current reactions and an upper limit for the cross section has been derived. For the quasi elastic charm production cross section averaged over the neutrino energy spectrum (&lan...

  19. EFFECTS OF NEUTRINO ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS ON NEUTRINO INTERACTION WITH FINITE TEMPERATURE ELECTRON MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sulaksono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-section of neutrino interaction with dense and warm electron gasses has been calculated by takinginto account the neutrino electromagnetic form factors. The significant effect of electromagnetic properties of neutrinocan be found if the neutrino dipole moment, μ ν , is ≥ 5.10-9 μB and neutrino charge radius, Rv, is ≥ 5.10-6 MeV-1. Theimportance of the retarded correction, detailed balance and Pauli blocking factors is shown and analyzed. Many-bodyeffects on the target matter which are included via random phase approximation (RPA correlation as well as photoneffective mass are also investigated.

  20. Insights into neutrino decoupling gleaned from considerations of the role of electron mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.

    2017-10-01

    We present calculations showing how electron rest mass influences entropy flow, neutrino decoupling, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the early universe. To elucidate this physics and especially the sensitivity of BBN and related epochs to electron mass, we consider a parameter space of rest mass values larger and smaller than the accepted vacuum value. Electromagnetic equilibrium, coupled with the high entropy of the early universe, guarantees that significant numbers of electron-positron pairs are present, and dominate over the number of ionization electrons to temperatures much lower than the vacuum electron rest mass. Scattering between the electrons-positrons and the neutrinos largely controls the flow of entropy from the plasma into the neutrino seas. Moreover, the number density of electron-positron-pair targets can be exponentially sensitive to the effective in-medium electron mass. This entropy flow influences the phasing of scale factor and temperature, the charged current weak-interaction-determined neutron-to-proton ratio, and the spectral distortions in the relic neutrino energy spectra. Our calculations show the sensitivity of the physics of this epoch to three separate effects: finite electron mass, finite-temperature quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects on the plasma equation of state, and Boltzmann neutrino energy transport. The ratio of neutrino to plasma-component energy scales manifests in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observables, namely the baryon density and the radiation energy density, along with the primordial helium and deuterium abundances. Our results demonstrate how the treatment of in-medium electron mass (i.e., QED effects) could translate into an important source of uncertainty in extracting neutrino and beyond-standard-model physics limits from future high-precision CMB data.

  1. CRPA calculations for neutrino-nucleus scattering. From very low energies to the quasielastic peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachowicz, Natalie; Pandey, Vishvas; Martini, Marco; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Raul; Van Cuyck, Tom; Van Dessel, Nils

    2016-01-01

    We present continuum random phase approximation calculations (CRPA) for neutrino-induced quasielastic scattering off atomic nuclei. The validity of our formalism is checked by a careful confrontation of its results with semi-inclusive double-differential electron scattering data. We pay special attention to excitations in the giant resonance region. The CRPA is well-suited for the description of interactions in this energy range. We aim at providing a uniform description of one-nucleon knockout processes over the whole energy range from threshold to the quasielastic peak. Our calculations point to the fact that low-energy and giant-resonance excitations provide a non-negligible contribution to the interaction strength, especially at forward lepton-scattering angles. (author)

  2. Nuclear corrections in neutrino deep inelastic scattering and the extraction of the strange quark distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boros, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent measurement of the structure function F 2 υ in neutrino deep inelastic scattering allows us to compare structure functions measured in neutrino and charged lepton scattering for the first time with reasonable precision. The comparison between neutrino and muon structure functions made by the CCFR Collaboration indicates that there is a discrepancy between these structure functions at small Bjorken x values. In this talk I examine two effects which might account for this experimental discrepancy: nuclear shadowing corrections for neutrinos and contributions from strange and anti-strange quarks. Copyright (1999) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd

  3. Insights into neutrino decoupling gleaned from considerations of the role of electron mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Grohs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations showing how electron rest mass influences entropy flow, neutrino decoupling, and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN in the early universe. To elucidate this physics and especially the sensitivity of BBN and related epochs to electron mass, we consider a parameter space of rest mass values larger and smaller than the accepted vacuum value. Electromagnetic equilibrium, coupled with the high entropy of the early universe, guarantees that significant numbers of electron–positron pairs are present, and dominate over the number of ionization electrons to temperatures much lower than the vacuum electron rest mass. Scattering between the electrons–positrons and the neutrinos largely controls the flow of entropy from the plasma into the neutrino seas. Moreover, the number density of electron–positron-pair targets can be exponentially sensitive to the effective in-medium electron mass. This entropy flow influences the phasing of scale factor and temperature, the charged current weak-interaction-determined neutron-to-proton ratio, and the spectral distortions in the relic neutrino energy spectra. Our calculations show the sensitivity of the physics of this epoch to three separate effects: finite electron mass, finite-temperature quantum electrodynamic (QED effects on the plasma equation of state, and Boltzmann neutrino energy transport. The ratio of neutrino to plasma–component energy scales manifests in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB observables, namely the baryon density and the radiation energy density, along with the primordial helium and deuterium abundances. Our results demonstrate how the treatment of in-medium electron mass (i.e., QED effects could translate into an important source of uncertainty in extracting neutrino and beyond-standard-model physics limits from future high-precision CMB data.

  4. Sub aqueous electronics of neutrino detector; Podvodnaya ehlektronika nejtrinnogo detektora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisovets, B A; Donskikh, L A; Klabukov, A M [and others

    1996-12-31

    Paper describes the systems of measuring electronics of NT-200 neutrino detector designed to carry out investigations in the field of neutrino astrophysics. Correlation measuring electronics unit are presented by two two-level discriminators and coincidence circuit is studied. 6-channel unit of electronic chain covering time-code number recording is designed for data communication into the computer. detector calibration mode is described. 3 refs.

  5. Proposal to Measure Hadron Scattering with a Gaseous High Pressure TPC for Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Andreopoulos, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S; Brailsford, D; Brice, S; Catanesi, G; Chen-Wishart, Z; Denner, P; Dunne, P; Giganti, C; Gonzalez Diaz, D; Haigh, J; Hamacher-Baumann, P; Hallsjo, S; Hayato, Y; Irastorza, I; Jamieson, B; Kaboth, A; Korzenev, A; Kudenko, Y; Leyton, M; Luk, K-B; Ma, W; Mahn, K; Martini, M; McCauley, N; Mermod, P; Monroe, J; Mosel, U; Nichol, R; Nieves, J; Nonnenmacher, T; Nowak, J; Parker, W; Raaf, J; Rademacker, J; Radermacher, T; Radicioni, E; Roth, S; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shitov, Y; Sobczyk, J; Soler, F; Touramanis, C; Valder, S; Walding, J; Ward, M; Wascko, M; Weber, A; Yokoyama, M; Zalewska, A; Ziembicki, M

    2017-01-01

    We propose to perform new measurements of proton and pion scattering on argon using a prototype High Pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (HPTPC) detector, and by doing so to develop the physics case for, and the technological readiness of, an HPTPC as a neutrino detector for accelerator neutrino oscillation searches. The motivation for this work is to improve knowledge of final state interactions, in order to ultimately achieve 1-2% systematic error on neutrino-nucleus scattering for oscillation measurements at 0.6 GeV and 2.5 GeV neutrino energy, as required for the Charge-Parity (CP) violation sensitivity projections by the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment (Hyper-K) and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The final state interaction uncertainties in neutrino-nucleus interactions dominate cross-section systematic errors, currently 5–10% at these energies, and therefore R&D is needed to explore new approaches to achieve this substantial improvement.

  6. First Detection of Low Energy Electron Neutrinos in Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Corey James [Yale U.

    2016-01-01

    Electron neutrino appearance is the signature channel to address the most pressing questions in neutrino oscillations physics, at both long and short baselines. This includes the search for CP violation in the neutrino sector, which the U.S. flagship neutrino experiment DUNE will address. In addition, the Short Baseline Neutrino Program at Fermilab (MicroBooNE, SBND, ICARUS-T600) searches for new physics, such as sterile neutrinos, through electron neutrino appearance. Liquid argon time projection chambers are the forefront of neutrino detection technology, and the detector of choice for both short and long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. This work presents the first experimental observation and study of electron neutrinos in the 1-10 GeV range, the essential oscillation energy regime for the above experiments. The systematic uncertainties for an electron neutrino appearance search for the Fermilab Short Baseline Neutrino Program are carefully quantified, and the characterization of separation between electrons and high energy photons is examined.

  7. Parity violation in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    The weak forces are responsible for the decay of radioactive nuclei, and it was in these decay processes where parity non-conservation was first observed. Beta decay occurs through emission of e + or e - particles, indicating that the weak force can carry charge of both signs, and it was natural to speculate on the existence of a neutral component of the weak force. Even though weak neutral forces had not been observed it was conjectured that a neutral component of weak decay could exist, and Zel'dovich in 1957 suggested that parity violating effects may be observable in electron scattering and in atomic spectra. More than twenty years have passed since the early conjectures, and a great deal has been learned. Progress in quantum field theory led to the development of the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions and provided a renormalizable theory with a minimum of additional assumptions. Gauge theories predicted the existence of a new force, the neutral current interaction. This new interaction was first seen in 1973 in the Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN. Today the neutral currents are accepted as well established, and it is the details of the neutral current structure that occupy attention. In particular the role that electrons play cannot be tested readily in neutrino beams (recent neutrino-electron scattering experiments are, however, rapidly improving this situation) and therefore interest in electron-hadron neutral current effects has been high. Parity violation is a unique signature of weak currents, and measurements of its size are a particularly important and sensitive means for determining the neutral current structure

  8. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, T.

    2013-01-01

    An electron scattering facility is under construction in RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan, which is dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. This is the world's first and currently only facility of its type. The construction is nearly completed, and the first electron scattering experiment off short-lived nuclei will be carried out in the beginning of next year. The charge density distributions of short-lived nuclei will be precisely determined by elastic electron scattering for the first time. Physics pursued at this facility including future perspectives are explained

  9. A search for oscillations of muon-neutrinos to electron-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Procario, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The author has searched in the heavy liquid bubble chamber BEBC for electron neutrino charge current events which could arise from oscillation of the muon neutrinos (average energy ∼1.5 GeV) obtained with a low energy proton beam at the CERN PS targeted 825 m upstream from BEBC. The appearance of electron neutrino CC interactions provides a sensitive indication of nu/sub μ/ → nu/sub e/ oscillation. The author observed 460 muon neutrino CC events and 4 electron neutrino CC events with an estimated background of 3.5 electron neutrino CC events. Using the likelihood ratio method to test the oscillation hypothesis, the author finds no evidence for nu/sub μ/ → nu/sub e/ oscillation and set the limits δm2 ≤ 0.13 eV2 (maximal mixing) and sin22theta ≤ 0.018 for δm2 = 3 eV2 at 90% confidence level

  10. Astrophysical searches for exotic phenomena in ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.A.; Ringwald, A.

    1994-03-01

    We investigate the potential of near-future neutrino telescopes like NESTOR for searches for exotic processes in ultrahigh energy neutrino-quark scattering. We consider signatures such as muon bundles and/or contained cascades from the nonperturbative production of multiple weak gauge bosons in the Standard Model, compositeness and leptoquark production. (orig.)

  11. Electronics for the LAMPF neutrino experiment's veto counter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, C.

    1981-09-01

    A cosmic-ray veto detector has been constructed in the neutrino cave at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This report describes the electronic readout system designed to buffer and compact the data from the detector

  12. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Research Center for Electron-Photon Science, Tohoku University, 1-2-1 ... nuclei precisely determined by elastic scattering [1]. .... In order to fulfill these requirements, a window-frame shaped dipole magnet with a gap.

  13. Observing Muon Neutrino to Electron Neutrino Oscillations in the NOνA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Tian [Iowa State U.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations offers an insight on new physics beyond the Standard Model. The three mixing angles (θ12, θ13 and θ23) and the two mass splittings (Δm2 and Αm2 ) have been measured by different neutrino oscillation experiments. Some other parameters including the mass ordering of different neutrino mass eigenstates and the CP violation phase are still unknown. NOνA is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment, using neutrinos from the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The experiment is equipped with two functionally identical detectors about 810 kilometers apart and 14 mrad off the beam axis. In this configuration, the muon neutrinos from the NuMI beam reach the disappearance maximum in the far detector and a small fraction of that oscillates into electron neutrinos. The sensitivity to the mass ordering and CP viola- tion phase determination is greately enhanced. This thesis presents the νeappearance analysis using the neutrino data collected with the NOνA experiment between February 2014 and May 2015, which corresponds to 3.45 ×1020 protons-on-target (POT). The νe appearance analysis is performed by comparing the observed νe CC-like events to the estimated background at the far detector. The total background is predicted to be 0.95 events with 0.89 originated from beam events and 0.06 from cosmic ray events. The beam background is obtained by extrapolating near detector data through different oscillation channels, while the cosmic ray background is calculated based on out-of-time NuMI trigger data. A total of 6 electron neutrino candidates are observed in the end at the far detector which represents 3.3 σ excess over the predicted background. The NOνA result disfavors inverted mass hierarchy for δcp ϵ [0, 0.6π] at 90% C.L.

  14. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program uses ab-initio and multiple scattering to study surface dynamical processes; high-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy is used in particular. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50--300 eV). The analyses have been extended to surfaces of ordered alloys. Phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross section calculations. Work on low-energy electron and positron holography is mentioned

  15. A precision measurement of sin2θw in neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.; Arroyo, C.G.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bolton, T.; Foudas, C.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Barbaro, P. de; Sakumoto, W.K.; Kinnel, T.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle is reported from the ratio of the neutral current to charged current inclusive cross-sections in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. Using the on-shell definition, the value obtained is currently the most accurate determination of sin 2 θ w in a single experiment. The data were gathered at the CCFR neutrino detector in the Fermilab quadrupole-triplet wide-band neutrino beam, with neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  16. Impact of neutrino flavor oscillations on the neutrino-driven wind nucleosynthesis of an electron-capture supernova

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pllumbi, E.; Tamborra, I.; Wanajo, S.; Janka, H.-T.; Hüdepohl, L.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations, especially to light sterile states, can affect nucleosynthesis yields because of their possible feedback effect on the electron fraction (Ye). For the first time, we perform nucleosynthesis calculations for neutrino-driven wind trajectories from the neutrino-cooling phase of

  17. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  18. J-PARC Press Release: Electron neutrino oscillation detected at T2K

    CERN Multimedia

    T2K Press Office

    2011-01-01

    Tsukuba, Japan, June 15, 2011. The T2K experiment, whose primary purpose is to study neutrino interactions at a large distance from their source, has detected 6 electron neutrino candidate events based on the data collected before March 11, 2011. For the first time, it was possible to observe an indication that muon neutrinos are able to transform into electron neutrinos over a distance of 295 km through the quantum mechanical phenomena of neutrino flavor oscillations.   The Super-Kamiokande detector, in Japan. © 2011, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK. The T2K experiment is searching for the neutrino oscillation phenomena, where particular types of neutrinos transform into other types of neutrinos. These observations help determine neutrino masses, as well elucidating the uncharted nature of neutrinos, such as the relationship among three neutrino generations (types). T2K aims at the world’s best sensitivity by detecting neutrinos with the Super-Kamiokande d...

  19. Implementing the correlated fermi gas nuclear model for quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tockstein, Jameson

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. Neutrino experiments, such as MiniBooNE, often use the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model. Recently, the Correlated Fermi Gas (CFG) nuclear model was suggested in, based on inclusive and exclusive scattering experiments at JLab. We implement the CFG model for CCQE scattering. In particular, we provide analytic expressions for this implementation that can be used to analyze current and future neutrino CCQE data. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  20. Electron scattering by hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    A variational method to calculate the differential cross section of the electron-hydrogen atom scattering process is presented. The second Born approximation is calculated, through a variational calculation using the energy and electronic charge simultaneously as parameters, in order to calculate the differential cross section which is written in a fractional form according to the Schwinger variational principle. Effects due to the electron change are included in the calculations. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Anti-Neutrino Charged Current Quasi-Elastic Scattering in MINER$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvojka, Jesse John [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillation is becoming increasingly understood with results from accelerator-based and reactor-based experiments, but unanswered questions remain. The proper ordering of the neutrino mass eigenstates that compose the neutrino avor eigenstates is not completely known. We have yet to detect CP violation in neutrino mixing, which if present could help explain the asymmetry between matter and anti-matter in the universe. We also have not resolved whether sterile neutrinos, which do not interact in any Standard Model interaction, exist. Accelerator-based experiments appear to be the most promising candidates for resolving these questions; however, the ability of present and future experiments to provide answers is likely to be limited by systematic errors. A significant source of this systematic error comes from limitations in our knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Errors on cross-sections for such interactions are large, existing data is sometimes contradictory, and knowledge of nuclear effects is incomplete. One type of neutrino interaction of particular interest is charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) scattering, which yields a final state consisting of a charged lepton and nucleon. This process, which is the dominant interaction near energies of 1 GeV, is of great utility to neutrino oscillation experiments since the incoming neutrino energy and the square of the momentum transferred to the final state nucleon, Q2, can be reconstructed using the final state lepton kinematics. To address the uncertainty in our knowledge of neutrino interactions, many experiments have begun making dedicated measurements. In particular, the MINER A experiment is studying neutrino-nucleus interactions in the few GeV region. MINERvA is a fine-grained, high precision, high statistics neutrino scattering experiment that will greatly improve our understanding of neutrino cross-sections and nuclear effects that affect the final state particles

  2. Wavepacket electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    In this note, the formal analysis of the electron wavepacket produced by a STEM instrument is sketched, and some of the diffraction effects briefly described. It is hoped that this will encourage some needed analysis of the complicated inelastic processes occurring in this experimental geometry. 21 references, 3 figures

  3. Electron scattering off palladium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.B. van der.

    1986-01-01

    The low-lying states of the even Pd isotopes are characterized by vibrator-like properties. In this thesis the results of an electron scattering experiment on the Pd isotopes, designed to study the description of such nuclei in the Anharmonic Vibrator Model (AVM) and the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), are presented and discussed. Data have been taken at the high-resolution electron scattering facility of NIKHEF-K and covered a momentum-transfer range of 0.4 to 2.5 fm -1 . (Auth.)

  4. A study of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tingjun [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations (neutrino changing from one flavor to another) has provided compelling evidence that the neutrinos have non-zero masses and that leptons mix, which is not part of the original Standard Model of particle physics. The theoretical framework that describes neutrino oscillation involves two mass scales (Δmatm2 and Δmsol2), three mixing angles (θ12, θ23, and θ13) and one CP violating phase (δCP). Both mass scales and two of the mixing angles (θ12 and θ23) have been measured by many neutrino experiments. The mixing angle θ13, which is believed to be very small, remains unknown. The current best limit on θ13 comes from the CHOOZ experiment: θ13 < 11° at 90% C.L. at the atmospheric mass scale. δCP is also unknown today. MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino experiment based at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a muon neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near Detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far Detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can obtain parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. MINOS has published results on the precise measurement of Δmatm2 and θ23 through the disappearance of muon neutrinos in the Far Detector and on a search for sterile neutrinos by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far Detector. MINOS also has the potential to improve the limit on the neutrino mixing angle θ13 or make the first measurement of its value by searching for an electron neutrino appearance signal in the Far Detector. This is the focus of the study presented in this thesis. We developed a neural network based algorithm to

  5. Search for muon to electron neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Beyer, R.; Flegel, W.; Mouthuy, T.; Oeveraas, H.; Panman, J.; Rozanov, A.; Winter, K.; Zacek, G.; Zacek, V.; Buesser, F.W.; Foos, C.; Gerland, L.; Layda, T.; Niebergall, F.; Raedel, G.; Staehelin, P.; Voss, T.; Favart, D.; Gregoire, G.; Knoops, E.; Lemaitre, V.; Gorbunov, P.; Grigoriev, E.; Khovansky, V.; Maslennikov, A.; Lippich, W.; Nathaniel, A.; Staude, A.; Vogt, J.; Cocco, A.G.; Ereditato, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Marchetti-Stasi, F.; Palladino, V.; Strolin, P.; Capone, A.; De Pedis, D.; Dore, U.; Frenkel-Rambaldi, A.; Loverre, P.F.; Macina, D.; Piredda, G.; Santacesaria, R.; Di Capua, E.; Ricciardi, S.; Saitta, B.; Akkus, B.; Arik, E.; Serin-Zeyrek, M.; Sever, R.; Tolun, P.; Zeyrek, M.T.; Hiller, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Roloff, H.E.

    1994-01-01

    A search for ν μ → ν e and anti ν μ → anti ν e oscillations has been carried out with the CHARM II detector exposed to the CERN wide band neutrino beam. The data were collected over five years, alternating beams mainly composed of muon-neutrinos and muon-antineutrinos. The number of interactions of ν e and anti ν e observed is comparable with the number of events expected from flux calculations. For large squared mass differences the upper limits obtained on the mixing angle are sin 2 2θ -3 for ν μ oscillating to ν e and sin 2 2θ -3 for anti ν μ to anti ν e , at the 90% confidence level. Combining neutrino and antineutrino data the upper limit is 5.6 . 10 -3 . (orig.)

  6. First Search for the EMC Effect and Nuclear Shadowing in Neutrino Nucleus Deep Inelastic Scattering at MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousseau, Joel A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research in electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) have provided a clear picture of nuclear physics at high momentum transfer. While these effects have been clearly demonstrated by experiment, the theoretical explanation of their origin in some kinematic regions has been lacking. Particularly, the effects in the intermediate regions of Bjorken-x, anti-shadowing and the EMC effect have no universally accepted quantum mechanical explanation. In addition, these effects have not been measured systematically with neutrino-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, due to experiments lacking multiple heavy targets.

  7. Electron scattering by molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duddy, P.E.

    1999-03-01

    Collisions of electrons with molecules is one of the fundamental processes which occur both in atomic and molecular physics and also in chemistry. These collisions are vital in determining the energy balance and transport properties of electrons in gases and plasmas at low temperatures. There are many important applications for the basic understanding of these collision processes. For example, the study of planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium involves electron collisions with both molecules and molecular ions. In particular, two of the major cooling mechanisms of electrons in the Earth's ionosphere are (i) the fine structure changing transitions of oxygen atoms by electron impact and (ii) the resonant electron-impact vibrational excitation of N 2 . Other applications include magnetohydrodynamic power generation and laser physics. A molecule, by definition, will contain more than one nucleus and consequently the effect of nuclear motion in the molecule leads to many extra processes in electron scattering by molecules which cannot occur in electron-atom scattering. As for atoms, both elastic and inelastic scattering occur, but in the case of inelastic electron scattering by molecules, the target molecule is excited to a different state by the process. The excitation may be one, or some combination, of rotational, vibrational and electronic transitions. Other reactions which may occur include dissociation of the molecule into its constituent atoms or ionisation. Another difficulty arises when considering the interactions between the electron and the molecule, This interaction, which considerably complicates the calculation, is non-spherical and various methods have been developed over the years to represent this interaction. This thesis considers electron scattering by molecular oxygen in the low energy range i.e. 0-15eV. These collisions are of considerable interest in atmospheric physics and chemistry where the electron impact excitation of O 2 has

  8. Determining neutrino mass hierarchy from electron disappearance at a low energy neutrino factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Sushant K.

    2013-01-01

    Reactor neutrino experiments have recently measured the value of θ 13 , to be non-zero and moderately large. This makes the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy possible. However, our lack of knowledge of δ CP results in a parameter degeneracy, which makes this task difficult. The electron neutrino disappearance probability does not depend on δ CP . Therefore, in principle, it is possible to determine the hierarchy independently of δ CP using this channel. Previous studies of neutrino factories have not considered this channel, because the effect of systematics in electron disappearance is substantial. However, we show that for the moderately large value of θ 13 measured, hierarchy determination is possible in spite of systematic effects. We consider a low energy neutrino factory (LENF) setup with a totally active scintillator detector (TASD) with charge-identification. We optimize the setup in muon energy and baseline, for different allowed values of θ 13 and runtime. We find that a LENF with baseline of around 1300 km and muon energy around 3-4 GeV is well suited for hierarchy determination. For the RENO best-fit value of θ 13 , this setup can determine the hierarchy at 5ω, for all values of δ CP and for both hierarchies. (author)

  9. Physics Reach with a Monochromatic Neutrino Beam from Electron Capture

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J.; Espinoza, C.; Lindroos, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments from different sources have demonstrated non-vanishing neutrino masses and flavour mixings. The next experiments have to address the determination of the connecting mixing U(e3) and the existence of the CP violating phase. Whereas U(e3) measures the strength of the oscillation probability in appearance experiments, the CP phase acts as a phase-shift in the interference pattern. Here we propose to separate these two parameters by energy dependence, using the novel idea of a monochromatic neutrino beam facility based on the acceleration of ions that decay fast through electron capture. Fine tuning of the boosted neutrino energy allows precision measurements able to open a window for the discovery of CP violation, even for a mixing as small as 1 degree

  10. Solar neutrinos as a signal and background in direct-detection experiments searching for sub-GeV dark matter with electron recoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven; Sholapurkar, Mukul; Yu, Tien-Tien

    2018-05-01

    Direct-detection experiments sensitive to low-energy electron recoils from sub-GeV dark matter interactions will also be sensitive to solar neutrinos via coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering (CNS), since the recoiling nucleus can produce a small ionization signal. Solar neutrinos constitute both an interesting signal in their own right and a potential background to a dark matter search that cannot be controlled or reduced by improved shielding, material purification and handling, or improved detector design. We explore these two possibilities in detail for semiconductor (silicon and germanium) and xenon targets, considering several possibilities for the unmeasured ionization efficiency at low energies. For dark-matter-electron-scattering searches, neutrinos start being an important background for exposures larger than ˜1 - 10 kg -years in silicon and germanium, and for exposures larger than ˜0.1 - 1 kg -year in xenon. For the absorption of bosonic dark matter (dark photons and axion-like particles) by electrons, neutrinos are most relevant for masses below ˜1 keV and again slightly more important in xenon. Treating the neutrinos as a signal, we find that the CNS of 8B neutrinos can be observed with ˜2 σ significance with exposures of ˜2 , 7, and 20 kg-years in xenon, germanium, and silicon, respectively, assuming there are no other backgrounds. We give an example for how this would constrain nonstandard neutrino interactions. Neutrino components at lower energy can only be detected if the ionization efficiency is sufficiently large. In this case, observing pep neutrinos via CNS requires exposures ≳10 - 100 kg -years in silicon or germanium (˜1000 kg -years in xenon), and observing CNO neutrinos would require an order of magnitude more exposure. Only silicon could potentially detect 7Be neutrinos. These measurements would allow for a direct measurement of the electron-neutrino survival probability over a wide energy range.

  11. Transition densities with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the ground state and transition charge densities in nuclei via electron scattering. Using electrons as a spectroscopic tool in nuclear physics, these transition densities can be determined with high precision, also in the nuclear interior. These densities generally ask for a microscopic interpretation in terms of contributions from individual nucleons. The results for single particle transitions confirm the picture of particle-phonon coupling. (Auth.)

  12. Nuclear matter and electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sick, I [Dept. fuer Physik und Astronomie, Univ. Basel (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    We show that inclusive electron scattering at large momentum transfer allows a measurement of short-range properties of nuclear matter. This provides a very valuable constraint in selecting the calculations appropriate for predicting nuclear matter properties at the densities of astrophysical interest. (orig.)

  13. Cross Sections of Charged Current Neutrino Scattering off 132Xe for the Supernova Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Divari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total cross sections as well as the neutrino event rates are calculated in the charged current neutrino and antineutrino scattering off 132Xe isotope at neutrino energies Ev<100 MeV. Transitions to excited nuclear states are calculated in the framework of quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The contributions from different multipoles are shown for various neutrino energies. Flux-averaged cross sections are obtained by convolving the cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution. The flux-averaged cross sections are also calculated using terrestrial neutrino sources based on conventional sources (muon decay at rest or on low-energy beta-beams.

  14. Detector development and background estimation for the observation of Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetlein, Achim; Ciemniak, Christian; Feilitzsch, Franz von; Lanfranchi, Jean-Come; Oberauer, Lothar; Potzel, Walter; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Sivers, Moritz von; Strauss, Raimund; Wawoczny, Stefan; Willers, Michael; Zoeller, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, E15 (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is a neutral current process of the weak interaction and is thus flavor independent. A low-energetic neutrino scatters off a target nucleus. For low transferred momenta the wavelength of the transferred Z{sup 0} boson is comparable to the diameter of the target nucleus. Thus, the neutrino interacts with all nucleons coherently and the cross section for the CNNS is enhanced. To observe CNNS for the first time we are developing cryogenic detectors with a target mass of about 10 g each and an energy threshold of less than 0.5 keV. The current status of this development is presented as well as the estimated background for an experiment in the vicinity of a nuclear power reactor as a strong neutrino source.

  15. Measuring $\\theta_{13}$ via Muon Neutrino to Electron Neutrino Oscillations in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, Ruth B. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Pembroke College

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary goals in neutrino physics at the present moment is to make a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter $\\theta_{13}$. This parameter, in addition to being unknown, could potentially allow for the introduction of CP violation into the lepton sector. The MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment has the ability to make a measurement of this parameter, by looking for the oscillation of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos between a Near and Far Detector over a distance of 735 km. This thesis discusses the development of an analysis framework to search for this oscillation mode. Two major improvements to pre-existing analysis techniques have been implemented by the author. First, a novel particle ID technique based on strip topology, known as the Library Event Matching (LEM) method, is optimized for use in MINOS. Second, a multiple bin likelihood method is developed to fit the data. These two improvements, when combined, increase MINOS' sensitivity to $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})$ by 27\\% over previous analyses. This thesis sees a small excess over background in the Far Detector. A Frequentist interpretation of the data rules out $\\theta_{13}=0$ at 91\\%. A Bayesian interpretation of the data is also presented, placing the most stringent upper boundary on the oscillation parameter to date, at $\\sin^2(2\\theta_{13})<0.09(0.015)$ for the Normal (Inverted) Hierarchy and $\\delta_{CP}=0$.

  16. Study of multimuon-final states in deep inelastic neutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, B.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the measurement of the momentum spectra, angular correlations, and transverse momentum distributions of the secondary muons produced in deep inelastic neutrino scattering at the CERN 300 GeV narrow band neutrino beam is described. From the experimental results conclusions are drawn about neutrino oscillations and the quantum numbers of charm-violating neutral currents. Furthermore upper limits for the momentum part of the c quark in the nucleon, and the fragmentation function for c quarks at high energies were determined. The prompt μ - μ - events are interpreted as pair production of charmed particles. Finally dimuon events induced by axions were looked for. (HSI) [de

  17. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  18. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Zhenyu [Wuhan University, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian; Zheng, Yangheng [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physics, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun; Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments. (orig.)

  19. Spectroscopic study of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene for liquid scintillator neutrino detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: xiangzhou@whu.edu.cn [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Liu, Qian, E-mail: liuqian@ucas.ac.cn [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Han, Junbo [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Zhenyu [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, 430072, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Xuan; Ding, Yayun [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zheng, Yangheng [School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China); Zhou, Li; Cao, Jun; Wang, Yifang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-21

    We have set up a light scattering spectrometer to study the depolarization of light scattering in linear alkylbenzene. The scattering spectra show that the depolarized part of light scattering is due to Rayleigh scattering. The additional depolarized Rayleigh scattering can make the effective transparency of linear alkylbenzene much better than expected. Therefore, sufficient scintillation photons can transmit through large liquid scintillator detector, such as that of the JUNO experiment. Our study is crucial to achieving an unprecedented energy resolution of 3 %/√(E(MeV)) required for the JUNO experiment to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The spectroscopic method can also be used to examine the depolarization of other organic solvents used in neutrino experiments.

  20. Study of electron and neutrino interactions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abashian, A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report for the DOE-sponsored experimental particle physics program at Virginia Tech to study the properties of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions. This contract (DE-AS05-80ER10713) covers the period from August 1, 1980 to January 31, 1993. Task B of this contract, headed by Professor Alexander Abashian, is described in this final report. This program has been pursued on many fronts by the researchers in a search for axions at SLAC, in electron-positron collisions in the AMY experiment at the TRISTAN collider in Japan, in measurements of muon decay properties in the MEGA and RHO experiments at the LAMPF accelerator, in a detailed analysis of scattering effects in the purported observation of a 17 keV neutrino at Oxford, in a search for a disoriented chiral condensate with the MiniMax experiment at Fermilab, and in an R ampersand D program on resistive plate counters that could find use in low-cost high-quality charged particle detection at low rates

  1. Measurement of partonic nuclear effects in deep-inelastic neutrino scattering using MINERvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousseau, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Devan, J.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerν A Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The MINERvA Collaboration reports a novel study of neutrino-nucleus charged-current deep inelastic scattering (DIS) using the same neutrino beam incident on targets of polystyrene, graphite, iron, and lead. Results are presented as ratios of C, Fe, and Pb to CH. The ratios of total DIS cross sections as a function of neutrino energy and flux-integrated differential cross sections as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x are presented in the neutrino-energy range of 5-50 GeV. Based on the predictions of charged-lepton scattering ratios, good agreement is found between the data and prediction at medium x and low neutrino energy. However, the ratios appear to be below predictions in the vicinity of the nuclear shadowing region, x <0.1 . This apparent deficit, reflected in the DIS cross-section ratio at high Eν, is consistent with previous MINERvA observations [B. Tice et al. (MINERvA Collaboration), Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 231801 (2014).] and with the predicted onset of nuclear shadowing with the axial-vector current in neutrino scattering.

  2. Neutrino scattering physics with the SHiP Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083090

    2015-01-01

    SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is a new general purpose fixed target facility, proposed at the CERN SPS accelerator. In its initial phase the 400 GeV protons beam will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating 2 × 1020 pot in five years. A dedicated detector downstream the target will allow to probe a variety of models with the light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c2. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of active neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. In particular, the neutrino deep-inelastic cross-sections will be performed with a statistics 1000 times larger than currently available, with the extraction of the F4 and F5 structure functions, never measured so far. Tau neutrinos will be distinguished by anti-neutrinos, thus providing the first observation of the tau anti-neutrino. With muon neutrinos it will be possible to study the strangeness content of the nucleon.

  3. Neutrino scattering physics with the SHiP Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Crescenzo, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is a new general purpose fixed target facility, proposed at the CERN SPS accelerator. In its initial phase the 400 GeV protons beam will be dumped on a heavy target with the aim of integrating $2 \\times 10^{20}$ pot in five years. A dedicated detector downstream the target will allow to probe a variety of models with the light long-lived exotic particles and masses below O(10) GeV/c2. Another dedicated detector will allow the study of active neutrino cross-sections and angular distributions. In particular, the neutrino deep-inelastic cross-sections will be performed with a statistics 1000 times larger than currently available, with the extraction of the F4 and F5 structure functions, never measured so far. Tau neutrinos will be distinguished by anti-neutrinos, thus providing the first observation of the tau anti-neutrino. With muon neutrinos it will be possible to study the strangeness content of the nucleon.

  4. Two old ways to measure the electron-neutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2013-01-01

    Three decades ago, the measurement of the electron neutrino mass in atomic electron capture (EC) experiments was scrutinized in its two variants: single EC and neutrino-less double EC. For certain isotopes an atomic resonance enormously enhances the expected decay rates. The favoured technique, based on calorimeters as opposed to spectrometers, has the advantage of greatly simplifying the theoretical analysis of the data. After an initial surge of measurements, the EC approach did not seem to be competitive. But very recently, there has been great progress on micro-calorimeters and the measurement of atomic mass differences. Meanwhile, the beta-decay neutrino-mass limits have improved by a factor of 15, and the difficulty of the experiments by the cube of that figure. Can the "calorimetric" EC theory cope with this increased challenge? I answer this question affirmatively. In so doing I briefly review the subject and extensively address some persistent misunderstandings of the underlying quantum physics.

  5. Constraining neutrino magnetic moment with solar and reactor neutrino data

    OpenAIRE

    Tortola, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    We use solar neutrino data to derive stringent bounds on Majorana neutrino transition moments (TMs). Such moments, if present, would contribute to the neutrino-electron scattering cross section and hence alter the signal observed in Super-Kamiokande. Using the latest solar neutrino data, combined with the results of the reactor experiment KamLAND, we perform a simultaneous fit of the oscillation parameters and TMs. Furthermore, we include data from the reactor experiments Rovno, TEXONO and MU...

  6. A combined muon-neutrino and electron-neutrino oscillation search at MiniBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Jocelyn Rebecca [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2006-01-01

    MiniBooNE seeks to corroborate or refute the unconfirmed oscillation result from the LSND experiment. If correct, the result implies that a new kind of massive neutrino, with no weak interactions, participates in neutrino oscillations. MiniBooNE searches for vμ → ve oscillations with the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory 8 GeV beam line, which produces a vμ beam with an average energy of ~ 0.8 GeV and an intrinsic ve content of 0.4%. The neutrino detector is a 6.1 m radius sphere filled with CH2, viewed by 1540 photo-multiplier tubes, and located 541 m downstream from the source. This work focuses on the estimation of systematic errors associated with the neutrino flux and neutrino interaction cross section predictions, and in particular, on constraining these uncertainties using in-situ MiniBooNE vμ charged current quasielastic (CCQE) scattering data. A data set with ~ 100,000 events is identified, with 91% CCQE purity. This data set is used to measure several parameters of the CCQE cross section: the axial mass, the Fermi momentum, the binding energy, and the functional dependence of the axial form factor on four-momentum transfer squared. Constraints on the vμ and ve fluxes are derived using the vμ CCQE data set. A Monte Carlo study of a combined vμ disappearance and ve appearance oscillation fit is presented, which improves the vμ → ve oscillation sensitivity of MiniBooNE with respect to a ve appearance-only fit by 1.2-1.5σ, depending on the value of Δm2.

  7. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh-energy neutrino scattering and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that in ultrahigh-energy inelastic neutrino-nucleon(nucleus) scattering the cross sections for the boson-hadron(nucleus) reactions should exhibit geometric scaling on the single variable τ A =Q 2 /Q sat,A 2 . The dependence on energy and atomic number of the charged/neutral current cross sections are encoded in the saturation momentum Q sat,A . This fact allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization based on the scaling property

  8. Impact of Neutrino Flavor Oscillations on the Neutrino-driven Wind Nucleosynthesis of an Electron-capture Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pllumbi, Else; Tamborra, Irene; Wanajo, Shinya; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Hüdepohl, Lorenz

    2015-08-01

    Neutrino oscillations, especially to light sterile states, can affect nucleosynthesis yields because of their possible feedback effect on the electron fraction (Ye). For the first time, we perform nucleosynthesis calculations for neutrino-driven wind trajectories from the neutrino-cooling phase of an 8.8 {M}⊙ electron-capture supernova (SN), whose hydrodynamic evolution was computed in spherical symmetry with sophisticated neutrino transport and whose Ye evolution was post-processed by including neutrino oscillations between both active and active-sterile flavors. We also take into account the α-effect as well as weak magnetism and recoil corrections in the neutrino absorption and emission processes. We observe effects on the Ye evolution that depend in a subtle way on the relative radial positions of the sterile Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances, on collective flavor transformations, and on the formation of α particles. For the adopted SN progenitor, we find that neutrino oscillations, also to a sterile state with eV mass, do not significantly affect the element formation and in particular cannot make the post-explosion wind outflow neutron-rich enough to activate a strong r-process. Our conclusions become even more robust when, in order to mimic equation-of-state-dependent corrections due to nucleon potential effects in the dense-medium neutrino opacities, six cases with reduced Ye in the wind are considered. In these cases, despite the conversion of active neutrinos to sterile neutrinos, Ye increases or is not significantly lowered compared to the values obtained without oscillations and active flavor transformations. This is a consequence of a complicated interplay between sterile-neutrino production, neutrino-neutrino interactions, and α-effect.

  9. Proposal on electron anti-neutrino mass measurement at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Takayoshi.

    1981-03-01

    Some comment on the proposed experiment, namely the measurement of electron anti-neutrino mass, is described. Various experiments with the measurement of β-ray from tritium have been reported. The precise measurement of the shape of the Kurie plot is required in this kind of experiment. The present experiment aimed at more accurate determination of neutrino mass than any other previous ones. An important point of the present experiment is to reduce the background due to the β-ray from evaporating tritium. The source candidates have low evaporation rate. A double focus √2π air core spectrometer is employed for the measurement of β-ray. The spectrometer was improved to meet the present purpose. The accumulated event rate was expected to be about 10 times higher than Russian experiment. The estimated energy resolution was about 30 eV. The neutrino mass with less than 10 eV accuracy will be obtained. (Kato, T.)

  10. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orchanian, Mhair-armen Hagop [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes a search for ve appearance in the two-detector long-baseline MINOS neutrino experiment at Fermilab, based on a data set representing an exposure of 8.2×1020 protons on the NuMI target. The analysis detailed herein represents an increase in sensitivity to the θ13 mixing angle of approximately 25% over previous analyses, due to improvements in the event discriminant and fitting technique. Based on our observation, we constrain the value of θ13 further, finding 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13< 0.12(0.20) at the 90% confidence level for δCP = 0 and the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The best-fit value is 2 sin2θ 23 sin2θ 13 = 0.041+0.047 -0.031(0.079+0.071 -0.053) under the same assumptions. We exclude the θ 13 = 0 hypothesis at the 89% confidence level.

  11. Right-handed currents and heavy neutrinos in high energy ep and e+e- scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.; Greub, C.

    1992-03-01

    Heavy Dirac or Majorana neutrinos can be produced via right-handed charged currents which occur in extensions of the standard model with SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. Low energy processes, Z precision experiments and direct search experiments in pp collisions are consistent with W R bosons heavier than 300 GeV, if the right-handed neutrinos are heavy. We study the production of heavy neutrinos via right-handed currents in e + e - annihilation and ep scattering which appears particularly promising. At HERA heavy neutrinos and W R bosons can be discovered with masses up to 170 GeV and 700 GeV, respectively. (orig.)

  12. A dedicated torsion balance to detect neutrinos by coherent scattering on high Debye temperature monocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruceru, I; Nicolescu, G [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia - Hulubei' , PO Box MG - 6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Duliu, O G [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, PO Box MG-II, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2008-11-01

    Coherent scattering of neutrinos on high Debye temperature monocrystals represent an alternative to detect solar as well as other high flux neutrino sources such as nuclear reactors or nuclear tests. Therefore, the possibility of detecting neutrinos by using sapphire monocrystals is presented and analyzed. Preliminary evaluations showed that 1 MeV neutrinos with a fluency density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} could interact with a 100 g sapphire monocrystal with a force of about 10{sup -6} dyne, value measurable with a high sensitivity torsion balance. For this reason a torsion balance provided with 1 m length molybdenum or tungsten wire and an optical autocollimator able to measure small rotation angles of about 0.1 seconds of arc was designed, constructed and now is under preliminary tests. Both theoretical and practical implications of such kind of detector are presented and discussed.

  13. Electron scattering and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1987-01-01

    The search for the appropriate degrees of freedom to describe nuclei is the central focus of nuclear physics today. Therefore the authors explore in this review their current understanding of nuclear structure as defined by electromagnetic data. The precision of the electromagnetic probe allows us to define accurately the limits of present theoretical descriptions. The authors review here a broad range of subjects that have been addressed by recent experiments, from the study of meson exchange currents and single-particle distributions to collective excitations in heavy nuclei. However, they do not discuss elastic magnetic scattering, inelastic excitation of discrete states, or single-nucleon knockout reactions since these reactions were recently reviewed. The principal aim of this review is to offer a fresh perspective on nuclear structure, based on the new generation of electron scattering data presented here and in the above-mentioned articles

  14. Electron Neutrino Appearance in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holin, Anna Maria [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment which sends a high intensity muon neutrino beam through two functionally identical detectors, a Near detector at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois, 1km from the beam source, and a Far detector, 734km away, in the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. MINOS may be able to measure the neutrino mixing angle parameter sin213 for the rst time. Detector granularity, however, makes it very hard to distinguish any e appearance signal events characteristic of a non-zero value of θ 13 from background neutral current (NC) and short-track vμ charged current (CC) events. Also, uncertainties in the hadronic shower modeling in the kinematic region characteristic of this analysis are relatively large. A new data-driven background decomposition method designed to address those issues is developed and its results presented. By removing the long muon tracks from vμ-CC events, the Muon Removed Charge Current (MRCC) method creates independent pseudo-NC samples that can be used to correct the MINOS Monte Carlo to agree with the high-statistics Near detector data and to decompose the latter into components so as to predict the expected Far detector background. The MRCC method also provides an important cross-check in the Far detector to test the background in the signal selected region. MINOS finds a 1.0-1.5 σ ve-CC excess above background in the Far detector data, depending on method used, for a total exposure of 3.14 x 1020 protons-on-target. Interpreting this excess as signal, MINOS can set limits on sin213. Using the MRCC method, MINOS sets a limit of sin2 2 θ 13 < 0.265 at the 90% confidence limit for a CP-violating phase δ = 0.

  15. Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts that the neutrinos are massless and do not mix. Generic extensions of the Standard Model predict that neutrinos are massive (but, very likely, much lighter than the charged fermions). Therefore, the search for neutrino masses and mixing tests the Standard Model and probes new phasics. Measurements of various features of the fluxes of atmospheric, solar and, more recently, reactor neutrinos have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations and therefore for neutrino masses and mixing. These results have significant theoretical implications: new physics exists, and its scale can be estimated. There are interesting lessons for grand unified theories and for models of extra dimensions. The measured neutrino flavor parameters pose a challenge to flavor models.

  16. High-intensity-laser-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed

  17. Photons emission processes in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Vargas, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    The investigations involving the scattering sections arising in virtual an real photon emission processes of electron and positron scattering by an atomic nucleus, have the need for thorough and complete calculations of the virtual photon spectrum and then introduce the distorted wave formulation, which is mathematically involved an numerically elaborated, but accessible to its use in experimental electron scattering facilities. (author) [es

  18. Observation of neutrino-like interactions without muon or electron in the Gargamelle neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hasert, F J; Krenz, W; Conta, C; Von Krogh, J; Lanske, D; Morfín, J G; Schultze, K; Weerts, H; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Sacton, J; Van Doninck, W K; Vilain, P; Camerini, U; Cundy, Donald C; Baldi, R; Danilchenko, I A; Fry, W F; Haidt, Dieter; Natali, S; Musset, P; Osculati, B; Palmer, R; Pattison, John Bryan M; Perkins, Donald Hill; Pullia, Antonio; Rousset, A; Venus, W A; Wachsmuth, H W; Brisson, V; Degrange, B; Haguenauer, Maurice; Kluberg, L; Nguyen-Khac, U; Petiau, P; Belotti, E; Bonetti, S; Cavalli, D; Fiorini, Ettore; Rollier, M; Aubert, Bernard; Blum, D; Chounet, L M; Heusse, P; Lagarrigue, A; Lutz, A M; Orkin-Lecourtois, A; Vialle, J P; Bullock, F W; Esten, M J; Jones, T W; McKenzie, J; Michette, A G; Myatt, Gerald; Scott, W G

    1974-01-01

    Events induced by neutral particles and producing only hadrons, but no muon or electron, have been observed in the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle exposed to neutrino ( nu ) and antineutrino ( nu ) beams at CERN. A study of the various sources which could give rise to such events reveals that less than 20% could be attributed to neutrons or K/sub L/ degrees . The events behave as expected if they arise from neutral current processes induced by neutrinos and antineutrinos. The ratio of the number of these events to the number of corresponding events with charged lepton is 0.22+or-0.04 for nu and 0.43+or-0.12 for nu . (8 refs).

  19. A search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the MINOS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Ricoux, Juan Pedro [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    We perform a search for vμ → ve oscillations, a process which would manifest a nonzero value of the θ13 mixing angle, in the MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The analysis consists of searching for an excess of ve charged-current candidate events over the predicted backgrounds, made mostly of neutral-current events with high electromagnetic content. A novel technique to select electron neutrino events is developed, which achieves an improved separation between the signal and the backgrounds, and which consequently yields a better reach in θ13. The backgrounds are predicted in the Far Detector from Near Detector measurements. An excess is observed in the Far Detector data over the predicted backgrounds, which is consistent with the background-only hypothesis at 1.2 standard deviations.

  20. Cross section measurements for quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorman, Mark Edward [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented.

  1. Cross section measurements for quasi-elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering with the MINOS near detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, Mark Edward

    2008-01-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Chicago, Illinois. MINOS measures neutrino interactions in two large iron-scintillator tracking/sampling calorimeters; the Near Detector on-site at FNAL and the Far Detector located in the Soudan mine in northern Minnesota. The Near Detector has recorded a large number of neutrino interactions and this high statistics dataset can be used to make precision measurements of neutrino interaction cross sections. The cross section for charged-current quasi-elastic scattering has been measured by a number of previous experiments and these measurements disagree by up to 30%. A method to select a quasi-elastic enriched sample of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Near Detector is presented and a procedure to fit the kinematic distributions of this sample and extract the quasi-elastic cross section is introduced. The accuracy and robustness of the fitting procedure is studied using mock data and finally results from fits to the MINOS Near Detector data are presented

  2. The Use of Low Temperature Detectors for Direct Measurements of the Mass of the Electron Neutrino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nucciotti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed many exciting breakthroughs in neutrino physics. The detection of neutrino oscillations has proved that neutrinos are massive particles, but the assessment of their absolute mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in today particle physics and cosmology. Since low temperature detectors were first proposed for neutrino physics experiments in 1984, there has been tremendous technical progress: today this technique offers the high energy resolution and scalability required to perform competitive experiments challenging the lowest electron neutrino masses. This paper reviews the thirty-year effort aimed at realizing calorimetric measurements with sub-eV neutrino mass sensitivity using low temperature detectors.

  3. Electron Neutrino and Antineutrino Appearance in the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, Adam Paul [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline neutrino experiment that utilizes a particle beam and two steel-scintillator calorimeters designed to determine the parameters associated with muon neutrino disappearance. Analysis methods developed by the MINOS νe group have facilitated the placement of limits upon the mixing angle associated with νμ → νe oscillations. Since the polarity of the focusing horns can be switched, we can perform a similar analysis with an antineutrino-enriched beam to select electron antineutrino appearance candidates. Using 3.34e20 POT (protons on target) in the antineutrino mode, we exclude θ13 = 0 at the 80% C.L. A joint fit of the 3.34e20 POT antineutrino and 10.6e20 POT neutrino samples excluded θ13 = 0 at the 96% C.L. In addition, the combined data were used to produce exclusions regarding the CP-violating phase.

  4. Development of an electronic board for a neutrino telescope project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gandolfi, Enzo; Ricci, Pier Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) collaboration is involved in research and development for the construction of an underwater km 3 scale Cherenkov neutrino detector. The detector will consist of about four thousands of optical modules that interface with coaxial cables to electronics cards. The detector is connected to the shore by an electro-optical cable for data transmission and power supply. The board also provides signal synchronization, filtering, data compression and packing. We describe the details of this electronic control part, which has been developed using commercial components and the very high-speed, Hardware Description Language (VHDL). The design was implemented on a programmable device. A test-bench system was also designed using a PC-based acquisition board running on the National Instrument LabVIEW environment

  5. Coherent neutrino scattering with low temperature bolometers at Chooz reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, J; Gascon, J; Jesus, M De; Carr, R; Formaggio, J A; Heine, S T; Johnston, J; Leder, A; Sibille, V; Winslow, L; Dawson, J; Lasserre, T; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Palladino, K J; Vivier, M

    2017-01-01

    We present the potential sensitivity of a future recoil detector for a first detection of the process of coherent elastic neutrino nucleus scattering (CE ν NS). We use the Chooz reactor complex in France as our luminous source of reactor neutrinos. Leveraging the ability to cleanly separate the rate correlated with the reactor thermal power against (uncorrelated) backgrounds, we show that a 10 kg cryogenic bolometric array with 100 eV threshold should be able to extract a CE ν NS signal within one year of running. (paper)

  6. The nucleon axial mass and the MiniBooNE quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, J.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The charged-current double differential neutrino cross section, measured by the MiniBooNE Collaboration, has been analyzed using a microscopical model that accounts for, among other nuclear effects, long range nuclear (RPA) correlations and multinucleon scattering. We find that MiniBooNE data are fully compatible with the world average of the nucleon axial mass in contrast with several previous analyses which have suggested an anomalously large value. We also discuss the reliability of the algorithm used to estimate the neutrino energy.

  7. Neutrino Scattering Uncertainties and their Role in Long Baseline Oscillation Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Harris; G. Blazey; Arie Bodek; D. Boehnlein; S. Boyd; William Brooks; Antje Bruell; Howard S. Budd; R. Burnstein; D. Casper; A. Chakravorty; Michael Christy; Jesse Chvojka; M.A.C. Cummings; P. deBarbaro; D. Drakoulakos; J. Dunmore; Rolf Ent; Hugh Gallagher; David Gaskell; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Wendy Hinton; Xiaodong Jiang; T. Kafka; O. Kamaev; Cynthia Keppel; M. Kostin; Sergey Kulagin; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Steven Manly; W.A. Mann; Kevin Mcfarland-porter; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Jorge Morfin; D. Naples; John Nelson; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-ioana Niculescu; W. Oliver; Michael Paolone; Emmanuel Paschos; A. Pla-Dalmau; Ronald Ransome; C. Regis; P. Rubinov; V. Rykalin; Willis Sakumoto; P. Shanahan; N. Solomey; P. Spentzouris; P. Stamoulis; G. Tzanakos; Stephen Wood; F.X. Yumiceva; B. Ziemer; M. Zois

    2004-01-01

    The field of oscillation physics is about to make an enormous leap forward in statistical precision: first through the MINOS experiment in the coming year, and later through the NOvA and T2K experiments. Because of the relatively poor understanding of neutrino interactions in the energy ranges of these experiments, there are systematics that can arise in interpreting far detector data that can be as large as or even larger than the expected statistical uncertainties. We describe how these systematic errors arise, and how specific measurements in a dedicated neutrino scattering experiment like MINERvA can reduce the cross section systematic errors to well below the statistical errors

  8. CAPTAIN-Miner@@a. Neutrino-Argon Scattering in a Medium-Energy Neutrino Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauger, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab is currently providing an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the NO@@A, MINER@@A and MINOS+ experiments. By installing the 5-ton CAPTAIN liquid argon TPC in front of the MINER@@A detector in the NuMI beamline and combining the data from the CAPTAIN, MINER@@A and MINOS+ detectors, a broad program of few-GeV neutrino cross section measurements on argon can be pursued. These measurements will be extremely helpful for future oscillation experiments. By directly comparing the cross sections on argon to MINER@@A@@@s scintillator (CH) target, a new level of precision can be achieved in the measurements of the effects of the nucleus on neutrino interactions. These effects are of interest to not only the particle physics but also the nuclear physics community. This document describes in detail the physics goals of the CAPTAIN-MINER@@A experiment, in addition to a first estimate of the technical resources required to install, commission and operate the CAPTAIN detector in front of the MINERVA detector.

  9. CAPTAIN-Minerνa. Neutrino-Argon Scattering in a Medium-Energy Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauger, Christopher M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-29

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab is currently providing an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the NOνA, MINERνA and MINOS+ experiments. By installing the 5-ton CAPTAIN liquid argon TPC in front of the MINERνA detector in the NuMI beamline and combining the data from the CAPTAIN, MINERνA and MINOS+ detectors, a broad program of few-GeV neutrino cross section measurements on argon can be pursued. These measurements will be extremely helpful for future oscillation experiments. By directly comparing the cross sections on argon to MINERνA’s scintillator (CH) target, a new level of precision can be achieved in the measurements of the effects of the nucleus on neutrino interactions. These effects are of interest to not only the particle physics but also the nuclear physics community. This document describes in detail the physics goals of the CAPTAIN-MINERνA experiment, in addition to a first estimate of the technical resources required to install, commission and operate the CAPTAIN detector in front of the MINERVA detector.

  10. Electromagnetic effects of neutrinos in an electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, Jose F.; Sahu, Sarira

    2005-01-01

    We study the electromagnetic properties of a system that consists of an electron background and a neutrino gas that may be moving or at rest, as a whole, relative to the background. The photon self-energy for this system is characterized by the usual transverse and longitudinal polarization functions, and two additional ones which are the focus of our calculations, that give rise to birefringence and anisotropic effects in the photon dispersion relations. Expressions for them are obtained, which depend on the neutrino number densities and involve momentum integrals over the electron distribution functions, and are valid for any value of the photon momentum and general conditions of the electron gas. Those expressions are evaluated explicitly for several special cases and approximations which are generally useful in astrophysical and cosmological settings. Besides studying the photon dispersion relations, we consider the macroscopic electrodynamic equations for this system, which involve the standard dielectric and permeability constants plus two additional ones related to the photon self-energy functions. As an illustration, the equations are used to discuss the evolution of a magnetic field perturbation in such a medium. This particular phenomena has also been considered in a recent work by Semikoz and Sokoloff as a mechanism for the generation of large-scale magnetic fields in the early Universe as a consequence of the neutrino-plasma interactions, and allows us to establish contact with a specific application in a well defined context, with a broader scope and from a very different point of view

  11. First observation of low energy electron neutrinos in a liquid argon time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R.; Adams, C.; Asaadi, J.; Baller, B.; Bolton, T.; Bromberg, C.; Cavanna, F.; Church, E.; Edmunds, D.; Ereditato, A.; Farooq, S.; Fitzpatrick, R. S.; Fleming, B.; Hackenburg, A.; Horton-Smith, G.; James, C.; Lang, K.; Luo, X.; Mehdiyev, R.; Page, B.; Palamara, O.; Rebel, B.; Schukraft, A.; Scanavini, G.; Soderberg, M.; Spitz, J.; Szelc, A. M.; Weber, M.; Yang, T.; Zeller, G. P.

    2017-04-06

    Liquid argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs) produce remarkable fidelity in the observation of neutrino interactions. The superior capabilities of such detectors to reconstruct the spatial and calorimetric information of neutrino events have made them the detectors of choice in a number of experiments, specifically those looking to observe electron neutrino ($\

  12. High-energy electroweak neutrino-nucleon deeply virtual Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V. T.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we estimate the differential and total cross sections for the high-energy deeply virtual Compton scattering in the weak sector. In the weak neutral sector one considers neutrino scattering off an unpolarized proton target through the exchange of Z 0 . We numerically compute the process Z*p→γp within the QCD color dipole formalism, which successfully describes the current high-energy electromagnetic DVCS experimental data. We also discuss possible applications for the weak charged sector and perform predictions for scattering on nuclear targets

  13. Studies of scintillator optical properties, electronics simulation and data analysis for the BOREXINO neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewke, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Borexino is a state-of-the-art low-energy neutrino detector. Many results, like the first real-time measurement of 7 Be neutrinos and the detection of pep neutrinos, could be reported. However, still some parts of the solar neutrino spectrum remain unseen. With a better detector understanding and monitoring these unexploited regions could be investigated. The results achieved in course of the present thesis account for accomplishing these improvements. First, the ionization quenching for electrons in liquid scintillators is investigated using a specially designed and build experiment. This effect is especially interesting for low-energy events and, therefore, has a direct influence on the possibility to detect CNO and pp neutrinos. With a coincidence circuit and the properties of Compton scattering the quenching is analysed. Further, the so-called Birks factor kB is measured for the scintillator used in the running Borexino experiment. As the Birks factor is also an important input parameter to simulations of the future large scale neutrino experiment LENA, the Birks factor of LENA's most probable scintillator is determined as well. Second, as muons are responsible for a large amount of background, an excellent working muon veto is essential. During this thesis, it was achieved to monitor the muon tagging stability and efficiency for a long period of time. Further, to verify the muon track reconstruction Monte Carlo simulations are needed. For the Inner Detector of Borexino the simulation is fully operable. In course of this thesis the complete electronics system of the Outer Detector is included into the simulation tool. In this way, a functioning simulation mimicking real physical events is generated. In addition, the output of the simulation can now be accessed and evaluated by the normal data handling system of Borexino. A comparison to real data and, therefore, validating the muon track reconstruction is now possible. Last, to check the neutron tagging, CNGS

  14. Studies of scintillator optical properties, electronics simulation and data analysis for the BOREXINO neutrino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewke, Timo

    2013-10-18

    Borexino is a state-of-the-art low-energy neutrino detector. Many results, like the first real-time measurement of {sup 7}Be neutrinos and the detection of pep neutrinos, could be reported. However, still some parts of the solar neutrino spectrum remain unseen. With a better detector understanding and monitoring these unexploited regions could be investigated. The results achieved in course of the present thesis account for accomplishing these improvements. First, the ionization quenching for electrons in liquid scintillators is investigated using a specially designed and build experiment. This effect is especially interesting for low-energy events and, therefore, has a direct influence on the possibility to detect CNO and pp neutrinos. With a coincidence circuit and the properties of Compton scattering the quenching is analysed. Further, the so-called Birks factor kB is measured for the scintillator used in the running Borexino experiment. As the Birks factor is also an important input parameter to simulations of the future large scale neutrino experiment LENA, the Birks factor of LENA's most probable scintillator is determined as well. Second, as muons are responsible for a large amount of background, an excellent working muon veto is essential. During this thesis, it was achieved to monitor the muon tagging stability and efficiency for a long period of time. Further, to verify the muon track reconstruction Monte Carlo simulations are needed. For the Inner Detector of Borexino the simulation is fully operable. In course of this thesis the complete electronics system of the Outer Detector is included into the simulation tool. In this way, a functioning simulation mimicking real physical events is generated. In addition, the output of the simulation can now be accessed and evaluated by the normal data handling system of Borexino. A comparison to real data and, therefore, validating the muon track reconstruction is now possible. Last, to check the neutron

  15. Bremsstrahlung in electron-positronium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Korol, A.V.; Solovyov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of radiation formed in the fast nonrelativistic electron scattering on positronium is calculated. It is shown that all the radiation proceeds via virtual positronium deformations during the collision. An essential difference of bremsstrahlung spectra in electron on positronium and electron on hydrogen scattering is demonstrated. (orig.)

  16. [Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This program is aimed at the quantitative study of surface dynamical processes (vibrational, magnetic excitations) in crystalline slabs, ultrathin-layered materials, and chemisorbed systems on substrates, and of the geometric structure connected to these dynamical excitations. High-resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful probe. Off-specular excitation cross sections are much larger if electron energies are in the LEED range (50-300 eV). The analyses has been used to study surfaces of ordered alloys (NiAl). Ab-initio surface lattice dynamical results were combined with phonon-loss cross sections to achieve a more accurate microscopic description. First-principles phonon eigenvectors and eigenfrequencies were used as inputs to electron-energy-loss multiple scattering cross-section calculations. The combined microscopic approach was used to analyze EELS data of Cu(0001) and Ag(001) at two points. Positron diffraction is discussed as a structural and imaging tool. The relation between geometric structure of a film and its local magnetic properties will be studied in the future, along with other things

  17. Electron scattering from 17O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.C.; Hicks, R.S.; Yen, R.; Auer, I.P.; Caplan, H.S.; Bergstrom, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons from 17 O have been measured for momentum transfers up to 1.2 fm -1 . The elastic cross section indicates that the rms charge radii of 17 O and 16 O are equal to within a few parts in a thousand: 2 17 >sup(1/2)/ 2 16 >sub(1/2)=1.0015+-0.0025. Reduced transition probabilities and ground-state radiative widths are deduced for 17 O excited states below 9 MeV. Various aspects of the inelastic spectrum are discussed, with emphasis on the 'single-particle' levels at 0.871 (1/2 + ) and 5.083 (3/2 + ) MeV, the levels at 7.569 (7/2 - ) and 7.378 (5/2 + ) MeV, and the spectrum of electric octupole excitations. (Auth.)

  18. Status of the search of coherent neutrino nucleus elastic scattering at KSNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, V.; Subrahmanyam, V. S.; Wong, H. T.

    2018-04-01

    Status of search of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS) for reactor neutrino flux at Kuo-Sheng nuclear laboratory is discussed. Different detector candidates being used for CEνNS detection across the globe while Germanium detector with its well matured technology and sub-keV threshold, seem to open unseen experimental approach to CEνNS is widely discussed. Reactor neutrinos having energy below 10 MeV are ideal source for the study of CEνNS interaction. We studied about the possible CEνNS signals with associated uncertainties and limit on percentage of channeled nuclei in germanium crystal is quoted. Detection of flavourless CEνNS interaction can play a key role to open the new window on understanding of some unknown processes of the nature.

  19. Electronic Instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics and Neutrino Physics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452332

    The present dissertation describes design, qualification and operation of several electronic instrumentations for High Energy Particle Physics experiments (LHCb) and Neutrino Physics experiments (CUORE and CUPID). Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity and several of its detectors will be redesigned. The RICH detector will require a completely new optoelectronic readout system. The development of such system has already reached an advanced phase, and several tests at particle beam facilities allowed to qualify the performance of the entire system. In order to achieve a higher stability and a better power supply regulation for the front-end chip, a rad-hard low dropout linear regulator, named ALDO, has been developed. Design strategies, performance tests and results from the irradiation campaign are presented. In the Neutrino Physics field, large-scale bolometric detectors, like those adopted by CUORE and its future upgrade CUPID, offer u...

  20. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter–neutrino resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ru Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter–neutrino resonances (MNRs can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino–electron and neutrino–neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  1. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter–neutrino resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng-Ru, E-mail: mwu@theorie.ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik (Theoriezentrum), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Duan, Huaiyu, E-mail: duan@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Qian, Yong-Zhong, E-mail: qian@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star–neutron star or neutron star–black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter–neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino–electron and neutrino–neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  2. Progress On Neutrino-Proton Neutral-Current Scattering In MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Stephen [New Mexico State U.

    2017-01-16

    The MicroBooNE Experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, an 89-ton active mass liquid argon time projection chamber, affords a unique opportunity to observe low-$Q^2$ neutral-current neutrino-proton scattering events. Neutral-current neutrino-proton scattering at $Q^2 < 1$ GeV$^2$ is dominated by the proton's axial form factor, which can be written as a combination of contributions from the up, down, and strange quarks: $G_A(Q^2) = \\frac{1}{2}[-G_A^u(Q^2)+G_A^d(Q^2)+G_A^s(Q^2)]$. The contribution from up and down quarks has been established in past charged-current measurements. The contribution from strange quarks at low $Q^2$ remains unmeasured; this is of great interest since the strange quark contribution to the proton spin can be determined from the low-$Q^2$ behavior: $\\Delta S = G_A^s(Q^2=0)$. MicroBooNE began operating in the Booster Neutrino Beam in October 2015. I will present the status in observing isolated proton tracks in the MicroBooNE detector as a signature for neutral-current neutrino-proton events. The sensitivity of the MicroBooNE experiment for measuring the strange quark contribution to the proton spin will be discussed.

  3. Feasibility study for a first observation of coherent neutrino nucleus scattering using low-temperature detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetlein, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is a neutral current process of the weak interaction. For low transferred momenta the neutrino scatters coherently off all nucleons leading to an enhanced cross section. However, because of the small resulting recoil energies (O(keV)) CNNS has not been observed experimentally so far. For the first observation of CNNS a strong neutrino source is needed. Thus, the expected count rates for solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, neutrinos generated by the decay of stopped π + particles at accelerators, and reactor neutrinos were calculated. Although an observation of CNNS could also be possible with other sources, the most promising neutrino sources are nuclear reactors with thermal powers between 2 and 4 GW. For an assumed energy threshold of 0.5 keV the target material with the largest count rate (∝10 kg -1 day -1 ) is sapphire. Thus, a low-temperature detector based on a 32 g sapphire crystal was designed and built to measure the background spectrum for energies below ∝10 keV. Although the energy threshold (∝1 keV) of this detector is too large for an observation of CNNS, the measured background spectrum can still be used for an investigation of the main background sources and the suppression of their events. For this investigation the simulated spectra of cosmic muons, ambient neutrons, and external gamma-rays are compared to the measured background spectrum. As a result, cosmic muons are the main contribution to the measured background spectrum. For a future experiment aiming at the observation of CNNS an array of 125 low-temperature detectors based on 32 g sapphire crystals is assumed. Background simulations of cosmic muons, ambient neutrons, and intrinsic radioactivity show that especially an efficient muon-veto system is crucial for a sufficient background suppression. To study the observation potential of this future experiment a distance of ∝ 40 m to a reactor core with a thermal power of ∝4 GW (neutrino

  4. Parity violating asymmetries in polarized electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, E.; Marciano, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    We discuss parity violating asymmetries between the scattering of right and left-handed electrons on a variety of targets. Implications for gauge theories from recent SLAC results on deep-inelastic electron-deuterium and electron-proton scattering are examined. A derivation of the asymmetry for electron-electron scattering is given, its advantages are pointed out, and the feasibility of such a measurement is discussed. Other proposed or contemplated asymmetry experiments are reviewed and the necessity of including the Collins-Wilczek-Zee hadronic axial isoscalar current contribution in asymmetry predictions is noted

  5. Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  6. The mass of the electron neutrino and electron capture in 163Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Rajasekaran, G.; Ando, M.; Ochiai, F.; Ikeda, H.; Ohta, T.; Stefan, P.M.; Maruyama, M.; Nashimoto, N.; Fujioka, M.; Ishii, K.; Shinozuka, T.; Sera, K.; Omori, T.; Izawa, G.; Yagi, M.; Masumoto, K.; Shima, K.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the mass of the electron neutrino, electron capture in 163 Ho was studied. From the intensity of M X-rays and the total number of 163 Ho atoms in a source, as determined by the PIXE method, the partial M-capture half life of 163 Ho was estimated to be (4.5 +- 1.5) x 10 4 yr. A relation between the Q-value of 163 Ho and the mass of the electron neutrino was obtained. (orig.)

  7. Recent Advances and Open Questions in Neutrino-induced Quasi-elastic Scattering and Single Photon Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos; Harris, D. A. [Fermilab; Tanaka, H. A. [British Columbia U.; Tayloe, R. [Indiana U.; Zeller, G. P. [Fermilab

    2015-06-15

    The study of neutrino–nucleus interactions has recently seen rapid development with a new generation of accelerator-based neutrino experiments employing medium and heavy nuclear targets for the study of neutrino oscillations. A few unexpected results in the study of quasi-elastic scattering and single photon production have spurred a revisiting of the underlying nuclear physics and connections to electron–nucleus scattering. A thorough understanding and resolution of these issues is essential for future progress in the study of neutrino oscillations.

  8. Parity violation in electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2007-09-01

    The elaboration of the electroweak standard model from the discovery of parity violation to the weak neutral current is described in the first chapter. In the second chapter the author discusses the 2 experimental approaches of the parity violation experiments. In the first approach the weak neutral current can be assumed to be well known and can be used as a probe for the hadronic matter. The second approach consists in measuring the weak neutral current between 2 particles with known internal structure in order to test the predictions of the standard model in the low energy range. The chapters 3 and 4 are an illustration of the first approach through the HAPPEx series of experiments that took place in the Jefferson Laboratory from 1998 to 2005. The HAPPEx experiments aimed at measuring the contribution of strange quarks in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon through the violation of parity in the elastic scattering at forward angles. The last chapter is dedicated to the E158 experiment that was performed at the Slac (California) between 2000 and 2003. The weak neutral current was measured between 2 electrons and the high accuracy obtained allowed the physics beyond the standard model to be indirectly constraint up to a few TeV. (A.C.)

  9. Radiative corrections to high-energy neutrino scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rujula, A. de; Petronzio, R.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    1979-01-01

    Motivated by precise neutrino experiments, the electromagnetic radiative corrections to the data are reconsidered. The usefulness is investigated and the simplicity demonstrated of the 'leading log' approximation: the calculation to order α ln (Q/μ), α ln (Q/msub(q)). Here Q is an energy scale of the overall process, μ is the lepton mass and msub(q) is a hadronic mass, the effective quark mass in a parton model. The leading log radiative corrections to dsigma/dy distributions and to suitably interpreted dsigma/dx distributions are quark-mass independent. The authors improve upon the conventional leading log approximation and compute explicitly the largest terms that lie beyond the leading log level. In practice this means that the model-independent formulae, though approximate, are likely to be excellent estimates everywhere except at low energy or very large y. It is pointed out that radiative corrections to measurements of deviations from the Callan-Gross relation and to measurements of the 'sea' constituency of nucleons are gigantic. The QCD inspired study of deviations from scaling is of particular interest. The authors compute, beyond the leading log level, the radiative corrections of the QCD predictions. (Auth.)

  10. Neutrino Signals in Electron-Capture Storage-Ring Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Gal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino signals in electron-capture decays of hydrogen-like parent ions P in storage-ring experiments at GSI are reconsidered, with special emphasis placed on the storage-ring quasi-circular motion of the daughter ions D in two-body decays P → D + ν e . It is argued that, to the extent that daughter ions are detected, these detection rates might exhibit modulations with periods of order seconds, similar to those reported in the GSI storage-ring experiments for two-body decay rates. New dedicated experiments in storage rings, or using traps, could explore these modulations.

  11. Inelastic scattering of fast electrons by crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Josefsson, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Generalized fundamental equations for electron diffraction in crystals, which include the effect of inelastic scattering described by a nonlocal interaction, are derived. An expression is obtained for the cross section for any specific type of inelastic scattering (e.g. inner-shell ionization, Rutherford backscattering). This result takes into account all other (background) inelastic scattering in the crystal leading to absorption from the dynamical Bragg-reflected beams, in practice mainly due to thermal diffuse scattering. There is a contribution to the cross section from all absorbed electrons, which form a diffuse background, as well as from the dynamical electrons. The approximations involved, assuming that the interactions leading to inelastic scattering can be described by a local potential are discussed, together with the corresponding expression for the cross section. It is demonstrated by means of an example for K-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy that nonlocal effects can be significant. 47 refs., 4 figs

  12. Neutrino photoproduction on an electron in the QED two-dimensional approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loskutov, Yu.M.; Skobelev, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristic reactions of electron and muon neutrino photoproduction on an electron in a strong magnetic field are considered in the Weinberg model. The ratio of the corresponding cross sections depending on the charged boson mass permits to cherish hopes on the possibility of evaluating its mass on the basis of the experiment according to neutrino luminosity of neutron stars [ru

  13. Calculation of electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    1994-11-01

    We present the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) theory for the calculation of electron-helium scattering. We demonstrate its applicability at a range of projectile energies of 1.5 to 500 eV to scattering from the ground state to n ≤3 states. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained with the available differential, integrated, ionization, and total cross sections, as well as with the electron-impact coherence parameters up to and including the 3 3 D state excitation. Comparison with other theories demonstrates that the CCC theory is the only general reliable method for the calculation of electron helium scattering. (authors). 66 refs., 2 tabs., 24 figs

  14. Electron scattering on metal clusters and fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'yov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of physical phenomena manifesting themselves in electron scattering on atomic clusters. The main emphasis is made on electron scattering on fullerenes and metal clusters, however some results are applicable to other types of clusters as well. This work is addressed to theoretical aspects of electron-cluster scattering, however some experimental results are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the electron diffraction plays important role in the formation of both elastic and inelastic electron scattering cross sections. It is elucidated the essential role of the multipole surface and volume plasmon excitations in the formation of electron energy loss spectra on clusters (differential and total, above and below ionization potential) as well as the total inelastic scattering cross sections. Particular attention is paid to the elucidation of the role of the polarization interaction in low energy electron-cluster collisions. This problem is considered for electron attachment to metallic clusters and the plasmon enhanced photon emission. Finally, mechanisms of electron excitation widths formation and relaxation of electron excitations in metal clusters and fullerenes are discussed. (authors)

  15. Recent structure function results from neutrino scattering at fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, U.K.; Avvakumov, S.; Barbaro, P. de

    2001-01-01

    We report on the extraction of the structure functions F 2 and ΔxF 3 = xF ν 3 - xF ν -bar 3 from CCFR ν μ -Fe and ν-bar μ -Fe differential cross sections. The extraction is performed in a physics model independent (PMI) way. This first measurement of ΔxF 3 , which is useful in testing models of heavy charm production, is higher than current theoretical predictions. The ratio of the F 2 (PMI) values measured in ν μ , and μ scattering is in agreement (within 5%) with the NLO predictions using massive charm production schemes, thus resolving the long-standing discrepancy between the two sets of data. In addition, measurements of F L (or, equivalently, R) and 2xF 1 are reported in the kinematic region where anomalous nuclear effects in R are observed at HERMES. (author)

  16. Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, B.

    1964-12-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr

  17. Evidence of Coherent K+ Meson Production in Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Marshall, C. M.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Endress, E.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Hurtado, K.; Kiveni, M.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Paolone, V.; Park, J.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Schmitz, D. W.; Simon, C.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Minerva Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    Neutrino-induced charged-current coherent kaon production νμA →μ-K+A is a rare, inelastic electroweak process that brings a K+ on shell and leaves the target nucleus intact in its ground state. This process is significantly lower in rate than the neutrino-induced charged-current coherent pion production because of Cabibbo suppression and a kinematic suppression due to the larger kaon mass. We search for such events in the scintillator tracker of MINERvA by observing the final state K+, μ-, and no other detector activity, and by using the kinematics of the final state particles to reconstruct the small momentum transfer to the nucleus, which is a model-independent characteristic of coherent scattering. We find the first experimental evidence for the process at 3 σ significance.

  18. Deuteron disintegration in the neutrino scattering reaction ν + d → ν + p + n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    General dependence on vector and tensor deutron polarizations of differential cross section of deuteron disintegration in the reaction of neutrino scattering V+d→ν+pν conditioned by neutral weak current is disclosed. Using locality of weak neutrino interaction with hadrons the dependence of differential cross section and their asymmetries conditioned by polarization of the target on two of five kinematic variables characterizing the ν+d→ν+p+n process and namely on azimuthal angle phi and parameter x associated with the degree of linear polarization of virtual Z-boson is established. Spin structure of vector and axial parts of neutral hadron currrent for the Z+d→p+n reaction is determined. It is shown that threshold amplitude of the Z+d→p+n reaction in the general case is characterized by five vector and five axial formfactors

  19. Measurement of sin2θw and ϱ in deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutens, P. G.; Merritt, F. S.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Messner, R. L.; Novikoff, D. B.; Purohit, M. V.; Blair, R. E.; Sciulli, F. J.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Fisk, H. E.; Fukushima, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Kondo, T.; Rapidis, P. A.; Yovanovitch, D. D.; Bodek, A.; Coleman, R. N.; Marsh, W. L.; Fackler, O. D.; Jenkins, K. A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe a high statistics measurement from deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering of the electroweak parameters ϱ and sin2θw, performed in the Fermilab narrow-band neutrino beam. Our measurement uses a radius-dependent cut in y = EH/Ev which reduces the systematic error in sin2θw, and incorporates electromagnetic and electroweak radiative corrections. In a renormalization scheme where sin2θw ≡ 1-m2W/m2Z, a value of sin2θw = 0.242+/-0.011+/-0.005 is obtained fixing ϱ = 1. If both sin2θw and ϱ are allowed to vary in a fit to our data, we measure ϱ = 0.991 +/- 0.025 +/- 0.009. Present address: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.

  20. Meeting the future of coherent neutrino scattering. A feasibility study for upcoming reactor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salathe, Marco; Rink, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Due to ongoing progress in detector development and background suppression techniques first evidence of neutrino coherent scattering seems reachable in future experiments. In recent years efforts have been enhanced to detect this effect with germanium detectors. This work aims at summarizing and improving past studies on the potential of an experiment at a reactor site to a new level of accuracy by using the most recent neutrino spectra, knowledge gained in recent detector developments and in contrast to prior studies an energy-dependent quenching factor. The influence of the main parameters (background suppression, detector resolution and threshold, reactor spectra, different isotopes) of a germanium detector experiment is presented and the sensitivities regarding the main reaction channels are calculated. The results were obtained through two independent methods; an algebraic computation and a numerical simulation. Both methods reveal the most important experimental parameters and clarify the state of the art challenges that research has to meet in such an experiment.

  1. Diffusive scattering of electrons by electron holes around injection fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, I. Y.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F. S.; Artemyev, A. V.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Bonnell, J. W.

    2017-03-01

    Van Allen Probes have detected nonlinear electrostatic spikes around injection fronts in the outer radiation belt. These spikes include electron holes (EH), double layers, and more complicated solitary waves. We show that EHs can efficiently scatter electrons due to their substantial transverse electric fields. Although the electron scattering driven by EHs is diffusive, it cannot be evaluated via the standard quasi-linear theory. We derive analytical formulas describing local electron scattering by a single EH and verify them via test particle simulations. We show that the most efficiently scattered are gyroresonant electrons (crossing EH on a time scale comparable to the local electron gyroperiod). We compute bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients and demonstrate their dependence on the EH spatial distribution (latitudinal extent and spatial filling factor) and individual EH parameters (amplitude of electrostatic potential, velocity, and spatial scales). We show that EHs can drive pitch angle scattering of ≲5 keV electrons at rates 10-2-10-4 s-1 and, hence, can contribute to electron losses and conjugated diffuse aurora brightenings. The momentum and pitch angle scattering rates can be comparable, so that EHs can also provide efficient electron heating. The scattering rates driven by EHs at L shells L ˜ 5-8 are comparable to those due to chorus waves and may exceed those due to electron cyclotron harmonics.

  2. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, AEL; Iachello, F; Rinat, A; Creswell, C

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 ÷ states inthe transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed

  3. 3He electron scattering sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.E.; Tornow, V.

    1982-01-01

    Electron scattering sum rules for 3 He are derived with a realistic ground-state wave function. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally measured integrated cross sections. (author)

  4. Proposal to perform a high - statisics neutrino scattering experiment using a fine - grained detector in the NuMI Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, J.G.; /Fermilab; McFarland, K.; /Rochester U.

    2003-12-01

    The NuMI facility at Fermilab will provide an extremely intense beam of neutrinos for the MINOS neutrino-oscillation experiment. The spacious and fully-outfitted MINOS near detector hall will be the ideal venue for a high-statistics, high-resolution {nu} and {bar {nu}}-nucleon/nucleus scattering experiment. The experiment described here will measure neutrino cross-sections and probe nuclear effects essential to present and future neutrino-oscillation experiments. Moreover, with the high NuMI beam intensity, the experiment will either initially address or significantly improve our knowledge of a wide variety of neutrino physics topics of interest and importance to the elementary-particle and nuclear-physics communities.

  5. Study of the mass of the electron neutrino in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro; Maezawa, Hideki

    1996-02-01

    This report describes a study of the mass of the electron neutrino using electron capture in 163 Ho in Japan for the period from 1981 to 1994. This monograph has two purposes, one is to supplement the papers on the mass of the electron neutrino already published by us and another is to make a record on some details of our experiments for future. Electron capture in a nucleus takes place in a rather small space inside an atom, where atomic physics, nuclear physics and particle physics work closely together. Therefore, this study needed an intimate collaboration of atomic physicists, nuclear physicists and particle physicists. In addition, it was necessary for this study to use various fine techniques, including metallurgy, production of 163 Ho activity, micro-analysis by wet chemistry, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, undulator radiation source technology, the soft X-ray monochromator technology, a counting technique for very intense soft X-rays and so on. As a result, our collaboration consisted of many researchers from various fields as follows; M. Ando, H. Arai, M. Fujioka, N. Hashimoto, H. Ikeda, Y. Inagaki, K. Ishii, K. Itoh, G. Izawa, O. Kawakami, S. Kishimoto, H. Kitamura, H. Maezawa, M. Maruyama, A. Masuda, K. Masumoto, A. Mikuni, T. Mizogawa, T. Mukoyama, F. Ochiai, T. Ohta, T. Omori, G. Rajasekaran, K. Sera, K. Shima, T. Shinozuka, P.M. Stefan, I. Sugai, H. Taketani, M. Yagi, and S. Yasumi. Without such an excellent collaboration, this study would not have been completed. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor T. Sasaki for supporting this study and recommending the undulator beam line of 2.5 GeV Photon Factory Storage Ring as a light source to be used in the experiment. We also would like to thank Dr. A. Yagishita and Dr. Y. Kitajima who are responsible for the BL-2 beamline. Finally we are grateful to Ms. M. Noji for her patient typewriting of manuscripts written by hand. (author)

  6. Deep inelastic lepton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtmann, O.

    1977-01-01

    Deep inelastic electron (muon) nucleon and neutrino nucleon scattering as well as electron positron annihilation into hadrons are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. The emphasis is placed on comparisons of quantum chromodynamics with the data. (orig.) [de

  7. Detecting electron neutrinos from solar dark matter annihilation by JUNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wan-Lei

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electron neutrino signals from light dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Sun for the large liquid scintillator detector JUNO. In terms of the spectrum features of three typical DM annihilation channels χχ → νν-bar , τ + τ − , b b-bar , we take two sets of selection conditions to calculate the expected signals and atmospheric neutrino backgrounds based on the Monte Carlo simulation data. Then the JUNO sensitivities to the spin independent DM-nucleon and spin dependent DM-proton cross sections are presented. It is found that the JUNO projected sensitivities are much better than the current spin dependent direct detection experimental limits for the νν-bar and τ + τ − channels. In the spin independent case, the JUNO will give the better sensitivity to the DM-nucleon cross section than the LUX and CDMSlite limits for the νν-bar channel with the DM mass lighter than 6.5 GeV . If the νν-bar or τ + τ − channel is dominant, the future JUNO results are very helpful for us to understand the tension between the DAMA annual modulation signal and other direct detection exclusions

  8. 35 years of electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Historical aspects of electron reaction physics are presented. The presently understood picture of nuclear structure and the electron-nucleus interactions are discussed within the framework of the standard model

  9. Effect of the strange axial form factor on structure functions for neutral current neutrino scattering in the quasielastic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungsik

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of the strange axial form factor on various structure functions for the neutral reaction of neutrino-nucleus scattering in the quasielastic region within the framework of a relativistic single particle model. We use 12 C as the target nucleus, and the incident neutrino energy range is between 150 MeV and 1.5 GeV. The structure functions are extracted at a fixed three momentum transfer and energy transfer by using the intrinsic helicity of neutrino. While the effect of the strange axial form factor is very small, the effect on various structure functions is exhibited explicitly.

  10. Charge coupled devices for detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Moroni, Guillermo; Estrada, Juan; Paolini, Eduardo E.; Cancelo, Gustavo; Tiffenberg, Javier; Molina, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    In this article the feasibility of using charge coupled devices (CCD) to detect low-energy neutrinos through their coherent scattering with nuclei is analyzed. The detection of neutrinos through this standard model process has been elusive because of the small energy deposited in such interaction. Typical particle detectors have thresholds of a few keV, and most of the energy deposition expected from coherent scattering is well below this level. The CCD detectors discussed in this paper can operate at a threshold of approximately 30 eV, making them ideal for observing this signal. On a CCD array of 500 g located next to a power nuclear reactor the number of coherent scattering events expected is about 3000 events/year. Our results shows that a detection with a confidence level of 99% can be reached within 16 days of continuous operation; with the current 52 g detector prototype this time lapse extends to five months.

  11. Effective exchange potentials for electronically inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, D.W.; Staszewska, G.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    We propose new methods for solving the electron scattering close coupling equations employing equivalent local exchange potentials in place of the continuum-multiconfiguration-Hartree--Fock-type exchange kernels. The local exchange potentials are Hermitian. They have the correct symmetry for any symmetries of excited electronic states included in the close coupling expansion, and they have the same limit at very high energy as previously employed exchange potentials. Comparison of numerical calculations employing the new exchange potentials with the results obtained with the standard nonlocal exchange kernels shows that the new exchange potentials are more accurate than the local exchange approximations previously available for electronically inelastic scattering. We anticipate that the new approximations will be most useful for intermediate-energy electronically inelastic electron--molecule scattering

  12. Shell-model computed cross sections for charged-current scattering of astrophysical neutrinos off 40Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostensalo, Joel; Suhonen, Jouni; Zuber, K.

    2018-03-01

    Charged-current (anti)neutrino-40Ar cross sections for astrophysical neutrinos have been calculated. The initial and final nuclear states were calculated using the nuclear shell model. The folded solar-neutrino scattering cross section was found to be 1.78 (23 ) ×10-42cm2 , which is higher than what the previous papers have reported. The contributions from the 1- and 2- multipoles were found to be significant at supernova-neutrino energies, confirming the random-phase approximation (RPA) result of a previous study. The effects of neutrino flavor conversions in dense stellar matter (matter oscillations) were found to enhance the neutrino-scattering cross sections significantly for both the normal and inverted mass hierarchies. For the antineutrino scattering, only a small difference between the nonoscillating and inverted-hierarchy cross sections was found, while the normal-hierarchy cross section was 2-3 times larger than that of the nonoscillating cross section, depending on the adopted parametrization of the Fermi-Dirac distribution. This property of the supernova-antineutrino signal could probably be used to distinguish between the two hierarchies in megaton LAr detectors.

  13. Phenomenology of the neutral weak current in elastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochard, G.M.; Ichola, A.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this study is to check if we can construct the neutral weak current Jsub(μ)sup(nucleonc) of nucleons from ''known'' phenomenological currents, namely electromagnetic Vsub(μ)sup((deg)), Vsub(μ)sup((3)) and charged weak Vsub(μ)sup((+)), Vsub(μ)sup((-)). It will be seen that a neutral weak current, built with these pieces, is valid with respect to the experimental data on elastic neutrino-nucleon scattering through neutral current. The use of these data is interesting in the sense that we can avoid the uncertainties of the quark parton model and the gauge theories prejudices

  14. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O' Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  15. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. B?hler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  16. QCD Precision Measurements and Structure Function Extraction at a High Statistics, High Energy Neutrino Scattering Experiment: NuSOnG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; )

    2009-01-01

    We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics

  17. Study of electron anti-neutrinos associated with gamma-ray bursts using KamLAND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asakura, A.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B.D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T.I.; Berger, B.E.; Fujikawa, B.K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J.G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L.A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H.J.; Markoff, D.M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J.A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos (-Ve) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the

  18. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  19. Pygmy resonances probed with electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Pygmy resonances in light nuclei excited in electron scattering are discussed. These collective modes will be explored in future electron-ion colliders such as ELISe/FAIR (spokesperson: Haik Simon - GSI). Response functions for direct breakup are explored with few-body and hydrodynamical models, including the dependence upon final state interactions

  20. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  1. Nonelastic electron scattering in mercury telluride

    CERN Document Server

    Malik, O P

    2002-01-01

    By exact solution of the Boltzmann equation, the nonequilibrium charge carrier distribution function is obtained. In the temperature range 4.2 - 300 K, main electron scattering mechanisms are considered by taking into account the nonelastic electron interaction with optical vibrations of the crystal lattice.

  2. Study of the appearance of oscillating electron neutrinos issued from muon neutrino beam in the K2K experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyriades, J.

    2006-05-01

    The work presented in this thesis has been done in the K2K experiment. His principle consists in the use of a beam of muon neutrinos, which flux has been measured at short and long distances. Those data enable us to study the effects of neutrino oscillation, particularly by measuring ν μ disappearance. Although this is not an appearance experiment, electronic neutrinos oscillation has been searched. In spite of no signal of appearance, this study enables to constrain oscillation parameters (Δm 23 2 , sin 2 2θ 13 ). With one event for 1,07 expected event from background, the exclusion area edges are close to the best actual limits, provided by Chooz experiment. By setting Δm 23 2 .= 2,8.10 -3 eV 2 , a limit at 90% confident level is reached: sin 2 2θ 13 < 0,2. (author)

  3. Electron Raman scattering in quantum well wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiangfu; Liu Cuihong

    2007-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a semiconductor quantum well wire (QWW) of cylindrical geometry for T=0K and neglecting phonon-assisted transitions. The differential cross-section (DCS) involved in this process is calculated as a function of a scattering frequency and the cylindrical radius. Electron states are confined within a QWW. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed. The selection rules are studied. Singularities in the spectra are interpreted for various cylindrical radii. ERS discussed here can provide direct information about the electron band structure of the system

  4. Electron scattering by trapped fermionic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun; Jhe, Wonho

    2002-01-01

    Considering the Fermi gases of alkali-metal atoms that are trapped in a harmonic potential, we study theoretically the elastic and inelastic scattering of the electrons by the trapped Fermi atoms and present the corresponding differential cross sections. We also obtain the stopping power for the cases that the electronic state as well as the center-of-mass state are excited both separately and simultaneously. It is shown that the elastic scattering process is no longer coherent in contrast to the electron scattering by the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). For the inelastic scattering process, on the other hand, the differential cross section is found to be proportional to the 2/3 power of the number of the trapped atoms. In particular, the trapped fermionic atoms display the effect of ''Fermi surface,'' that is, only the energy levels near the Fermi energy have dominant contributions to the scattering process. Moreover, it is found that the stopping power scales as the 7/6 power of the atomic number. These results are fundamentally different from those of the electron scattering by the atomic BEC, mainly due to the different statistics obeyed by the trapped atomic systems

  5. Neutrino masses and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogli, G.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the solar neutrino problem in terms of both Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) and vacuum neutrino oscillations, with the inclusion of the data collected by the SuperKamiokande experiment during 306.3 days of operation. In particular, the observed energy spectrum of the recoil electrons from 8 B neutrino scattering is discussed in detail and used to constrain the mass-mixing parameter space. Going to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, the paper performs both a two- and three-flavor analysis of the most recent SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The variations of the zenith distributions of ν events in the presence of flavor oscillations are investigated. It is seen that fits to the SK data, with and without the addition of the CHOOZ constrains, strongly limit the parameter space. Detailed bounds in triangle graphs are reported

  6. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti)neutrino scattering in he NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (v μ n→μ - p and v-bar μ p→μ + n using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross-section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly Carbon) normalizing it to the total v μ (v-bar μ ) charged current cross-section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross-sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are qel >v μ = (0.92±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 and qel >v-bar μ = (0.81±0.05(stat)±0.09(syst))x10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter MA was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross-section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross-section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of v μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. Our measured MA is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. The NOMAD measurement of M A is lower than those recently published by K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations. However, within the large errors quoted by these experiments on M A , these results are compatible with the more precise NOMAD value.

  7. A study of quasi-elastic muon (anti) neutrino scattering in the NOMAD experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubushkin, V.V.; Popov, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the muon neutrino and antineutrino-quasi-elastic (QEL) scattering reactions (ν μ n → μ - p and νbar μ p → μ + n) using a set of experimental data collected by the NOMAD collaboration. We have performed measurements of the cross section of these processes on a nuclear target (mainly carbon) normalizing it to the total ν μ (νbar μ ) charged current cross section. The results for the flux averaged QEL cross sections in the (anti)neutrino energy interval 3-100 GeV are (σ qel )ν μ = (0.92 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 and (σ qel )νbar μ = (0.81 ± 0.05 (stat.) ± 0.08 (syst.)) · 10 -38 cm 2 for neutrino and antineutrino, respectively. The axial mass parameter M A was extracted from the measured quasi-elastic neutrino cross section. The corresponding result is M A = 1.05 ± 0.02 (stat.) ± 0.06 (syst.) GeV. It is consistent with the axial mass values recalculated from the antineutrino cross section and extracted from the pure Q 2 shape analysis of the high purity sample of ν μ quasi-elastic 2-track events, but has smaller systematic error and should be quoted as the main result of this work. The measured M A is found to be in good agreement with the world average value obtained in the previous deuterium filled bubble chamber experiments. These results do not support M A measurements published recently by the K2K and MiniBooNE collaborations, which reported somewhat larger values, which are however compatible with our results within their large errors

  8. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, G; Forte, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We summarize the next-to-leading order treatment of charged-current polarized structure functions, their relation to polarized parton distributions and scale dependence, and discuss their description by means of a next-to-leading order evolution code. We discuss current theoretical expectations and positivity constraints on the unmeasured C-odd combinations Delta q-Delta qbar of polarized quark distributions, and their determination in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We give estimates of the expected errors on charged-current structure functions at a future neutrino factory, and perform a study of the accuracy in the determination of polarized parton distributions that would be possible at such a facility. We show that these measurements have the potential to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure.

  9. Polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering and future neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, Stefano; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the determination of polarized parton distributions from charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We summarize the next-to-leading-order treatment of charged-current polarized structure functions, their relation to polarized parton distributions and scale dependence, and discuss their description by means of a next-to-leading-order evolution code. We discuss current theoretical expectations and positivity constraints on the unmeasured C-odd combinations Δq-Δq-bar of polarized quark distributions, and their determination in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering experiments. We give estimates of the expected errors on charged-current structure functions at a future neutrino factory, and perform a study of the accuracy in the determination of polarized parton distributions that would be possible at such a facility. We show that these measurements have the potential to distinguish between different theoretical scenarios for the proton spin structure

  10. Measurement of electron neutrino appearance with the MINOS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Joshua Adam Alpern

    2009-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. By measuring the neutrino interactions in a detector near the neutrino source and again 735 km away from the production site, it is possible to probe the parameters governing neutrino oscillation. The majority of the ν μ oscillate to ν τ but a small fraction may oscillate instead to ν e . This thesis presents a measurement of the ν e appearance rate in the MINOS far detector using the first two years of exposure. Methods for constraining the far detector backgrounds using the near detector measurements is discussed and a technique for estimating the uncertainty on the background and signal selection are developed. A 1.6σ excess over the expected background rate is found providing a hint of ν e appearance.

  11. Deep inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1975-07-01

    From the review of deep inelastic electron and muon scattering it is concluded that the puzzle of deep inelastic scattering versus annihilation was replaced with the challenge of the new particles, that the evidence for the simplest quark-algebra models of deep inelastic processes is weaker than a year ago. Definite evidence of scale breaking was found but the specific form of that scale breaking is difficult to extract from the data. 59 references

  12. Inclusive observables and hard gluon emission in neutrino deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchiat, C.; Meyer, P.; Mezard, M.

    1980-01-01

    We derive the predictions of perturbative QCD together with non-perturbative corrections for a set of inclusive observables connected with the angular distribution of light-cone energy in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. Our particular choice of observables has been made in order to meet important physical requirements besides the necessary condition of infrared regularity. Our inclusive observables receive their dominant contribution from the quark fragmentation region. The non-perturbative contribution is calculable in a rather model-independent way and stays at an acceptable level in realistic experimental conditions. The QCD perturbative contribution, which takes the simple form of a convolution product, exhibits a strongly decreasing behaviour as a function of the Bjorken scaling variable x, superimposed on a constant background associated with the non-perturbative terms, allowing a rather clean separation of the two effects. The perturbative term being dominated by the process of hard-gluon emission, an experimental investigation of the observables discussed here may be a good way to detect the effect of gluon emission in deep inelastic neutrino scattering. (orig.)

  13. Electron Scattering From Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Colm T

    2005-01-01

    Topics that are covered include electron scattering in the scanning TEM; basic theory of inelastic electron imaging; study of confined atoms by electron excitation; helium bubbles created in extreme pressure with application to nuclear safety; lithium ion implantation; electron and positron scattering from clusters; electron scattering from physi- and chemi-absorbed molecules on surfaces; coincidence studies; electron scattering from biological molecules; electron spectroscopy as a tool for environmental science; electron scattering in the presence of intense fields; electron scattering from astrophysical molecules; electon interatctions an detection of x-ray radiation.

  14. Study of the mass of the electron neutrino in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro; Maezawa, Hideki [eds.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes a study of the mass of the electron neutrino using electron capture in {sup 163}Ho in Japan for the period from 1981 to 1994. This monograph has two purposes, one is to supplement the papers on the mass of the electron neutrino already published by us and another is to make a record on some details of our experiments for future. Electron capture in a nucleus takes place in a rather small space inside an atom, where atomic physics, nuclear physics and particle physics work closely together. Therefore, this study needed an intimate collaboration of atomic physicists, nuclear physicists and particle physicists. In addition, it was necessary for this study to use various fine techniques, including metallurgy, production of {sup 163}Ho activity, micro-analysis by wet chemistry, isotope-dilution mass spectrometry, undulator radiation source technology, the soft X-ray monochromator technology, a counting technique for very intense soft X-rays and so on. As a result, our collaboration consisted of many researchers from various fields as follows; M. Ando, H. Arai, M. Fujioka, N. Hashimoto, H. Ikeda, Y. Inagaki, K. Ishii, K. Itoh, G. Izawa, O. Kawakami, S. Kishimoto, H. Kitamura, H. Maezawa, M. Maruyama, A. Masuda, K. Masumoto, A. Mikuni, T. Mizogawa, T. Mukoyama, F. Ochiai, T. Ohta, T. Omori, G. Rajasekaran, K. Sera, K. Shima, T. Shinozuka, P.M. Stefan, I. Sugai, H. Taketani, M. Yagi, and S. Yasumi. Without such an excellent collaboration, this study would not have been completed. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Professor T. Sasaki for supporting this study and recommending the undulator beam line of 2.5 GeV Photon Factory Storage Ring as a light source to be used in the experiment. We also would like to thank Dr. A. Yagishita and Dr. Y. Kitajima who are responsible for the BL-2 beamline. Finally we are grateful to Ms. M. Noji for her patient typewriting of manuscripts written by hand. (author).

  15. Modern topics in electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Frois, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This book summarizes the considerable progress recently achieved in the understanding of nucleon and nuclear structure by using high energy electrons as a probe. A collection of papers discusses in detail the new frontiers of this field. Experimental and theoretical articles cover topics such as the structure of the nucleon, nucleon distributions, many-body correlations, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom and few-body systems. This book is an up-to-date introduction to the research planned with continuous beam electron accelerators.

  16. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  17. Demonstration of Key Elements of a Dual Phase Argon Detection System Suitable for Measurement of Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, B; Celeste, W; Christian, H; Wolfgang, S; Norman, M

    2007-01-01

    This feasibility study sought to demonstrate several necessary steps in a research program whose ultimate goal is to detect coherent scattering of reactor antineutrinos in dual-phase noble liquid detectors. By constructing and operating a Argon gas-phase drift and scintillation test-bed, the study confirmed important expectations about sensitivity of these detectors, and thereby met the goals set forth in our original proposal. This work has resulted in a successful Lab-Wide LDRD for design and deployment of a coherent scatter detector at a nuclear reactor, and strong interest by DOE Office of Science. In recent years, researchers at LLNL and elsewhere have converged on a design approach for a new generation of very low noise, low background particle detectors known as two-phase noble liquid/noble gas ionization detectors. This versatile class of detector can be used to detect coherent neutrino scattering-an as yet unmeasured prediction of the Standard Model of particle physics. Using the dual phase technology, our group would be the first to verify the existence of this process. Its (non)detection would (refute)validate central tenets of the Standard Model. The existence of this process is also important in astrophysics, where coherent neutrino scattering is assumed to play an important role in energy transport within nascent neutron stars. The potential scientific impact after discovery of coherent neutrino-nuclear scattering is large. This phenomenon is flavor-blind (equal cross-sections of interaction for all three neutrino types), raising the possibility that coherent scatter detectors could be used as total flux monitors in future neutrino oscillation experiments. Such a detector could also be used to measure the flavor-blind neutrino spectrum from the next nearby (d ∼ 10kpc) type Ia supernova explosion. The predicted number of events [integrated over explosion time] for a proposed dual-phase argon coherent neutrino scattering detector is 10000 nuclear

  18. Electron scattering and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolynec, E.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the historical development and the theory necessary to the interpretation of the experimental results is made. Some measurement techniques, experimental results and the technique of analysis of these data are presented. Future perspectives, due to the appearence of continous electron current accelerators, in this field of study are discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  19. Inelastic electron scattering from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, S.Y.; Mills, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains highlights of accomplishments of the past year, for the University of California, Irvine and the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee collaboration on surface excitations, and their interactions with low energy electrons. In addition, we present a summary of future research to be carried out in the coming grant year

  20. Dynamic properties of electrons in solids by neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1980-12-01

    Illustrative cases of the use of neutron scattering in the study of the electronic properties of materials discussed here include scattering by localised electrons, narrow band materials and electron plasmas. (U.K.)

  1. Electron scattering in the interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.; Iachello, F.; Creswell, C.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the interacting boson model be used in the analysis of electron scattering data. Qualitative features of the expected behavior of the inelastic excitation of some 2 + states in the transitional Sm-Nd region are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Electron scattering and reactions from exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karataglidis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The SCRIT and FAIR/ELISe experiments are the first to attempt to measure directly electron scattering form factors from nuclei far from stability. This will give direct information for the (one-body) charge densities of those systems, about which there is little information available. The SCRIT experiment will be taking data for medium-mass exotic nuclei, while the electron-ion collider at ELISe, when constructed, will be able to measure form factors for a wide range of exotic nuclei, as available from the radioactive ion beams produced by the FAIR experiment. Other facilities are now being proposed, which will also consider electron scattering from exotic nuclei at higher energies, to study short-range correlations in exclusive reactions. This review will consider all available information concerning the current status (largely theoretical) of electron scattering from exotic nuclei and, where possible, complement such information with equivalent information concerning the neutron densities of those exotic systems, as obtained from intermediate energy proton scattering. The issue of long- and short-range correlations will be discussed, and whether extending such studies to the exotic sector will elicit new information. (orig.)

  3. Elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1979-05-01

    A review is given of elastic electron scattering at large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Recent experimental results are reviewed and the current problems in interpretation of these results are pointed out. Some questions for future experiments are posed, and a preview of possible future measurements is presented. 28 references

  4. Elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of experiments in the field of elastic and inelastic electron and muon scattering is discussed. The talk is divided into discussions of the single arm inclusive experiments at SLAC and Fermilab; the multiparticle inclusive experiments at SLAC, Fermilab und Cornell, and a description of selected results from exclusive channel measurements on electroproduced final states. (orig.) [de

  5. Electron scattering and reactions from exotic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglidis, S. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Physics, Auckland Park (South Africa); University of Melbourne, School of Physics, Victoria (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    The SCRIT and FAIR/ELISe experiments are the first to attempt to measure directly electron scattering form factors from nuclei far from stability. This will give direct information for the (one-body) charge densities of those systems, about which there is little information available. The SCRIT experiment will be taking data for medium-mass exotic nuclei, while the electron-ion collider at ELISe, when constructed, will be able to measure form factors for a wide range of exotic nuclei, as available from the radioactive ion beams produced by the FAIR experiment. Other facilities are now being proposed, which will also consider electron scattering from exotic nuclei at higher energies, to study short-range correlations in exclusive reactions. This review will consider all available information concerning the current status (largely theoretical) of electron scattering from exotic nuclei and, where possible, complement such information with equivalent information concerning the neutron densities of those exotic systems, as obtained from intermediate energy proton scattering. The issue of long- and short-range correlations will be discussed, and whether extending such studies to the exotic sector will elicit new information. (orig.)

  6. Supernova neutrino detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Neutrinos emitted during a supernova core collapse represent a unique feature to study both stellar and neutrino properties. After discussing the details of the neutrino emission in the star and the effect of neutrino oscillations on the expected neutrino fluxes at Earth, a review of the detection techniques is presented in this paper, with particular attention to the problem of electron neutrino detection

  7. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Shul'ga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  8. Scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons in ultrathin crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul' ga, N.F., E-mail: shulga@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine); Shulga, S.N. [National Science Center “Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology”, 1, Akademichna str., Kharkiv, 61108 (Ukraine); Karazin Kharkiv National University, 4, Svobody sq., Kharkiv, 61000 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-10

    Quantum theory is proposed of high energy electrons scattering in ultrathin crystals. This theory is based upon a special representation of the scattering amplitude in the form of an integral over the surface surrounding the crystal, and on the spectral method of determination of the wave function. The comparison is performed of quantum and classical differential scattering cross-sections in the transitional range of crystal thicknesses, from those at which the channeling phenomenon is not developed up to those at which it is established. It is shown that in this thickness range the quantum scattering cross-section, unlike the classical one, contains sharp peaks corresponding to some specific scattering angles, that is connected with the diffraction of the incident plane wave onto the periodically distributed crystal atomic strings. It is shown that the value of the scattering cross-section in the peaks varies periodically with the change of the target thickness. We note that this must lead to a new interference effect in radiation that is connected with the rearrangement of incident wave packet in transitional area of crystal thicknesses.

  9. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a 0 ). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  10. Quasielastic electron scattering from 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Schmitt, W.M.; Osborn, M.; Deady, M.; Zimmerman, P.D.; Blatchley, C.C.; Seth, K.K.; Sarmiento, M.; Parker, B.; Jin, Y.; Wright, L.E.; Onley, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Differential cross sections for quasielastic electron scattering on 40 Ca have been measured at laboratory scattering angles of 45.5 degree, 90 degree, and 140 degree with bombarding energies ranging from 130 to 840 MeV. Transverse and longitudinal response functions have been extracted for momentum transfers from 300 to 500 MeV/c. Contrary to some previously reported results, the total observed longitudinal strength agrees with the relativistic Fermi gas prediction to within ±18%. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. An estimation of the structure function xF3 in neutrino-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Kenzaburo; Arimoto, Shinsuke; Hoshino, Shigetoshi; Itoh, Nobuhisa; Konno, Toshiharu.

    1981-01-01

    The structure function xF 3 (x, Q 2 ) in the deep-inelastic neutrino-proton scattering was estimated without differentiating with respect to Q 2 in the evolution function. At first, the moment of the non-singlet structure function xF 3 (x, Q 2 ) is defined. Then, the kernel function f(z, Q 2 ) is presented. Finally, the expression for the structure function xF 3 is given. The values of the structure function for various Q 2 are shown in five figures. A peak is seen in each figure, and the highest peak is at about Q 2 = 14GeV 2 . The analysis suggests very small value of xF 3 in small Q 2 region. The kernel function f(x/y, Q 2 ) may be interpreted as the probability of finding a quark of momentum fraction x arising from that of y is quantum chromodynamics. (Kato, T.)

  12. A Precision Measurement of sin$^{2}\\theta$$_{w}$ from Semileptonic Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wotschack, Jorg

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring the electroweak mixing parameter sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory $^{1}$ as precisely as possible: first, its value may be predicted by models of Grand Unification;$^{2}$ second, precise measurements of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ from different processes would test the validity of electroweak radiative corrections. $^{3,$}$. Different methods have been used to determine sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, over a large range of $Q^{2}$ values. FIGURE 1 gives a compilation of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ with remarkable agreement between the results. At present, it is most precisely determined in semileptonic neutrino-nucleon scattering from the ratio of neutral current (NC) to charged current (CC) cross and in proton-antiproton collisions from the W boson mass. $^{10,11}$.

  13. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  14. Low energy electron scattering from fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Cristina A.; Silva, Daniel G.M.; Coelho, Rafael F.; Duque, Humberto V.; Santos, Rodrigo R. dos; Ribeiro, Thiago M. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Yates, Brent; Hong, Ling; Khakoo, Murtadha A. [California State University at Fullerton, CA (US). Physics Department; Bettega, Marcio H.F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Costa, Romarly F. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Lima, Marco A.P. [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE/CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Accurate and precise values of absolute total cross section (TCS) represent important information in many scientific and technological applications. In our case, for example, we are motivated to provide such information for electron-fuel collision processes which are specifically relevant to modeling spark ignition in alcohol-fuelled internal combustion engines. Many electron scattering TCS measurements are presently available for a diverse range of atomic and molecular targets. However, lack of data for important bio-molecular targets still remains. Disagreements between the available TCS data for the alcohols have prompted several studies of electron scattering collision of slow electrons with these molecules which are currently important in applications as bio- fuels. This relevance, which has attracted much attention, has been one of the subjects of a recent collaboration between experimental and theoretical groups in the USA and Brazil. Recently this collaboration reported first measurements and calculations of differential cross sections for elastic low-energy (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering by several primary alcohols. In this work we address methanol and ethanol TCSs at low energy range and report additional studies of resonant structure in ethanol using the detection of metastable states produced by electron impact excitation with high energy resolution. We have recently constructed a TCS apparatus in our laboratory at Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil, based on the well-known linear transmission technique. The experimental setup is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the atoms or molecules to be studied at a given pressure. It consists essentially of an electron gun, a gas cell and an electron energy analyzer composed of an array of decelerating electrostatic lenses, a cylindrical dispersive 127o analyzer and a Faraday cup. To our knowledge, there exist

  15. Neutrino emission spectra of collapsing degenerate stellar cores - Calculations by the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Iu.L.; Sobol, I.M.; Khlopov, M.Iu.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The variation of the hard part of the neutrino emission spectra of collapsing degenerate stellar cores with matter having a small optical depth to neutrinos is analyzed. The interaction of neutrinos with the degenerate matter is determined by processes of neutrino scattering on nuclei (without a change in neutrino energy) and neutrino scattering on degenerate electrons, in which the neutrino energy can only decrease. The neutrino emission spectrum of a collapsing stellar core in the initial stage of the onset of opacity is calculated by the Monte Carlo method: using a central density of 10 trillion g/cu cm and, in the stage of deep collapse, for a central density of 60 trillion g/cu cm. In the latter case the calculation of the spectrum without allowance for effects of neutrino degeneration in the central part of the collapsing stellar core corresponds to the maximum possible suppression of the hard part of the neutrino emission spectrum

  16. Anti-neutrino imprint in solar neutrino flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.

    2006-10-01

    A future neutrino detector at megaton mass might enlarge the neutrino telescope thresholds revealing cosmic supernova background and largest solar flares (SFs) neutrinos. Indeed the solar energetic (Ep>100 MeV) flare particles (protons, α), while scattering among themselves on solar corona atmosphere must produce prompt charged pions, whose chain decays are source of a solar (electron muon) neutrino 'flare' (at tens or hundreds MeV energy). These brief (minutes) neutrino 'bursts' at largest flare peak may overcome by three to five orders of magnitude the steady atmospheric neutrino noise on the Earth, possibly leading to their detection above detection thresholds (in a full mixed three flavour state). Moreover the birth of anti-neutrinos at a few tens of MeV very clearly flares above a null thermal 'hep' anti-neutrino solar background and also above a tiny supernova relic and atmospheric noise. The largest prompt solar anti-neutrino 'burst' may be well detected in future Super Kamikande (gadolinium implemented) anti-neutrino \\bar\

  17. Measurement of electron neutrino appearance with the MINOS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Joshua Adam Alpern [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. By measuring the neutrino interactions in a detector near the neutrino source and again 735 km away from the production site, it is possible to probe the parameters governing neutrino oscillation. The majority of the vμ oscillate to vτ but a small fraction may oscillate instead to ve. This thesis presents a measurement of the ve appearance rate in the MINOS far detector using the first two years of exposure. Methods for constraining the far detector backgrounds using the near detector measurements is discussed and a technique for estimating the uncertainty on the background and signal selection are developed. A 1.6σ excess over the expected background rate is found providing a hint of ve appearance.

  18. Incoherent imaging using dynamically scattered coherent electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellist, P.D.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We use a Bloch wave approach to show that, even for coherent dynamical scattering from a stationary lattice with no absorption, annular dark-field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope gives a direct incoherent structure image of the atomic-column positions of a zone-axis-aligned crystal. Although many Bloch waves may be excited by the probe, the detector provides a filtering effect so that the 1s-type bound states are found to dominate the image contrast for typical experimental conditions. We also find that the column intensity is related to the transverse kinetic energy of the 1s states, which gives atomic number, Z, contrast. The additional effects of phonon scattering are discussed, in particular the reasons why phonon scattering is not a prerequisite for transverse incoherence. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Can the neutrino mass be measured using /sup 163/Ho electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The safest limit on the neutrino mass comes from allowing the interference amplitude to be a free parameter in a fit to Springer's inner bremsstrahlung data while fixing the Q value to its upper limit based on the results of the relative capture rates from F. Hartmann's data. Since /sup 163/Ho was the most promising electron capture candidate for a neutrino mass detector, it is unlikely that electron capture will ever compete with tritium beta decay in terms of sensitivity to neutrino mass. The best fundamental thing that can be said is that the limit of the difference in the mass of the neutrino and its anti-particle is smaller in absolute value than for any other fermion anti-fermion pair

  20. SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS OSCILLATIONS: SENSITIVITY TO THE ELECTRONIC DENSITY IN THE SUN'S CORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilidio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: sylvaine.turck-chieze@cea.fr [CEA/IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CE Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2013-03-01

    Solar neutrinos coming from different nuclear reactions are now detected with high statistics. Consequently, an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the neutrino fluxes arriving on Earth's detectors becomes available, in the context of neutrino oscillations. In this work, we explore the possibility of using this information to infer the radial profile of the electronic density in the solar core. So, we discuss the constraints on the Sun's density and chemical composition that can be determined from solar neutrino observations. This approach constitutes an independent and alternative diagnostic to the helioseismic investigations already done. The direct inversion method, which we propose to obtain the radial solar electronic density profile, is almost independent of the solar model.

  1. Electron scattering and collective excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutte, D.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear collective degrees of freedom are investigated through the study of the radial dependance of their wave function. Inelastic electron scattering is shown to be the appropriate tool to extract such a detailed information. Some recent results on spherical as well as deformed nuclei are discussed and the most recent extensions to the mean field approach are compared to these data in order to clarify the present status of our understanding of the dynamical properties of complex nuclei

  2. Effects of neutrino degeneracy and of downscatter on neutrino radiation from dense stellar cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenstadt, I.; Ron, A.; Sack, N.; Wagschal, J.J.; Bludman, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified model is presneted for several stages in the development of a neutronization shell in the inner core of a collapsing star. Neutrino degeneracy severely reduces neutrino emission and downscatter in energy, so that for all but the thinest shell sources, surface emission of an approximately Fermi-Dirac neutrino spectrum obtains. The Neutrino spectrum departs from exact Fermi-Dirac neutrino form only because of the outstreaming of low-energy neutrinos.Downscatter by electrons is helped by neutron scatterers present, but except for reducing the peak neutrino energy by about 30%, electrons play no dramatic part. The neutrino degeneracy inhibits downscatter so that the low-energy window in the Fermi-Dirac distribution leads to little neutrino loss.A simple equilibrium radiation picture emerges in which neutrinos are LTE thermally emitted in the neutronization shell and isotropically coherently scattered by neutrons and by nuclei on the way out of the overlying mantle. The Fermi statistics limit on neutrino flux is probably reached in practice, but is, in most cases, still insufficient for mantle blow-off

  3. Electronic isotope shifts, muonic atoms, and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of electronic isotope shift, muonic atom, and electron scattering experiments in studying the nuclear charge distribution are discussed in terms of the potentials of each probe. Barium isotope shift data are presented as an example of a combined muonic-optical analysis and the results are compared with droplet and IBA model predictions. A survey of muonic and (e,e) results is presented with emphasis on shell-structure related features

  4. Thermal diffuse scattering in transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, B.D.; D' Alfonso, A.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Findlay, S.D. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Van Dyck, D. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); LeBeau, J.M. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Stemmer, S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5050 (United States); Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    In conventional transmission electron microscopy, thermal scattering significantly affects the image contrast. It has been suggested that not accounting for this correctly is the main cause of the Stobbs factor, the ubiquitous, large contrast mismatch found between theory and experiment. In the case where a hard aperture is applied, we show that previous conclusions drawn from work using bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy and invoking the principle of reciprocity are reliable in the presence of thermal scattering. In the aperture-free case it has been suggested that even the most sophisticated mathematical models for thermal diffuse scattering lack in their numerical implementation, specifically that there may be issues in sampling, including that of the contrast transfer function of the objective lens. We show that these concerns can be satisfactorily overcome with modest computing resources; thermal scattering can be modelled accurately enough for the purpose of making quantitative comparison between simulation and experiment. Spatial incoherence of the source is also investigated. Neglect or inadequate handling of thermal scattering in simulation can have an appreciable effect on the predicted contrast and can be a significant contribution to the Stobbs factor problem. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the numerical requirements for accurate simulation of TDS in CTEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TDS can be simulated to high precision using the Born-Oppenheimer model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such calculations establish the contribution of TDS to the Stobbs factor problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treating spatial incoherence using envelope functions increases image contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rigorous treatment of spatial incoherence significantly reduces image contrast.

  5. Electron scattering cross sections pertinent to electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1978-01-01

    Some elements of the physics that determine cross sections are discussed, and various sources of data are indicated that should be useful for analytical microscopy. Atoms, molecules, and to some extent, solids are considered. Inelastic and elastic scattering of electrons and some solid-state effects are treated. 30 references

  6. Electron distortion effects in quasi-eleastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yanhe.

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics: dirac single particle shell model; dirac free states in Coulomb and optical potentials; deep inelastic electron scattering; plane wave born approximation and Rosenbluth separation; analysis of the 40 Ca(e,e') experimental data; and analysis of the exclusive (e,e'p) experimental data

  7. Coincidence (e,e'p) Scattering on 40Ar and 48Ti to Aid Precision Neutrino Oscillation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dan; E12-14-012 Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Neutrino oscillations are an active area of research, with experiments such as DUNE (Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment). DUNE will make use of large liquid argon detectors to perform a precision measurement of the CP violating phase. Hence, an understanding of the argon nuclear ground state and its response to (anti-)neutrino interactions is of paramount importance. Information about the nuclear ground state is encapsulated in the spectral function, S (k , E) , the joint probability of removing a nucleon of momentum k = |k | from the ground state leaving the residual (A-1) system with excitation energy E. E12-14-012 at Jefferson Lab ran in early 2017 and has measured the argon spectral function through coincidence (e ,e' p) scattering on 40Ar and 48Ti. The results of E12-14-012 are important to both the neutrino and nuclear physics communities. A direct measurement of the coincidence (e ,e' p) cross section from 40Ar and 48Ti will provide valuable information about the argon nucleus, as well as the experimental input necessary to constrain theoretical models used to calculate S (k , E) , paving the way for reliable estimates of the neutrino cross sections. Data from E12-14-012 is currently being analyzed at UVA and Va. Tech. Supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No: DE-FG02-96ER40950.

  8. Future of Electron Scattering and Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Ernest [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Stemmer, Susanne [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maracas, George [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2014-02-25

    The ability to correlate the atomic- and nanoscale-structure of condensed matter with physical properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, catalytic, and optical) and functionality forms the core of many disciplines. Directing and controlling materials at the quantum-, atomic-, and molecular-levels creates enormous challenges and opportunities across a wide spectrum of critical technologies, including those involving the generation and use of energy. The workshop identified next generation electron scattering and diffraction instruments that are uniquely positioned to address these grand challenges. The workshop participants identified four key areas where the next generation of such instrumentation would have major impact: A – Multidimensional Visualization of Real Materials B – Atomic-scale Molecular Processes C – Photonic Control of Emergence in Quantum Materials D – Evolving Interfaces, Nucleation, and Mass Transport Real materials are comprised of complex three-dimensional arrangements of atoms and defects that directly determine their potential for energy applications. Understanding real materials requires new capabilities for three-dimensional atomic scale tomography and spectroscopy of atomic and electronic structures with unprecedented sensitivity, and with simultaneous spatial and energy resolution. Many molecules are able to selectively and efficiently convert sunlight into other forms of energy, like heat and electric current, or store it in altered chemical bonds. Understanding and controlling such process at the atomic scale require unprecedented time resolution. One of the grand challenges in condensed matter physics is to understand, and ultimately control, emergent phenomena in novel quantum materials that necessitate developing a new generation of instruments that probe the interplay among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom with intrinsic time- and length-scale resolutions. Molecules and soft matter require imaging and

  9. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.

    2015-01-01

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies

  10. Electron scattering and transport in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville 4810 (Australia); McEachran, R. P. [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2015-04-21

    The transport of excess electrons in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the electron-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.

  11. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-01-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km 3 of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10 -8 E -2 GeVs -1 sr -1 cm -2 is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E -2 in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  12. Sensitivity of the IceCube detector for ultra-high energy electron neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Bernhard

    2008-07-16

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope currently under construction in the glacial ice at South Pole. At the moment half of the detector is installed, when completed it will instrument 1 km{sup 3} of ice providing a unique experimental setup to detect high energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. In this work the sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector for a diffuse electron-neutrino flux is analyzed, with a focus on energies above 1 PeV. Emphasis is put on the correct simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades from charged-current electron-neutrino interactions. Since existing parameterizations lack the description of suppression effects at high energies, a simulation of the energy deposit of electromagnetic cascades with energies above 1 PeV is developed, including cross sections which account for the LPM suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair creation. An attempt is made to reconstruct the direction of these elongated showers. The analysis presented here makes use of the full charge waveform recorded with the data acquisition system of the IceCube detector. It introduces new methods to discriminate efficiently between the background of atmospheric muons, including muon bundles, and cascade signal events from electron-neutrino interactions. Within one year of operation of the complete detector a sensitivity of 1.5.10{sup -8}E{sup -2} GeVs{sup -1}sr{sup -1}cm{sup -2} is reached, which is valid for a diffuse electron neutrino flux proportional to E{sup -2} in the energy range from 16 TeV to 13 PeV. Sensitivity is defined as the upper limit that could be set in absence of a signal at 90% confidence level. Including all neutrino flavors in this analysis, an improvement of at least one order of magnitude is expected, reaching the anticipated performance of a diffuse muon analysis. (orig.)

  13. Boson structure functions from inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    The even /sup 104-110/Pd isotopes and /sup 196/Pt have been investigated at NIKHEF-K by high-resolution inelastic electron scattering. A new IBA-2 calculation has been performed for the Pd isotopes, in which the ratio of the proton and neutron coupling constants is taken from pion scattering. One set of boson structure functions sufficed for the description of the first and second E2-excitations in all Pd isotopes. The data showed no sensitivity for different structure functions for proton and neutron bosons. A preliminary analysis of a number of negative parity states (3/sup -/,5/sup -/ and 7/sup -/), observed in /sup 196/Pt, was performed through the introduction of an f-boson. The first E4-excitation in the palladium isotopes can be reasonably described with a β-structure function, but all other E4-excitations require the introduction of g-boson admixtures

  14. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  15. A study of the interactions of high energy electron-neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuis, C.H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes an analysis of electron-neutrino and anti-neutrino interactions with nuclei. The data were collected with the calorimeter of the Amsterdam-CERN-Hamburg-Moscow-Rome (CHARM) group in a beam dump exposure to 400 GeV/c protons from the CERN SPS in 1982. The predictions of the Standard Model for the quantities measured in this experiment are given. The results of the analysis of events without a primary muon in the final state are given in the form of an experimental y-distribution. The measured quantities are compared with the predictions of the theory and the measurements of other experiments. Presented are the cross-section ratio of neutral current and charged current electron-neutrino induced events, the prompt CC ν(anti ν) e interaction rate, the prompt (ν e +anti ν e )/(ν μ +anti ν μ ) flux ratio, the energy dependence of the prompt electron-neutrino flux and a measurement of the DantiD cross-section times semileptonic branching ratio based on prompt electron-neutrino interactions. (Auth.)

  16. Electron--molecule scattering in momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, B.

    1979-01-01

    We examine the Fourier transform of the Schroedinger equation for electron--molecule scattering, treated as potential scattering from a multicenter distribution of charged fixed in space. When the angle theta between R,the internuclear vector of a diatomic target, and q, the momentum transfer, is held fixed during the collision, then the directions of incidence and scattering are fixed relative to R. The process is then described as having a dynamical dependence on the magnitude of q, q, from which the scattering angle is determined, and a parametric dependence on q's direction relative to R. This approximation is used routinely at high energies in the calculation of the Born amplitude. Fixed--nuclei coordinate--space studies suggest that this approximation can be extended to low energies, provided the amplitude is taken from the solution of the integral equation of momentum space rather than from its inhomogeneity, proportional to the Born amplitude. We constrain R to be in the same direction relative to q', a virtual momentum transfer belonging to the kernel, as it is to q.Calculations are performed for the e, H 2 scattering in the static approximation, and cross sections averaged over theta/sub R/ are shown to be in good agreement with cross sections calculated by use of coupled spherical and coupled spheroidal partial wave theories. The angular distribution in the static approximation is also calculated at an incident energy close to 7 eV, where exchange is relatively unimportant. This result is in reasonably good agreement with that of R matrix theory in the static--exchange approximation. The extension of the theory to treat exchange is formulated and discussed. Also its extension to treat more complicated molecular targets is discussed

  17. Precision electron-capture energy in {sup 202}Pb and its relevance for neutrino mass determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Filianin, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Althubiti, N.A.S. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Eliseev, S.; Kreim, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Cocolios, T.E. [The University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Leuven (Belgium); Herfurth, F.; Neidherr, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lunney, D. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Manea, V. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Novikov, Yu. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Physics Faculty, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Greifswald (Germany); Wolf, R.N. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); The University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, Sydney (Australia); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Within the framework of an extensive programme devoted to the search for alternative candidates for the neutrino mass determination, the atomic mass difference between {sup 202}Pb and {sup 202}Tl has been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The obtained value Q{sub EC} = 38.8(43) keV is three times more precise than the AME2012 value. While it will probably not lead to a replacement of {sup 163}Ho in modern experiments on the determination of the electron-neutrino mass, the electron capture in {sup 202}Pb would however allow a determination of the electron-neutrino mass on the few-eV level using a cryogenic micro-calorimeter. (orig.)

  18. Reaction rates for neutrino processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalitin, D.

    1978-01-01

    Some integrals involved in neutrino processes are evaluated by transformation to a special system of reference - usually to the center of mass system (CM). Rather simple analytic expressions are obtained for reaction rates and, though less simple, for moments. An interesting result thus obtained is for an isotropic interaction (in CM) of a neutrino with a monoenergetic isotropic gas of extreme relativistic electrons: it is found that the probability of the scattered neutrino to have energy in a certain range is independent of this energy. (Auth.)

  19. Advances in positron and electron scattering*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limão-Vieira, Paulo; García, Gustavo; Krishnakumar, E.; Petrović, Zoran; Sullivan, James; Tanuma, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    The topical issue on Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering" combines contributions from POSMOL 2015 together with others devoted to celebrate the unprecedented scientific careers of our loyal colleagues and trusted friends Steve Buckman (Australian National University, Australia) and Michael Allan (University of Fribourg, Switzerland) on the occasion of their retirements. POSMOL 2015, the XVIII International Workshop on Low-Energy Positron and Positronium Physics and the XIX International Symposium on Electron-Molecule Collisions and Swarms, was held at Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, from 17-20 July 2015. The international workshop and symposium allowed to achieve a very privileged forum of sharing and developing our scientific expertise on current aspects of positron, positronium and antiproton interactions with electrons, atoms, molecules and solid surfaces, and related topics, as well as electron interactions with molecules in both gaseous and condensed phases. Particular topics include studies of electron interactions with biomolecules, electron induced surface chemistry and the study of plasma processes. Recent developments in the study of swarms are also fully addressed.

  20. Observation of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the NuMI Beam with the NOvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niner, Evan David [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    NOvA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two functionally identical detectors separated by 810 kilometers at locations 14 milliradians off-axis from the NuMI muon neutrino beam at Fermilab. At these locations the beam energy peaks at 2 GeV. This baseline is the longest in the world for an accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment, which enhances the sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering. The experiment studies oscillations of the muon neutrino and anti-neutrino beam that is produced. Both detectors completed commissioning in the summer of 2014 and continue to collect data. One of the primary physics goals of the experiment is the measurement of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam which yields measurements of the oscillation parameters sin213, δ , and the neutrino mass ordering within the standard model of neutrino oscillations. This thesis presents the analysis of data collected between February 2014 and May 2015, corresponding to 3.52 X 1020 protons-on-target. In this first analysis NOvA recorded 6 electron neutrino candidates, which is a 3.3σ observation of electron neutrino appearance. The T2K experiment performs the same measurement on a baseline of 295 kilometers and has a 1 σ preference for the normal mass ordering over the inverted ordering over the phase space of the CP violating parameter δ, which is also weakly seen in the NOvA result. By the summer of 2016 NOvA will triple its statistics due to increased beam power and a completed detector. If electron neutrinos continue to be observed at the current rate NOvA will be able to establish a mass ordering preference at a similar confidence level to T2K.

  1. Electron scattering and few nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1983-08-01

    Recent result obtained by electron scattering in the few-nucleon systems (A 3 He charge and magnetic form factors are discussed. New theoretical results indicate that three body forces improve considerably the saturation properties of 3 He, 4 He and nuclear matter, but are not able to reconcile experiment and theory for the charge form factors of 3 He and 4 He. Calculations of meson exchange effects with different theoretical approaches bring the theory into reasonable agreement with the experimental charge and magnetic form factor fo 3 He. Recent results of the measurements of the two and three body break-up of 3 He are discussed

  2. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gien, T.E. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-11-28

    An analytic model potential for the e[sup -]-Rb[sup +] system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author).

  3. Model potential for electron scattering from rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gien, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic model potential for the e - -Rb + system is generated from experimental data, using an iteration method. The potential obtained can reproduce rather accurately the energy levels of rubidium. We employed it in the calculation of elastic differential cross sections for electron (and positron) scatterings from rubidium in the conventional Glauber approximation. The differential cross sections calculated in the model potential approach are compared to those in the frozen-core approach, employing either the Clementi-Roetti or the Szasz-McGinn wavefunctions. The core correlation and polarization effects are found to significantly affect the cross section results. (author)

  4. Charm-Quark Production in Deep-Inelastic Neutrino Scattering at Next-to-Next-to-Leading Order in QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Edmond L; Gao, Jun; Li, Chong Sheng; Liu, Ze Long; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2016-05-27

    We present a fully differential next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of charm-quark production in charged-current deep-inelastic scattering, with full charm-quark mass dependence. The next-to-next-to-leading order corrections in perturbative quantum chromodynamics are found to be comparable in size to the next-to-leading order corrections in certain kinematic regions. We compare our predictions with data on dimuon production in (anti)neutrino scattering from a heavy nucleus. Our results can be used to improve the extraction of the parton distribution function of a strange quark in the nucleon.

  5. Neutrino factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dydak, F.

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a window to what lies beyond the Standard Model. Many current and forthcoming experiments will answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino mixing matrix, will be offered by the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. These beams enable the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only moderate extrapolations from existing technologies. Although the main physics attraction of the neutrino factory is in the area of neutrino oscillations, an interesting spectrum of further opportunities ranging from high-precision, high-rate neutrino scattering to physics with high-intensity stopped muons comes with it

  6. Study of nuclei by electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Yoshiharu; Saito, Teijiro; Ito, Kohei; Terasawa, Tatsuo; Hosoyama, Kenji.

    1974-01-01

    It is urgently required to clarify the physical meaning of the quasi-elastic scattering associated with the background, in order to develop rapidly the study of giant resonance. The experimental works performed in the present term aimed at the synthetic understanding of both giant resonance and quasi-elastic scattering, and presented the possibility of the separability of giant resonance from quasi-elastic scattering. The object of this experiment was to measure higher order multi-pole moment of 51 V by using relatively high energy electron beam. Targets of chemically pure 51 V had thickness of 68.2 or 100.5 mg/cm 2 . The measurement was made at the position where scattering angle was 155 0 . The state of M7 can be well explained by the model with (fsub(7/2)) 3 coordination. This may be because the nuclei with stretched configuration such as 51 V do not have any contribution of orbital motion, but have the contribution of eigen magnetic moment to the highest multiplicity. States of M3 and M5 are a little complicated. Since in the experimental equipment used, the contribution of charge distribution was so large, that it was difficult to make the precision measurement of M3 and M5. In 51 V, however, it can be considered that M3 and M5 decreased by the contribution of 2Psub(3/2) and 1fsub(5/2). On the other hand, there is no contribution from these energy states to M7. (Tai, I.)

  7. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  8. Coherent scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos by quarks in a crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; Wilmot, G.

    1988-01-01

    An earlier paper presented the theory of a method for observation of neutrinos and antineutrinos. The method gives large cross sections. In this paper the theory is extended for a crystal with nuclei described by the modern theory of quarks. Results of experiments with a tritium antineutrino source, a nuclear reactor, and solar neutrinos are presented. Solar neutrinos lead to a positive result for the Eotvos experiment, for equal torsion balance masses composed of materials with different Debye temperatures

  9. Muon/electron separation for atmospheric neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.W.M.; Barr, G.D.; Brooks, C.B.; Cobb, J.H.; Kirby-Gallagher, L.M.; Giles, R.H.; Giller, G.L.; Perkins, D.H.; Shield, P.D.; Thomson, M.A.; West, N.; Alner, G.J.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Edwards, V.W.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Litchfield, P.J.; Pearce, G.F.; Woods, C.A.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Balka, L.; Barrett, W.L.; Dawson, J.W.; Fields, T.; Goodman, M.C.; Hill, N.; Jankowski, D.J.; Lopez, F.; May, E.N.; Price, L.E.; Schlereth, J.; Thron, J.L.; Uretsky, J.L.; Courant, H.; Dahlin, B.; Demuth, D.; Gray, R.; Heppelmann, S.; Johns, K.; Joyce, T.; Kasahara, S.; Longley, N.; Lowe, M.; Marshak, M.L.; Miller, W.H.; Minor, C.; Peterson, E.A.; Roback, D.; Rosen, D.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D.; Shupe, M.; Villaume, G.; Weems, L.; Werkema, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    A study has been made of the ability of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector to distinguish between showering and non-showering particles, utilizing several different pattern recognition techniques. This work has direct application in the determination of the ν μ /ν e ratio for atmospheric neutrino induced events. The results of the application of these techniques to Monte Carlo data and to calibration data from the ISIS test beam are presented

  10. Limiting Superluminal Electron and Neutrino Velocities Using the 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and the IceCube PeV Neutrino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of two PetaelectronVolt (PeV)-scale neutrino events reported by Ice Cube allows one to place constraints on Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in the neutrino sector. After first arguing that at least one of the PetaelectronVolt IceCube events was of extragalactic origin, I derive an upper limit for the difference between putative superluminal neutrino and electron velocities of less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19) in units where c = 1, confirming that the observed PetaelectronVolt neutrinos could have reached Earth from extragalactic sources. I further derive a new constraint on the superluminal electron velocity, obtained from the observation of synchrotron radiation from the Crab Nebula flare of September, 2010. The inference that the greater than 1 GigaelectronVolt gamma-rays from synchrotron emission in the flare were produced by electrons of energy up to approx. 5.1 PetaelectronVolt indicates the nonoccurrence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation by these electrons. This implies a new, strong constraint on superluminal electron velocities delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 5 x 10(exp -21). It immediately follows that one then obtains an upper limit on the superluminal neutrino velocity alone of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 5.6 x 10(exp -19), many orders of magnitude better than the time-of-flight constraint from the SN1987A neutrino burst. However, if the electrons are subluminal the constraint on the absolute value of delta(sub e) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17), obtained from the Crab Nebula gamma-ray spectrum, places a weaker constraint on superluminal neutrino velocity of delta(sub v) less than or equal to approximately 8 x 10(exp -17).

  11. Neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We consider oscillations of neutrinos under conditions in which the neutrino density is sufficiently large that neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot be neglected. A formalism is developed to treat this highly nonlinear system. Numerical analysis reveals a rich array of phenomena. In certain gases, a self-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect occurs in which electron neutrinos are resonantly converted into muon neutrinos. In another relatively low-density gas, an unexpected parametric resonant conversion takes place. Finally, neutrino-neutrino interactions maintain coherence in one system for which a priori one expected decoherence

  12. The use of rotons in liquid helium to detect neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; Seidel, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for measuring calorimetrically the energy spectrum of recoil electrons from the elastic scattering of neutrinos is discussed. The method involves the use of superfluid helium at low temperatures

  13. Implications of new GALLEX results for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution of the solar neutrino problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Kwong, Waikwok; Rosen, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    We compare the implications for Be-7 and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of two. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed.

  14. Implications of new GALLEX results for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution of the solar neutrino problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelb, J.M.; Kwong, W.; Rosen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    We compare the implications for 7 Be and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of 2. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed

  15. Electron-electron scattering in the Weinberg-Salam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Hideharu

    1988-01-01

    The Weinberg theory is generally believed to have been established in recent years. At distances smaller than 10 -16 cm, the strength of weak interactions becomes almost equal to that of the electromagnetic interactions. The grand unified theories proposed so far are based on the idea that the coupling constants for the Abelian U(1) field, the non-Abelian SU(2) field and the non-Abelian SU(3) color field depend on momentum transfer, or distance. At distances smaller than 10 -29 cm, weak electromagnetic and strong interactions are assumed to become almost the same strength. The question here is whether nature has no new features in the vast range from 10 -16 cm (10 2 GeV) to 10 -29 cm (10 15 GeV) and whether the substructure of quark or lepton can be expected to be revealed at the next accelerator energy region. The Weinberger-Salam theory may lose its validity even in near future experiments. In any case, it must be overhauled from various aspects. From this point of view, by using the Weinberger-Salam theory, calculation of the differential cross section for elastic electron-electron scattering is re-examined to make clear the difference with the results of QED. In addition, as an example of experiments which could investigate the Weinberger-Salam theory more in detail, a short account is given of the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from a polarized electron target. (Nogami, K.)

  16. Modeling the radar scatter off of high-energy neutrino-induced particle cascades in ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; van Eijndhoven, Nick; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Toscano, Simona; Scholten, Olaf

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the radar detection method as a probe for high-energy neutrino induced particle cascades in ice. In a previous work we showed that the radar detection techniqe is a promising method to probe the high-energy cosmic neutrino flux above PeV energies. This was done by considering a simplified

  17. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D'’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    —In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...

  18. Neutrino Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M; Tsenov, R; Dracos, M; Bonesini, M; Palladino, V; Tortora, L; Mori, Y; Planche, T; Lagrange, J  B; Kuno, Y; Benedetto, E; Efthymiopoulos, I; Garoby, R; Gilardoini, S; Martini, M; Wildner, E; Prior, G; Blondel, A; Karadzhow, Y; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Bayes, R; Laing, A; Soler, F  J  P; Alekou, A; Apollonio, M; Aslaninejad, M; Bontoiu, C; Jenner, L  J; Kurup, A; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Zarrebini, A; Poslimski, J; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Tunnell, C; Andreopoulos, C; Bennett, J  R  J; Brooks, S; Caretta, O; Davenne, T; Densham, C; Edgecock, T  R; Fitton, M; Kelliher, D; Loveridge, P; McFarland, A; Machida, S; Prior, C; Rees, G; Rogers, C; Rooney, M; Thomason, J; Wilcox, D; Booth, C; Skoro, G; Back, J  J; Harrison, P; Berg, J  S; Fernow, R; Gallardo, J  C; Gupta, R; Kirk, H; Simos, N; Stratakis, D; Souchlas, N; Witte, H; Bross, A; Geer, S; Johnstone, C; Mokhov, N; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Strait, J; Striganov, S; Morfín, J  G; Wands, R; Snopok, P; Bogacz, S  A; Morozov, V; Roblin, Y; Cline, D; Ding, X; Bromberg, C; Hart, T; Abrams, R  J; Ankenbrandt, C  M; Beard, K  B; Cummings, M  A  C; Flanagan, G; Johnson, R  P; Roberts, T  J; Yoshikawa, C  Y; Graves, V  B; McDonald, K  T; Coney, L; Hanson, G

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that $\\theta_{13} > 0$. The measured value of $\\theta_{13}$ is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti)neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO$\

  19. Neutrino (antineutrino) effective charge in a magnetized electron-positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbeto, A.; Rios, L.A.; Mendonca, J.T.; Shukla, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Using dynamical techniques of the plasma physics, the neutrino (antineutrino) effective charge in a magnetized dense electron-positron plasma is determined here. It shown that its value, which is determined by the plasma collective processes, depends mainly on the propagation direction of plasma waves and neutrinos against the external magnetic field direction. The direction dependence of the effective charge occurs due to the fact that the magnetic field breaks the plasma isotropy. The present theory gives a unified picture of the problem which is valid for an external magnetic field below the Landau-Schwinger critical value. Comparison with some of the results from the quantum field theory has been made

  20. Study of Electron Anti-neutrinos Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts Using KamLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, K.; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hachiya, T.; Hayashida, S.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishio, S.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Motoki, D.; Nakamura, K.; Obara, S.; Oki, Y.; Oura, T.; Shimizu, I.; Shirahata, Y.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Tachibana, H.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Fushimi, K.; Piepke, A.; Banks, T. I.; Berger, B. E.; Fujikawa, B. K.; O'Donnell, T.; Learned, J. G.; Maricic, J.; Sakai, M.; Winslow, L. A.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Detwiler, J. A.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.; KamLAND Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We search for electron anti-neutrinos ({{\\bar{ν }}e}) from long- and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using data taken by the Kamioka Liquid Scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector (KamLAND) from 2002 August to 2013 June. No statistically significant excess over the background level is found. We place the tightest upper limits on {{\\bar{ν }}e} fluence from GRBs below 7 MeV and place first constraints on the relation between {{\\bar{ν }}e} luminosity and effective temperature.

  1. Quark-Hadron Duality in Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wally Melnitchouk; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel

    2004-08-01

    The duality between partonic and hadronic descriptions of physical phenomena is one of the most remarkable features of strong interaction physics. A classic example of this is in electron-nucleon scattering, in which low-energy cross sections, when averaged over appropriate energy intervals, are found to exhibit the scaling behavior expected from perturbative QCD. We present a comprehensive review of data on structure functions in the resonance region, from which the global and local aspects of duality are quantified, including its flavor, spin and nuclear medium dependence. To interpret the experimental findings, we discuss various theoretical approaches which have been developed to understand the microscopic origins of quark-hadron duality in QCD. Examples from other reactions are used to place duality in a broader context, and future experimental and theoretical challenges are identified.

  2. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  3. First Demonstration of a Scintillating Xenon Bubble Chamber for Detecting Dark Matter and Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, D.; Chen, C. J.; Crisler, M.; Cwiok, T.; Dahl, C. E.; Grimsted, A.; Gupta, J.; Jin, M.; Puig, R.; Temples, D.; Zhang, J.

    2017-06-01

    A 30-g xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in a superheated liquid. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind photomultiplier tube to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time of nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events. We report on data from this chamber for thermodynamic "Seitz" thresholds from 4.2 to 15.0 keV. The observed single- and multiple-bubble rates when exposed to a Cf 252 neutron source indicate that, for an 8.3-keV thermodynamic threshold, the minimum nuclear recoil energy required to nucleate a bubble is 19 ±6 keV (1 σ uncertainty). This is consistent with the observed scintillation spectrum for bubble-nucleating events. We see no evidence for bubble nucleation by gamma rays at any of the thresholds studied, setting a 90% C.L. upper limit of 6.3 ×10-7 bubbles per gamma interaction at a 4.2-keV thermodynamic threshold. This indicates stronger gamma discrimination than in CF3 I bubble chambers, supporting the hypothesis that scintillation production suppresses bubble nucleation by electron recoils, while nuclear recoils nucleate bubbles as usual. These measurements establish the noble-liquid bubble chamber as a promising new technology for the detection of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter and coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  4. Interaction of electron neutrinos with 56Fe in the LSD for Eνe≤50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponov, Yu.V.; Semenov, S.V.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.

    2004-01-01

    The neutrino pulses, detected by LSD (liquid scintillator detector) on February 23, 1987, are analyzed on the base of two-stage model of supernova explosion. The number of events due to the electron neutrino interaction with 56 Fe in the LSD is calculated. The obtained results is in a agreement with experimental data [ru

  5. Indication of Electron Neutrino Appearance in the T2K experiment and its long-term implications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    T2K (Tokai-to-Kamioka) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment primarily searching for oscillations of muon neutrinos into electron neutrinos. T2K will also make precise measurements of the atmospheric oscillation parameters via muon neutrino disappearance. The experiment uses 30 GeV protons from the new J-PARC Main Ring accelerator, located in Tokai, Japan, to generate a conventional neutrino beam to the Super-Kamiokande far detector. The hadron production measurements of the NA61 experiment at CERN were used to predict the neutrino fluxes at the near and far detectors. The T2K oscillation analysis compares the rates of observed and predicted muon and electron neutrino candidates in the far detector. We present first results based on data accumulated from January 2010 to March 2011. Six electron neutrino events pass the selection criteria for electron appearance at Super-Kamiokande, whereas the expected number of background events is 1.5±0.3. The probability of a fluctuation of the back...

  6. Warm Dark Matter Sterile Neutrinos in Electron Capture and Beta Decay Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the motivation to search for sterile neutrinos in the keV mass scale, as dark matter candidates, and the prospects to find them in beta decay or electron capture spectra, with a global perspective. We describe the fundamentals of the neutrino flavor-mass eigenstate mismatch that opens the possibility of detecting sterile neutrinos in such ordinary nuclear processes. Results are shown and discussed for the effect of heavy neutrino emission in electron capture in Holmium 163 and in two isotopes of Lead, 202 and 205, as well as in the beta decay of Tritium. We study the deexcitation spectrum in the considered cases of electron capture and the charged lepton spectrum in the case of Tritium beta decay. For each of these cases, we define ratios of integrated transition rates over different regions of the spectrum under study and give new results that may guide and facilitate the analysis of possible future measurements, paying particular attention to forbidden transitions in Lead isotopes.

  7. Search for new candidates for the neutrino-oriented mass determination by electron-capture

    CERN Multimedia

    Herfurth, F; Boehm, C; Blaum, K; Beck, D

    2008-01-01

    This proposal is part of an extended program dedicated to the neutrino-mass determination in the electron-capture sector, which aims at ultra-precise mass measurements by Penning traps in combination with cryogenic micro-calorimetry for atomic de-excitation measurements. Here, precise mass measurements with ISOLTRAP are proposed for the orbital electron-capture nuclides $^{194}$Hg and $^{202}$Pb, as well as their daughters, with the goal to determine accurately their Q-values. These values are expected to be the smallest ones among a great variety of known electron-capture precursors. Therefore, these nuclides are strong candidates for an improved electron-neutrino mass determination. We ask for 8 shifts of on-line beam at ISOLDE for mass measurements of $^{194}$Hg, $^{194}$ Au, $^{202}$Pb, and $^{202}$Tl at ISOLTRAP.

  8. Determination of the Electron Neutrino Mass from Experiments on Electron-Capture Beta-Decay (EC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the programme is to measure the electron-neutrino mass, for which at present an upper limit of 500~eV is known. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment studies the shape of the internal bremsstrahlung spectrum in electron-capture near its upper end-point and deduces a mass from small shape changes completely analogous to those in the well-known determination of the electron antineutrino mass in the tritium beta-minus decay. \\\\ \\\\ In a low-energy bremsstrahlung process, the capture takes place from a virtual S state associated with a radiative P~@A~S electromagnetic transition, and the resonant nature of the process leads to important enhancements of the photon intensities at low energy, in particular near the resonance energies co (X-rays). This effect gives this type of experiment a chance to compete with experiments on continuous beta spectra. \\\\ \\\\ The programme concentrates on two long-lived isotopes: \\\\ \\\\ 1)~~|1|6|3Ho. The Q value for this isotope has been found to be 2.6-2.7 keV. A detector specially construct...

  9. The Measurement of the Quasi-Elastic Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering Cross Section at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwonjandee, Narumon [Cincinnati U.

    2004-01-01

    The quasi-elastic neutrino nucleon cross section measurement has been measured in the low energy region less than 100 Ge V. The data agree well with the model proposed by C. H. Llewellyn Smith. This model predicts that the quasi-elastic cross section should be constant in the high enery region. The NuTeV experiment at Fermilab provides data which allows us to measure the quasi-elastic cross section for both neutrinos and anti-neutrinos at high energy. We find that $\\sigma^{Neucleon}_{qe}(v) = 0.94 \\pm 0.03(stat.) \\pm 0.07(syst.)$, and $\\sigma^{Neucleon}_{qe}(\\bar\

  10. Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A brief introduction to the topic of Compton scattering from bound electrons is presented. The fundamental nature of this process in understanding quantum phenomena is reviewed. Methods for accurate theoretical evaluation of the Compton scattering cross section are presented. Examples are presented for scattering of several keV photons from helium

  11. Some remarks on electron scattering in a laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlotzky, F.

    1988-01-01

    Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field is reconsidered. Some remarks are made on the validity of the Kroll-Watson scattering formula and on the close connection of this formula with the classical transition rate of scattering in a radiation field. (17 refs.)

  12. Electron scattering with polarized targets at TESLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.; Aschenauer, E.C.; Belostotski, S.

    2000-11-01

    Measurements of polarized electron-nucleon scattering can be realized at the TESLA linear collider facility with projected luminosities that are about two orders of magnitude higher than those expected of other experiments at comparable energies. Longitudinally polarized electrons, accelerated as a small fraction of the total current in the e + arm of TESLA, can be directed onto a solid state target that may be either longitudinally or transversely polarized. A large variety of polarized parton distribution and fragmentation functions can be determined with unprecedented accuracy, many of them for the first time. A main goal of the experiment is the precise measurement of the x- and Q 2 -dependence of the experimentally totally unknown quark transversity distributions that will complete the information on the nucleon's quark spin structure as relevant for high energy processes. Comparing their Q 2 -evolution to that of the corresponding helicity distributions constitutes an important precision test of the predictive power of QCD in the spin sector. Measuring transversity distributions and tensor charges allows access to the hitherto unmeasured chirally odd operators in QCD which are of great importance to understand the role of chiral symmetry. The possibilities of using unpolarized targets and of experiments with a real photon beam turn TESLA-N into a versatile next-generation facility at the intersection of particle and nuclear physics. (orig.)

  13. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Alysia Diane

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ∼2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)± 0.068 0.065 (sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 , via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)± 0.12 0.11 (sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 , and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)± 0.37 0.31 (sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 10 6 cm -2 s -1 . The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation

  14. Evidence for neutrino oscillations in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Alysia Diane [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a large-volume heavy water Cerenkov detector designed to resolve the solar neutrino problem. SNO observes charged-current interactions with electron neutrinos, neutral-current interactions with all active neutrinos, and elastic-scattering interactions primarily with electron neutrinos with some sensitivity to other flavors. This dissertation presents an analysis of the solar neutrino flux observed in SNO in the second phase of operation, while ~2 tonnes of salt (NaCl) were dissolved in the heavy water. The dataset here represents 391 live days of data. Only the events above a visible energy threshold of 5.5 MeV and inside a fiducial volume within 550 cm of the center of the detector are studied. The neutrino flux observed via the charged-current interaction is [1.71 ± 0.065(stat.)±$0.065\\atop{0.068}$(sys.)±0.02(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, via the elastic-scattering interaction is [2.21±0.22(stat.)±$0.12\\atop{0.11}$(sys.)±0.01(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1, and via the neutral-current interaction is [5.05±0.23(stat.)±$0.31\\atop{0.37}$(sys.)±0.06(theor.)] x 106cm-2s-1. The electron-only flux seen via the charged-current interaction is more than 7σ below the total active flux seen via the neutral-current interaction, providing strong evidence that neutrinos are undergoing flavor transformation as they travel from the core of the Sun to the Earth. The most likely origin of the flavor transformation is matter-induced flavor oscillation.

  15. Electron scattering studies by means of various nuclear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essaniyazov, Sh.; Juraev, Sh.; Ismatov, E.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a general case of various interaction processes of electrons with nuclei. The study of the scattering o electrons of nuclei is the source of information on the structure of nuclei. At collision of fast electrons with nuclei, both elastic and inelastic scattering can be observed. Elastic scattering gives information on the sizes of nuclei, whereas the electrons inelastic scattering processes give important information on the dynamical properties of nuclei. In the first case, the characteristics of excited states, energy levels, their widths and others, and in the second case, momentum distribution of nucleons and other particles in nuclei are studied. Let us denote the momentum and the energy of the incident electron before and after the scattering as k and ε, and k' and ε', respectively. The angle between the vectors k and k' is denoted as θ. The scattering process is characterized by three parameters: k, k' and θ. However, it is convenient to introduce three other parameters instead of the indicated above. They are: energy ω ε - ε' and momentum q = k - k', transferred by electron at scattering, and the scattering angle θ. It is worth of mentioning the two reasons why the study of electron scattering is very effective tool to study the nuclear structure. First of all, the character of electron interaction with nucleus is a well-known electromagnetic interaction of electron with current and charge in nucleus. Secondly, this interaction is relatively weak (e 2 /ℎc) 2 = ω 2 is possible (since the photon mass is zero). In case of electrons, at fixed energy transfer ω various momentum transfer are possible. Therefore, at electron scattering study one can establish the dependence of the matrix elements of q, which are the Fourier-representations of the charge and current densities. Thus, it is possible to determine directly the spatial distribution of charge and current in nucleus. The inelastic scattering is accompanied by

  16. Electron scattering studies of nitrogen dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand (India); Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V. P. and R. P. T. P. Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India); Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004, Jharkhand (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: •Two quantum mechanical models used to find TCS for e-NO{sub 2} from 0.5 to 2000 eV. •R-matrix method at low energies (<15 eV) and SCOP at high energies (16 to 2000 eV). •Besides CS, R-matrix method predicts resonances and possibility of DEA formation. •SCOP formalism is used to find total inelastic and elastic CS at high energies. •Resonances detected at 1.33, 3 and 8.41 eV is associated with O{sup −} anion formation by DEA. -- Abstract: Present work reports total cross sections for e-NO{sub 2} scattering over an extensive range of impact energy from 0.5 eV to 2000 eV, through a composite formalism. The ab initio R-matrix method is employed for calculations up to 15 eV while the spherical complex optical potential formalism is used beyond that energy. The electronic excitation cross sections are computed from ground state X{sup 2}A{sub 1} to seven electronically allowed excited states {sup 2}B{sub 1}, {sup 2}B{sub 2}, {sup 2}A{sub 2}, {sup 4}A{sub 2}, {sup 4}B{sub 2}, {sup 4}A{sub 1}, {sup 4}A{sub 1} and {sup 4}B{sub 1}. The eigenphase diagrams presented here reproduces the resonances identified earlier. The structures detected at 1.33, 3 and 8.41 eV can be associated with the observed O{sup −} anion formation through dissociative electron attachment process.

  17. No surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentzen, M.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent article it is argued that the far-field expansion of electron scattering, a pillar of electron diffraction theory, is wrong (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). It is further argued that in the first Born approximation of electron scattering the intensity of the electron wave is not conserved to first order in the scattering potential. Thus a “mystery of the missing phase” is investigated, and the supposed flaw in scattering theory is seeked to be resolved by postulating a standing spherical electron wave (Treacy and Van Dyck, 2012 [1]). In this work we show, however, that these theses are wrong. A review of the essential parts of scattering theory with careful checks of the underlying assumptions and limitations for high-energy electron scattering yields: (1) the traditional form of the far-field expansion, comprising a propagating spherical wave, is correct; (2) there is no room for a missing phase; (3) in the first Born approximation the intensity of the scattered wave is conserved to first order in the scattering potential. The various features of high-energy electron scattering are illustrated by wave-mechanical calculations for an explicit target model, a Gaussian phase object, and for a Si atom, considering the geometric conditions in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. - Highlights: Treacy and Van Dyck (2012) argue that the far-field expansion of electron scattering is wrong. The chief theses of that former work are wrong. There is no room for the missing phase proposed by Treacy and Van Dyck. There is no violation of the intensity conservation to first order in the scattering potential. Calculations for a phase object and an atomic target confirm traditional scattering theory

  18. Neutrino-'pasta' scattering: The opacity of nonuniform neutron-rich matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Perez-Garcia, M.A.; Piekarewicz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron-rich matter at subnuclear densities may involve complex structures displaying a variety of shapes, such as spherical, slablike, and/or rodlike shapes. These phases of the nuclear pasta are expected to exist in the crust of neutron stars and in core-collapse supernovae. The dynamics of core-collapse supernovae is very sensitive to the interactions between neutrinos and nucleons/nuclei. Indeed, neutrino excitation of the low-energy modes of the pasta may allow for a significant energy transfer to the nuclear medium, thereby reviving the stalled supernovae shock. The linear response of the nuclear pasta to neutrinos is modeled via a simple semiclassical simulation. The transport mean free path for μ and τ neutrinos (and antineutrinos) is expressed in terms of the static structure factor of the pasta, which is evaluated using Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations

  19. Spin dependence in superelastic electron scattering from Na(3P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.J.; Kelley, M.H.; Celotta, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements are presented of spin asymmetries for superelastic scattering of 10-eV spin polarized electrons from the excited Na(3P/sub 3/2/) state created by linearly polarized laser optical pumping. Asymmetries as large as 16% are observed in scattering from a state which is not spin-polarized. Results are shown both as a function of scattering angle with fixed laser polarization direction, and as a function of the laser polarization direction at a fixed scattering angle

  20. Electron scattering from nucleons and deuterons at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1985-04-01

    Recent results from electron scattering of nucleons and deuterons are discussed. A tentative physics program for ELSA employing the polarized electron beams as well as the polarized nucleon and deuteron target facilities is outlined. (orig.)

  1. Role of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahniman Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of electron-electron scattering on spin transport in single layer graphene is studied using semi-classical Monte Carlo simulation. The D’yakonov-P’erel mechanism is considered for spin relaxation. It is found that electron-electron scattering causes spin relaxation length to decrease by 35% at 300 K. The reason for this decrease in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate at room temperature, which causes change in spin relaxation profile due to electron-electron scattering.

  2. Inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances of high energy resolution (ΔE approx. 30 keV FWHM) inelastic electron scattering at low momentum transfer (q -1 ) using selected experimental data from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator are discussed. Strong emphasis is given to a comparison of the data with theoretical nuclear model predictions. Of the low multipolarity electric transitions investigated, as examples only E1 transitions to unnatural parity states in 11 B and E2 transitions of the very fragmented isoscalar quadrupole giant resonance in 208 Pb are considered. In 11 B the role of the Os hole in the configuration of the 1/2 + , 3/2 + and 5/2 + states is quantitatively determined via an interference mechanism in the transition probability. By comparison of the high resolution data with RPA calculations the E2 EWSR in 208 Pb is found to be much less exhausted than anticipated from previous medium energy resolution (e,e) and hadron scattering experiments. In the case of M1 transitions it is shown that the simplest idealized independent particle shell-model prediction breaks down badly. In 28 Si, ground-state correlations influence largely the detected M1 strength and such ground-state correlations are also responsible for the occurence of a strong M1 transition to a state at Ex = 10.319 MeV in 40 Ca. In 90 Zr only about 10% of the theoretically expected M1 strength is seen in (e,e) and in 140 Ce and 208 Pb none (detection limit 1-2 μ 2 K). In the case of 208 Pb high resolution spectra exist now up to an excitation energy of Ex = approx. 12MeV. The continuous decrease of the M1 strength with mass number is corroborated by the behaviour of strong but very fragmented M2 transitions which are detected in 28 Si, 90 Zr, 140 Ce and 208 Pb concentrated at an excitation energy E x approx. 44A -1 / 3 MeV. In 90 Zr, the distribution of spacings and widths of the many Jπ = 2 states are consistent with a Wigner and Porter-Thomas distribution, respectively. (orig.) 891 KBE/orig. 892 ARA

  3. Electron Scattering by biomass molecular fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The replacement of fossil fuels by biofuels from renewable sources may not be a definite answer for greenhouse gas emissions problems, but it is a good step towards a sustainable energy strategy. Few per cent of ethanol is being mixed to gasoline in many countries and in some of them, like Brazil, a very aggressive program has been developed, using, in large scale, flex fuel engines that can run with any mixture of gasoline and ethanol, including 100% ethanol. Important points are how to produce ethanol in a sustainable way and with which technology? Biomass is a good candidate to enhance the first generation (produced from Corn in USA and from sugarcane in Brazil) production towards the so-called second-generation ethanol, since it has cellulose and hemicellulose as source of sugars. In order to liberate these sugars for fermentation, it is important to learn how to separate the main components. Chemical routes (acid treatment) and biological routes (enzymatic hydrolysis) are combined and used for these purposes. Atmospheric plasmas can be useful for attacking the biomass in a controlled manner and low energy electrons may have an important role in the process. Recently, we have been studying the interaction of electrons with lignin subunits (phenol, guaiacol, p-coumaryl alcohol), cellulose components, β-D-glucose and cellobiose (β(1-4) linked glucose dimer) and hemicellulose components [2] (β-D-xylose). We also obtained results for the amylose subunits α-D-glucose and maltose (α(1-4) linked glucose dimer). Altogether, the resonance spectra of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose components establish a physical-chemical basis for electron-induced biomass pretreatment that could be applied to biofuel production. In order to describe a more realistic system (where molecules are ``wet''), we have obtained the shape resonance spectra of phenol-water clusters, as obtained previously from elastic electron scattering calculations. Our results, obtained in a simple

  4. Scattering of electrons from argon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The scattering of electrons from argon atoms is studied by the method of polarized orbitals. The 3p→d perturbed orbital calculated using the Sternheimer approximation gives the polarizability 14.29a 0 3 . The perturbation of the orbitals 1s, 2s, 2p, and 3s is taken into account by renormalizing the 3p→d orbitals to give the experimental value 11.06a 0 3 . Using only the modified orbital in the total wave function, phase shifts for various partial waves have been calculated in the exchange, exchange-adiabatic, and polarized-orbital approximations. They are compared with the results of the previous calculations. The calculated total elastic, differential, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental results. The elastic total cross sections obtained in the polarized-orbital approximation agree very closely with the recently measured cross sections by Jost et al. and Nickel et al. The critical point (the value of k 2 and theta at which the differential cross section is minimum) is at 0.306 eV and 80 0 , in good agreement with the measurements of Weyhreter et al

  5. Electron-electron scattering and mobilities in semiconductors and quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyo, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of electron-electron scattering on the mobility in semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells is examined. A general exact formula is derived for the mobility, when the electron-electron collision rate is much faster than other scattering rates such as those by ionized impurities and phonons. In this limit, the transport relaxation rate is independent of the carrier's energy and contributions to the inverse mobility from individual scattering mechanism add up. The mobility becomes significantly reduced from its value in the absence of electron-electron scattering. When the collision rates are not necessarily dominated by electron-electron scattering, the mobility is calculated by the Kohler-Sondheimer variational method in the presence of ionized-impurity scattering and acoustic-phonon scattering in a nondegenerate two-dimensional quantum well

  6. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  7. Proceedings of the 9th workshop on the mass of the electron neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, Shinjiro

    1984-03-01

    The 9th workshop on the mass of electron neutrinos was held at KEK, Japan. The experimental studies concerning the M-shell of Dy atoms for the measurement of the mass of electron neutrinos were presented at the workshop. The reports included in this proceedings concern windowless Si(Li) detectors, the irradiation technique to make Ho-163 radioactive sources, high purity Ho-163 sources, the M X-ray spectra of rare earth atoms, the study on the M-shell of Dy atoms by using monochromatic X-ray from the KEK PF (Photon Factory), the absolute measurement of photon beam flux, the angular distribution of M X-ray accompanying the photoelectric effect caused by linearly polarized photons, the X-ray spectrum around the 5p to 3s peak accompanying the decay of Ho-163, and the data of nuclear matrix elements of the electron capture decay of Ho-163. The reports presented at the previous workshop are also included in this proceedings. They concern the theoretical calculation of the M X-ray spectrum of Dy, the mass measurement of electron neutrinos, the X-ray spectrum of Ho-163 sources, the amount of Dy-164 contained in Ho-163 samples, and the isotope dilution mass spectrometry. (Kato, T.)

  8. Scattering of photons from atomic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.H.; Zhou, B.; Bergstrom, P.M. Jr.; Pisk, K.; Suric, T.

    1990-01-01

    Validity of simpler approaches for elastic and inelastic photon scattering by atoms and ions is assessed by comparison with second-order S-matrix predictions. A simple scheme for elastic scattering based on angle-independent anomalous scattering factors has been found to give useful predictions near and below photoeffect thresholds. In inelastic scattering, major deviations are found from A 2 -based calculations. Extension of free-atom and free-ion cross sections to the dense plasma regime is discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs

  9. INTERPLAY OF NEUTRINO OPACITIES IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1200 (United States); Mezzacappa, Anthony; Hix, W. Raphael [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6354 (United States); Messer, O. E. Bronson [National Center for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6164 (United States); Bruenn, Stephen W., E-mail: elentz@utk.edu [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We have conducted a series of numerical experiments using spherically symmetric, general relativistic, neutrino radiation hydrodynamics with the code Agile-BOLTZTRAN to examine the effects of modern neutrino opacities on the development of supernova simulations. We test the effects of opacities by removing opacities or by undoing opacity improvements for individual opacities and groups of opacities. We find that improvements to electron capture (EC) on nuclei, namely EC on an ensemble of nuclei using modern nuclear structure models rather than the simpler independent-particle approximation (IPA) for EC on a mean nucleus, plays the most important role during core collapse of all tested neutrino opacities. Low-energy neutrinos emitted by modern nuclear EC preferentially escape during collapse without the energy downscattering on electrons required to enhance neutrino escape and deleptonization for the models with IPA nuclear EC. During shock breakout the primary influence on the emergent neutrinos arises from non-isoenergetic scattering (NIS) on electrons. For the accretion phase, NIS on free nucleons and pair emission by e {sup +} e {sup -} annihilation have the largest impact on the neutrino emission and shock evolution. Other opacities evaluated, including nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung and especially neutrino-positron scattering, have little measurable impact on neutrino emission or shock dynamics. Modern treatments of nuclear EC, e {sup +} e {sup -}-annihilation pair emission, and NIS on electrons and free nucleons are critical elements of core-collapse simulations of all dimensionality.

  10. Electron scattering in dense atomic and molecular gases: An empirical correlation of polarizability and electron scattering length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupnik, K.; Asaf, U.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A linear correlation exists between the electron scattering length, as measured by a pressure shift method, and the polarizabilities for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe gases. The correlative algorithm has excellent predictive capability for the electron scattering lengths of mixtures of rare gases, simple molecular gases such as H 2 and N 2 and even complex molecular entities such as methane, CH 4

  11. Theory of Raman scattering in coupled electron-phonon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman spectrum is calculated for a coupled conduction-electron-phonon system in the zero-momentum-transfer limit. The Raman scattering is due to electron-hole excitations and phonons as well. The phonons of those branches that contribute to the electron self-energy and the correction of the electron-phonon vertex are assumed to have flat energy dispersion (the Einstein phonons). The effect of electron-impurity scattering is also incorporated. Both the electron-phonon interaction and the electron-impurity interaction cause the fluctuation of the electron distribution between different parts of the Fermi surface, which results in overdamped zero-sound modes of various symmetries. The scattering cross section is obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The spectrum shows a lower threshold at the smallest Einstein phonon energy when only the electron-phonon interaction is taken into consideration. When impurities are also taken into consideration, the threshold disappears.

  12. Neutral current in the Weinberg-Salam gauge model and elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    We study the elastic scattering of neutrinos and antineutrinos on nucleons in the Weinberg-Salam model of the neutral current. In particular, we incorporate into our calculation the experimental cuts relevant to the two recent BNL experiments and also fold in the BNL ν and anti ν spectra. Sensitivity of the calculation to the changes in the axial-vector-meson mass and the Weinberg angle are explored. We conclude that the Weinberg-Salam model prediction for R/sub el/ = / and the differential-cross-section measurements are not inconsistent with the data provided the uncertainty in the mass of the axial-vector meson M/sub A/ is taken into account. Similar predictions are given for anti νN scattering

  13. RAMAN LIGHT SCATTERING IN PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON MODEL AT STRONG PSEUDOSPIN-ELECTRON INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S.Mysakovych

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anharmonic phonon contributions to Raman scattering in locally anharmonic crystal systems in the framework of the pseudospin-electron model with tunneling splitting of levels are investigated. The case of strong pseudospin-electron coupling is considered. Pseudospin and electron contributions to scattering are taken into account. Frequency dependences of Raman scattering intensity for different values of model parameters and for different polarization of scattering and incident light are investigated.

  14. Schwinger–Keldysh canonical formalism for electronic Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yuehua, E-mail: suyh@ytu.edu.cn

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic low-energy Raman and high-energy X-ray scatterings have made great progress in instrumentation to investigate the strong electronic correlations in matter. However, theoretical study of the relevant scattering spectrum is still a challenge. In this paper, we present a Schwinger–Keldysh canonical perturbation formalism for the electronic Raman scattering, where all the resonant, non-resonant and mixed responses are considered uniformly. We show how to use this formalism to evaluate the cross section of the electronic Raman scattering off an one-band superconductor. All the two-photon scattering processes from electrons, the non-resonant charge density response, the elastic Rayleigh scattering, the fluorescence, the intrinsic energy-shift Raman scattering and the mixed response, are included. In the mean-field superconducting state, Cooper pairs contribute only to the non-resonant response. All the other responses are dominated by the single-particle excitations and are strongly suppressed due to the opening of the superconducting gap. Our formalism for the electronic Raman scattering can be easily extended to study the high-energy resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

  15. A surprise in the first Born approximation for electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M.M.J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2012-01-01

    A standard textbook derivation for the scattering of electrons by a weak potential under the first Born approximation suggests that the far-field scattered wave should be in phase with the incident wave. However, it is well known that waves scattered from a weak phase object should be phase-shifted by π/2 relative to the incident wave. A disturbing consequence of this missing phase is that, according to the Optical Theorem, the total scattering cross section would be zero in the first Born approximation. We resolve this mystery pedagogically by showing that the first Born approximation fails to conserve electrons even to first order. Modifying the derivation to conserve electrons introduces the correct phase without changing the scattering amplitude. We also show that the far-field expansion for the scattered waves used in many texts is inappropriate for computing an exit wave from a sample, and that the near-field expansion also give the appropriately phase-shifted result. -- Highlights: ► The first Born approximation is usually invoked as the theoretical physical basis for kinematical electron scattering theory. ► Although it predicts the correct scattering amplitude, it predicts the wrong phase; the scattered wave is missing a prefactor of i. ► We show that this arises because the standard textbook version of the first Born approximation does not conserve electrons. ► We show how this can be fixed.

  16. Searches for massive neutrino emission in 14C beta and 55Fe electron-capture decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wietfeldt, F.E.

    1994-05-01

    In 1985 Simpson reported evidence for the emission of a 17 keV mass neutrino in a small fraction of tritium beta decays. An experimental controversy ensued in which a number of both positive and negative results were reported. The beta spectrum of 14 C was collected in a unique 14 C-doped planar germanium detector and a distortion was observed that initially confirmed Simpson's result. Further tests linked this distortion to a splitting of the collected charge between the central detector and the surrounding guard ring in a fraction of the events. A second 14 C measurement showed no evidence for emission of a 17 keV mass neutrino. In a related experiment, a high statistics electron-capture internal-bremsstrahlung photon spectrum of 55 Fe was collected with a coaxial germanium detector. A local search for departures from a smooth shape near the endpoint was performed, using a second-derivative technique. An upper limit of 0.65% (95% C.L.) for the mixing Of a neutrino in the mass range 5--25 keV was established. The upper limit on the mixing of a 17 keV mass neutrino was 0.14% (95% C.L.)

  17. Single Production of Excited Neutrino at Clic based Electron Photon Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirca, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of excited quarks and leptons, as predicted by composite models, would supply convincing evidence for substructure of fermions. Electron-photon interactions at very high energies provide ideal conditions to look for excited states of first generations offermions. In particular, in magnetic- transition coupling the electron to a gauge bo son would allow for single production of excited neutrinos (ν * ) through t-channel W boson exchange. In this work, (ν * ) production followed by the electroweak radiative decays ν * →νγ, ν * →eW, ν * →νZ is presented. The production cross sections and P T distributions of excited neutrino are studied for CLlC

  18. Thermal relaxation time of a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.A.; Hacyan, S.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a relativistic binary mixture is studied by means of a fully covariant formalism. Assuming both components to differ slightly in temperature, an application of the relativistic Boltzmann equation yields general expressions for the energy transfer rate and for the relaxation time of the system. The resulting relation is then applied to a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos to obtain numerical values of its relaxation time. (author)

  19. Calorimetric measurements of $^{163}$ holmium decay as tools to determine the electron neutrino mass

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    1982-01-01

    Computes the spectrum of 'calorimetric' energy in the electron capture decay of /sup 163/Ho. A calorimetric experiment would yield an excellent determination of (/sup 163/Ho, /sup 163/Dy) mass difference. The proximity of the spectral endpoint to an atomic resonance makes the fraction of events that are sensitive to a non-zero neutrino mass superior in /sup 163/Ho decay than in tritium decay.

  20. Measurement of coherent $\\pi^{+}$ production in low energy neutrino-Carbon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K.

    2016-11-04

    We report the first measurement of the flux-averaged cross section for charged current coherent $\\pi^{+}$ production on carbon for neutrino energies less than 1.5 GeV to a restricted final state phase space region in the T2K near detector, ND280. Comparisons are made with predictions from the Rein-Sehgal coherent production model and the model by Alvarez-Ruso {\\it et al.}, the latter representing the first implementation of an instance of the new class of microscopic coherent models in a neutrino interaction Monte Carlo event generator. This results contradicts the null results reported by K2K and SciBooNE in a similar neutrino energy region.

  1. Recent progress in electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunger, M. J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia and Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Buckman, S. J. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, AMPL, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Sullivan, J. P.; Palihawadana, P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, AMPL, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Chiari, L.; Pettifer, Z. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Silva, G. B. da [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia and Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Lopes, M. C. A. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, CAPS, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Duque, H. V. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Masin, Z.; Gorfinkiel, J. D. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo, 102-8554 (Japan); Limão-Vieira, P. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-03-05

    We present and discuss recent results, both experimental and theoretical (where possible), for electron impact excitation of the 3s[3/2 ]{sub 1} and 3s′[1/2 ]{sub 1} electronic states in neon, elastic electron scattering from the structurally similar molecules benzene, pyrazine, and 1,4-dioxane and excitation of the electronic states of the important bio-molecule analogue α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. While comparison between theoretical and experimental results suggests that benchmarked cross sections for electron scattering from atoms is feasible in the near-term, significant further theoretical development for electron-molecule collisions, particularly in respect to discrete excitation processes, is still required.

  2. Resonant spin-flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos: Dependence on electron mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Takamura, Akira; Kimura, Keiichi; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kawagoe, Shio; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Y e is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Y e . At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs in Y e e >0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Y e values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs. The final ν e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Y e e >0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low ν e energy to high ν e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron fraction in the innermost region exceeds 0.5. In inverted mass hierarchy, on the other hand, a dip of the event ratio should be observed. Therefore, the time variation of the event number ratio is useful to investigate the effect of the RSF conversion.

  3. Parity-Violating Electron Deuteron Scattering and the Proton's Neutral Axial Vector Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in quasielastic electron scattering from the deuteron at the backward angles at electron beam energy of 125 MeV [Q 2 =0.038 (GeV/c) 2 ]. This quantity provides a determination of the neutral weak axial vector form factor of the nucleon. In addition to the tree level amplitude associated with Z-exchange, the neutral weak axial vector form factor as measured in electron scattering can potentially receive large electroweak corrections, including the anapole moment, that are absent in neutrino scattering. The measured asymmetry A -3.51 ± 0.57 (stat) ± 0.58 (sys) ppm is consistent with theoretical predictions. We also report on updated results of the previous experiment at 200 MeV [Q 2 = 0.091 (GeV/c) 2 ] on a deuterium target. The updated results are also consistent with theoretical predictions on the neutral weal axial vector form factor

  4. Short-baseline electron antineutrino disappearance study by using neutrino sources from {sup 13}C + {sup 9}Be reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Won; Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Department of Physics and Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies (OMEG) Institute, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kajino, Toshitaka [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hayakawa, Takehito, E-mail: shine8199@skku.edu, E-mail: cheoun@ssu.ac.kr, E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: hayakawa.takehito@qst.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate (QUBS), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the existence of sterile neutrino, we propose a new neutrino production method using {sup 13}C beams and a {sup 9}Be target for short-baseline electron antineutrino (ν-bar {sub e} ) disappearance study. The production of secondary unstable isotopes which can emit neutrinos from the {sup 13}C + {sup 9}Be reaction is calculated with three different nucleus-nucleus (AA) reaction models. Different isotope yields are obtained using these models, but the results of the neutrino flux are found to have unanimous similarities. This feature gives an opportunity to study neutrino oscillation through shape analysis. In this work, expected neutrino flux and event rates are discussed in detail through intensive simulation of the light ion collision reaction and the neutrino flux from the beta decay of unstable isotopes followed by this collision. Together with the reactor and accelerator anomalies, the present proposed ν-bar {sub e} source is shown to be a practically alternative test of the existence of the Δ m {sup 2} ∼ 1 eV{sup 2} scale sterile neutrino.

  5. Neutrino sunshine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    deficit is taken very seriously, and has led to ideas of neutrino oscillations, and oscillation resonances. If the different neutrino varieties - electron, muon and tau - have a mass, then they can oscillate between themselves. A neutrino beam starting off as pure muon-type, for example, would change its composition as it went along. Setting limits on this behaviour is an important objective in neutrino experiments, with 'long baseline' studies - beams covering a long distance between source and detector, playing a vital role. Lincoln Wolfenstein, one of the architects of the new neutrino oscillation scenarios, says 'it is still not clear whether neutrinos have masses or not'. Laboratory experiments try to measure these masses, but so far only upper Unfits have been established. These studies are beginning to reach the limit of their sensitivity and are unlikely to improve drastically. 'But there is indirect evidence,' says Wolfenstein, 'that neutrinos are much lighter.' The solar neutrino problem is really to solar neutrino opportunity,' he continues. Future experiments with gallium and other new neutrino detection techniques, coupled with new high energy neutrino studies, will answer the question

  6. Electron Raman scattering in asymmetrical multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt-Riera, R; Rosas, R; Marin-Enriquez, I; Riera, R; Marin, J L

    2005-01-01

    Optical properties of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells for the construction of quantum cascade lasers are calculated, and expressions for the electronic states of asymmetrical multiple quantum wells are presented. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. Also, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and the corresponding selection rules for the processes involved are studied; an interpretation of the singularities found in the spectra is given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers

  7. Expression of Interest for Neutrinos Scattering on Glass: NuSOnG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Bugel, L.; Conrad, J.M.; /Columbia U.; Fisher, P.H.; Formaggio, J.A.; /MIT; de Gouvea, A.; /Northwestern U.; Loinaz, W.A.; /Amherst Coll.; Karagiorgi, G.; /Columbia U.; Kobilarcik, T.R.; /Fermilab; Kopp, S.; /Texas U.; Kyle, G.; /New Mexico State U. /Fermilab /MIT /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    We propose a 3500 ton (3000 ton fiducial volume) SiO{sub 2} neutrino detector with sampling calorimetry, charged particle tracking, and muon spectrometers to run in a Tevatron Fixed Target Program. Improvements to the Fermilab accelerator complex should allow substantial increases in the neutrino flux over the previous NuTeV quad triplet beamline. With 4 x 10{sup 19} protons on target/year, a 5 year run would achieve event statistics more than 100 times higher than NuTeV. With 100 times the statistics of previous high energy neutrino experiments, the purely weak processes {nu}{sub {mu}} + e{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {mu}} + e{sup -} and {nu}{sub {mu}} + e{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub e} + {mu}{sup -} (inverse muon decay) can be measured with high accuracy for the first time. The inverse muon decay process is independent of strong interaction effects and can be used to significantly improve the flux normalization for all other processes. The high neutrino and antineutrino fluxes also make new searches for lepton flavor violation and neutral heavy leptons possible. In this document, we give a first look at the physics opportunities, detector and beam design, and calibration procedures.

  8. Stimulated Raman scattering and hot-electron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.; Campbell, E.M.; Wang, C.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Williams, E.A.; Kruer, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    High-intensity laser light can excite parametric instabilities that scatter or absorb it. One instability that can arise when laser light penetrates a plasma is sub-quarter-critical stimulated Raman (SQSR) scattering. It occurs below the quarter-critical density of the incident light and involves the decay of the incident light wave into a scattered light wave and electron plasma wave. The scattered-light wavelength ranges from 1 to 2 times that of the incident light, depending on the plasma density and temperature. This article reports studies of SQSR scattering and hot-electron production in plasmas produced by irradiating thick gold targets with up to 4 kJ of 0.53-μm light in 1-ns (FWHM) pulses. These studies have important implications for laser fusion. Hot electrons attributed to the SQSR instability can increase the difficulty of achieving high-gain implosions by penetrating and preheating the fusion fuel

  9. Scattering of polarized low-energy electrons by ferromagnetic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    A source of spin polarized electrons with remarkable characteristics based on negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs has recently been developed. It constitutes a unique tool to investigate spin dependent interactions in electron scattering processes. The characteristics and working principles of the source are briefly described. Some theoretical aspects of the scattering of polarized low-energy electrons by ferromagnetic metals are discussed. Finally, the results of the first polarized low-energy electron diffraction experiment using the NEA GaAs source are reviewed; they give information about the surface magnetization of ferromagnetic Ni (110). (Author) [pt

  10. Eclipsed neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The total solar eclipse visible in Southern Asia on 24 October provided an opportunity for an unusual physics experiment. At face value, the levels of solar neutrinos detected on the Earth's surface are difficult to understand and suggest that perhaps the composition of solar neutrinos oscillates between different neutrino types on their journey. In this way neutrinos originating in the Sun as electrontype could convert into heavy neutrinos, which could subsequently disintegrate into an electron-neutrino and a photon. In certain neutrino scenarios, such a photon would have an energy corresponding to that of visible light, and in principle should be detectable if there are enough of them. The problem is that they would normally be swamped by the copious photons of sunlight. The 24 October solar eclipse provided a chance to check this out. A team led by François Vannucci, spokesman of the Nomad neutrino experiment at CERN, en route to the 'Rencontres du Vietnam' physics meeting in Ho Chi Minh Ville, set up a CCD-equipped telescope. To insure against cloud cover, a second telescope followed the eclipse in the desert of Rajastan, India, where the eclipse was to last only half as long, but the chance of cloud was minimal. No background solar signal was seen, or, expressed in physics terms, if solar radiation has any heavy neutrino component, then less than a millionth of it disintegrates into an electron neutrino and a visible photon before it arrives at the Earth. The negative result also has implications for candidate massive, unstable neutrinos from other sources, notably a component of the missing 'dark matter' of the Universe. The next such eclipse should be visible in North Asia in 1997, when hopefully better measurements will be made

  11. The solar neutrinos epopee

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 year has been fruitful for the neutrino physics. First, the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment has shown that the electron neutrinos nu sub e emitted by the sun are converted into muon neutrinos (nu submu) and tau neutrinos (nu subtau), thus closing the 30 years old problem of solar neutrinos deficit. This discovery validates the model of nuclear energy production inside the sun but it shakes the theory describing the weak interactions between the fundamental constituents of matter. This theory considers the neutrinos (and the photons) as massless particles, while the taste conversion phenomenon necessarily implies that neutrinos have a mass. In October 2000, the Universe exploration by the cosmic neutrinos is jointly recognized by R. Davis (USA) and M. Koshiba (Japan) who received the Nobel price of physics. Finally, in December 2000, the KamLAND experiment quantitatively demonstrated the neutrinos metamorphosis by detecting a deficit in the flux of electron antineutrinos coming from the ...

  12. Measurement of the electron-neutrino angular correlation in 6He decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Duval, F.; Flechard, X.; Herbane, M.; Labalme, M.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Mery, A.; Rodriguez-Rubiales, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the status of an experiment aiming to determine the angular correlation coefficient between the electron and the anti-neutrino in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of 6He. Such measurement is motivated by the search for the presence of tensor type contributions to the weak interaction. The experiment uses a setup where 6He ions are confined in a novel transparent Paul trap. Electrons and recoiling ions are detected in coincidence to deduce the angular correlation coefficient. First direct in trap decays have been recorded

  13. Reliability considerations of electronics components for the deep underwater muon and neutrino detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1980-02-01

    The reliability of some electronics components for the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detection (DUMAND) System is discussed. An introductory overview of engineering concepts and technique for reliability assessment is given. Component reliability is discussed in the contest of major factors causing failures, particularly with respect to physical and chemical causes, process technology and testing, and screening procedures. Failure rates are presented for discrete devices and for integrated circuits as well as for basic electronics components. Furthermore, the military reliability specifications and standards for semiconductor devices are reviewed

  14. Particle Identification in the T2K TPCs and study of the electron neutrino component in the T2K neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giganti, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the work done on the TPCs of the Near Detector of the T2K experiment. T2K is an experiment installed in Japan and its main purpose is the measurement of the last angle of the neutrino mixing matrix, Θ 13 . The other two angles of the matrix have already been measured in the last years, through the phenomenon of the neutrino oscillations, showing that the neutrinos have masses different from zero. The measurement of the missing angle Θ 13 is of fundamental importance for the neutrino physics as, if this angle is different from zero, CP violation in the lepton sector can occur. Up to now only upper limits on the value of Θ 13 exist: the aim of T2K is to measure this angle or to put upper limits on it with a sensitivity 20 times better than the current limit. This measurement will be done measuring the appearance at the far detector, SuperKamiokande, of electron neutrinos in the muon neutrino beam produced at JPARC. The main background to the measurement of Θ 13 is the electron neutrinos produced together with the muon neutrinos in the beam: this component, expected to be of the order of 1% of the total neutrino flux, has to be measured at the T2K Near Detector, before the oscillations. This can be done selecting neutrino interactions in the Near Detector tracker and using the TPC particle identification capabilities to distinguish electrons from muons. This allows to select a sample of electron neutrino interactions and to measure their spectrum at the Near Detector. During this thesis I have developed the methods to perform the particle identification in the TPCs: the method is based on the measurement of the truncated mean of the energy deposited by the charged particles in the gas: at the typical energy of the T2K neutrinos the difference in the deposited energy between muons and electrons is of the order of 40% and for this reason a resolution better than 10% is needed to distinguish the two particles: as we will show in the thesis, with

  15. Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Schülke, Winfried

    2007-01-01

    The book offers the first comprehensive review of experimental methods, theory, and successful applications of synchrotron radiation based inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy, which enables the investigation of electron dynamics in condensed matter (correlated motion and excitation).

  16. Electron scattering from the octupole band in 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, A.; Creswell, C.; Bertozzi, W.; Heisenberg, J.; Hynes, M.V.; Kowalski, S.; Miska, H.; Norum, B.; Rad, F.N.; Sargent, C.P.; Sasanuma, T.; Turchinetz, W.

    1978-01-01

    A simple model for nuclear surface vibrations in permanently deformed nuclei does well in reproducing electron scattering cross sections of rotational levels built on a K/sup π/= 0 - intrinsic octupole vibration in 238 U

  17. Relativistic effects in elastic scattering of electrons in TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, Axel; Scheerschmidt, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy typically works with highly accelerated thus relativistic electrons. Consequently the scattering process is described within a relativistic formalism. In the following, we will examine three different relativistic formalisms for elastic electron scattering: Dirac, Klein-Gordon and approximated Klein-Gordon, the standard approach. This corresponds to a different consideration of spin effects and a different coupling to electromagnetic potentials. A detailed comparison is conducted by means of explicit numerical calculations. For this purpose two different formalisms have been applied to the approaches above: a numerical integration with predefined boundary conditions and the multislice algorithm, a standard procedure for such simulations. The results show a negligibly small difference between the different relativistic equations in the vicinity of electromagnetic potentials, prevailing in the electron microscope. The differences between the two numeric approaches are found to be small for small-angle scattering but eventually grow large for large-angle scattering, recorded for instance in high-angle annular dark field.

  18. Expansions for model-independent analyses of inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.F.; Hilton, J.M.; Roberts, A.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the commonly-used Fourier-Bessel expansion for the transition density for inelastic electron scattering depends sensitively on an arbitrary parameter and is not realistic at large distances. Alternative expansions are suggested. (author)

  19. Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-26

    The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.

  20. Significance of matrix diagonalization in modelling inelastic electron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Z. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Hambach, R. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany); University of Jena, Jena 07743 (Germany); Kaiser, U.; Rose, H. [University of Ulm, Ulm 89081 (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Electron scattering is always applied as one of the routines to investigate nanostructures. Nowadays the development of hardware offers more and more prospect for this technique. For example imaging nanostructures with inelastic scattered electrons may allow to produce component-sensitive images with atomic resolution. Modelling inelastic electron scattering is therefore essential for interpreting these images. The main obstacle to study inelastic scattering problem is its complexity. During inelastic scattering, incident electrons entangle with objects, and the description of this process involves a multidimensional array. Since the simulation usually involves fourdimensional Fourier transforms, the computation is highly inefficient. In this work we have offered one solution to handle the multidimensional problem. By transforming a high dimensional array into twodimensional array, we are able to perform matrix diagonalization and approximate the original multidimensional array with its twodimensional eigenvectors. Our procedure reduces the complicated multidimensional problem to a twodimensional problem. In addition, it minimizes the number of twodimensional problems. This method is very useful for studying multiple inelastic scattering. - Highlights: • 4D problems are involved in modelling inelastic electron scattering. • By means of matrix diagonalization, the 4D problems can be simplified as 2D problems. • The number of 2D problems is minimized by using this approach.

  1. Runaway relativistic electron scattering on the plazma oscillations in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskij, V.B.; Razdorski, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of fast electrons in a tolamak plasma with the presence of the constant external electric field have been inveatigated. It is shown that the occurrence of the relativistic electrons ''tail'' of the distribution function is followed by an intensive plasma oscillation swinging under conditions of the anomalous Doppler effect and their large angle scattering in the momentum space. A part of scattered electrons is captured by tokamak inhomogeneous magnetic field and causes the occurrence of a new low frequency alfven instability under conditions of magnetic drift resonance followed by quasilinear diffusion of relativistic electrons along the small radius of the torus. The flux of runaway electrons scattered on plasma oscillations has been found. A nonlinear diffusion equation has been derived for the flux of captured electrons. The equation defines the carrying out of fast particles from the plasma filament center to its periphery depending on the external magnetic field and plasma parameters

  2. Inelastic electron photon scattering at moderate four momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Genzel, H.; Grigull, R.; Lackas, W.; Raupach, F.; Klovning, A.; Lillestoel, E.; Skard, J.A.; Ackermann, H.; Buerger, J.

    1980-10-01

    We present new high statistics data on hadron production in photon photon reactions. The data are analyzed in terms of an electron photon scattering formalism. The dependence of the total cross section on Q 2 , the four momentum transfer squared of the scattered electron, and on the mass W of the hadronic system is investigated. The data are compared to predictions from Vector Dominance and the quark model. (orig.)

  3. Analytical fits to Fink's electron scattering amplitudes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shigeo

    1984-01-01

    Numerical data of the direct and spin-flip amplitudes for elastic electron scattering, calculated previously by Fink and co-workers, were expressed in the form Σc 1 exp(-c 2 x+ic 3 +ic 4 ), where x=1-cos theta,theta being a scattering angle. The adjustable c-parameters were determined by the use of a simplex method. Results are reported for carbon at incident electron energies of 25-1000eV. (author)

  4. Electron Raman scattering in a cylindrical quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Qinghu; Yi Xuehua

    2012-01-01

    Electron Raman scattering (ERS) is investigated in a CdS cylindrical quantum dot (QD). The differential cross section is calculated as a function of the scattering frequency and the size of the QD. Single parabolic conduction and valence bands are assumed, and singularities in the spectrum are found and interpreted. The selection rules for the processes are also studied. The ERS studied here can be used to provide direct information about the electron band structure of these systems. (semiconductor physics)

  5. Multiple pole in the electron--hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Kuchiev, M.Y.

    1982-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the amplitude for electron--hydrogen-atom forward scattering has the third-order pole at the point E = -13.6 eV, E being the energy of the incident electron. The coefficients which characterize the pole are calculated exactly. The invalidity of the Born approximation is proved. The contribution of the pole singularity to the dispersion relation for the scattering amplitude is discussed

  6. Elastic scattering of low energy electrons by hydrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, L.C.G.; Mu-Tao, L.; Botelho, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The coherent version of the Renormalized Multiple-Centre Potential Model (RMPM) has been extended to treat the elastic scattering of low energy electrons by H2 molecule. The intramolecular Multiple Scattering (MS) effect has also been included. The comparison against the experimental data shows that the inclusion of the MS improves significantly with experiment. The extension of the present method to study electron-polyatomic molecule interaction is also discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Jacob's ladder of approximations to paraxial dynamic electron scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Lubk, A.; Rusz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical scattering theory describes the dominant scattering process of beam electrons at targets in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Hence, practically every quantitative TEM study has to consider its ramifications, typically by some approximate modeling. Here, we elaborate on a hierarchy within the various approximations focusing on the two principal approaches used in practice, Bloch wave and multislice. We reveal characteristic differences in the capability of these methods to...

  8. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  9. A feasibility study of boron-loaded liquid scintillator for the detection of electron anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S C; Leung, R W S; Wang, S L; Chang, C Y; Chen Chi Ping; Cheng, K C; Ho, T I; Lai, W P; Liu, H M; Mao, Z P; Shih, I C; Wong, H T; Yu, Z Q

    1999-01-01

    Boron-loaded liquid scintillator offers some potential advantages as a detector for electron anti-neutrinos. A research program was carried out with the objective of developing such scintillators. The crucial feature is the pulse shape discrimination properties following the neutron capture by sup 1 sup 0 B. Results of the R and D efforts are presented. The feasibility and the technical difficulties of carrying out a full-scale neutrino experiment based on this approach are discussed. (author)

  10. Possibility of measuring Adler angles in charged current single pion neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, F.

    2016-05-01

    Uncertainties in modeling neutrino-nucleus interactions are a major contribution to systematic errors in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. Accurate modeling of neutrino interactions requires additional experimental observables such as the Adler angles which carry information about the polarization of the Δ resonance and the interference with nonresonant single pion production. The Adler angles were measured with limited statistics in bubble chamber neutrino experiments as well as in electron-proton scattering experiments. We discuss the viability of measuring these angles in neutrino interactions with nuclei.

  11. A Measurement of Nuclear Structure Functions in the Large $X$ Large $Q^{2}$ Kinematic Region in Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakili, Masoud [Cincinnati U.

    1997-01-01

    Data from the CCFR E770 Neutrino Deep Inelastic Scatter- ing (DIS) experiment at Fermilab contain large Bjorken x, high $Q^2$ events. A comparison of the data with a model, based on no nuclear effects at large $x$, shows an excess of events in the data. Addition of Fermi gas motion of the nucleons in the nucleus to the model does not explain the model's deficit. Adding higher momentum tail due to the formation of "quasi-deuterons" makes the agreement better. Certain models based on "multi- quark clusters" and "few-nucleon correlations" predict an exponentially falling behavior for $F_2$ as $F_2 \\sim e^{s(x -x_0)}$ at large $x$. We measure a $s$ = 8.3 $\\pm$ 0.8 for the best fit to our data. This corresponds to a value of $F_2$($x = 1, Q^2 > 50) \\approx 2$ x $10^{-3}$ in neutrino DIS. These values agree with results from theoretical models and the $SLAC$ $E133$ experiment but seem to be different from the result of the BCDMS experiment

  12. Total cross sections for electron scattering by He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Heer, F.J.; Jansen, R.H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A set of total cross sections for scattering of electrons by He has been evaluated over the energy range of zero to 3000 eV by means of the analysis of experiments and theories on total cross sections for elastic scattering, ionisation and excitation, and on differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. Between 0 and 19.8 eV, where no inelastic processes occur, the total cross sections for scattering are equal to those for elastic scattering. Above 19.8 eV total cross sections for scattering of electrons have been evaluated by adding those for ionisation, excitation and elastic scattering. The total cross sections thus obtained are probably accurate to about 5% over a large part of the energy range. They appear to be in very good agreement with the recent experimental results of Blaauw et al. (J. Phys. B.; 10:L299 (1977)). The present results have already proved useful for application in the dispersion relation for forward scattering in electron-helium collisions. (author)

  13. A multislice theory of electron inelastic scattering in a solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.L.

    1989-01-01

    A multislice theory is proposed to solve Yoshioka's coupling equations for elastic and inelastic scattered high-energy electrons in a solid. This method is capable, in principle, of including the non-periodic crystal structures and the electron multiple scattering among all the excited states in the calculations. It is proved that the proposed theory for calculating the energy-filtered inelastic images, based on the physical optics approach, is equivalent to the quantum-mechanical theory under some approximations. The basic theory of simulating the energy-filtered inelastic image of core-shell losses and thermal diffuse scattering is outlined. (orig.)

  14. Supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Beacom

    2003-01-01

    We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, ν + p → ν + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T p ≅ 2E ν 2 /M p , and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from (bar ν) e + p → e + + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum, which solves a long-standing problem of how to separately measure the total energy release and temperature of ν μ , ν τ , (bar ν) μ , and (bar ν) τ . The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos

  15. Alignment creation by elastic electron scattering. A quantum treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.

    2004-01-01

    Alignment creation by elastic heavy particle scattering has been studied by many authors. A formula for the alignment creation cross section by elastic scattering is obtained by quantum-mechanical methods. The formula obtained differs from the analogous formula relevant for inelastic electron scattering. In the case of a J=1 to J=1 transition according to the inelastic formula, the alignment created is proportional to the quantity σ (1) - σ (0) where σ (M) is the excitation cross section of the M magnetic sublevel and thus σ (1) = (σ 1-1 + σ 10 + σ 11 )/3 and σ (0) = (σ 0-1 +σ 00 + σ 01 )/3 where σ MM' refers to the cross section of the electron impact induced M' to M transition. In the elastic scattering alignment creation formula obtained in the case of a J=1 to J=1 elastic scattering, the alignment created is proportional to the quantity q(1) - q(0) where q(1) σ (1) - σ 11 /3 and q(0) = σ 00 /3. Thus in obtaining q(M), the elastic scattering cross section by the M magnetic sublevel, σ MM' , is subtracted. This derivation considered only direct scattering, i.e. the incident electron was considered distinguishable from the target electrons. (Y.Kazumata)

  16. Study of the electrons elastic scattering by atoms through pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettega, M.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Pseudopotentials allow an extraordinary simplification in the calculation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and crystals. Though they have been used extensively for electronic structure calculations, little is known of their applicability to scattering. A study of the pseudopotentials of Bachelet, Hamann and Schuter in the electron scattering by atoms was made, calculating phase-shifts and cross sections for angular momenta 1=0,1 and 2 and energy up to 5 R y. The results for the pseudopotential were compared all-electron calculations. The agreement is very good in a broad energy band. A simplification of the calculation of scattering by complex molecules where an all-electron calculation is impossible is aimed. (author)

  17. Inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on O7+ projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Grabbe, S.; Richard, P.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections (DDCS close-quote s) for the resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree target electrons on H-like projectiles have been measured. Electron spectra for 20.25-MeV O 7+ projectiles on an H 2 target were measured. The spectra contain a resonant contribution from the 3l3l ' doubly excited states of O 6+ , which decay predominantly to the 2l states of the O 7+ via autoionization, and a nonresonant contribution from the direct excitation of the projectiles to the O 7+ (2l) state by the quasifree target electrons. Close-coupling R-matrix calculations for the inelastic scattering of free electrons on O 7+ ions were performed. The relation between the electron-ion inelastic scattering calculation and the electron DDCS close-quote s for the ion-atom collision was established by using the inelastic scattering model (ISM). We found excellent agreement between the theoretical and measured resonant peak positions and relative peak heights. The calculated absolute double differential cross sections for the resonance processes are also in good agreement with the measured data. The implication is that collisions of highly charged ions on hydrogen can be used to obtain high-resolution, angle- resolved differential inelastic electron-scattering cross section. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Path integral approach to electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chuang; Feng Feng; Li Ying-Jun

    2016-01-01

    As is known to all, the electron scattering in classical electromagnetic potential is one of the most widespread applications of quantum theory. Nevertheless, many discussions about electron scattering are based upon single-particle Schrodinger equation or Dirac equation in quantum mechanics rather than the method of quantum field theory. In this paper, by using the path integral approach of quantum field theory, we perturbatively evaluate the scattering amplitude up to the second order for the electron scattering by the classical electromagnetic potential. The results we derive are convenient to apply to all sorts of potential forms. Furthermore, by means of the obtained results, we give explicit calculations for the one-dimensional electric potential. (paper)

  19. Scattering of electrons in copper by a Frenkel pair defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, A.; Rijsdijk, G.A.; Bukman, D.J.; Baratta, A.J.; Molenaar, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function extended-defect formalism, used to describe the scattering of Bloch electrons in a dilute alloy, is generalised to include an asymmetric defect centred on a lattice site. The revised theory is then used to investigate conduction electron scattering from Frenkel pairs in Cu. Such defects consist of two self-interstitial atoms centred on a vacant lattice site forming a dumb-bell oriented along the <100> axis. The generalised formalism allows one to calculate the cluster t matrix T for the Frenkel pair cluster including the surrounding displaced nearest neighbours. It was found that the interstitials at the vacant lattice site could still be treated within the muffin-tin potential as a central scatterer characterised by a t matrix which is non-diagonal in the angular momentum. Electron scattering rates and Dingle temperatures are calculated and discussed in view of preliminary experimental results.

  20. Scattering of electrons in copper by a Frenkel pair defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodder, A.; Rijsdijk, G.A.; Bukman, D.J.; Baratta, A.J.; Molenaar, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function extended-defect formalism, used to describe the scattering of Bloch electrons in a dilute alloy, is generalised to include an asymmetric defect centred on a lattice site. The revised theory is then used to investigate conduction electron scattering from Frenkel pairs in Cu. Such defects consist of two self-interstitial atoms centred on a vacant lattice site forming a dumb-bell oriented along the axis. The generalised formalism allows one to calculate the cluster t matrix T for the Frenkel pair cluster including the surrounding displaced nearest neighbours. It was found that the interstitials at the vacant lattice site could still be treated within the muffin-tin potential as a central scatterer characterised by a t matrix which is non-diagonal in the angular momentum. Electron scattering rates and Dingle temperatures are calculated and discussed in view of preliminary experimental results. (author)

  1. The source of monoenergetic electrons for the monitoring of spectrometer in the KATRIN neutrino experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Slezák, Martin

    The international project KATRIN (KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment) is a next-generation tritium $\\beta$-decay experiment. It is designed to measure the electron anti-neutrino mass by means of a unique electron spectrometer with sensitivity of 0.2 eV/c$^2$. This is an improvement of one order of magnitude over the last results. Important part of the measurement will rest in continuous precise monitoring of high voltage of the KATRIN main spectrometer. The monitoring will be done by means of conversion electrons emitted from a solid source based on $^{83}$Rb decay. Properties of several of these sources are studied in this thesis by means of the semiconductor $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Firstly, measurement of precise energy of the 9.4 keV nuclear transition observed in $^{83}$Rb decay, from which the energy of conversion electrons is derived, is reported. Secondly, measurement of activity distribution of the solid sources by means of the Timepix detector is described. Finally, a report on measurement of r...

  2. Angular momentum effects in electron scattering from atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J F; Cvejanovie, D; Samarin, S; Pravica, L; Napier, S; Sergeant, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns angular momentum-dependent phenomena in excited gas-phase atoms using incident photons or electrons in scattering experiments. A brief overview indicates the main capabilities of experimental techniques and the information which can be deduced about atomic structure and dynamics from conservation of momenta with measurement of polarization and detection of the number of emerging electrons, photons and ions. Maximum information may be obtained when the incident particles and the targets are state-selected both before and after scattering. The fundamental scattering amplitudes and their relative phases, and consequently derived quantities such as the parameters describing the electron charge cloud of the atomic target, have enabled significant advances of understanding of collision mechanisms. The angular momentum-dependent scattering probabilities change when, for example, the spin-orbit interaction for the target electrons becomes large compared with the Coulomb electron-electron interactions and also when electron exchange and the relative orientation of the electron spins change. Several examples are discussed to indicate significant principles and recent advances. Major contributions to this field from the technology associated with electron spin production and detection time, as well as time-coincidence detection, are discussed. New results from the authors' laboratory are presented

  3. Search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe with the XMASS-I detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Double electron capture is a rare nuclear decay process in which two orbital electrons are captured simultaneously in the same nucleus. Measurement of its two-neutrino mode would provide a new reference for the calculation of nuclear matrix elements whereas observation of its neutrinoless mode would demonstrate lepton number violation. A search for two-neutrino double electron capture on 124Xe is performed using 165.9 days of data collected with the XMASS-I liquid xenon detector. No significant excess above background was observed and we set a lower limit on the half-life as 4.7×1021 years at 90% confidence level. The obtained limit has ruled out parts of some theoretical expectations. We obtain a lower limit on the 126Xe two-neutrino double electron capture half-life of 4.3×1021 years at 90% confidence level as well.

  4. CNO and pep neutrino spectroscopy in Borexino: Measurement of the deep underground production of cosmogenic 11C in organic liquid scintillator

    OpenAIRE

    Borexino Collaboration

    2006-01-01

    Borexino is an experiment for low energy neutrino spectroscopy at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. It is designed to measure the mono-energetic $^7$Be solar neutrino flux in real time, via neutrino-electron elastic scattering in ultra-pure organic liquid scintillator. Borexino has the potential to also detect neutrinos from the \\emph{pep} fusion process and the CNO cycle. For this measurement to be possible, radioactive contamination in the detector must be kept extremely low. Once su...

  5. THEORY OF ELECTRON-DEUTERON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, L. III

    1963-06-15

    Information on the electromagnetic form factors of the neutron is obtained from the theory of inelastic electrondeuteron scattering. Problems in the analysis of these experiments that are related to the detailed structure of the deuteron and to the strong final state interactions between the emergent nucleons are considered. Problems arising from an ambiguity in the sign of the Dirac or charge form factor are also discussed. (C.E.S.)

  6. Digital and Analog Electronics for an autonomous, deep-sea, Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino prototype detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolopoulos K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GRBNeT is a Gamma Ray Burst Neutrino Telescope made of autonomously operated arrays of deep-sea light detectors, anchored to the sea-bed without any cabled connection to the shore. This paper presents the digital and analog electronics that we have designed and developed for the GRBNeT prototype. We describe the requirements for these electronics and present their design and functionality. We present low-power analog electronics for the PMTs utilized in the GRBNeT prototype and the FPGA based digital system for data selection and storage. We conclude with preliminary performance measurements of the electronics systems for the GRBNeT prototype.

  7. Neutrino mixing and big bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole

    2003-04-01

    We analyse active-active neutrino mixing in the early universe and show that transformation of neutrino-antineutrino asymmetries between flavours is unavoidable when neutrino mixing angles are large. This process is a standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein flavour transformation, modified by the synchronisation of momentum states which results from neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. The new constraints placed on neutrino asymmetries eliminate the possibility of degenerate big bang nucleosynthesis.Implications of active-sterile neutrino mixing will also be reviewed.

  8. Neutrinos and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yoichiro

    2005-01-01

    A tiny neutrino mass is a clue to the physics beyond the standard model of elementary particle physics. The primary cosmic rays, mostly protons, are created and accelerated to the relativistic energy in supernova remnants. They traverse the universe and reach the earth. The incoming primary cosmic rays interact with the earth's atmosphere to produce secondary particles, which subsequently decay into neutrinos, called atmospheric neutrinos. The atmospheric neutrinos have shown the evidence of the finite neutrino masses through the phenomena called neutrino oscillations. Neutrinos are detected by large detectors underground like, for example, Super-Kamiokande, SNO and KamLAND. Those detectors use large photomultiplier tubes, which make use of the photo-electric effect to convert photons created by the interaction of neutrinos to electrons to form electric pulses. Neutrinos are therefore created and detected by "Einstein" and have step forward beyond the current physics. Neutrinos may also carry a hit to the ori...

  9. 50 years of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Goldhaber, M

    1980-01-01

    On December 4 1930, Wolfgang Pauli addressed an "open letter" to Lise Meitner and others attending a physics meeting, suggesting the neutrino as a way out of the difficulties confronted in beta rays research, especially by the existence of a continuous beta spectrum. He proposed a new particle later called the neutrino. The prehistory leading up to Pauli's letter will be reviewed, as well as the later discovery of the electron-neutrino followed by the muon-neutrino. There are now believed to be three different types of neutrino and their anti-particles. Neutrinos have a spin 1/2; but only one spin component has been found in nature: neutrinos go forward as "left-handed" screws and anti-neutrinos as "right-handed" ones. A question still not convincingly resolved today is wether neutrinos have a mass different from zero and, if they do, what consequences this would have for the behaviour of neutrinos and for cosmology.

  10. Wroclaw neutrino event generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, J A

    2006-01-01

    A neutrino event generator developed by the Wroclaw Neutrino Group is described. The physical models included in the generator are discussed and illustrated with the results of simulations. The considered processes are quasi-elastic scattering and pion production modelled by combining the Δ resonance excitation and deep inelastic scattering

  11. Light neutrinos as cosmological dark matter and the next supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.; Nunokawa, H.

    1990-01-01

    We point out that the light-neutrino hypothesis for cosmological dark matter can be tested by observing a neutrino burst from a type-II supernova. With the luck of a nearby (∼10 kpc) event watched by enlarged water Cherenkov detectors, such as the proposed super-Kamiokande, it might be possible to measure the tau- (heaviest-)neutrino mass. In such a case the statistically significant (4000--6000) bar ν e absorption events would allow the precise determination of the neutrino flux and the temperature. By using a simple model of neutrino emission based on the simulation by Mayle, Wilson, and Schramm, we show that the existence of the neutrino mixing can be signaled by 20--30 % excess of the scattering events in the water Cherenkov detector, and by factor ∼3 larger rate in Davis's 37 Cl detector. The effect on the recoil electron energy spectrum is also analyzed

  12. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, L.J. van; Zee, W. van der; Huizenga, H.

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight

  13. Inclusive and exclusive deep-inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, J.

    1985-11-01

    In this talk, I will present some deep inelastic electron scattering experiments done recently at Saclay with the purpose of studying high momentum components in the nucleus, many body effects as correlations, exchange currents, and the electron-nucleon interaction inside the nuclear medium. For that purpose we have performed (e,e') and (ee'p) experiments. When we detect only the scattered electron, we get some average properties less sensitive to final state interaction; in ee'p measurements we are more specific

  14. Small angle elastic scattering of electrons by noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, measurements are carried out to obtain small angle elastic differential cross sections in order to check the validity of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for electrons scattered by noble gas atoms. First, total cross sections are obtained for argon, krypton and xenon. Next, a parallel plate electrostatic energy analyser for the simultaneous measurement of doubly differential cross section for small angle electron scattering is described. Also absolute differential cross sections are reported. Finally the forward dispersion relation for electron-helium collisions is dealt with. (Auth.)

  15. Improved limit on the electron anti neutrino rest mass from tritium β decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinheimer, C.; Przyrembel, M.; Backe, H.; Barth, H.; Bonn, J.; Degen, B.; Edling, T.; Fischer, H.; Fleischmann, L.; Grooss, J.U.; Haid, R.; Hermanni, A.; Kube, G.; Loeken, T.; Molz, A.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.W.; Picard, A.; Schrader, M.; Steininger, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a re-measurement of the endpoint region of the beta-spectrum of tritium by an electrostatic spectrometer with magnetic guiding field. It enables the search for a rest mass of the electron anti neutrino with improved precision. The result is: m ν 2 =(-39±34 stat ±15 syst ) (eV/c 2 ) 2 , from which an upper limit of: m ν 2 may be derived. The experiment yields the atomic mass difference: m(T)-m( 3 He)=(18591±3) eV/c 2 . (TEC). 31 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Influence of scattering processes on electron quantum states in nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozdnyakov Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the framework of quantum perturbation theory the self-consistent method of calculation of electron scattering rates in nanowires with the one-dimensional electron gas in the quantum limit is worked out. The developed method allows both the collisional broadening and the quantum correlations between scattering events to be taken into account. It is an alternativeper seto the Fock approximation for the self-energy approach based on Green’s function formalism. However this approach is free of mathematical difficulties typical to the Fock approximation. Moreover, the developed method is simpler than the Fock approximation from the computational point of view. Using the approximation of stable one-particle quantum states it is proved that the electron scattering processes determine the dependence of electron energy versus its wave vector.

  17. Solar neutrino detection in a large volume double-phase liquid argon experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, D.; Agnes, P. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris 75205 (France); Giganti, C.; Agostino, L.; De Cecco, S., E-mail: dfranco@in2p3.fr, E-mail: cgiganti@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: pagnes@in2p3.fr, E-mail: lagostin@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: sandro.dececco@lpnhe.in2p3.fr [LPNHE Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, Paris 75252 (France); and others

    2016-08-01

    Precision measurements of solar neutrinos emitted by specific nuclear reaction chains in the Sun are of great interest for developing an improved understanding of star formation and evolution. Given the expected neutrino fluxes and known detection reactions, such measurements require detectors capable of collecting neutrino-electron scattering data in exposures on the order of 1 ktonne-yr, with good energy resolution and extremely low background. Two-phase liquid argon time projection chambers (LAr TPCs) are under development for direct Dark Matter WIMP searches, which possess very large sensitive mass, high scintillation light yield, good energy resolution, and good spatial resolution in all three cartesian directions. While enabling Dark Matter searches with sensitivity extending to the ''neutrino floor'' (given by the rate of nuclear recoil events from solar neutrino coherent scattering), such detectors could also enable precision measurements of solar neutrino fluxes using the neutrino-electron elastic scattering events. Modeling results are presented for the cosmogenic and radiogenic backgrounds affecting solar neutrino detection in a 300 tonne (100 tonne fiducial) LAr TPC operating at LNGS depth (3,800 meters of water equivalent). The results show that such a detector could measure the CNO neutrino rate with ∼15% precision, and significantly improve the precision of the {sup 7}Be and pep neutrino rates compared to the currently available results from the Borexino organic liquid scintillator detector.

  18. Precision Measurement of the Be7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2011-09-01

    The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV Be7 solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst)counts/(day·100ton). This corresponds to a νe-equivalent Be7 solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×109cm-2s-1 and, under the assumption of νe transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φpp=6.06-0.06+0.02×1010cm-2s-1 and ΦCNOMikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.

  19. Signals of R-parity violating supersymmetry in neutrino scattering at muon storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Anindya; Gandhi, Raj; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Mehta, Poonam

    2001-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation signals at muon storage rings can be faked by supersymmetric (SUSY) interactions in an R-parity violating scenario. We investigate the τ-appearance signals for both long-baseline and near-site experiments, and conclude that the latter is of great use in distinguishing between oscillation and SUSY effects. On the other hand, for a wide and phenomenologically consistent choice of parameters, SUSY can cause a manifold increase in the event rate for wrong-sign muons at a long-baseline setting, thereby providing us with signatures of new physics

  20. Influence of the spin and the Weinberg-angle on the bulk viscosity of a neutrino-electron mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskens, Th.J.; Weerb, Ch.G. van; Boer, W.P.H. de

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for the first approximation to the bulk viscosity of a non-degenerate electron-neutrino system interacting in accordance with the Weinberg-Salam model. The influence of the electron spin and the Weinberg-angle are taken into account separately. (Auth.)

  1. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BIGI, I.; BOLTON, T.; FORMAGGIO, J.; HARRIS, D.; MORFIN, J.; SPENTZOURIS, P.; YU, J.; KAYSER, B.; KING, B.J.; MCFARLAND, K.; PETROV, A.; SCHELLMAN, H.; VELASCO, M.; SHROCK, R.

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters

  2. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  3. Variational methods in electron-atom scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nesbet, Robert K

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of scattering phenomena is a major theme of modern physics. A scattered particle provides a dynamical probe of the target system. The practical problem of interest here is the scattering of a low­ energy electron by an N-electron atom. It has been difficult in this area of study to achieve theoretical results that are even qualitatively correct, yet quantitative accuracy is often needed as an adjunct to experiment. The present book describes a quantitative theoretical method, or class of methods, that has been applied effectively to this problem. Quantum mechanical theory relevant to the scattering of an electron by an N-electron atom, which may gain or lose energy in the process, is summarized in Chapter 1. The variational theory itself is presented in Chapter 2, both as currently used and in forms that may facilitate future applications. The theory of multichannel resonance and threshold effects, which provide a rich structure to observed electron-atom scattering data, is presented in Cha...

  4. Continuum multiple-scattering approach to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmer, J.L.; Dill, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multiple-scattering approach to the electronic continuum of molecules is described. The continuum multiple-scattering model (CMSM) was developed as a survey tool and, as such was required to satisfy two requirements. First, it had to have a very broad scope, which means (i) molecules of arbitrary geometry and complexity containing any atom in the periodic system, (ii) continuum electron energies from 0-1000 eV, and (iii) capability to treat a large range of processes involving both photoionization and electron scattering. Second, the structure of the theory was required to lend itself to transparent, physical interpretation of major spectral features such as shape resonances. A comprehensive theoretical framework for the continuum multiple scattering method is presented, as well as its applications to electron-molecule scattering and molecular photoionization. Highlights of recent applications in these two areas are reviewed. The major impact of the resulting studies over the last few years has been to establish the importance of shape resonances in electron collisions and photoionization of practically all (non-hydride) molecules

  5. Parity nonconservation in polarized electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1979-10-01

    Recent observations of parity violation in inelastic scattering of electrons at high energy is discussed with reference to the process e(polarized) + D(unpolarized) → e + X. The kinetics of this process, the idealized case of scattering from free quark targets, experimental techniques and results, and relations to atomic physics of parity violation in bismuth and thallium atoms with a model independent analysis. 17 references

  6. Resonance electronic Raman scattering in rare earth crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The intensities of Raman scattering transitions between electronic energy levels of trivalent rare earth ions doped into transparent crystals were measured and compared to theory. A particle emphasis was placed on the examination of the effect of intermediate state resonances on the Raman scattering intensities. Two specific systems were studied: Ce 3+ (4f 1 ) in single crystals of LuPO 4 and Er 3+ (4f 11 ) in single crystals of ErPO 4 . 134 refs., 92 figs., 33 tabs

  7. Inclusive quasielastic and deep inelastic electron scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    With high electron energies a kinematic regime can be reached where it will be possible to separate quasielastic and deep inelastic scattering. We present a short description of these processes which dominate the inclusive spectrum. Using the highest momentum transfer data available to guide our estimates, we give the kinematic requirements and the cross sections expected. These results indicate that inclusive scattering at high q has a yet unfilled potential. 18 refs., 13 figs

  8. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  9. Nucleons, mesons and quarks: the electron scattering approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-05-01

    A few examples of the research carried out by electron scattering in order to elucidate the relevant degrees of freedom for nuclear physics. Is considered first quasielastic scattering from 3 He which gives some insight into the properties of the nucleon in the nuclear medium. Then examples of meson exchange currents are presented. Finally, the present status of our understanding of shorter range effects is discussed

  10. Forward elastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibotti, C.R. (Instituto de Fisica Teorica, R. Pamplona 145, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Massaro, P.A. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1978-01-11

    The available theoretical and experimental values for the elastic, inelastic and ionization cross-sections of electrons by hydrogen atoms are used to obtain the total cross-section. The optical theorem and a dispersion relation are used to calculate the forward e-H scattering amplitude for medium and high energies. Using this quantity the reliability of the Born expansion for elastic e-H scattering is tested.

  11. Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Quantum Electron Gas with Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Terahertz (THz) plasma waves in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with quantum effects, the electron scattering, the thermal motion of electrons and electron exchange-correlation. We find that, while the electron scattering, the wave number along y direction and the electron exchange-correlation suppress the radiation power, but the thermal motion of electrons and the quantum effects can amplify the radiation power. The radiation frequency decreases with electron exchange-correlation contributions, but increases with quantum effects, the wave number along y direction and thermal motion of electrons. It is worth mentioning that the electron scattering has scarce influence on the radiation frequency. These properties could be of great help to the realization of practical THz plasma oscillations in nanometer FET. (paper)

  12. Nuclear effects in (anti)neutrino charge-current quasielastic scattering at MINER νA kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. V.; Antonov, A. N.; Megias, G. D.; González-Jiménez, R.; Barbaro, M. B.; Caballero, J. A.; Donnelly, T. W.; Udías, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We compare the characteristics of the charged-current quasielastic (anti)neutrino scattering obtained in two different nuclear models, the phenomenological SuperScaling Approximation and the model using a realistic spectral function S(p, ɛ) that gives a scaling function in accordance with the (e, e‧ ) scattering data, with the recent data published by the MiniBooNE, MINER νA, and NOMAD collaborations. The spectral function accounts for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) correlations by using natural orbitals from the Jastrow correlation method and has a realistic energy dependence. Both models provide a good description of the MINER νA and NOMAD data without the need of an ad hoc increase of the value of the mass parameter in the axial-vector dipole form factor. The models considered in this work, based on the the impulse approximation (IA), underpredict the MiniBooNE data for the flux-averaged charged-current quasielastic {ν }μ ({\\bar{ν }}μ ){+}12\\text{C} differential cross section per nucleon and the total cross sections, although the shape of the cross sections is represented by the approaches. The discrepancy is most likely due to missing of the effects beyond the IA, e.g., those of the 2p–2h meson exchange currents that have contribution in the transverse responses.

  13. Exploring new features of neutrino oscillations with very low energy monoenergetic neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we propose to study neutrino oscillations employing sources of monoenergetic neutrinos following electron capture by the nucleus. Since the neutrino energy is very low the smaller of the two oscillation lengths, L23, appearing in this electronic neutrino disappearance experiment can be so small that the full oscillation can take place inside the detector and one may determine very accurately the neutrino oscillation parameters. Since in this case the oscillation probability is proportional to theta13, one can measure or set a better limit on the unknown parameter theta13. This is quite important, since, if this mixing angle vanishes, there is not going to be CP violation in the leptonic sector. The best way to detect it is by measuring electron recoils in neutrino-electron scattering. One, however, has to pay the price that the expected counting rates are very small. Thus one needs a very intensive neutrino source and a large detector with as low as possible energy threshold and high energ...

  14. Type II supernovae modelisation: neutrinos transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, P.

    1988-10-01

    A modelisation of neutrino transport in type II supernovae is presented. The first part is a description of hydrodynamics and radiative processes responsible of supernovae explosions. Macroscopic aspects of these are displayed in part two. Neutrino transport theory and usual numerical methods are also developed. A new technic of coherent scattering of neutrinos on nuclei or free nucleons is proposed in the frame work of the Lorentz bifluid approximation. This method deals with all numerical artifices (flux limiting schemes, closure relationship of Eddington moments) and allows a complete and consistent determination of the time-dependent neutrino distribution function for any value of the opacity, gradient of opacity and for all (relativistic) velocity fields of the diffusive medium. Part three is dedicated to microscopic phenomena (electronic capture, chimical composition, etc) which rule neutrinos emission-absorption mechanisms. The numerical treatments of those are presented, and some applications are useful for their parametrization. Finally, an extension of the method to inelastic scattering on light particules (electrons) is described in view to study neutrinos thermalization mechanism [fr

  15. Theoretical estimates of supernova-neutrino cross sections for the stable even-even lead isotopes: Charged-current reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosly, W.; Carlsson, B. G.; Suhonen, J.; Toivanen, J.; Ydrefors, E.

    2016-10-01

    A detailed study of the charged-current supernova electron neutrino and electron antineutrino scattering off the stable even-mass lead isotopes A =204 , 206, and 208 is reported in this work. The proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) is adopted to construct the nuclear final and initial states. Three different Skyrme interactions are tested for their isospin and spin-isospin properties and then applied to produce (anti)neutrino-nucleus scattering cross sections for (anti)neutrino energies below 80 MeV. Realistic estimates of the nuclear responses to supernova (anti)neutrinos are computed by folding the computed cross sections with a two-parameter Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electron (anti)neutrino energies. The computed cross sections are compared with earlier calculations and the analyses are extended to take into account the effects coming from the neutrino oscillations.

  16. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of electron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarova, R.

    1994-04-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo model is described which simulates the transport of electrons penetrating a medium without energy loss. The trajectory of each electron is constructed as a series of successive interaction events - elastic or inelastic scattering. Differential elastic scattering cross sections, elastic and inelastic mean free paths are used to describe the interaction process. It is presumed that the cross sections data are available and the Monte Carlo algorithm does not include their evaluation. Electrons suffering successive elastic collisions are followed until they escape from the medium or (if the absorption is negligible) their path length exceeds a certain value. The inelastic events are thus treated as absorption. The medium geometry is a layered infinite slab. The electron source could be an incident electron beam or electrons created inside the material. The objective is to obtain the angular distribution, the path length and depth distribution and the collision number distribution of electrons emitted through the surface of the medium. The model is applied successfully to electrons with energy between 0.4 and 20 keV reflected from semi-infinite homogeneous materials with different scattering properties. 16 refs, 9 figs

  17. Experimental study of intensive electron beam scattering in melting channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagura, V.S.; Kurilko, V.I.; Safronov, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple scattering of an intensive electron beam at 28 keV energy passing through a melting channel in iron targets is experimentally studied. The dependence of scattering on the melting current value is established. The material density in the channel on the basis of the binary collision method is evaluated. It is shown that these density values are of three orders less than the estimations made on the basis of the data on energy losses of electrons in the channel. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Optical-potential model for electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.; Oza, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the addition of a matrix optical potential to a close-coupling calculation should lead to improved results in studies of electron-atom scattering. This procedure is described with use of a pseudostate expansion to evaluate the optical potential. The integro-differential equations are solved by a linear-algebraic method. As a test case, applications are made to electron-hydrogen scattering, and the results are compared with those obtained by other calculational procedures, and with experiment

  19. Electron scattering and correlation structure of light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the short-range correlations due to the repulsive part of the nuclear interaction is exhibited in the nuclear form factors as obtained from high energy electron scattering. In this work the harmonic oscillator basis functions are used. The nuclear form factors as obtained from elastic electron scattering are calculated, with Jastrow's technique by means of the cluster expansion of Iwamoto Yamada, in the Born approximation. The correlated wave function is given. The results for nuclear form factors calculated with the wave function are presented for some light nuclei. (Auth.)

  20. Hybrid Theory of Electron-Hydrogenic Systems Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate electron-hydrogen and electron-hydrogenic cross sections are required to interpret fusion experiments, laboratory plasma physics and properties of the solar and astrophysical plasmas. We have developed a method in which the short-range and long-range correlations can be included at the same time in the scattering equations. The phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds and the scattering lengths have rigorous upper bounds. The phase shifts in the resonance region can be used to calculate very accurately the resonance parameters.

  1. Precision Measurement of the Beryllium-7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Richard Nigel

    Solar neutrinos, since their first detection nearly forty years ago, have revealed valuable information regarding the source of energy production in the Sun, and have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) oscillation parameters with matter interactions due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. This thesis presents a precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate within Borexino, an underground liquid scintillator detector that is designed to measure solar neutrino interactions through neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The thesis includes a detailed description of the analysis techniques developed and used for this measurement as well as an evaluation of the relevant systematic uncertainties that affect the precision of the result. The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is determined to be 45.4 +/- 1.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (sys) counts/day/100 ton. Due to extensive detector calibrations and improved analysis methods, the systematic uncertainty in the interaction rate has been reduced by more than a factor of two from the previous evaluation. In the no-oscillation hypothesis, the interaction rate corresponds to a 0.862 MeV 7Be electron neutrino flux of (2.75 +/- 0.13) x 10 9 cm-2 sec-1. Including the predicted neutrino flux from the Standard Solar Model yields an electron neutrino survival probability of Pee 0.51 +/- 0.07 and rules out the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5.1sigma The LMA-MSW neutrino oscillation model predicts a transition in the solar Pee value between low ( 10 MeV) energies which has not yet been experimentally confirmed. This result, in conjunction with the Standard Solar Model, represents the most precise measurement of the electron neutrino survival probability for solar neutrinos at sub-MeV energies.

  2. Study of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radia­tion field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation. The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons. It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle. We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  3. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  4. An experiment to measure the electron neutrino mass using a cryogenic tritium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackler, O.; Jeziorski, B.; Kolos, W.; Monkhorst, H.; Mugge, M.; Sticker, H.; Szalewicz, K.; White, R.M.; Woerner, R.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment has been performed to determine the electron neutrino mass with the precision of a few eV by measuring the tritium beta decay energy distribution near the endpoint. Key features of the experiment are a 2 eV resolution electrostatic spectrometer and a high-activity frozen tritium source. It is important that the source have electronic wavefunctions which can be accurately calculated. These calculations have been made for tritium and the HeT + daughter ion and allow determination of branching fractions to 0.1% and energy of the excited states to 0.1 eV. The excited final molecular state calculations and the experimental apparatus are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs

  5. Inelastic electron and light scattering from the elementary electronic excitations in quantum wells: Zero magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvir S. Kushwaha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most fundamental approach to an understanding of electronic, optical, and transport phenomena which the condensed matter physics (of conventional as well as nonconventional systems offers is generally founded on two experiments: the inelastic electron scattering and the inelastic light scattering. This work embarks on providing a systematic framework for the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering from the electronic excitations in GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs quantum wells. To this end, we start with the Kubo's correlation function to derive the generalized nonlocal, dynamic dielectric function, and the inverse dielectric function within the framework of Bohm-Pines’ random-phase approximation. This is followed by a thorough development of the theory of inelastic electron scattering and of inelastic light scattering. The methodological part is then subjected to the analytical diagnoses which allow us to sense the subtlety of the analytical results and the importance of their applications. The general analytical results, which know no bounds regarding, e.g., the subband occupancy, are then specified so as to make them applicable to practicality. After trying and testing the eigenfunctions, we compute the density of states, the Fermi energy, the full excitation spectrum made up of intrasubband and intersubband – single-particle and collective (plasmon – excitations, the loss functions for all the principal geometries envisioned for the inelastic electron scattering, and the Raman intensity, which provides a measure of the real transitions induced by the (laser probe, for the inelastic light scattering. It is found that the dominant contribution to both the loss peaks and the Raman peaks comes from the collective (plasmon excitations. As to the single-particle peaks, the analysis indicates a long-lasting lack of quantitative comparison between theory and experiments. It is inferred that the inelastic electron

  6. Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, B.

    1981-01-01

    The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for delta electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations

  7. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons with Sr atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Static-exchange, plus correlation-polarization-potential calculations are performed for elastic low-energy electron scattering from Sr atoms while paying attention to the low-lying shape resonances. The correlation potential is calculated both with and without a scaling factor. A 2 D-shape resonance is produced at 1.0 eV with a parameter-free, and at 1.25 eV with a scaled, correlation potential. No 2 P-shape resonances are predicted, but evidence to support the existence of a stable negative ion Sr - in the 5s 2 5p electron configuration is given from the viewpoint of electron scattering. The bound energy of the extra electron in the negative ion is estimated by transforming the phase shift of the corresponding partial wave into the polarization quantum-defect number and extrapolating the number from positive to negative energies

  8. Electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Emoto, T.; Furukawa, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We have established a novel method which make electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei come into being. This novel method was named SCRIT (Self-Confining RI ion Target). It was based on the well known "ion trapping" phenomenon in electron storage rings. Stable nucleus, 133 Cs, was used as target nucleus in the R&D experiment. The luminosity of interaction between stored electrons and Cs ions was about 1.02(0.06) × 10 26 cm -2 s -1 at beam current around 80 mA. The angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons from trapped Cs ions was measured. And an online luminosity monitor was used to monitor the change of luminosity during the experiment. (author)

  9. Electronic properties of Be and Al by Compton scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, J.C.; Di Rocco, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, electronic properties of beryllium and aluminum are examined by using Compton scattering technique. The method is based on the irradiation of samples using a beam narrow of mono- energetic photons of 59.54 keV product of radioactive decay of Am -241 . Scattered radiation is collected by a high resolution semiconductor detector positioned at an angle of 90°. The measured spectrum is commonly called Compton profile and contains useful information about the electronic structure of the material. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations such as density functional theory showing a good agreement. However, these results show some discrepancies with many libraries used in codes such as Monte Carlo simulation. Since these libraries are based on the values tabulated by Biggs, Mendelsohn and Mann 1975 thus overestimating the scattered radiation on the material. (authors) [es

  10. Resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabbe, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several studies of resonant-transfer excitation (RTE) have been reported in ion-atom collisions where the doubly excited autoionizing states are produced. Such a complex collision can be approximated as the scattering of quasifree electrons of the target from the projectile ion. Most of the investigations have been restricted to the deexcitation of the autoionizing states to the ground state by Auger electron emission. It has been shown that there is a strong interference between the elastic scattering amplitude and the resonance amplitude. The authors present here the cases where the corresponding interference is between the inelastic scattering and the resonance process. Recent work on 3 ell 3 ell ' resonances that decay predominantly to n=2 states will be presented for C 5+ -molecular hydrogen collisions

  11. The Neutrinos Saga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Souchere, Marie-Christine de; Moran, John

    2009-04-01

    The author proposes a history of the discovery and study of neutrinos. This history starts shortly after the discovery of radioactivity in 1896 with the observation of an inhomogeneous deceleration of electrons in the radioactive source which raised an issue of shortage of energy. Pauli then introduced the idea of a ghost particle which could preserve the principle of energy conservation and also the issue of statistics related to the laws of quantum mechanics. Works by the Joliot-Curies and Chadwick resulted in the identification of a neutral particle, first called a neutron, and then neutrino. The author then reports experiments performed to highlight neutrinos, and to identify different forms of neutrinos: muon, tau, lepton. She also addresses questions raised by solar neutrinos, experiments proving the metamorphosis of electron neutrinos into muon neutrinos. She discusses the interest of neutrino as cosmic messengers as they are emitted by various cosmic events, and also as a way to study dark matter

  12. Particle Astrophysics of Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amol Dighe

    Energy spectra of neutrino sources. ASPERA. Page 4. Some unique features of neutrinos. The second most abundant particles in the universe. Cosmic microwave background photons: 400 / cm3. Cosmic background neutrinos: 330 / cm3. The lightest massive particles. A million times lighter than the electron. No direct mass ...

  13. Threshold behavior in electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghpour, H.R.; Greene, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    Ever since the classic work of Wannier in 1953, the process of treating two threshold electrons in the continuum of a positively charged ion has been an active field of study. The authors have developed a treatment motivated by the physics below the double ionization threshold. By modeling the double ionization as a series of Landau-Zener transitions, they obtain an analytical formulation of the absolute threshold probability which has a leading power law behavior, akin to Wannier's law. Some of the noteworthy aspects of this derivation are that the derivation can be conveniently continued below threshold giving rise to a open-quotes cuspclose quotes at threshold, and that on both sides of the threshold, absolute values of the cross sections are obtained

  14. Nucleon in nuclei from quasi-elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, A.

    1987-04-01

    One challenging problem in modern nuclear physics is to understand how the internal structure of the nucleon interferes with the dynamics of nucleons in a nucleus. The purpose of this paper is to review the present status of data in quasi-elastic electron scattering, to connect them with recent theoretical developments and to outline some future directions of research not accessible to present electron facilities

  15. MAGNETIC SPECTROMETER DESIGN FOR ELECTRON SCATTERING ABOVE 1 Bev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopper, H.

    1963-06-15

    Design considerations are discussed for magnetic spectrometer electron scattering investigations with the higher energy (above 1 Bev) electron sources which are being developed. The spectrometers are to be used to discriminate between elastic and inelastic processes. A momentum resolution of the order of one per cent is required for these experiments. Various spectrometers are compared according to their optical properties and the number of magnets they consist of. (R.E.U.)

  16. Observation of Electronic Raman Scattering in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H.; Berciaud, S.; Kalbáč, Martin; Saito, R.; Heinz, T. F.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 15 (2011), s. 157401 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : spectroscopy * electronic Raman scattering * metallic carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.370, year: 2011

  17. Properties of the scattering amplitude for electron-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, J.M.; Tip, A.

    1983-02-01

    For the scattering of an electron by an atom finiteness of the amplitude at non threshold energies is proved in the framework of the N-body Schroedinger equation. It is also shown that both the direct and exchange amplitudes have analytic continuations for complex values of incident momentum, with pole or cut singularities on the imaginary axis

  18. Hadronic parity violation and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-P.; Prezeau, G.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We compute contributions to the parity-violating (PV) inelastic electron-deuteron scattering asymmetry arising from hadronic PV. While hadronic PV effects can be relatively important in PV threshold electrodisintegration, we find that they are highly suppressed at quasielastic kinematics. The interpretation of the PV quasielastic asymmetry is, thus, largely unaffected by hadronic PV

  19. Electron scattering from CO in the 2Pi resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Lohmann, B.

    1986-01-01

    The total cross section for electron scattering from CO in the energy range 0.5--5 eV has been measured with use of a time-of-flight spectrometer. This energy region encompasses the 2 π shape resonance, and a comparison is made with other experimental and theoretical results with regard to the magnitude and position of this structure

  20. Quasielastic electron scattering: effect of relativistic nuclear potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do Dang, G.; Nguyen Van Giai.

    1983-11-01

    It is shown that a solution to the difficulty encountered in reproducing simultaneously the experimental longitudinal and transverse response functions deduced from deep inelastic electron scattering may be found in a consistent treatment of the electromagnetic interaction in a Dirac equation in which Lorentz scalar and vector potentials are explicitly introduced. Results for 12 C and 40 Ca are given and compared with experiments

  1. Nuclear re-interaction effects in quasi-elastic neutrino nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, G.; Bleve, C.; De Mitri, I.; Martello, D

    2002-11-01

    The quasi-elastic {nu}-nucleus cross section has been calculated by using a Fermi gas model corrected to consider the re-scattering between the emitted nucleon and the rest nucleus. As an example of the relevance of this effect we show results for the muon production cross section on {sup 16}O target.

  2. Electrons scattered inside small dust grains of various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterova, Ivana; Beranek, Martin; Pavlu, Jiri; Nemecek, Zdenek; Safrankova, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The dust grain charge in an electron beam is given by a difference in numbers of electrons that fall onto the grain and those leaving it. Electrons with energies exceeding 1 keV can penetrate through submicron-sized dust grains. If the grain is small enough, a yield of these electrons reaches unity but they leave a part of their energy inside the grain and this energy excites secondary electrons. The paper presents a hybrid Monte Carlo code that simulates paths of the primary electrons inside a spherical grain and provides the yield of scattered electrons and their energy spectrum as a function of the grain size and material. This code is based on the Richterovaet al. [Phys. Rev. B 74, 235430 (2006)] model but it includes several corrections important for light materials like carbon or ice. The model was verified using experimental results obtained on large planar samples. For spherical samples, we have found that the yield of scattered electrons reaches unity for 50 nm Au grains illuminated by 5 keV electrons, whereas the same effect can be observed on ≅1000 nm carbon grains.

  3. Development of a Low-power, Low-cost, Front-end Electronics Module for Large-Scale Distributed Neutrino Detectors. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltzberg, David

    2009-01-01

    Final technical report for Advanced detector research program award at UCLA. To date, only two objects have been observed using neutrino messengers. However, each observation illustrates the incisive power of neutrino observations for both astrophysics and for particle physics. The first source observed with neutrinos was the Sun by Ray Davis and collaborators using a chlorine nuclear target. Until then, only electromagnetic emissions produced near the surface of the Sun had been studied. With neutrinos, the hydrogen-burning core of the Sun is directly observed - we now know even with its predicted intensity. Because neutrinos are so deeply penetrating, they give a direct window on the most energetic processes in the universe, unobscured by photospheres, fireballs and materials opaque to light. The solar neutrino observations largest impact however was felt by particle physicists. This experiment and follow-up experiments with water, heavy water, and gallium all observed the well-known deficit of the predicted number of electron-type neutrinos. After several decades of research using both astrophysical and accelerator observations inspired by this result, the effect is now known to be due the transformation of electron-type neutrinos into one of the two other flavors of neutrinos. These observations were the first and strongest data that showed particle physicists that the mass (propagating) eigenstates and weak eigenstates of neutrinos and their weak eigenstates are not identical. In addition, this transformation was the first indication that neutrinos have a small, but non-zero mass. The second, and latest, discovery of a cosmic neutrinos source was the explosion of supernova SN1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In a type IIa supernova, 99% of the energy is expected to be released in the form of neutrinos since no other energy could escape the dense environment. The observations of SN1987a confirmed the theoretical models of this type of stellar core collapse

  4. Neutrino physics at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are three neutrino experiments at LAMPF in various stages of completion or development. E225, the study of electron-neutrino electron scattering, which completed data taking in December 1986 and has just about completed all its analysis. E645, a search for /bar /nu///sub μ/ → /bar /nu///sub e/ oscillation, is in its third and final year of data taking. The Large Cerenkov Detector (LCD), associated with E1015, has undergone extensive scientific and technical review and we are presently trying to obtain the necessary funds to build the detector, beam line, and target. In the following, each of these experiments will be briefly discussed. Before doing so, it is useful to show the characteristics of the neutrino spectrum resulting from the decay of π + at rest. It is also useful to realize that, on average, an 800-MeV proton from LAMPF produces about 0.1 π + decaying at rest. 16 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Electron-electron scattering in linear transport in two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Flensberg, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    We describe a method for numerically incorporating electron-electron scattering in quantum wells for small deviations of the distribution function from equilibrium, within the framework of the Boltzmann equation. For a given temperature T and density n, a symmetric matrix needs to be evaluated only...... once, and henceforth it can be used to describe electron-electron scattering in any Boltzmann equation linear-response calculation for that particular T and n. Using this method, we calculate the distribution function and mobility for electrons in a quantum well, including full finite...

  6. Electron enhanced Raman scattering and its applications in solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yui, Hiroharu

    2007-01-01

    The present review describes a new enhancement technique for Raman scattering in aqueous solutions. Raman scattering spectroscopy has an inherent ability to distinguish between molecules with great similarity and provides useful information on local physical and chemical environments at their functional groups' level. Since the Raman scattering signals from water molecules are quite weak, Raman spectroscopy has great advantage for detection or discrimination of a trace amount of analytes in aqueous environments. However, Raman scattering cross-sections are inherently small and it generally requires high power excitation and long acquisition times to obtain high-quality Raman spectra. These conditions create disadvantages for the analyses for living cells and real-time monitoring for environmental analyses. Here, I describe a new Raman enhancement technique, namely electron enhanced Raman scattering (EERS)', where artificially generated electrons additionally affect the polarizability of target molecular systems and enhance their inherent Raman cross-section. Principles of the EERS and its applications to aqueous solution are presented. (author)

  7. On the radiative corrections of deep inelastic scattering of muon neutrino on nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So Sang Guk

    1986-01-01

    The radiative corrections of deep inelastic scattering process VΜP→ ΜN are considered. Matrix element which takes Feynman one photon exchange diagrams into account at high transfer momentum are used. Based on calculation of the matrix element one can obtain matrix element for given process. It is shown that the effective cross section which takes one photon exchange into account is obtained. (author)

  8. Elastic scattering of low-energy electrons from ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alle, D.T.; Gulley, R.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Brunger, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    We report absolute differential cross section measurements for vibrationally elastic electron scattering from NH 3 at incident energies from 2-30 eV. The present results, from a crossed electron-molecular beam apparatus, represent the first comprehensive experimental attempt to quantify the elastic electron-NH 3 scattering process. At each energy studied we have integrated our differential cross section data to generate total elastic and elastic momentum transfer cross sections and a critical comparison of both our differential and integral cross sections against previous experiment and theory is provided. We also report our observation of a strong Feshbach resonance in the elastic channel at an energy of 5.59 ± 0.05 eV. (Author)

  9. Vector analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconescu, L.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We compute the vector analyzing power (VAP) for the elastic scattering of transversely polarized electrons from protons at low energies using an effective theory of electrons, protons, and photons. We study all contributions through second order in E/M, where E and M are the electron energy and nucleon mass, respectively. The leading-order VAP arises from the imaginary part of the interference of one- and two-photon exchange amplitudes. Subleading contributions are generated by the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius as well as recoil corrections to the leading-order amplitude. Working to O(E/M) 2 , we obtain a prediction for A n that is free of unknown parameters and that agrees with the recent measurement of the VAP in backward angle ep scattering

  10. NESKA, Electron and Positron Scattering from Point Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Mott's differential cross section for the scattering of electrons and positrons by point nuclei without screening is calculated for any energy, atomic number and angle of scattering. 2 - Method of solution: We have summed the conditionally convergent series appearing in Mott's cross section using two consecutive transformations: the one of Yennie, Ravenhall and Wilson and that of Euler till we have seven times six significant figures repeated in the ratio of the Mott cross section to the classical Rutherford cross section. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Those appearing in the use of Mott's cross section for unscreened point nuclei

  11. Inversion of electron-water elastic scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun, A.; Chen, X.J.; Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed energy inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-sections for the elastic scattering of electrons from water molecules. Both semiclassical (WKB) and fully quantal inversion methods have been used with data taken in the energy range 100 to 1000 eV. Constrained to be real, the local inversion potentials are found to be energy dependent; a dependence that can be interpreted as the local equivalence of true nonlocality in the actual interaction. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs

  12. Electron states and electron Raman scattering in semiconductor double cylindrical quantum well wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munguía-Rodríguez, M; Riera, R; Betancourt-Riera, Ri; Betancourt-Riera, Re; Nieto Jalil, J M

    2016-01-01

    The differential cross section for an electron Raman scattering process in a semiconductor GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well wire is calculated, and expressions for the electronic states are presented. The system is modeled by considering T = 0 K and also with a single parabolic conduction band, which is split into a subband system due to the confinement. The gain and differential cross-section for an electron Raman scattering process are obtained. In addition, the emission spectra for several scattering configurations are discussed, and interpretations of the singularities found in the spectra are given. The electron Raman scattering studied here can be used to provide direct information about the efficiency of the lasers. (paper)

  13. A model explaining neutrino masses and the DAMPE cosmic ray electron excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Huang, Wei-Chih; Spinrath, Martin; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    We propose a flavored U(1)eμ neutrino mass and dark matter (DM) model to explain the recent DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) data, which feature an excess on the cosmic ray electron plus positron flux around 1.4 TeV. Only the first two lepton generations of the Standard Model are charged under the new U(1)eμ gauge symmetry. A vector-like fermion ψ, which is our DM candidate, annihilates into e± and μ± via the new gauge boson Z‧ exchange and accounts for the DAMPE excess. We have found that the data favors a ψ mass around 1.5 TeV and a Z‧ mass around 2.6 TeV, which can potentially be probed by the next generation lepton colliders and DM direct detection experiments.

  14. A model explaining neutrino masses and the DAMPE cosmic ray electron excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yi Zhong; Huang, Wei Chih; Spinrath, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We propose a flavored U(1)eμ neutrino mass and dark matter (DM) model to explain the recent DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) data, which feature an excess on the cosmic ray electron plus positron flux around 1.4 TeV. Only the first two lepton generations of the Standard Model are charged under...... the new U(1)eμ gauge symmetry. A vector-like fermion ψ, which is our DM candidate, annihilates into e± and μ± via the new gauge boson Z′ exchange and accounts for the DAMPE excess. We have found that the data favors a ψ mass around 1.5 TeV and a Z′ mass around 2.6 TeV, which can potentially be probed...

  15. Theoretical study of the electron-cluster elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descourt, P.; Guet, C.; Farine, M.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the clusters consisting of some tens to several hundreds of alkali atoms are generally quite well described in the jellium approximation. This approximation treats the cluster as a charged Fermi liquid of finite size. The optical response predicted by this approximation and taking into account the electron-electron correlations of the Hartree-Fock mean field agrees rather well with the experiment. The objective of this work was to obtain a quantal many-body formalism, within jellium approximation, applicable to elastic scattering of electrons from an alkali-metal-cluster. Influence of correlations on the phase shifts was also taken into account

  16. The electron beam dynamics simulation in the laser-electron storage ring involving compton and intrabeam scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.I.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Karnaukhov, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the development of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage rings is discussed. The results of the electron beam dynamics simulation involving Compton and intrabeam scattering are presented

  17. The electron beam dynamics simulation in the laser-electron storage ring involving compton and intrabeam scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P I; Karnaukhov, I M

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the development of intense X-ray sources based on Compton scattering in laser-electron storage rings is discussed. The results of the electron beam dynamics simulation involving Compton and intrabeam scattering are presented.

  18. A measurement of hadron production cross sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the Δm2 about equals 1-eV2 region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, David W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of hadron production cross-sections for the simulation of accelerator neutrino beams and a search for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations in the Δm2 ~ 1 eV2} region. This dissertation presents measurements from two different high energy physics experiments with a very strong connection: the Hadron Production (HARP) experiment located at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment (Mini-BooNE) located at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois.

  19. Absolute elastic cross sections for electron scattering from SF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, R.J.; Uhlmann, L.J.; Dedman, C.J.; Buckman, S.J.; Cho, H.; Trantham, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Absolute differential cross sections for vibrationally elastic scattering of electrons from sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) have been measured at fixed angles of 60 deg, 90 deg and 120 deg over the energy range of 5 to 15 eV, and also at 11 fixed energies between 2.7 and 75 eV for scattering angles between 10 deg and 180 deg. These measurements employ the magnetic angle-changing technique of Read and Channing in combination with the relative flow technique to obtain absolute elastic scattering cross sections at backward angles (135 deg to 180 deg) for incident energies below 15 eV. The results reveal some substantial differences with several previous determinations and a reasonably good level of agreement with a recent close coupling calculation

  20. nuSTORM - Neutrinos from STORed Muons: Proposal to the Fermilab PAC

    CERN Document Server

    Adey, D.; Ankenbrandt, C.M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.J.; Barker, G.; Baussan, E.; Bayes, R.; Bhadra, S.; Blackmore, V.; Blondel, A.; Bogacz, S.A.; Booth, C.; Boyd, S.B.; Bravar, A.; Brice, S.J.; Bross, A.D.; Cadoux, F.; Cease, H.; Cervera, A.; Cobb, J.; Colling, D.; Coloma, P.; Coney, L.; Dobbs, A.; Dobson, J.; Donini, A.; Dornan, P.; Dracos, M.; Dufour, F.; Edgecock, R.; Evans, J.; Geelhoed, M.; George, M.A.; Ghosh, T.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; de Gouvea, A.; Haesler, A.; Hanson, G.; Harrison, P.F.; Hartz, M.; Hernandez, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; Hodgson, P.; Huber, P.; Izmaylov, A.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kopp, J.; Kormos, L.; Korzenev, A.; Kuno, Y.; Kurup, A.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.B.; Laing, A.; Liu, A.; Link, J.M.; Long, K.; Mahn, K.; Mariani, C.; Martin, C.; Martin, J.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, K.T.; Mena, O.; Mishra, S.R.; Mokhov, N.; Morfin, J.; Mori, Y.; Murray, W.; Neuffer, D.; Nichol, R.; Noah, E.; Parke, S.; Palmer, M.A.; Pascoli, S.; Pasternak, J.; Popovic, M.; Ratoff, P.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Rubinov, P.; Santos, E.; Sato, A.; Sen, T.; Scantamburlo, E.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Smith, D.R.; Smith, P.J.; Sobczyk, J.T.; Soby, L.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sorel, M.; Snopok, P.; Stamoulis, P.; Stanco, L.; Striganov, S.; Tanaka, H.A.; Taylor, I.J.; Touramanis, C.; Tunnell, C.D.; Uchida, Y.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Wascko, M.O.; Weber, A.; Wilking, M.J.; Wildner, E.; Winter, W.; Yang, U.K.

    2013-01-01

    The nuSTORM facility has been designed to deliver beams of electron neutrinos and muon neutrinos (and their anti-particles) from the decay of a stored muon beam with a central momentum of 3.8 GeV/c and a momentum acceptance of 10%. The facility is unique in that it will: 1. Allow searches for sterile neutrinos of exquisite sensitivity to be carried out; 2. Serve future long- and short-baseline neutrino-oscillation programs by providing definitive measurements of electron neutrino and muon neutrino scattering cross sections off nuclei with percent-level precision; and 3. Constitutes the crucial first step in the development of muon accelerators as a powerful new technique for particle physics. The document describes the facility in detail and demonstrates its physics capabilities. This document was submitted to the Fermilab Physics Advisory Committee in consideration for Stage I approval.

  1. Neutrino-nucleus cross section in the impulse approximation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhar, Omar; Farina, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    In the impulse approximation regime the nuclear response to a weakly interacting probe can be written in terms of the measured nucleon structure functions and the target spectral function, yielding the energy and momentum distribution of the constituent nucleons. We discuss a calculation of charged current neutrino-oxygen interactions in the quasielastic channel, carried out within nuclear many body theory. The proposed approach, extensively and successfully employed in the analysis of electron-nucleus scattering data, allows for a parameter free prediction of the neutrino-nucleus cross section, whose quantitative understanding will be critical to the analysis of the next generation of high precision neutrino oscillation experiments

  2. Atomic ionization of germanium by neutrinos from an ab initio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Huang, Keh-Ning; Liu, C.-P.; Shiao, Hao-Tse; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2014-01-01

    An ab initio calculation of atomic ionization of germanium by neutrinos was carried out in the framework of multiconfiguration relativistic random phase approximation and benchmarked by related atomic structure and photoabsorption data. This improves over the conventional approach based on scattering off free electrons whose validity at sub-keV energy transfer is questionable. Limits on neutrino magnetic moments are derived using reactor neutrino data taken with low threshold germanium detectors. Future applications of these atomic techniques will greatly reduce the atomic uncertainties in low-energy neutrino and dark matter detections.

  3. The ν-cleus experiment: a gram-scale fiducial-volume cryogenic detector for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R.; Rothe, J.; Angloher, G.; Hauff, D.; Mancuso, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, CIUC, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria); Oberauer, L.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss a small-scale experiment, called ν-cleus, for the first detection of coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering by probing nuclear-recoil energies down to the 10 eV regime. The detector consists of low-threshold CaWO{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} calorimeter arrays with a total mass of about 10 g and several cryogenic veto detectors operated at millikelvin temperatures. Realizing a fiducial volume and a multi-element target, the detector enables active discrimination of γ, neutron and surface backgrounds. A first prototype Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} device, operated above ground in a setup without shielding, has achieved an energy threshold of ∝20 eV and further improvements are in reach. A sensitivity study for the detection of coherent neutrino scattering at nuclear power plants shows a unique discovery potential (5 σ) within a measuring time of neutrino source are investigated. With this technology, real-time monitoring of nuclear power plants is feasible. (orig.)

  4. Coherent Electron Scattering Captured by an Attosecond Quantum Stroboscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Johnsson, P.; Mansten, E.; Swoboda, M.; Ruchon, T.; L'Huillier, A.; Schafer, K. J.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a quantum stroboscope based on a sequence of identical attosecond pulses that are used to release electrons into a strong infrared (IR) laser field exactly once per laser cycle. The resulting electron momentum distributions are recorded as a function of time delay between the IR laser and the attosecond pulse train using a velocity map imaging spectrometer. Because our train of attosecond pulses creates a train of identical electron wave packets, a single ionization event can be studied stroboscopically. This technique has enabled us to image the coherent electron scattering that takes place when the IR field is sufficiently strong to reverse the initial direction of the electron motion causing it to rescatter from its parent ion

  5. Laser-Compton Scattering as a Potential Electron Beam Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouffani, K.; Wells, D.; Harmon, F.; Lancaster, G.; Jones, J.

    2002-01-01

    LCS experiments were carried out at the Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC); sharp monochromatic x-ray lines were observed. These are produced using the so-called inverse Compton effect, whereby optical laser photons are collided with a relativistic electron beam. The back-scattered photons are then kinematically boosted to keV x-ray energies. We have first demonstrated these beams using a 20 MeV electron beam collided with a 100 MW, 7 ns Nd; YAG laser. We observed narrow LCS x-ray spectral peaks resulting from the interaction of the electron beam with the Nd; YAG laser second harmonic (532 nm). The LCS x-ray energy lines and energy deviations were measured as a function of the electron beam energy and energy-spread respectively. The results showed good agreement with the predicted valves. LCS could provide an excellent probe of electron beam energy, energy spread, transverse and longitudinal distribution and direction

  6. Electron and positron atomic elastic scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to calculate the total and differential elastic-scattering cross sections for incident electrons and positrons in the energy range from 0.01 eV to 1 MeV for atoms of Z=1-100. For electrons, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, krypton, and xenon, and for positrons, helium, neon, and argon atoms were considered for comparison with experimental data. First, the variationally optimized atomic static potentials were calculated for each atom by solving the Dirac equations for bound electron states. Second, the Dirac equations for a free electron or positron are solved for an atom using the previously calculated static potential accomplished (in the case of electrons) by 'adjusted' Hara's exchange potential for a free-state particle. Additional to the exchange effects, the charge cloud polarization effects are considered applying the correlation-polarization potential of O'Connell and Lane (with correction of Padial and Norcross) for incident electrons, and of Jain for incident positrons. The total, cutoff and differential elastic-scattering cross sections are calculated for incident electrons and positrons with the help of the relativistic partial wave analysis. The solid state effects for scattering in solids are described by means of a muffin-tin model, i.e. the potentials of neighboring atoms are superpositioned in such a way that the resulting potential and its derivative are zero in the middle distance between the atoms. The potential of isolated atom is calculated up to the radius at which the long-range polarization potential becomes a value of -10 -8

  7. Resonant scattering and charm showers in ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Electron antineutrinos with energy of about 7 x 10 to the 6th GeV have much-enhanced cross sections due to W-boson production off electrons. Possible signals due to cosmic-ray sources are estimated. Higher-energy antineutrinos can efficiently produce a W accompanied by radiation. Another possibility, which could lead to shadowing at modest depths, is resonant production of a charged Higgs particle. The importance of muon production by charm showers in rock is pointed out.

  8. Elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, Greenwood et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1062 (1995)] reported measurements of large-angle elastic scattering of electrons from singly ionized argon at an energy of 3.3 eV. They compared their results for the differential cross section with cross sections determined using phase shifts obtained from two different scattering potentials and found large discrepancies between theory and experiment at large angles. They state that these differences may be due to the effects of polarization of the target, which are not included in their calculations, as well as inaccurate representations of electron exchange in the local scattering potentials that are employed to determine the phase shifts. In order to test these proposed explanations of the discrepancies, we have carried out calculations of elastic scattering from Ar + using the R-matrix method. We compare both a single-state calculation, which does not include polarization, and a 17-state calculation, in which the effects of dipole polarizability are included through the use of polarization pseudostates within the close-coupling expansion, to each other and with the measurements. We find some differences between the two calculations at intermediate scattering angles, but very close agreement at angles above 100 degree. Although the calculated cross sections agree with experiment between 120 degree and 135 degree, large discrepancies persist at angles above 135 degree. We conclude that the differences between the measurements and theory cannot be explained on the basis of an inaccurate representation of electron exchange or polarization of the target. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Generalized Hartree-Fock method for electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the widely used Hartree-Fock procedure for atomic structure calculations, trial functions in the form of linear combinations of Slater determinants are constructed and the Rayleigh-Ritz minimum principle is applied to determine the best in that class. A generalization of this approach, applicable to low-energy electron-atom scattering, is developed here. The method is based on a unique decomposition of the scattering wave function into open- and closed-channel components, so chosen that an approximation to the closed-channel component may be obtained by adopting it as a trial function in a minimum principle, whose rigor can be maintained even when the target wave functions are imprecisely known. Given a closed-channel trial function, the full scattering function may be determined from the solution of an effective one-body Schroedinger equation. Alternatively, in a generalized Hartree-Fock approach, the minimum principle leads to coupled integrodifferential equations to be satisfied by the basis functions appearing in a Slater-determinant representation of the closed-channel wave function; it also provides a procedure for optimizing the choice of nonlinear parameters in a variational determination of these basis functions. Inclusion of additional Slater determinants in the closed-channel trial function allows for systematic improvement of that function, as well as the calculated scattering parameters, with the possibility of spurious singularities avoided. Electron-electron correlations can be important in accounting for long-range forces and resonances. These correlation effects can be included explicitly by suitable choice of one component of the closed-channel wave function; the remaining component may then be determined by the generalized Hartree-Fock procedure. As a simple test, the method is applied to s-wave scattering of positrons by hydrogen. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Low-energy positron and electron scattering from nitrogen dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, Luca; Brunger, M J; Zecca, Antonio; García, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Total cross section (TCS) measurements for positron scattering from nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) are presented in the energy range 0.2–40 eV. The TCS, the elastic integral and differential cross sections, and the integral cross section accounting of all the inelastic processes (including positronium formation) have also been computed using the independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) for incident energies from 1 to 1000 eV. A qualitative level of agreement is found between the present TCS experiment and theory at the common energies. As no previous measurements or calculations for positron–NO 2  scattering exist in the literature, we also computed the TCS for electron collisions with NO 2  employing the IAM-SCAR method. A comparison of those results to the present positron cross sections and the earlier electron-impact data and calculations is provided. To investigate the role that chemical substitution plays in positron scattering phenomena, we also compare the present positron–NO 2  data with the TCSs measured at the University of Trento for positron scattering from N 2 O and CO 2 . (paper)

  11. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Saada, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, μ ν , of the order of 10 -11 μ B would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of ≅10 eV would give μ ν ≅10 -18 μ B , much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10 -10 μ B . Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of μ ν , larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, νe - scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the ν e , extending down to 2x10 -11 μ B . (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs

  12. Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ould-Saada, F [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1996-11-01

    Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos and their implications are discussed, and the experimental situation summarised. Spin precession in solar magnetic fields presents a solution of the solar neutrino problem. A magnetic moment, {mu}{sub {nu}}, of the order of 10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B} would be needed. In the simplest extension of the standard model, with no-vanishing neutrino masses, dipole moment interactions are allowed through higher order processes. A neutrino mass of {approx_equal}10 eV would give {mu}{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}10{sup -18} {mu}{sub B}, much smaller than the present experimental upper limit of 2x10{sup -10} {mu}{sub B}. Although model-dependent, upper bounds on dipole moments from astrophysics and cosmology are 10 to 100 times more stringent. Any values of {mu}{sub {nu}}, larger than the SM predictions, would then signal the onset of new physics. Among the processes sensitive to the magnetic moment, {nu}e{sup -} scattering presents two advantages: it is a pure weak, theoretically well understood process, and the recoil electron can be easily measured. A hypothetical electromagnetic contribution to the cross-section would dominate at low energies. A low background detector, MUNU, being built at the Bugey nuclear reactor is presented.It is based on a gas TPC, surrounded by a scintillator. The threshold on the electron recoil energy can be set very low, around 500 keV, giving the experiment a good sensitivity to the magnetic moment of the {nu}{sub e}, extending down to 2x10{sup -11} {mu}{sub B}. (author) 15 figs., 5 tabs., 96 refs.

  13. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  14. Recent single ARM electron scattering experiments at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1981-07-01

    Some recent electron scattering experiments at intermediate energies performed at the Saclay linear accelerator (ALS) are presented. First the definitive results of the measurements of the size of valence orbits by magnetic elastic electron scattering are discussed and followed by an overview of the study of charge distributions in closed shell nuclei. These results are among the most stringent experimental tests of nuclear theory because they probe without ambiguity the shape of nuclei. Then, it is shown how the details of the transition densities of the first excited states of 152 Sm have been brought out by very high momentum transfer experiments. Finally, the results of the investigation of mesonic degrees of freedom in deuterium and helium-3 are presented

  15. Inverse electronic scattering by Green's functions and singular values decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, A.; Vigneron, J.-P.

    2000-01-01

    An inverse scattering technique is developed to enable a sample reconstruction from the diffraction figures obtained by electronic projection microscopy. In its Green's functions formulation, this technique takes account of all orders of diffraction by performing an iterative reconstruction of the wave function on the observation screen. This scattered wave function is then backpropagated to the sample to determine the potential-energy distribution, which is assumed real valued. The method relies on the use of singular values decomposition techniques, thus providing the best least-squares solutions and enabling a reduction of noise. The technique is applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional nanometric sample that is observed in Fresnel conditions with an electronic energy of 25 eV. The algorithm turns out to provide results with a mean relative error of the order of 5% and to be very stable against random noise

  16. Fixed poles in electromagnetic processes and modification of Adler's neutrino sum rule due to quark anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, A.

    1975-01-01

    We show that Adler's sum rule for neutrino scattering and Bjorken's inequality for electron-proton scattering are modified if quark has finite anomalous magnetic moment ksub(q). We also show that if ksub(q) is nonzero, there exist fixed poles in spin-flip Compton scattering as well as in charged pion photoproduction. (auth.)

  17. Parity Violation in Atoms and Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchiat, Marie-Anne; PAVI'97

    1999-01-01

    This work is an extensive review of the advances in the field of parity violation experiments in electron scattering at high energy and and in atomic physics. The results are a challenge to the standard electroweak theory and the understanding of hadron structure. The theoretical framework is presented at a pedagogical level, experiments and future projects are reviewed, and the results and their interpretation are discussed.

  18. Magnetic electron scattering from deuterium at low-momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.C. Jr.; Bendel, W.L.; Fagg, L.W.; Lindgren, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The elastic and inelastic cross sections of deuterium for 56.4 MeV electrons scattered at 180 0 , have been measured up to an excitation energy of 19 MeV. The experimental cross sections are compared with those calculated by Miller, by Durand, and by Arenhoevel and Fabian, and also with the sum rules of O'Connell. The results indicate that the contribution of meson exchange currents at this low-momentum transfer is significant

  19. Polarization Measurements in elastic electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1989-01-01

    The deuteron electromagnetic form factors, are recalled. The experiment, recently performed in the Bates accelerator (M.I.T.), is described. The aim of the experiment is the measurement of the tensor polarization of the backscattered deuteron, in the elastic electron-deuteron scattering, up to q = 4.6 f/m. Different experimental methods, concerning the determination of this observable, are compared. Several improvement possibilities in this field are suggested

  20. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drabińska, Aneta, E-mail: Aneta.Drabinska@fuw.edu.pl; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wołoś, Agnieszka [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Krajewska, Aleksandra [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-07

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer.

  1. Electron scattering in graphene with adsorbed NaCl nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabińska, Aneta; Kaźmierczak, Piotr; Bożek, Rafał; Karpierz, Ewelina; Wysmołek, Andrzej; Kamińska, Maria; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Pasternak, Iwona; Strupiński, Włodek; Krajewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the results of contactless magnetoconductance and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed for a graphene sample after its immersion in NaCl solution were presented. The properties of the immersed sample were compared with those of a non-immersed reference sample. Atomic force microscopy and electron spin resonance experiments confirmed the deposition of NaCl nanoparticles on the graphene surface. A weak localization signal observed using contactless magnetoconductance showed the reduction of the coherence length after NaCl treatment of graphene. Temperature dependence of the coherence length indicated a change from ballistic to diffusive regime in electron transport after NaCl treatment. The main inelastic scattering process was of the electron-electron type but the major reason for the reduction of the coherence length at low temperatures was additional, temperature independent, inelastic scattering. We associate it with spin flip scattering, caused by NaCl nanoparticles present on the graphene surface. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the D and D′ bands intensities for graphene after its immersion in NaCl solution. An analysis of the D, D′, and G bands intensities proved that this additional scattering is related to the decoration of vacancies and grain boundaries with NaCl nanoparticles, as well as generation of new on-site defects as a result of the decoration of the graphene surface with NaCl nanoparticles. The observed energy shifts of 2D and G bands indicated that NaCl deposition on the graphene surface did not change carrier concentration, but reduced compressive biaxial strain in the graphene layer

  2. Forming of electron beams from a betatron by foils scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A P; Shishov, V A [N.N. Petrov Research Inst. of Oncology, Leningrad (USSR). Laboratory of High Energics

    1976-12-01

    The technique of forming electron beams by one scattering foil and one compensating foil is discussed. This method provides a means for producing large-size uniform dose distributions with much smaller losses in dose rate as compared with conventional beam forming by ine foil. Moreover, the energy losses involved in this process and the background of concomitant bremsstrahlung are much less. A techinque of calculation to determine approximate parameters of the compensating foils is described.

  3. Electron scattering in the presence of an intense electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.; Chand, P.

    1977-03-01

    The general theory of electron scattering in the presence of an external electromagnetic field, provided by an intense laser beam, accompanied by absorption of n photons, each with energy hω, is discussed. The calculation leads to many summations over intermediate states. A general method for exactly evaluating several sums is described in detail. Numerical results show that the cross-section varies with intensity in a power law fashion

  4. Electron scattering. Lectures given at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report is an almost verbatim copy of lectures on Electron Scattering given at Argonne National Laboratory in the Fall of 1982 by John Dirk Walecka. Professor Walecka was an Argonne Fellow in the Physics Division from October 1982 to January 1983. Broad headings include general considerations, coincidence cross section (e,e'x), quantum electrodynamics and radiative corrections, unification of electroweak interactions, relativistic models of nuclear structure, electroproduction of pions and nucleon resonances, and deep inelastic (e,e')

  5. Neutrino oscillations in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, K.

    1990-01-01

    The oscillations of electron neutrinos into inert neutrinos may have resonant behaviour in the heat bath of the early Universe. It is shown that any initial neutrino asymmetry will be washed away by the oscillations. Neutrino oscillations would affect also primordial helium production, which implies stringent limits on the neutrino mixing parameters. (orig.)

  6. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R

    2005-01-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm 2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  7. Electron inelastic scattering by compound nuclei and giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhavadov, A.V.; Mukhtarov, A.I.; Mirabutalybov, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Multipole giant resonances in heavy nuclei have been investigated with the application of the Danos-Greiner dynamic collective theory to the Tassi model. The monopole giant resonance has been studied in 158 Gd, 166 Er, 184 W, 232 Th and 238 V nuclei at the incident electron energy E=200 MeV. Dependences of the form factor square of electron scattering by a 166 Er nucleus on the scattering angle obtained in the distorted-wave high-energy approximation (DWHEA) are presented. Giant dipole and quadrupole resonances in 60 Ni and 90 Zr nuclei have been studied. A comparison has been made of theoretical results obtained in the DWHEA for the dependence of the form factor square on the effective momentum transfer with the experimental data. The analysis of the obtained results led to the following conclusions. To draw a conclusion about the validity of one or another nuclear model and methods for calculating form factors, it is necessary to investigate, both theoretically and experimentally, electron scattering at great angles (THETA>=70 deg). To obtain a good agreement it is necessary to take account of the actual proton and neutron distributions in the ground state and their dynamic properties in an excited state [ru

  8. Spin entanglement in elastic electron scattering from lithium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartschat, K.; Santos, S. Fonseca dos

    2017-04-01

    In two recent papers [Blum and Lohmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 033201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.033201; Lohmann et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 032331 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032331], the possibility of continuously varying the degree of entanglement between an elastically scattered electron and the valence electron of an alkali-metal target was discussed. To estimate how well such a scheme may work in practice, we present results for elastic electron scattering from lithium in the energy regime of 1 -5 eV and the full range of scattering angles 0∘-180∘ . The most promising regime for Bell correlations in this particular collision system are energies between about 1.5 and 3.0 eV, in an angular range around 110∘±10∘ . In addition to the relative exchange asymmetry parameter, we present the differential cross section that is important when estimating the count rate and hence the feasibility of experiments using this system.

  9. Solar Neutrinos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7,81. The Chlorine experiment, located in the Homestake Gold Mine in Lead, South Dakota, was the first solar neutrino experiment to be set up. A tank of. 105 gallons of perchloroethylene in which the electron neu- trino reacts with chlorine to ...

  10. Elastic electron scattering from the DNA bases cytosine and thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colyer, C. J.; Bellm, S. M.; Lohmann, B.; Blanco, F.; Garcia, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-section data for electron scattering from biologically relevant molecules are important for the modeling of energy deposition in living tissue. Relative elastic differential cross sections have been measured for cytosine and thymine using the crossed-beam method. These measurements have been performed for six discrete electron energies between 60 and 500 eV and for detection angles between 15 deg. and 130 deg. Calculations have been performed via the screen-corrected additivity rule method and are in good agreement with the present experiment.

  11. Low-energy electron scattering from molecules, biomolecules and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Carsky, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, the field of electron molecule collisions has undergone a renaissance. The importance of such collisions in applications from radiation chemistry to astrochemistry has flowered, and their role in industrial processes such as plasma technology and lighting are vital to the advancement of next generation devices. Furthermore, the development of the scanning tunneling microscope highlights the role of such collisions in the condensed phase, in surface processing, and in the development of nanotechnology.Low-Energy Electron Scattering from Molecules, Biomolecule

  12. Magnetic effects in the paraxial regime of elastic electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Alexander; Lubk, Axel; Rusz, Ján

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by a recent claim [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 127203 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.127203] that electron vortex beams can be used to image magnetism at the nanoscale in elastic scattering experiments, using transmission electron microscopy, a comprehensive computational study is performed to study magnetic effects in the paraxial regime of elastic electron scattering in magnetic solids. Magnetic interactions from electron vortex beams, spin polarized electron beams, and beams with phase aberrations are considered, as they pass through ferromagnetic FePt or antiferromagnetic LaMnAsO. The magnetic signals are obtained by comparing the intensity over a disk in the diffraction plane for beams with opposite angular momentum or aberrations. The strongest magnetic signals are obtained from vortex beams with large orbital angular momentum, where relative magnetic signals above 10-3 are indicated for 10 ℏ orbital angular momentum, meaning that relative signals of one percent could be expected with the even larger orbital angular momenta, which have been produced in experimental setups. All results indicate that beams with low acceleration voltage and small convergence angles yield stronger magnetic signals, which is unfortunately problematic for the possibility of high spatial resolution imaging. Nevertheless, under atomic resolution conditions, relative magnetic signals in the order of 10-4 are demonstrated, corresponding to an increase with one order of magnitude compared to previous work.

  13. Path-integral approach to resonant electron-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterstetter, M.; Domcke, W.

    1993-01-01

    A path-integral formulation of resonant electron-molecule scattering is developed within the framework of the projection-operator formalism of scattering theory. The formation and decay of resonances is treated in real time as a quantum-mechanical electronic-tunneling process, modified by the coupling of the electronic motion with the nuclear degrees of freedom. It is shown that the electronic continuum can be summed over in the path-integral formulation, resulting formally in the path integral for an effective two-state system with coupling to vibrations. The harmonic-oscillator approximation is adopted for the vibrational motion in the present work. Approximation methods are introduced which render the numerical evaluation of the sum over paths feasible for up to ∼10 3 elementary time slices. The theory is numerically realized for simple but nontrivial models representing the 2 Π g d-wave shape resonance in e - +N 2 collisions and the 2 Σ u + p-wave shape resonance in e - +H 2 collisions, respectively. The accuracy of the path-integral results is assessed by comparison with exact numerical reference data for these models. The essential virtue of the path-integral approach is the fact that the computational effort scales at most linearly with the number of vibrational degrees of freedom. The path-integral method is thus well suited to treat electron collisions with polyatomic molecules and molecular aggregates

  14. Measurement of the nucleon structure function in the deep inelastic neutrino-iron scattering with a wide-band neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flottmann, T.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the nucleon structure function xF 3 is determined from the inclusive measurement of the deep inelastic neutrino nucleon charged current interaction. The data were taken in the CERN wide band neutrino beam using the detector of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay collaboration. This detector serves at the same time as target, as hadron energy calorimeter and as muon spectrometer. One major aspect of this work was to study the possibility of using high statistics wide band beam data for structure function analysis. The systematic errors specific to this kind of beam are investigated. To obtain the differential cross sections about 100000 neutrino and 75000 antineutrino events in the energy range 20-200 GeV are analysed. The differential cross sections are normalized to the total cross sections, as measured in the narrow band beam by the same collaboration. The calculated structure function xF 3 shows significant deviations from scaling. These scaling violations are compared quantitatively with the predictions of quantum chromodynamics. (orig.) [de

  15. Beam and experiments summary [neutrino studies

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Cline, David B; Collot, J; De Jong, M; Donini, Andrea; Dydak, Friedrich; Edgecock, R; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Gruber, P; Harris, D A; Hernández, Pilar; Kuno, Y; Litchfield, P J; McFarland, K; Mena, O; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Para, A; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez, P; Rigolin, Stefano; Romanino, Andrea; Rubbia, André; Strolin, P; Wojcicki, S G

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will. Answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. Most importantly, the neutrino factory is the only known way to generate a high- intensity beam of electron neutrinos of high energy. The neutrino beam from a neutrino factory, in particular the electron-neutrino beam, enables the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only mode...

  16. Parity Violation in Forward Angle Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, IV, Grady Wilson [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2001-01-01

    We have measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from the proton at Jefferson Laboratory. The kinematic point (θlab = 12.3 deg. and (Q2) = 0.48 (GeV/c)2) is chosen to provide sensitivity to the strange electric form factor GsE. A 3.36 GeV beam of longitudinally polarized electrons was scattered from protons in a liquid hydrogen target. The scattered flux was detected by a pair of spectrometers which focussed the elastically-scattered electrons onto total-absorption detectors. The detector signals were integrated and digitized by a custom data acquisition system. A feedback system reduced systematic errors by controlling helicity-correlated beam intensity differences at the sub-ppm (part per million) level. The experimental result, A = 14.5 +/- 2.0 (stat) ± 1.1 (syst) ppm, is consistent with the electroweak Standard Model with no additional contributions from strange quarks. In particular, the measurement implies GSE + 0.39 GsM = 0.023 ± 0.040 ± 0.026 (ζGnE), where the last uncertainty is due to the estimated uncertainty in the neutron electric form factor GnE . This result represents the first experimental constraint of the strange electric form factor.

  17. Total cross sections for electron scattering with halocarbon molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghma, Rahla; Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • A quantum mechanical model to find elastic, inelastic and total CS by e{sup −} impact. • Spherical complex optical potential formalism is used to find total CS. • Result shows consistency and good agreement with previous data wherever available. • Maiden attempt to find CS for CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3}, CBr{sub 4} and C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}Cl (n = 2–4) molecules. • Interesting correlation observed between total CS and polarizability of the molecule. - Abstract: A theoretical study on electron collision with chlorinated methanes: CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3}, brominated methanes: CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3} and CBr{sub 4} and some mono chloroalkanes: C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}Cl (n = 2–4) molecules in gaseous ground state is undertaken to report elastic, inelastic and total cross sections in the 20–5000 eV energy range. The target molecule is represented as a sum of various scattering centres, which are assumed to scatter electrons independently. The spherical complex optical potential (SCOP) is formulated to represent the interaction dynamics between the electron and the constituent scattering centres. Using SCOP, the quantum mechanical scattering problem is solved through partial wave analysis. The results obtained for CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CHCl{sub 3} are compared with the available experimental and theoretical values. The elastic cross section for CBr{sub 4} shows satisfactory agreement with the previous available data. The cross sections for CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 3}, and C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}Cl (n = 2–4) molecules presented in this work are reported for the first time.

  18. Electron scattering off hydrogen and deuterium at 500 and 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, W.B.

    1975-06-01

    The inelastic scattering of electrons for both protons and neutrons has been measured at scattering angles of fifty and sixty degrees and for incident energies between 6.5 GeV and 19.5 GeV. Elastic scattering from protons was also observed. The measurements were made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center using the 1.6-GeV spectrometer located in End Station A. The experimental techniques used in making the measurements are detailed. The resulting cross sections are large, indicative of a charged point-like substructure within the nucleon and match the extrapolation from previous measurements to the kinematic region to within forty percent. The measurements are found to be compatible with some existing theoretical expectations. The W 1 structure function is not found to ''scale'' in previously suggested scaling variables. The introduction of propagator scale breaking is investigated and shown to be compatible with the measurements. An alternative scaling variable is proposed in which W 1 is found to scale. The elastic scattering measurements are consistent with an inverse fourth power dependence on four-momenta transfer. The measured neutron-proton ratio is in agreement with previous measurements. (55 figures, 27 tables) (auth)

  19. Electron scattering from 36Ar and 40Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The argon isotopes, 36 Ar and 40 Ar, have been investigated using electron scattering at the high-resolution Linac facilities of the National Bureau of Standards. Both elastic scattering and scattering to low-lying states have been observed. A high-pressure, low-volume gas target cell was designed and developed for this experiment. The cell features a transmission geometry and has resolution comparable to solid targets. Spectra were obtained at incident beam energies ranging from 65 to 115 MeV at scattering angles of 92.5 0 and 110 0 . Values obtained for the rms charge radii are 3.327 +- 0.015 and 3.393 +- 0.015 fm for 36 Ar and 40 Ar respectively. A sensitive measurement was made of the difference in the two radii yielding a value of Δ r = 0.079 +- 0.006 fm. The inelastic levels observed are the 1.97 (2 + ) and 4.18 MeV (3 - ) levels in 36 Ar, and the 1.46 (2 + ), 2.52 (2 + ), 3.21 (2 + ), and 3.68 MeV (3 - ) levels in 40 Ar. A Tassie model analysis was made of the inelastic transitions in the DWBA approximation and transition strengths of these levels were extracted

  20. Electron scattering from the ground state of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fursa, D.; Bray, I.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Close-coupling calculations have been performed for electron scattering from the ground state of mercury. We have used non-relativistic convergent close-coupling computer code with only minor modifications in order to account for the most prominent relativistic effects. These are the relativistic shift effect and singlet-triplet mixing. Very good agreement with measurements of differential cross sections for elastic scattering and excitation of 6s6p 1 P state at all energies is obtained. It is well recognised that a consistent approach to electron scattering from heavy atoms (like mercury, with nuclear charge Z=80) must be based on a fully relativistic Dirac equations based technique. While development of such technique is under progress in our group, the complexity of the problem ensures that results will not be available in the near future. On other hand, there is considerable interest in reliable theoretical results for electron scattering from heavy atoms from both applications and the need to interpret existing experimental data. This is particularly the case for mercury, which is the major component in fluorescent lighting devices and has been the subject of intense experimental study since nineteen thirties. Similarly to our approach for alkaline-earth atoms we use a model of two valence electrons above an inert Hartree-Fock core to describe the mercury atom. Note that this model does not account for any core excited states which are present in the mercury discrete spectrum. The major effect of missing core-excited states is substantial underestimation of the static dipole polarizability of the mercury ground state (34 a.u.) and consequent underestimation of the forward scattering elastic cross sections. We correct for this by adding in the scattering calculations a phenomenological polarization potential. In order to obtain correct ground state ionization energy for mercury one has to account for the relativistic shift effect. We model this