WorldWideScience

Sample records for neutral particle energy

  1. Mass separated neutral particle energy analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Shiho, Makoto; Maeda, Hikosuke; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Kazuo.

    1983-09-01

    A mass separated neutral particle energy analyser which could simultaneously measure hydrogen and deuterium atoms emitted from tokamak plasma was constructed. The analyser was calibrated for the energy and mass separation in the energy range from 0.4 keV to 9 keV. In order to investigate the behavior of deuteron and proton in the JFT-2 tokamak plasma heated with ion cyclotron wave and neutral beam injection, this analyser was installed in JFT-2 tokamak. It was found that the energy spectrum could be determined with sufficient accuracy. The obtained ion temperature and ratio of deuteron and proton density from the energy spectrum were in good agreement with the value deduced from Doppler broadening of TiXIV line and the line intensities of H sub(α) and D sub(α) respectively. (author)

  2. Low energy neutral particle fluxes in the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.; Horton, L.D.; Ingesson, L.C.; Jaeckel, H.J.; McCormick, G.K.; Loarte, A.; Simonini, R.; Stamp, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    First measurements are presented of the total power loss through neutral particles and their average energy in the JET divertor. The method used distinguishes between the heat flux and the electromagnetic radiation on bolometers. This is done by comparing measurements from inside the divertor either with opposite lines of sight or with a tomographic reconstruction of the radiation. The typical value of the total power loss in the divertor through neutrals is about 1 MW. The average energy of the neutral particles at the inner divertor leg is 1.5-3 eV when detachment is in progress, which agrees with EDGE2D/NIMBUS modelling. (orig.)

  3. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino interactions at Tevatron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, K.

    1988-05-01

    This thesis reports on a study of neutral strange particle production by high energy muon-neutrinos. The neutrinos were obtained from a 800 GeV proton beam-dump at Fermilab. Neutrino events were observed using a hybrid bubble chamber detector system. The data contained deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon interactions with an average momentum transfer 2 > = 23 (GeV/c) 2 . Rates for K 0 and Λ production in neutrino and anti-neutrino charged current events are presented. The distributions of these particles in Feynman x and rapidity are also studied. Significant differences were observed in the production mechanism for the K 0 meson and the Λ baryon. The production rates of K 0 's were observed to increase with energy, whereas the rates for Λ production remained essentially constant. In Feynman x, the K 0 's were produced in the central region and the Λ's were produced backwards. The data are compared with the LUND monte carlo for string fragmentation. In the monte carlo, K 0 's are mostly produced from s/bar s/ pair production during fragmentation. The Λ's are generally produced through recombination with the diquark from the target nucleon. The data agree with this model for strange particle production. 39 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Study of neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, W.; Bulos, F.; Eisner, A.

    1975-01-01

    The range of physics problems for which a detector emphasizing neutrals is most suitable is discussed. The primary goals are the all neutrals cross section, sigma/sub o/ (e + e - → neutrals), the characterization of the neutral energy in multi-hadronic events, the search for monoenergetic photons, and good sensitivity in the difficult region of low energy photons. Those features of multi-hadronic events which are most relevant to a neutral detector were calculated using a jet model with parameters extrapolated from SPEAR energies. These distributions are presented and discussed

  5. The low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) at W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, H.; Schiavi, A.

    1994-10-01

    A detailed documentation of the experimental arrangement of the Low Energy Neutral particle Analyzer (LENA) at W7-AS is given. The diagnostic was routinely measuring CX-fluxes and energy distributions during the period from 1992 to 94. Some typical results are reported and a phenomenological discussion of the reaction of the CX-fluxes and spectra to the variation of various plasma parameters is presented. The comparison with H α -signals indicate whether variations of the CX-fluxes are due to changes of the wall recycling or due to alterations of the plasma profiles. T i profiles near the edge can be determined from the LENA-spectra when the neutral atom density is simulated by the EIRENE code. For the latter to the thesis of Heinrich (1994) is referred. (orig.)

  6. Design and relevant sample calculations for a neutral particle energy diagnostic based on time of flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecconello, M

    1999-05-01

    Extrap T2 will be equipped with a neutral particles energy diagnostic based on time of flight technique. In this report, the expected neutral fluxes for Extrap T2 are estimated and discussed in order to determine the feasibility and the limits of such diagnostic. These estimates are based on a 1D model of the plasma. The input parameters of such model are the density and temperature radial profiles of electrons and ions and the density of neutrals at the edge and in the centre of the plasma. The atomic processes included in the model are the charge-exchange and the electron-impact ionization processes. The results indicate that the plasma attenuation length varies from a/5 to a, a being the minor radius. Differential neutral fluxes, as well as the estimated power losses due to CX processes (2 % of the input power), are in agreement with experimental results obtained in similar devices. The expected impurity influxes vary from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The neutral particles detection and acquisition systems are discussed. The maximum detectable energy varies from 1 to 3 keV depending on the flight distances d. The time resolution is 0.5 ms. Output signals from the waveform recorder are foreseen in the range 0-200 mV. An 8-bit waveform recorder having 2 MHz sampling frequency and 100K sample of memory capacity is the minimum requirement for the acquisition system 20 refs, 19 figs.

  7. Neutral strange particle production at top SPS energy measured by the CERES experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomski, S.

    2006-01-01

    Systematics of strange particle production in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei provides an insight into the properties of the strongly interacting matter. Hadrochemistry, the study of the relative yields, provides information about chemical freeze-out and the position of the system in the phase diagram. Strangeness production at Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is not fully explained by the thermal model of hadron gas. Data reported by one experiment show sharp structures as a function of energy which are interpreted as a signature for a phase transition, but due to discrepancies in the results between two different experiments, a conclusion can not be drawn. This thesis is part of an effort to build a database of the strangeness production at SPS energy. The particular subject of this work is a precise measurement of the production of K S 0 . The results are compared with two other experiments and the prediction of the thermal model. The high precision data shed light on the systematics of strangeness production and allow clarification of the experimental status. The study of transverse momentum spectra provides information about the temperature and the radial expansion of the system. Here, as in the case of particle yields, interesting structures are visible as a function of energy. A rapid increase in the number of degrees of freedom is visible in the SPS region. A large part of the strangeness is carried by the neutral strange baryon Λ. Here the experimental situation is even more complicated because the reconstruction of the Λ yield requires large extrapolation to low transverse momentum. In this work first results on Λ production will be presented. (orig.)

  8. Neutral strange particle production at top SPS energy measured by the CERES experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radomski, S.

    2006-07-05

    Systematics of strange particle production in collisions of ultrarelativistic nuclei provides an insight into the properties of the strongly interacting matter. Hadrochemistry, the study of the relative yields, provides information about chemical freeze-out and the position of the system in the phase diagram. Strangeness production at Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) energies is not fully explained by the thermal model of hadron gas. Data reported by one experiment show sharp structures as a function of energy which are interpreted as a signature for a phase transition, but due to discrepancies in the results between two different experiments, a conclusion can not be drawn. This thesis is part of an effort to build a database of the strangeness production at SPS energy. The particular subject of this work is a precise measurement of the production of K{sub S}{sup 0}. The results are compared with two other experiments and the prediction of the thermal model. The high precision data shed light on the systematics of strangeness production and allow clarification of the experimental status. The study of transverse momentum spectra provides information about the temperature and the radial expansion of the system. Here, as in the case of particle yields, interesting structures are visible as a function of energy. A rapid increase in the number of degrees of freedom is visible in the SPS region. A large part of the strangeness is carried by the neutral strange baryon {lambda}. Here the experimental situation is even more complicated because the reconstruction of the {lambda} yield requires large extrapolation to low transverse momentum. In this work first results on {lambda} production will be presented. (orig.)

  9. Neutral particles identification at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Quintana, Boris Julien

    2018-01-01

    Important analyses of the core LHCb physics program rely on calorimetry to identify photons, high-energy neutral pions and electrons. For this purpose, the LHCb calorimeter system is composed of a scintillating pad plane, a preshower detector, an electromagnetic and a hadronic sampling calorimeters. The interaction of a given particle in these detectors leaves a specific signature. This is exploited for particle identification (PID) by combining calorimeters and tracking information into multi-variate classifiers. In this contribution, we focus on the identification of photons against high-energy neutral pion and hadronic backgrounds. Performance on Run 1 data will be shown. Small discrepancies with simulation predictions are then discussed, with special emphasis on the methods to correctly estimate PID cut efficiencies by means of large calibration samples of abundant beauty and charm decays to final states with photons. Finally, the technical aspects of the collection of these samples in Run 2 are presented...

  10. 10-channel neutral particle energy analyser apparatus and its application to tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Akimasa; Takahashi, Koki; Shirakata, Hirofumi; Yano, Syukuro.

    1976-07-01

    A 10-channel neutral particle energy analyser apparatus for measurement of charge-exchange fast atoms emitted from a hot tokamak plasma has been constructed to determine the ion temperature of plasma from fewer discharge shots and to improve the accuracy of measurement. It consists of a 45-degrees parallel plate electrostatic analyser with ten ion detectors (Ceratron multipliers), a charge stripping cell, a dry vacuum pumping system and pulse-counting circuits for data acquisition. A calibration experiment of the apparatus is made for the particle energy and the energy resolution with electron beams of 100 to 1000 eV. The transmission efficiency of particles in the energy analyser is measured with proton beams of 1, 2 and 3 keV, and the conversion efficiency for H 2 gas in a charge stripping cell is also determined with hydrogen-atom beams of 2, 3 and 4 keV. Ion temperatures of JFT-2a and JFT-2 devices were measured with this apparatus, in order to check the usefulness and reliability of the apparatus and to investigate the parameter dependence of ion temperatures. It is found that an ion temperature can be measured with sufficient accuracy from six plasma shots (three shots to determine particle signals and three shots to determine background noises). The peak ion temperatures 80 to 400 eV are about (1/2 - 1/3) of the central electron temperatures. Dependence of the ion temperatures on plasma current I sub(p), toroidal magnetic field B sub(t) and average electron density anti n sub(e) is investigated for I sub(p) = 15 to 170 kAmp, B sub(t) = 10 to 18 kGauss and anti n sub(e) = (0.8 to 1.8) x 10 13 cm -3 on JFT-2a and JFT-2 devices. It is shown that the ion temperatures are in good agreement with the scaling law by Artsimovich Tsub(i) proportional to (Isub(p)Bsub(t) anti n sub(e)R 2 )sup(1/3), with R as the major radius of a tokamak device. (J.P.N.)

  11. Neutral strange particle production in high energy charged current neutrino deuterium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, D.

    1982-01-01

    In an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot deuterium filled bubble chamber to a single horn focused wide band neutrino beam with energies between 10 and 250 GeV, 311 K/sub s/, 219 lambda and 7 Anti lambda are observed. These correspond to K 0 anti(K 0 ), lambda(Σ 0 ) and anti lambda production rates per charged current interaction of 0.170 +/- 0.010, 0.060 +/- 0.004, and 0.002 +/- 0.001, respectively, in 18.9 +/- 0.09% V 0 events of total charged current events. The inclusive lambda rate in nun interactions is significantly higher than that in nup interactions. The multiplicity of K 0 increases (or decreases) with increasing E/sub nu/, W, and Q 2 (or x/sub BETA), while that of lambda shows no significant variations. From a detailed study of lambda, lambda K 0 ], lambda K/sup */ +0 systems, the production rate of lambda from the charm quark decay is found to be (2.1 +/- 1.0)% of the total charged current, which leads to a small cross section for charmed baryon quasielastic production -40 cm 2 (90% CL) and a small semileptonic branching ratio of lambda/sub c/ + decay, B(lambda/sub c/ + → e + lambda x + , K 0 p, lambda π + π + π - , and antiK 0 pπ + π - decay modes of lambda/sub c/ + are studied and found consistent with our previous results. The gross probability that an (ss) pair is produced in lambda S = 0 neutrino reactions is estimated to be 0.19 +/- 0.06, which agrees well with that in hadronic experiments. The inclusive x/sub F/ and p/sub T 2 / distributions and their average values are very similar to those in hadronic experiments, which suggest that the majority of neutral strange particles are produced in neutrino reactions via the associated production mechanism

  12. On the Frequency Distribution of Neutral Particles from Low-Energy Strong Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Colecchia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The rejection of the contamination, or background, from low-energy strong interactions at hadron collider experiments is a topic that has received significant attention in the field of particle physics. This article builds on a particle-level view of collision events, in line with recently proposed subtraction methods. While conventional techniques in the field usually concentrate on probability distributions, our study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt at estimating the frequency distribution of background particles across the kinematic space inside individual collision events. In fact, while the probability distribution can generally be estimated given a model of low-energy strong interactions, the corresponding frequency distribution inside a single event typically deviates from the average and cannot be predicted a priori. We present preliminary results in this direction and establish a connection between our technique and the particle weighting methods that have been the subject of recent investigation at the Large Hadron Collider.

  13. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub α/ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra

  14. Neutral particle kinetics in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendler, M.; Heifetz, D.

    1986-05-01

    The theory of neutral particle kinetics treats the transport of mass, momentum, and energy in a plasma due to neutral particles which themselves are unaffected by magnetic fields. This transport affects the global power and particle balances in fusion devices, as well as profile control and plasma confinement quality, particle and energy fluxes onto device components, performance of pumping systems, and the design of diagnostics and the interpretation of their measurements. This paper reviews the development of analytic, numerical, and Monte Carlo methods of solving the time-independent Boltzmann equation describing neutral kinetics. These models for neutral particle behavior typically use adaptations of techniques developed originally for computing neutron transport, due to the analogy between the two phenomena, where charge-exchange corresponds to scattering and ionization to absorption. Progress in the field depends on developing multidimensional analytic methods, and obtaining experimental data for the physical processes of wall reflection, the neutral/plasma interaction, and for processes in fusion devices which are directly related to neutral transport, such as H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission rates, plenum pressures, and charge-exchange emission spectra.

  15. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector

  16. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore

    2004-03-16

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector.

  17. A high energy photon beam derived from neutral strange particle decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, K.; Ruchti, R.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional methods for generating photon beams include: tagged beams in which the photons are derived from electron bremsstrahlung in a radiator target; and broad band beams in which the photons are derived from π/sup 0/ decay - the hadronic component (n, K/sub s//sup 0/) accompanying such a beam is usually suppressed by passage of the beam through a low Z (D/sub 2/) filter. Although one can generate high energy photons by these techniques, the major drawback to these beams is that the photon energy spectrum obtained is peaked at very low E/sub γ/. (Recall that the bremsstrahlung spectrum falls as 1/k). With very high energy proton beams (20 TeV/c), one can image other alternatives for photon beam design. The authors consider one such option here

  18. Arcing and rf signal generation during target irradiation by a high-energy, pulsed neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robiscoe, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    We present a theory describing the dynamics of arc discharges in bulk dielectric materials on board space-based vehicles. Such ''punch-through'' arcs can occur in target satellites irradiated by high-energy (250 MeV), pulsed (100 mA x 10 ms) neutral particle beams. We treat the arc as a capacitively limited avalanche current in the target dielectric material, and we find expressions for the arc duration, charge transport, currents, and discharge energy. These quantities are adjusted to be consistent with known scaling laws for the area of charge depleted by the arc. After a brief account of the statistical distribution of voltages at which the arc starts and stops, we calculate the signal strength and frequency spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation broadcast by the arc. We find that arcs from thick (/similar to/1 cm) targets can generate rf signals detectable up to 1000 km from the target, bu a radio receiver operating at frequency 80 MHz, bandwidth 100 kHz, and detection threshold -105 dBm. These thick-target arc signals are 10 to 20 dB above ambient noise at the receiver, and they provide target hit assessment if the signal spectrum can be sampled at several frequencies in the nominal range 30-200 MHz. Thin-target (/similar to/1 mm) arc signals are much weaker, but when they are detecable in conjunction with thick-target signals, target discrimination is possible by comparing the signal frequency spectra. 24 refs., 12 figs

  19. Neutral particle beam alternative concept for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgley, D.; Brook, J.; Luzzi, T.; Deutsch, L.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of an ITER neutral particle beam system is presented. The analysis covers the neutralizer, ion dumps, pumping, and geometric aspects. The US beam concept for ITER consists of three or four clusters of beamlines delivering approximately 80 MW total of 1.6-MeV deuterium to three or four reactor ports. Each cluster has three self-contained beamlines featuring plasma neutralizers and electrostatic ion dumps. In this study, each of the beamlines has two source assemblies with separate gas neutralizers and magnetic ion dumps. Deuterium is injected into the gas neutralizers by a separate system. Saddle-shaped copper coils augment the tokamak poloidal field to turn the charged particles into the ion dumps. The gas flow from the source, neutralizer, and ion dump is pumped by regenerable cryopanels. The effect of the port between the TF coils and the beam injection angle on the plasma footprint was studied

  20. The manipulation of neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The author's personal contribution to the discovery of laser cooling and trapping of neutral atoms is described, and applications of this phenomenon in atomic physics are highlighted. The article is completed by Mr. Steven Chu's autobiography

  1. Dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have various climate effects and adverse health effects, which both depend on the size and number concentration of the particles. Freshly-formed particles are not large enough to impact neither health nor climate and they are most susceptible to removal by collisions with larger pre-existing particles. Consequently, the knowledge of both the formation and the growth rate of particles are crucially important when assessing the health and climate effects of atmospheric new particle formation. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles with a specific interest towards the particle growth rate and processes affecting the aerosol charging state. A new model, Ion-UHMA, which simulates the dynamics of neutral and charged particles, was developed for this purpose. Simple analytical formulae that can be used to estimate the growth rate due to various processes were derived and used to study the effects of charged particles on the growth rate. It was found that the growth rate of a freshly-formed particle population due to condensation and coagulation could be significantly increased when a considerable fraction of the particles are charged. Finally, recent data-analysis methods that have been applied to the aerosol charging states obtained from the measurements were modified for a charge asymmetric framework. The methods were then tested on data obtained from aerosol dynamics simulations. The methods were found to be able to provide reasonable estimates on the growth rate and proportion of particles formed via ion-induced nucleation, provided that the growth rate is high enough and that the charged particles do not grow much more rapidly than the neutral ones. A simple procedure for estimating whether the methods are suitable for analysing data obtained in specific conditions was provided. In this thesis, the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles were studied in

  2. Search for Long-Lived Neutral Particles in Final States with Delayed Photon and Missing Transverse Energy from Proton-Proton Collisions Using the CMS detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe Ebai, Norbert

    We perform a search for long-lived neutral particles in final state with delayed photons and large missing transverse energy produced in LHC proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy, √s = 8 TeV. Capitalizing on the excellent timing resolution of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter the search uses photon time measurements made by the Electromagnetic Calorimeter as the main search quantity. We found a single event consistent with our background expectations from the Standard Model and set a model-independent upper limit of 4.37 on number of signal events. We also interpret our results in the context of the SPS8 benchmark GMSB model and show that neutralinos with mean lifetime, tau PSneutralinoOne ≤ 45 ns, and mass, mPSneutralinoOne ≤ 300 GeV/c2, or effective Supersymmetry breaking energy scale, Lambda ≤ 220TeV, are ruled out of existence at 95% CLS confidence level. The exclusion limit on the product of the production cross-section and branching ratio of the neutralino to photon and gravitino decay channel, sigma(PSneutralinoOne → gamma + G˜) x BR, for different lifetimes and masses is derived. Our results confirm for the first time that the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter provides good sensitivity to search for long-lived neutral particles with lifetimes up to 40 ns and masses up to 300 GeV/c2 using only timing measurements.

  3. Neutral-particle-beam production and injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.; Pyle, R.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first is a discussion of the interactions of neutral beams with confined plasmas, the second is concerned with the production and diagnosis of the neutral beams. In general we are dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions of the isotopes of hydrogen, but some heavier elements (for example, oxygen) will be mentioned. The emphasis will be on single-particle collisions; selected atomic processes on surfaces will be included

  4. Soviet exoatmospheric neutral particle beam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiss, J.E.; Abrams, R.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Farrell, J.A.; Gillespie, G.H.; Jameson, R.A.; Keefe, D.; Parker, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    This technical assessment was performed by a panel of eight U.S. scientists and engineers who are familiar with Soviet research through their own research experience, their knowledge of the published scientific literature and conference proceedings, and personal contacts with Soviet scientists and other foreign colleagues. Most of the technical components of a neutral particle beam generating system including the ion source, the accelerator, the accelerator radio frequency power supply, the beam conditioning and aiming system, and the beam neutralizer system are addressed. It does not address a number of other areas important to an exoatmospheric neutral beam system

  5. What is a truly neutral particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2004-01-01

    An electrically charged particle is necessarily different from its antiparticle while an electrically neutral particle is either identical with or different from its antiparticle. A truly neutral particle is a particle identical to its antiparticle, which means that all its algebraic intrinsic properties are equal to zero since particle and antiparticle have all their algebraic intrinsic properties opposite. We propose two complementary methods to recognize the true nature of any electrically neutral particle. On the one hand, any non-null algebraic intrinsic property of a particle (properties such as Q, magnetic moment already known from classical physics, or quantum numbers such as baryonic number A, lepton number L or flavors, which are meaningful only in the quantum world) reveals that it is distinct from its antiparticle. On the other hand, any particle decaying through a self-conjugate channel or/and through both two conjugate channels is a truly neutral particle implying then that all algebraic intrinsic properties, known or yet unknown, of this particle are null. According to these methods, the neutrino, like any fermion, cannot be its own antiparticle, so neutrinoless double beta decay cannot take place in nature. We point out the internal contradiction required by the existence of hypothetical neutrinoless double beta decay. We suggest that persistent failure to find experimental evidence for this decay mechanism despite huge efforts dedicated to this aim is consistent with the physics of this process. The immediate consequence would be that limits of neutrino mass deduced from neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be used as constraints in contrast with mass limits deduced from the behavior of the end-point in simple beta spectra. (author)

  6. Transition radiation of ultrarelativistic neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1994-10-01

    We perform a quantum theoretical calculation of transition radiation by neutral particles with spin 1/2 equipped with magnetic moments and/or electric dipole moments. The limit of vanishing masses is treated exactly for arbitrary refraction index. Finally we apply our result to the solar neutrino flux. (author)

  7. Neutral particle beam distributed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, R.T.; Kraimer, M.R.; Novick, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    A distributed data acquisition system has been designed to support experiments at the Argonne Neutral Particle Beam Accelerator. The system uses a host VAXstation II/GPX computer acting as an experimenter's station linked via Ethernet with multiple MicroVAX IIs and rtVAXs dedicated to acquiring data and controlling hardware at remote sites. This paper describes the hardware design of the system, the applications support software on the host and target computers, and the real-time performance

  8. Study of neutral particle behavior and particle confinement in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, Hidenobu; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Shimada, Michiya; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori.

    1995-07-01

    In order to understand the particle confinement properties in JT-60U, the particle confinement time was estimated through analyses of the neutral particle behavior. First, the neutral particle transport simulation code DEGAS using a Monte-Carlo technique was combined with the simple divertor code for calculating the edge plasma parameters, and was developed to calculate under the experimental conditions in JT-60U. Then, the charged particle source in the main plasma due to the ionization of the neutral particles was evaluated from the analyses of the neutral particle penetration to the main plasma based on results of the simulation code and measurements of D α emission intensities. Finally, the particle confinement time was estimated from the analysis of particle balance. The analyses were performed systematically for the L-mode plasma and H-mode plasma of JT-60U, and a data base of the particle confinement time was obtained. The dependence of the particle confinement time on the plasma parameters and the relationship between the properties of the particle confinement and the energy confinement were examined. (author)

  9. Quantum computing implementations with neutral particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negretti, Antonio; Treutlein, Philipp; Calarco, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our discu...... optimal control theory might be a powerful tool to enhance the speed up of the gate operations as well as to achieve high fidelities required for fault tolerant quantum computation.......We review quantum information processing with cold neutral particles, that is, atoms or polar molecules. First, we analyze the best suited degrees of freedom of these particles for storing quantum information, and then we discuss both single- and two-qubit gate implementations. We focus our...... discussion mainly on collisional quantum gates, which are best suited for atom-chip-like devices, as well as on gate proposals conceived for optical lattices. Additionally, we analyze schemes both for cold atoms confined in optical cavities and hybrid approaches to entanglement generation, and we show how...

  10. Search for Long-Lived Neutral Particles in Final states with Delayed Photon and Missing Transverse Energy from Proton-Proton Collisions using the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080019; Kubota, Yuichi; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi

    2016-12-01

    We perform a search for long-lived neutral particles in final state with delayed photons and large missing transverse energy produced in LHC proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy, $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\TeV$. Capitalizing on the excellent timing resolution of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter the search uses photon time measurements made by the Electromagnetic Calorimeter as the main search quantity. We found a single event consistent with our background expectations from the Standard Model and set a model-independent upper limit of 4.37 on number of signal events. We also interpret our results in the context of the SPS8 benchmark GMSB model and show that neutralinos with mean lifetime, $\\tau \\leq 45$ns, and mass, $m \\leq 300\\GeV/c^{2}$, or effective Supersymmetry breaking energy scale, $\\Lambda \\leq 220\\TeV$, are ruled out of existence at 95% $CL_{S}$ confidence level. The exclusion limit on the product of the production cross-section and branching ratio of the neutralino to photon and gravitino decay ...

  11. Report on neutral particle detectors and QED: PEP summer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.; Bulos, F.; Buschhorn, G.

    1974-08-01

    The exploration of the neutral particle final states in e + e/sup /minus// annihilation using a 4π neutral particle detector is discussed. Charge particle final state physics is also considered in the context of a neutral detector. Design criteria are discussed, and a possible detector design is presented. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12 degrees). Beamline calorimeters, of a ''V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ''V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected

  13. Active neutral particle diagnostics for high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies related to active neutral particle diagnostics in the JT-60 tokamak. Detection efficiencies of a micro-channel plate (MCP), which has widely used in plasma diagnostics, were determined for ions and neutrals. Multi-step processes for a neutral beam is predicted to enhance the beam stopping cross section in a plasma. In order to confirm the predictions, shine-through for a hydrogen and for a helium beam was measured in the JT-60 ohmic plasmas. The measurements for a hydrogen beam resulted in the cross sectional enhancement in the beam stopping. The same experiment using a helium beam indicated that the cross sectional enhancement for helium was much smaller than that for hydrogen at almost same plasma parameters. Ion temperature diagnostic using active beam scattering was developed in data processing technique, in consideration of the device function of a neutral particle analyzer and in estimation of the effect of beam ion component. Fundamental experiments for detecting helium ions in a plasma were performed using two-electron transfer reaction between a helium atomic beam and helium ions, and the energy distribution and the density of the helium ions were determined. These experiments demonstrated promise of the two-electron transfer reaction as an alpha ash detection in a burning plasma. A parasitic neutral efflux accompanied by active beam injection was investigated. (J.P.N.)

  14. Guiding center model to interpret neutral particle analyzer results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, G. W.; Reinmann, J. J.; Lauver, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical model is discussed, which accounts for drift and cyclotron components of ion motion in a partially ionized plasma. Density and velocity distributions are systematically precribed. The flux into the neutral particle analyzer (NPA) from this plasma is determined by summing over all charge exchange neutrals in phase space which are directed into apertures. Especially detailed data, obtained by sweeping the line of sight of the apertures across the plasma of the NASA Lewis HIP-1 burnout device, are presented. Selection of randomized cyclotron velocity distributions about mean azimuthal drift yield energy distributions which compared well with experiment. Use of data obtained with a bending magnet on the NPA showed that separation between energy distribution curves of various mass species correlate well with a drift divided by mean cyclotron energy parameter of the theory. Use of the guiding center model in conjunction with NPA scans across the plasma aid in estimates of ion density and E field variation with plasma radius.

  15. Development of a low energy neutral analyzer (LENA). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, C.C.; Fan, C.Y.; Hsieh, K.C.; McCullen, J.D.

    1986-05-01

    A low energy neutral particle analyzer (LENA) has been developed at the University of Arizona to detect particles originating in the edge plasma of fusion reactors. LENA was designed to perform energy analysis and measure flux levels of neutrals having energies between 5 and 50 eV (with possible extension to 500 eV neutrals), and do this with 1 to 10 ms time resolution. The instrument uses hot filaments to produce a 10 mA diffusion electron beam which ionizes incoming neutrals in a nearly field free region so that their velocity distribution is nearly undisturbed. The resultant ions are energy analyzed in a hyperbolic electrostatic analyzer, and detected by an MCP detector. LENA has been installed and operated on the ALCATOR C tokamak at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center. Results to date are discussed. At present, the LENA exhibits excessive sensitivity to the extremely high ultraviolet photon flux emanating from the plasma. Measures to correct this are suggested

  16. Error estimation and parameter dependence of the calculation of the fast ion distribution function, temperature, and density using data from the KF1 high energy neutral particle analyzer on Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlatter, Christian; Testa, Duccio; Cecconello, Marco; Murari, Andrea; Santala, Marko

    2004-01-01

    Joint European Torus high energy neutral particle analyzer measures the flux of fast neutrals originating from the plasma core. From this data, the fast ion distribution function f i fast , temperature T i,perpendicular fast , and density n i fast are derived using knowledge of various plasma parameters and of the cross section for the required atomic processes. In this article, a systematic sensitivity study of the effect of uncertainties in these quantities on the evaluation of the neutral particle analyzer f i fast , T i,perpendicular fast , and n i fast is reported. The dominant parameter affecting n i fast is the impurity confinement time and therefore a reasonable estimate of this quantity is necessary to reduce the uncertainties in n i fast below 50%. On the other hand, T i,perpendicular fast is much less sensitive and can certainly be provided with an accuracy of better than 10%

  17. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube

  18. Approximate models for neutral particle transport calculations in ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shizuca

    2000-01-01

    The problem of neutral particle transport in evacuated ducts of arbitrary, but axially uniform, cross-sectional geometry and isotropic reflection at the wall is studied. The model makes use of basis functions to represent the transverse and azimuthal dependences of the particle angular flux in the duct. For the approximation in terms of two basis functions, an improvement in the method is implemented by decomposing the problem into uncollided and collided components. A new quadrature set, more suitable to the problem, is developed and generated by one of the techniques of the constructive theory of orthogonal polynomials. The approximation in terms of three basis functions is developed and implemented to improve the precision of the results. For both models of two and three basis functions, the energy dependence of the problem is introduced through the multigroup formalism. The results of sample problems are compared to literature results and to results of the Monte Carlo code, MCNP. (author)

  19. Neutral particle diagnostics for ALCATOR C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, C.; Fiore, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    The ALCATOR C-Mod experiment will be equipped with two PPPL charge exchange neutral particle analyzers (CENAs), one of which views the plasma tangentially (R tan /R 0 =1.05), whereas the second has a horizontally scannable sight line (0≤R tan /R 0 ≤0.51). The perpendicularly viewing CENA will be capable of analyzing neutrals up to 600 keV amu for up to three separate species simultaneously. Thus high-energy tails can be observed together with the bulk ion temperature. The operation of both analyzers will allow simultaneous measurements from both the perpendicular and tangential chords. The CENAs will be used to study the effect of ICRF heating on the ion energy distribution with emphasis on the high-energy tail. A Fokker--Planck code (FPPRF) [Hammett, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton (1986)] is used to assess the appropriate operating regime of the analyzer (n≤4x10 20 m -3 for T i =2 keV, for Maxwellian ion energy distribution). The experimental design and computer simulations will be detailed

  20. Truly neutral microobjects and oscillations in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1982-01-01

    Oscillation phenomena between different states of neutral elementary particles are discussed. The known kaon oscillation and the proposed neutrino, neutron and other kinds of oscillations are analysed. The proper bound states of neutral objects (neutrinos, neutrons, hydrogen atoms) are investigated in the case of small and strong violation of CP symmetry. Consequences concerning the observable masses and quantum numbers of such neutral objects are drawn. (D.Gy.)

  1. Numerical simulation of neutral particle evolution in the plasma of a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.; Werkoff, F.

    1976-11-01

    A numerical code previously described is used to simulate the evolution of neutral particles in a cylindrical plasma. The influence of the incoming neutral energy on their repartition inside the plasma is briefly studied. The flux of the neutrals emitted by the plasma and hitting the wall is given as a function of the energy. The effect of various plasma parameters on the apparent value of the ion temperature obtained by analyzing the emitted neutral spectrum in a given direction is also studied [fr

  2. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  3. Low energy particle composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1975-01-01

    More than 50 papers presented at this Conference dealt with the composition of low energy particles. The topics can be divided roughly into two broad categories. The first is the study of the energy spectra and composition of the steady or 'quiet-time' particle flux, whose origin is at this time unknown. The second category includes the study of particles and photons which are associated with solar flares or active regions on the sun. (orig.) [de

  4. Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster

  5. Interaction of neutral particles with strong laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuren, Sebastian; Keitel, Christoph H.; Di Piazza, Antonino [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s the experimentally available field strengths have continuously increased. The current peak intensity record is 2 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2} and next generation facilities such as ELI, HiPER and XCELS plan to reach even intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. Thus, modern laser facilities are a clean source for very strong external electromagnetic fields and promise new and interesting high-energy physics experiments. In particular, strong laser fields could be used to test non-linear effects in quantum field theory. Earlier we have investigated how radiative corrections modify the coupling of a charged particle inside a strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field. However, a charged particle couples already at tree level to electromagnetic radiation. Therefore, we have now analyzed how the coupling between neutral particles and radiation is affected by a very strong plane-wave electromagnetic background field, when loop corrections are taken into account. In particular, the case of neutrinos is discussed.

  6. A single particle energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, A.R. [Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M. [Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Physics

    1993-09-01

    We consider the binding energies of {Lambda} hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A {le} 89 and for orbital angular momenta {ell}{sub {Lambda}} {le} 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}Z with baryon number A in which a single {Lambda} hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus {sup A}Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The {Lambda} hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = {minus}1, isospin I = O and a mass M{sub {Lambda}} = 1116 MeV/c{sup 2}. Although the {Lambda} interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V{sub {Lambda}N} {approx} 0.5 V{sub NN}. As a result, the two-body {Lambda}N system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton {sub {Lambda}}{sup 3}H in which the {Lambda} is bound to a deuteron with the {Lambda}-d separation energy being only {approx} 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius {approx} 15 fm! In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the {Lambda} is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the {Lambda} which can decay either via ``free`` pionic decay {Lambda} {yields} N + {pi} or via induced decay {Lambda} + N {yields} N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime {approx} 10{sup {minus}10}s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free {Lambda}. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time {approx} 10{sup {minus}22}s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei.

  7. A single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodmer, A.R.; Usmani, Q.N.; Sami, M.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the binding energies of Λ hypernuclei (HN), in particular the single-particle (s.p.) energy data, which have been obtained for a wide range of HN with mass numbers A ≤ 89 and for orbital angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 4. We briefly review some of the relevant properties of A hypernuclei. These are nuclei Λ A Z with baryon number A in which a single Λ hyperon (baryon number = 1) is bound to an ordinary nucleus A Z consisting of A - 1 nucleons = Z protons + N neutrons. The Λ hyperon is neutral, has spin 1/2, strangeness S = -1, isospin I = O and a mass M Λ = 1116 MeV/c 2 . Although the Λ interacts with a nucleon, its interaction is only about half as strong as that between two nucleons, and thus very roughly V ΛN ∼ 0.5 V NN . As a result, the two-body ΛN system is unbound, and the lightest bound HN is the three-body hypertriton Λ 3 H in which the Λ is bound to a deuteron with the Λ-d separation energy being only ∼ 0.1 MeV corresponding to an exponential tail of radius ∼ 15 fm exclamation point In strong interactions the strangeness S is of course conserved, and the Λ is distinct from the nucleons. In a HN strangeness changes only in the weak decays of the Λ which can decay either via ''free'' pionic decay Λ → N + π or via induced decay Λ + N → N + N which is only possible in the presence of nucleons. Because of the small energy release the pionic decay is strongly suppressed in all but the lightest HN and the induced decay dominates. However, the weak decay lifetime ∼ 10 -10 s is in fact close to the lifetime of a free Λ. Since this is much longer than the strong interaction time ∼ 10 -22 s we can ignore the weak interactions when considering the binding of HN, just as for ordinary nuclei

  8. Neutral particle transport modeling with a reflective source in the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    A reflective source term is incorporated into the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation to account for boundary reflection. This reflective neutral model is integrated over a uniform axis and subsequently discretized. The discrete two-dimensional equations are solved iteratively with a computer code. The results of the reflective neutral model computer code are benchmarked with the neutral particle transport code ONEDANT. The benchmark process demonstrates the validity of the reflective neutral model. The reflective neutral model is coupled to the Braams plasma particle and energy transport code. The coupled system generates self-consistent plasma edge transport solutions. These solutions, which utilize the transport equation are similar to solutions which utilize simple plasma edge neutral models when high recycle divertors are modeled. In the high recycle mode, the high electron density at the divertor plate reduces the mean free path of plate neutrals. Hence, the similarity in results. It is concluded that simple neutral models are sufficient for the analysis of high recycle power reactor edge plasmas. Low recycle edge plasmas were not examined

  9. Modelling of neutral particle transport in divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakizuka, Tomonori; Shimizu, Katsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the modelling of neutral particle transport in the diverter plasma was described in the paper. The characteristic properties of divertor plasma were largely affected by interaction between neutral particles and divertor plasma. Accordingly, the behavior of neutral particle should be investigated quantitatively. Moreover, plasma and neutral gas should be traced consistently in the plasma simulation. There are Monte Carlo modelling and the neutral gas fluid modelling as the transport modelling. The former need long calculation time, but it is able to make the physical process modelling. A ultra-large parallel computer is good for the former. In spite of proposing some kinds of models, the latter has not been established. At the view point of reducing calculation time, a work station is good for the simulation of the latter, although some physical problems have not been solved. On the Monte Carlo method particle modelling, reducing the calculation time and introducing the interaction of particles are important subjects to develop 'the evolutional Monte Carlo Method'. To reduce the calculation time, two new methods: 'Implicit Monte Carlo method' and 'Free-and Diffusive-Motion Hybrid Monte-Carlo method' have been developing. (S.Y.)

  10. Capacitive Neutralization Dialysis for Direct Energy Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Yi; Ou-Yang, Wei; Bastos Sales, Bruno; Sun, Zhuo; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Ran

    2017-08-15

    Capacitive neutralization dialysis energy (CNDE) is proposed as a novel energy-harvesting technique that is able to utilize waste acid and alkaline solutions to produce electrical energy. CNDE is a modification based on neutralization dialysis. It was found that a higher NaCl concentration led to a higher open-circuit potential when the concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions were fixed. Upon closing of the circuit, the membrane potential was used as a driving force to move counter ions into the electrical double layers at the electrode-liquid interface, thereby creating an ionic current. Correspondingly, in the external circuit, electrons flow through an external resistor from one electrode to the other, thereby generating electrical energy directly. The influence of external resistances was studied to achieve greater energy extraction, with the maximum output of 110 mW/m 2 obtained by employing an external resistance of 5 Ω together with the AC-coated electrode.

  11. Weak neutral currents discovery: a giant step for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullia, A.; Vialle, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Subatomic particles interact with different kinds of forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational). In case of the weak force, the interaction is due to the exchange of intermediate charged (W +,- ) and neutral (Z 0 ) bosons. These cases are referred as 'charged currents' and 'neutral currents', respectively. The evidence for such weak neutral currents appeared in the Gargamelle international collaboration whose aim was to study in-depth neutrino interactions (and thus weak interactions) through the use of a giant heavy liquid bubble chamber at CERN. In a collaboration meeting in March 1972, the Milan team showed the first hints of neutral currents in neutrino interactions with at least one pion outgoing. In 1974, 2 new leptonic neutral current candidate events were found in Gargamelle films and the Fermilab team confirmed the result a few months later. (A.C.)

  12. Guiding center model to interpret neutral particle analyzer results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, G.W.; Reinmann, J.J.; Lauver, M.R.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical model is discussed, which accounts for drift and cyclotron components of ion motion in a partially ionized plasma. Density and velocity distributions are systematically prescribed. The flux into the neutron particle analyzer (NPA) from this plasma is determined by summing over all charge exchange neutrals in phase space which are directed into apertures. Especially detailed data, obtained by sweeping the line of sight of the apertures across the plasma of the NASA Lewis HIP-1 burnout device, are presented. Selection of randomized cyclotron velocity distributions about mean azimuthal drift yield energy distributions which compared well with experiment. Use of data obtained with a bending magnet on the NPA showed that separation between energy distribution curves of various mass species correlate well with a drift divided by mean cyclotron energy parameter of the theory. Use of the guiding center model in conjunction with NPA scans across the plasma aid in estimates of ion density and E field variation with plasma radius. (U.S.)

  13. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Linghua [Institute of Space Physics and Applied Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Shih, Albert Y. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F., E-mail: wanglhwang@gmail.com [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, University of Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  14. Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, Marco; Villanueva, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter α, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in α, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q s un ≅ 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M s un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)

  15. Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, Marco [Pontificia Universidad de Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-12-15

    The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter {alpha}, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in {alpha}, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Q{sub s}un {approx_equal} 0.728 [Km]=0.493 M{sub s}un. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)

  16. Time-of-flight analysis of charge-exchange neutral particles from the TORTUR II plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.

    1981-10-01

    A disc chopper for time-of-flight analysis of fast neutral particles was constructed for the determination of the ion energy spectrum at lower energies than can be obtained by conventional electro-magnetic analyzers. The method has been applied to the TORTUR II tokamak. The chopper and detection system are described and the measurements are presented. For the interpretation of the results of the measurements a data analysis procedure was developed. The influence of reflections of neutrals at the liner wall showed to be important in the calculations of the neutral density profile at the plasma edge. The neutral energy spectrum in the lower energy range is strongly pronounced by this effect

  17. Excitation of an instability by neutral particle ionization induced fluxes in the tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, P.; Sunder, D.

    1991-01-01

    Strong density and potential fluctuations in the edge plasma of toroidal nuclear fusion devices can lead to anomalously fast particle and energy transport. There are some reasons to assume the level of these fluctuations to be connected with neutral particles which enter the plasma by gas puffing or recycling processes. The influence of neutral particles on the behaviour of electrostatic drift modes was investigated. Using the ballooning transformation the excitation of dissipative drift waves in tokamak was studied taking ionization and charge exchange into consideration. Ionization driven drift wave turbulence was analyzed. The higher the neutral particle density is the more important the plasma-wall interaction and the less important the action of the limiter becomes. Instabilities localized in the edge plasma and far from the limiter can be one of the reasons of such a phenomenon. In the present paper we show that such an instability may exist. Usually the neutral particle density is large in the vicinity of the limiter and decreases rapidly with the distance from it. Plasma particles generated by ionization of these neutrals outside the limiter shadow, move along the magnetic field lines into a region without neutrals and diffuse slowly across the magnetic field. We solve the stability problem for modes with a perpendicular wave length that is much larger than the ion Larmor radius with electron temperature, and much smaller than the minor plasma radius. The excitation of such modes localized far from the limiter is investigated. A one-dimensional differential equation is derived in the cold ion approximation without taking shear and toroidal effects into consideration. In the case of low flow velocities a nearly aperiodic instability is found analytically. Its growth rate is proportional to the equilibrium plasma velocity at the boundary of the neutral particle's free region and to the inverse of the extension of this zone. This mode is localized in the edge

  18. Beam profile effects on NPB [neutral particle beam] performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeClaire, R.J. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    A comparison of neutral particle beam brightness for various neutral beam profiles indicates that the widely used assumption of a Gaussian profile may be misleading for collisional neutralizers. An analysis of available experimental evidence shows that lower peaks and higher tails, compared to a Gaussian beam profile, are observed out of collisional neutralizers, which implies that peak brightness is over estimated, and for a given NPB platform-to-target range, the beam current (power), dwell time or some combination of such engagement parameters would have to be altered to maintain a fixed dose on target. Based on the present analysis, this factor is nominally about 2.4 but may actually be as low as 1.8 or as high as 8. This is an important consideration in estimating NPB constellation performance in SDI engagement contexts. 2 refs., 6 figs

  19. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemczewski, A.P.

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism. 146 refs., 82 figs., 14 tabs

  20. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczewski, Artur P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism.

  1. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET

  2. Fundamentals of low-energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Gosling, J.T.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging of the space plasma environment via low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) promises to revolutionize the way in which large-scale space plasma phenomena are viewed and understood. LENAs are produced by charge exchange between plasma ions (less than tens of kilo-electron-volts) and cold geocoronal neutrals; these LENAs radiate outward in all directions from their points of origin. Previously developed methods for imaging higher energy neutrals are not suitable for observing the majority of the terrestrial magnetosphere, which is comprised primarily of lower energy plasma populations. This paper briefly describes both the direct and indirect techniques that have been suggested for imaging LENAs to date. The authors then examine in more detail the most advanced of these techniques appropriate for magnetospheric imaging, indirect detection based on ionization of LENAs as they transit ultra thin foils. Such a LENA imager consists of four basic components: (1) a biased collimator to remove the ambient charged particles and set the azimuthal field of view; (2) an ultra thin foil, which ionizes a portion of the incident LENAs; (3) an electrostatic analyzer to reject UV light and set the energy passband; and (4) a coincidence position detector to measure converted LENAs while rejecting noise and penetrating radiation

  3. Energy neutral and low power wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Oner

    Wireless sensor nodes are typically designed to have low cost and small size. These design objectives impose restrictions on the capacity and efficiency of the transceiver components and energy storage units that can be used. As a result, energy becomes a bottleneck and continuous operation of the sensor network requires frequent battery replacements, increasing the maintenance cost. Energy harvesting and energy efficient transceiver architectures are able to overcome these challenges by collecting energy from the environment and utilizing the energy in an intelligent manner. However, due to the nature of the ambient energy sources, the amount of useful energy that can be harvested is limited and unreliable. Consequently, optimal management of the harvested energy and design of low power transceivers pose new challenges for wireless network design and operation. The first part of this dissertation is on energy neutral wireless networking, where optimal transmission schemes under different system setups and objectives are investigated. First, throughput maximization for energy harvesting two-hop networks with decode-and-forward half-duplex relays is studied. For a system with two parallel relays, various combinations of the following four transmission modes are considered: Broadcast from the source, multi-access from the relays, and successive relaying phases I and II. Next, the energy cost of the processing circuitry as well as the transmission energy are taken into account for communication over a broadband fading channel powered by an energy harvesting transmitter. Under this setup, throughput maximization, energy maximization, and transmission completion time minimization problems are studied. Finally, source and channel coding for an energy-limited wireless sensor node is investigated under various energy constraints including energy harvesting, processing and sampling costs. For each objective, optimal transmission policies are formulated as the solutions of a

  4. Analysis of particle species evolution in neutral beam injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Haselton, H.H.

    1978-07-01

    Analytic solutions to the rate equations describing the species evolution of a multispecies positive ion beam of hydrogen due to charge exchange and molecular dissociation are derived as a function of the background gas (H 2 ) line density in the neutralizing gas cell and in the drift tube. Using the solutions, calculations are presented for the relative abundance of each species as a function of the gas cell thickness, the reionization loss rates in the drift tube, and the neutral beam power as a function of the beam energy and the species composition of the original ion beam

  5. Temporal behavior of neutral particle fluxes in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.

    1989-09-01

    Data from an E parallel B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  7. A neutral-particle-based divertor model for Tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.

    1977-04-01

    A zero-dimensional divertor model is derived from one-dimensional 'fluid' equations for the plasma and neutral particles. In this model the important process determining wall bombardment is charge exchange between the background neutral gas and the ions. Simple formulas are presented for the rate of wall bombardment, for the mean temperature and for the shielding efficiency of the plasma in the scrape-off zone. Only the latter parameter is strongly dependent on the parallel transport process in the scrape-off zone. None of the parameters are dependent on the perpendicular transport process. The model shows reasonable agreement with the one-dimensional computer simulation calculations of Mense. (orig.) [de

  8. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy

  9. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Energy recovery tests performed on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high energy potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy, are presented. The operation of the suppressor grid is studied in two different experiments. These tests underline the problems to be solved for an efficient recovery of the energy of the unneutralized beam fraction

  10. Recent advances in neutral particle transport methods and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of ORNL's three-dimensional neutral particle transport code, TORT, is presented. Special features of the code that make it invaluable for large applications are summarized for the prospective user. Advanced capabilities currently under development and installation in the production release of TORT are discussed; they include: multitasking on Cray platforms running the UNICOS operating system; Adjacent cell Preconditioning acceleration scheme; and graphics codes for displaying computed quantities such as the flux. Further developments for TORT and its companion codes to enhance its present capabilities, as well as expand its range of applications are disucssed. Speculation on the next generation of neutron particle transport codes at ORNL, especially regarding unstructured grids and high order spatial approximations, are also mentioned

  11. Observation with the low energy neutral analyser (LENA) on ASDEX. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, H.

    1991-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the observation with the Low Energy Neutral Particle Analyzers (LENA) at ASDEX during Ohmic discharges. The dependence of the energy distributions, the integrated fluxes, and their mean energies on various plasma parameters is documented. Connections and correlations with other edge and divertor diagnostics are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Effect of neutral particles on density limits in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Morozov, D.Kh.; Bachmann, P.; Suender, D.

    1993-01-01

    The global stability and confinement of a tokamak plasma are significantly influenced by the boundary plasma parameters. The onset of density disruptions, which limit the maximum plasma density, is triggered by impurity radiation in the edge plasma and can be connected with the radiative thermal instability. At the density n c the total radiative power P rad is equal to the total input power P in into the plasma (S:=P rad /P in =1). Above n c (S>1) no steady state of the plasma column exists. Contrary to predictions made elsewhere, where neutral particle kinetics is not taken into consideration, experimental results show that disruptions can occur for S R as a function of the plasma temperature T, ξ N :=N/n and ξ i :=n i /n, where N, n i , n are the densities of hydrogen atoms, impurity ions and the plasma, respectively. We investigate the influence of the neutral particles on the critical densities and the stability of the system, taking into account ionization, charge exchange and impurity cooling. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  13. Energy spectrum of neutrals formed in an ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    This work presents an estimate of the energy distribution of the neutrals formed in the ion beam accelerator. However it does not determine the fraction of those neutrals which leave the neutral beam injector and go on into the reactor. To do that, more details of the beam line performance are needed

  14. Efficiency calculations for the direct energy conversion system of the Cadarache neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype energy conversion system is presently in operation at Cadarache, France. Such a device is planned for installation on each six neutral beam injectors for use in the Tore Supra experiment in 1989. We present calculations of beam performance that may influence design considerations. The calculations are performed with the DART charged particle beam code. We investigate the effects of cold plasma, direct energy conversion and neutral beam production. 4 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Energy of linear quasi-neutral electrostatic drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.

    1992-01-01

    An exact energy expression for linear quasi-neutral electrostatic perturbations is derived within the framework of dissipationless multi-fluid theory, valid for any geometry. Taking the mass as a tensor with, in general, different masses parallel and perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field allows one to treat the full dynamics and also to restrict consideration to parallel dynamics or to the completely adiabatic case. Application to slab configurations yields the result that in plane geometry the adiabatic approximation does not allow negative-energy perturbations, whereas inclusion of the parallel dynamics does. This is in agreement with a numerical study of drift-wave turbulence within the framework of collisional two-fluid theory by B. Scott. Unlike Scott, we consider a dissipationless theory. Whereas the nonlinear energy is just kinetic plus potential plus thermal energy, the energy of perturbations depends on constraints. In a multi-fluid quasi-neutral electrostatic theory, from which we start, such constraints are mass conservation and entropy conservation. The latter is violated if heat conduction, heat sources (e.g. Joule heating) and heat sinks play a role. Hence, the energy expressions obtained are, valid only when situations where this is not the case or where these phenomena do not influence the entropy constraint. The latter is the case if the heat conduction is infinitely large such that the equilibrium temperature profiles T ν (x) of the various particle species ν are independent of x and δT ν =0. A vanishing temperature perturbation results in an entropy-conserving theory if one takes the adiabatic coefficients γ ν =1. This is possible, however, only for the perturbations; the equilibrium energy would diverge. When we consider this case, we do it in the way that the γs are put equal to 1 only after having obtained the perturbed energy for general γs. (author) 7 refs

  16. High-energy photoproduction of neutral mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Charity, Tim

    1987-01-01

    This thesis presents results from the first full period of data-taking of the experiment WA69 at the Omega^'^ectrometer, CERN, Geneva. The experiment used a tagged photon beam of energy 60-180 GeV incident on a liquid hydrogen target to study photoproduction of hadronic states. The various components of the experiment are described, with particular emphasis on the electromagnetic calorimeters, and the associated offline software for event reconstruction and acceptance calculation. The performance of the outer calorimeter is discussed, and the pi^0 detection and reconstruction efficiency is examined by comparison with pi^{+/- } production. Searches for photoproduction of neutral meson states reveal a clear signal for the pi^0, eta^0 , and omega^0 mesons. The cross-section for elastic omega^0 production is estimated, and found to be consistent with the established value of 1 mub. The cross-section for inclusive pi^0 and eta^0 production is studied using the variable Feynman-x (x_{F }), and pi^0 production as a ...

  17. Plasma Heating and Current Drive by Neutral Beam and Alpha Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Okumura, Y [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of plasma heating is to raise the plasma temperature enough to produce a deuterium and tritium reaction (D + T {yields} {sup 4}He + n). The required plasma temperature T is in the range of 10-30 keV. Since the high temperature plasma is confined by a strong magnetic field, injection of energetic ions from outside to heat the plasma is difficult due to the Lorenz force. The most efficient way to heat the plasma by energetic particles is to inject high energy 'neutrals' which get ionized in the plasma. Neutral beam injection (NBI) with a beam energy much above the average kinetic energy of the plasma electrons or ions is used (beam energy typically {approx}40 keV - 1 MeV). This heating scheme is similar to warming up cold water by pouring in hot water. There are two types of neutral beam, called P-NBI and N-NBI (P- and N- means 'positive' and 'negative', respectively). P-NBI uses the acceleration of positively charged ions and their neutralization, while N-NBI uses the acceleration of negative ions (electrons attached to neutral atoms) and their neutralization. Details are given in NBI technology Section. The first demonstration of plasma heating by P-NBI was made in ORMAK and ATC in 1974, while that by N-NBI was made in JT-60U for the first time in 1996. ITER has also adopted the N-NBI system as the heating and current drive system with a beam energy of 1 MeV. Figure A typical bird's eye view of a tokamak with N-NBI and N-NBI (JT-60U) is shown. (author)

  18. Eddy diffusivity of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Afonso, Marco; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Gama, Sílvio M. A.; Mazzino, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the large-scale transport properties of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles carried by incompressible zero-mean periodic or steady ergodic flows. We show how to compute large-scale indicators such as the inertial-particle terminal velocity and eddy diffusivity from first principles in a perturbative expansion around the limit of added-mass factor close to unity. Physically, this limit corresponds to the case where the mass density of the particles is constant and close in value to the mass density of the fluid, which is also constant. Our approach differs from the usual over-damped expansion inasmuch as we do not assume a separation of time scales between thermalization and small-scale convection effects. For a general flow in the class of incompressible zero-mean periodic velocity fields, we derive closed-form cell equations for the auxiliary quantities determining the terminal velocity and effective diffusivity. In the special case of parallel flows these equations admit explicit analytic solution. We use parallel flows to show that our approach sheds light onto the behavior of terminal velocity and effective diffusivity for Stokes numbers of the order of unity.

  19. Study of the loss cone feature using neutral particle analyzer in large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Goncharov, P.; Sudo, S.; Sanuki, H.; Watanabe, T.; Murakami, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to control the trapped particle by the helical ripple to realize the helical type plasma fusion device. High-energy particles generated by the ion cyclotron resonance heating and the neutral beam injection (NBI) heating have a wide pitch angle distribution by the initial heating mechanism and the atomic process in plasma. The particle with large pitch angle has a complicated orbit, sometimes the loss orbit at certain energy and pitch angle, although the particle with large parallel component against magnetic field line is well confined along the magnetic surface. The loss region in the phase space, so call a loss cone, can be clarified by measuring the pitch angle distribution of the high-energy particle. To this purpose, the lost ion has been directly measured near the plasma. Here the charge exchange neutral particle between the high-energy ion and the background neutral is measured to obtain the pitch angle of the high-energy ion in the plasma. In the large helical device (LHD), we have used two different neutral particle analyzers, the time-of-flight (TOF-NPA) and the silicon detector (SD-NPA) neutral particle analyzer. NBI heating in long discharge is suitable for this purpose in LHD. Three NBIs are tangentially injected to minimize the particle number toward the loss cone region in LHD. The energy of the high-energy ion supplied from NBI decreases by the plasma electron. The pitch angle scattering is occurred by the plasma ion at the energy of the several times of the electron temperature. Therefore we can easily compare the experimental pitch angle distribution with the simulation result, which is obtained by considering the initial pitch angle distribution and the atomic process. The pitch angle distribution from 40 to 100 degrees can be obtained by horizontal scanning the TOF-NPA during the long discharge over 100 seconds sustained by the NBI 2 (co-injection) at the magnetic axis (R ax ) of 3.6 m. The trapped particle by the helical

  20. Vectorizing and macrotasking Monte Carlo neutral particle algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifetz, D.B.

    1987-04-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms for computing neutral particle transport in plasmas have been vectorized and macrotasked. The techniques used are directly applicable to Monte Carlo calculations of neutron and photon transport, and Monte Carlo integration schemes in general. A highly vectorized code was achieved by calculating test flight trajectories in loops over arrays of flight data, isolating the conditional branches to as few a number of loops as possible. A number of solutions are discussed to the problem of gaps appearing in the arrays due to completed flights, which impede vectorization. A simple and effective implementation of macrotasking is achieved by dividing the calculation of the test flight profile among several processors. A tree of random numbers is used to ensure reproducible results. The additional memory required for each task may preclude using a larger number of tasks. In future machines, the limit of macrotasking may be possible, with each test flight, and split test flight, being a separate task

  1. Settling velocity of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Afonso, Marco; Gama, Sílvio M. A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the sedimentation properties of quasi-neutrally buoyant inertial particles carried by incompressible zero-mean fluid flows. We obtain generic formulae for the terminal velocity in generic space-and-time periodic (or steady) flows, along with further information for flows endowed with some degree of spatial symmetry such as odd parity in the vertical direction. These expressions consist in space-time integrals of auxiliary quantities that satisfy partial differential equations of the advection-diffusion-reaction type, which can be solved at least numerically, since our scheme implies a huge reduction of the problem dimensionality from the full phase space to the classical physical space. xml:lang="fr"

  2. Power and particle balance during neutral beam injection in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Budny, R.V.; Hill, K.W.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1991-05-01

    Detailed boundary plasma measurements on TFTR have been made during a NBI power scan in the range P tot = 1MW--20MW in the L-mode regime. The behavior of the plasma density left-angle n e right-angle, radiated power P rad , carbon and deuterium fluxes Γ C , Γ D , and Ζ eff can be summarized as, left-angle n e right-angle ∝ P tot 1/2 , P rad , Γ C , Γ D ∝ P tot , and Ζ eff ∼ constant. It is shown that central fuelling by the neutral beams plays a minor role in the particle balance of the discharge. More important is the NBI role in the power balance. The TFTR data during NBI originate primarily at the graphite limiter

  3. Los Alamos neutral particle transport codes: New and enhanced capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.; Brinkley, F.W.; Clark, B.A.; Koch, K.R.; Marr, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    We present new developments in Los Alamos discrete-ordinates transport codes and introduce THREEDANT, the latest in the series of Los Alamos discrete ordinates transport codes. THREEDANT solves the multigroup, neutral-particle transport equation in X-Y-Z and R-Θ-Z geometries. THREEDANT uses computationally efficient algorithms: Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) is used to accelerate the convergence of transport iterations, the DSA solution is accelerated using the multigrid technique. THREEDANT runs on a wide range of computers, from scientific workstations to CRAY supercomputers. The algorithms are highly vectorized on CRAY computers. Recently, the THREEDANT transport algorithm was implemented on the massively parallel CM-2 computer, with performance that is comparable to a single-processor CRAY-YMP We present the results of THREEDANT analysis of test problems

  4. Recently developed methods in neutral-particle transport calculations: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that successful, general methods for the solution of the neutral particle transport equation involve a close connection between the spatial-discretization method used and the source-acceleration method chosen. The first form of the transport equation, angular discretization which is discrete ordinates is considered as well as spatial discretization based upon a mesh arrangement. Characteristic methods are considered briefly in the context of future, desirable developments. The ideal spatial-discretization method is described as having the following attributes: (1) positive-positive boundary data yields a positive angular flux within the mesh including its boundaries; (2) satisfies the particle balance equation over the mesh, that is, the method is conservative; (3) possesses the diffusion limit independent of spatial mesh size, that is, for a linearly isotropic flux assumption, the transport differencing reduces to a suitable diffusion equation differencing; (4) the method is unconditionally acceleratable, i.e., for each mesh size, the method is unconditionally convergent with a source iteration acceleration. It is doubtful that a single method possesses all these attributes for a general problem. Some commonly used methods are outlined and their computational performance and usefulness are compared; recommendations for future development are detailed, which include practical computational considerations

  5. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current interactions on neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deprospo, D.; Kalelkar, M.; Aderholz, M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andryakov, A.; Asratyan, A.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Baton, J.-P.; Barth, M.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Devanand; de Wolf, E.; Ermolov, P.; Erofeeva, I.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gapienko, G.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Ivanilov, A.; Jabiol, M.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kaftanov, V.; Kasper, P.; Kobrin, V.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Korablev, V.; Kubantsev, M.; Lauko, M.; Lukina, O.; Lys, J. E.; Lyutov, S.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Moskalev, V.; Murzin, V.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Ryasakov, S.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Singh, S.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smart, W.; Smirnova, L.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1994-12-01

    A study has been made of neutral strange particle production in νμNe and ν¯μNe charged-current interactions at a higher energy than any previous study. The experiment was done at the Fermilab Tevatron using the 15-ft. bubble chamber, and the data sample consists of 814(154) observed neutral strange particles from 6263(1115) ν(ν¯) charged-current events. For the ν beam (average event energy =150 GeV), the average multiplicities per charged-current event have been measured to be 0.408+/-0.048 for K0, 0.127+/-0.014 for Λ, and 0.015+/-0.005 for Λ¯, which are significantly greater than for lower-energy experiments. The dependence of rates on kinematical variables has been measured, and shows that both K0 and Λ production increase strongly with Eν, W2, Q2, and yB. Compared to lower-energy experiments, single-particle distributions indicate that there is much more K0 production for xF>-0.2, and the enhanced Λ production spans most of the kinematic region. Λ¯ production is mostly in the region ||xF||-0.2 there is a significant excess of Λ production over the model's prediction. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane.

  6. Analysis of bound-state spectra near the threshold of neutral particle interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Fang; Cao Zhuangqi; Chen Jianping; Xu Junjie

    2006-01-01

    It is understood that conventional semiclassical approximations deteriorate towards threshold in a typical neutral particle interaction potential which is important for the study of ultra-cold atoms and molecules. In this Letter we give an example of the Lennard-Jones potential with tuning of the strength parameter on the basis of the analytical transfer matrix (ATM) method. Highly accurate quantum mechanical results, such as number of the bound states, energy level density and the eigenvalues with extremely low energies have been derived

  7. A method for ion distribution function evaluation using escaping neutral atom kinetic energy samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, P.R.; Ozaki, T.; Veshchev, E.A.; Sudo, S.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable method to evaluate the probability density function for escaping atom kinetic energies is required for the analysis of neutral particle diagnostic data used to study the fast ion distribution function in fusion plasmas. Digital processing of solid state detector signals is proposed in this paper as an improvement of the simple histogram approach. Probability density function for kinetic energies of neutral particles escaping from the plasma has been derived in a general form taking into account the plasma ion energy distribution, electron capture and loss rates, superposition along the diagnostic sight line and the magnetic surface geometry. A pseudorandom number generator has been realized that enables a sample of escaping neutral particle energies to be simulated for given plasma parameters and experimental conditions. Empirical probability density estimation code has been developed and tested to reconstruct the probability density function from simulated samples assuming. Maxwellian and classical slowing down plasma ion energy distribution shapes for different temperatures and different slowing down times. The application of the developed probability density estimation code to the analysis of experimental data obtained by the novel Angular-Resolved Multi-Sightline Neutral Particle Analyzer has been studied to obtain the suprathermal particle distributions. The optimum bandwidth parameter selection algorithm has also been realized. (author)

  8. Charge-Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic of TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontdecaba, J.M.; Balbin, R.; Petrov, S.; TJ-II team

    2003-01-01

    A description of the Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzers in operation in the heliac flexible TJ-II is reported. A description of the detectors, as well as the operation characteristics, hardware and software used in the control and analysis of the data obtained with the diagnostic is detailed. Two NPAs are in operation in TJ-II. One of them is a 5-channel analyzer and another one is an Acord-12. The 5-channel analyzer provides measurements of charge exchange neutral fluxes at five energy channels, whereas the Acord-12 can measure simultaneously two different hydrogen isotopes (H and D) at six energy channels. Their lines of sight can be varied poloidally in order to observe the different sections of the plasma. (Author) 10 refs

  9. Charge-Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic of TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontdecaba, J. M.; Balbin, R.; Petrov, S.; TJ-II team

    2003-07-01

    A description of the Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Analyzers in operation in the heliac flexible TJ-II is reported. A description of the detectors, as well as the operation characteristics, hardware and software used in the control and analysis of the data obtained with the diagnostic is detailed. Two NPAs are in operation in TJ-II. One of them is a 5-channel analyzer and another one is an Acord-12. The 5-channel analyzer provides measurements of charge exchange neutral fluxes at five energy channels, whereas the Acord-12 can measure simultaneously two different hydrogen isotopes (H and D) at six energy channels. Their lines of sight can be varied poloidally in order to observe the different sections of the plasma. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. Design Features of the Neutral Particle Diagnostic System for the ITER Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, S. Ya.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Melnik, A. D.; Mironov, M. I.; Navolotsky, A. S.; Nesenevich, V. G.; Petrov, M. P.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Kedrov, I. V.; Kuzmin, E. G.; Lyublin, B. V.; Kozlovski, S. S.; Mokeev, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    The control of the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel isotopic ratio has to ensure the best performance of the ITER thermonuclear fusion reactor. The diagnostic system described in this paper allows the measurement of this ratio analyzing the hydrogen isotope fluxes (performing neutral particle analysis (NPA)). The development and supply of the NPA diagnostics for ITER was delegated to the Russian Federation. The diagnostics is being developed at the Ioffe Institute. The system consists of two analyzers, viz., LENPA (Low Energy Neutral Particle Analyzer) with 10-200 keV energy range and HENPA (High Energy Neutral Particle Analyzer) with 0.1-4.0MeV energy range. Simultaneous operation of both analyzers in different energy ranges enables researchers to measure the DT fuel ratio both in the central burning plasma (thermonuclear burn zone) and at the edge as well. When developing the diagnostic complex, it was necessary to account for the impact of several factors: high levels of neutron and gamma radiation, the direct vacuum connection to the ITER vessel, implying high tritium containment, strict requirements on reliability of all units and mechanisms, and the limited space available for accommodation of the diagnostic hardware at the ITER tokamak. The paper describes the design of the diagnostic complex and the engineering solutions that make it possible to conduct measurements under tokamak reactor conditions. The proposed engineering solutions provide a safe—with respect to thermal and mechanical loads—common vacuum channel for hydrogen isotope atoms to pass to the analyzers; ensure efficient shielding of the analyzers from the ITER stray magnetic field (up to 1 kG); provide the remote control of the NPA diagnostic complex, in particular, connection/disconnection of the NPA vacuum beamline from the ITER vessel; meet the ITER radiation safety requirements; and ensure measurements of the fuel isotopic ratio under high levels of neutron and gamma radiation.

  11. Space weathering on near-Earth objects investigated by neutral-particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Mura, A.; de Angelis, E.; di Lellis, A. M.; Dotto, E.; Livi, S.; Mangano, V.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2009-04-01

    The ion-sputtering (IS) process is active in many planetary environments in the solar system where plasma precipitates directly on the surface (for instance, Mercury, Moon and Europa). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth object (NEO), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption (PSD), thermal desorption (TD) and micrometeoroid impact vaporization (MIV). The energy distribution of the IS-released neutrals peaks at a few eVs and extends up to hundreds of eVs. Since all other release processes produce particles of lower energies, the presence of neutral atoms in the energy range above 10 eV and below a few keVs (sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA)) identifies the IS process. SHEA easily escape from the NEO, due to NEO's extremely weak gravity. Detection and analysis of SHEA will give important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. The investigation of the active release processes, as a function of the external conditions and the NEO surface properties, is crucial for obtaining a clear view of the body's present loss rate as well as for getting clues on its evolution, which depends significantly on space weather. In this work, an attempt to analyze processes that take place on the surface of these small airless bodies, as a result of their exposure to the space environment, has been realized. For this reason, a new space weathering model (space weathering on NEO-SPAWN) is presented. Moreover, an instrument concept of a neutral-particle analyzer specifically designed for the measurement of neutral density and the detection of SHEA from a NEO is proposed.

  12. Charged and Neutral Particle Interactions on Aerospace Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Wilkins, Richard; Huff, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Various candidate aircraft and spacecraft materials were analyzed and compared in a neutron environment using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) and Trapped environments using the HZETRN code. These candidate materials are being used in aerospace vehicles, have been tested in particle beams, or seemed reasonable to analyze in this manner before deciding to manufacture and test them. This analysis shows that hydrogen bearing materials are better than the metal alloys for reducing the number of reflected and transmitted particles. It also shows that neutrons above 1 MeV are reflected out of the face of the slab better when larger quantities of carbon are present in the material. If a neutron absorber is added to the material, fewer neutrons are transmitted through and reflected from the material. This analysis focused on combinations of scatterers and absorbers to optimize these reaction channels on the higher energy neutron component. The absorber addition did not substantially change the charged particle transmission from the value obtained for polyethylene. The ultimate goal of this type of analysis is the selection of a layered material or material type that will optimize dose, dose equivalent, and electronic error rates inside the vehicle (and outside the vehicle if necessary for the mission). This analysis focuses on how the different material types and additives behave in the atmospheric and space related particle fields. As a secondary issue, as the amount of hydrogen bearing materials increase, larger fluxes of thermal neutrons are expected. It has been observed experimentally that large thicknesses of hydrogen bearing materials increase the error rates per neutron that occurs in SRAM memory chips. This effect is still being investigated, but it has been narrowed down to the larger mean neutron energy produced by the hydrogen bearing material. (authors)

  13. COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED MEDIUM. I. NEUTRAL RETURN FLUX AND ITS EFFECTS ON ACCELERATION OF TEST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasi, P.; Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Amato, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Caprioli, D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    A collisionless shock may be strongly modified by the presence of neutral atoms through the processes of charge exchange between ions and neutrals and ionization of the latter. These two processes lead to exchange of energy and momentum between charged and neutral particles both upstream and downstream of the shock. In particular, neutrals that suffer a charge exchange downstream with shock-heated ions generate high-velocity neutrals that have a finite probability of returning upstream. These neutrals might then deposit heat in the upstream plasma through ionization and charge exchange, thereby reducing the fluid Mach number. A consequence of this phenomenon, which we refer to as the neutral return flux, is a reduction of the shock compression factor and the formation of a shock precursor upstream. The scale length of the precursor is determined by the ionization and charge-exchange interaction lengths of fast neutrals moving toward upstream infinity. In the case of a shock propagating in the interstellar medium, the effects of ion-neutral interactions are especially important for shock velocities <3000 km s{sup -1}. Such propagation velocities are common among shocks associated with supernova remnants, the primary candidate sources for the acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays. We then investigate the effects of the return flux of neutrals on the spectrum of test particles accelerated at the shock. We find that, for shocks slower than {approx}3000 km s{sup -1}, the particle energy spectrum steepens appreciably with respect to the naive expectation for a strong shock, namely, {proportional_to}E{sup -2}.

  14. Dual neutral particle induced transmutation in CINDER2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W.J., E-mail: wjmarti@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Hecht, A.A. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-12-11

    Although nuclear transmutation methods for fission have existed for decades, the focus has been on neutron-induced reactions. Recent novel concepts have sought to use both neutrons and photons for purposes such as active interrogation of cargo to detect the smuggling of highly enriched uranium, a concept that would require modeling the transmutation caused by both incident particles. As photonuclear transmutation has yet to be modeled alongside neutron-induced transmutation in a production code, new methods need to be developed. The CINDER2008 nuclear transmutation code from Los Alamos National Laboratory is extended from neutron applications to dual neutral particle applications, allowing both neutron- and photon-induced reactions for this modeling with a focus on fission. Following standard reaction modeling, the induced fission reaction is understood as a two-part reaction, with an entrance channel to the excited compound nucleus, and an exit channel from the excited compound nucleus to the fission fragmentation. Because photofission yield data—the exit channel from the compound nucleus—are sparse, neutron fission yield data are used in this work. With a different compound nucleus and excitation, the translation to the excited compound state is modified, as appropriate. A verification and validation of these methods and data has been performed. This has shown that the translation of neutron-induced fission product yield sets, and their use in photonuclear applications, is appropriate, and that the code has been extended correctly. - Highlights: • The CINDER2008 transmutation code was modified to include photon-induced transmutation tracking. • A photonuclear interaction library was created to allow CINDER2008 to track photonuclear interactions. • Photofission product yield data sets were created using fission physics similarities with neutron-induced fission.

  15. Neutralized solar energetic particles in the inner heliosphere: a parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Klecker, Berndt; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Cipriani, Fabrice; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The large fluxes of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in Gradual Events, dominated by protons, are believed to be produced by the acceleration of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). As SEPs propagate in the lower corona, there is a chance for them to be neutralized via the charge exchange and/or recombination processes and become energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). These ENAs retain the velocity of their parent SEPs and propagate in straight lines without the influence of the interplanetary magnetic field, and therefore might potentially serve as a new window to observe the particle acceleration processes in the solar corona. STEREO/Low Energy Telescope reported the first probable observation of hydrogen ENAs between 1.6 MeV - 5 MeV from the Sun prior to an X-class flare/CME [Mewaldt et al., 2009]. While such observations were somehow controversial, Wang et al. [2014] simulated the neutralization of solar energetic protons in the corona lower than 40 RS, and the result agreed with the STEREO observation. In this work, we further developed a production model of the ENA near the sun together with a transport model toward the inner planets, and explore the dependences of the ENA characteristics against the model parameters. These parameters include the angular width of the CME, its propagation direction with respect to the Sun-observer line, the propagation speed, the particle density in the corona, the abundances of O6+ and C4+, and the reaction rate of electron impact ionization in the loss of ENAs, and the heliospheric distance of the observer. The calculated ENA flux shows that at lower energy the expected ENA flux depends most sensitively on the CME apex angle and the CME propagation direction. At higher energy the dependence on the coronal density is more prominent. References Mewaldt, R. A., R. A. Leske, E. C. Stone, A. F. Barghouty, A. W. Labrador, C. M. S. Cohen, A. C. Cummings, A. J. Davis, T. T. von Rosenvinge, and M. E. Wiedenbeck (2009), STEREO

  16. The suite of analytical benchmarks for neutral particle transport in infinite isotropically scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, D.E.; Ganapol, B.D.

    1997-01-01

    The linear Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutral particles is investigated with the objective of generating benchmark-quality evaluations of solutions for homogeneous infinite media. In all cases, the problems are stationary, of one energy group, and the scattering is isotropic. The solutions are generally obtained through the use of Fourier transform methods with the numerical inversions constructed from standard numerical techniques such as Gauss-Legendre quadrature, summation of infinite series, and convergence acceleration. Consideration of the suite of benchmarks in infinite homogeneous media begins with the standard one-dimensional problems: an isotropic point source, an isotropic planar source, and an isotropic infinite line source. The physical and mathematical relationships between these source configurations are investigated. The progression of complexity then leads to multidimensional problems with source configurations that also emit particles isotropically: the finite line source, the disk source, and the rectangular source. The scalar flux from the finite isotropic line and disk sources will have a two-dimensional spatial variation, whereas a finite rectangular source will have a three-dimensional variation in the scalar flux. Next, sources emitting particles anisotropically are considered. The most basic such source is the point beam giving rise to the Green's function, which is physically the most fundamental transport problem, yet may be constructed from the isotropic point source solution. Finally, the anisotropic plane and anisotropically emitting infinite line sources are considered. Thus, a firm theoretical and numerical base is established for the most fundamental neutral particle benchmarks in infinite homogeneous media

  17. Behaviour of a neutral particle with spin in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, S.V.; Ehpp, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Proceeding from the Tamm-Good equation taking into account the spin influence on motion trajectory, the neutral particle motion tracjectory and vector turn of spin polarizition in axial magnetic field have been found. The behaviour of a neutral particle possessing its own magnetic moment in an axially-symmetric stationary magnetic field is considered

  18. Neutral particle balance in GDT with fast titanium coating of the first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagryansky, P.A.; Bender, E.D.; Ivanov, A.A.; Krahl, S.; Noack, K.; Karpushov, A.N.; Murakhtin, S.V.; Shikhovtsev, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    The GDT is an axisymmetric open trap with a high mirror ratio for confinement of a collisional plasma. The experimental program of the GDT was focused on the generation of plasma physics database necessary for a GDT-based neutron source. A distinct feature of both GDT and the GDT-based neutron source is that the Larmor radius of the fast sloshing ions is comparable to plasma radius. In this case, the sloshing ions can not be well shielded by the plasma halo from penetration of the neutral gas from periphery that results in high charge exchange losses. The plasma parameters are then very sensitive to gas pressure near the plasma boundary. To reduce the gas pressure to desured value during the beam heating, the authors have used arc-type evaporators developed at the Budker INP for fast titanium coating of the GDT first wall. If needed, the coating can be done a few seconds before each shot. They investigated the neutral particle balance in presence of NB-heating. The inverted magnetron gauges were used to study the temporal dependence of gas pressure inside the central cell. Pyroelectric bolometers were employed to measure the flux of charge exchange neutrals. Neutral particle balance has also been studied numerically by using a gas-transport code. The results of the investigations are the following: (1) sloshing ion lifetime was increased about 10 times compared to that without the coating of the first wall; and (2) wall recycling coefficient of the Ti-coated wall does not exceed 1 for 8 keV mean energy of the neutral hydrogen atoms striking the wall

  19. Energy Sources | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources Energy Sources Many opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of energy supply systems at the central plant and then evaluate potential renewable energy sources and systems. Central Plant Begin by evaluating energy efficiency at the central plant through: Fuel Sources Heat Pumps and Combined

  20. Factsheet on Energy Neutral Housing Construction; Infoblad Energieneutrale woningbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    A brief overview is given of all aspects of energy-neutral building and renovating homes. Besides technique, also attention is given to process, financing, management and maintenance. This factsheet is part of a series of three factsheets on energy neutral construction of houses and buildings. The other two are: 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building : Definition and ambition' and 'Factsheet Energy Neutral schools and offices' [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van alle aspecten van energieneutraal bouwen en renoveren van woningen. Naast techniek komen ook proces, financiering en beheer en onderhoud aan de orde. Dit Infoblad maakt deel uit van een serie van drie Infobladen over energieneutraal bouwen voor woningen en gebouwen. De andere twee zijn: 'Infoblad Energieneutraal bouwen: definitie en ambitie' en 'Infoblad Energieneutrale scholen en kantoren'.

  1. Results from neutral kaon regeneration at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, J.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental neutral kaon regeneration results at Serpukhov energies up to 50 GeV are presented, including the coherent regeneration on hydrogen, deuterium and carbon regenerators and elastic regeneration on deuterium and carbon regenerators. (author)

  2. Modified source of a fast neutral atom beam with a controlled energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostev, V.A.; Elakhovskij, D.V.; Khakhaev, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    A source of a metastable helium atom beam with a controlled energy based on a phenomenon of resonant ion neutralization on the surface of a solid body is described. The neutral particle energy control is carried out by changing ion velocities before their transformation into metastable atoms. The results of experiments with a modified construction of atomic beam source are stated. These experiments were conducted to find the possibilities to control velocities of atoms in a flow as well as to elucidate the peculiarities of operation of a collimator-converter of this construction. Dependences of a halfwidth of the ion velocity distribution function on the ion source parameters have been investigated. The possibility for particle energy control in a collimated flow of fast neutral. atoms has been experimentally shown, it is also shown that a mean value of atom energy in a beam coincides with a value of mean energy of ions from which atoms are produced by the resonant neutralization method; the construction of the source provides the possibility to realize the method of ''overtaking beams'' for neutral atoms and as a result of this to give a possibility for studying atom-atom collisions in a wide energy range at relatively high densities of flows

  3. On the Sustainability and Progress of Energy Neutral Mineral Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Reitsma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of primary ores such as phosphate rock, gold-, copper- and rare earth ores contain considerable amounts of accompanying uranium and other critical materials. Energy neutral mineral processing is the extraction of unconventional uranium during primary ore processing to use it, after enrichment and fuel production, to generate greenhouse gas lean energy in a nuclear reactor. Energy neutrality is reached if the energy produced from the extracted uranium is equal to or larger than the energy required for primary ore processing, uranium extraction, -conversion, -enrichment and -fuel production. This work discusses the sustainability of energy neutral mineral processing and provides an overview of the current progress of a multinational research project on that topic conducted under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  4. An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasao, M.; Tanaka, N.; Terai, K.; Kaneko, O. [Graduate school of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kisaki, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Tsumori, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Shinto, K. [IFMIF R and D Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application.

  5. Neutral particle time-of-flight analyzer for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Carter, M.R.; Coutts, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    We describe the design and performance of a time-of-flight (ToF) analyzer being built for installation on the east end cell of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U). Its primary purpose is to measure the velocity distribution of escaping charge exchange neutral particles having energies between 20 and 5000 electron volts (eV). It also enables direct determination of the thermal barrier potential when used in conjunction with the plasma potential diagnostic and the end loss ion spectrometer. In addition, it can measure the velocity distribution of passing ions leaving the central cell and of ions trapped in the thermal barrier

  6. Towards a Revised Monte Carlo Neutral Particle Surface Interaction Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    The components of the neutral- and plasma-surface interaction model used in the Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS 2 are reviewed. The idealized surfaces and processes handled by that model are inadequate for accurately simulating neutral transport behavior in present day and future fusion devices. We identify some of the physical processes missing from the model, such as mixed materials and implanted hydrogen, and make some suggestions for improving the model

  7. Neutral particle and radiation effects on Pfirsch - Schlueter fluxes near the edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Helander, P.; Connor, J.W.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The edge plasma of a tokamak is affected by atomic physics processes and can have density and temperature variations along the magnetic field that strongly modify edge transport. A closed system of equations in the Pfirsch - Schlueter regime is presented that can be solved for the radial and poloidal variation of the plasma density, electron and ion temperatures, and the electrostatic potential in the presence of neutrals and a poloidally asymmetric energy radiation sink due to inelastic electron collisions. Neutrals have a large diffusivity so their viscosity and heat flux can become important even when their density is not high, in which case the neutral viscosity alters the electrostatic potential at the edge by introducing strong radial variation. The strong parallel gradient in the electron temperature that can arise in the presence of a localized radiation sink drives a convective flow of particles and heat across the field. This plasma transport mechanism can balance the neutral influx and is particularly strong if multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE) occurs, since the electron temperature then varies substantially over the flux surface. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Biomass Energy | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Biomass Energy Biomass from local sources can be key to a campus climate action plan biomass may fit into your campus climate action plan. Campus Options Considerations Sample Project Related biomass fuels for energy does not add to the net amount of carbon in the atmosphere. This is because the

  9. DANTSYS: a system for deterministic, neutral particle transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    The THREEDANT code is the latest addition to our system of codes, DANTSYS, which perform neutral particle transport computations on a given system of interest. The system of codes is distinguished by geometrical or symmetry considerations. For example, ONEDANT and TWODANT are designed for one and two dimensional geometries respectively. We have TWOHEX for hexagonal geometries, TWODANT/GQ for arbitrary quadrilaterals in XY and RZ geometry, and THREEDANT for three-dimensional geometries. The design of this system of codes is such that they share the same input and edit module and hence the input and output is uniform for all the codes (with the obvious additions needed to specify each type of geometry). The codes in this system are also designed to be general purpose solving both eigenvalue and source driven problems. In this paper we concentrate on the THREEDANT module since there are special considerations that need to be taken into account when designing such a module. The main issues that need to be addressed in a three-dimensional transport solver are those of the computational time needed to solve a problem and the amount of storage needed to accomplish that solution. Of course both these issues are directly related to the number of spatial mesh cells required to obtain a solution to a specified accuracy, but is also related to the spatial discretization method chosen and the requirements of the iteration acceleration scheme employed as will be noted below. Another related consideration is the robustness of the resulting algorithms as implemented; because insistence on complete robustness has a significant impact upon the computation time. We address each of these issues in the following through which we give reasons for the choices we have made in our approach to this code. And this is useful in outlining how the code is evolving to better address the shortcomings that presently exist.

  10. Low-energy neutral current phenomenology and grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Aguila, F.; Mendez, A.

    1981-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied by any expanded electroweak gauge model in order to reproduce the standard model low-energy neutral current predictions. These conditions imply several constraints on the neutral gauge boson masses and the quantum number assignments for the ordinary fermions. Using these conditions, we prove that the popular grand unified theories based on the gauge groups SO(10) and E6 can only accommodate trivial extensions of the standard model. As a consequence, if any of these grand unified models works at some energy scale, present low-energy neutral current phenomenology implies that the Z-boson must be produced with the expected mass and couplings to the ordinary fermions. Any additional neutral gauge boson (with the possible exception of very heavy ones) could only be produced in hadronic collisions and it would not decay in e + e - . (orig.)

  11. [Medium energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of 3 H, 3 He, 4 He; Detailed Balance in pd right reversible γ 3 H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay Μ + → e + + γ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects

  12. Effects of particle exhaust on neutral compression ratios in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Allen, S.L.; Greenfield, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, neutral particles in DIII-D are studied via their compression in the plenum and via particle exhaust. The compression of gas in the plena is examined in terms of the magnetic field configuration and wall conditions. DIII-D compression ratios are observed in the range from 1 to ≥ 1,000. Particle control ultimately depends on the exhaust of neutrals via plenum or wall pumping. Wall pumping or outgassing is calculated by means of a detailed particle balance throughout individual discharges, and its effect on particle control is discussed. It is demonstrated that particle control through wall conditioning leads to lower normalized densities. A two-region model shows that the gas compression ratio (C div = divertor plenum neutral pressure/torus neutral pressure) can be interpreted in relation to gas flows in the torus and divertor including the pumping speed of the plenum cryopumps, plasma pumping, and the pumping or outgassing of the walls

  13. Auger vs resonance neutralization in low energy He+ ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    He + ions incident on a metal surface can neutralize either by an Auger or resonant charge exchange. While the Auger process has always been thought to be dominant, recent theoretical interest in the simpler one-electron resonance process has led to suggestions that this alone can account for the neutralization seen in low energy He + ion scattering. In this paper this assertion is analysed by looking at the wider information available on charge exchange processes for He + ion scattering through comparison with Li + ion scattering, the importance of multiple scattering in both these scattering experiments and the results of ion neutralization spectroscopy. These lead to the conclusion that while resonance neutralization to produce metastable He* may well occur at a substantial rate in He + ion scattering, the dominant process leading to loss of ions from the final scattered signal is Auger neutralization as originally proposed. (author)

  14. Application of diffusion theory to the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the widely held view that diffusion theory can not provide good accuracy for the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas is misplaced. In fact, it is shown that multigroup diffusion theory gives quite good accuracy as compared to the transport theory. The reasons for this are elaborated and some of the physical and theoretical reasons which make the multigroup diffusion theory provide good accuracy are explained. Energy dependence must be taken into consideration to obtain a realistic neutral atom distribution in fusion plasmas. There are two reasons for this; presence of either is enough to necessitate an energy dependent treatment. First, the plasma temperature varies spatially, and second, the ratio of charge-exchange to total plasma-neutral interaction cross section (c) is not close to one. A computer code to solve the one-dimensional multigroup diffusion theory in general geometry (slab, cylindrical and spherical) has been written for use on Cray computers, and its results are compared with those from the one-dimensional transport code ANISN to support the above finding. A fast, compact and versatile two-dimensional finite element multigroup diffusion theory code, FINAT, in X-Y and R-Z cylindrical/toroidal geometries has been written for use on CRAY computers. This code has been compared with the two dimensional transport code DOT-4.3. The accuracy is very good, and FENAT runs much faster compared even to DOT-4.3 which is a finite difference code

  15. Energy Neutral Districts in 2050. The Dutch Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonska, B.; Roossien, B.; Ruijg, G.J.; Visser, H.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Willems, E. [Cauberg-Huygen Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    According to the EPBD, from the end of 2020 on all new buildings should be built as nearly zero energy buildings. Instead of focusing on buildings only, a district approach to energy supply and consumption can be advantageous as regards the energy performance and economics. The potential of renewable energy technologies can be utilized to a larger extent while fewer energy generators are needed. An example is a so called energy-hub, in which exchange, conversion and seasonal storage of energy can lead to energy neutral districts before 2050. The Dutch study Transition in Energy and Process for a Sustainable District Development (Transep-DGO), financed largely by the AgentschapNL, has shown that this is possible. For energy neutral district development in 2050, six innovative energy concepts have been elaborated and the extent of energy neutrality in 2020, 2035 and 2050 calculated. Three concepts are based on an idea of an energy hub - bio hub, geo hub and a solar hub. Other concepts are all-electric, conventional and hydrogen concepts. Calculations show that implementation of each of the concepts can lead to energy neutral districts in 2050 or even earlier. When personal transport is included, energy neutrality in 2050 is not feasible. Based on the six general concepts, the most optimal energy concepts tailored for four Dutch cities have been elaborated as pilots, in close cooperation with municipality representatives. Solar hub has been dynamically simulated in order to show the added value of the exchange, conversion and storage of energy flows on a district scale. Energy Pattern Generator (EPG) has been applied for simulation of a virtual district with 1,000 dwellings of various categories. A solar hub with collective heat storage can reduce the demanded storage capacity by 26%, and the total required solar collector surface by 30% at maximum compared to individual seasonal heat storage capacity in dwellings that are not connected in an energy hub. Energy hub

  16. Search for a Neutral Long-Lived Particle Decaying to B-Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Chad [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The existence of the Higgs boson is required by the Standard Model of particle physics, yet it has not been observed. The precise nature of the Higgs boson is unknown and the mechanism by which it interacts with known Standard Model particles is also not known. Long-lived, electrically neutral hadrons have recently been proposed in hidden-valley models and could constitute a pathway through which the Higgs boson communicates with the Standard Model. Such a scenario may provide a novel path to Higgs discovery at the Tevatron. This thesis describes a search for a neutral, long-lived particle produced in decays of Higgs bosons in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.96 TeV, which decays to b-jets and lives long enough to travel at least 1.6 cm before decaying. This analysis uses 3.65 fb -1 of data recorded with the Run II D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider from April 2002 to August of 2008. We perform a search for eight possible hidden-valley scenarios resulting from a Higgs decay. No significant excess over background is observed and cross-section limits are placed at 95% CL.

  17. Neutralization of positive particle beams by electron trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Irani, A.A.; LeMaire, J.L.; Maschke, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    Initial results are presented of a planned series of experimental tests of positive ion beam neutralization, involving transverse space charge studies of a 720 keV 60mA H + beam in a drift region of 4.6 meters. Two conclusions drawn from the data are: (1) the change in transmission observed is consistent with complete neutralization in the drift pipe for grounded or negative electrodes, and with complete de-neutralization in the case of greater than +240 V electrodes; and (2) background gas ionization cannot be the main source of electrons

  18. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  19. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Experimental tests of energy recovery are made on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source (the circular periplasmatron) is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high negative potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy. To prevent the acceleration of the neutralizer plasma electrons toward the collector of the decelerated ions (the recovery electrode), a potential barrier is created by means of a negatively biased long cylindrical grid (called the suppressor grid) surrounding the beam. For a given negative potential (relative to the neutralizer) applied to this grid a plasma sheath develops at the periphery of the beam. At the entry of the grid the width of this sheath is generally much smaller than the beam radius. However, the ions are deflected by the electric field of the sheath outward through the grid. The ion density in the sheath is thus decreasing as the beam propagates and the result is a sheath-widening process which in turn causes more ions to be deflected. If the suppressor grid is sufficiently long the sheath will eventually fill the whole section of the beam, the potential on the axis will fall below the neutralizer potential and stop the electrons. Concurrently, most of the ions are deflected out of the suppressor. These ions can be decelerated and collected outside the region where the neutral beam propagates. A drawing of such a system is shown

  20. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 743, Apr (2015), s. 15-34 ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high-energy collider experiment * Long-lived neutral particle * New physics * ATLAS * CERN * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.787, year: 2015

  1. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  2. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems

  3. Pair creation of neutral particles in a vacuum by external electromagnetic fields in 2 + 1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiong-gui Lin; Department of Physics, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275

    1999-01-01

    Neutral fermions of spin-1/2 with magnetic moment can interact with electromagnetic fields through nonminimal coupling. In 2 + 1 dimensions the electromagnetic field strength plays the same role to the magnetic moment as the vector potential to the electric charge. This duality enables one to obtain physical results for neutral particles from known ones for charged particles. We give the probability of neutral particle-antiparticle pair creation in a vacuum by non-uniform electromagnetic fields produced by constant uniform charge and current densities. (author)

  4. Particle energy and Hawking temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chikun; Wang Mengjie; Jing Jiliang

    2009-01-01

    Some authors have recently found that the tunneling approach gives a different Hawking temperature for a Schwarzschild black hole in a different coordinate system. In this Letter, we find that to work out the Hawking temperature in a different coordinate system by the tunneling approach, we must use the correct definition of the energy of the radiating particles. By using a new definition of the particle energy, we obtain the correct Hawking temperature for a Schwarzschild black hole in two dynamic coordinate systems, the Kruskal-Szekers and dynamic Lemaitre coordinate systems.

  5. Triggering on Long-Lived Neutral Particles in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abramowicz, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adorisio, C; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, H; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Anders, C F; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anjos, N; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonelli, S; Antunovic, B; Anulli, F; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, T; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Arutinov, D; Asai, M; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asner, D; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Atoian, G; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Austin, N; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Baranov, S P; Baranov, S; Barashkou, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Barros, N; Bartoldus, R; Bartsch, D; Bastos, J; Bates, R L; Bathe, S; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bazalova, M; Beare, B; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Becerici, N; Bechtle, P; Beck, G A; Beck, H P; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger- Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendel, M; Benedict, B H; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benincasa, G P; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernardet, K; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertin, A; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchot, G; Blocker, C; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bocci, A; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Boeser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Boldyrev, A; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boulahouache, C; Bourdarios, C; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodet, E; Bromberg, C; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brubaker, E; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Buescher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Byatt, T; Caballero-Bejar, J; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Calvet, D; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Cantero, J; Capasso, L; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Caracinha, D; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carron Montero, S; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Castaneda Hernadez, A M; Castaneda Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N; Cataldi, G; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Cevenini, F; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Chareyre, E; Charlton, D G; Chatterjii, S; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, X; Cheplakov, A; Chepurnov, V F; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Chesneanu, D; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chiarella, V; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chizhov, M; Chouridou, S; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cindro, V; Ciobotaru, M D; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Clements, D; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collard, C; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colon, G; Conde Muino, P; Coniavitis, E; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conventi, F; Cook, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Cote, D; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Cranshaw, J; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crupi, R; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cwetanski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dai, T; Dallapiccola, C; Dallison, S J; Dam, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davison, A R; Dawson, I; Daya, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Castro Faria Salgado, P E; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De La Taille, C; de Mora, L; De Oliveira Branco, M; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dean, S; Deberg, H; Dedovich, D V; Defay, P O; Degenhardt, J; Dehchar, M; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca Silberberg, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demirkoz, B; Deng, W; Denisov, S P; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; DeWilde, B; Dhaliwal, S; Dhullipudi, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Domenico, A; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M A; Diblen, F; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Diglio, S; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, J; Dionisi, C; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djilkibaev, R; Djobava, T; do Vale, M A B; Dobos, D; Dobson, E; Dobson, M; Doherty, T; Dolejsi, J; Dolenc, I; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Donega, M; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Doxiadis, A; Doyle, A T; Dragic, J; Drasal, Z; Dris, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Dudarev, A; Dudziak, F; Duehrssen, M; Duflot, L; Dufour, M-A; Dunford, M; Duperrin, A; Duran Yildiz, H; Dushkin, A; Duxfield, R; Dwuznik, M; Düren, M; Ebenstein, W L; Ebke, J; Eckert, S; Eckweiler, S; Edmonds, K; Edwards, C A; Eerola, P; Egorov, K; Ehrenfeld, W; 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Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmid, P; Schmitt, C; Schmitz, M; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schram, M; Schreiner, A; Schroeder, C; Schroer, N; Schroers, M; Schultes, J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schumacher, J; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwierz, R; Schwindling, J; Scott, W G; Searcy, J; Sedykh, E; Segura, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Seliverstov, D M; Sellden, B; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sevior, M E; Sfyrla, A; Shan, L Y; Shank, J T; Shao, Q T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Sherman, D; Sherwood, P; Shibata, A; Shimojima, M; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Shochet, M J; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O; Silva, J; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simmons, B; Simonyan, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sipica, V; Siragusa, G; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjoelin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Sliwa, K; Sloper, J; Sluka, T; Smakhtin, V; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, B C; Smith, D; Smith, K M; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snow, S W; Snow, J; Snuverink, J; Snyder, S; Soares, M; Sobie, R; Sodomka, J; Soffer, A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O V; Soluk, R; Sondericker, J; Sopko, V; Sopko, B; Sosebee, M; Sosnovtsev, V V; Soukharev, A; Spagnolo, S; Spano, F; Spencer, E; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spila, F; Spiwoks, R; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; Denis, R D; Stahl, T; Stamen, R; Stancu, S N; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Stastny, J; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stenzel, H; Stevenson, K; Stewart, G; Stockton, M C; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strassler, M J; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Stroehmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Stugu, B; Su, D A; Su, D; Suchkov, S I; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Suhr, C; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Sushkov, S; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Szymocha, T; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taga, A; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, R P; Taylor, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terwort, M; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Tevlin, C M; Thananuwong, R; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thomas, T L; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, R J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thun, R P; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokar, S; Tokushuku, K; Tomasek, L; Tomasek, M; Tomasz, F; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, D; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torro Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tovey, S N; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocme, B; Troncon, C; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Tuts, P M; Twomey, M S; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urkovsky, E; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; van der Poel, E; Van Der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; VanBerg, R; Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vassilieva, L; Vazeille, F; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Viehhauser, G H A; Villa, M; Villani, E G; Villaplana Perez, M; Villate, J; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Viret, S; Virzi, J; Vitale, A; Vitells, O V; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaques, F; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vokac, P; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vudragovic, D; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Walbersloh, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Wang, C; Wang, J; Wang, S M; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Webel, M; Weber, J; Weber, M D; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wemans, A; Wen, M; Wenaus, T; Wendler, S; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werthenbach, U; Wessels, M; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilkens, H G; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, D; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wulf, E; Xella, S; Xie, S; Xu, N; Yamada, M; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S P; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yuan, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zambrano, V; Zanello, L; Zarzhitsky, P; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zema, P F; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivkovic, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M

    2009-01-01

    Neutral particles with long decay paths that decay to many-particle final states represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS apparatus. The Hidden Valley scenario serves as an excellent setting for the purpose of exploring the challenges to the trigger posed by long-lived particles.

  6. Macroscopic cross sections for analyzing the transport of neutral particles in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tadakazu; Taji, Yuukichi; Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1975-05-01

    Algorithms have been developed for calculating the ionization and charge exchange cross sections required for analyzing the neutral transport in plasmas. In our algorithms, the integration of the expression for reaction rate of neutrals with plasmas is performed by expanding the integrand with the use of polynomials. At present, multi-energy-group sets of the cross sections depending on plasma temperature and energy of neutrals can be prepared by means of Maxwellian averages over energy. Calculational results are printed out in the FIDO format. Some numerical examples are given for several forms of spatial distributions assumed for the plasma ion temperature and source neutral energy. (auth.)

  7. Electron behavior in ion beam neutralization in electric propulsion: full particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Akihiko; Miyake, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    By performing full Particle-In-Cell simulations, we examined the transient response of electrons released for the charge neutralization of a local ion beam emitted from an ion engine which is one of the electric propulsion systems. In the vicinity of the engine, the mixing process of electrons in the ion beam region is not so obvious because of large difference of dynamics between electrons and ions. A heavy ion beam emitted from a spacecraft propagates away from the engine and forms a positive potential region with respect to the background. Meanwhile electrons emitted for a neutralizer located near the ion engine are electrically attracted or accelerated to the core of the ion beam. Some electrons with the energy lower than the ion beam potential are trapped in the beam region and move along with the ion beam propagation with a multi-streaming structure in the beam potential region. Since the locations of the neutralizer and the ion beam exit are different, the above-mentioned bouncing motion of electrons is also observed in the direction of the beam diameter

  8. Investigation of edge neutral flux on the ISX-B tokamak using a low-energy charge-exchange analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1983-08-01

    To study the emission of D 0 from the periphery of a tokamak plasma, a low-energy neutral particle spectrometer optimized for (16 0 neutrals and a four-channel electrostatic analyzer to energy analyze the negative ions. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using D 0 beams formed by electron capture by positive ions in a gas cell and by photo-detachment of negative ions by a yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. For the observation region chosen on ISX-B (120 0 toroidally away from the limiter, near the gas puff), the neutral particle flux has a two-component nature. These data are well fit by two separate exponential distributions of equivalent temperatures 6 to 8 eV for particle energies below about 80 eV and 70 to 80 eV for particle energies above 80 eV. For ohmically heated discharges, the measured particle flux in the energy range 25 to 700 eV is approx. 2.5 x 10 15 cm - 2 .s - 1 ; the mean particle energy is approx. 70 eV, and the calculated flux at the wall is approx. 30 mW/cm 2 . The major effect of neutral beam heating is to increase the particle flux in the 25- to 700-eV range by a factor of 3

  9. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  10. New results from PETRA on fragmentation and neutral particles production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Daniel.

    1981-10-01

    New results on the neutral component of jets are presented, including first measurements of π 0 production. Then a short review is made of the description of multihadronic events by first order QCD and fragmentation models, and some differences between the Lund and Feynman-Field models are analyzed

  11. Neutral particle retention in the JET MK I divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, J.K.; Campbell, D.J.; Harbour, P.J.; Horton, L.D.; Loarte, A.; McCormick, G.K.; Monk, R.D.; Saibene, G.R.; Simonini, R.; Taroni, A.; Stamp, M.F.

    1997-01-01

    Retention of neutral deuterium and nitrogen in the JET MK I divertor has been investigated. Results show that ohmic plasma detachment reduces deuterium retention, that the magnetic divertor configuration has some influence on the achievable deuterium retention, and that nitrogen in nitrogen-seeded steady state detached H-mode discharges accumulates in the divertor. (orig.)

  12. The CNCSN: one, two- and three-dimensional coupled neutral and charged particle discrete ordinates code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloschenko, A.M.; Gukov, S.V.; Kryuchkov, V.P.; Dubinin, A.A.; Sumaneev, O.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CNCSN package is composed of the following codes: -) KATRIN-2.0: a three-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code; -) KASKAD-S-2.5: a two-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code; -) ROZ-6.6: a one-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code; -) ARVES-2.5: a preprocessor for the working macroscopic cross-section format FMAC-M for transport calculations; -) MIXERM: a utility code for preparing mixtures on the base of multigroup cross-section libraries in ANISN format; -) CEPXS-BFP: a version of the Sandia National Lab. multigroup coupled electron-photon cross-section generating code CEPXS, adapted for solving the charged particles transport in the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck formulation with the use of discrete ordinate method; -) SADCO-2.4: Institute for High-Energy Physics modular system for generating coupled nuclear data libraries to provide high-energy particles transport calculations by multigroup method; -) KATRIF: the post-processor for the KATRIN code; -) KASF: the post-processor for the KASKAD-S code; and ROZ6F: the post-processor for the ROZ-6 code. The coding language is Fortran-90

  13. Particle production at collider energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geich-Gimbel, C.

    1987-11-01

    Key features of the SPS panti p Collider and the detectors of the UA-experiments involved are dealt with in chapter 2, which includes and accord to the ramping mode of the Collider, which allowed to raise the c.m. energy to 900 GeV in the UA5/2 experiment. The following chapters concentrate on physics results. Starting with a discussion of cross sections and diffraction dissociation in chapter 3 we then continue with a presentation of basic features of particle production such as rapidity and multiplicity distributions in chapter 4. There one of the unexpected findings at Collider energies, the breakdown of the so-called KNO-scaling, and new regularities potentially governing multiplicity distributions, are discussed. The findings about correlations among the final state particles, which may tell about the underlying dynamics of multi-particle production and be relevant to models thereof, are described in due detail in chapter 5. Transverse spectra and their trends with energy are shown in chapter 6. Results on identified particles are collected in a separate chapter in order to stress that this piece of information was an important outcome of the UA5 experiment. (orig./HSI)

  14. Building concepts for a transition towards energy neutrality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, B.J.; Paauw, J. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Opstelten, I.J.; Bakker, E.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper building concepts for the near future are described which enable the transition towards a net energy neutral building sector in the Netherlands by the year 2050. With 'net energy neutrality' is meant that, on a yearly basis, the total energy consumption in the built environment is compensated by local renewable energy production e.g. by using solar thermal (T), photovoltaic (PV), PVT and/or wind. A study concerning the feasibility of a 'net energy neutral built environment by 2050' set the energetic ambitions for the building concepts to be developed. This resulted in different concepts for residential buildings and for office-buildings. The building concepts are based on passive house technology to minimise the heating and cooling demand, and make optimal use of active and passive solar energy. Concepts for new to build domestic buildings are in fact energy producing to compensate for the remaining energy demand of existing, renovated dwellings. In all concepts the 'trias energetica' or 'energy pyramid' served as a general guideline, striving for minimisation of energy demand, maximal usage of renewable energy and usage of fossil fuels as efficiently as possible. Different full roof integrated options for using solar energy (PV, T or PVT) with variable storage options have been compared by making simulations with a dynamic simulation programme, to gain insight on their impact on energy, building engineering and economic impact. Also different possibilities for installations to fulfil the heating demand for the space heating and DHW demand are compared. For each concept, the resulting primary energy profiles for space heating and cooling, domestic hot water, electricity consumption for lighting, ventilation and household appliances are given.

  15. Two-dimensional quasi-neutral description of particles and fields above discrete auroral arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. L.; Chiu, Y. T.; Cornwall, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Models are presented for particle distributions, electric fields and currents in an adiabatic treatment of auroral electrostatic potential distributions in order to describe the quiet-time evening auroral arcs featuring both upward and return currents. The models are consistent with current continuity and charge balance requirements for particle populations controlled by adiabatic invariants and quasi-neutrality in the magnetosphere. The effective energy of the cool electron population is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the latitudinal breadth of the auroral electrostatic potential structure and the extent of the penetration of the accelerating potential into the ionosphere. Another finding is that the energy of any parallel potential drop in the lowest few thousand kilometers of the field line is of the same order of magnitude as the thermal energy of the cool electrons. Additional predictions include density cavities along field lines that support large potential drops, and density enhancements along field lines at the edge of an inverted V with a small potential drop.

  16. A study on the nuclear fusion reactor - Development of the neutral particle analyzer for the measurement of plasma temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hee Dong [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Sung [Taegu University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    For measurements of the plasma ion temperature of KT-1 tokamak the charge exchange neutral particle analyzer was made. The NPA was contain stripping cell, cylinderical electrostatic plate type energy analyzer, and detector. The stripping cell has three beam path. The one is empty, the one is covered with Ni-mesh, and the other is covered with Ni-mesh and carbon foil. The mesh no. of the Ni-mesh is 70 lines/inch and the thickness of the carbon foil is 50 A . The radii of the cylinderical plate of the energy analyzer are 112 mm, 95 mm, and the height of the plate is 50 mm. The voltage of the plate is 0 {approx} 1 kV. The ion and neutral particle detector are channeltron (Galileo 4839). 36 refs., 1 tab., 43 figs. (author)

  17. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, E.; Wilken, B.; Richer, K.; Umlauft, G.; Fischer, K.; Winterhoff, H.P.

    1976-10-01

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  18. Intermediate energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolf, M.J.; Donnelly, T.W.; Dubach, J.; Beise, E.J.; Maryland Univ., College Park, MD

    1993-06-01

    The present status and future prospects of intermediate-energy semileptonic neutral current studies are reviewed. Possibilities for using parity-violating electron scattering from nucleons and nuclei to study hadron structure and nuclear dynamics are emphasized, with particular attention paid to probes of strangeness content in the nucleon. Connections are drawn between such studies and tests of the electroweak gauge theory using electron or neutrino scattering. Outstanding theoretical issues in the interpretation of semileptonic neutral current measurements are highlighted and the prospects for undertaking parity-violating electron or neutrino scattering experiments in the near future are surveyed

  19. Neutral strange particle production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents measurements of K 0 and Λ production in neutral current, deep inelastic scattering of 26.7 GeV electrons and 820 GeV protons in the kinematic range 10 2 2 , 0.0003 0 and Λ production are determined for transverse momenta p T >0.5 GeV and pseudorapidities vertical stroke ηvertical stroke + e - experiments. The production properties of K 0 's in events with and without a large rapidity gap are compared. Within the present statistics no indication for different K 0 production properties between diffractive and non-diffractive events is observed. (orig.)

  20. Design of neutral particle incident heating apparatus for large scale helical apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Fusion Science, construction of the large scale helical apparatus has been progressed favorably, and constructions of the heating apparatus as well as of electron resonance apparatus were begun in their orders under predetermined manner since 1994 fiscal year. And, on 1995 fiscal year, construction of neutral particle incident heating apparatus, leading heat apparatus, was begun under 3 years planning. The plasma heating study system adopted the study results developed in this institute through the large scale hydrogen negative ion source and also adopted thereafter development on nuclear fusion study by modifying the original specification set at the beginning of the research plan before 7 years. As a result, system design was changed from initial 125 KeV to 180 KeV in the beam energy and to execute 15 MW incidence using two sets beam lines, to begin its manufacturing. Here is described on its new design with reason of its modifications. (G.K.)

  1. Measurements of the neutral particle spectra on Mars by MSL/RAD from 2015-11-15 to 2016-01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingnan; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Hassler, Donald M.; Köhler, Jan; Ehresmann, Bent; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Brinza, David E.

    2017-08-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity, has been measuring the energetic charged and neutral particles and the radiation dose rate on the surface of Mars since the landing of the rover in August 2012. In contrast to charged particles, neutral particles (neutrons and γ-rays) are measured indirectly: the energy deposition spectra produced by neutral particles are complex convolutions of the incident particle spectra with the detector response functions. An inversion technique has been developed and applied to jointly unfold the deposited energy spectra measured in two scintillators of different types (CsI for high γ detection efficiency, and plastic for neutrons) to obtain the neutron and γ-ray spectra. This result is important for determining the biological impact of the Martian surface radiation contributed by neutrons, which interact with materials differently from the charged particles. These first in-situ measurements on Mars provide (1) an important reference for assessing the radiation-associated health risks for future manned missions to the red planet and (2) an experimental input for validating the particle transport codes used to model the radiation environments within spacecraft or on the surface of planets. Here we present neutral particle spectra as well as the corresponding dose and dose equivalent rates derived from RAD measurement during a period (November 15, 2015 to January 15, 2016) for which the surface particle spectra have been simulated via different transport models.

  2. Ion temperature measurement by neutral energy analyzer in high-field tokamak TRIAM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-02-01

    The measurement of the ion temperature of the TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is carried out by using a seven-channel neutral energy analyzer. The temporal and spatial variations of the ion temperature have been obtained with the spatial resolution of +-4.3 mm and the temporal resolution of 100 ..mu..sec. The energy range of the analyzed neutral particles is from 0.2 to 8 keV. The energy spectrum in the TRIAM-1 plasma without the strong gas puffing usually consists of two-component Maxwellian; the one represents the thermal part which is a superposition of the contribution from a hot region (T sub(i) = 100 - 300 eV) and that from an edge region (T sub(i) asymptotically equals 50 eV), and the other represents the superthermal part (T sub(i) asymptotically equals 1 keV). The neutral particle energy spectra at several vertical positions are obtained by scanning the analyzer in the vertical direction. From those spectra, the radial profile of the ion temperature is derived by means of the nonlinear optimization method.

  3. Compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer arrays on National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D., E-mail: deyongl@uci.edu; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hao, G. Z.; Zhu, Y. B. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tritz, K. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A compact and multi-view solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode arrays has been successfully tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade. The SSNPA diagnostic provides spatially, temporally, and pitch-angle resolved measurements of fast-ion distribution by detecting fast neutral flux resulting from the charge exchange (CX) reactions. The system consists of three 16-channel subsystems: t-SSNPA viewing the plasma mid-radius and neutral beam (NB) line #2 tangentially, r-SSNPA viewing the plasma core and NB line #1 radially, and p-SSNPA with no intersection with any NB lines. Due to the setup geometry, the active CX signals of t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA are mainly sensitive to passing and trapped particles, respectively. In addition, both t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA utilize three vertically stacked arrays with different filter thicknesses to obtain coarse energy information. The experimental data show that all channels are operational. The signal to noise ratio is typically larger than 10, and the main noise is x-ray induced signal. The active and passive CX signals are clearly observed on t-SSNPA and r-SSNPA during NB modulation. The SSNPA data also indicate significant losses of passing particles during sawteeth, while trapped particles are weakly affected. Fluctuations up to 120 kHz have been observed on SSNPA, and they are strongly correlated with magnetohydrodynamics instabilities.

  4. 40 CFR 73.83 - Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Renewable Energy Reserve § 73.83 Secretary of Energy's action on net income neutrality applications. (a) First come, first served. The Secretary of Energy will process and certify net income neutrality... of Energy determines that the net income neutrality certification application does not meet the...

  5. Bound states for neutral particles in a rotating frame in the cosmic string spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.

    2010-01-01

    We study the noninertial effects of rotating frames on the Landau quantization for neutral particles with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the presence of a linear topological defect. We build a rotating frame where the field configuration acts on the dipole moment of the neutral particle without any torque, which agrees with the Landau quantization established previously. We will show that the noninertial effects modify the cyclotron frequency obtained in the absence of rotation, but they do not break the infinity degeneracy of the Landau levels. However, the presence of the topological defect modifies the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the Landau levels.

  6. Neutral strange particle production in antineutrino-neon charged current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willocq, S.; Marage, P.; Aderholz, M.; Allport, P.; Baton, J. P.; Berggren, M.; Clayton, E. F.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Erriquez, O.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Guy, J.; Hulth, P. O.; Jones, G. T.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Neveu, M.; O'Neale, S.; Sacton, J.; Sansum, R. A.; Varvell, K.; Venus, W.; Wells, J.; Wittek, W.

    1992-06-01

    Neutral strange particle production inbar v Ne charged current interactions is studied using the bubble chamber BEBC, exposed to the CERN SPS antineutrino wide band beam. From a sample of 1191 neutral strange particles, the inclusive production rates are determined to be (15.7±0.8)% for K 0 mesons, (8.2±0.5)% for Λ, (0.4±0.2)% forbar Λ and (0.6±0.3)% for Σ0 hyperons. The inclusive production properties of K 0 mesons and Λ hyperons are investigated. The Λ hyperons are found to be polarized in the production plane.

  7. Inclusive neutral particle production in anti pp interactions at 22.4 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.G.; Samojlov, V.V.; Takibaev, Zh.S.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an analysis of inclusive production of γ(πsup(0)), Ksub(s)ysup(0), Λ, anti Λ particles in anti pp interaction at 22.4 GeV/c are presented. The total and topological inclusive cross sections of neutral particles were obtained. The charged multiplicity dependences of the mean number of πsup(0), Ksup(0)/ anti Ksup(0), Λ/ anti Λ productions were studied. The mean number of Λ/ anti Λ particles decreases with increasing charged multiplicity. The KNO scaling hypothesis for πsup(0), Ksub(s)sup(0), Λ particles was confirmed

  8. Structural Color Tuning: Mixing Melanin-Like Particles with Different Diameters to Create Neutral Colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Yoshioka, Shinya; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2017-04-18

    We present the ability to tune structural colors by mixing colloidal particles. To produce high-visibility structural colors, melanin-like core-shell particles composed of a polystyrene (PSt) core and a polydopamine (PDA) shell, were used as components. The results indicated that neutral structural colors could be successfully obtained by simply mixing two differently sized melanin-like PSt@PDA core-shell particles. In addition, the arrangements of the particles, which were important factors when forming structural colors, were investigated by mathematical processing using a 2D Fourier transform technique and Voronoi diagrams. These findings provide new insights for the development of structural color-based ink applications.

  9. Cosmic background radiation spectral distortion and radiative decays of relic neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Doroshkevich, A.G.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Yurov, V.P.; Vysotskij, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    The recently observed excess of photons on a short wavelength side of the peak of a cosmic background radiation spectrum can be described by radiative decays of relic neutral particles. The lifetime and mass of a decaying particle must satisfy the following conditions: 2x10 9 s 14 s, 0.4 eV -9 -8x10 -8 ) μ b , and the interaction of new particles with the usual matter must be rather strong. The generalization of the standard SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) model is presented which includes new particles with the desired properties. 18 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  10. Low-energy neutral atom emission from the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere is possible through the detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. The authors present calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. To decrease the required computation time, they are in the process of adapting their code for massively parallel computers. The speed gains achieved from parallel algorithms are substantial, and they present results from computational runs on the Connection Machine CM-2 data parallel supercomputer. They also estimate expected image count rates and image quality based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, neutral atom scattering in the instrument, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that LENA imaging instruments will need a geometric factor (G) on the order of 0.1 cm 2 sr eV/eV to be capable of imaging storm time ring currents, and a G of 1.0 cm 2 sr eV/eV in order to image the quiet time ring current fluxes, ion injections from the tail, and subsequent ion drifts toward the dayside magnetopause

  11. Determination of the differential cross-section in hadronic e+e--annihilation events with hard, isolated, neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowsky, M.

    1982-10-01

    Hadronic e + e - -annihilation events have been measured, by the CELLO-detector at PETRA at the center of mass energy Esub(cm) = 34 GeV and Esub(cm) = 22 GeV. Those events with hard, isolated, neutral particles are selected and explored. At Esub(cm) = 34 GeV the predominant source of these isolated photons is found to be initial state bremsstrahlung of the e + e - -annihilation. The measured photon distributions as function of its energy and the total cross section are investigated. The agreement with QED-predictions is good. (orig.) [de

  12. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating

  13. Test-particle motion in Einstein's unified field theory. I. General theory and application to neutral test particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    We develop a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. The method is also applicable to Einstein's gravitational theory. Particles are represented by singularities in the field. The method is covariant at each step of the analysis. We also apply the method and find both in Einstein's unified field theory and in Einstein's gravitational theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In the case of Einstein's gravitational theory the results are the well-known equations of structure and motion of a neutral pole-dipole test particle in a given background gravitational field. In the case of Einstein's unified field theory the results are the same, providing we identify a certain symmetric second-rank tensor field appearing in Einstein's theory with the metric and gravitational field. We therefore discover not only the equations of structure and motion of a neutral test particle in Einstein's unified field theory, but we also discover what field in Einstein's theory plays the role of metric and gravitational field

  14. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  15. Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nano-capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabagov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the main directions in X-ray optics and analyzing the development of capillary optics, a general theory of radiation propagation through capillary structures is described in both geometrical optics and wave optics approximations. Analysis of radiation field structure inside a capillary waveguide shows that wave propagation in channels can be of a purely modal nature, with transmitted energy mostly concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of capillary inner walls. A qualitative change in radiation scattering with decreasing channel diameter 0 namely, the transition from surface channeling in microcapillaries to bulk channeling in nanocapillaries - is discussed [ru

  16. Search for long-lived neutral particles decaying into lepton-jets with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00389950; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Several models of elementary particle physics beyond the Standard Model predict the existence of neutral particles that can be long lived and decay in collimated jets of light leptons and hadrons (lepton-jets). The present contribution refers to the search for lepton-jets in proton-proton collision data sample recorded at the ATLAS detector. The selected events are compared with the Standard Model expectations and with various BSM predictions.

  17. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  18. Ionospheric storm effects in the nighttime E region caused by neutralized ring current particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bauske

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available During magnetic storms an anomalous increase in the ionization density of the nighttime E region is observed at low and middle latitudes. It has been suggested that this effect is caused by the precipitation of neutralized ring current particles. Here a coupled ring current decay-ionosphere model is used to confirm the validity of this explanation.

  19. Time-Dependent Neutral Particle Transport Benchmarks in Two and Three Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry D. Ganapol

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of NEER grant was to generate highly accurate 2D and 3D time-dependent neutral particle intensity maps from 3D pulsed wire sources through integration of the analytical representation of a time-dependent point source

  20. DOUBLE code simulations of emissivities of fast neutrals for different plasma observation view-lines of neutral particle analyzers on the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitosinkova, K.; Tomes, M.; Stockel, J.; Varju, J.; Stano, M.

    2018-03-01

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) measure line-integrated energy spectra of fast neutral atoms escaping the tokamak plasma, which are a product of charge-exchange (CX) collisions of plasma ions with background neutrals. They can observe variations in the ion temperature T i of non-thermal fast ions created by additional plasma heating. However, the plasma column which a fast atom has to pass through must be sufficiently short in comparison with the fast atom’s mean-free-path. Tokamak COMPASS is currently equipped with one NPA installed at a tangential mid-plane port. This orientation is optimal for observing non-thermal fast ions. However, in this configuration the signal at energies useful for T i derivation is lost in noise due to the too long fast atoms’ trajectories. Thus, a second NPA is planned to be connected for the purpose of measuring T i. We analyzed different possible view-lines (perpendicular mid-plane, tangential mid-plane, and top view) for the second NPA using the DOUBLE Monte-Carlo code and compared the results with the performance of the present NPA with tangential orientation. The DOUBLE code provides fast-atoms’ emissivity functions along the NPA view-line. The position of the median of these emissivity functions is related to the location from where the measured signal originates. Further, we compared the difference between the real central T i used as a DOUBLE code input and the T iCX derived from the exponential decay of simulated energy spectra. The advantages and disadvantages of each NPA location are discussed.

  1. Investigation of edge neutral flux on the ISX-B tokamak using a low-energy charge-exchange analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D. M.

    1983-08-01

    To study the emission of D/sup 0/ from the periphery of a tokamak plasma, a low-energy neutral particle spectrometer optimized for (16 < E < 500 eV) has been built and employed on the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak. The diagnostic utilizes a cesium vapor cell to form negative ions from the incident D/sup 0/ neutrals and a four-channel electrostatic analyzer to energy analyze the negative ions. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using D/sup 0/ beams formed by electron capture by positive ions in a gas cell and by photo-detachment of negative ions by a yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. For the observation region chosen on ISX-B (120/sup 0/ toroidally away from the limiter, near the gas puff), the neutral particle flux has a two-component nature. These data are well fit by two separate exponential distributions of equivalent temperatures 6 to 8 eV for particle energies below about 80 eV and 70 to 80 eV for particle energies above 80 eV. For ohmically heated discharges, the measured particle flux in the energy range 25 to 700 eV is approx. 2.5 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/.s/sup -1/; the mean particle energy is approx. 70 eV, and the calculated flux at the wall is approx. 30 mW/cm/sup 2/. The major effect of neutral beam heating is to increase the particle flux in the 25- to 700-eV range by a factor of 3.

  2. Terrestrial magnetospheric imaging: Numerical modeling of low energy neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere can be performed by detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. As a result of recent instrumentation advances it is now feasible to make energy-resolved measurements of LENAs from less than I key to greater than 30 key. To model expected LENA fluxes at a spacecraft, we initially used a simplistic, spherically symmetric magnetospheric plasma model. 6 We now present improved calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. We also estimate expected image count rates based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that presently proposed LENA instruments are capable of imaging of storm time ring current and potentially even quiet time ring current fluxes, and that phenomena such as ion injections from the tail and subsequent drifts toward the dayside magnetopause may also be deduced

  3. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  4. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  5. Measurements of low energy neutral hydrogen efflux during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.A.; Ruzic, D.; Voss, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    Using the Low Energy Neutral Atom Spectrometer, measurements were made of the H 0 and D 0 efflux from PLT during ion cyclotron heating experiments. The application of rf power at frequencies appropriate to fundamental and 2nd-harmonic heating results in a rapid, toroidally uniform rise in the charge-exchange efflux at a rate of about 10 15 cm -2 s -1 MW -1 . This flux increase is larger at lower plasma currents. The cause of this flux and its impact on plasma behavior are discussed

  6. Hunting for neutral, long-lived exotica at the LHC using a missing transverse energy signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Alexander; Moretti, Stefano; Nickel, Kilian; Thomas, Marc C.; Tomalin, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for neutral, long-lived particles have historically relied on the detection of displaced particles produced by their decay within the detector volume. In this paper we study the potential of the complementary signature comprising of the missing transverse energy (E T miss ) signal, traditionally used to look for dark matter, e.g., the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), to extend the LHC coverage to models with long-lived (LL) particles when they decay outside the detector. Using CMS and ATLAS analyses at the 8 TeV LHC, we set an upper limit at the 95% confidence level (CL) on the production cross sections for two specific scenarios: (i) a model with a heavy non-standard model Higgs boson decaying to a LL scalar and (ii) an R-parity violating (RPV) SUSY model with a LL neutralino. We show that this method can significantly extend the LHC sensitivity to neutral, LL particles with arbitrary large lifetimes and that the limits obtained from a E T miss signal are comparable to those from displaced particle searches for decay distances above a few meters. Results obtained in this study do not depend on the specific decay channel of the LL particle and therefore are model-independent in this sense. We provide limits for the whole two-dimensional plane in terms of the mass of the LL particle and the mass of the mediator up to masses of 2 TeV including particular benchmarks studied in the original experimental papers. We have made these limits available in the form of a grid which can be used for the interpretation of various other new physics models.

  7. Gyrokinetic modelling of the quasilinear particle flux for plasmas with neutral-beam fuelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, E.; Honda, M.; Nakata, M.; Yoshida, M.; Takenaga, H.; Hayashi, N.

    2018-02-01

    A quasilinear particle flux is modelled based on gyrokinetic calculations. The particle flux is estimated by determining factors, namely, coefficients of off-diagonal terms and a particle diffusivity. In this paper, the methodology to estimate the factors is presented using a subset of JT-60U plasmas. First, the coefficients of off-diagonal terms are estimated by linear gyrokinetic calculations. Next, to obtain the particle diffusivity, a semi-empirical approach is taken. Most experimental analyses for particle transport have assumed that turbulent particle fluxes are zero in the core region. On the other hand, even in the stationary state, the plasmas in question have a finite turbulent particle flux due to neutral-beam fuelling. By combining estimates of the experimental turbulent particle flux and the coefficients of off-diagonal terms calculated earlier, the particle diffusivity is obtained. The particle diffusivity should reflect a saturation amplitude of instabilities. The particle diffusivity is investigated in terms of the effects of the linear instability and linear zonal flow response, and it is found that a formula including these effects roughly reproduces the particle diffusivity. The developed framework for prediction of the particle flux is flexible to add terms neglected in the current model. The methodology to estimate the quasilinear particle flux requires so low computational cost that a database consisting of the resultant coefficients of off-diagonal terms and particle diffusivity can be constructed to train a neural network. The development of the methodology is the first step towards a neural-network-based particle transport model for fast prediction of the particle flux.

  8. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  9. Gas injection in EBT-S for assessment of particle loading effects of neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.H.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have begun to examine the physics of neutral beam injection on EBT-S. Preliminary experiments have been limited to a calibrated gas puffing experiment which simulates the effects of a pulsed beam with zero energy. These experiments begin to address some of the compatibility problems that exist for future beam heating experiments on EBT devices. In particular, neutral beams are to be a significant part of the planned EBT-II experiment which is designed to demonstrate steady-state, reactor-like conditions with both electron cyclotron heating and neutral beam heating

  10. Discrimination of Charged Particles in a Neutral Beam Line by Using a Solid Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a charged particle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. CERN celebrates the discovery of neutral currents and W and Z particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A symposium on 16 September will celebrate the double anniversary of the observation of neutral currents in 1973 and the discovery of W and Z bosons in 1983. The symposium will also provide an opportunity to discuss future discoveries at CERN. Twenty years ago, in 1983, CERN announced the discovery of particles known as W and Z, a discovery that brought the laboratory its first Nobel Prize in 1984. The charged W and neutral Z particles carry the weak force, which causes one form of radioactivity and enables stars to shine. These discoveries provided convincing evidence for the so-called electroweak theory, which unifies the weak force with the electromagnetic force, and which is a cornerstone of the modern Standard Model of particles and forces. An important step towards confirming electroweak unification came already in 1973, when the late André Lagarrigue and colleagues working with the Gargamelle bubble chamber at CERN observed for the first time neutral currents - the neutral manifestation of ...

  12. Si etching with reactive neutral beams of very low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuhiro [Organization for Research and Development of Innovative Science and Technology, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-chou, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya [RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iwata, Naotaka; Hara, Tamio [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2014-12-14

    A Si etching process has been investigated with reactive neutral beams (NBs) extracted using a low acceleration voltage of less than 100 V from CF{sub 4} and Ar mixed plasmas. The etched Si profile shows that the etching process is predominantly anisotropic. The reactive NB has a constant Si etching rate in the acceleration voltage range from 20 V to 80 V. It is considered that low-energy NBs can trigger Si etching because F radicals adsorb onto the Si surface and weaken Si–Si bonds. The etching rate per unit beam flux is 33 times higher than that with Ar NB. These results show that the low-energy reactive NB is useful for damage-free high speed Si etching.

  13. Neutral gas transport and particle recycling in the W VII-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardei, F.; Ringler, H.; Dodhy, A.; Kuehner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Neutral gas transport simulations with the 3D DEGAS code were applied to model plasmas before the W VII-AS operation was started. For a source of neutrals due to limiter recycling the calculated neutral density distribution is strongly affected by the asymmetries of the magnetic flux surfaces, limiter and wall structures. For a typical ECF heated deuterium discharge from the first months of W VII-AS operation the time histories of H α signals at five toroidal positions provide information about the neutral fluxes due to limiter and wall recycling and to gas puffing. The H α signals are used to scale the calculated 3D distributions of the neutrals and the radial profiles of the ion sources as obtained from the DEGAS code. By comparing the results for the three different neutral sources the limiter is found to provide more than 80% of the plasma refuelling, with a recycling coefficient of about 95%. The calculated total particle fluxes resulting from the integrated ion sources are consistent with neoclassical predictions in the temperature gradient region. Near the plasma edge, however, the fluxes are strongly anomalous. The diffusion coefficient estimated from the fluxes and the measured density gradients (with z eff approx. 3) is about 1/10 - 1/20 of the electron heat conductivity. (author). 6 refs, 10 figs

  14. Neutral pion production in heavy ion collisions at SIS-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbera, M.; Loehner, H.; Raschke, A.E.; Venema, L.B.; Wilschut, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The production of π 0 mesons has been studied in the reactions 40 Ar+Ca and 197 Au+Au at 1.0 GeV/u. While the pion transverse momentum spectrum from the reaction Ar+Ca is consistent with a simple thermal exponential slope a second component is seen for the system Au+Au. Both neutral pions, neutrons and charged particles exhibit an anisotropy in the reaction plane azimuth. At midrapidity the emission of pions perpendicular to the reaction plane increases with their energy. (orig.)

  15. Study of strange particle production by neutral currents induced by 1 and 12 GeV neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, T.L.B.

    1977-01-01

    Strange particles production by weak neutral currents was experimentally studied. The first result is a direct confirmation that neutral currents conserve strangeness (by an upper limit on ΔS=-1 production). The two other results, production rate of strange neutral particles and ratio of strange particles production for antineutrinos and neutrinos, prove that these particles are mainly produced in the final hadronic state rather than on strange sea-quarks and give an upper limit on the rate of this type of quark in the nucleon [fr

  16. On a neutral particle with permanent magnetic dipole moment in a magnetic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, K.; Salvador, C.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate quantum effects that stem from the interaction of a permanent magnetic dipole moment of a neutral particle with an electric field in a magnetic medium. We consider a long non-conductor cylinder that possesses a uniform distribution of electric charges and a non-uniform magnetization. We discuss the possibility of achieving this non-uniform magnetization from the experimental point of view. Besides, due to this non-uniform magnetization, the permanent magnetic dipole moment of the neutral particle also interacts with a non-uniform magnetic field. This interaction gives rise to a linear scalar potential. Then, we show that bound states solutions to the Schrödinger-Pauli equation can be achieved.

  17. Self-consistent neutral point current and fields from single particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.F. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In order to begin to build a global model of the magnetotail-auroral region interaction, it is of interest to understand the role of neutral points as potential centers of particle energization in the tail. In this paper, the single particle current is calculated near a magnetic neutral point with magnetotail properties. This is balanced with the Ampere's law current producing the magnetic field to obtain the self-consistent electric field for the problem. Also calculated is the current-electric field relationship and, in the regime where this relation is linear, an effective conductivity. Results for these macroscopic quantities are surprisingly similar to the values calculated for a constant normal field current sheet geometry. Application to magnetotail modeling is discussed. 11 references

  18. Adaptive tree multigrids and simplified spherical harmonics approximation in deterministic neutral and charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotiluoto, P.

    2007-05-01

    A new deterministic three-dimensional neutral and charged particle transport code, MultiTrans, has been developed. In the novel approach, the adaptive tree multigrid technique is used in conjunction with simplified spherical harmonics approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. The development of the new radiation transport code started in the framework of the Finnish boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) project. Since the application of the MultiTrans code to BNCT dose planning problems, the testing and development of the MultiTrans code has continued in conventional radiotherapy and reactor physics applications. In this thesis, an overview of different numerical radiation transport methods is first given. Special features of the simplified spherical harmonics method and the adaptive tree multigrid technique are then reviewed. The usefulness of the new MultiTrans code has been indicated by verifying and validating the code performance for different types of neutral and charged particle transport problems, reported in separate publications. (orig.)

  19. Search in leptonic channels for heavy resonances decaying to long-lived neutral particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins, M.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Tikvica, L.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Kuotb Awad, A. M.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Calpas, B.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Sprenger, D.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Caudron, J.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pieta, H.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Steggemann, J.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Bontenackels, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Castro, E.; Costanza, F.; Dammann, D.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Flucke, G.; Geiser, A.; Glushkov, I.; Gunnellini, P.; Habib, S.; Hauk, J.; Hellwig, G.; Jung, H.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, H.; Knutsson, A.; Krämer, M.; Krücker, D.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Marienfeld, M.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, F.; Olzem, J.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Riedl, C.; Ron, E.; Rosin, M.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sen, N.; Spiridonov, A.; Stein, M.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Enderle, H.; Erfle, J.; Gebbert, U.; Görner, M.; Gosselink, M.; Haller, J.; Hermanns, T.; Höing, R. S.; Kaschube, K.; Kaussen, G.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Lange, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schröder, M.; Schum, T.; Seidel, M.; Sibille, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Thomsen, J.; Vanelderen, L.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Guthoff, M.; Hackstein, C.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Heinrich, M.; Held, H.; Hoffmann, K. H.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Martschei, D.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th.; Niegel, M.; Nürnberg, A.; Oberst, O.; Oehler, A.; Ott, J.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Ratnikova, N.; Röcker, S.; Schilling, F. -P.; Schott, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Troendle, D.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Zeise, M.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kesisoglou, S.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Manolakos, I.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Ntomari, E.; Gouskos, L.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Evangelou, I.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Karancsi, J.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Dhingra, N.; Gupta, R.; Kaur, M.; Mehta, M. Z.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Saini, L. K.; Sharma, A.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Saxena, P.; Sharma, V.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Aziz, T.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Banerjee, S.; Dugad, S.; Arfaei, H.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Hashemi, M.; Hesari, H.; Jafari, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pacifico, N.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Singh, G.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Meneghelli, M.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Colafranceschi, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.; Tosi, S.; Benaglia, A.; De Guio, F.; Di Matteo, L.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Massironi, A.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Cosa, A.; Dogangun, O.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellan, P.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Nespolo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Vanini, S.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Nappi, A.; Romeo, F.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Taroni, S.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Dell’Orso, R.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Kraan, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Fanelli, C.; Grassi, M.; Longo, E.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Soffi, L.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Demaria, N.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Marone, M.; Montanino, D.; Penzo, A.; Schizzi, A.; Kim, T. Y.; Nam, S. K.; Chang, S.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kong, D. J.; Park, H.; Son, D. C.; Son, T.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, Zero J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Moon, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, C.; Park, I. C.; Park, S.; Ryu, G.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, M. S.; Kwon, E.; Lee, B.; Lee, J.; Lee, S.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Bilinskas, M. J.; Grigelionis, I.; Janulis, M.; Juodagalvis, A.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; Sánchez Hernández, A.; Villasenor-Cendejas, L. M.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Reyes-Santos, M. A.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Butler, P. H.; Doesburg, R.; Reucroft, S.; Silverwood, H.; Ahmad, M.; Asghar, M. I.; Butt, J.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Almeida, N.; Bargassa, P.; David, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Smirnov, V.; Volodko, A.; Zarubin, A.; Evstyukhin, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Erofeeva, M.; Gavrilov, V.; Kossov, M.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Shreyber, I.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Markina, A.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Petrushanko, S.; Popov, A.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Djordjevic, M.; Ekmedzic, M.; Krpic, D.; Milosevic, J.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Arce, P.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Ferrando, A.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Merino, G.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Willmott, C.; Albajar, C.; Codispoti, G.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Chuang, S. H.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Felcini, M.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Graziano, A.; Jorda, C.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz VSanchez, F. J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Christiansen, T.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; D’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; De Roeck, A.; Di Guida, S.; Dobson, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Frisch, B.; Funk, W.; Georgiou, G.; Giffels, M.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Giunta, M.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Govoni, P.; Gowdy, S.; Guida, R.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hartl, C.; Harvey, J.; Hegner, B.; Hinzmann, A.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kaadze, K.; Karavakis, E.; Kousouris, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lee, Y. -J.; Lenzi, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Mäki, T.; Malberti, M.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moser, R.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Kilminster, B.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Simili, E.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Bahtiyar, H.; Barlas, E.; Cankocak, K.; Günaydin, Y. O.; Vardarlí, F. I.; Yücel, M.; Levchuk, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Mall, O.; Miceli, T.; Nelson, R.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Yohay, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Traczyk, P.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; D’Alfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Magaña Villalba, R.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Hopkins, W.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Park, M.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Hewamanage, S.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Kenny, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Wan, Z.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Lusito, L.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Antonelli, L.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zenz, S. C.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Walker, M.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Belknap, Donald A.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Mozer, M. U.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-02-01

    A search is performed for heavy resonances decaying to two long-lived massive neutral particles, each decaying to leptons. The experimental signature is a distinctive topology consisting of a pair of oppositely charged leptons originating at a separated secondary vertex. Events were collected by the CMS detector at the LHC during pp collisions at TeV, and selected from data samples corresponding to 4.1 (5.1) fb-1 of integrated luminosity in the electron (muon) channel. No significant excess is observed above standard model expectations, and an upper limit is set with 95% confidence level on the production cross section times the branching fraction to leptons, as a function of the long-lived massive neutral particle lifetime.

  20. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  1. Mode particle resonances during near-tangential neutral beam injection in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; White, R.B.; Morris, A.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes have been observed during neutral beam injection in TFTR and JET. Periodic bursts of oscillations were detected with several plasma diagnostics, and Fokker-Planck calculations show that the populations of trapped particles in both tokamaks are sufficient to account for fishbone destabilization. Estimates of mode parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, and they indicate that the fishbone mode may continue to affect the performance of intensely heated tokamaks. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. The three-dimensional, discrete ordinates neutral particle transport code TORT: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The centerpiece of the Discrete Ordinates Oak Ridge System (DOORS), the three-dimensional neutral particle transport code TORT is reviewed. Its most prominent features pertaining to large applications, such as adjustable problem parameters, memory management, and coarse mesh methods, are described. Advanced, state-of-the-art capabilities including acceleration and multiprocessing are summarized here. Future enhancement of existing graphics and visualization tools is briefly presented

  3. Performing three-dimensional neutral particle transport calculations on tera scale computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, C.S.; Brown, P.N.; Chang, B.; Dorr, M.R.; Hanebutte, U.R.

    1999-01-01

    A scalable, parallel code system to perform neutral particle transport calculations in three dimensions is presented. To utilize the hyper-cluster architecture of emerging tera scale computers, the parallel code successfully combines the MPI message passing and paradigms. The code's capabilities are demonstrated by a shielding calculation containing over 14 billion unknowns. This calculation was accomplished on the IBM SP ''ASCI-Blue-Pacific computer located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

  4. Geometric phase for a neutral particle in rotating frames in a cosmic string spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut; Furtado, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    We study of the appearance of geometric quantum phases in the dynamics of a neutral particle that possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment in rotating frames in a cosmic string spacetime. The relativistic dynamics of spin-1/2 particle in this frame is investigated and we obtain several contributions to relativistic geometric phase due rotation and topology of spacetime. We also study the geometric phase in the nonrelativistic limit. We obtain effects analogous to the Sagnac effect and Mashhoon effect in a rotating frame in the background of a cosmic string.

  5. Search for a neutral particle of mass 33.9 MeV in pion decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, M [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We have measured the muon momentum distribution in charged pion decay in flight in order to search for a small branching fraction {eta} of pion decays {pi}{sup +}{yields}{mu}{sup +} 1 X, in which a heavy neutral particle X with a mass of 33.9 MeV would be emitted. Such a particle was postulated by the KARMEN collaboration as a possible explanation for an anomaly in their time-of-flight spectrum. In a first experiment we found an upper limit of {eta}{<=}2.6.10{sup -8} at a confidence level of 95%. (author) 4 figs., 9 refs.

  6. Electric current-driven migration of electrically neutral particles in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinfang; Qin, Rongshan

    2014-01-01

    We design and experimentally demonstrate a migration of electrically neutral particles in liquids driven by electric current according to the discrepancies of their electrical conductivities. A force from electric current to electrically neutral particles has been identified to drive the particles toward the lateral surface from the centre of suspension via three distinguishable zones, namely, pushing, trapping, and expelling zones. The driving force can overtake gravity in practical cases. The property of the force is found neither similar to that of the force in electromagnetophoresis nor similar to that of the electromigration force in terms of direction and magnitude. An expression for the force at the pushing zone has been developed based on the numerical calculation of the thermodynamics of suspension fluids. The excellent agreement between numerical calculations and experimental data demonstrates that our calculation provides fundamental and predictive insight into particles separation from the liquids. Therefore, it is possible to use the force in many engineering applications such as separation of particles according to the differences of their electrical conductivities

  7. Effect of 3-D magnetic fields on neutral particle fueling and exhaust in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Kurt; Kremeyer, Thierry; Waters, Ian; Schmitz, Oliver; Kirk, Andrew; Harrison, James

    2017-10-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) is used to suppress edge localized modes but causes in many cases a density pump-out. At MAST, this particle pump out was found to be connected to an amplifying MHD plasma response. An analysis is presented on past MAST discharges to understand the effect of these RMPs on the neutral household and on changes in neutral fueling and exhaust during the pump out. A global, 0-D particle balance model was used to study the neutral dynamics and plasma confinement during shots with and without RMP application. Using the D α emission measured by filterscopes and a calibrated 1-D CCD camera, as well as S/XB coefficients determined by the edge plasma parameters, globally averaged ion confinement times were calculated. In L-mode, discharges with RMPs that caused an MHD response had a 15-20% decrease in confinement time but an increase in total recycling flux. The application of RMPs in H-mode caused either a decrease or no change in confinement, like those in L-mode, depending on the configuration of the RMPs and plasma response. A spectroscopically assisted Penning gauge is being prepared for the next campaign at MAST-U to extend this particle balance to study impurity exhaust with RMPs. This work was funded in part by the U.S. DoE under Grant DE-SC0012315.

  8. Measurements of underlying-event properties using neutral and charged particles in pp collisions at 900 GeV and 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 5 (2011), 1-24 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : underlying event * charged particle: particle flow * neutral particle: particle flow * correlation * Monte Carlo * calorimeter : cluster * ATLAS * CERN Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.631, year: 2011

  9. Comparative study of low-energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging promise to be a revolutionary tool for global imaging of space plasmas. The technical challenges of LENA detection include separating them from the intense ambient UV without losing information about their incident trajectories, quantifying their trajectories, and obtaining high-sensitivity measurements. Two techniques that have been proposed for this purpose are based on fundamentally different atomic interaction mechanisms between LENAs and a solid; LENA transmission through an ultra thin foil and LENA reflection from a solid surface. Both of these methods provide LENA ionization (for subsequent removal from the UV by electrostatic deflection) and secondary electron emission (for time-of-flight start pulse generation and/or coincidence). They present a comparative study of the transmission and reflection techniques based on differences in atomic interactions with solids and surfaces. Transmission methods are shown to be superior for secondary electron emission rather than reflection methods. Furthermore, transmission methods are shown to be a sufficient for LENA imaging at LENA energies of approximately 1 keV to greater than 30 keV. A hybrid instrument using reflection from a low work function surface for LENA ionization and transmission for secondary electron emission is optimal for imaging of LENAs with energies less than approximately 1 keV

  10. Momentum losses by charge exchange with neutral particles in H-mode discharges at JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Giroud, C.; Brix, M.; von Hellermann, M. G.; Lomas, P. J.; Moulton, D.; Mullane, M. O.; Nunes, I. M.; Salmi, A.; Tala, T.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a neutral density background on the toroidal angular momentum and kinetic energy profiles has been investigated in JET. Under equivalent conditions but with increasing gas fuelling during the flat top phase, it has been observed that both the edge rotation and temperature decrease. The

  11. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  12. Energy Conservation Tests of a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D. P.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. H.; Lang, J.; Park, G.

    2012-08-29

    A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

  13. Study of leading neutral pions: (interactions of cosmic rays with matter at energies above 3 TeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremenko, Yu.A.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental plant consisting of a full-automatic ionized colorimeter of 44m 2 , electronics of which is based on modern integral schemes and performed in CAMAC standard; of an x-ray emulsion chamber and of changeable dense target is described. The plant permits to measure the energy of a primary particle, as well as to study in detail a neutral component of products of strong indifferent target atoms. Experimental data on leading neutral mesons with energy from 10 GeV to the cosmic particle energies are analysed using the plant. A new experiment, which aim is the detection of interactions with anomalously great multiplicity and study of microstructure of extensive air showers, is suggested. 277 refs

  14. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitosinkova Klara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS tokamak is equipped with two identical neutral beam injectors (NBI for additional plasma heating. They provide a beam of deuterium atoms with a power of up to ~(2 × 300 kW. We show that the neutral beam is not monoenergetic but contains several energy components. An accurate knowledge of the neutral beam power in each individual energy component is essential for a detailed description of the beam- -plasma interaction and better understanding of the NBI heating processes in the COMPASS tokamak. This paper describes the determination of individual energy components in the neutral beam from intensities of the Doppler-shifted Dα lines, which are measured by a high-resolution spectrometer viewing the neutral beam-line at the exit of NBI. Furthermore, the divergence of beamlets escaping single aperture of the last accelerating grid is deduced from the width of the Doppler-shifted lines. Recently, one of the NBI systems was modified by the removal of the Faraday copper shield from the ion source. The comparison of the beam composition and the beamlet divergence before and after this modification is also presented.

  15. A PbWO4-based Neutral Particle Spectrometer in Hall C at 12 GeV JLab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Tanja [Catholic University of America , Washington, DC

    2015-02-01

    The Neutral Particle Spectrometer is a standalone electromagnetic calorimeter capable of detecting high energy photons from, for instance, DVCS or π0 decay with good energy and spatial resolution in a high rate environment. It can be used together with the Hall C high-momentum spectrometers for a suite of experiments with the underlying scientific objective of studying quark dynamics through exclusive and semi-inclusive reactions.

  16. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP)

  17. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  18. The effect of a single blade limiter on energetic neutral beam particles in Doublet III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Armentrout, C.; Burrell, K.H.; Hino, T.; Kahn, C.; Kim, J.; Lohr, J.; Rottler, L.; Schissel, D.; St John, H.

    1984-01-01

    Energetic beam ion collisions with the main limiter can be a significant power loss process under certain operating conditions in Doublet III. Futhermore, these collisions may cause measurable damage to the limiter itself. Under low current and low toroidal field conditions (e.g., Isub(p) = 290 kA and Bsub(T) = 6.3 kG), 20-38% of the inferred absorbed beam power may be deposited directly on the ion drift side of the limiter by the beam ions. However, for higher plasma current and toroidal fields (e.g., Isub(p) = 480 kA and Bsub(t) = 15 kG), the fraction of inferred absorbed beam power deposited on the limiter is reduced to < 10%. Monte Carlo code simulations show that this loss of beam power is primarily a result of the large poloidal and toroidal gyro-orbits of the energetic beam ions. Other factors which may enhance beam ion losses to the limiter are (1) large separation distances between the primary limiter and the (outboard) vacuum vessel wall, and (2) plasma density buildup near the plasma edge during high gas puff operation. In addition, our data suggests enhanced plasma density and recycling near the limiter. This localized density can cause appreciable premature ionizations of the incoming beam neutrals and thus reduce the effective plasma heating of the beamline which is immediately upcurrent of the limiter. The prematurely-ionized beam particles from this adjacent beamline are responsible for much of the damage to the ion drift side of the limiter. We have found that under certain operating conditions (1) the direct beam heating of the limiter is 50% greater and (2) the stored plasma energy is 10% less when the beamline immediately upcurrent of the limiter heats the plasma. Thus, the relative positions of the limiters to the beamlines are important in designing future tokamaks. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of secondary particle behavior in multiaperture, multigrid accelerator for the ITER neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T; Taniguchi, M; Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Sakamoto, K; Inoue, T

    2010-02-01

    Heat load on acceleration grids by secondary particles such as electrons, neutrals, and positive ions, is a key issue for long pulse acceleration of negative ion beams. Complicated behaviors of the secondary particles in multiaperture, multigrid (MAMuG) accelerator have been analyzed using electrostatic accelerator Monte Carlo code. The analytical result is compared to experimental one obtained in a long pulse operation of a MeV accelerator, of which second acceleration grid (A2G) was removed for simplification of structure. The analytical results show that relatively high heat load on the third acceleration grid (A3G) since stripped electrons were deposited mainly on A3G. This heat load on the A3G can be suppressed by installing the A2G. Thus, capability of MAMuG accelerator is demonstrated for suppression of heat load due to secondary particles by the intermediate grids.

  20. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. II. THE WARSAW TEST PARTICLE MODEL (WTPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Swaczyna, P., E-mail: jsokol@cbk.waw.pl [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    We have developed a refined and optimized version of the Warsaw Test Particle Model of interstellar neutral gas in the heliosphere, specially tailored for analysis of IBEX-Lo observations. The former version of the model was used in the analysis of neutral He observed by IBEX that resulted in an unexpected conclusion that the interstellar neutral He flow vector was different than previously thought and that a new population of neutral He, dubbed the Warm Breeze, exists in the heliosphere. It was also used in the reanalysis of Ulysses observations that confirmed the original findings on the flow vector, but suggested a significantly higher temperature. The present version of the model has two strains targeted for different applications, based on an identical paradigm, but differing in the implementation and in the treatment of ionization losses. We present the model in detail and discuss numerous effects related to the measurement process that potentially modify the resulting flux of ISN He observed by IBEX, and identify those of them that should not be omitted in the simulations to avoid biasing the results. This paper is part of a coordinated series of papers presenting the current state of analysis of IBEX-Lo observations of ISN He. Details of the analysis method are presented by Swaczyna et al. and results of the analysis are presented by Bzowski et al.

  1. Particle production at AGS energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, S.G.; Rothschild, P.J.; Sung, T.W.; Zachary, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors discuss particle production from 14.6 A·GeV/c Si and 11.6 A·GeV/c Au projectiles on Al and Au targets. The second-level trigger utilized by E859 allows high precision measurements of K - , bar p, Λ and bar Λ. The bar Λ yield is larger than expected, and a surprisingly large fraction of the bar p's are observed to arise from the decay of bar Λ

  2. Comparative measurement of the neutral density and particle confinement time in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glowienka, J.C.; Richards, R.K.

    1985-11-01

    The neutral density and particle confinement time in the ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale Experiment (EBT-S) have been determined by two different techniques. These involve a spectroscopic measurement of molecular and atomic hydrogen emissions and a time-decay measurement of a fast-ion population using a diagnostic neutral beam. The results from both diagnostics exhibit identical trends for either estimate, although the absolute values differ by a factor of 2 to 3. The observed variations with fill gas pressure and microwave power from either technique are consistent with measurements of electron density and temperature. In this paper, the measurement techniques are discussed, and the results are compared in the context of consistency with independently observed plasma behavior. 6 refs., 7 figs

  3. An analytical model for neutral and charged particles in closed pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokar, M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    In number of modern tokamaks pump limiters are used for control of the edge plasma parameters. In thermonuclear reactor projects pump limiters are considered as a possible alternative or additional for divertor configuration of magnetic field method for unburnt fuel, helium ash and other impurity exhaust. From the point of view of limiter operation efficiency the dependence of neutral particle pressure P g in pumping system on the plasma parameters in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is of importance since an increase of P g will permit to decrease needed pump rate and facilitate solution of reactor technological problems. In connection with this the experimentally observed mode of closed pump limiter operation with strong neutral compression is of great interest. In such a mode P g sharply grows up when the SOL plasma density n s exceeds some critial level. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  4. Search for heavy neutral leptons, right-handed neutrinos and long-lived particles with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    A selection of recent CMS results on heavy neutral leptons, right-handed neutrinos and long-lived particles is reported. The search for heavy neutral leptons in the trilepton channel and in the same-sign dilepton channel, the search of a $W_R$ decaying into two leptons and two jets through a right-handed neutrino, and the searches on stopped long-lived particles and disappearing tracks are presented.

  5. Neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    1994-11-01

    The evidence for the existence of weak neutral current has been a very controverted topics in the early 1970's, as well as the muon did in the 1930's. The history is very rich considering the evolution of the experimental techniques in high energy particle physics. The history of the discovery and the study of weak neutral current is reviewed. Later the quest of the intermediate vector boson continues with the decision of the community to build a large proton antiproton collider. (K.A.). 14 refs., 1 fig

  6. Study of aniline polymerization reactions through the particle size formation in acidic and neutral medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribowo, Slamet; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita; Manaf, Azwar; Andreas

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we reported particle size kinetic studies on the conducting polyaniline (PANI) which synthesized through a chemical oxidative polymerization technique from aniline monomer. PANI was prepared using ammonium persulfate (APS) as oxidizing agent which carried out in acidic and neutral medium at various batch temperatures of respectively 20, 30 and 50 °C. From the studies, it was noticed that the complete polymerization reaction progressed within 480 minutes duration time. The pH of the solution during reaction kinetic reached values 0.8 - to 1.2 in acidic media, while in the neutral media the pH value reached values 3.8 - 4.9. The batch temperature controlled the polymerization reaction in which the reaction progressing, which followed by the temperature rise of solution above the batch temperature before settled down to the initial temperature. An increment in the batch temperature gave highest rise in the solution temperature for the two media which cannot be more than 50 °C. The final product of polymerization reaction was PANI confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectrophotometer for molecule structure identification. The averages particle size of PANI which carried out in the two different media is evidently similar in the range 30 - 40 μm and insensitive to the batch temperature. However, the particle size of PANI which obtained from the polymerization reaction at a batch temperature of 50 °C under acidic condition reached ˜53.1 μm at the tip of the propagation stage which started in the first 5 minutes. The size is obviously being the largest among the batch temperatures. Whereas, under neutral condition the particle size is much larger which reached the size 135 μm at the batch temperature of 20 °C. It is concluded that the particle size formation during the polymerization reaction being one of the important parameter to determine particle growing of polymer which indicated the reaction kinetics mechanism of synthesize

  7. Spectroscopy, Manipulation and Trapping of Neutral Atoms, Molecules, and Other Particles Using Optical Nanofibers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael J.; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-01-01

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications. PMID:23945738

  8. Heterotypic Protection and Induction of a Broad Heterotypic Neutralization Response by Rotavirus-Like Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Estes, Mary K.; Ciarlet, Max; Barone, Christopher; O’Neal, Christine M.; Cohen, Jean; Conner, Margaret E.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition that rotaviruses are the major cause of life-threatening diarrheal disease and significant morbidity in young children has focused efforts on disease prevention and control of these viruses. Although the correlates of protection in children remain unclear, some studies indicate that serotype-specific antibody is important. Based on this premise, current live attenuated reassortant rotavirus vaccines include the four predominant serotypes of virus. We are evaluating subunit rotavirus vaccines, 2/6/7-VLPs and 2/4/6/7-VLPs, that contain only a single VP7 of serotype G1 or G3. In mice immunized parenterally twice, G3 virus-like particles (VLPs) induced a homotypic, whereas G1 VLPs induced a homotypic and heterotypic (G3) serum neutralizing immune response. Administration of three doses of G1 or G3 VLPs induced serum antibodies that neutralized five of seven different serotype test viruses. The inclusion of VP4 in the VLPs was not essential for the induction of heterotypic neutralizing antibody in mice. To confirm these results in another species, rabbits were immunized parenterally with two doses of 2/4/6/7-VLPs containing a G3 or G1 VP7, sequentially with G3 VLPs followed by G1 (G3/G1) VLPs, or with live or psoralen-inactivated SA11. High-titer homotypic serum neutralizing antibody was induced in all rabbits, and low-level heterotypic neutralizing antibody was induced in a subset of rabbits. The rabbits immunized with the G1 or G3/G1 VLPs in QS-21 were challenged orally with live G3 ALA rotavirus. Protection levels were similar in rabbits immunized with homotypic G3 2/4/6/7-VLPs, heterotypic G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs, or G3/G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs. Therefore, G1 2/4/6/7-VLPs can induce protective immunity against a live heterotypic rotavirus challenge in an adjuvant with potential use in humans. Following challenge, broad serum heterotypic neutralizing antibody responses were detected in rabbits parenterally immunized with G1, G3/G1, or G3 VLPs but not with SA11

  9. Production spectra of zero-degree neutral particles measured by the LHCf experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, latest published physics results from p-p and p-Pb collisions (at √s = 7, 2.76 TeV and sNN = 5.02 TeV, respectively compared with Monte Carlo predictions of DPMJET, EPOS, PYTHIA, QGSJET and SIBYLL event generators will be presented. In particular, the inclusive energy spectra of neutrons in p-p collisions and the transverse and longitudinal momentum spectra of neutral pions for different pseudo-rapidity ranges in p-p and p-Pb collisions will be shown; then, test of Feynman scaling hypothesis using neutral pion spectra will be discussed. Preliminary results of photon inclusive energy spectra in p-p collisions at √s = 13 TeV will be also presented.

  10. Ultrahigh-energy particles from cosmic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, P.

    1991-02-01

    The idea of production of ultrahigh-energy particles in the present universe due to annihilation or collapse of topological defects is discussed. Topological defects, formed in symmetry-breaking phase transitions in the early universe, can survive till today owing to their topological stability. However, under certain circumstances, topological defects may be physically destroyed. When topological defects are destroyed, the energy contained in the defects can be released in the form of massive gauge- and Higgs bosons of the underlying spontaneously broken gauge theory. Subsequent decay of these massive particles can give rise to energetic particles ranging up to an energy on the order of the mass of the original particles released from the defects. This may give us a ''natural'' mechanism of production of extremely energetic cosmic ray particles in the universe today, without the need for any acceleration mechanism. To illustrate this idea, I describe in detail the calculation of the expected ultrahigh-energy proton spectrum due to a specific process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a class of closed cosmic string loops formed in a phase transition at a grand unification energy scale. I discuss the possibility that some of the highest-energy cosmic ray particles are of this origin. By comparing with the observational results on the ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, we derive an upper limit to the average fraction of the total energy in all ''primary'' cosmic string loops that may be released in the form of particles due to collapse or multiple self-intersections of these loops. No nuclei such as α's or Fe's are in the spectrum. 43 refs., 3 figs

  11. Particle-in-cell simulations of plasma accelerators and electron-neutral collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bruhwiler

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 2D simulations of both beam-driven and laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerators, using the object-oriented particle-in-cell code XOOPIC, which is time explicit, fully electromagnetic, and capable of running on massively parallel supercomputers. Simulations of laser-driven wakefields with low \\(∼10^{16} W/cm^{2}\\ and high \\(∼10^{18} W/cm^{2}\\ peak intensity laser pulses are conducted in slab geometry, showing agreement with theory and fluid simulations. Simulations of the E-157 beam wakefield experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in which a 30 GeV electron beam passes through 1 m of preionized lithium plasma, are conducted in cylindrical geometry, obtaining good agreement with previous work. We briefly describe some of the more significant modifications to XOOPIC required by this work, and summarize the issues relevant to modeling relativistic electron-neutral collisions in a particle-in-cell code.

  12. Production of charmed particles in nuN collisions due to neutral weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    A study is made of associated production of charmed particles in neutrino-nucleon interactions due to neutral weak currents. The angular distribution of the jets of charmed hadrons in nN interactions is determined in the lowest approximation in the quark-gluon coupling constant, according to which a charmed quark and antiquark are produced in an annihilation of a vector gluon and a virtual Z boson. It is shown that only a P-even dependence on the azimuthal angle v occurs in the studied approximation, the P-odd dependence which is possible in the general case being equal to zero. The total cross section for charmed-particle production in neutrino-nucleon interactions is calculated, and the origin of the violation of scale invariance is demonstrated

  13. Gaming for the energy neutral development : a case study of Strijp-S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Schaefer, W.F.; Berg, van den R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with stakeholders’ decisions within energy neutral urban redevelopment processes. The decisions of these stakeholders during the process will make or break energy neutral ambitions. An extensive form of game theory model gave insight in the behavioral differences of stakeholders

  14. Particle Settling in Low Energy Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rachel; MacVean, Lissa; Tse, Ian; Mazzaro, Laura; Stacey, Mark; Variano, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Particle settling velocities can be altered by turbulence. In turbulence, dense particles may get trapped in convergent flow regions, and falling particles may be swept towards the downward side of turbulent eddies, resulting in enhanced settling velocities. The degree of velocity enhancement may depend on the Stokes number, the Rouse number, and the turbulent Reynolds number. In a homogeneous, isotropic turbulence tank, we tested the effects of particle size and type, suspended sediment concentration, and level of turbulence on the settling velocities of particles typically found in muddy estuaries. Two Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs), separated vertically, measured turbulent velocities and suspended sediment concentrations, which yield condition dependent settling velocities, via ∂/á C ñ ∂ t = -∂/∂ z (ws á C ñ + á w ' C ' ñ) . These results are pertinent to fine sediment transport in estuaries, where high concentrations of suspended material are transported and impacted by low energy turbulence.

  15. The study of production processes of nucleons, γ-quanta and neutral strange particles in pp- and pn-interactions at 300 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turumov, Eh.

    2001-03-01

    Processes of nucleons, γ-quanta and neutral strange particles in pp- and pn-interactions at 300 GeV in 4π-geometry were studied by the use of neon-hydrogen bubble chamber. The average multiplicity of γ-quanta, fast neutrons, K 0 s -mesons and λ 0 ( λ 0 bar)-hyperons were defined and their energy spectra were analyzed. Experimental results were compared with Lund and dual parton model predictions. (author)

  16. Neutral strange particle production in π+/K+p interactions at 250 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis in which a detailed study of K n inclusive production in K + p and π + p interactions at 250 GeV/c is presented, concentrates on neutral strange interaction products and draws some conclusions about the fate of the strange quark. In ch. 2 the experimental setup is described and in ch. 3 the series of computer programs that perform data reduction. Ch. 4 deals with the selectionn of events and neutral kaons. Also the calculations needed to correct for losses and background are described there. In ch. 5 inclusive and semi-inclusive distributions are presented and compared to data obtained in experiments at lower beam energy. In ch. 6 the data are compared with model predictions. In ch. 7 the main conclusions are summarized. (H.W.). 64 refs.; 39 refs.; 19 tabs

  17. High energy particle collisions near black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaslavskii O. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available If two geodesic particles collide near a rotating black hole, their energy in the centre of mass frame Ec.m. can become unbound under certain conditions (the so-called BSW effect. The special role is played here by so-called critical geodesics when one of particles has fine-tuned energy and angular momentum. The nature of geodesics reveals itself also in fate of the debris after collisions. One of particles moving to a remote observer is necessarily near-critical. We discuss, when such a collision can give rise not only unboud Ec.m. but also unbound Killing energy E (so-called super-Penrose process.

  18. Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jin Nyoung; Song, Byoung Chul; Lee, Dong Hyeok; Yoo, Suk Jae; Lee, Bonju; Hong, MunPyo

    2011-01-01

    A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films. Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) affects the crystallinity in two ways: (1) NPB energy enhances nano-crystallinity through kinetic energy transfer and chemical annealing, and (2) heavier NPB (such as Ar) induces damage and amorphization through energetic particle impinging. Nc-Si thin film properties effectively can be changed by the reflector bias. As increase of NPB energy limits growing the crystalline, the performance of TFT supports this NPB behavior. The results of nc-Si TFT by NBaCVD demonstrate the technical potentials of neutral beam based processes for achieving high stability and reduced leakage in TFT backplanes for AMOLEDs.

  19. Comparisons Between Model Predictions and Spectral Measurements of Charged and Neutral Particles on the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Zeitlin, Cary; Hassler, Donald M.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Boettcher, Stephan; Boehm, Eckart; Guo, Jingnan; hide

    2014-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars have been made by the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Curiosity rover since August 2012. RAD is a particle detector that measures the energy spectrum of charged particles (10 to approx. 200 MeV/u) and high energy neutrons (approx 8 to 200 MeV). The data obtained on the surface of Mars for 300 sols are compared to the simulation results using the Badhwar-O'Neill galactic cosmic ray (GCR) environment model and the high-charge and energy transport (HZETRN) code. For the nuclear interactions of primary GCR through Mars atmosphere and Curiosity rover, the quantum multiple scattering theory of nuclear fragmentation (QMSFRG) is used. For describing the daily column depth of atmosphere, daily atmospheric pressure measurements at Gale Crater by the MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) are implemented into transport calculations. Particle flux at RAD after traversing varying depths of atmosphere depends on the slant angles, and the model accounts for shielding of the RAD "E" dosimetry detector by the rest of the instrument. Detailed comparisons between model predictions and spectral data of various particle types provide the validation of radiation transport models, and suggest that future radiation environments on Mars can be predicted accurately. These contributions lend support to the understanding of radiation health risks to astronauts for the planning of various mission scenarios

  20. High-energy manifestations of heavy quarks in axial-vector neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizukuri, Y.; Ohba, I.; Okano, K.; Yamanaka, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A recent work by Collins, Wilczek, and Zee has attempted to manifest the incompleteness of the decoupling theorem in the axial-vector neutral currents at low energies. In the spirit of their work, we calculate corrections of the axial-vector neutral currents by virtual-heavy-quark exchange in the high-energy e + e - processes and estimate some observable quantities sensitive to virtual-heavy-quark masses which may be compared with experimental data at LEP energies

  1. Seiberg–Witten map and quantum phase effects for neutral Dirac particle on noncommutative plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new approach to study the noncommutative effects on the neutral Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic or electric dipole moment on the noncommutative plane. The advantages of this approach are demonstrated by investigating the noncommutative corrections on the Aharonov–Casher and He–McKellar–Wilkens effects. This approach is based on the effective U(1 gauge symmetry for the electrodynamics of spin on the two dimensional space. The Seiberg–Witten map for this symmetry is then employed when we study the noncommutative corrections. Because the Seiberg–Witten map preserves the gauge symmetry, the noncommutative corrections can be defined consistently with the ordinary phases. Based on this approach we find the noncommutative corrections on the Aharonov–Casher and He–McKellar–Wilkens phases consist of two terms. The first one depends on the beam particle velocity and consistence with the previous results. However the second term is velocity-independent and then completely new. Therefore our results indicate it is possible to investigate the noncommutative space by using ultra-cold neutron interferometer in which the velocity-dependent term is negligible. Furthermore, both these two terms are proportional to the ratio between the noncommutative parameter θ and the cross section Ae/m of the electrical/magnetic charged line enclosed by the trajectory of beam particles. Therefore the experimental sensitivity can be significantly enhanced by reducing the cross section of the charge line Ae/m.

  2. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  3. On radiative detection of neutral particles produced in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedov, Yu.A.; Klimenko, K.G.; Tikhonin, F.F.

    1983-01-01

    The photon spectra from the reaction e + e - →γ + ''unobserved neutrals'' for different types of pairs from ''unobserved neutrals'' have been studied in some details. The initial particle masses have been taken into account. Their effect proved to be negligible, as it has been checked for the case νsub(i)νsub(i) nilde. But, generally speaking, this is not obvious. Besides, these calculations made it possible to carry out the integration over the whole variation range of the photon azimuthal emission angle. The influence of the masses of a photino pair γ tilde anti γ tilde on the spectrum behaviour has been calculated. It turned out that in other references this effect was incorrectly taken into account. Moreover a sharp difference between the spectrum in the case of a G tilde anti G tilde-pair (spin 3/2 gravitino-antigravitino) and the ones for spin 1/2 pairs, which also contradicts the results obtained by other authors are shown

  4. THREEDANT: A code to perform three-dimensional, neutral particle transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    The THREEDANT code solves the three-dimensional neutral particle transport equation in its first order, multigroup, discrate ordinate form. The code allows an unlimited number of groups (depending upon the cross section set), angular quadrature up to S-100, and unlimited Pn order again depending upon the cross section set. The code has three options for spatial differencing, diamond with set-to-zero fixup, adaptive weighted diamond, and linear modal. The geometry options are XYZ and RZΘ with a special XYZ option based upon a volume fraction method. This allows objects or bodies of any shape to be modelled as input which gives the code as much geometric description flexibility as the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The transport equation is solved by source iteration accelerated by the DSA method. Both inner and outer iterations are so accelerated. Some results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques. The code is available on several types of computing platforms

  5. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. T.; Jones, R. W. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; O'Neale, S. W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D. R. O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D. B.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U. F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H. P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F. W.; Burke, S.

    1993-06-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0, Λ andbar Λ in vp andbar vp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E v, W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F, z and p {T/2}. K *± (892) and ∑ *± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for ∑ *- (1385) production in vp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K *± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ,bar Λ and ∑ *± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up.

  6. On Influence of Neutrals on Dust Particle Charging in Complex Plasmas in the Presence of Electromagnetic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Effects associated with neutral component of complex (dusty) ionospheric plasmas which affect dust particle charging are studied. Microscopic ion currents on dust particles with taking into account ion-neutral interaction are presented. Calculations are performed both for the case of negative charges of dust particles, when the influence of Solar radiation on dust particle charging processes is negligible, and for the case of positive charges which is realized in the presence of sufficiently intensive UV or X-ray radiation. We also carry out investigation of the electron heating due to the photoelectric effect. We show that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral component of the plasma. As result, we determine altitudes where the influence of the neutral plasma component on dust particle charging processes as well as the electron heating effect are significant and should be taken into account under consideration of the ionospheric complex plasmas. In particular, we show that the effects considered could be important for the description of noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and some other physical phenomena associated with dust particles in the ionosphere.

  7. Polarization of the sigma minus hyperon produced by a polarized neutral particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A spin transfer technique has been tried in an attempt to produce a beam of polarized hyperons. The method makes use of a two-stage targeting scheme where unpolarized protons from Fermilab's Tevatron incident on target number one (Cu) at production angles of ±2.0 mrad would produce a beam of particles containing polarized Λs and Ξs as well as neutrons and Ks. This secondary beam would then be swept magnetically to retain only neutral particles and brought to bear on target number two (Cu) at 0.0 mrad, producing a tertiary beam of hyperons. The polarization of some 1.3 millions reconstructed Σ - → nπ - events in this tertiary beam (the Σ - having been produced in the inclusive reaction neutrals + Cu → Σ - + X) has been measured at average Σ - momenta 320 GeV/c (1.14 millions events) and 410 GeV/c (135,000 events) and found to be |P| = 3.9 ± 3.2 ± 1.8% and |P| = 13.9 ± 8.1 ± 2.0% respectively, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. These polarizations are small and consistent with zero, and preclude a meaningful measurement of the Σ - magnetic moment by the spin precession method. The sign of the polarizations at the target is ambiguous, giving rise to two possible different solutions for the magnetic moment-one of two possible different solutions for the magnetic moment-one of which distinctly disagrees with the world average value for the moment. However, this solution fits the data slightly better than the other. This inconsistency would not exist if the polarization is, in fact, zero

  8. Holonomic quantum computation based on the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect for neutral particles and linear topological defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut; Furtado, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We discuss holonomic quantum computation based on the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect for a neutral particle. We show that the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment and external fields yields a non-abelian quantum phase allowing us to make any arbitrary rotation on a one-qubit. Moreover, we show that the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment and a magnetic field in the presence of a topological defect yields an analogue effect of the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect for a neutral particle, and a new way of building one-qubit quantum gates. - Highlights: ► Holonomic quantum computation for neutral particles. ► Implementation of one-qubit quantum gates based on the Anandan quantum phase. ► Implementation of one-qubit quantum gates based on the scalar Aharonov–Bohm effect.

  9. Superconductivity in high energy particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmueser, P.

    2002-08-01

    The basics of superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the features which are relevant for the application in magnets and radio frequency cavities for high energy particle accelerators. The special properties of superconducting accelerator magnets are described in detail: design principles, magnetic field calculations, magnetic forces, quench performance, persistent magnetization currents and eddy currents. The design principles and basic properties of superconducting cavities are explained as well as the observed performance limitations and the countermeasures. The ongoing research efforts towards maximum accelerating fields are addressed and the coupling of radio frequency power to the particle beam is treated. (orig.)

  10. Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2000-01-27

    This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.

  11. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  12. Higgs radiation off top particles in high-energy e+e- colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djouadi, A.; Technische Hochschule Aachen; Kalinowski, J.; Zerwas, P.M.

    1991-10-01

    Higgs particles can be radiated off heavy top quarks which will be produced copiously in high energy e + e - colliders. This process can be used to measure the Higgs-top quark coupling. We present the cross section for the production of Higgs bosons in the Standard Model. In addition we have studied the production of neutral and charged Higgs particles in association with heavy fermions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. (orig.)

  13. Factsheet on Energy Neutral School Buildings and Office Buildings; Infoblad Energieneutrale scholen en kantoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    A brief overview is given of all aspects of energy-neutral building and renovating school and office buildings. Besides technique, also attention is given to process, financing, management and maintenance. This factsheet is part of a series of three factsheets on energy neutral construction of houses and buildings. The other two are: 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building : Definition and ambition' and 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building' [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van alle aspecten van energieneutraal bouwen en renoveren van woningen. Naast techniek komen ook proces, financiering en beheer en onderhoud aan de orde. Dit Infoblad maakt deel uit van een serie van drie Infobladen over energieneutraal bouwen voor woningen en gebouwen. De andere twee zijn: 'Infoblad Energieneutraal bouwen: definitie en ambitie' en 'Infoblad Energieneutrale Woningbouw'.

  14. Application of a Java-based, univel geometry, neutral particle Monte Carlo code to the searchlight problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles A. Wemple; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2005-01-01

    A univel geometry, neutral particle Monte Carlo transport code, written entirely in the Java programming language, is under development for medical radiotherapy applications. The code uses ENDF-VI based continuous energy cross section data in a flexible XML format. Full neutron-photon coupling, including detailed photon production and photonuclear reactions, is included. Charged particle equilibrium is assumed within the patient model so that detailed transport of electrons produced by photon interactions may be neglected. External beam and internal distributed source descriptions for mixed neutron-photon sources are allowed. Flux and dose tallies are performed on a univel basis. A four-tap, shift-register-sequence random number generator is used. Initial verification and validation testing of the basic neutron transport routines is underway. The searchlight problem was chosen as a suitable first application because of the simplicity of the physical model. Results show excellent agreement with analytic solutions. Computation times for similar numbers of histories are comparable to other neutron MC codes written in C and FORTRAN

  15. User's manual for ONEDANT: a code package for one-dimensional, diffusion-accelerated, neutral-particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, R.D.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; Marr, D.R.

    1982-02-01

    ONEDANT is designed for the CDC-7600, but the program has been implemented and run on the IBM-370/190 and CRAY-I computers. ONEDANT solves the one-dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k/sub eff/ and eigenvalue search) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo, or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. ONEDANT numerically solves the one-dimensional, multigroup form of the neutral-particle, steady-state form of the Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution and the diamond-difference scheme is used for phase space discretization. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm. A standard inner (within-group) iteration, outer (energy-group-dependent source) iteration technique is used. Both inner and outer iterations are accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method

  16. Energy Harvesting by Nickel Prussian Blue Analogue Electrode in Neutralization and Mixing Entropy Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Wellington J A S; de Oliveira, Cainã; Huguenin, Fritz

    2015-08-11

    Some industries usually reduce the concentration of protons in acidic wastewater by conducting neutralization reactions and/or adding seawater to industrial effluents. This work proposes a novel electrochemical system that can harvest energy originating from entropic changes due to alteration in the concentration of sodium ions along wastewater treatment. Preparation of a self-assembled material from nickel Prussian blue analogue (NPBA) was the first step to obtain such electrochemical system. Investigation into the electrochemical properties of this material helped to evaluate its potential use in neutralization and mixing entropy batteries. Assessment of parameters such as the potentiodynamic profile of the current density as a function of the concentration of protons and sodium ions, charge capacity, and cyclability as well as the reversibility of the sodium ion electroinsertion process aided estimation of the energy storage efficiency of the system. Frequency-domain measurements and models and the proposed charge compensation mechanism provided the rate constants at different dc potentials. After each charge/discharge cycle, the NPBA electrode harvested 12.4 kJ per mol of intercalated sodium ion in aqueous solutions of NaCl at concentrations of 20 mM and 3.0 M. The full electrochemical cell consisted of an NPBA positive electrode and a negative electrode of silver particles dispersed in a polypyrrole electrode. This cell extracted 16.8 kJ per mol of intercalated ion after each charge/discharge cycle. On the basis of these results, the developed electrochemical system should encourage wastewater treatment and help to achieve sustainable growth.

  17. Physics of neutralization of intense high-energy ion beam pulses by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100 G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  18. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B.; Lee, E.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  19. Particle physics experiments at high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2011-01-01

    Written by one of the detector developers for the International Linear Collider, this is the first textbook for graduate students dedicated to the complexities and the simplicities of high energy collider detectors. It is intended as a specialized reference for a standard course in particle physics, and as a principal text for a special topics course focused on large collider experiments. Equally useful as a general guide for physicists designing big detectors. (orig.)

  20. Search for long-lived neutral particles decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Song; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Gray, Julia; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-01-20

    A search is performed for long-lived massive neutral particles decaying to quark-antiquark pairs. The experimental signature is a distinctive topology of a pair of jets, originating at a secondary vertex. Events were collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data analyzed correspond to an integrated luminosity of 18.5$~\\mathrm{fb^{-1} }$. No significant excess is observed above standard model expectations. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section of a heavy neutral scalar particle, $\\mathrm{H}$, in the mass range of 200 to 1000$~\\mathrm{GeV}$, decaying promptly into a pair of long-lived neutral $\\mathrm{X}$ particles in the mass range of 50 to 350$~\\mathrm{GeV}$, each in turn decaying into a quark-antiquark pair. For $\\mathrm{X}$ with mean proper decay lengths of 0.4 to 200$~\\mathrm{cm}$, the upper limits are typically 0.5--200$~\\mathrm{fb}$. The results are also interpreted in the context of an R-pa...

  1. Charged particle accelerators for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The long history of successful commercial applications of charged-particle accelerators is largely a result of initiative by private industry. The Department of Energy views accelerators mainly as support equipment for particle physicists rather than components of an energy generation program. In FY 91, the DOE spent over 850 M$ on building and supporting accelerators for physics research versus 5 M$ on induction accelerators for fusion energy. The author believes this emphasis is skewed. One must address problems of long-term energy sources to preserve the possibility of basic research by future generations. In this paper, the author reviews the rationale for accelerators as inertial fusion drivers, emphasizing that these devices provide a viable path of fusion energy from viewpoints of both physics and engineering. In this paper, he covered the full range of accelerator fusion applications. Because of space limitations, this paper concentrates on induction linacs for ICF, an approach singled out in recent reports by the National Academy of Sciences and the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee as a promising path to long-term fusion power production. Review papers by Cook, Leung, Franzke, Hofmann and Reiser in these proceedings give details on light ion fusion and RF accelerator studies

  2. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.

    2018-01-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...... is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms...... are included in a four-field drift fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the lastclosed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation...

  3. Anandan quantum phase for a neutral particle with Fermi-Walker reference frame in the cosmic string background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut; Furtado, C.

    2010-01-01

    We study geometric quantum phases in the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment interacting with two distinct field configurations in a cosmic string spacetime. We consider the local reference frames of the observers are transported via Fermi-Walker transport and study the influence of the non-inertial effects on the phase shift of the wave function of the neutral particle due to the choice of this local frame. We show that the wave function of the neutral particle acquires non-dispersive relativistic and non-relativistic quantum geometric phases due to the topology of the spacetime, the interaction between the magnetic dipole moment with external fields and the spin-rotation coupling. However, due to the Fermi-Walker reference frame, no phase shift associated to the Sagnac effect appears in the quantum dynamics of a neutral particle. We show that in the absence of topological defect, the contribution to the quantum phase due to the spin-rotation coupling is equivalent to the Mashhoon effect in non-relativistic dynamics. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear emulsion experiments on particle production at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otterlund, I.

    1976-08-01

    Various experimental results, including multiplicities of shower-particles and heavy prong particles, correlations between them and single particle distributions, from proton-emulsion nucleus reactions in the energy range 200-400 GeV are presented. (Auth.)

  5. Factsheet on Energy Neutral Housing Construction. Definition and Ambition; Infoblad Energieneutraal Bouwen. Definitie en ambitie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This Factsheet describes the definition of nearly zero-energy building of houses and how ambitions to achieve zero energy housing can be determined. The factsheet is part of a series of three factsheets on energy neutral construction of houses and buildings. The other two are: 'Factsheet on Energy Neutral Building' and 'Factsheet Energy Neutral schools and offices' [Dutch] Dit Infoblad beschrijft de definitie van bijna-energieneutraal bouwen en hoe ambities om energieneutrale woningbouw te realiseren kunnen worden bepaald. Het Infoblad maakt deel uit van een serie van drie Infobladen over energieneutraal bouwen voor woningen en gebouwen. De andere twee zijn: 'Infoblad Energieneutrale Woningbouw' en 'Infoblad Energieneutrale scholen en kantoren'.

  6. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  7. Framework for Energy Neutral Treatment for the 21st Century Through Energy Efficient Aeration (WERF Report INFR2R12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeration is commonly identified as the most significant energy use in the treatment of wastewater and therefore garners significant focus in reducing energy use in the ultimate aspirational goal of achieving net energy neutrality for water resource recovery. This research establi...

  8. The acceleration of particles to high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1976-01-01

    The common occurrence, and often spectacular consequence, of fast particles in active astrophysical bodies has attracted the attention of physicists for more than four decades. The acceleration mechanisms, whatever they may be, are remarkably efficient, converting a major fraction of the total energy into fast particles. A variety of ideas have arisen, suggesting how and why fast particles are generated in various circumstances. The principal limitation on particle acceleration theories has been the realization that the universe in not filled with a hard vacuum, but rather is pervaded everywhere by tenuous ionized gases quite able to short circuit any large-scale electric fields that occur under ordinary circumstances. A number of the early ideas on the acceleration of cosmic rays have been discarded for this reason. The basic theoretical ideas can be grouped roughly into five parts: 1. hydromagnetic fields; 2. field in reduced conductivity; 3. plasma turbulence; 4. low frequency electromagnetic waves; 5. supernova explosion. Each of these is considered in turn. (Auth.)

  9. Single-particle energies and density of states in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aggelen, H.; Chan, G. K.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is commonly used as the foundation to obtain neutral excited states and transition weights in DFT, but does not allow direct access to density of states and single-particle energies, i.e. ionisation energies and electron affinities. Here we show that by extending TD-DFT to a superfluid formulation, which involves operators that break particle-number symmetry, we can obtain the density of states and single-particle energies from the poles of an appropriate superfluid response function. The standard Kohn- Sham eigenvalues emerge as the adiabatic limit of the superfluid response under the assumption that the exchange- correlation functional has no dependence on the superfluid density. The Kohn- Sham eigenvalues can thus be interpreted as approximations to the ionisation energies and electron affinities. Beyond this approximation, the formalism provides an incentive for creating a new class of density functionals specifically targeted at accurate single-particle eigenvalues and bandgaps.

  10. Dual Neutral Particle Beam Interrogation of Intermodal Shipping Containers for Special Nuclear Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rodney Lyman

    Intermodal shipping containers entering the United States provide an avenue to smuggle unsecured or stolen special nuclear material (SNM). The only direct method fielded to indicate the presence of SNM is by passive photon/neutron radiation detection. Active interrogation using neutral particle beams to induce fission in SNM is a method under consideration. One by-product of fission is the creation of fragments that undergo radioactive decay over a time period on the order of tens of seconds after the initial event. The "delayed" gamma-rays emitted from these fragments over this period are considered a hallmark for the presence of SNM. A fundamental model is developed using homogenized cargos with a SNM target embedded at the center and computationally interrogated using simultaneous neutron and photon beams. Findings from analysis of the delayed gamma emissions from these experiments are intended to mitigate the effects of poor quality information about the composition and disposition of suspect cargo before examination in an active interrogation portal.

  11. Development Of A Parallel Performance Model For The THOR Neutral Particle Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yessayan, Raffi; Azmy, Yousry; Schunert, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    The THOR neutral particle transport code enables simulation of complex geometries for various problems from reactor simulations to nuclear non-proliferation. It is undergoing a thorough V&V requiring computational efficiency. This has motivated various improvements including angular parallelization, outer iteration acceleration, and development of peripheral tools. For guiding future improvements to the code’s efficiency, better characterization of its parallel performance is useful. A parallel performance model (PPM) can be used to evaluate the benefits of modifications and to identify performance bottlenecks. Using INL’s Falcon HPC, the PPM development incorporates an evaluation of network communication behavior over heterogeneous links and a functional characterization of the per-cell/angle/group runtime of each major code component. After evaluating several possible sources of variability, this resulted in a communication model and a parallel portion model. The former’s accuracy is bounded by the variability of communication on Falcon while the latter has an error on the order of 1%.

  12. On the use of diffusion synthetic acceleration in parallel 3D neutral particle transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.; Chang, B.

    1998-01-01

    The linear Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is an integro-differential equation arising in deterministic models of neutral and charged particle transport. In slab (one-dimensional Cartesian) geometry and certain higher-dimensional cases, Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (DSA) is known to be an effective algorithm for the iterative solution of the discretized BTE. Fourier and asymptotic analyses have been applied to various idealizations (e.g., problems on infinite domains with constant coefficients) to obtain sharp bounds on the convergence rate of DSA in such cases. While DSA has been shown to be a highly effective acceleration (or preconditioning) technique in one-dimensional problems, it has been observed to be less effective in higher dimensions. This is due in part to the expense of solving the related diffusion linear system. We investigate here the effectiveness of a parallel semicoarsening multigrid (SMG) solution approach to DSA preconditioning in several three dimensional problems. In particular, we consider the algorithmic and implementation scalability of a parallel SMG-DSA preconditioner on several types of test problems

  13. Analytical solution for the transport equation for neutral particles in cylindrical and Cartesian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Glenio Aguiar

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we are reported analytical solutions for the transport equation for neutral particles in cylindrical and cartesian geometry. For the cylindrical geometry, it is applied the Hankel transform of order zero in the S N approximation of the one-dimensional cylindrical transport equation, assuming azimuthal symmetry and isotropic scattering. This procedure is coined HTSN method. The anisotropic problem is handled using the decomposition method, generating a recursive approach, which the HTSN solution is used as initial condition. For cartesian geometry, the one and two dimensional transport equation is derived in the angular variable as many time as the degree of the anisotropic scattering. This procedure leads to set of integro-differential plus one differential equation that can be really solved by the variable separation method. Following this procedure, it was possible to come out with the Case solution for the one-dimensional problem. Numerical simulations are reported for the cylindrical transport problem both isotropic and anisotropic case of quadratic degree. (author)

  14. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Aderholz, M.; Hantke, D.; Katz, U.F.; Kern, J.; Schmitz, N.; Wittek, W.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1992-08-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0 , Λ and anti Λ in νp and anti νp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables. E ν , W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables χ F , z and p T 2 . K* ± (892) and Σ* ± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for Σ* - (1385) production in νp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K* ± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ, anti Λ and Σ* ± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicities are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up. (orig.)

  15. Neutral strange particle production in neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions on protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.T.; Jones, R.W.L.; Kennedy, B.W.; O'Neale, S.W.; Villalobos-Baillie, O.; Klein, H.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Schmid, P.; Wachsmuth, H.; Miller, D.B.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Wainstein, S.; Borner, H.P.; Myatt, G.; Radojicic, D.; Bullock, F.W.; Burke, S.

    1993-01-01

    The production of the neutral strange particles K 0 , Λ and anti Λ in νp and anti νp charged current interactions is studied in an experiment with the Big European Bubble Chamber. Mean multiplicities are measured as a function of the event variables E ν , W 2 and Q 2 and of the hadron variables x F , z and p T 2 . K* ± (892) and Σ* ± (1385) signals are observed, whereas there is no evidence for Σ* - (1385) production in νp scattering. Forward, backward and total mean multiplicities are found to compare well with the predictions of an empirical model for deep-inelastic reactions in the case of the strange mesons K 0 and K* ± (892) but less so for the strange baryons Λ, anti Λ and Σ* ± (1385). The strange baryon multiplicites are used to obtain the decuplet to octet baryon production ratio and to assess the probabilities of a uu or ud system to break up. (orig.)

  16. High energy particle physics in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The paper reviews the U.K. participation in High Energy Particle Physics (HEPP) research. The funding of science in Higher Education and the Research Councils; high energy particle physics; relevance of particle physics to science and technology; particle physics in the U.K.; CERN; and the opportunity cost of HEPP within the science budget; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  18. Structure of the neutral current coupling in high energy neutrino--nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of this experiment was to determine the Lorentz structure of the neutral current coupling--that is, to determine what combination of V-A and V+A (or possibly S, P, and T) components make up the neutral coupling. The experiment used the Fermilab narrow band neutrino beam to provide separated neutrino and antineutrino fluxes, each consisting of two energy bands at approximately equal to 55 and approximately equal to 150 GeV. Deep inelastic inclusive neutrino-nucleon interactions of the form ν(anti ν) + N = μ - (μ + ) + hadrons (CC event) ν(anti ν) + N = ν(anti ν) + hadrons (NC event) were observed in an instrumented steel target-calorimeter, which measured the total energy of the hadrons produced in each event. The neutral current coupling was determined by comparing the hadron energy distributions of neutrino and antineutrino neutral current events. An analysis of the charged-current data was carried out in order to determine the background of charged-current events with unobserved muons, and to provide a normalization for the neutral current data. Various parameterizations of the CC interaction were tested, and their effects on the neutral current analysis were studied in detail. The neutral current analysis indicates that, if only vector and axial-vector components exist, then the neutral current coupling lies between V and V-A. A pure scalar coupling is excluded. The data were compared to the Weinberg--Salam theory (extended to semileptonic interactions), and are in very good agreement with its predictions. Comparison of these data to the low energy Gargamelle data indicates consistency with a scaling hypothesis

  19. Ioniclike energy structure of neutral core-excited states in free Kr clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peredkov, S.; Sorensen, S.L.; Kivimaeki, A.; Schulz, J.; Maartensson, N.; Oehrwall, G.; Lundwall, M.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Tchaplyguine, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of electronic states in krypton clusters is investigated by high-resolution core-level electron spectroscopy. The energy ordering of bulk versus surface 3d -1 np(n>5) core-excited states in neutral clusters is demonstrated to be reversed to the 3d -1 5p level situation. The cluster 3d -1 6p,7p states are proven to be at a lower energy than the corresponding atomic levels. These findings reveal the ioniclike energy structure of the neutral cluster core-excited levels. The phenomenon is explained by a spatial spread of the excited orbitals over the cluster lattice

  20. Groningen Energy neutral in 2025? Opportunities for an energy neutral built environment in the City of Groningen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, Joep

    2007-01-01

    The use of fossil energy sources and the accompanying emissions are assumed to cause climate change. Initiatives are being taken to avert climate change from occurring. The city of Groningen even has the ambition to become “energy neutral” in 2025 to help

  1. A Multi-Hop Energy Neutral Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Network Information Gathering in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Yinzhi; Zhong, Yuanchang; Wu, Xuegang; Yang, Simon X

    2015-12-26

    Energy resource limitation is a severe problem in traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) because it restricts the lifetime of network. Recently, the emergence of energy harvesting techniques has brought with them the expectation to overcome this problem. In particular, it is possible for a sensor node with energy harvesting abilities to work perpetually in an Energy Neutral state. In this paper, a Multi-hop Energy Neutral Clustering (MENC) algorithm is proposed to construct the optimal multi-hop clustering architecture in energy harvesting WSNs, with the goal of achieving perpetual network operation. All cluster heads (CHs) in the network act as routers to transmit data to base station (BS) cooperatively by a multi-hop communication method. In addition, by analyzing the energy consumption of intra- and inter-cluster data transmission, we give the energy neutrality constraints. Under these constraints, every sensor node can work in an energy neutral state, which in turn provides perpetual network operation. Furthermore, the minimum network data transmission cycle is mathematically derived using convex optimization techniques while the network information gathering is maximal. Simulation results show that our protocol can achieve perpetual network operation, so that the consistent data delivery is guaranteed. In addition, substantial improvements on the performance of network throughput are also achieved as compared to the famous traditional clustering protocol LEACH and recent energy harvesting aware clustering protocols.

  2. A Multi-Hop Energy Neutral Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Network Information Gathering in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy resource limitation is a severe problem in traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs because it restricts the lifetime of network. Recently, the emergence of energy harvesting techniques has brought with them the expectation to overcome this problem. In particular, it is possible for a sensor node with energy harvesting abilities to work perpetually in an Energy Neutral state. In this paper, a Multi-hop Energy Neutral Clustering (MENC algorithm is proposed to construct the optimal multi-hop clustering architecture in energy harvesting WSNs, with the goal of achieving perpetual network operation. All cluster heads (CHs in the network act as routers to transmit data to base station (BS cooperatively by a multi-hop communication method. In addition, by analyzing the energy consumption of intra- and inter-cluster data transmission, we give the energy neutrality constraints. Under these constraints, every sensor node can work in an energy neutral state, which in turn provides perpetual network operation. Furthermore, the minimum network data transmission cycle is mathematically derived using convex optimization techniques while the network information gathering is maximal. Simulation results show that our protocol can achieve perpetual network operation, so that the consistent data delivery is guaranteed. In addition, substantial improvements on the performance of network throughput are also achieved as compared to the famous traditional clustering protocol LEACH and recent energy harvesting aware clustering protocols.

  3. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs

  4. Low-energy scattering of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Garibotti, C.R. (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Inst. Balseiro)

    1983-04-23

    The off-energy-shell T-matrix for two charged particles is studied in the low momentum limit (k->0). The T-matrix for a Coulomb interaction (Tsub(C)) is usually considered as the limit of the amplitude for a screened potential (Tsub(s)) when the screening is removed. We show that this statement is not true for small enough energies. For an attractive interaction Tsub(C) and Tsub(s) differ significantly when k->0. Tsub(c) behaves as ksup(-1/2), while Tsub(s) keeps its k/sup -1/ behaviour even when the screening is turned off. We note that this is an effect which would be observed in ion-atom collisions when one electron is ejected from the atom and captured into a continuum state of the ion.

  5. Low-energy scattering of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Garibotti, C.R. (Instituto Balseiro, Argentina)

    1983-04-23

    The off-energy-shell T-matrix for two charged particles is studied in the low momentum limit ( k ->0 ). The T-matrix for a Coulomb interaction (Tsub(C)) is usually considered as the limit of the amplitude for a screened potential (Tsub(s)) when the screening is removed. This statement is not true for small enough energies. For an attractive interaction Tsub(C) and Tsub(s) differ significantly when k -> 0. Tsub(C) behaves as k sup(-0.5), while Tsub(s) keeps its k/sup -1/ behaviour even when the screening is turned off. This is an effect which would be observed in ion-atom collisions when one electron is ejected from the atom and captured into a continuum state of the ion.

  6. Inclusive distributions of diffractively produced neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas, and upper limits on Λ/sub c/+ production in high energy γ p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadra, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author has used a large acceptance spectrometer in a tagged photon beam to study the interactions of real photons with protons in a hydrogen target. In particular, this thesis presents distributions of neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas from diffractive dissociation where the kinematic regions of the target and projectile fragments are clearly distinguished by using events with clean recoiling protons. This data extends the neutral strange particle production rate measurements to higher overall centre-of-mass energies than previous photoproduction experiments. Comparison to pion-induced reactions supports the hypothesis that the photon behaves primarily as a hardon. Finally, upper limits have been set on the Λ/sub c/ + cross section times the branching ratio for decay modes leading to neutral strange particles for a diffractive dissociation process

  7. The influence of blobs on neutral particles in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Naulin, Volker

    2016-01-01

    and edge are investigated. Simulations suggest that neutrals originating from dissociation of hydrogen molecules only fuel in the outermost edge region of the plasma, whereas hot neutrals from charge exchange collisions penetrate deep into the bulk plasma. The results are recovered in a simplified 2D model....

  8. Colloids exposed to random potential energy landscapes: From particle number density to particle-potential and particle-particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewerunge, Jörg; Capellmann, Ronja F.; Platten, Florian; Egelhaaf, Stefan U.; Sengupta, Ankush; Sengupta, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal particles were exposed to a random potential energy landscape that has been created optically via a speckle pattern. The mean particle density as well as the potential roughness, i.e., the disorder strength, were varied. The local probability density of the particles as well as its main characteristics were determined. For the first time, the disorder-averaged pair density correlation function g (1) (r) and an analogue of the Edwards-Anderson order parameter g (2) (r), which quantifies the correlation of the mean local density among disorder realisations, were measured experimentally and shown to be consistent with replica liquid state theory results.

  9. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrysøe, A. S.; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul

    2018-03-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms are included in a four-field drift-fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the last-closed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation to be self-consistently maintained due to ionization of neutrals in the confined region.

  10. Framework to model neutral particle flux in convex high aspect ratio structures using one-dimensional radiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstetten, Paul; Filipovic, Lado; Hössinger, Andreas; Weinbub, Josef; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2017-02-01

    We present a computationally efficient framework to compute the neutral flux in high aspect ratio structures during three-dimensional plasma etching simulations. The framework is based on a one-dimensional radiosity approach and is applicable to simulations of convex rotationally symmetric holes and convex symmetric trenches with a constant cross-section. The framework is intended to replace the full three-dimensional simulation step required to calculate the neutral flux during plasma etching simulations. Especially for high aspect ratio structures, the computational effort, required to perform the full three-dimensional simulation of the neutral flux at the desired spatial resolution, conflicts with practical simulation time constraints. Our results are in agreement with those obtained by three-dimensional Monte Carlo based ray tracing simulations for various aspect ratios and convex geometries. With this framework we present a comprehensive analysis of the influence of the geometrical properties of high aspect ratio structures as well as of the particle sticking probability on the neutral particle flux.

  11. A transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1992-12-01

    A new computational model for neutral particle transport in the outer regions of a diverted tokamak plasma chamber is presented. The model is based on the calculation of transmission and escape probabilities using first-flight integral transport theory and the balancing of fluxes across the surfaces bounding the various regions. The geometrical complexity of the problem is included in precomputed probabilities which depend only on the mean free path of the region

  12. Some problems of high-energy elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of high-energy elementary particle physics are discussed. It is pointed out that the modern theory of elementary-particle physics has no solutions of some large physical problems: origin of the mass, electric charge, identity of particle masses, change of the mass of elementary particles in time and others. 7 refs

  13. Inclusive neutral particle production in anti pp interactions at 22.4 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boos, E.G.; Samojlov, V.V.; Takibaev, Zh.S.

    1978-01-01

    The differential distributions over longitudinal and transvers Feynman variables for inclusive γ, Ksub(s)sup(0), Λ production in anti pp interactions at 22.4 GeV/c are presented. The rapidity distributions in the c.m.s. for γ and K 0 /K 0 particles are well described by the quark-antiquark fusion model. In the central region there is some evidence for scaling behaviour of the invariant differential cross sections F for the anti pp → γ+all in the range from 22.4 GeV/c to 100 GeV/c while for the K 0 / K 0 tilde production Frises in this energy interval. A non-zero Λ polarization of -0.414+-0.206 was measured

  14. New Parameterizations for Neutral and Ion-Induced Sulfuric Acid-Water Particle Formation in Nucleation and Kinetic Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Merikanto, Joonas; Henschel, Henning; Duplissy, Jonathan; Makkonen, Risto; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new parameterizations of electrically neutral homogeneous and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water particle formation for large ranges of environmental conditions, based on an improved model that has been validated against a particle formation rate data set produced by Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiments at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The model uses a thermodynamically consistent version of the Classical Nucleation Theory normalized using quantum chemical data. Unlike the earlier parameterizations for H2SO4-H2O nucleation, the model is applicable to extreme dry conditions where the one-component sulfuric acid limit is approached. Parameterizations are presented for the critical cluster sulfuric acid mole fraction, the critical cluster radius, the total number of molecules in the critical cluster, and the particle formation rate. If the critical cluster contains only one sulfuric acid molecule, a simple formula for kinetic particle formation can be used: this threshold has also been parameterized. The parameterization for electrically neutral particle formation is valid for the following ranges: temperatures 165-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1013 cm-3, and relative humidities 0.001-100%. The ion-induced particle formation parameterization is valid for temperatures 195-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1016 cm-3, and relative humidities 10-5-100%. The new parameterizations are thus applicable for the full range of conditions in the Earth's atmosphere relevant for binary sulfuric acid-water particle formation, including both tropospheric and stratospheric conditions. They are also suitable for describing particle formation in the atmosphere of Venus.

  15. Study of multiple production mechanisms of neutral and charged particles in proton-proton interactions at 69GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boratav, Murat.

    1976-01-01

    From a sample of 30000 pictures taken in the hydrogen bubble chamber Mirabelle, with a proton beam of 69GeV/c, at Serpukhov, the multiple particle production mechanisms are studied in proton-proton collisions. The neutral pions produced are specially studied, which means that the photons coming from the disintegration of π 0 's have to be detected and measured. From these pion spectra, their multiplicity distributions and the first order moments of these distributions (particularly the Mueller correlation coefficients) data and results are compared with the predictions of theoretical models such as: 'thermodynamic' models (Feynman gas, critical fluid model, etc.) and cluster models (with a fixed size or a size depending on incoming energy). The multiple production mechanisms seem to appear through small-sized, energy-dependent clusters (about two pions per cluster at this energy) [fr

  16. Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone

  17. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Study of muon catalysis of nuclear fusion and phenomena commonly referred to as cold fusion has been central to our effort. Muon catalyzed fusion research concentrated primarily on the identification of energy efficient production of muons, and the understanding and control of the density dependence of auto-poisoning (sticking) of the catalyst. We have also developed the in-flight fusion description of the tμ-d reaction, and work in progress shows promise in explaining the fusion cycle anomalies and smallness of sticking as a consequence of the dominant role of such reactions. Our cold fusion work involved the exploration of numerous environments for cold fusion reactions in materials used in the heavy water electrolysis, with emphasis on reactions consistent with the conventional knowledge of nuclear physics reactions. We then considered the possibility that a previously unobserved ultra-heavy particle X - is a catalyst of dd fusion, explaining the low intensity neutrons observed by Jones et. al. 29 refs

  18. Design of a neutral three-dimensional electro-Fenton system with foam nickel as particle electrodes for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Remove RhB by a novel 3D-E-Fenton system using foam nickel as particle electrodes. ► The 3D-E-Fenton system exhibit much higher RhB removal efficiency than the counterpart 3D-E and E-Fenton system. ► Foam nickel as a particle electrode displays good oxygen reduction activity. ► The performance of RhB removal was optimized by some operating parameters and the optimization pH was the neutral. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate a novel three-dimensional electro-Fenton system (3D-E-Fenton) for wastewater treatment with foam nickel, activated carbon fiber and Ti/RuO 2 –IrO 2 as the particle electrodes, the cathode, and the anode respectively. This 3D-E-Fenton system could exhibit much higher rhodamine B removal efficiency (99%) than the counterpart three-dimensional electrochemical system (33%) and E-Fenton system (19%) at neutral pH in 30 min. The degradation efficiency enhancement was attributed to much more hydroxyl radicals generated in the 3D-E-Fenton system because foam nickel particle electrodes could activate molecular oxygen to produce ·O 2 − via a single-electron transfer pathway to subsequently generate more H 2 O 2 and hydroxyl radicals. This is the first observation of molecular oxygen activation over the particle electrodes in the three-dimensional electrochemical system. These interesting findings could provide some new insight on the development of high efficient E-Fenton system for wastewater treatment at neutral pH.

  19. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  20. Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (LENA) imaging mass spectrometer, which will perform remote sensing of the lunar surface via detection of neutral atoms in the energy range from 10eV to 3keV from a 100km polar orbit. ..... as studying the existence of ion void regions around.

  1. Direct energy conversion and neutral beam injection for catalyzed D and D-3He tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.S.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The calculated performance of single stage and Venetian blind direct energy converters for Catalyzed D and D- 3 He Tokamak reactors are discussed. Preliminary results on He pumping are outlined. The efficiency of D and T neutral beam injection is reviewed

  2. Measurement of the neutral-current interactions of high-energy neutrinos and antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Imlay, R.; Reeder, D.D.; Stefanski, R.; Rubbia, C.; Sulak, L.; Messing, F.; Ford, W.T.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the ν and nu-bar weak hadronic neutral-current total cross sections and hadron energy distributions are consistent with a V - A form for this current. They are three standard deviations from pure V, pure A, or a pure T form and unambiguously exclude V + A and any linear combination of S and P

  3. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Moeschler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT. Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses.

  4. Quantification of Lyssavirus-Neutralizing Antibodies Using Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Pseudotype Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeschler, Sarah; Locher, Samira; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Krämer, Beate; Zimmer, Gert

    2016-09-16

    Rabies is a highly fatal zoonotic disease which is primarily caused by rabies virus (RABV) although other members of the genus Lyssavirus can cause rabies as well. As yet, 14 serologically and genetically diverse lyssaviruses have been identified, mostly in bats. To assess the quality of rabies vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, virus neutralization tests with live RABV are performed in accordance with enhanced biosafety standards. In the present work, a novel neutralization test is presented which takes advantage of a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) from which the glycoprotein G gene has been deleted and replaced by reporter genes. This single-cycle virus was trans-complemented with RABV envelope glycoprotein. Neutralization of this pseudotype virus with RABV reference serum or immune sera from vaccinated mice showed a strong correlation with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Importantly, pseudotype viruses containing the envelope glycoproteins of other lyssaviruses were neutralized by reference serum to a significantly lesser extent or were not neutralized at all. Taken together, a pseudotype virus system has been successfully developed which allows the safe, fast, and sensitive detection of neutralizing antibodies directed against different lyssaviruses.

  5. Kinetic energy distributions of sputtered neutral aluminum clusters: Al--Al6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Curlee, G.A.; White, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neutral aluminum clusters sputtered from polycrystalline aluminum were analyzed by laser postionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The kinetic energy distributions of Al through Al 6 were measured by a neutrals time-of-flight technique. The interpretation of laser postionization TOF data to extract velocity and energy distributions is presented. The aluminum cluster distributions are qualitatively similar to previous copper cluster distribution measurements from our laboratory. In contrast to the steep high energy tails predicted by the single- or multiple- collision models, the measured cluster distributions have high energy power law dependences in the range of E -3 to E -4.5 . Correlated collision models may explain the substantial abundance of energetic clusters that are observed in these experiments. Possible influences of cluster fragmentation on the distributions are discussed

  6. The effect of weak neutral currents on the coincidence of e+ and e- particles and the combined theories of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendvai, E.

    1978-01-01

    The electromagnetic and weak interactions as well as the spontaneously broken measures were reviewed. Some characteristic structures and models were described including the most favoured one proposed by Weinberg and Salem. The effect of weak neutral currents were investigated in the processes e + e - → Σ hadron, MantiM, FantiF; the asymmetries of these processes were calculated. The weak effects found were rather significant in the energy range q = 14-40 GeV reaching a maximum of 20%. It was suggested that the measurements of these effects provided useful information about the structure of weak neutral currents. (Z.P.)

  7. First measurements on the core and edge isotope composition using the JET isotope separator neutral particle analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettella, D; Murari, A; Stamp, M; Testa, D

    2003-01-01

    Direct measurements of tokamak plasmas isotope composition are in general quite difficult and have therefore been very seldom performed. On the other hand, the importance of this measurement is going to increase, as future experiments will be progressively focused on plasmas approaching reactor conditions. In this paper, we report for the first time encouraging experimental evidence supporting a new method to determine the radial profile of the density ratio n H /(n H + n D ), based on neutral particle analyser (NPA) measurements. The measurements have been performed in JET with the ISotope SEParator (ISEP), a NPA device specifically developed to measure the energy spectra of the three hydrogen isotopes with very high accuracy and low cross-talk. The data presented here have been collected in two different experimental conditions. In the first case, the density ratio has been kept constant during the discharge. The isotope ratio derived from the ISEP has been compared with the results of visible spectroscopy at the edge and with the isotope composition derived from an Alfven eigenmodes active diagnostic (AEAD) system at about half the minor radius for the discharges reported in this paper. A preliminary evaluation of the additional heating effects on the measurements has also been carried out. In the second set of experiments, the isotope composition of deuterium plasmas has been abruptly changed with suitable short blips of hydrogen, in order to assess the capability of the method to study the transport of the hydrogen isotope species. Future developments of the methodology and its applications to the evaluation of hydrogen transport coefficients are also briefly discussed. The results obtained so far motivate further development of the technique, which constitutes one of the few candidate diagnostic approaches viable for ITER

  8. Applications of high energy neutralized ion beams to a compact torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostoker, N.; Katzenstein, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulsed ion beams can be produced with ion diodes and Marx generators. The technology exists to produce high energy beams efficiently. A neutralized ion beam has an equal number of co-moving electrons. The resultant beam is electrically neutral, has no net current and can be transported across a magnetic field if the current density is sufficiently large. Preliminary experimental results have been obtained on injecting a neutralized proton beam into a small tokamak. To illuminate the physical processes involved in injection and trapping an experiment has been designed for TEXT. Possible applications to a compact torus include plasma heating, current maintenance and non-equilibrium reactors that do not require ignition. Each application is discussed and comparisons are made with other methods. (author)

  9. Direct measurement of the concentration of metastable ions produced from neutral gas particles using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng; Skiff, Fred; Berumen, Jorge; Mattingly, Sean; Hood, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastables that are produced from neutral gas particles and existing ions in other electronic states. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal. The results show that under circumstances where the metastable ion population is coming directly from the ionization of neutrals (as opposed to the excitation of ground-state ions), the velocity distribution will only faithfully represent processes which act on the ion dynamics in a time shorter than the metastable lifetime. Therefore, it is important to know the ratio of metastable population coming from neutrals to that from existing ions to correct the LIF measurements of plasma ion temperature and electrostatic waves. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ratio of these two populations by externally launching an ion acoustic wave and comparing the wave amplitudes that are measured with LIF and a Langmuir probe using a lock-in amplifier. DE-FG02-99ER54543.

  10. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  11. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-04-09

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  13. The development of a mobility analyzer for studying neutralization and particle-producing phenomena related to radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulju, L.M.; Chu, K.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    A continuous monitoring method has been developed to investigate 218 Po neutralization phenomena under various controlled conditions. In addition to previously reported work, an additional series of experiments were conducted to further understand the kinetics of the neutralization phenomena of polonium ions in various humidities and NO 2 concentrations. The results are satisfactory and show that continuous monitoring methods can be applied to various ambient conditions. By performing the studies under well controlled reaction conditions, the effects of trace gases (SO 2 , NO 2 , and organics) on cluster formation rates can be interpreted. The results of these studies will provide a fundamental understanding of the nature and formation mechanism for the ultrafine particle carriers of radioactivity

  14. Parametric scaling studies of energy-confinement time for neutral-beam-heated Heliotron-E plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, F.; Takeiri, Y.; Hanatani, K.

    1989-02-01

    Kinetic analysis of the global energy confinement time for neutral-beam-heated Heliotron-E plasmas has been performed with the 1-D, time-independent transport analysis code, PROCTR-Mod. Beam-power scans were performed by firing various number of hydrogen neutral beams, while density scans were performed by puffing gas and/or pellet fueling under the metallic or carbonized wall conditions. The wall carbonization facilitated the density increase due to the enhanced particle recycling on the walls, and also enabled long-pulse, quasi-stationary, currentless ECH + NBI operation with reduced heavy-impurity contamination. The data analysis shows that the favorable density dependence partially offsets the unfavorable power dependence, and that the anomalous electron transport loss becomes dominant in the over-all energy balance as the beam power and plasma density are increased. An alternative scaling law is also presented which is to fit τ E G [ms] by an 'offset-linear' law. The latter scaling is found to provide a better fit to the presented data sets in spite of its simple form. The parametric scaling of the local electron thermal diffusivity, χ e , is also discussed on the basis of the kinetic analysis. (J.P.N.)

  15. Microscopic calculations of λ single particle energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Q. N.

    1998-01-01

    Λ binding energy data for total baryon number A ≤ 208 and for Λ angular momenta ell Λ ≤ 3 are analyzed in terms of phenomenological (but generally consistent with meson-exchange) ΛN and ΛNN potentials. The Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain technique is used to calculate the expectation values for the Λ binding to nuclear matter. Accurate effective ΛN and ΛNN potentials are obtained which are folded with the core nucleus nucleon densities to calculate the Λ single particle potential U Λ (r). We use a dispersive ΛNN potential but also include an explicit ρ dependence to allow for reduced repulsion in the surface, and the best fits have a large ρ dependence giving consistency with the variational Monte Carlo calculations for Λ 5 He. The exchange fraction of the ΛN space-exchange potential is found to be 0.2-0.3 corresponding to m Λ * ≅ (0.74-0.82)m Λ . Charge symmetry breaking is found to be significant for heavy hypernuclei with a large neutron excess, with a strength consistent with that obtained from the A = 4 hypernuclei

  16. Magnetic surfaces, particle orbits and neutral injection in conventional and ultimate torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.T.; Derr, J.A.; Kruckewitt, T.; Shohet, J.L.; Rehker, S.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Capabilities in fully non-axisymmetric numerical methods have resulted in a parametric study of various conventional and ultimate torsatron configurations. No superbananas are found in torsatrons without local magnetic wells. Neutral injection calculations show that, if the vacuum magnetic surfaces are well defined, tangential injection is very efficient

  17. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; Becirevic, D.

    2016-07-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f_+(0), arising in the semileptonic K→π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f_K/f_π and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V_u_s and V_u_d. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R and SU(3)_L x SU(3)_R Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B_K parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m_c and m_b (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α_s.

  18. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); Bernard, C. [Washington University, Department of Physics, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Blum, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States); Colangelo, G.; Leutwyler, H.; Necco, S.; Wenger, U. [Institut fuer theoretische Physik, Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Della Morte, M. [University of Southern Denmark, CP3-Origins and Danish IAS, Odense M (Denmark); IFIC (CSIC), Paterna (Spain); Duerr, S. [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Juelich Supercomputing Center, Juelich (Germany); El-Khadra, A.X. [University of Illinois, Department of Physics, Urbana, IL (United States); Fukaya, H.; Onogi, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Osaka (Japan); Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Juettner, A.; Sachrajda, C.T. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Kaneko, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Laiho, J. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, New York (United States); Lellouch, L. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Universite de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, La Garde (France); Lubicz, V. [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); Sezione di Roma Tre, INFN, Rome (Italy); Lunghi, E. [Indiana University, Physics Department, Bloomington, IN (United States); Pena, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC and Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Sharpe, S.R. [University of Washington, Physics Department, Seattle, WA (United States); Simula, S. [Sezione di Roma Tre, INFN, Rome (Italy); Sommer, R. [NIC rate at DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Water, R.S.V. de [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Vladikas, A. [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, INFN, Sezione di Tor Vergata, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Wittig, H. [University of Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: FLAG Working Group

    2014-09-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the lightquark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in semileptonic K → π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay-constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} of decay constants and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} andSU(3)L{sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, we focus here on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters, since these are most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. In addition we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}. (orig.)

  19. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  20. Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.J.; Radtke, R.; Zimmermann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs + ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion. (author)

  1. Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Y J; Radtke, R; Zimmermann, R

    1988-01-01

    Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs/sup +/ ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion.

  2. Internal Energies of Ion-Sputtered Neutral Tryptophan and Thymine Molecules Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi3 + indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have ~;;2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi3 + ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.

  3. Energy of nuclear-active particles in the 1-50 TeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarevskij, D.M.; Garsevanishvili, L.P.; Morozov, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    The ''TsKhRA-TsKARO'' installation designed for the investigation of cosmic beams interaction with nuclei in the energy range of 1-50 TeV is described. The installation comprises a magnetic spark spectrometer, photography system, ionization calorimeter and scintillating trigger device. The ionization calorimeter contains 12 rows of ionization chambers interlayed with 4 lead and 8 iron absorbers. The rows of ionization chambers of the calorimeter upper half are placed in the mutually-perpendicular direction to restore the direction and spatial situation of the electron-nuclear cascade. All in all the ionization calorimeter contains 100 channels of preintensifiers from which the information is transmitted to the terminal intensifiers and then to the storage cells. The aperture ratio of the whole installation (taking account of the upper chambers) is 0.5 m 2 /steradian, and the aperture ratio of the calorimeter together with the lower chambers is approximately 2 m 2 /steradian. Presented are integral spectra of the hadrons at the height of mountains and at the height of 2500 m above sea level obtained with the help of the installation described. Comparison of the number of charged and neutral particles recorded with the ''TsKhRA-TsKARO'' installation agrees well with the known ratio of charged and neutral cosmic hadrons on the heights of mountains n/c = 0.52+-0.05

  4. Interphasial energy transfer and particle dissipation in particle-laden wall turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, L.; Andersson, H.I.; Gillissen, J.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of mechanical energy between solid spherical particles and a Newtonian carrier fluid has been explored in two-way coupled direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow. The inertial particles have been treated as individual point particles in a Lagrangian framework and their

  5. Simulation of distributed parameter system consisting of charged and neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.S.; Sinha, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of positively charged light particles have been simulated in an assembly of heavy gas atoms. The system is formulated in terms of partial differential equation. The stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm has been examined. Using this formulation effects of external electric field and temperature have been investigated on the lifetime and distribution function characteristics of charged particles

  6. Impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondhalekar, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Korotkov, A A [AF Ioffe Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    A model elucidating the role of carbon and beryllium, the main impurities in JET plasmas, in neutralizing MeV energy protons, which arise during ICRF heating of deuterium plasmas in the hydrogen minority heating mode D(H), and from D-D fusion reactions, is presented. The model establishes charge transfer from hydrogen-like impurity ions to protons as the main process for neutralization. Calculations for deducing the proton energy distribution function from measured hydrogen flux are described. The validity of the model is tested by using it to described the measured flux in different conditions of plasma heating and fueling. Further, it is used to deduce the background thermal deuterium atom density at the plasma center. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  7. E parallel B energy-mass spectrograph for measurement of ions and neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1997-01-01

    Real-time measurement of plasma composition and energy is an important diagnostic in fusion experiments. The Thomson parabola spectrograph described here utilizes an electric field parallel to a magnetic field (E parallel B) and a two-dimensional imaging detector to uniquely identify the energy-per-charge and mass-per-charge distributions of plasma ions. An ultrathin foil can be inserted in front of the E parallel B filter to convert neutral atoms to ions, which are subsequently analyzed using the E parallel B filter. Since helium exiting an ultrathin foil does not form a negative ion and hydrogen isotopes do, this spectrograph allows unique identification of tritium ions and neutrals even in the presence of a large background of 3 He. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Growth and renewable energy in Europe: A random effect model with evidence for neutrality hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2011-01-01

    This is an empirical study on the causal relationship between economic growth and renewable energy for 27 European countries in a multivariate panel framework over the period 1997-2007 using a random effect model and including final energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and employment as additional independent variables in the model. Empirical results do not confirm causality between renewable energy consumption and GDP, although panel causality tests unfold short-run relationships between renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions and employment. The estimated cointegration factor refrains from unity, indicating only a weak, if any, relationship between economic growth and renewable energy consumption in Europe, suggesting evidence of the neutrality hypothesis, which can partly be explained by the uneven and insufficient exploitation of renewable energy sources across Europe.

  9. Carbon neutral archipelago – 100% renewable energy supply for the Canary Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, Hans Christian; Simon, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A pathway to a 100% renewable energy supply for the Canary Islands is presented. • Hourly system operation is analysed, considering flexibility options and sector linkage. • Results show feasibility of a carbon neutral energy supply with local resources. • High resolution power system model highlights importance of grid connections. - Abstract: As many other small islands and archipelagos, the Canary Islands depend to a high degree on energy imports. Despite its small surface, the archipelago has a high potential for renewable energy (RE) technologies. In this paper, we present a scenario pathway to a 100% RE supply in the Canary Islands by 2050. It relies on a back-casting approach linking the bottom-up accounting framework Mesap-PlaNet and the high resolution power system model REMix. Our analysis shows that locally available technology potentials are sufficient for a fully renewable supply of the islands’ power, heat, and land transport energy demands. To follow the pathway for achieving a carbon neutral supply, expansion of RE technology deployment needs to be accelerated in the short-term and efforts towards greater energy efficiency must be increased. According to our results, an extended linkage between energy sectors through electric vehicles as well as electric heating, and the usage of synthetic hydrogen can contribute notably to the integration of intermittent RE power generation. Furthermore, our results highlight the importance of power transmission in RE supply systems. Supply costs are found 15% lower in a scenario considering sea cable connections between all islands.

  10. A Low-Cost Neutral Zinc-Iron Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Stationary Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Congxin; Duan, Yinqi; Xu, Wenbin; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng

    2017-11-20

    Flow batteries (FBs) are one of the most promising stationary energy-storage devices for storing renewable energy. However, commercial progress of FBs is limited by their high cost and low energy density. A neutral zinc-iron FB with very low cost and high energy density is presented. By using highly soluble FeCl 2 /ZnBr 2 species, a charge energy density of 56.30 Wh L -1 can be achieved. DFT calculations demonstrated that glycine can combine with iron to suppress hydrolysis and crossover of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ . The results indicated that an energy efficiency of 86.66 % can be obtained at 40 mA cm -2 and the battery can run stably for more than 100 cycles. Furthermore, a low-cost porous membrane was employed to lower the capital cost to less than $ 50 per kWh, which was the lowest value that has ever been reported. Combining the features of low cost, high energy density and high energy efficiency, the neutral zinc-iron FB is a promising candidate for stationary energy-storage applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Detection of cold gas releases in space via low energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-eV hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper the authors examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, they examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then they review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of angstrom) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (> 10 10 cm -2 s -1 ) UV background to which the low energy detectors are sensitive. They conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made releases. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral releases, in the space environment

  12. Fly ash particles spheroidization using low temperature plasma energy

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Volokitin, O. G.; Vitske, Rudolf Evaldovich; Kondratyuk, Alexey Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the investigations on producing spherical particles 65-110 [mu]m in size using the energy of low temperature plasma (LTP). These particles are based on flow ash produced by the thermal power plant in Seversk, Tomsk region, Russia. The obtained spherical particles have no defects and are characterized by a smooth exterior surface. The test bench is designed to produce these particles. With due regard for plasma temperature field distribution, it is shown that the transition ...

  13. Fluctuations in high-energy particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronqvist, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    We study fluctuations that are omnipresent in high-energy particle collisions. These fluctuations can be either of either classical or quantum origin and we will study both. Firstly, we consider the type of quantum fluctuations that arise in proton-proton collisions. These are computable perturbatively in quantum field theory and we will focus on a specific class of diagrams in this set-up. Secondly, we will consider the fluctuations that are present in collisions between nuclei that can be heavier than protons. These are the quantum laws of nature that describe the positions of nucleons within a nucleus, but also the hydrodynamic fluctuations of classical, thermal origin that affect the evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. The fluctuations arising in proton-proton collisions can be computed analytically up to a certain order in perturbative quantum field theory. We will focus on one-loop diagrams of a fixed topology. Loop diagrams give rise to integrals that typically are hard to evaluate. We show how modern mathematical methods can be used to ease their computation. We will study the relations among unitarity cuts of a diagram, the discontinuity across the corresponding branch cut and the coproduct. We show how the original integral corresponding to a given diagram can be reconstructed from the information contained in the coproduct. We expect that these methods can be applied to solve more complicated topologies and help in the computation of new amplitudes in the future. Finally, we study the two types of fluctuations arising in heavy-ion collisions. These are related either to the initial state or the intermediate state of matter produced in such collisions. The initial state fluctuations are experimentally observed to give rise to non-Gaussianities in the final-state spectra. We show how these non-Gaussianities can be explained by the random position and interaction energy of 'sources' in the colliding nuclei. Furthermore, we

  14. Numerical calculation of 'actual' radial profile of ion temperature from 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1984-10-01

    The energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed in the TRIAM-1 tokamak by vertical scanning of the neutral energy analyzer. The ''apparent'' ion temperature obtained directly from the energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by neoclassical transport theory. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived numerically from the energy spectra observed at various positions taking into account the wall-reflection effect of neutrals and the impermeability of the plasma. As a result, the ''actual'' ion temperature profile is found to agree well with that predicted by neoclassical transport theory.

  15. Numerical calculation of 'actual' radial profile of ion temperature from 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1984-01-01

    The energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed in the TRIAM-1 tokamak by vertical scanning of the neutral energy analyzer. The ''apparent'' ion temperature obtained directly from the energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by neoclassical transport theory. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived numerically from the energy spectra observed at various positions taking into account the wall-reflection effect of neutrals and the impermeability of the plasma. As a result, the ''actual'' ion temperature profile is found to agree well with that predicted by neoclassical transport theory. (author)

  16. Design of a Fast Neutral He Beam System for Feasibility Study of Charge-Exchange Alpha-Particle Diagnostics in a Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kitajima, Sumio; Kiyama, Satoru; Nishiura, Masaki; Sasao, Mamiko; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Takenaga, Mahoko; Takeuchi, Shu; Wada, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    For alpha-particle diagnostics in a thermonuclear fusion reactor, neutralization using a fast (~2 MeV) neutral He beam produced by the spontaneous electron detachment of a He- is considered most promising. However, the beam transport of produced fast neutral He has not been studied, because of difficulty for producing high-brightness He- beam. Double-charge-exchange He- sources and simple beam transport systems were developed and their results were reported in the PAC99* and other papers.** To accelerate an intense He- beam and verify the production of the fast neutral He beam, a new test stand has been designed. It consists of a multi-cusp He+

  17. Enhancement of particle-wave energy exchange by resonance sweeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-10-01

    It is shown that as the resonance condition of the particle-wave interaction is varied adiabatically, that the particles trapped in the wave will form phase space holes or clumps that can enhance the particle-wave energy exchange. This mechanism can cause much larger saturation levels of instabilities, and even allow the free energy associated with instability, to be tapped in a system that is linearly stable due to background dissipation

  18. Particle and momentum confinement in tokamak plasmas with unbalanced neutral beam injection and strong rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a self-consistent theory of the effects of neutral beam injection on impurity transport in tokamak plasmas. The theory predicts that co-injection drives impurities outward and that counter-injection enhances the normally inward flow of impurities. The theory was applied to carry out a detailed analysis of the large experimental database from the PLT and the ISX-B tokamaks. The theory was found to generally model the experimental data quite well. It is, therefore, concluded that neutral beam co-injection can drive impurities outward to achieve clean central plasmas and a cool radiating edge. Theoretical predictions for future thermonuclear reactors such as INTOR, TIBER II, and ITER indicated that neutral beam driven flow reversal might be an effective impurity control method if the rate of beam momentum deposited per plasma ion is adequate. The external momentum drag, which is a pivotal concept in impurity flow reversal theory, is correctly predicted by the gyroviscous theory of momentum confinement. The theory was applied to analyze experimental data from the PLT and the PDX tokamaks with exact experimental conditions. The theory was found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters. It is, therefore, possible to formulate the impurity transport theory from first principles, without resort to empiricism

  19. Proceedings of the LAMPF workshop on photon and neutral meson physics at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.; Crannell, H.; Peterson, R.J.

    1987-12-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Workshop on ''Photon and Neutral-Meson, Physics at Intermediate Energies,'' held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, January 7 to 9, 1987. The purpose of this workshop was to bring together scientists working in the areas of electromagnetic, heavy-ion, and light hadron physics to discuss both the physics that could be addressed and potential capabilities of new, large intermediate-energy photon detectors. Based on the papers contained in these proceedings, it appears clear that there are a number of important areas that could be addressed with a much higher resolution neutral meson detector. It is also clear that the technical capability for building a neutral meson detector for energies up to 4 GeV with solid angle of approximately 10 mrs and resolution of a few hundred keV now exists. It also appears entirely reasonable to construct such a detector to be easily transportable so that it would become a national facility, available for use at a number of different laboratories. From the many interesting papers presented and from the broad representation of physicists from laboratories in Asia, Canada, Europe, Japan, and the United States, there appears to be a strong case for proceeding with the construction of such a detector

  20. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  1. Adenovirus Particles that Display the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein NANP Repeat Induce Sporozoite-Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Christopher; Overstreet, Michael G.; Guedon, Jean-Marc; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ward, Cameron; Karen, Kasey A.; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus particles can be engineered to display exogenous peptides on their surfaces by modification of viral capsid proteins, and particles that display pathogen-derived peptides can induce protective immunity. We constructed viable recombinant adenoviruses that display B-cell epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) in the major adenovirus capsid protein, hexon. Recombinants induced high-titer antibodies against CSP when injected intraperitoneally into mice. Serum obtained from immunized mice recognized both recombinant PfCSP protein and P. falciparum sporozoites, and neutralized P. falciparum sporozoites in vitro. Replicating adenovirus vaccines have provided economical protection against adenovirus disease for over three decades. The recombinants described here may provide a path to an affordable malaria vaccine in the developing world. PMID:21199707

  2. The energy-deposition model. Electron loss of heavy ions in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelko, V.P.; Litsarev, M.S.; Kato, D.; Tawara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Single- and multiple-electron loss processes in collisions of heavy many-electron ions (positive and negative) in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies are considered using the energy-deposition model. The DEPOSIT computer code, created earlier to calculate electron-loss cross sections at high projectile energies, is extended for low and intermediate energies. A description of a new version of DEPOSIT code is given, and the limits of validity for collision velocity in the model are discussed. Calculated electron-loss cross sections for heavy ions and atoms (N + , Ar + , Xe + , U + , U 28+ , W, W + , Ge - , Au - ), colliding with neutral atoms (He, Ne, Ar, W) are compared with available experimental and theoretical data at energies E > 10 keV/u. It is found that in most cases the agreement between experimental data and the present model is within a factor of 2. Combining results obtained by the DEPOSIT code at low and intermediate energies with those by the LOSS-R code at high energies (relativistic Born approximation), recommended electron-loss cross sections in a wide range of collision energy are presented. (author)

  3. Aspects of Energy Metabolism in Mangalitsa Pigs Exposed at Thermic Neutral Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pârvu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed the energy metabolism determination in Mangalitsa pigs exposed at thermic neutral temperature, compared to Large White pigs. The experimental period was between 80 and 100 kg liveweight. The animals had free access to standard, isoprotein and isocalory diets, with 13.5% crude protein (CP and 3100 kcal/kg metabolizable energy. Feed intake was measured on a daily basis. The energy-protein balance was calculated on the basis of comparative slaughter made at the beginning and end of the experiment. The metabolizable energy (MEc was estimated by chemical analysis (feed and excreta using mathematical modelling and the Whittemore’s formula. The metabolizable energy utilization efficiency was 0.61 at Large White and 0.53 at Mangalitsa.

  4. Cosmic censorship, area theorem, and self-energy of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2002-01-01

    The (zeroth-order) energy of a particle in the background of a black hole is given by Carter's integrals. However, exact calculations of a particle's self-energy (first-order corrections) are still beyond our present reach in many situations. In this paper we use Hawking's area theorem in order to derive bounds on the self-energy of a particle in the vicinity of a black hole. Furthermore, we show that self-energy corrections must be taken into account in order to guarantee the validity of Penrose's cosmic censorship conjecture

  5. Positive energy in the climate. Breda, a CO2 neutral city in 2044 [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    This vision statement describes how the Dutch municipality of Breda has set itself the target of becoming a CO2 neutral city by 2044. This statement addresses themes such as sustainable government, sustainable energy production, clean and efficient mobility, energy efficient built environment, sustainable (agricultural) businesses and climate proof environment. With this vision statement Breda joins the climate agreement between the Dutch government and the Association of Netherlands Municipalities (VNG). Breda is one of the many municipalities that comply with the climate agreement. [nl

  6. SHiP: a new facility for searching for long-lived neutral particles and studying the tau neutrino properties

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)658186

    2016-01-01

    SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is a new general purpose fixed target facility, proposed at the CERN SPS accelerator. In its initial phase, the 400 GeV proton beam will be dumped on a heavy target, integrating $2\\times 10^{20}$ protons on target in 5 years. A dedicated detector located downstream of the target, based on a long vacuum tank and a spectrometer and particle identification detectors, will allow probing a variety of models with light long-lived neutral and very weakly interacting particles and masses below 10 GeV. The main focus will be the physics of the so-called Hidden Portals, i.e. search for Dark Photons, Light scalars and pseudo-scalars, and Heavy Neutrinos. The sensitivity to Heavy Neutrinos will allow for the first time to probe, in the mass range between the kaon and the charm meson mass, a coupling range for which the baryon asymmetry of the Universe could be explained. Direct detection of light and long-lived SUSY particles, such as RPV neutralinos and pseudo-Dirac gauginos could als...

  7. Analysis of low energy neutral hydrogen fluxes using an electron cyclotron resonance heated discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    This dissertation describes the design, construction, and proof-of-principle verification of a neutral hydrogen flux detection system, based on an ECRH discharge as the neutral flux ionizer. The significant features of the ionizer are its small size and simultaneous excitation of the ECRH mode using a 30 MHz RF driver and relatively small static magnetic fields. Demonstrated is the ability of the ECRH ionizer to ionize ∼ 900 eV neutral hydrogen fluxes with subsequent detection in a high resolution energy analyzer. A versatile calibration technique is applied to determine the ionizer efficiency, which additionally gives a variety of elastic scattering and charge exchange cross section results. Also described are the details of a new low energy beam-target interaction research facility, along with the basic techniques required to calibrate many of the system components. The facility has potential applications in areas such as fundamental cross section measurement, plasma diagnostics, beam-plasma interactions, and further beam-target research. 111 refs., 82 figs

  8. If there is dissipation the particle can gain energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Carvalho, R Egydio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we summarize two different mechanisms to gain energy from the presence of dissipation in a time-dependent non-linear system. The particles can gain energy, in the average, from two different scenarios: i) for very week dissipation with the creation of an attractor with high velocity, and ii) in the opposite limit, for very strong dissipation, the particles can also gain energy from a boundary crisis. From the thermodynamic viewpoint both results are totally acceptable. (paper)

  9. Measurements of underlying-event properties using neutral and charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Akesson, Torsten Paul; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amoros, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Asman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Galtieri, Angela Barbaro; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jurg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Boser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Peter; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, Andre; Brambilla, Elena; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Bright-Thomas, Paul; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Buscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, Francois; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caccia, Massimo; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Garrido, Maria Del Mar Capeans; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Montoya, German D.Carrillo; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, Joao; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G.; Clark, Philip; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H.; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Cote, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristobal; Donszelmann, Tulay Cuhadar; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; De Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; de la Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; de Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; del Papa, Carlo; del Peso, Jose; del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Yagci, Kamile Dindar; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, Andre; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jurgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jorg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duhrssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Duren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fohlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Garcia, Carmen; Garcia Navarro, Jose Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniel Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Helene; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Borge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Gopfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gossling, Claus; Gottfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Goncalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanere, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafstrom, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frederic; Hensel, Carsten; Henss, Tobias; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Goran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jez, Pavel; Jezequel, Stephane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith B F G; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Koneke, Karsten; Konig, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Konig, Stefan; Kopke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamaki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Kruger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramon; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Celine; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, George; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Sterzo, Francesco Lo; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dorthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Bjorn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macek, Bostjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mattig, Peter; Mattig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amelia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandic, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, Jose; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin Dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mass, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W.Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuz, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A.; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjornmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Monig, Klaus; Moser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Mock, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Muller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozicka, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, Antonio; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Oye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pasztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Cavalcanti, Tiago Perez; Perez Codina, Estel; Perez Garcia-Estan, Maria Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, Joao Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommes, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Bueso, Xavier Portell; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Rohne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottlander, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Ruhr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, Jose; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Bjorn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, Joao; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schafer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schoning, Andre; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, Jose; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjolin, Jorgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spano, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St. Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Strohmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sanchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Viegas, Florbela De Jes Tique Aires; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jurgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocme, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Ferrer, Juan Antonio Valls; Van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; Van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; Van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sebastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Anh, Tuan Vu; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C.; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Zenis, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Zivkovic, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    We present first measurements of charged and neutral particle-flow correlations in pp collisions using the ATLAS calorimeters. Data were collected in 2009 and 2010 at centre-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV. Events were selected using a minimum-bias trigger which required a charged particle in scintillation counters on either side of the interaction point. Particle flows, sensitive to the underlying event, are measured using clusters of energy in the ATLAS calorimeters, taking advantage of their fine granularity. No Monte Carlo generator used in this analysis can accurately describe the measurements. The results are independent of those based on charged particles measured by the ATLAS tracking systems and can be used to constrain the parameters of Monte Carlo generators.

  10. Thermodynamics of strongly coupled repulsive Yukawa particles in ambient neutralizing plasma: Thermodynamic instability and the possibility of observation in fine particle plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totsuji, Hiroo

    2008-01-01

    The thermodynamics is analyzed for a system composed of particles with hard cores, interacting via the repulsive Yukawa potential (Yukawa particulates), and neutralizing ambient (background) plasma. An approximate equation of state is given with proper account of the contribution of ambient plasma and it is shown that there exists a possibility for the total isothermal compressibility of Yukawa particulates and ambient plasma to diverge when the coupling between Yukawa particulates is sufficiently strong. In this case, the system undergoes a transition into separated phases with different densities and we have a critical point for this phase separation. Examples of approximate phase diagrams related to this transition are given. It is emphasized that the critical point can be in the solid phase and we have the possibility to observe a solid-solid phase separation. The applicability of these results to fine particle plasmas is investigated. It is shown that, though the values of the characteristic parameters are semiquantitative due to the effects not described by this model, these phenomena are expected to be observed in fine particle plasmas, when approximately isotropic bulk systems are realized with a very strong coupling between fine particles.

  11. Thermodynamics of strongly coupled repulsive Yukawa particles in ambient neutralizing plasma: Thermodynamic instability and the possibility of observation in fine particle plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsuji, Hiroo

    2008-07-01

    The thermodynamics is analyzed for a system composed of particles with hard cores, interacting via the repulsive Yukawa potential (Yukawa particulates), and neutralizing ambient (background) plasma. An approximate equation of state is given with proper account of the contribution of ambient plasma and it is shown that there exists a possibility for the total isothermal compressibility of Yukawa particulates and ambient plasma to diverge when the coupling between Yukawa particulates is sufficiently strong. In this case, the system undergoes a transition into separated phases with different densities and we have a critical point for this phase separation. Examples of approximate phase diagrams related to this transition are given. It is emphasized that the critical point can be in the solid phase and we have the possibility to observe a solid-solid phase separation. The applicability of these results to fine particle plasmas is investigated. It is shown that, though the values of the characteristic parameters are semiquantitative due to the effects not described by this model, these phenomena are expected to be observed in fine particle plasmas, when approximately isotropic bulk systems are realized with a very strong coupling between fine particles.

  12. Ultrathin foils used for low-energy neutral atom imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Barraclough, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetospheric imaging by remote detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) that are created by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral geocoronal atoms has been proposed as a method to provide global information of magnetospheric dynamics. For LENA detecting, carbon foils can be implemented to (1) ionize the LENAs and electrostatically remove them from the large background of solar UV scattered by the geocorona to which LENA detectors (e.g., microchannel plates) are sensitive and (2) generate secondary electrons to provide coincidence and/or LENA trajectory information. Quantification of LENA-foil interactions are crucial in defining LENA imager performance. The authors present equilibrium charge state distributions due to foil contamination from exposure to air. Angular scattering that results from the projectile-foil interaction is quantified and is shown to be independent of the charge state distribution

  13. The fine particle emissions of energy production in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlstroem, M.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this master's thesis was to define the fine particle (PM2.5, diameter under 2,5 μm) emissions of the energy production and to compare the calculated emission factors between different energy production concepts. The purpose was also to define what is known about fine particle emissions and what should still be studied/measured. The purpose was also to compare briefly the fine particle emissions of energy production and vehicle traffic, and their correlations to the fine particle concentrations of urban air. In the theory part of this work a literature survey was made about fine particles in energy production, especially how they form and how they are separated from the flue gas. In addition, the health effects caused by fine particles, and different measuring instruments were presented briefly. In the experimental part of this work, the aim was to find out the fine particle emissions of different energy production processes by calculating specific emission factors (mg/MJ fuel ) from powerplants' annual total particulate matter emissions (t/a), which were obtained from VAHTI-database system maintained by the Finnish Environmental Institute, and by evaluating the share of fine particles from total emissions with the help of existing measurement results. Only those energy production processes which produce significantly direct emissions of solid particles have been treated (pulverised combustion and oil burners from burner combustion, fluidized bed combustion processes, grate boilers, recovery boilers and diesel engines). The processes have been classified according to boiler type, size category, main fuel and also according to dust separation devices. To be able to compare different energy production processes, shared specific emission factor have been calculated for the similar subprocesses. The fine particle emissions depend strongest on the boiler size category and dust separation devices used. Spent fuel or combustion technique does not have

  14. Global energy confinement in JT-60 neutral beam heated L-mode discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, O.; Hosogane, N.; Tsuji, S.; Ushigusa, K.; Yoshida, H.

    1990-01-01

    The global energy confinement characteristics of neutral beam heated JT-60 discharges are presented. There is a difference in the dependence of the energy confinement time on the plasma current between limiter and divertor discharges. For limiter discharges, the energy confinement increases with plasma current up to 3.2 MA, whereas for divertor discharges this improvement saturates when the safety factor drops below 3, independent of the location of the X-point. The JT-60 L-mode results indicate that the deterioration in energy confinement for q < 3, which is also found in H-mode regimes of other devices, may be a universal characteristic of divertor discharges. Regarding the scaling with plasma size, it is shown that the global/incremental confinement time increases with plasma minor radius. For sufficiently large plasmas, however, the global/incremental confinement time is no longer a function of minor radius. (author). 13 refs, 14 figs

  15. Energy becomes riddle for particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Nancy, J

    2003-01-01

    Assuming Einstein's theory of gravity is correct, dark energy must be present in the universe. Physicist's attempts to use quantum field theory to find the amount of dark energy present though, have been very unsuccessful (1/2 page).

  16. Calorimetry energy measurement in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wigmans, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Particle physics is the science that pursues the age-old quest for the innermost structure of matter and the fundamental interactions between its constituents. Modern experiments in this field rely increasingly on calorimetry, a detection technique in which the particles of interest are absorbed in the detector. Calorimeters are very intricate instruments. Their performance characteristics depend on subtle, sometimes counter-intuitive design details. This book, written by one of the world's foremost experts, is the first comprehensive text on this topic. It provides a fundamental and systematic introduction to calorimetry. It describes the state of the art in terms of both the fundamental understanding of calorimetric particle detection, and the actual detectors that have been or are being built and operated in experiments. The last chapter discusses landmark scientific discoveries in which calorimetry has played an important role. This book summarizes and puts into perspective the work described in some 900...

  17. On the neutralization of noble gas ions in low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draxler, M.

    2003-04-01

    The set-up ACOLISSA has been set to operation. It was thoroughly tested and found to completely fulfill the requirements for the measurement of charge integrated and of ion TOF-LEIS spectra. Charge integrated scattering spectra in LEIS exhibit a surface peak in many experimental conditions. It was shown that the appearance of this peak is due to a reduced energy width of the contribution from the surface layer and partly due to a reduced energy loss in the surface layer as compared to deeper layers. In the regime of strong multiple scattering, both reasons reflect the fact, that scattering from surface atoms occurs practically exclusively by single binary collisions, while plural and multiple scattering set in in the subsurface layers. As a consequence, only the surface layer and to some extent also the second layer will contribute to the surface peak. Experiment as well as simulation show this behavior, so that other possible reasons for the appearance of a surface peak (e.g. channeling) can safely be ruled out. At high energies, when the multiple scattering half width angle is small, surface effects are mainly caused by electronic stopping and become small, as observed in both, experiment and simulation. In this regime, the energy spectrum is well described by the single scattering spectrum. From the present thesis one can draw the following conclusions concerning the neutralization of noble gas ions at metal surfaces: below the threshold for collision induced processes (CIN, CIR) Ε Εth), P+ is governed by local processes (collision induced neutralization and collision induced reionization) and by a non-local process (Auger neutralization), and thus depends on the energy as well as on vperp. From experiments like the one presented here, where the ion energy as well as the scattering geometry are varied, the process parameters of the neutralization can uniquely be determined for any system. These findings are generally valid and reveal the relevance of different

  18. Neutral beam energy and power requirements for expanding radius and full bore startup of tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1979-09-01

    Natural beam power and energy requirements are compared for full density full bore and expanding radius startup scenarios in an elongated plasma, The Next Step (TNS), as a function of beam pulse time and plasma density. Because of the similarity of parameters, the results should also be applicable to Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) studies. A transport model consisting of neoclassical ion conduction and anomalous electron conduction and diffusion based on ALCATOR scaling leads to average densities in the range approx. 0.8 to 1.2 x 10 14 cm -3 being sufficient for ignition. Neutral deuterium beam energies in the range 120 to 180 keV are adequate for penetration, with the required power injected into the plasma decreasing with increasing beam energy. The neutral beam power decreases strongly with increasing beam pulse length b/sub b/ until t/sub b/ exceeds a few total energy confinement times, yielding b/sub b/ approx. = 4 to 6 s for the TNS plasma

  19. Reactions of charged and neutral recoil particles following nuclear transformations. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1980-12-01

    A summary is given of the various activities conducted as part of the research on the chemical reactions of energetic particles generated in nuclear reactions. Emphasis was on hot atom chemistry in gases and liquids. A bibliography of 110 publications published as part of the program is included

  20. High energy particle accelerators as radiation Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Vontrol, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    Small accelerators in the energy range of few million electron volts are usually used as radiation sources for various applications, like radiotherapy, food irradiation, radiation sterilization and in other industrial applications. High energy accelerators with energies reaching billions of electron volts also find wide field of applications as radiation sources. Synchrotrons with high energy range have unique features as radiation sources. This review presents a synopsis of cyclic accelerators with description of phase stability principle of high energy accelerators with emphasis on synchrotrons. Properties of synchrotron radiation are given together with their applications in basic and applied research. 13 figs.,1 tab.

  1. Energy distributions of neutral species ejected from well-characterized surfaces measured by means of multiphoton resonance ionization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, D.; Ishigami, R.; Dhole, S.D.; Morita, K. E-mail: k-morita@mail.nucl.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2000-04-01

    The energy distributions of neutral atoms ejected from the polycrystalline Cu target, the Si(1 1 1)-7x7 surface, and the Si(1 1 1)-''5 x 5''-Cu surface by 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment have been measured with very high efficiency by means of the multi-photon resonance ionization spectroscopy, in order to obtain the surface binding energies. The energy distributions for Cu from polycrystalline Cu target, Si from the Si(1 1 1)-7x7 surface, and Cu from the Si(1 1 1)-''5 x 5''-Cu surface have been found to have a peak at energies of around 3.0, 5.0 and 1.5 eV, and the function shapes of high energy tails to be proportional to E{sup -1.9}, E{sup -1.2} and E{sup -1.3}, respectively. Based on the linear collision cascade theory, the surface binding energies are determined to be 5.7, 6.0 and 2.0 eV, and the power factor m in the power law approximation to the Thomas-Fermi potential are determined to be 0.1, 0.4 and 0.3 for Cu from the Cu polycrystalline, Si from the Si(1 1 1)-7x7 surface, and Cu from the Si(1 1 1)-''5 x 5''-Cu surface, respectively. In conclusion, the results indicate that the energy distributions of ejected particles are well characterized by the linear collision cascade theory developed by Sigmund.

  2. Human mast cell neutral proteases generate modified LDL particles with increased proteoglycan binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaninka, Katariina; Nguyen, Su Duy; Mäyränpää, Mikko I; Plihtari, Riia; Rajamäki, Kristiina; Lindsberg, Perttu J; Kovanen, Petri T; Öörni, Katariina

    2018-04-13

    Subendothelial interaction of LDL with extracellular matrix drives atherogenesis. This interaction can be strengthened by proteolytic modification of LDL. Mast cells (MCs) are present in atherosclerotic lesions, and upon activation, they degranulate and release a variety of neutral proteases. Here we studied the ability of MC proteases to cleave apoB-100 of LDL and affect the binding of LDL to proteoglycans. Mature human MCs were differentiated from human peripheral blood-derived CD34 + progenitors in vitro and activated with calcium ionophore to generate MC-conditioned medium. LDL was incubated in the MC-conditioned medium or with individual MC proteases, and the binding of native and modified LDL to isolated human aortic proteoglycans or to human atherosclerotic plaques ex vivo was determined. MC proteases in atherosclerotic human coronary artery lesions were detected by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Activated human MCs released the neutral proteases tryptase, chymase, carboxypeptidase A3, cathepsin G, and granzyme B. Of these, cathepsin G degraded most efficiently apoB-100, induced LDL fusion, and enhanced binding of LDL to isolated human aortic proteoglycans and human atherosclerotic lesions ex vivo. Double immunofluoresence staining of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries for tryptase and cathepsin G indicated that lesional MCs contain cathepsin G. In the lesions, expression of cathepsin G correlated with the expression of tryptase and chymase, but not with that of neutrophil proteinase 3. The present study suggests that cathepsin G in human atherosclerotic lesions is largely derived from MCs and that activated MCs may contribute to atherogenesis by enhancing LDL retention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Aoki, Y. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi-Maskawa Inst. for the Origin of Particles and the Universe; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). RIKEN BNL Research Center; Becirevic, D. [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France). CNRS; Collaboration: FLAG Working Group; and others

    2016-07-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in the semileptonic K→π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B{sub K} parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m{sub c} and m{sub b} (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}.

  4. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [Kyoto University, Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Aoki, Y. [Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI), Nagoya (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Becirevic, D. [Universite Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR8627), CNRS, Orsay (France); Bernard, C. [Washington University, Department of Physics, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Blum, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, RIKEN BNL Research Center, Upton, NY (United States); University of Connecticut, Physics Department, Storrs, CT (United States); Colangelo, G.; Leutwyler, H.; Wenger, U. [Universitaet Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bern (Switzerland); Della Morte, M. [University of Southern Denmark, CP3-Origins and Danish IAS, Odense M (Denmark); IFIC (CSIC), Paterna (Spain); Dimopoulos, P. [Centro Fermi-Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi Compendio del Viminale, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Duerr, S. [University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Juelich Supercomputing Center, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Fukaya, H.; Onogi, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Golterman, M. [San Francisco State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Gottlieb, Steven; Lunghi, E. [Indiana University, Department of Physics, Bloomington, IN (United States); Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Heller, U.M. [American Physical Society (APS), Ridge, NY (United States); Horsley, R. [University of Edinburgh, Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Juettner, A.; Sachrajda, C.T. [University of Southampton, School of Physics and Astronomy, Southampton (United Kingdom); Lellouch, L. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Lin, C.J.D. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Universite, Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique, UMR 7332, Marseille (France); National Chiao-Tung University, Institute of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Lubicz, V. [Universita Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Mawhinney, R. [Columbia University, Physics Department, New York, NY (United States); Pena, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Sharpe, S.R. [University of Washington, Physics Department, Seattle, WA (United States); Simula, S. [INFN, Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Sommer, R. [DESY, John von Neumann Institute for Computing (NIC), Zeuthen (Germany); Vladikas, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Wittig, H. [University of Mainz, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Helmholtz Institute Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Flavour Lattice Averaging Group (FLAG)

    2017-02-15

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f{sub +}(0), arising in the semileptonic K → π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f{sub K}/f{sub π} and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V{sub us} and V{sub ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} and SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R} Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B{sub K} parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m{sub c} and m{sub b} (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson-decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α{sub s}. (orig.)

  5. LHCf-measurement of forward neutral particle production for cosmic ray research

    CERN Multimedia

    Masuda, K; Ito, Y; Adriani, O; Papini, P; Tricomi, A; Perrot, A; Ricciarini, S B; D'alessandro, R; Yoshida, K

    2007-01-01

    An energy calibration experiment is under preparation for ultra high energy cosmic ray experiments in the energy range between 1017eV and 1020eV. Small calorimeters will be installed between the two beam pipes in the â€ワY vacuum chamber” 140m away from the interaction point IP1 of the Large Hadron Collider. Within an exposure time of a few hours at luminosity ~10$^{29}$ cm-2s-1, very important results will be obtained that will resolve long standing quests by the highest energy cosmic ray physics experiments.

  6. Governmental support for the energy-neutral construction market; Rijk ondersteunt markt bij stappen richting energieneutraal bouwen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, D. [Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    An overview of instruments and measures that the Dutch government can use to support energy-neutral construction. [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de instrumenten en maatregelen waarmee de Nederlandse overheid de stappen richting energieneutraal bouwen ondersteunt.

  7. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the measured energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S

    1980-01-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The measured ion temperature obtained from the only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The actual ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. The reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the calculated ion temperature profile should be the best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines He II 4686 A and H-alpha at the relevant radial positions.

  8. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Toi, Kazuo; Itoh, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The ''measured'' ion temperature obtained from only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by using the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. In this numerical analysis, the reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the above calculated ion temperature profile should be best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines HeII 4686 A and H sub(α) at the relevant radial positions. (author)

  9. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-07-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The ''measured'' ion temperature obtained from only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by using the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. In this numerical analysis, the reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the above calculated ion temperature profile should be best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines HeII 4686 A and H sub(..cap alpha..) at the relevant radial positions.

  10. Contribution to the theoretical study of collisions between highly excited atom and a neutral particle (atom or molecule)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunele, Eugene de.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the collision between an atom in the Rydberg state and a neutral atom (or molecule) is considerably simplified if it is considered as the collision of a B particle with a system of two linked particles A + and e - . If the interaction between these two particles is described by a potential and if the three-body interaction is approximated by a potential equal to the sum of the two-body interaction potentials, the problem is theoretically solvable exactly within the framework of quantum mechanics but, its explicit solution is very complicated, even for very simple potentials. Various types of approaches are then necessary. The choice of interaction potentials is already an approximation, for it is obviously not known how to describe exactly the interaction between the electron and atom B for example. The fact that the electron is, on average, very far from core A + has enabled an interaction potential to be simulated between B and e - when the latter is linked to A + , by utilizing the scattering data between free e - and B. (Fermi's pseudopotential). A second approach consists in utilizing the scattering data between free e - and B, without bringing in an interaction potential between e - and B. The first approach is more satisfactory from the theoretical point of view; the second and less ambitious one is more useful [fr

  11. Energy composition of high-energy neutral beams on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mitošinková, Klára; Stöckel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Weinzettl, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-423 ISSN 0029-5922. [Summer School of Plasma Diagnostics PhDiaFusion 2015: “Soft X-ray Diagnostics for Fusion Plasma”. Bezmiechowa, 16.06.2015-20.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * neutral beam injection (NBI) * Doppler effect * beam composition * beam composition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.760, year: 2016 http://www.ichtj.waw.pl/nukleonikaa/?p=1256

  12. The discrete cones methods for two-dimensional neutral particle transport problems with voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Maynard, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    One of the most widely applied deterministic methods for time-independent, two-dimensional neutron transport calculations is the discrete ordinates method (DSN). The DSN solution, however, fails to be accurate in a void due to the ray effect. In order to circumvent this drawback, the authors have been developing a novel approximation: the discrete cones method (DCN), where a group of particles in a cone are simultaneously traced instead of particles in discrete directions for the DSN method. Programs, which apply to the DSN method in a non-vacuum region and the DCN method in a void, have been written for transport calculations in X-Y coordinates. The solutions for test problems demonstrate mitigation of the ray effect in voids without loosing the computational efficiency of the DSN method

  13. Neutralizing antibodies induced by recombinant virus-like particles of enterovirus 71 genotype C4 inhibit infection at pre- and post-attachment steps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Ku

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease, which has been prevalent in Asia-Pacific regions, causing significant morbidity and mortality in young children. Antibodies elicited by experimental EV71 vaccines could neutralize infection in vitro and passively protect animal models from lethal challenge, indicating that neutralizing antibodies play an essential role in protection. However, how neutralizing antibodies inhibit infection in vitro remains unclear. METHODS/FINDINGS: In the present study, we explored the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies against EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs. Recombinant VLPs of EV71 genotype C4 were produced in insect cells using baculovirus vectors. Immunization with the VLPs elicited a high-titer, EV71-specific antibody response in mice. Anti-VLP mouse sera potently neutralized EV71 infection in vitro. The neutralizing antibodies in the anti-VLP mouse sera were found to target mainly an extremely conserved epitope (FGEHKQEKDLEYGAC located at the GH loop of the VP1 protein. The neutralizing anti-VLP antisera were able to inhibit virus binding to target cells efficiently. In addition, post-attachment treatment of virus-bound cells with the anti-VLP antisera also neutralized virus infection, although the antibody concentration required was higher than that of the pre-attachment treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our findings represent a valuable addition to the understanding of mechanisms of EV71 neutralization and have strong implications for EV71 vaccine development.

  14. Eden Mills Community Hall energy audit prepared for Eden Mills going carbon neutral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, R.; Aussant, C. [Enermodal Engineering Ltd., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2009-04-22

    This paper described an energy audit conducted as part of the Eden Mills going carbon neutral project during the spring and summer of 2008. The audit included an inspection of the Eden Mills community hall with a special focus on the building's mechanical system and building envelope. A blower door test was performed to depressurize the building and to measure the airtightness of the building envelope. An energy simulation model was then used to estimate energy use according to the buildings functions and components. Recommendations included the addition of wall insulation, the replacement of some windows, and improved return air ducting and warm air distribution systems. Various new thermostat control systems were also recommended, as well as the use of wood pellets in one of the hall's 2 furnaces. 20 tabs., 28 figs.

  15. Development of high current density neutral beam injector with a low energy for interaction of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Seiichi

    1991-01-01

    A high current density neutral beam injector with a low energy has been developed to investigate interactions with plasma facing materials and propagation processes of damages. The high current density neutral beam has been produced by geometrical focusing method employing a spherical electrode system. The hydrogen beam with the current density of 140 mA/cm 2 has been obtained on the focal point in the case of the acceleration energy of 8 keV. (orig.)

  16. Process for production of electrical energy from the neutralization of acid and base in a bipolar membrane cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical energy is generated from acid-base neutralization reactions in electrodialytic cells. Permselective bipolar membranes in these cells are contacted on their cation selective faces by aqueous acid streams and on their anion-selective faces by aqueous base streams. Spontaneous neutralization reactions between the basic anions and acidic cations through the bipolar membranes produce electrical potential differences between the acid and base streams. These potential differences are transmitted to electrodes to produce electrical energy which is withdrawn from the cell

  17. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyatzis, G. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: voyatzis@auth.gr; Vlahos, L. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ichtiaroglou, S. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2006-04-03

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  18. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2006-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state

  19. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included

  20. Electron current generated in a toroidal plasma on injection of high-energy neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Problem of generation of electron current in toroidal plasma with a high-energy ion beam produced during neutral injection has been considered. The analysis was performed on the assumption that plasma is in the regime of rare collisions (banana regime) and ion beam velocity is considerably lower than thermal velocity of plasma ions. Formulae establishing the relation between beam current and electron current have been derived. It follows from them that toroidal affect considerably plasma current generated with the beam and under certain conditions result in changing this current direction in an area remoted from magne-- tic axis [ru

  1. An one-dimensional model simulating the energy distribution of neutrals going out of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, J.M.; Blazquez, J.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Zurro, B.

    1977-01-01

    An one-dimensional model to analyze the neutral atoms penetration into a hot plasma has been introduced in order to get the ionic temperature from the energy distribution of the charge exchange neutrals, which is obtained following a Montecarlo procedure. The model enhances the influence of the non homogeneous charge-exchange and temperature profiles over the energy distribution. It also shows haw the inner neutrals are screened by the plasma external layers and the dependence of the effective temperature on the charge-exchange cross section. Results agree with experimental data and with obtained through some others more elaborated models. (author) [es

  2. High energy particle experiment for the GEOTAIL mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The high energy particle experiment for GEOTAIL mission was designed to understand the particle acceleration mechanism, energy flow, boundary dynamics and magnetic reconnection mechanism in the geotail region, solar flare particle acceleration mechanism, the propagation mechanism through interplanetary space, and the origin, lifetime and propagation mechanism of cosmic ray heavy ions. In order to achieve these objectives, particle detectors, burst detectors, medium energy isotope telescopes and a high energy isotope telescope will be placed in the spacecraft which will be launched in 1992 as one of the spacecraft missions in the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program. With these detectors, electrons, protons and helium, carbon, silicon and iron particles will be detected. The characteristics and the main technique used for each instrument to observe high energy particles are summarized. The details of the scientific objectives, the basic principle of particle identification, the electronic system and data processing system, key parameter information, telemetry data formats, preflight and in-flight calibration method and data an analysis plan are described in this report. (K.I.)

  3. Search for a heavy neutral particle decaying into an electron and a muon using 1 fb$^-1$ of ATLAS data

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Debbe, Ramiro; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Keung, Justin; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin–Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2011-01-01

    A search is presented for a high mass neutral particle that decays directly to the emu final state. The data sample was recorded by the ATLAS detector in sqrt{s}=7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC from March to June 2011 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1.07 fb^-1. The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model background. The high emu mass region is used to set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production of two possible new physics processes: tau sneutrinos in an R-parity violating supersymmetric model and Z'-like vector bosons in a lepton flavor violating model.

  4. Search for a heavy neutral particle decaying into an electron and a muon using 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbia, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A search is presented for a high mass neutral particle that decays directly to the e ± μ ± final state. The data sample was recorded by the ATLAS detector in √s = 7 TeV pp collisions at the LHC from March to June 2011 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 1.07 fb -1 . The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model background. The high e ± μ ± mass region is used to set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production of two possible new physics processes: tau sneutrinos in an R-parity violating supersymmetric model and Z'-like vector bosons in a lepton flavor violating model.

  5. Electromagnetic energy and momentum from a charged particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, E.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the stress-energy tensor across a tube surrounding the world line of a charged particle is computed. By slight modifications of the definition of the Coulomb energy-momentum, the resulting expression contains the radiation reaction term (proportional to the square of the four-acceleration) but not the Schott term (proportional to the derivative of the acceleration). The equation of motion for the particle derived from this expression implies a variable rest mass. (author)

  6. Application of the Faddeev-Watson expansion to thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Prunele, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Faddeev-Watson expansion (FWE) for the T operator is applied to the study of thermal collisions between Rydberg atom and neutral atom. These collisions are considered as a three-body problem (the perturber, the Rydberg electron, and its parent core) and it is assumed, as already done in most theoretical works dealing with Rydberg-atom--atom collisions, that the core-perturber interaction can be neglected. Then the evaluation of the FWE first- and second-order terms is made tractable by using an appropriate separable potential for the Rydberg-electron--perturber interaction. The evaluation of the second-order term allows us to estimate the importance of taking into account explicitly the Rydberg-electron--core interaction in the expression of the (three-body) T operator for the thermal collisions considered. Detailed calculations for the process Rb(n, l = 0)+He →Rb(n',l')+He are presented and discussed. The FWE second-order term has been evaluated for the first time by taking the (two-body) t operator associated with the Rydberg atom (valence electron plus parent core) as the Coulomb potential. The contribution of the FWE second-order term to the scattering amplitude decreases as n increases and is found especially significant when both the momentum transfers involved in the collision are large and the values of l and l' are small

  7. A 4π scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system for neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarzo, C.; Distante, A.; Guerriero, L.; Niccolini, C.; Posa, F.; Walder, F.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Fletcher, C.R.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Thornton, R.K.; Barton, D.S.; Lyons, T.; Marx, M.; Rosenson, L.; Thern, R.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system developed for the detection of high energy gamma rays and neutrons. They describe the system components and their use in two completed experiments. (Auth.)

  8. Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude

  9. Neutral strange particle production in π-p interactions at 16 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balea, E.; Berceanu, S.; Coca, C.; Sararu, A.; Karnaukhov, M.V.; Moroz, I.V.; Kellner, G.; Mihul, A.

    1979-06-01

    The production of Ksub(s)sup(0), Λ and anti Λ in π - p interactions at 16 GeV/c is investigated. Cross sections for single strange particle are determined, both inclusively and as functions of the charged multiplicity. Some characteristics of the multiplicity distributions are also discussed. Inclusive distributions are studied as function of longitudinal and transverse variables of Vsup(0) and missing mass squared. The average charged multiplicities of the systems recoiling against the Λ and Ksub(s)sup(0) are presented. (author)

  10. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  11. On a Neutral Particle with a Magnetic Quadrupole Moment in a Uniform Effective Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum effects on a Landau-type system associated with a moving atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment subject to confining potentials are analysed. It is shown that the spectrum of energy of the Landau-type system can be modified, where the degeneracy of the energy levels can be broken. In three particular cases, it is shown that the analogue of the cyclotron frequency is modified, and the possible values of this angular frequency of the system are determined by the quantum numbers associated with the radial modes and the angular momentum and by the parameters associated with confining potentials in order that bound states solutions can be achieved.

  12. Linear Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport on Arbitrary Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1•) + ) •,(v)(•,L) = ()(Q)+ sEXT (F). (4) The scalar flux, 0, is related to the angular flux, W, by (F)= f (dQ Vh) (5) and the particle current, J...J," v,p’) u +at(U, v) w(u, U, p’)= as(u, v) O(u, v) + SEXT (uv)] (92) 0 Ul,(V) I Assuming the area of the triangle is sufficiently small that cross...M + SEXT () (98) Wvn and WoUT are angular flux averages along the input and output edges, respectively, and are defined by WD Iv = f- ds. V(s.v) (99

  13. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z 0 with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R ampersand D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs

  14. Nuclear energy levels and elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wet, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Considering only exchange forces, the binding energies and excited states of nuclei up to 24 Mg are predicted to within charge independence, and there is no reason why the model should not be extended to cover all of the elements. A comparison of theory with experiment shows that the energy of one exchange is 2.56 MeV. Moreover, there is an attractive well of depth 30 MeV, corresponding to the helium nucleus. before exchange forces become operative. A possible explanation of the origin of mesons is also presented

  15. Green's function for a neutral particle of spin 1/2 in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Rafael de Lima; Vaidya, Arvind Narayan

    2001-12-01

    Using the spectral theorema in context of Green's function in momentum space of neutrons in the magnetic field of a linear conductor with current the bound state energy spectrum and eigenfunctions are deduced. It's also pointed out that this problem present a new scenary of Green's function in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. (author)

  16. Isotope shifts and electronic configurations of some of the energy levels of the neutral gadolinium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shift ΔT (156-160) have been evaluated for 52 odd and 90 even energy levels of the neutral gadolinium atom from the measurements carried out on 166 lines of the first spectrum in the region 4535 to 4975 A on a photoelectric recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and enriched samples of 156 Gd and 160 Gd. Earlier studies provide data for just two lines in this region. Assignment of electronic configurations to some of the energy levels have been either confirmed or revised; some unassigned levels have been assigned probable configurations. The present study provides, for the first time, isotope shift of the two levels of 4f 7 6s 2 7s configuration of Gd I. (author)

  17. Review of lattice results concerning low energy particle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Sinya; Aoki, Yasumichi; Bernard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition...... Theory and review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing. The inclusion of heavy-quark quantities significantly expands the FLAG scope with respect to the previous review. Therefore, for this review, we focus on D- and B-meson decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters...

  18. Modulation of dayside on and neutral distributions at Venus Evidence of direct and indirect solar energy inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Cloutier, P. A.; Barnes, A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The details of solar variability and its coupled effects on the Venusian dayside are examined for evidence of short-term perturbations and associated energy inputs. Ion and neutral measurements obtained from the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer and Orbital Neutral mass Spectrometer are used to show that the dayside concentrations of CO2(+) and the neutral gas temperature are smoothly modulated with a 28-day cycle reasonably matching that of the solar F(10.7) and EUV fluxes. Earlier measurements show less pronounced and more irregular modulations and more conspicuous short-term day-to-day fluctuations in the ions and neutrals, as well as relatively large enhancements in the solar wind, which appear consistent with differences in solar coronal behavior during the two periods. It is suggested that the solar wind variations cause fluctuations in joule heating, producing the observed short-term ion and neutral variations.

  19. (Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.

  20. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1991-01-01

    The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise

  1. Studies in theorectical high energy particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Panigrahi, P.; Sukhatme, U.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the research being done at the University of Illinois in theoretical high energy physics. Some areas discussed are string models, collider physics, symmetries in gauge theories, sigma model, radiative decay of mesons, supersymmetry, superconducting, and hydroproduction of charm

  2. A solution of the monoenergetic neutral particle transport equation for adjacent half-spaces with anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, B.D., E-mail: ganapol@cowboy.ame.arizona.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Mostacci, D.; Previti, A. [Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli, 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-07-01

    We present highly accurate solutions to the neutral particle transport equation in a half-space. While our initial motivation was in response to a recently published solution based on Chandrasekhar's H-function, the presentation to follow has taken on a more comprehensive tone. The solution by H-functions certainly did achieved high accuracy but was limited to isotropic scattering and emission from spatially uniform and linear sources. Moreover, the overly complicated nature of the H-function approach strongly suggests that its extension to anisotropic scattering and general sources is not at all practical. For this reason, an all encompassing theory for the determination of highly precise benchmarks, including anisotropic scattering for a variety of spatial source distributions, is presented for particle transport in a half-space. We illustrate the approach via a collection of cases including tables of 7-place flux benchmarks to guide transport methods developers. The solution presented can be applied to a considerable number of one and two half-space transport problems with variable sources and represents a state-of-the-art benchmark solution.

  3. Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Lin Jianguo; Sun Yuliang; Bennouna, Soumaya; Lo, Michael; Wu Qingyang; Bu Zhigao; Pulendran, Bali; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated. Infection of Sf9 insect cells by rBV-VP40 led to assembly and budding of filamentous particles from the cell surface as shown by electron microscopy. Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by coinfection of Sf9 cells with rBV-VP40 and rBV-GP, and incorporation of Ebola GP into VLPs was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Recombinant baculovirus infection of insect cells yielded high levels of VLPs, which were shown to stimulate cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells similar to VLPs produced in mammalian cells. The immunogenicity of Ebola VLPs produced in insect cells was evaluated by immunization of mice. Analysis of antibody responses showed that most of the GP-specific antibodies were of the IgG2a subtype, while no significant level of IgG1 subtype antibodies specific for GP was induced, indicating the induction of a Th1-biased immune response. Furthermore, sera from Ebola VLP immunized mice were able to block infection by Ebola GP pseudotyped HIV virus in a single round infection assay, indicating that a neutralizing antibody against the Ebola GP protein was induced. These results show that production of Ebola VLPs in insect cells using recombinant baculoviruses represents a promising approach for vaccine development against Ebola virus infection

  4. Particle passage kinetics and neutral detergent fiber degradability of silage of pineapple waste (aerial parts under different packing densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciele Araújo de Oliveira Caetano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of in situ degradability parameters of the dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF and the passage of materials originating from the ensilage of the waste from pineapple cultivation (aerial parts. The four treatments utilized were silage of pineapple waste compacted at 600, 700, 900 and 1000 kg/m³. After ensiling the material from the pineapple cultivation, the particle-transit and rumen-degradation kinetics were analyzed. For the analysis of particle transit, chromium was utilized as a marker to mark the fiber. Passage rates were determined by retrieving the markers in the feces of the animals. In the degradation assay, samples were incubated in nylon bags for 0, 6, 18, 48 and 96 hours. The behavior observed in the regression curves of the variables analyzed describes high correlation between them, i.e., the time during which the silage is retained in the rumen influences its digestibility and its degradation rate. Although the silage compacted at 900 kg/m³ shows a larger potentially digestible fraction, it is recommended that it be ensiled at a compaction density of approximately 750 kg/m³ due to the lower cost and shorter mean retention time in the rumen-reticulum and rumen fill, thereby increasing the ruminal degradation and passage dynamics.

  5. Oscillations of neutral mesons and the equivalence principle for particles and antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    The K 0 -K 0 bar, D 0 -D 0 bar, and B 0 -B 0 bar oscillations are extremely sensitive to the K 0 and K 0 bar energy at rest. The energy is determined by the values mc 2 with the related mass as well as the energy of the gravitational interaction. Assuming the CPT theorem for the inertial masses and estimating the gravitational potential through the dominant contribution of the gravitational potential of our Galaxy center, we obtain from the experimental data on the K 0 -K 0 bar oscillations the following constraint: |(m g /m i ) K 0 - (m g /m i ) K 0 bar| ≤ 8·10 -13 , CL=90%. This estimation is model dependent and in particular it depends on a way we estimate the gravitational potential. Examining the K 0 -K 0 bar, B 0 -B 0 bar, and D 0 -D 0 bar oscillations provides us also with weaker, but model independent constraints, which in particular rule out the very possibility of antigravity for antimatter

  6. Trajectory resolved analysis of LEIS energy spectra: Neutralization and surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beikler, Robert; Taglauer, Edmund

    2001-01-01

    For a quantitative evaluation of low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) data with respect to surface composition and structure a detailed analysis of the energy spectra is required. This includes the identification of multiple scattering processes and the determination of ion survival probabilities. We analyzed scattered ion energy spectra by using the computer code MARLOWE for which we developed a new analysis routine that allows to record energy distributions in dependence of the number of projectile-target atom collisions, in dependence of the distance of closest approach, or in dependence of the scattering crystalline layer. This procedure also permits the determination of ion survival probabilities by applying simple collision-dependent neutralization models. Experimental energy spectra for various projectile (He + , Ne + , Na + ) and target (transition metals, oxides) combinations are well reproduced and quantitative results for ion survival probabilities are obtained. These are largely in agreement with results obtained for bimetallic crystal surfaces obtained in a different way. Such MARLOWE calculations are also useful for the identification of structure relevant processes. This is shown exemplarily for the reconstructed Au(1 1 0) surface including a possibility to determine the (1x2)→(1x1) transition temperature

  7. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  8. Medium-energy electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere - Effects of lower hybrid wave-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    A theory of medium-energy (about keV) electrons and heavy ions in Jupiter's magnetosphere is presented. Lower hybrid waves are generated by the combined effects of a ring instability of neutral wind pickup ions and the modified two-stream instability associated with transport of cool Iogenic plasma. The quasi-linear energy diffusion coefficient for lower hybrid wave-particle interactions is evaluated, and several solutions to the diffusion equation are given. Calculations based on measured wave properties show that the noise substantially modifies the particle distribution functions. The effects are to accelerate superthermal ions and electrons to keV energies and to thermalize the pickup ions on time scales comparable to the particle residence time. The S(2+)/S(+) ratio at medium energies is a measure of the relative contribution from Iogenic thermal plasma and neutral wind ions, and this important quantity should be determined from future measurements. The theory also predicts a preferential acceleration of heavy ions with an accleration time that scales inversely with the root of the ion mass. Electrons accelerated by the process contribute to further reionization of the neutral wind by electron impact, thus providing a possible confirmation of Alfven's critical velocity effect in the Jovian magnetosphere.

  9. Energy-Neutral Data Collection Rate Control for IoT Animal Behavior Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wilhelm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy-neutral operation (ENO is a major concern for Internet of things (IoT sensor systems. Animals can be tagged with IoT sensors to monitor their movement and behavior. These sensors wirelessly upload collected data and can receive parameters to change their operation. Typically, the behavior monitors are powered by a battery where the system relies upon harvesting solar radiation for sustainable operation. Solar panels typically are used as the harvesting mechanism and can have a level of uncertainty regarding consistent energy delivery due to factors such as adverse weather, foliage, time of day, and individual animal behavior. The variability of available energy inevitably creates a trade-off in the rate at which data can be collected with respect to incoming and stored energy. The objective of this research was to investigate and simulate methods and parameters that can control the data collection rate of an IoT behavior monitor to achieve sustained operation with unknown and random energy harvesting. Analysis and development of a control system were performed by creating a software model of energy consumption and then simulating using different initial conditions and random energy harvesting rates for evaluation. The contribution of this effort was the exploration into the usage of a discrete-time gain scheduled Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID that was tuned to a specific device configuration, using battery state of charge as an input, and found to maintain a battery level set-point, reject small solar harvesting energy disturbances, and maintain a consistent data collection rate throughout the day.

  10. Tripoli-3: monte Carlo transport code for neutral particles - version 3.5 - users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnaud, Th.; Nimal, J.C.; Chiron, M.

    2001-01-01

    The TRIPOLI-3 code applies the Monte Carlo method to neutron, gamma-ray and coupled neutron and gamma-ray transport calculations in three-dimensional geometries, either in steady-state conditions or having a time dependence. It can be used to study problems where there is a high flux attenuation between the source zone and the result zone (studies of shielding configurations or source driven sub-critical systems, with fission being taken into account), as well as problems where there is a low flux attenuation (neutronic calculations -- in a fuel lattice cell, for example -- where fission is taken into account, usually with the calculation on the effective multiplication factor, fine structure studies, numerical experiments to investigate methods approximations, etc). TRIPOLI-3 has been operational since 1995 and is the version of the TRIPOLI code that follows on from TRIPOLI-2; it can be used on SUN, RISC600 and HP workstations and on PC using the Linux or Windows/NT operating systems. The code uses nuclear data libraries generated using the THEMIS/NJOY system. The current libraries were derived from ENDF/B6 and JEF2. There is also a response function library based on a number of evaluations, notably the dosimetry libraries IRDF/85, IRDF/90 and also evaluations from JEF2. The treatment of particle transport is the same in version 3.5 as in version 3.4 of the TRIPOLI code; but the version 3.5 is more convenient for preparing the input data and for reading the output. The french version of the user's manual exists. (authors)

  11. Charged-particle multiplicity at LHC energies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The talk presents the measurement of the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution with ALICE at the achieved LHC energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV.An overview about multiplicity measurements prior to LHC is given and the related theoretical concepts are briefly discussed.The analysis procedure is presented and the systematic uncertainties are detailed. The applied acceptance corrections and the treatment of diffraction are discussed.The results are compared with model predictions. The validity of KNO scaling in restricted phase space regions is revisited. 

  12. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  13. PC-Link historical data base system MODCOMP/IBM at link for neutral particle beam operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurgood, P.

    1989-01-01

    PC-Link is a combination of hardware and software that connects an IBM PC/AT to a MODCOMP minicomputer. It is designed as an aid to the Neutral Beam operations coordinator during injection into the DIII-D tokamak project. An IBM PC/AT is linked to 4 MODCOMP realtime acquisition systems, each of which controls 2 neutral particle beam sources. At various points in the shot sequence, data is sent to the IBM PC/AT. This data can then be integrated with the data from the other sources into tables or graphics displays for use by the Beam Coordinator. In this way, the coordinator gets realtime feedback on the relative settings and performance of the sources and can observe trends within a particular source at one location. The PC-Link is used for observing relative timing information and for post shot historical archiving. The concept of the PC-Link was originally proposed several years ago. In April 1988, in-house implementation of the link software was begun. The PC-Link receives approximately 2 Kbytes of data per source per shot. This data is converted from MODCOMP format to IBM PC format and archived to disk. The last 280 shots per source are stored to disk to observe trends. The data can be displayed in a number of formats depending upon the situation. For example, prior to a shot, the beam MODCOMPs are sent timing information from the DIII-D tokamak control system. This data is echoed on the PC in a graphical representation displaying all 8 sources. At the end of the shot, the actual running times are displayed along with the requested settings. Any subset of the Historical data may be displayed either graphically or in tables for realtime comparisons between sources. 4 figs

  14. Numerical evaluation of high energy particle effects in magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Wu, Y.

    1994-03-01

    The interaction of high energy ions with magnetohydrodynamic modes is analyzed. A numerical code is developed which evaluates the contribution of the high energy particles to mode stability using orbit averaging of motion in either analytic or numerically generated equilibria through Hamiltonian guiding center equations. A dispersion relation is then used to evaluate the effect of the particles on the linear mode. Generic behavior of the solutions of the dispersion relation is discussed and dominant contributions of different components of the particle distribution function are identified. Numerical convergence of Monte-Carlo simulations is analyzed. The resulting code ORBIT provides an accurate means of comparing experimental results with the predictions of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics. The method can be extended to include self consistent modification of the particle orbits by the mode, and hence the full nonlinear dynamics of the coupled system

  15. Role of particle-hole symmetry in mirror energy difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Kumar, S.; Hasan, Z.; Kumar, D.; Koranga, B.S.; Rohitash; Singh, D.; Negi, D.; Angus, L.

    2011-01-01

    Charge symmetry between protons and neutrons means that they can be viewed as two states of the same particle, the nucleon, characterized by different projections of the isospin quantum number. In the hypothesis of charge symmetry expected identical behaviour of excited states of two nuclei with the same total number of nucleons (isobaric nuclei). The nuclei with magic number are considered to be spherical. When the number of particles/holes increase, the nucleus try towards more deformed upto mid-shell. It shows symmetry between particles and holes towards the deformation. The hypothesis of Particle-hole symmetry expected identical behaviour of excited states of two nuclei close to magic number. It is worthwhile to examine the shape of mirror energy difference (MED) close to magic number nuclei, which will also an example of particle-hole symmetry

  16. The low-energy frontier of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg

    2010-02-01

    Most embeddings of the Standard Model into a more unified theory, in particular the ones based on supergravity or superstrings, predict the existence of a hidden sector of particles which have only very weak interactions with the visible sector Standard Model particles. Some of these exotic particle candidates (such as e.g. ''axions'', ''axion-like particles'' and ''hidden U(1) gauge bosons'') may be very light, with masses in the sub-eV range, and have very weak interactions with photons. Correspondingly, these very weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) may lead to observable effects in experiments (as well as in astrophysical and cosmological observations) searching for light shining through a wall, for changes in laser polarisation, for non-linear processes in large electromagnetic fields and for deviations from Coulomb's law. We present the physics case and a status report of this emerging low-energy frontier of fundamental physics. (orig.)

  17. A massive cryogenic particle detector with good energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferger, P.; Colling, P.; Cooper, S.; Dummer, D.; Frank, M.; Nagel, U.; Nucciotti, A.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1993-12-01

    Massive cryogenic particle detectors are being developed for use in a search for dark matter particles. Results with a 31 g sapphire crystal and a superconducting phase transition thermometer operated at 44 mK are presented. The observed signal includes a fast component which is significantly larger than the expected thermal pulse. The energy resolution is 210 eV (FWHM) for 6 keV X-rays. (orig.)

  18. Particles and energy fluxes from a conformal field theory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, A.; Navarro-Salas, J.; Olmo, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the creation of particles in two dimensions under the action of conformal transformations. We focus our attention on Mobius transformations and compare the usual approach, based on the Bogoliubov coefficients, with an alternative but equivalent viewpoint based on correlation functions. In the latter approach the absence of particle production under full Mobius transformations is manifest. Moreover, we give examples, using the moving-mirror analogy, to illustrate the close relation between the production of quanta and energy

  19. Bound states for a neutral particle analogous to a quantum dot induced by the non-inertial effects of the Fermi-Walker reference frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, Knut

    2010-01-01

    We study the appearance of bound states analogous to a quantum dot, proposed by Tan and Inkson (1996) , in the non-relativistic quantum dynamics of a neutral particle with permanent magnetic dipole moment induced by the non-inertial effects of the Fermi-Walker reference frame.

  20. Azimuthal asymmetry of slow particles in high energy nuclear interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Subir; Goswami, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    An asymmetry in the angular distribution of slow particles in the azimuthal plane has been observed during high energy nuclear disintegration of photo emulsion nuclei exposed to 1.8 GeV/c k - and 20 GeV/c protons. The mechanism of disintegration is not in accordance with the cascade-evaporation model, which is based on isotropic emission of slow particles. Deviation from isotropy indicates that some of the slow particles might be emitted well before the thermal equilibrium is reached in the disintegrating system. (author)

  1. Energy exchange in systems of particles with nonreciprocal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S.; Lisina, I. I., E-mail: Irina.Lisina@mail.ru; Lisin, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A model is proposed to describe the sources of additional kinetic energy and its redistribution in systems of particles with a nonreciprocal interaction. The proposed model is shown to explain the qualitative specific features of the dust particle dynamics in the sheath region of an RF discharge. Prominence is given to the systems of particles with a quasi-dipole–dipole interaction, which is similar to the interaction induced by the ion focusing effects that occur in experiments on a laboratory dusty plasma, and with the shadow interaction caused by thermophoretic forces and Le Sage’s forces.

  2. [Studies of elementary particles and high energy phenomena: [Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumalat, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The scope of work under this contract is unclassified and shall consist of experimental, theoretical, and p