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Sample records for neuronal intestinal como

  1. Neuronal intestinal dysplasia.

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    Rintala, R; Rapola, J; Louhimo, I

    1989-01-01

    A series of 21 patients with NID is presented. A histologic and histochemical picture of NID was seen in an heterogenous group of patients. NID was associated with bowel obstruction and/or perforation in six neonates and infants. One neonate died. During follow-up the bowel histology gradually normalized in four of the five patients. NID was found incidentally in four patients with anorectal malformations and two with Hirschsprung's disease. Three patients with Hirschsprung's disease and associated NID had chronic proctitis; one patient with an anorectal anomaly had chronic obstipation and megacolon and one proctitis. Two children with multiple endocrine neoplasia 2b syndrome and chronic obstipation had typical NID in their rectum biopsies, as did a 50-year-old woman with CIIP. The clinical heterogeneity of patients with NID suggests that NID may not be a distinct clinical entity but rather a reaction of the neuronal network of the bowel wall and could be caused either by congenital or secondary factors.

  2. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

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    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development.

  3. Birthdating of myenteric neuron subtypes in the small intestine of the mouse

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    Bergner, Annette J.; Stamp, Lincon A.; Gonsalvez, David G.; Allison, Margaret B.; Olson, David P.; Myers, Martin G; Anderson, Colin R.; Young, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    There are many different types of enteric neurons. Previous studies have identified the time at which some enteric neuron subtypes are born (exit the cell cycle) in the mouse, but the birthdates of some major enteric neuron subtypes are still incompletely characterized or unknown. We combined 5-ethynynl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling with antibody markers that identify myenteric neuron subtypes to determine when neuron subtypes are born in the mouse small intestine. We found that different neurochemical classes of enteric neuron differed in their birthdates; serotonin neurons were born first with peak cell cycle exit at E11.5, followed by neurofilament-M neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (peak cell cycle exit for both at E12.5-E13.5), tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5) and calretinin neurons (P0). The vast majority of myenteric neurons had exited the cell cycle by P10. We did not observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the small intestine of adult mice following EdU injection at E10.5 or E11.5, which was unexpected as previous studies have shown that NOS1 neurons are present in E11.5 mice. Studies using the proliferation marker, Ki67, revealed that very few NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut were proliferating. However, Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping revealed a small sub-population of myenteric neurons that appears to express NOS1 only transiently. Together, our results confirm a relationship between enteric neuron subtype and birthdate, and suggest that some enteric neurons exhibit neurochemical phenotypes during development that are different from their mature phenotype. PMID:23861145

  4. Birthdating of myenteric neuron subtypes in the small intestine of the mouse.

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    Bergner, Annette J; Stamp, Lincon A; Gonsalvez, David G; Allison, Margaret B; Olson, David P; Myers, Martin G; Anderson, Colin R; Young, Heather M

    2014-02-15

    There are many different types of enteric neurons. Previous studies have identified the time at which some enteric neuron subtypes are born (exit the cell cycle) in the mouse, but the birthdates of some major enteric neuron subtypes are still incompletely characterized or unknown. We combined 5-ethynynl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling with antibody markers that identify myenteric neuron subtypes to determine when neuron subtypes are born in the mouse small intestine. We found that different neurochemical classes of enteric neuron differed in their birthdates; serotonin neurons were born first with peak cell cycle exit at E11.5, followed by neurofilament-M neurons, calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (peak cell cycle exit for both at embryonic day [E]12.5-E13.5), tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5), and calretinin neurons (postnatal day [P]0). The vast majority of myenteric neurons had exited the cell cycle by P10. We did not observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the small intestine of adult mice following EdU injection at E10.5 or E11.5, which was unexpected, as previous studies have shown that NOS1 neurons are present in E11.5 mice. Studies using the proliferation marker Ki67 revealed that very few NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut were proliferating. However, Cre-lox-based genetic fate-mapping revealed a small subpopulation of myenteric neurons that appears to express NOS1 only transiently. Together, our results confirm a relationship between enteric neuron subtype and birthdate, and suggest that some enteric neurons exhibit neurochemical phenotypes during development that are different from their mature phenotype.

  5. Vulnerabilidad selectiva neuronal: la rabia como modelo de estudio

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    Orlando Torres Fernández

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La vulnerabilidad selectiva neuronal puede ser definida, anatómicamente, por la vulnerabilidad diferencial de circuitos y neuroquímicamnete, por la vulnerabilidad de las neuronas que expresan firentes proteínas en partícular.

  6. The reactions of specific neuron types to intestinal ischemia in the guinea pig enteric nervous system.

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    Rivera, Leni R; Thacker, Michelle; Castelucci, Patricia; Bron, Romke; Furness, John B

    2009-08-01

    Damage following ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is common in the intestine and can be caused during abdominal surgery, in several disease states and following intestinal transplantation. Most studies have concentrated on damage to the mucosa, although published evidence also points to effects on neurons. Moreover, alterations of neuronally controlled functions of the intestine persist after I/R. The present study was designed to investigate the time course of damage to neurons and the selectivity of the effect of I/R damage for specific types of enteric neurons. A branch of the superior mesenteric artery supplying the distal ileum of anesthetised guinea pigs was occluded for 1 h and the animals were allowed to recover for 2 h to 4 weeks before tissue was taken for the immunohistochemical localization of markers of specific neuron types in tissues from sham and I/R animals. The dendrites of neurons with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity, which are inhibitory motor neurons and interneurons, were distorted and swollen by 24 h after I/R and remained enlarged up to 28 days. The total neuron profile areas (cell body plus dendrites) increased by 25%, but the sizes of cell bodies did not change significantly. Neurons of type II morphology (intrinsic primary afferent neurons), revealed by NeuN immunoreactivity, were transiently reduced in cell size, at 24 h and 7 days. These neurons also showed signs of minor cell surface blebbing. Calretinin neurons, many of which are excitatory motor neurons, were unaffected. Thus, this study revealed a selective damage to NOS neurons that was observed at 24 h and persisted up to 4 weeks, without a significant change in the relative numbers of NOS neurons.

  7. Intestinal signaling to GABAergic neurons regulates a rhythmic behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Mahoney, Timothy R.; Luo, Shuo; Round, Elaine K.; Brauner, Martin; Gottschalk, Alexander; Thomas, James H.; Nonet, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans defecation motor program (DMP) is a highly coordinated rhythmic behavior that requires two GABAergic neurons that synapse onto the enteric muscles. One class of DMP mutants, called anterior body wall muscle contraction and expulsion defective (aex) mutants, exhibits similar defects to those caused by the loss of these two neurons. Here, we demonstrate that aex-2 encodes a G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) and aex-4 encodes an exocytic SNAP25 homologue. We found that aex-2 functions in the nervous system and activates a Gsα signaling pathway to regulate defecation. aex-4, on the other hand, functions in the intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, we show that aex-5, which encodes a pro-protein convertase, functions in the intestine to regulate the DMP and that its secretion from the intestine is impaired in aex-4 mutants. Activation of the Gsα GPCR pathway in GABAergic neurons can suppress the defecation defect of the intestinal mutants aex-4 and aex-5. Lastly, we demonstrate that activation of GABAergic neurons using the light-gated cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 is sufficient to suppress the behavioral defects of aex-2, aex-4, and aex-5. These results genetically place intestinal genes aex-4 and aex-5 upstream of GABAergic GPCR signaling. We propose a model whereby the intestinal genes aex-4 and aex-5 control the DMP by regulating the secretion of a signal, which activates the neuronal receptor aex-2. PMID:18852466

  8. Neuron-macrophage crosstalk in the intestine: a ‘microglia’ perspective

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    Simon eVerheijden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal macrophages are strategically located in different layers of the intestine, including the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis externa, where they perform complex tasks to maintain intestinal homeostasis. As the gastrointestinal tract is continuously challenged by foreign antigens, macrophage activation should be tightly controlled to prevent chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Unraveling the precise cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the tissue-specific control of macrophage activation is crucial to get more insight into intestinal immune regulation. Two recent reports provide unanticipated evidence that the enteric nervous system acts as a critical regulator of macrophage function in the myenteric plexus. Both studies clearly illustrate that enteric neurons reciprocally interact with intestinal macrophages and are actively involved in shaping their phenotype. This concept has striking parallels with the central nervous system (CNS, where neuronal signals maintain microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, in a quiescent, anti-inflammatory state. This inevitably evokes the perception that the ENS and CNS share mechanisms of neuroimmune interaction. In line, intestinal macrophages, both in the muscularis externa and (submucosa, express high levels of CX3CR1, a feature that was once believed to be unique for microglia. CX3CR1 is the sole receptor of fractalkine (CX3CL1, a factor mainly produced by neurons in the CNS to facilitate neuron-microglia communication. The striking parallels between resident macrophages of the brain and intestine might provide a promising new line of thought to get more insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling macrophage activation in the gut.

  9. Familial progressive neuronal disease and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

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    Steiner, I; Steinberg, A; Argov, Z; Faber, J; Fich, A; Gilai, A

    1987-06-01

    Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) is characterized by recurrent episodes of bowel obstruction without mechanical cause. In five members of two Jewish-Iranian families, CIIP was associated with progressive neuronal disease, starting before age 30, with ophthalmoplegia, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, and hearing loss. There was no evidence of CNS involvement. The pattern suggested autosomal recessive inheritance.

  10. Preferential entry of botulinum neurotoxin A Hc domain through intestinal crypt cells and targeting to cholinergic neurons of the mouse intestine.

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    Aurélie Couesnon

    Full Text Available Botulism, characterized by flaccid paralysis, commonly results from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT absorption across the epithelial barrier from the digestive tract and then dissemination through the blood circulation to target autonomic and motor nerve terminals. The trafficking pathway of BoNT/A passage through the intestinal barrier is not yet fully understood. We report that intralumenal administration of purified BoNT/A into mouse ileum segment impaired spontaneous muscle contractions and abolished the smooth muscle contractions evoked by electric field stimulation. Entry of BoNT/A into the mouse upper small intestine was monitored with fluorescent HcA (half C-terminal domain of heavy chain which interacts with cell surface receptor(s. We show that HcA preferentially recognizes a subset of neuroendocrine intestinal crypt cells, which probably represent the entry site of the toxin through the intestinal barrier, then targets specific neurons in the submucosa and later (90-120 min in the musculosa. HcA mainly binds to certain cholinergic neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses, but also recognizes, although to a lower extent, other neuronal cells including glutamatergic and serotoninergic neurons in the submucosa. Intestinal cholinergic neuron targeting by HcA could account for the inhibition of intestinal peristaltism and secretion observed in botulism, but the consequences of the targeting to non-cholinergic neurons remains to be determined.

  11. Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B: A still little known diagnosis for organic causes of intestinal chronic constipation

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    Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Louren??o; Simone Antunes Terra; Erika Veruska Paiva Ortolan; Maria Aparecida Marchesan Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B(IND-B) is a controversial entity among the gastrointestinal neuromuscular disorders. It may occur alone or associated with other neuropathies, such as Hirschsprung’s disease(HD). Chronic constipation is the most common clinical manifestation of patients. IND-B primarily affects young children and mimics HD, but has its own histopathologic features characterized mainly by hyperplasia of the submucosal nerve plexus. Thus, IND-B should be included in the differential diagnoses of organic causes of constipation. In recent years, an increasing number of cases of IND-B in adults have also been described, some presenting severe constipation since childhood and others with the onset of symptoms at adulthood. Despite the intense scientific research in the last decades, there are still knowledge gaps regarding definition, pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic possibilities for IND-B. However, in medical practice, we continue to encounter patients with severe constipation or intestinal obstruction who undergo to diagnostic investigation for HD and their rectal biopsies present hyperganglionosis in the submucosal nerve plexus and other features, consistent with the diagnosis of IND-B. This review critically discusses aspects related to the disease definitions, pathophysiology and genetics, epidemiology distribution, clinical presentation, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic possibilities of this still little-known organic cause of intestinal chronic constipation.

  12. Neuron-specific enolase in the intestinal wall in Crohn´s disease.

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    Busikova-Malenovska, P; Danis, D; Bencat, M; Galfiova, P; Kopani, M; Labajova, V; El Hassoun, O; Porubsky, J; Galatova, J

    2014-01-01

    The authors described the localization of neuron-specific enolase in the intestinal wall in Crohn´s disease. We have used samples obtained by biopsy from the colon lining of five people affected by Crohn's disease for our examination. We have processed samples using the formol paraffin technique. From paraffin blocks, we have prepared histological sections approximately 5 μm thick. For immunohistochemic examinations, we have revitalised the sections by acquiring the heat-induced epitope. We detected NSE by monoclonal mouse antibodies against human neuron-specific enolase, clone BBS/NC/VI-H14 (DakoCytomation, Denmark) (Fig. 4, Ref. 7).

  13. Neuronal and intestinal protein kinase d isoforms mediate Na+ (salt taste)-induced learning.

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    Fu, Ya; Ren, Min; Feng, Hui; Chen, Lu; Altun, Zeynep F; Rubin, Charles S

    2009-08-11

    Ubiquitously expressed protein kinase D (PKD) isoforms are poised to disseminate signals carried by diacylglycerol (DAG). However, the in vivo regulation and functions of PKDs are poorly understood. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene, dkf-2, encodes not just DKF-2A, but also a second previously unknown isoform, DKF-2B. Whereas DKF-2A is present mainly in intestine, we show that DKF-2B is found in neurons. Characterization of dkf-2 null mutants and transgenic animals expressing DKF-2B, DKF-2A, or both isoforms revealed that PKDs couple DAG signals to regulation of sodium ion (Na+)-induced learning. EGL-8 (a phospholipase Cbeta4 homolog) and TPA-1 (a protein kinase Cdelta homolog) are upstream regulators of DKF-2 isoforms in vivo. Thus, pathways containing EGL-8-TPA-1-DKF-2 enable learning and behavioral plasticity by receiving, transmitting, and cooperatively integrating environmental signals targeted to both neurons and intestine.

  14. The locus for a novel syndromic form of neuronal intestinal pseudoobstruction maps to Xq28.

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    Auricchio, A; Brancolini, V; Casari, G; Milla, P J; Smith, V V; Devoto, M; Ballabio, A

    1996-04-01

    The neuronal type of primary chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIIP) results from the developmental failure of enteric neurons to migrate or differentiate correctly. This leads to intestinal motility disorders, which are characterized by symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical obstacle. Most of these conditions are congenital, and among them some are inherited. One syndromic condition characterized by intestinal pseudoobstruction with morphological abnormalities of the argyrophil neurons in the myenteric plexus, associated with short small bowel, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy, has been previously described. We have studied a family affected by this disorder, in which the disease appeared to segregate as an X-linked recessive trait. In order to map the CIIP locus in this family, we performed linkage analysis in 26 family members by use of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from the X chromosome. One of these markers, DXYS154, located in the distal part of Xq28, shows no recombination with a maximum lod score of 2.32. Multipoint analysis excluded linkage with markers spanning other regions of the X chromosome. Our results, integrated with the current genetic and physical map of Xq28, determine the order of loci as cen-DXS15-(CIIPX)-DXS1108/DXYS154-tel. This study establishes, for the first time, the mapping assignment of a neuropathic form of CIIP other than Hirschsprung disease.

  15. The locus for a novel syndromic form of neuronal intestinal pseudoobstruction maps of Xq28

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    Auricchio, A.; Casari, G.; Ballabio, A. [Telethon Inst. of Genetics and Medicine, Milan (Italy); Brancolini, V.; Devoto, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The neuronal type of primary chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIIP) results from the developmental failure of enteric neurons to migrate or differentiate correctly. This leads to intestinal motility disorders, which are characterized by symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical obstacle. Most of these conditions are congenital, and among them some are inherited. One syndromic condition characterized by intestinal pseudoobstruction with morphological abnormalities of the argyrophil neurons in the myenteric plexus, associated with short small bowel, malrotation, and pyloric hypertrophy, has been previously described. We have studied a family affected by this disorder, in which the disease appeared to segregate as an X-linked recessive trait. In order to map the CIIP locus in this family, we performed linkage analysis in 26 family members by use of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers from the X chromosome. One of these markers, DXYS154, located in the distal part of Xq28, shows no recombination with a maximum lod score of 2.32. Multipoint analysis excluded linkage with markers spanning other regions of the X chromosome. Our results, integrated with the current genetic and physical map of Xq28, determine the order of loci as cen-DXS15-(CIIPX)-DXS1108/DXYS154-tel. This study establishes, for the first time, the mapping assignment of a neuropathic form of CIIP other than Hirschsprung disease. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. GABA(A) receptors on calbindin-immunoreactive myenteric neurons of guinea pig intestine.

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    Zhou, X; Galligan, J J

    2000-01-14

    These studies were carried out to characterize the properties of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA(A)) receptors on guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons maintained in primary culture. In addition, the type of neuron expressing GABA(A) receptors was identified using immunohistochemical methods. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of currents elicited by GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were obtained using pipettes containing Neurobiotin. After electrophysiological studies, neurons were processed for localization of calbindin-D28K-immunoreactivity (calbindin-ir). GABA (1 mM) and ACh (3 mM) caused inward currents in most cells tested. GABA currents were mimicked by muscimol (1-300 microM) and were blocked by bicuculline (10 microM) indicating that GABA was acting at GABA(A) receptors. GABA currents were associated with a conductance increase and a linear current/voltage relationship with a reversal potential of 1 +/- 1 mV (n = 5). Pentobarbital (PB, 3-1000 microM) and diazepam (DZP, 0.01-10 microM) potentiated GABA-induced currents. A maximum concentration of DZP (1 microM) increased GABA-induced currents 3.1 +/- 0.3 times while PB (1000 microM) increased GABA currents by 11 +/- 2 times. In outside-out patches, the amplitude of GABA-activated single-channel currents was linearly related to membrane potential with a single-channel conductance of 28.5 + 0.5 pS (n = 10). PB and DZP increased the open probability of GABA-induced single-channel currents. Neurons containing calbindin-ir were large, were isolated from other neurons and had GABA current amplitudes of -3.4 +/- 0.3 nA (n = 48). Neurons with weak or absent calbindin-ir were smaller, were localized in clusters of cells and had GABA-induced current amplitudes of -0.6 +/- 0.1 nA (n = 20). ACh-induced currents were smaller in calbindin-ir neurons (-0.7 +/- 0.1 nA) compared to weakly calbindin-ir neurons (-1.4 +/- 0.1 nA). These results indicate that myenteric calbindin-ir neurons express a high density of GABA

  17. Intestine.

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    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  18. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of the monkey and cat spinal central canal.

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    LaMotte, C C

    1987-04-22

    Neurons immediately adjacent to the central canal were demonstrated in the cat and monkey to be immunoreactive for the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), by means of the peroxidase antiperoxidase method. Most of the cells were found in the thoracic and sacral segments, although a few were present at each level. The thoracic neurons were multipolar and either ependymal or subependymal; they usually had a large, thick dendrite that was oriented radially toward the center of the central canal; this dendrite penetrated through the ependymal layer and ended as a large, fringed podlike process (4-5-microns diameter) along the canal surface in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). From the basal surface of the thoracic cell arose several small dendrites and a varicose axon. A few of the thoracic VIP neurons also contained two nuclei. In the sacral cord, the VIP neurons that lie along the central canal were of several types. They were round or multipolar and were either subependymal, within the ependyma, or supraependymal. Many had long dendrites and thin varicose axons stretching for long distances parallel to the cord surface. Other VIP neurons were smaller cells with short, highly branched, varicose processes. Most prominent in the sacral cord of the cat was a massive intricate network of intensely labelled processes extending in parallel along the canal surface. This network contained thick dendrites, highly varicose axons, and small neurons. Electron microscopy demonstrated VIP axons and varicosities containing small round clear vesicles and dense core vesicles. These processes were in desmosomal contact with ependymal cells and in direct contact with the CSF space. VIP processes were also found along the pial surface of the spinal cord at each level. In some cases single axons and bundles of axons arising from the area around the central canal could be traced to terminal fields along the ventral median fissure and the ventral and ventral lateral

  19. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal crónica por displasia neuronal intestinal tipo B (DNI B): a propósito de un caso

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    S. Junquera Bañares; E. Oria Mundín; A. Córdoba Iturriagagoitia; J. I. Botella-Carretero

    2014-01-01

    La displasia neuronal intestinal tipo B (DNIB) es una enfermedad poco frecuente debida a la hiperplasia del plexo submucoso parasimpático que cursa con alteración de la motilidad intestinal, ocasionando síntomas de estreñimiento y cuadros suboclusivos¹. Es una enfermedad difícil de diagnosticar que requiere alta sospecha clínica y debería incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de los pacientes con cuadros suboclusivos de repetición con el fin de hacer un diagnóstico correcto temprano y evita...

  20. Projections of specific morphological types of neurons within the myenteric plexus of the small intestine of the guinea-pig.

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    Song, Z M; Brookes, S J; Costa, M

    1996-07-01

    The projections of myenteric neurons within the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig small intestine were established using retrograde tracing in organotypic culture. Three days after applying the fluorescent dye DiI to a single internodal strand in the myenteric plexus, 500-1000 nerve cell bodies were labelled. Of these, 77% were located oral to the application site, 15% were located anally and 7% were located within 1 mm of this site. Three major morphological types of neurons could be distinguished. Dogiel type I neurons had lamellar dendrites and single axons, Dogiel type II neurons had large smooth cell bodies and several long processes, and filamentous neurons had smooth ovoid cell bodies, single axons and several filamentous dendrites. Dogiel type I, II and filamentous neurons accounted for 54.6%, 38% and 7.4% of all filled cells, respectively. Labelled nerve cell bodies were present up to 13 mm aboral to the DiI application site; all neurons more than 2 mm aboral had Dogiel type I features. On the oral side, Dogiel type I neurons were found up to 110 mm, Dogiel type II neurons up to 100 mm and filamentous neurons up to 80 mm. Neurons with 2 mm oral or aboral to the DiI application site were located up to 7 mm circumferentially and were mainly Dogiel type II cells. This work revealed remarkable polarity within the myenteric plexus, with a significant prevalence of myenteric neurons projecting anally for longer distances than those projecting orally. These long pathways are probably involved in the coordination of intestinal motility.

  1. Myenteric neurons and intestinal mucosa of diabetic rats after ascorbic acid supplementation

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    Priscila de Freitas; Maria Raquel Martal Natali; Renata Virginia Fernandes Pereira; Marcilio Hubner Miranda Nero; Jacqueline Nelisis Zanoni

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) dietary supplementation on myenteric neurons and epithelial cell proliferation of the jejunum of adult rats with chronic diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Thirty rats at 90 d of age were divided into three groups: Non-diabetic, diabetic and diabetic treated with AA (DA) (1 g/L). After 120 d of treatment with AA the animals were killed. The myenteric neurons were stained for myosin-V and analyzed quantitatively in an area of 11.2 mm2/animal. We further measured the cellular area of 500 neurons per group. We also determined the metaphasic index (MI) of the jejunum mucosa layer of about 2500 cells in the intestinal crypts, as well as the dimensions of 30 villi and 30 crypts/animal. The data area was analyzed using the Olympus BX40 microscope. RESULTS: There was an increase of 14% in the neuronal density (792.6±46.52 vs 680.6±30.27) and 4.4% in the cellular area (303.4±5.19 vs 291.1 ±6.0) respectively of the diabetic group treated with AA when compared to control diabetic animals. There were no significant differences in MI parameters, villi height or crypt depths among the groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with AA in the diabetic animal promoted moderate neuroprotection. There was no observation of alteration of the cellular proliferation of the jejunum mucosa layer of rats with chronic diabetes meilitus with or without supplementation with AA.

  2. El EENG como método alternativo no invasivo en el registro de la actividad intestinal

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    José De Jesús Moreno Vásquez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la motilidad gastrointestinal puede ayudar a diagnosticar la causa frecuente de una gran variedad de síntomas, tales como dolor crónico, dispepsia, síndrome de intestino irritable, crecimiento bacteriano o íleo paralítico, entre otros, son asociados a la disfunción intestinal motora. Sin embargo, la carencia y costos de los equipos médicos hacen difícil la atención al paciente. Aunado a esto, los tiempos para obtener una cita médica para el uso del equipo y análisis conlleva a un resultado tardío, lapso en el que la enfermedad puede avanzar. Por lo tanto, la importancia de identificar el segmento de intestino que está siendo afectado por alguna enfermedad, ayudaría a que las pruebas exploratorias realizadas a los pacientes duraran menos tiempo y el diagnóstico médico sería más exacto y menos subjetivo. Así, el Electroenterograma (EEnG no invasivo, podría ser de gran importancia en el auxilio clínico. El presente trabajo muestra diferentes técnicas de registro no invasivo de la actividad intestinal como alternativas a la detección de alteraciones del sistema digestivo.

  3. Vagal afferent neurons in high fat diet-induced obesity; intestinal microflora, gut inflammation and cholecystokinin.

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    de Lartigue, Guillaume; de La Serre, Claire Barbier; Raybould, Helen E

    2011-11-30

    The vagal afferent pathway is the major neural pathway by which information about ingested nutrients reaches the CNS and influences both GI function and feeding behavior. Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express receptors for many of the regulatory peptides and molecules released from the intestinal wall, pancreas, and adipocytes that influence GI function, glucose homeostasis, and regulate food intake and body weight. As such, they play a critical role in both physiology and pathophysiology, such as obesity, where there is evidence that vagal afferent function is altered. This review will summarize recent findings on changes in vagal afferent function in response to ingestion of high fat diets and explore the hypothesis that changes in gut microbiota and integrity of the epithelium may not only be important in inducing these changes but may be the initial events that lead to dysregulation of food intake and body weight in response to high fat, high energy diets.

  4. Changes in Enteric Neurons of Small Intestine in a Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Fei, Guijun; Fang, Xiucai; Yang, Xilin; Sun, Xiaohong; Qian, Jiaming; Wood, Jackie D; Ke, Meiyun

    2016-04-30

    Physical and/or emotional stresses are important factors in the exacerbation of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several lines of evidence support that a major impact of stress on the gastrointestinal tract occurs via the enteric nervous system. We aimed to evaluate histological changes in the submucosal plexus (SMP) and myenteric plexus (MP) of the distal ileum in concert with the intestinal motor function in a rat model of IBS with diarrhea. The rat model was induced by heterotypic chronic and acute stress (CAS). The intestinal transit was measured by administering powdered carbon by gastric gavage. Double immunohistochemical fluorescence staining with whole-mount preparations of SMP and MP of enteric nervous system was used to assess changes in expression of choline acetyltransferase, vasoactive intestinal peptide, or nitric oxide synthase in relation to the pan neuronal marker, anti-Hu. The intestinal transit ratio increased significantly from control values of 50.8% to 60.6% in the CAS group. The numbers of enteric ganglia and neurons in the SMP were increased in the CAS group. The proportions of choline acetyltransferase- and vasoactive intestinal peptide-immunoreactive neurons in the SMP were increased (82.1 ± 4.3% vs. 76.0 ± 5.0%, P = 0.021; 40.5 ± 5.9% vs 28.9 ± 3.7%, P = 0.001), while nitric oxide synthase-immunoreactive neurons in the MP were decreased compared with controls (23.3 ± 4.5% vs 32.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.002). These morphological changes in enteric neurons to CAS might contribute to the dysfunction in motility and secretion in IBS with diarrhea.

  5. Central neuronal mechanisms of intestinal electrical stimulation: effects on duodenum distention-responsive (DD-R) neurons in the VMH of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Hongbing; Chen, J D Z

    2009-06-19

    Intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) has been shown to produce inhibitory effects on gastric contractions, gastric emptying, food intake and body weight in rats and dogs, suggesting a therapeutic potential for obesity. The aims of this study were (1) to test the hypothesis that the neurons in the VMH are involved in the central mechanisms of IES treatment for obesity; (2) to compare the effects of IES at the duodenum and IES at the ileum on neuronal activities of the VMH; (3) to better understand if the neuronal activity modulated by IES was mediated via the vagal pathway. Extracellular potentials of neurons in the VMH were recorded in 18 anesthetized rats. IES at the duodenum or ileum was performed in duodenal-distention responsive (DD-R) neurons with 3 sets of parameters (IES-1 with trains of short-pulses: 4mA, 2s-on, 3s-off, 2ms, 20Hz; IES-2 with long-pulses: 6mA, 20cpm, 100ms; IES-3, same as IES-1 but 40Hz). IES-1 at the duodenum and the ileum activated 70.6% and 73.3% of the DD-R neurons, respectively. Similar percentages of the neurons were activated with IES-3 at the duodenum and the ileum (70.6% vs. 66.7%, P=0.91), respectively. IES-2 at these locations activated only 25% and 46.2% of the DD-R neurons, respectively (P>0.05). IES at the duodenum with parameter set, IES-1 or IES-3 was significantly more potent than the parameter set, IES-2 (neuronal activation: 70.6% vs. 25%, PDD, and IES with trains of short-pulses seems more effective than IES with long-pulses. The vagal pathway and extra-vagal pathways are involved in the modulatory effects of IES on the central neurons in the satiety center.

  6. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; B. Pedersen, Nis; Brix, Sophie W.

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a potent intestinotrophic growth factor with therapeutic potential in the treatment of intestinal deficiencies. It has recently been approved for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The effects of GLP-2 are mediated by specific binding of the hormone to the GLP......-2 receptor (GLP-2R) which was cloned in 1999. However, consensus about the exact receptor localization in the intestine has never been established. By physical, chemical and enzymatic tissue fragmentation, we were able to divide rat jejunum into different compartments consisting of: (1) epithelium...... compartments rich in enteric neurons and, importantly they exclude significant expression in the epithelium of rat jejunal mucosa....

  7. Úlcera tuberculosa intestinal como causa de hemorragia digestiva baja masiva exanguinante

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Reportamos el caso de una paciente de 27 años con tuberculosis extrapulmonar gastrointestinal que se manifestó clínicamente como una hemorragia digestiva baja masiva exanguinante requiriendo cirugía de urgencia, donde se realizó laparotomía exploradora con entero y colonoscopia intraoperatoria localizando lesión a nivel de intestino delgado, resecando segmento comprometido con anastomosis primaria, evolución satisfactoria sin complicaciones postoperatorias.

  8. Coexpression of neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in pelvic plexus neurones innervating the uterus and cervix in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeau, E; Boyer, P A; Rousseau, A; Rousseau, J P

    1997-05-01

    The present study investigates the distribution and coexpression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in neurones of the accessory ganglion (AG), hypogastric plexus (HP) and paracervical ganglion (PCG), which compose the pelvic plexus in the female rat. Nerve cell bodies immunoreactive for NPY and VIP represent 84% and 46% of the neurone population in the PCG, respectively, while immunoreactivity for each peptide is observed in about 90% of the AG and HP neurones. Adjacent sections immunostained for NPY and VIP, as well as the use of immunocytochemistry combined with in situ hybridization show that 92% of the VIP-containing neurones in the pelvic plexus also contain NPY. In addition, a retrograde tracing study performed in combination with immunocytochemistry demonstrates that pelvic plexus neurones project preferentially to the lower part of the uterus and to the cervix, and that about 95% of these projecting neurones contain VIP. Taken together, our findings indicate that in the female rat, neurones of the pelvic plexus projecting to the lower genital tract mainly coexpress VIP and NPY, and supply nerve fibres to the vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle in the uterocervical region. Since NPY and VIP exert distinct effects according to the target tissue, our results suggest that neurones coexpressing these peptides play important roles in the local regulation of the vascular bed and motor activity of the lower genital tract.

  9. Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and inducible nitric oxide synthase in intestinal injury in neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui LU; Bing Zhu; Xin-Dong Xue

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dynamic change and role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in neonatal rat with intestinal injury and to define whether necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is associated with the levels of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the mucosa of the affected intestine tissue.METHODS: Wistar rats less than 24 h in age received an intraperitoneal injection with 5 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ileum tissues were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h following LPS challenge for histological evaluation of NEC and for measurements of nNOS and iNOS. The correlation between the degree of intestinal injury and levels of NOS was determined.RESULTS: The LPS-injected pups showed a significant increase in injury scores versus the control. The expression of nNOS protein and mRNA was diminished after LPS injection. There was a negative significant correlation between the nNOS protein and the grade of median intestinal injury within 24 h. The expression of iNOS protein and mRNA was significantly increased in the peak of intestinal injury.CONCLUSION: nNOS and iNOS play different roles in LPS-induced intestinal injury. Caution should be exerted concerning potential therapeutic uses of NOS inhibitors in NEC.

  10. Mutation of RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease and intestinal neuronal dysplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Fa Tou; Min-Ju Li; Tao Guan; Ji-Cheng Li; Xiong-Kai Zhu; Zhi-Gang Feng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the genetic relationship between Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) in Chinese population.METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 30 HD patients, 20 IND patients, 18 HD/IND combined patients and 20 normal individuals as control.Genomic DNA was extracted according to standard procedure. Exons 11,13,15,17 of RET proto-oncogene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The mutations of RET proto-oncogene were analyzed by single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP)and sequencing of the positive amplified products was performed.RESULTS: Eight germline sequence variants were detected. In HD patients, 2 missense mutations in exon 11at nucleotide 15165 G→A (G667S), 2 frameshift mutations in exon 13 at nucleotide 18974 (18974insG), 1missense mutation in exon 13 at nucleotide 18919 A→G (K756E) and 1silent mutation in exon 15 at nucleotide 20692 G→A(Q916Q) were detected. In HD/IND combined patients, 1 missense mutation in exon 11 at nucleotide 15165 G→A and 1 silent mutation in exon 13at nucleotide 18888 T→G (L745L) were detected. No mutation was found in IND patients and controls.CONCLUSION: Mutation of RET proto-oncogene is involved in the etiopathogenesis of HD. The frequency of RET proto-oncogene mutation is quite different between IND and HD in Chinese population. IND is a distinct clinical entity genetically different from HD.

  11. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide promote survival of adult rat myenteric neurons in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgren, Katarina; Lin, Zhong; Svenningsen, Åsa Fex;

    2003-01-01

    of VIP, NO donor, VIP antiserum, or NOS inhibitor. A marked loss of neurons was noted during culturing. VIP and NO significantly promoted neuronal survival. Corroborating this was the finding of an enhanced neuronal cell loss when cultures were grown in the presence of VIP antiserum or NOS inhibitor....... adaptation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether VIP and nitric oxide (NO) influence survival of cultured, dissociated myenteric neurons. Neuronal survival was evaluated after 0, 4, and 8 days in culture. Influence of VIP and NO on neuronal survival was examined after culturing in the presence...

  12. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide excites medial pontine reticular formation neurons in the brainstem rapid eye movement sleep-induction zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Reiner, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although it has long been known that microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) induces a state that resembles rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, it is likely that other transmitters contribute to mPRF regulation of behavioral states. A key...... candidate is the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which innervates the mPRF and induces REM sleep when injected into this region of the brainstem. To begin understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effects of VIP on mPRF cells using whole-cell patch...... conclude that VIP excites mPRF neurons by activation of a sodium current. This effect is mediated at least in part by G-protein stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinase A. These data suggest that VIP may play a physiological role in REM induction by its actions on mPRF neurons....

  13. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal crónica por displasia neuronal intestinal tipo B (DNI B: a propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Junquera Bañares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La displasia neuronal intestinal tipo B (DNIB es una enfermedad poco frecuente debida a la hiperplasia del plexo submucoso parasimpático que cursa con alteración de la motilidad intestinal, ocasionando síntomas de estreñimiento y cuadros suboclusivos¹. Es una enfermedad difícil de diagnosticar que requiere alta sospecha clínica y debería incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de los pacientes con cuadros suboclusivos de repetición con el fin de hacer un diagnóstico correcto temprano y evitar complicaciones derivadas de cirugías innecesarias que empeoran el pronóstico. Se presenta el caso de un varón marroquí de 33 años que fue ingresado en nuestro hospital en 2 ocasiones un total de 11 meses, precisando durante 5 meses nutrición parenteral total (NPT. El análisis inmunohistoquímico de la boca de ileostomía y colostomía lleva al diagnóstico de DNIB. Dieciocho meses después, el paciente hace vida normal y ha recuperado los 25 kilos perdidos siguiendo las indicaciones dietéticas y con los suplementos enzimáticos.

  14. Tuberculose intestinal como causa de obstrução intestinal: relato de caso e revisão de literatura Intestinal tuberculosis cause of intestinal obstruction: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilker Benedeti Mendes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A tuberculose intestinal geralmente é uma complicação da doença pulmonar, pela deglutição de escarro infectado. Com o advento da SIDA, houve aumento importante na incidência de tuberculose de uma forma geral. Ocorre com maior freqüência em países tropicais e subdesenvolvidos. A região ileocecal constitui o sítio de maior comprometimento. Palidez, perda ponderal, sudorese noturna e febre são os achados mais comuns ao exame físico. Dor abdominal é o principal achado no exame abdominal. A complicação mais freqüente é a obstrução intestinal. O diagnóstico pré-operatório é muito difícil, sendo o de certeza dado pelo exame histopatológico ou em culturas de tecidos. O tratamento cirúrgico está indicado nos casos das raras complicações.Intestinal tuberculosis occurs often as a pulmonary disease complication, when infected sputum is swallowed. With AIDS there was a significant increasement of tuberculosis in all of it forms. It happens more often in tropical and third world countries. The ileocecal is the site with most commitment. Paleness, weight loss, night sweats and fever are the most common findings on physical examination. Abdominal pain is the main finding in the abdominal examination. The most frequent complication is intestinal obstruction. The preoperative diagnosis is very difficult, and the certainty provided by histopathological examination or in tissue culture. Surgical treatment is indicated in cases of rare complications.

  15. Interaction of myenteric neurons and extrinsic nerves in the intestinal inhibitory response induced by mesenteric nerve stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasato,Teruhiro

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the mesenteric nerve stimulation (MNS on the twitch contraction induced by field stimulation were investigated regarding the relationship between myenteric neurons and extrinsic cholinergic nerves in the guinea-pig mesenteric nerve-ileal preparation. The twitch contraction was inhibited after MNS. The inhibition of the twitch contraction after MNS was induced twice, just after MNS (1st inhibition and 2-3 min later (2nd inhibition (type I, or once, just after MNS (1st inhibition (type II, in recovery course of twitch contraction for 6-8 min. The 1st inhibition was slightly decreased by guanethidine and hexamethonium. The inhibitory response (1st inhibition in both types I and II was recovered to the control level by pretreatment with naloxone (recovered twitch contraction, but the late inhibitory response (2nd inhibition was markedly observed after 2-3 min in types I and II. Either the 1st or the 2nd inhibition was not altered by capsaicin, desensitization to calcitonin gene-related polypeptide (CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin, or galanin. The recovered twitch contraction in types I and II was decreased by CGRP-desensitization, or capsaicin. These results suggest that the first inhibitory response was induced by enteric opioid neurons connected with extrinsic cholinergic nerves, but the 2nd inhibition was induced by unknown substances other than CGRP, VIP, somatostatin, and galanin. The twitch contraction may partly be induced by endogenous neurokinin-like substances. And, some CGRP containing neurons, which connect with extrinsic cholinergic nerves, probably activate the intrinsic excitatory neurons.

  16. Invaginación intestinal como primera manifestación del cáncer de pulmón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de Miguel Valencia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La invaginación intestinal es una causa muy poco frecuente de obstrucción intestinal en el adulto. La mayoría están causadas por lesiones malignas en la pared intestinal, siendo excepcional que se produzcan por metástasis. La manifestación inicial del cáncer de pulmón como metástasis en el tracto gastrointestinal es un hecho extremadamente raro. En la mayoría de los casos las metástasis se diagnostican después del tumor primario pulmonar, cuando desarrollan complicaciones potencialmente mortales como perforación, obstrucción o hemorragia, que a menudo requieren una intervención quirúrgica urgente. Independientemente del tratamiento, estos pacientes tienen un pronóstico muy sombrío dado el estado avanzado de su enfermedad. Describimos el caso un hombre de 48 años con un cuadro de obstrucción intestinal de una semana de evolución, que fue diagnosticado en el servicio de Urgencias mediante tomografía computarizada de invaginación de intestino delgado, y en radiografía simple de tórax de nódulo pulmonar sospechoso. Se decidió intervención quirúrgica urgente, realizándose resección intestinal de la zona invaginada y anastomosis, presentando un postoperatorio sin incidencias. El diagnóstico anatomopatológico fue de metástasis intestinal de carcinoma de pulmón. Se confirmó el tumor maligno primario de pulmón en estadio IV, con diseminación pulmonar, ósea, cerebral y metástasis en ambas glándulas suprarrenales. Recibió tratamiento paliativo con radioterapia y quimioterapia, falleciendo transcurridos 5 meses del diagnóstico.

  17. Hernia interna de divertículo de Meckel como causa de obstrucción intestinal en un senescente

    OpenAIRE

    ESTRELLA R,MARIO; BERNAL R,JOSÉ; Fuenzalida C,Loreto

    2009-01-01

    El divertículo de Meckel (DM), es la anomalía congénita más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal. Su incidencia en población general es de 2%. Las complicaciones se presentan entre 4-30% de casos. Más de 50% ocurren en la primera década de vida, disminuyendo drásticamente con la edad, llegando a cero en adultos mayores (AM) según algunos autores. La obstrucción intestinal (Oí), complicación más frecuente en adultos, tiene distintos mecanismos patogénicos; sin embargo, no hay literatura dispo...

  18. Linfangioma mesentérico multiquístico como causa de vólvulo intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Los linfangiomas son lesiones benignas, de baja incidencia, más comunes en niños y adolescentes. Con muy baja frecuencia son intraabdominales y poseen presentación clínica variable, yendo desde el hallazgo clínico hasta pacientes con riesgo vital por abdomen agudo. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 19 años, sin antecedentes mórbidos que acude a urgencias por dolor abdominal asociado a fiebre, vómitos y distensión abdominal; la radiografía simple es sugerente de obstrucción intestinal. En ...

  19. Intestinal histomorphology in Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum fed bovine colostrum as source of protein and bioactive peptides Histomorfologia intestinal de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum alimentado com colostro bovino como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oeda Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Histological responses of the intestine are key for evaluating nutritional value of feed ingredients, since the organ is not only the chief site of feed digestion and nutrient absorption but also plays an important immunological function. Histomorphological alterations were evaluated in the intestine of juvenile striped catfish, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, fed diets containing 0 (control, 10 or 20% inclusion of lyophilized bovine colostrum (LBC, as source of protein or bioactive peptides, for either 30 or 60 days. Fish fed 20LBC presented at 60d a distinct pattern of macrophages and, some of them, higher number of vacuoles in rectum mucosa. The thickness of the muscle layer (TML in fish fed diets with LBC was higher in the first portion of medium intestine than fish fed 0LBC. All fish presented significant increase of TML in the second portion of medium intestine along feeding period, but fish fed 20LBC had smaller values of TML than those of fish fed 0 and 10LBC which might be related to the higher intestinal coefficient found for this group. The TML of rectum was higher just for fish fed 10LBC. Dietary LBC altered morphometrical features of juvenile striped catfish intestine and possibly induced inflammatory reaction in the rectal mucosa, as a function of level of inclusion, feeding period and segment of intestine analyzed.Respostas histológicas do intestino são fundamentais para avaliar o valor nutritivo de ingredientes alimentares, uma vez que o órgão não é só o principal local de digestão e absorção dos nutrientes, mas também exerce uma importante função imunológica. Alterações histomorfológicas foram avaliadas no intestino de juvenis de cachara, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, alimentado com dietas contendo 0 (controle, 10 e 20% de inclusão de colostro bovino liofilizado (CBL como fonte de proteína e peptídeos bioativos, aos 30 e 60 dias. Aos 60 dias, peixes alimentados com 20CBL apresentaram macrófagos de aspecto distinto

  20. Páncreas heterotópico como causa de invaginación intestinal: primer caso reportado en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Bazán Zender

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El páncreas heterotópico (PH es una condición rara en la población pediátrica. Los casos de PH que conllevan a una invaginación ileal, son infrecuentes en niños y muy raramente reportados, usualmente mostrándose con síntomas de obstrucción intestinal. Se presenta el caso de un paciente varón de un año de edad, con una historia crónica de anorexia, irritabilidad, dolor abdominal, acompañado de episodios intermitentes de sangrado tipo "jalea de grosella" que evoluciona a sangrado rectal rutilante. El paciente presenta un diagnóstico concomitante de colitis alérgica, lo cual prolonga el tratamiento quirúrgico efectivo en un centro asistencial externo. En la tomografía abdominal se encuentra el signo de la "escarapela" clásico. En la laparotomía exploratoria se confirma invaginación ileoileal, se encuentra una masa que el laboratorio de histopatología confirma como PH. A nuestro conocimiento, es el primer caso de invaginación por PH pediátrico reportado en el Perú.

  1. A Calcium- and Diacylglycerol-Stimulated Protein Kinase C (PKC), Caenorhabditis elegans PKC-2, Links Thermal Signals to Learned Behavior by Acting in Sensory Neurons and Intestinal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Marianne; Rubin, Charles S

    2017-10-01

    Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a Caenorhabditis elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc ) and migrates along the Tc within a 17 to 25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals. Cell-specific manipulation of PKC-2 activity revealed that thermotaxis is controlled by cooperative PKC-2-mediated signaling in both AFD sensory neurons and intestinal cells. Cold-directed migration (cryophilic drive) precedes Tc tracking during thermotaxis. Analysis of temperature-directed behaviors elicited by persistent PKC-2 activation or inhibition in AFD (or intestine) disclosed that PKC-2 regulates initiation and duration of cryophilic drive. In AFD neurons, PKC-2 is a Ca(2+) sensor and signal amplifier that operates downstream from cyclic GMP-gated cation channels and distal guanylate cyclases. UNC-18, which regulates neurotransmitter and neuropeptide release from synaptic vesicles, is a critical PKC-2 effector in AFD. UNC-18 variants, created by mutating Ser(311) or Ser(322), disrupt thermotaxis and suppress PKC-2-dependent cryophilic migration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Analysis of the RET, GDNF, EDN3, and EDNRB genes in patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia and Hirschsprung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gath, R; Goessling, A; Keller, KM; Koletzko, S; Coerdt, W; Muntefering, H; Wirth, S; Hofstra, RMW; Mulligan, L; Eng, C; von Deimling, A

    2001-01-01

    Background-Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a frequent congenital disorder with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births, characterised by the absence of parasympathetic intramural ganglion cells in the hindgut resulting in intestinal obstruction in neonates and severe constipation in infants and adults.

  3. Analysis of the RET, GDNF, EDN3, and EDNRB genes in patients with intestinal neuronal dysplasia and Hirschsprung disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gath, R; Goessling, A; Keller, KM; Koletzko, S; Coerdt, W; Muntefering, H; Wirth, S; Hofstra, RMW; Mulligan, L; Eng, C; von Deimling, A

    Background-Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a frequent congenital disorder with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births, characterised by the absence of parasympathetic intramural ganglion cells in the hindgut resulting in intestinal obstruction in neonates and severe constipation in infants and adults.

  4. Biomodelo para la evaluación de cepas atenuadas como candidatos vacunales contra el cólera humano. I. Estudio de la virulencia, capacidad de colonización y adherencia a la mucosa intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Oliva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El cólera continúa siendo en muchos países un problema para la salud humana, manteniéndose como una enfermedad epidémica o endémica que afecta tanto a niños como adultos y causa la muerte en casos no tratados. Una vacuna viva oral contra esta enfermedad puede ser la solución. En el presente trabajo se seleccionó y aplicó un biomodelo para la evaluación de cepas atenuadas genéticamente de Vibrio cholerae como candidatas vacunales contra el cólera. La virulencia, capacidad de colonización y adherencia a la mucosa intestinal de las cepas fueron evaluadas mediante el uso de ratones neonatos de 2 a 4 días de nacidos de la línea Balb/c, con un peso entre 1,5-2 g. Los resultados obtenidos con este biomodelo demostraron que las cepas atenuadas genéticamente son no virulentas, colonizan y se adhieren a la mucosa intestinal. Se concluye que el biomodelo utilizado permite la evaluación y selección de cepas candidatas para vacunas vivas orales contra el cólera.

  5. Experimental Cancer Cachexia Changes Neuron Numbers and Peptide Levels in the Intestine: Partial Protective Effects after Dietary Supplementation with L-Glutamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Geraldo E.; Fracaro, Luciane; de Souza, Sara R. G.; Martins, Heber A.; Guarnier, Flávia A.; Zanoni, Jacqueline N.

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs in cancer cachexia and may result from damage to enteric innervation caused by oxidative stress, especially due to glutathione depletion. We assessed the effect of dietary supplementation with 20 g/kg l-glutamine (a glutathione precursor) on the intrinsic innervation of the enteric nervous system in healthy and Walker 256 tumor-bearing Wistar rats during the development of experimental cachexia (14 days), in comparison with non-supplemented rats, by using immunohistochemical methods and Western blotting. The total neural population and cholinergic subpopulation densities in the myenteric plexus, as well as the total population and VIPergic subpopulation in the submucosal plexus of the jejunum and ileum, were reduced in cachectic rats, resulting in adaptive morphometric alterations and an increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression, suggesting a neuroplastic response. l-glutamine supplementation prevented decrease in myenteric neuronal density in the ileum, morphometric alterations in the neurons and nerve fibers (in both the plexuses of the jejunum and ileum), and the overexpression of VIP and CGRP. Cancer cachexia severely affected the intrinsic innervation of the jejunum and ileum to various degrees and this injury seems to be associated with adaptive neural plasticity. l-glutamine supplementation presented partial protective effects on the enteric innervation against cancer cachexia, possibly by attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:27635657

  6. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  7. Síndrome de Peutz-Jeghers como causa de invaginación intestinal en el niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vázquez Merayo

    Full Text Available La invaginación intestinal es causa frecuente de síndrome oclusivo en etapa de lactante, y la invaginación ileocecocólica es la más frecuente, pero la invaginación yeyuno-yeyunal tiene una baja incidencia en la edad pediátrica. Se plantea que más del 50 % se presenta en niños mayores de 10 años, y generalmente secundario a la presencia de pólipos intestinales, y entre ellos, con mayor frecuencia, el síndrome Peutz-Jeghers. Son pólipos hamartomatosos, potencialmente malignos, por lo que se debe tener seguimiento estricto del paciente. Se presenta un caso de un niño de 13 años de edad, con antecedentes de presentar este síndrome, que ingresa por dolor abdominal a tipo cólico y vómitos. Se realiza radiografía simple de abdomen y se visualiza patrón de oclusión intestinal. La ecografía abdominal con imagen en diana, es patognomónica de invaginación intestinal. El paciente es intervenido quirúrgicamente, y se le realiza resección intestinal y anastomosis término terminal por presencia de pólipo intestinal en el yeyuno. Evoluciona satisfactoriamente. Se hace revisión de la literatura sobre esta entidad poco frecuente.

  8. Sarcoma cardiaco primario que comienza como dolor abdominal e isquemia intestinal: a propósito de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente mujer de 76 años de edad que comienza con cuadro de dolor abdominal y elevación moderada de enzimas cardiacas. La TAC demostró masa auricular izquierda y datos de isquemia intestinal. El área intestinal afecta fue resecada a través de laparotomía media. Tras la recuperación de la cirugía abdominal se resecó la masa cardiaca bajo circulación extracorpórea. El examen anatomopatológico demostró sarcoma de estirpe estromal con bcl2 y CD34 negativos, testando positivo para vicentina. La translocación t(X;18 fue negativa.

  9. P2X7 receptors contribute to the currents induced by ATP in guinea pig intestinal myenteric neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Morales, Eduardo; Guerrero-Alba, Raquel; Liñán-Rico, Andrómeda; Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Zarazua-Guzman, Sergio; Miranda-Morales, Marcela; Montaño, Luis M; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2011-10-15

    The whole-cell configuration, several pharmacological tools, and single-cell RT-PCR were used to investigate the contribution of P2X7 subunits to the ATP-induced currents (I(ATP)) in guinea pig myenteric neurons. I(ATP) was recorded in the great majority of tested neurons. ATP concentration-response curve (0.01-10mM) showed two phases, the first mediated by high-sensitive P2X receptors (hsP2X receptors), observed between 0.01-0.3mM and the second mediated by low-sensitive P2X receptors (lsP2X receptors). The calculated EC(50) values of these phases were 38 and 1759 μM, respectively. 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) concentration-response curve was monophasic (0.01-1mM), and less potent (EC(50) 142 μM) than ATP to activate hsP2X receptors. A strong inward rectification was noticed when hsP2X receptors were activated with ATP (0.1mM) and for BzATP-induced currents (0.1mM; I(BzATP)) but a significant lower rectification was noticed when lsP2X receptors were activated (5mM). Brilliant blue G (BBG) at a concentration of 0.3 μM (known to inhibit only P2X7 receptors) reduced I(ATP) when lsP2X receptors contributed to it but neither affect hsP2X receptors nor I(BzATP). However, hsP2X receptors and I(BzATP) were both inhibited by concentrations ≥ 1 μM of this antagonist. BzATP inhibited hsP2X receptors and therefore, it behaves as partial agonist on these receptors. Using the single-cell RT-PCR technique P2X7 mRNA was detectable in 7 out of 13 myenteric neurons exhibiting P2X2 mRNA. Altogether, our results show that low-sensitive P2X receptors are likely P2X7, whereas, the high-sensitive P2X channels are probably constituted, at least in part, by P2X2 subunits.

  10. Nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide as co-transmitters of airway smooth-muscle relaxation: analysis in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Foda, Hussein D; Said, Sami I

    2003-09-01

    Both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) relax airway smooth muscle and are potential co-transmitters of neurogenic airway relaxation. The availability of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) knockout mice (nNOS-/-) provides a unique opportunity for evaluating NO. To evaluate the relative importance of NO, especially that generated by nNOS, and VIP as transmitters of the inhibitory nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) system. In this study, we compared the neurogenic (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) NANC relaxation of tracheal segments from nNOS-/- mice and control wild-type mice (nNOS(+/+)), induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). We also examined the tracheal contractile response to methacholine and its relaxant response to VIP. EFS (at 60 V for 2 ms, at 10, 15, or 20 Hz) dose-dependently reduced tracheal tension, and the relaxations were consistently smaller (approximately 40%) in trachea from nNOS-/- mice than from control wild-type mice (p 0.05). Our data suggest that, in mouse trachea, NO is probably responsible for mediating a large (approximately 60%) component of neurogenic NANC relaxation, and a similar (approximately 50%) component of the relaxant effect of VIP. The results imply that NO contributes significantly to neurogenic relaxation of mouse airway smooth muscle, whether due to neurogenic stimulation or to the neuropeptide VIP.

  11. Blood carbonyl protein measurement as a specific oxidative stress biomarker after intestinal reperfusion in rats Dosagem da proteína carbonilada sanguínea como biomarcador específico do estresse oxidativo após reperfusão intestinal em ratos

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    Márcio José Jamel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: An experimental study was performed to investigate the use of protein carbonyl group as a specific biological marker for oxidative stress in a rat model of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups with eight animals each: Group 1 - Control group; Group 2 - Sham; Group 3 - Intestinal ischaemia by clamping ileal branches of the superior mesenteric artery for one hour, followed by another hour of reperfusion. Blood samples were taken in order to analyze the protein carbonyl level by Slot blotting assay. RESULTS: In group 3 a significant increase of protein carbonyl level was observed if compared to the homogenous levels of groups 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: From the results it may be concluded that the protein carbonylation may be used as a specific marker for measuring oxidative stress in rat intestinal reperfusion model.OBJETIVO: Realizou-se um estudo experimental com a finalidade de investigar o uso da proteína carbonilada como um marcador biológico específico do estresse oxidativo em um modelo de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal, em ratos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quarto ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos compostos por oito animais cada: Grupo 1 - Controle; Grupo 2 - Simulação e Grupo 3 - Submetido à isquemia, mediante clampeamento de ramos ileais da artéria mesentérica superior por uma hora, seguida de reperfusão, por igual período. Amostras sanguíneas obtidas foram utilizadas para analise dos níveis de proteína carbonilada, através do método Slot blotting. RESULTADOS: No grupo 3 houve uma elevação significante da concentração de proteína carbonilada sérica se comparada aos níveis sanguíneos homogêneos encontrados nos grupos 1 e 2. CONCLUSÃO: Fundamentado nos resultados é possível concluir que, a carbonilação protéica pode ser utilizada como um marcador específico para a mensuração do

  12. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some generally recognized patterns. Symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia typically ... confusion in older adults Symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia can ...

  13. Morphological and quantitative analysis of myenteric plexus neurons of intestinal bulb of Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae Análise morfológica e quantitativa dos neurônios do plexo mientérico do bulbo intestinal de Cyprinus Carpio. (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae

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    Patrícia Marega

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The myenteric plexus shows morphologic and quantitative variability in the alimentary canals of different species of animals. We have quantified and analyzed the morphology of the myenteric plexus of ten adult Cyprinus carpio intestinal bulbs, by means of histological cross sections stained with HE and Van Gieson methods, as well as Giemsa-stained whole mount preparations. The myenteric plexus, located between the longitudinal and circular layers of the muscular tunic, is formed by isolated neurons and ganglia. Percentages of small, medium and large neurons were 21%, 63.4% and 15.6%, respectively, with a prevalence of intermediary cytoplasmic basophily and peripheral nuclei. Neuronal density in 6.92mm2 of intestinal bulb was of 2,040 neuronsO plexo mientérico apresenta variabilidade morfológica e quantitativa ao longo do tubo digestório das diferentes espécies animais. No presente trabalho quantificamos e analisamos a morfologia dos neurônios do plexo mientérico de dez bulbos intestinais de Cyprinus carpio, por meio de cortes histológicos corados com HE e Van Gieson e de preparados de membrana corados pelo método de Giemsa. O plexo mientérico foi localizado entre os estratos longitudinal e circular da túnica muscular, sendo constituído por neurônios isolados e por gânglios. As porcentagens de neurônios pequenos, médios e grandes foram 21%, 63,4% e 15,6%, respectivamente, predominando neurônios com basofilia citoplasmática intermediária e núcleo em posição periférica. A análise quantitativa revelou a presença de 2.040 neurônios/6,92mm2 de bulbo intestinal

  14. Diagnóstico de proliferación bacteriana intestinal en niños: evidencia experimental para sustentar el empleo de lactulosa en la prueba de hidrógeno y su validación como prueba tamiz

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    Evelyn Mendoza

    2007-09-01

    Conclusiones. Se aporta evidencia experimental para sustentar el uso de la lactulosa en la prueba de hidrógeno y se valida ésta frente al patrón de referencia como prueba tamiz para diagnosticar la proliferación bacteriana intestinal.

  15. Intestinal spirochetosis: first cases reported in Brazil and the use of immunohistochemistry as an aid in histopathological diagnosis Espiroquetose intestinal: primeiros casos no Brasil e o uso de técnicas imunohistoquímicas como ajuda no diagnóstico histopatológico

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    T. de Brito

    1996-02-01

    ógico foi feito através de colorações de rotina, tais como a hematoxilina-eosina, que mostraram franja basofílica de 3µ de espessura sobre a borda em escova do epitélio e por impregnações pela prata como o método de Whartin-Starry. Métodos imunohistoquímicos, usando dois soros primários policlonais, um contra o Treponema pallidum e o outro contra Leptospira interrogans, serovar copenhageni serogrupo Icterohaemorrhagiae revelaram reatividade cruzada com os antígeno/s dos espiroquetas produzindo um contraste acentuado da franja sobre o epitélio colônico e preservando a morfologia espiralada do parasita. Em um paciente, com acentuada diarréia, a imunohistoquímica detectou antígenos de espiroqueta no citoplasma de uma célula da cripta intestinal, demonstrando que a infecção estava mais disseminada do que parecia pelas colorações comuns. Portanto, os métodos imunohistoquímicos facilitam o diagnóstico histológico da espiroquetose intestinal e podem , também, contribuir para a melhor compreensão da patogenia da doença. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e a microscopia de varredura, realizadas em um paciente, demonstraram que os espiroquetas lembram a espécie designada como Brachyspira aalborgi.

  16. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  17. Intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  18. "Green" synthesized and coated nanaosilver alters the membrance permeability of barrier (intestinal, brain, endothelial) cells and stimulates oxidative stress pathways in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanosilver's (nanoAg) use in medical applications and consumer products is increasing. Because of this, its "green" synthesis and surface modification with beneficial coatings are desirable. Given nanoAg's potential exposure routes (e.g., dermal, intestin...

  19. "Green" synthesized and coated nanaosilver alters the membrance permeability of barrier (intestinal, brain, endothelial) cells and stimulates oxidative stress pathways in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanosilver's (nanoAg) use in medical applications and consumer products is increasing. Because of this, its "green" synthesis and surface modification with beneficial coatings are desirable. Given nanoAg's potential exposure routes (e.g., dermal, intestin...

  20. Utilização da submucosa de intestino delgado porcino como retalho para aumento da capacidade vesical em cães The use of porcine small intestine submucosa as a graft for urinary bladder augmentation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a biocompatibilidade de um enxerto xenogênico de SID como meio de ampliação da capacidade vesical. Métodos: Oito cães mestiços foram submetidos à laparotomia e abertura da bexiga por incisão mediana de 3cm em sua face ventral. Para aumento da capacidade vesical, bem como sua reconstituição, foi interposto um segmento de submucosa porcina, fixando-o à parede vesical. No 30°dia de pós-operatório os animais foram sacrificados e procedeu-se à análise macroscópica. As peças foram então encaminhadas para fixação, coloração e análise microscópica. Resultados: Não se observou seroma, hematoma, abscesso, fístula, deiscência, aderências, litíase e a não incorporação do enxerto. Microscopicamente observou-se em todos os casos uma proliferação do urotélio que recobriu toda a superfície do enxerto, além da presença de fibras musculares lisas no local do implante. Verificou-se proliferação conjuntiva, principalmente às custas de colágeno imaturo do tipo III e reação inflamatória crônica em todos os animais. A proliferação vascular foi acentuada e a reabsorção da membrana foram também observadas. Conclusão: Asubmucosa de intestino delgado porcino participou como um substrato para a regeneração da bexiga e pode ser uma futura alternativa na reconstrução do trato urinário.Purpose: To evaluate the biocompability and histological changes of the porcine intestine submucosa (SIS used for bladder augmentation in dogs. Methods: eight mongrel dogs underwent laparotomy and a 3cm full-thickness midline cistotomy was performed in its ventral surface. In order to produce an immediate augmentation of the bladder, a porcine SIS patch graft was implanted. On the 30th post-operative day the animals were submitted to a second operation for a grossly evaluation of the implanted graft. Results: there was no finding of seroma, hematoma, abscess, fistula, adhesion and stone formation. The bladder was then

  1. Clinical Analysis of Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia in Infants:A Report Of 79 Cases%婴儿肠神经发育异常79例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹强; 周小渔; 刘朝阳; 戴翼; 袁妙贤; 陈立健; 李碧香

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探讨婴儿肠神经发育异常病例的诊疗流程及手术方案选择。【方法】对本院2011年1月至2014年1月间收治的79例经手术﹑病理证实为肠神经发育异常的病例资料进行回顾性分析。患儿年龄4 d至3个月,平均16.9 d。一期手术79例,术后56例获得随诊,行二期手术处理。【结果】一期手术79例术后病理检查均有结肠或回肠末端肠壁神经元发育不良证据;二期手术56例中,40例患儿,距一期手术3个月左右予以关瘘处理;4例先天性巨结肠症患儿,行病变结肠切除+结肠肛门吻合的巨结肠根治术(二期未关瘘);12例钡灌肠表现异常但无特异性表现患儿,予以定期复查6~12个月不等,延期关瘘。【结论】新生儿期肠神经发育不良较常见。随年龄增长,肠神经发育有逐渐成熟的趋势,并且能够维持正常的肠道功能。钡灌肠检查对于婴儿结肠旷置的肠神经异常的病例在二期处理前的初步评估有重要意义。对于诊断困难病例,适当延期观察以及再次手术时多处肠壁浆肌层活检快速冰冻切片检查很有必要。%[Objective] To explore the treatment procedures and operative schemes for children with intes‐tinal neuronal dysplasia .[Methods] Retrospective analysis was conducted for 79 cases of intestinal neuronal dysplasia from January 2011 to January 2014 .Their average age was 16 .9 (4~120) days .And 56 of them were followed up and re‐operated .[Results]Dysplasia of intestinal wall neurons was present in colon or termi‐nal ileum .Among 56 re‐operated cases ,40 underwent fistula closure at around 3 months after initial opera‐tions .Four cases of congenital megacolon underwent radical macrosigmoid operation (without closing fistula) . And 12 cases with unusual and yet non‐specific manifestations on barium enema received regular reexamination within 6~12 months and closure became delayed

  2. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  3. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... source and a camera through which a small clipper can be inserted). The tissue that is removed ... can help. Malabsorption Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Lactose Intolerance Short Bowel ...

  4. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  5. Estudo comparativo entre enxerto autógeno e enxerto muscular coberto com tubo de veia autógeno em nervos tibiais de ratos wistar, utilizando o fluoro-gold® como marcador neuronal Comparative study between autogenous graft and muscular graft covered with autogenous vein tube in wistar rats' tibial nerves using the fluoro-gold® as a neuronal marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da regeneração nervosa através da contagem de neurônios comparando duas técnicas cirúrgicas no tratamento da perda de substância nervosa nos membros inferiores em 15 ratos. Inicialmente obteve-se tubo de veia de 12mm de comprimento retirado da jugular externa esquerda. A seguir, opera-se os dois membros inferiores, expondo o nervo tibial de cada lado e ressecando um segmento de 8 mm do nervo, simulando, ao mesmo tempo, a perda de substância e a obtenção do enxerto nervoso autógeno. A reparação da perda de substância do lado esquerdo consistiu numa enxertia convencional simples para a reparação de lesão nervosa por meio de sutura microcirúrgica. A do membro inferior direito foi pela tubulização com 8 mm de enxerto de músculo quadríceps denaturado com nitrogênio líquido coberto com veia jugular. Após quatro meses, os animais foram submetidos à nova cirurgia para exposição dos nervos tibiais ao marcador neuronal Fluoro Gold®. Após 48 horas, foram perfundidos e o segmento medular entre L3 e S1 foi removido e posteriormente cortado em secções de 40 µm. Houve contagem neuronal de todos os cortes e não foram verificadas diferenças estatísticas entre as duas técnicas cirúrgicas.The purpose of this work was to study nervous regeneration through neurons counts by comparing two surgical techniques for addressing nervous gaps on 15 rats' lower limbs. Initially, a 12-mm long vein tube from the left outer jugular was obtained, and then both lower limbs are operated, exposing the tibial nerve at each side and performing a resection of an 8-mm nerve segment, at the same time simulating a gap and an autogenous nerve graft. Left gap repair consisted of a usual conventional graft for nervous injury repair by means of microsurgical suture. The gap repair on right lower limbs was made through quadriceps muscle, treated with liquid nitrogen, covered with an 8-mm tube of jugular vein

  6. Estudo comparativo da biocompatibilidade da submucosa intestinal porcina e pericárdio bovino usados como enxertos na veia cava de cães Comparative study of the biocompatibility of the porcine intestinal submucosa and bovine pericardium used as grafts in the inferior cava vein of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a biocompatibilidade entre submucosa de intestino delgado (SID porcino e o pericárdio bovino como enxerto no reparo de lesões criadas na veia cava inferior de cães. MÉTODOS: Dezesseis cães foram submetidos a laparotomia. Após a abertura da cavidade abdominal a veia cava foi identificada e em seguida procedeu-se com a retirada de um segmento elíptico de 1,5X3cm de sua parede anterior. Em 8 animais o defeito foi reparado com SID porcino (grupo A e nos 8 animais restantes o defeito foi reparado com pericárdio bovino (grupo B.No 30° dia de P.O. realizou-se uma ultra-sonografia e a eutanásia foi realizada no 40°dia de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Observou-se estenose da veia cava em 1 cão do grupo do grupo A e em 2 animais do grupo B além de trombose em 1 cão desse mesmo grupo. A análise microscópica revelou um processo inflamatório crônico moderado em ambos os grupos. A endotelização do enxerto, regeneração de fibras musculares lisas e depósito de colágeno também foi similar nos 2 grupos estudados. CONCLUSÃO: A SID provou ser um excelente substrato para a regeneração vascular quando implantado em veia cava superior, contudo os resultados encontrados não diferem daqueles observados com o uso de pericárdio bovino.PURPOSE: To compare the biocompatibility of the bovine pericardium and the small intestine submucosa (SIS when used to repair a created defect in the inferior vena cava of dogs. METHODS: Sixteen male mongrel dogs were submitted to a midline laparotomy incision. An elliptical segment (1,5 X 3,0 cm of the inferior vena cava, below the renal veins, was excised. In 8 dogs, the A group, a patch of porcine small bowel submucosa was used to repair the defect. In the 8 remaining dogs, the B group, a bovine pericardium was implanted in the vena cava. On the 30th post-operative day an ultrasound was performed in order to identify stenosis. The euthanasia was accomplished in the 40th post-operative day

  7. Oclusión intestinal mecánica como presentación tardía de una hernia diafragmática postraumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Hernández Toboso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La hernia diafragmática postraumática es una entidad poco frecuente que se presenta solo en el 0,3 al 1, 6 % de todos los traumas abdominales, cerrados o penetrantes. En ocasiones se diagnostica tardíamente. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 35 años, con antecedentes de herida por arma blanca de 5 cm en la base posterior del hemitórax izquierdo 5 años antes del ingreso, que acude por dolor abdominal de tipo cólico y signos de oclusión intestinal, sin antecedentes quirúrgicos abdominales anteriores. Se intervino  quirúrgicamente y se encontró hernia diafragmática de localización izquierda complicada. Tuvo una evolución favorable.

  8. Effect of aminoguanidine on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in neurons in the small intestinal nerve plexus of starved rats%氨基胍对饥饿大鼠小肠肌间神经丛神经元诱导型一氧化氮合酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小平; 陆之辉; 程爱国

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of aminoguanidine on expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in neurons in the small intestinal nerve plexus of starved rats.Methods Ninety male SD rats weighing 230-270 g were randomly divided into 3 groups:group normal control (group C,n =10) ; group starvation (group S,n=40) and group starvation + aminoguanidine (group A,n =40).The animals were allowed free access to water but no food during starvation in S and A groups.In group A the animals were given aminoguanidine 150 mg·kg-1 ·d-1 intraperitoneally during starvation.Ten animals were sacrificed at 3,5,7 and 9 d of starvation respectively and intestine specimens were taken for determination of ratio of intestinal transit using dextran blue-2000 as indicator.Then the specimens of intestinal myenteric nerve plexus of ileum were collected and stained by histochemistry with nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-d for determination of iNOS expression.Results Starvation significantly reduced the small intestinal transit and increased iNOS expression in neurons in the myenteric nerve plexus of small intestine in proportion to days of starvation in group S compared with group C.Intraperitoneal aminoguanidine significantly attenuated the starvation-induced changes in intestinal transit and iNOS expression.Conclusion Aminoguanidine can attenuate the up-regulation of the expression of iNOS in neurons in the myenteric nerve plexus of small intestine induced by starvation and is helpful in promoting the intestinal transit in starved rats.%目的 评价氨基胍对饥饿大鼠小肠肌间神经丛神经元诱导型一氧化氮合酶(iNOS)表达的影响.方法 雄性SD大鼠90只,体重230~270 g,采用随机数字表法,将其随机分为3组:正常对照组(C组,n=10)、饥饿组(S组,n=40)和氨基胍+饥饿组(A组,n=40),S组和A组无饲料供应,自由摄水,A组腹腔注射氨基胍150 mg·kg-1·d-1.S组和A组分别于饥饿3、5、7、9d时取10只动物,采

  9. Nonsulfated cholecystokinins in cerebral neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Mikkel; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Harkany, Tibor

    2016-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a widely expressed neuropeptide system originally discovered in the gut. Both cerebral and peripheral neurons as well as endocrine I-cells in the small intestine process proCCK to tyrosyl-O-sulfated and α-carboxyamidated peptides. Recently, we reported that gut endocrine I...... for nonsulfated CCK-8 with an antibody recognizing both sulfated and nonsulfated CCK. However, nonsulfated CCK immunoreactivity was stronger than that of sulfated CCK in cell bodies and weaker in nerve terminals. We conclude that only a small fraction of neuronal CCK is nonsulfated. The intracellular distribution...... of nonsulfated CCK in neurons suggests that they contribute only modestly to the CCK transmitter activity....

  10. Intestinal Coccidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This

  11. Estudo da regeneração nervosa em nervos tibiais de ratos wistar utilizando o Fluoro-Gold® como marcador neuronal A study on nerve regeneration in tibial nerves of wistars rats, using Fluoro-Gold® as a neuronal tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Sertório Grecco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram em ratos a regeneração nervosa no enxerto nervoso tradicional, comparando-os com grupo controle, através da contagem no nível da medula espinhal, entre L3 e S1, de motoneurônios marcados por meio de exposição do nervo tibial ao Fluoro-Gold® (FG. No grupo controle, ambos os nervos tibiais foram expostos ao FG®, e em 48 horas, após a perfusão, os motoneurônios foram contados. No grupo experimental, foi ressecado um segmento de 8mm do nervo tibial criando uma falha segmentar. O segmento de nervo de um foi usado para reparar o lado contralateral, utilizando sutura epineural. Após quatro meses, o nervo tibial direito foi exposto ao FG após o enxerto nervoso e, o esquerdo, antes do enxerto. Os motoneurônios foram contados após a perfusão. Ambas as medulas foram cortadas em segmentos de 40mm. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados testes de Wilcoxon e Student. O grupo controle apresentou um significativo aumento de motoneurônios quando comparado ao experimental. No grupo experimental, o número de motoneurônios foi significantemente maior, quando a exposição do nervo tibial ao FG® era feita distalmente ao enxerto nervoso. O enxerto nervoso funciona como um bloqueio parcial para a migração dos axônios em regeneração.The authors studied, in rats, of nerve regeneration in nerve grafts comparing with control group using Fluoro-Gold® (FG labeled motor neurons count in spinal cord. In control group both tibial nerves were exposed to FG® and motor neurons counted in spinal cord in 48 hours, after perfusion, in a medular segment from L3 to S1. In experimental group, ressecting 8 mm, a gap was created in both tibial nerves and nerve segment of one nerve was used to repair contralateral side in a traditional nerve graft suture. After four months, right tibial nerve was exposed to FG® distal to graft and left tibial nerve exposed to FG proximal to graft. In 48 hours, after perfusion, motoneurons were

  12. The intestinal tract as the major source of interleukin 6 production during abdominal aortic clamping and hind limb ischaemia-reperfusion injury O trato intestinal como a principal fonte na producao de interleucina 6 durante clampeamento da aorta abdominal e lesão de isquemia/rererfusão de membros inferiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Benedito Palma Pimenta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the hind limbs or intestinal tract is the most important initiator of the inflammatory response secondary aortic clamping and hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury. METHODS: Blood samples of Wistar rats obtained from posterior cava vein, portal vein, and heart cavity during either laparotomy (control group, n=8 or laparotomy + 2 h of aortic clamping and bilateral hind limb ischemia (ischemia group, n=8, or 2 h after ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion group, n=8 were assayed for interleukin 6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP. RESULTS: Serum IL-6 at the heart (223.6±197.9 [10-832] pg/mL was higher (pOBJETIVO: Investigar qual o principal mediador da resposta inflamatória na lesao de isquemia/reperfusão após clampeamento da aorta abdominal e isquemia dos membros inferiores: o intestine ou as extremidades inferiores. MÉTODOS: amostra de sangue de ratos Wistar coletados da cava posterior, porta e cavidade cardíaca during tanto laparotomia (grupo controle n=8 ou laparotomia + 2 horas de clampeamento aórtico e isquemia bilateral de membros posteriores (grupo isquemia n=8, ou 2 h de isquemia seguido por 2 horas de reperfusão (grupo isquemia/reperfusão n=8, onde foram dosados interleucina 6 e proteína C-reativa. RESULTADOS: Il-6 no coração (223.6±197.9 [10-832] pg/mL foi maior (p<0.001 tanto na veia porta (133.08±108.52 [4-372] pg/mL quanto na veia cava posterior (127.58±109.15 [8-388] pg/mL. PCR não foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: o trato intestinal foi responsável pela resposta inflamatória secundária a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão.

  13. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a local mediator in a gut-brain neural axis activating intestinal gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, F; Plessier, F; Gautier-Stein, A; Mithieux, G

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) promotes metabolic benefits through activation of a gut-brain neural axis. However, the local mediator activating gluconeogenic genes in the enterocytes remains unknown. We show that (i) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling through VPAC1 receptor activates the intestinal glucose-6-phosphatase gene in vivo, (ii) the activation of IGN by propionate is counteracted by VPAC1 antagonism, and (iii) VIP-positive intrinsic neurons in the submucosal plexus are increased under the action of propionate. These data support the role of VIP as a local neuromodulator released by intrinsic enteric neurons and responsible for the induction of IGN through a VPAC1 receptor-dependent mechanism in enterocytes.

  15. Intestinal inflammation and pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Lilian; Bourreille, Arnaud; Dietrich, Gilles

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal inflammation results in the production of inflammatory pain-inducing mediators that may directly activate colon sensory neurons. Endogenous opioids produced by mucosal effector CD4(+) T lymphocytes identified as colitogenic may paradoxically counterbalance the local pro-algesic effect of inflammatory mediators by acting on opioid receptors expressed on sensory nerve endings. The review will focus on the endogenous immune-mediated regulation of visceral inflammatory pain, current pain treatments in inflammatory bowel diseases and prospectives on new opioid therapeutic opportunities to alleviate pain but avoiding common centrally-mediated side effects.

  16. Malacoplaquia intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  17. Efectos de la exposición crónica al etanol sobre el tráfico intracelular y citoesqueleto como factores implicados en la migración neuronal

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El consumo de etanol durante la gestación puede inducir una serie de alteraciones graves en el desarrollo del feto, la manifestación más extrema da lugar al Síndrome Alcohólico Fetal (SAF). La exposición prenatal al alcohol es la causa conocida y, además evitable, más importante de retraso mental en el mundo occidental. Además de déficits cognitivos, los niños con SAF presentan múltiples anomalías estructurales en el sistema nervioso central, como reducción de la masa cerebral, y a nivel celu...

  18. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function.

  19. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  20. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  1. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. The ileocecal valve of the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the ...

  2. Intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001151.htm Small intestinal ischemia and infarction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intestinal ischemia and infarction occurs when there is a narrowing ...

  3. ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons: co-existence and co-absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Martin; Schlabrakowski, Anne; Schrödl, Falk; Neuhuber, Winfried; Brehmer, Axel

    2009-10-01

    Most myenteric neurons contain one of the two generating enzymes for major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Two minor groups of myenteric neurons contain either both enzymes or neither. Our study had two aims: (1) to compare the proportions of neurons stained for ChAT and/or NOS in human small and large intestinal whole-mounts by co-staining with an antibody against the human neuronal protein Hu C/D (HU); (2) to characterize these neurons morphologically by co-staining with a neurofilament (NF) antibody. In small intestinal whole-mounts co-stained with HU, we counted more ChAT-positive (ChAT+) than NOS+ neurons (52% vs. 38%), whereas the large intestine exhibited fewer ChAT+ than NOS+ neurons (38% vs. 50%). Neurons co-reactive for both ChAT and NOS accounted for about 3% in both regions, whereas neurons negative for both enzymes accounted for 7% in the small intestine and 8% in the large intestine. Co-staining with NF revealed that, in both small and large intestine, ChAT+/NOS+ neurons were either spiny (type I) neurons or displayed smaller perikarya that were weakly or not NF-stained. Of all spiny neurons, almost one third was co-reactive for ChAT and NOS, whereas nearly two thirds were positive only for NOS. Neurons negative for both ChAT and NOS were heterogeneous in size and NF reactivity. Thus, neither the co-existence nor the co-absence of ChAT and NOS in human myenteric neurons is indicative for particular neuron types, with several qualitative and quantitative parameters showing a wide range of interindividual variability.

  4. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  5. Vertebrate intestinal endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jason R; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F

    2011-03-01

    The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence, as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz-Yagüe

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.

  7. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Marín, J C; Colina, F; Ibarrola, C; López-Alonso, G; Martín, M A; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.

  8. El donjuanismo como conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés Ahumada

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available ¡Don Juan! ¡Como un estudiante! ¡Como un infante! ¡Como un pirata! Se trata, por tanto, de pensar sobre el donjuanismo. Pero no bien acabo de escribir esta palabra, o mejor todavía, de balbucir una meditación acerca de esta perspectiva dinámica y en extremo viviente, porque aún sin saber nada de él algo de nosotros se dispara en emotivas tensiones y sensuales distensiones, cuando caigo en la cuenta de que el tema es sumamente complejo.

  9. Mirror neurons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal...

  10. Jejunum ileal intestinal atresia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Puente Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal atresia is one of the most important causes of intestinal obstruction in newborn. They constitute aorund 95% of total intestinal obstructions in this age group. Most of intestinal atresias are jejunoieal atresia. Although it is not frequent their relationship with other congenital anomalies, has been described the association in some cases with defects of intestine rotation, meconium peritonitis, with meconium ileus and rarely with the Hirschsprung diseases. The hereditary character has also been described in certain multiple intestinal atresias. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Jejunoileal atresia, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.

  11. Intestinal M cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions.

  12. Impacto de ingrediente funcional sobre a saúde intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Santos Souza

    2014-01-01

    O microbioma intestinal influencia de maneira positiva e/ou negativa o bem estar e o equilíbrio da saúde no organismo humano. Carboidratos não disponíveis, tais como frutanos e amido resistente (encontrado na farinha de banana verde), são ingredientes funcionais que resistem à digestão, estimulam o peristaltismo e o trânsito intestinal, e podem aumentar população de bactérias benéficas. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto do consumo regular e descontinuado (durante 6 semana...

  13. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  14. El derecho como hecho o como norma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto José Vernengo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Para el historiador, antiguamente, y para el sociólogo, en nuestros días, el derecho es un fenómeno empírico. El derecho de una sociedad es un dato de su realidad: historiador o sociólogo tienen que buscar el derecho en alguna experiencia empírica accesible. Sin embargo, no es fácil toparse con el derecho de una sociedad, como, por caso, con el derecho argentino actual, pues no sabemos muy bien a qué datos de la realidad apuntar. Aquéllos que discernimos aparecen teñidos por alguna concepción previa que tengamos sobre qué haya de entenderse por derecho. (...

  15. Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the

  16. Neuromodulation of intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costes, L.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the central nervous system and the immune system have been shown to exert a crucial role in the tight regulation of the immune response in the intestine. In particular, the vagus nerve was recently unraveled as an important player in this neuromodulation of intestinal inflammati

  17. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  18. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  19. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  20. Regulation of intestinal lipid absorption by clock genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Plasma levels of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols, the lipoproteins that transport them, and proteins involved in their absorption from the intestinal lumen fluctuate in a circadian manner. These changes are likely controlled by clock genes expressed in the intestine that are probably synchronized by neuronal and humoral signals from the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which constitute a master clock entrained by light signals from the eyes and from the environment, e.g., food availability. Acute changes in circadian rhythms--e.g., due to nonsynchronous work schedules or a transcontinental flight--may trigger intestinal discomfort. Chronic disruptions in circadian control mechanisms may predispose the individual to irritable bowel syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and peptic ulcer disease. A more detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying temporal changes in intestinal activity might allow us to identify novel targets for developing therapeutic approaches to these disorders.

  1. Intestinal invagination Invaginación intestinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamnelys Aguilar Atanay

    Full Text Available Intestinal intussusceptions are the most frequent cause of acute surgical occlusive syndrome in infants; it is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases. Their treatment can be conservative, with reduction by means of imaging and hydrostatic procedures, or surgical. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intestinal intussusceptions, approved by consensus in the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 – 26, 2004.
    La invaginación intestinal es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de abdomen agudo quirúrgico oclusivo en lactantes y es idiopática en más del 90 % de los casos. Su tratamiento puede ser conservador, con reducción mediante procedimientos hidrostáticos combinados con vigilancia imaginológica, o quirúrgico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para invaginación intestinal, aprobada por consenso en el 3er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Camagüey, 23 al 26 de febrero de 2004.

  2. Mycotoxins and the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  3. O MAPA COMO RELATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Moreira Marquez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio propõe uma reflexão crítica sobre o mapa como modelo privilegiado de representação do espaço. Partindo da iconografia historicamente verificada com a disseminação do imaginário do globo terrestre e buscando os possíveis estratos heterotópicos ou margens de desobediência cartográfica atuantes nos mapas existentes bem como na emergência de novos mapas, aborda algumas das suas transformações históricas na tensão constantemente experimentada entre inventário e invenção, através de um conjunto selecionado de reflexões e proposições de autores vindos não da geografia mas das artes visuais e da literatura tais como Joaquín Torres-García, Georges Perec, Joan Brossa, Julio Cortázar e outros. Frente à análise da aplicabilidade do mapa como relato subjetivo e da sua aproximação com uma experiência cartográfica múltipla e diversa capaz de inventariar, nos lugares estudados, a qualidade poética da vida, o mapa ressurge, assim, como ciência das qualidades em detrimento de campo das quantidades. Propõe-se, conclusivamente, repensar a cartografia como uma plataforma científica que, mesmo nas suas origens, já guardava uma potência mítica para relatos abertos e transversais à ciência e que, no contexto atual, pode tornar-se uma plataforma de ação criativa em prol de novas sensibilidades perceptivas, novos mundos estéticos e novos movimentos prospectivos de transformação imaginativa do espaço, ampliando e complexificando o esforço de conhecer as nossas relações geográficas.

  4. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, F.

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane

  5. El libro como performance

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La comunidad poética Estación Pringles entabla un diálogo intrigante con el formato libro. Por una parte, su acercamiento teatral a la poesía parecería excluir la posibilidad de ver este medio como un modelo para el proyecto. Sin embargo, en su diálogo con la línea poética iniciada por Stéphane Mallarmé, esta iniciativa artística propone un concepto del libro como performance. Esta orientación es evidente, además, en la producción impresa de Estación Pringles. The poetry community Estación...

  6. O corpo como pulso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Liberman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O corpo é foco de muitos estudos e intervenções. Alguns paradigmas o concebem apenas em seu aspecto sensório-motor, enquanto outros transitam prioritariamente por uma dimensão psicológica. Procurando contribuir para a formulação de outras perspectivas no campo, apresentam-se aspectos da concepção de corpo de Stanley Keleman em ressonância com os estudos de Regina Favre. A partir de cenas clínicas em grupos de seminários, podemos pensar o corpo como pulso, multimídia, multifacetado, que se (des constrói permanentemente nos encontros. Articulando experiências clínicas da autora como terapeuta ocupacional e docente da graduação e em grupos de estudos, essas concepções servem como guia para uma clínica pensada, construída e balizada pelo corpo mediante utilização de abordagens corporais para a promoção de encontros plasmados por afetos e acontecimentos, na tentativa de criar corpos que possam sustentar as intensidades vividas e permitam a observação de si, a aproximação com o outro e a produção de singularidades.

  7. O corpo como pulso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Liberman

    Full Text Available O corpo é foco de muitos estudos e intervenções. Alguns paradigmas o concebem apenas em seu aspecto sensório-motor, enquanto outros transitam prioritariamente por uma dimensão psicológica. Procurando contribuir para a formulação de outras perspectivas no campo, apresentam-se aspectos da concepção de corpo de Stanley Keleman em ressonância com os estudos de Regina Favre. A partir de cenas clínicas em grupos de seminários, podemos pensar o corpo como pulso, multimídia, multifacetado, que se (des constrói permanentemente nos encontros. Articulando experiências clínicas da autora como terapeuta ocupacional e docente da graduação e em grupos de estudos, essas concepções servem como guia para uma clínica pensada, construída e balizada pelo corpo mediante utilização de abordagens corporais para a promoção de encontros plasmados por afetos e acontecimentos, na tentativa de criar corpos que possam sustentar as intensidades vividas e permitam a observação de si, a aproximação com o outro e a produção de singularidades.

  8. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  9. Types of neurons in the enteric nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J B

    2000-07-01

    This paper, written for the symposium in honour of more than 40 years' contribution to autonomic research by Professor Geoffrey Burnstock, highlights the progress made in understanding the organisation of the enteric nervous system over this time. Forty years ago, the prevailing view was that the neurons within the gut wall were post-ganglionic neurons of parasympathetic pathways. This view was replaced as evidence accrued that the neurons are part of the enteric nervous system and are involved in reflex and integrative activities that can occur even in the absence of neuronal influence from extrinsic sources. Work in Burnstock's laboratory led to the discovery of intrinsic inhibitory neurons with then novel pharmacology of transmission, and precipitated investigation of neuron types in the enteric nervous system. All the types of neurons in the enteric nervous system of the small intestine of the guinea-pig have now been identified in terms of their morphologies, projections, primary neurotransmitters and physiological identification. In this region there are 14 functionally defined neuron types, each with a characteristic combination of morphological, neurochemical and biophysical properties. The nerve circuits underlying effects on motility, blood flow and secretion that are mediated through the enteric nervous system are constructed from these neurons. The circuits for simple motility reflexes are now known, and progress has been made in analysing those involved in local control of blood flow and transmucosal fluid movement in the small intestine.

  10. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Mirosław Łakomy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and neuropeptide Y (NPY, in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  11. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the small intestine during an upper GI endoscopy. Biopsy A gastroenterologist can obtain a biopsy of the ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  12. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    citrulline levels are predictive of intestinal recovery, or not, remains to be confirmed. ... GI secretions, salivary Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) release and gallbladder .... This cause of neonatal diarrhoea requires permanent PN. However,.

  13. Small intestine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. The pyloric sphincter governs the passage of partly digested food ...

  14. The intestinal stem cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to

  15. Central nervous system regulation of intestinal lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Sarah; Taher, Jennifer; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-02-01

    In response to nutrient availability, the small intestine and brain closely communicate to modulate energy homeostasis and metabolism. The gut-brain axis involves complex nutrient sensing mechanisms and an integration of neuronal and hormonal signaling. This review summarizes recent evidence implicating the gut-brain axis in regulating lipoprotein metabolism, with potential implications for the dyslipidemia of insulin resistant states. The intestine and brain possess distinct mechanisms for sensing lipid availability, which triggers subsequent regulation of feeding, glucose homeostasis, and adipose tissue metabolism. More recently, central receptors, neuropeptides, and gut hormones that communicate with the brain have been shown to modulate hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism via parasympathetic and sympathetic signaling. Gut-derived glucagon-like peptides appear to be particularly important in modulating the intestinal secretion of chylomicron particles via a novel brain-gut axis. Dysregulation of these pathways may contribute to postprandial diabetic dyslipidemia. Emerging evidence implicates the central and enteric nervous systems in controlling many aspects of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain involving neuronal pathways and gut peptides is critical for regulating feeding and metabolism, and forms a neuroendocrine circuit to modulate dietary fat absorption and intestinal production of atherogenic chylomicron particles.

  16. Neurochemical coding of enteric neurons in adult and embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttebroek, Leen; Shepherd, Iain T; Harrisson, Fernand; Hubens, Guy; Blust, Ronny; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Van Nassauw, Luc

    2010-11-01

    Although the morphology and development of the zebrafish enteric nervous system have been extensively studied, the precise neurochemical coding of enteric neurons and their proportional enteric distribution are currently not known. By using immunohistochemistry, we determined the proportional expression and coexpression of neurochemical markers in the embryonic and adult zebrafish intestine. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) were observed only in nerve fibers, whereas other markers were also detected in neuronal cell bodies. Calretinin and calbindin had similar distributions. In embryos, all markers, except for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and TH, were present from 72 hours postfertilization. Nitrergic neurons, evenly distributed and remaining constant in time, constituted the major neuronal subpopulation. The neuronal proportions of the other markers increased during development and were characterized by regional differences. In the adult, all markers examined were expressed in the enteric nervous system. A large percentage of enteric neurons displayed calbindin and calretinin, and serotonin was the only marker showing significant distribution differences in the three intestinal regions. Colocalization studies showed that serotonin was not coexpressed with any of the other markers. At least five neuronal subpopulations were determined: a serotonergic, a nitrergic noncholinergic, two cholinergic nonnitrergic subpopulations along with one subpopulation expressing both ChAT and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Analysis of nerve fibers revealed that nitrergic neurons coexpress VIP and PACAP, and that nitrergic neurons innervate the tunica muscularis, whereas serotonergic and cholinergic nonnitrergic neurons innervate the lamina propria and the tunica muscularis.

  17. COMO? PALETAS MEXICANAS BRASILEIRAS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Maria Alves Chaud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As informações sobre alimentação estão mais acessíveis e democráticas. As tendências alimentares são inspiradas por diversos fatores, mas sempre estão associados à moda, mídia e como forma de conjectura de um estilo de vida. Há pouco tempo, as grandes cidades brasileiras foram invadidas por uma nova mania: as paletas mexicanas, que, na verdade, não são “tão mexicanas”. Esses sorvetes apresentam qualidades organolépticas marcantes, em virtude, entre outros fatores, ao alto teor de açúcar e, em alguns casos, de gorduras. A concepção gourmetizada e natural dessa iguaria, seu custo e as propriedades nutricionais são peculiares e, aparentemente, um modismo. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer a composição desses produtos, a partir das informações nutricionais contidas nos sites das empresas produtoras, bem como as suas peculiaridades e concepções. Apesar da conotação natural e gastronômica, alto valor calórico, gorduras (especialmente na versão recheada sabor brigadeiro e elevadas quantidades de açúcares, foram encontrados, em média, por unidade: 207,2 Kcal; 38,4g de carboidratos; 3,9g de proteínas e 5,3g de gorduras. Uma rica ênfase na cultura mexicana, religiosidade e identidade visual marcante foram identificadas nos sites dos produtos pesquisados.

  18. COMO ANDAR SEM POESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fronckowiak

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O artigo reflete sobre a fruição do gênero poético por crianças ainda não alfabetizadas a partir de momentos compartilhados com elas no cotidiano de escolas de Educação Infantil. Essa vivência, vinculada ao projeto de pesquisa Poesia e infância1, demonstrou a relevância de possibilitar às crianças um contato intenso com a poesia, texto singular que as capacita a expressar, na sua linguagem, o modo como interagem com o outro e com o mundo. Através de encontros semanais com crianças de 4 a 6 anos de duas escolas da região do Vale do Rio Pardo/RS, foi possível perceber uma extrema abertura da infância para os jogos vocabulares e sonoros. Na continuidade da pesquisa, pudemos estudar as características textuais mais valorizados pelas crianças na escuta de textos poéticos. Uma hipótese era a de que a audição regular de poemas potencializava a repercussão e a ressonância, aspectos apontados por Gaston Bachelard como intrínsecos ao devaneio poético, experiência oportunizada pela leitura/audição da poesia e que faculta ao leitor encontrar “um não-eu meu que me permite viver minha confiança de estar no mundo” (BACHELARD, 1988, p. 132. Ancorado nos resultados obtidos, este texto defende a rima e o discurso predominante do poema como fatores essenciais para os pequenos experimentarem a ressonância poética.

  19. El docente como investigador

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales Sánchez, Olga; Jiménez Carrillo, María de los Ángeles

    2009-01-01

    En el campo de la docencia se presenta a menudo un gran abismo entre teoría y práctica. Los docente en su mayoría consideran que la teoría y la investigación tienen muy poca la relación con su quehacer diario.El propósito de este trabajo es el de presentar algunas ideas acerca del rol del docente como investigador. Es del conocimiento de las autoras el temor y la preocupación que expresan lo maestros y profesores ante al posibilidad de realizar investigaciones sobre su trabajo en el aula.Segú...

  20. Licopeno como agente antioxidante

    OpenAIRE

    Najua Juma Ismail Esh Shami; Emília Addison Machado Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho constitui uma revisão de dados científicos sobre o consumo de licopeno e sua ação como fator antioxidante. O licopeno é considerado o carotenóide que possui a maior capacidade seqüestrante do oxigênio singlete. Radicais livres agem continuamente no organismo, podendo desencadear danos celulares e serem os responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento de câncer e certas doenças crônicas. Estudos mostram que o licopeno protege moléculas de lipídios, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, proteínas...

  1. La democracia como dictadura

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Soto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    En este ensayo expongo una radical desmitificación de la imagen que se tiene de la dictadura chilena de Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, que es vista habitualmente como un período de terror uniforme y aplastante, que habría asfixiado todo protagonismo popular. A partir de la distinción de fases en los estilos represivos y en la respuesta popular, propongo que esta imagen ha sido construida artificialmente para encubrir la continuidad histórica entre la dictadura de Pinochet y el actual régimen democr...

  2. Transplanted progenitors generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal colon

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapy has the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseases of the enteric nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that various stem/progenitor cells can give rise to functional neurons in the embryonic gut; however, it is not yet known whether transplanted neural progenitor cells can migrate, proliferate, and generate functional neurons in the postnatal bowel in vivo. We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural c...

  3. The intestine is a blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  4. Obesidad y microbiótica intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Pollo Vegas, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    La creciente prevalencia de la obesidad por una parte, y los avances tecnológicos en las técnicas genéticas por otra, han despertado gran interés por las causas de la obesidad y en concreto han permitido explorar un nuevo campo de investigación en la etiopatogenia de la obesidad. Numerosos estudios han establecido una relación causal entre el microbiota intestinal que coloniza el tracto digestivo y el desarrollo de obesidad o sobrepeso, así como, la relación entre la obesidad, el cambio...

  5. Obesidad y microbiótica intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Pollo Vegas, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    La creciente prevalencia de la obesidad por una parte, y los avances tecnológicos en las técnicas genéticas por otra, han despertado gran interés por las causas de la obesidad y en concreto han permitido explorar un nuevo campo de investigación en la etiopatogenia de la obesidad. Numerosos estudios han establecido una relación causal entre el microbiota intestinal que coloniza el tracto digestivo y el desarrollo de obesidad o sobrepeso, así como, la relación entre la obesidad, el cambio...

  6. Characterization of enteric neurons in wild-type and mutant zebrafish using semi-automated cell counting and co-expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Levi W; Ganz, Julia; Melancon, Ellie; Eisen, Judith S

    2013-06-01

    To characterize fluorescent enteric neurons labeled for expression of cytoplasmic markers in zebrafish mutants, we developed a new MATLAB-based program that can be trained by user input. We used the program to count enteric neurons and to analyze co-expression of the neuronal marker, Elavl, and the neuronal subtype marker, serotonin, in 3D confocal image stacks of dissected whole-mount zebrafish intestines. We quantified the entire population of enteric neurons and the serotonergic subpopulation in specific regions of the intestines of gutwrencher mutant and wild-type sibling larvae. We show a marked decrease in enteric neurons in gutwrencher mutants that is more severe at the caudal end of the intestine. We also show that gutwrencher mutants have the same number of serotonin-positive enteroendocrine cells in the intestine as wild types.

  7. Aprendizaje como reconfiguracion de agencia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larreamendy Joerns, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    En este articulo se ofrece una perspectiva sobre el aprendizaje como cambio en la identidad, tomando como punto de referencia la teoria de la participacion periferica legitima (PPL) de Lave y Wenger (1991...

  8. Identification of motor neurons and a mechanosensitive sensory neuron in the defecation circuitry of Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Bingxue; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-10-30

    Defecation allows the body to eliminate waste, an essential step in food processing for animal survival. In contrast to the extensive studies of feeding, its obligate counterpart, defecation, has received much less attention until recently. In this study, we report our characterizations of the defecation behavior of Drosophila larvae and its neural basis. Drosophila larvae display defecation cycles of stereotypic frequency, involving sequential contraction of hindgut and anal sphincter. The defecation behavior requires two groups of motor neurons that innervate hindgut and anal sphincter, respectively, and can excite gut muscles directly. These two groups of motor neurons fire sequentially with the same periodicity as the defecation behavior, as revealed by in vivo Ca(2+) imaging. Moreover, we identified a single mechanosensitive sensory neuron that innervates the anal slit and senses the opening of the intestine terminus. This anus sensory neuron relies on the TRP channel NOMPC but not on INACTIVE, NANCHUNG, or PIEZO for mechanotransduction.

  9. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico complicado por vasculite intestinal e pneumatose intestinal Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by intestinal vasculitis and pneumatosis intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Karine Marinello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As manifestações gastrointestinais no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES não são incomuns. Frequentemente são encontrados sintomas inespecíficos, como dor abdominal, náuseas, vômitos e diarreia. Por outro lado, a pneumatose intestinal, caracterizada por múltiplos cistos preenchidos por ar na parede intestinal, é uma condição raramente associada ao LES. Descreve-se a seguir o caso de um homem de 20 anos que foi internado por febre, perda ponderal, cefaleia e artrite, cuja investigação mostrou tratar-se de LES. Na evolução, apresentou quadro abdominal sugestivo de vasculite intestinal, com tomografia computadorizada de abdome revelando sinal do duplo halo ou do alvo e pneumatose intestinal. Realizado tratamento conservador com antibioticoterapia endovenosa, repouso intestinal e nutrição parenteral total, com resolução do quadro abdominal.Gastrointestinal manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are not uncommon. Non specific symptoms are often observed, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. On the other hand, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, which is characterized by multiple gas-filled cysts located throughout the intestinal wall, is a rare condition in SLE. We describe a case of a 20-year-old man who was admitted with fever, weight loss, headache and arthralgia and had a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. During his hospital stay, he developed abdominal symptoms that suggested intestinal vasculitis. The computed tomography of the abdomen showed the double halo sign, or target sign and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. The patient presented complete recovery after conservative treatment, with intestinal rest and total parenteral nutrition.

  10. O ensaio como narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta demonstrar que todos os textos, mesmo aqueles cuja natureza é teórica, têm alguma forma de narrativa. Nem sempre são personagens que os ocupam, podem ser ideias, mas mesmo assim há um enredo conceitual que se passa. Modernamente, a forma dessa narrativa foi sobretudo o sistema, com a pretensão totalizadora presente, por exemplo, na filosofia de Hegel. Contemporaneamente, porém, a forma do ensaio – surgida ainda na era moderna – ganha destaque por sua forma descontínua de narrar. O objetivo do artigo é apontar que, se o ensaio é uma forma, como explicitaram Lukács, Benjamin e Adorno, ele é também uma forma de narrar – ainda que de narrar conceitualmente objetos da cultura.

  11. Racismo como metaenquadre

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    RESUMO Este artigo pretende discutir questões relativas ao racismo tendo como lastro principalmente contribuições da psicologia social. Para tanto, faz menção a dois conceitos. São eles: enquadre e metaenquadre. O primeiro foi teorizado pelo psicólogo social José Bleger e o segundo é uma ampliação desse e foi conceituado por René Kaës, teórico da psicanálise dos laços sociais. O artigo finaliza-se com situações que envolvem processos socioculturais, histórico-educacionais que trazem à baila p...

  12. La identidad como performatividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Castelar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión social por constituir una forma indentitaria que sea acorde con el referente biológico es de origen histórico y se encuentra al servicio de prácticas de control y dominación social. Este artículo presenta una discusión sobre el lugar actual de la idea de identidad, especialmente en el plano de la sexualidad. Para esto recurre a la tesis de la filósofa Judith Butler, quien propone desde una visión deconstructivista y post-estructuralista una nueva definición de idenridad en términos de la iteración performativa. La identiclad es entendida entonces como una exigencia de inteligibiliclacl ante la sociedad, la cual limita las posibiliclades de expresión sexual.

  13. La persona como creatura

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal d...

  14. El inquisidor como profesor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano PROSPERI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botero, en una célebre página de su Ragion di stato, se detuvo sobre el tema de la fuerza de la religión en los gobiernos. Esta función de la religión cristiana —para Botero, católica— es garante del orden público y se presenta también como opuesta a la generadora de desorden de Lutero y Calvino, quienes siembran por todo cizañas y revoluciones de estados y ruinas de los reinos. Estamos en los orígenes del esquema historiografía de la periodización de la Edad Moderna que confió precisamente a la Reforma el papel de nodriza de las revoluciones que nacieron en Europa.

  15. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome.

  16. Pediatric intestinal leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports an infant presenting with leiomyosarcoma of the small intestine. The patient presented with intermittent abdominal pain. Examination revealed a hard and mobile intraperitoneal mass. The tumor arose from the mid-ileum with regional lymphadenopathy. Excision of the tumor along with the involved bowel was performed followed by three cycles of chemotherapy. Histological diagnosis was that of a low-grade malignant leiomyosarcoma of the small intestine. Surgical excision was followed by three cycles of chemotherapy. After surgery and three cycles of chemotherapy, the patient was followed up for four years with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Surgery followed by chemotherapy was curative for leiomyosarcoma in our patient. Intestinal leiomyosarcoma should be kept as a differential diagnosis for mobile solid intraabdominal tumors in childhood.

  17. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  18. Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erpecum, K J; Van Berge-Henegouwen, G P

    1999-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.

  19. Best practice for passaging murine embryonic enteric neuronal cell line before differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietdijk, Carmen D.; de Haan, Lydia; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2016-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a complex network of neurons in the gut, regulating many local, vital functions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The ENS is also part of the bidirectional gut-brain axis. The murine immorto fetal enteric neuronal (IM-FEN) cell line was chosen as a model to study en

  20. Do the ependymal cells contain vasoactive intestinal polypeptide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, H; Masuko, S

    1989-12-04

    Immunoreaction for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the ependymal cells was investigated using two different commercially available polyclonal antisera for VIP. Immunostaining with an anti-VIP serum showed strong reaction products in the ependymal cells of the central canal and the third ventricle, in addition to immunoreactive neuronal elements in the spinal cord and in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Staining of the ependymal cells was not reduced by preabsorption of the antiserum with synthetic VIP, while the immunoreactive neuronal elements disappeared. Such staining of the ependymal cells was not found using other antiserum.

  1. Nutrición artificial en la insuficiencia intestinal: síndrome de intestino corto: Enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Artificial nutrition in intestinal failure: short bowel syndrome. Intestinal inflammatory disease

    OpenAIRE

    T. Grau Carmona; A. Bonet Saris; F. Fernández Ortega

    2005-01-01

    La resección intestinal amplia produce suficientes alteraciones como para requerir soporte nutricional especializado. Las medidas básicas de tratamiento, especial-mente en la fase aguda tras la resección intestinal o en presencia de complicaciones graves sobre pacientes con intestino corto, incluyen la repleción de fluidos y electro-litos y la instauración de soporte nutricional con el fin de prevenir la malnutrición. La nutrición enteral es el principal factor estimulador de la adaptación de...

  2. Disbiosis intestinal en enfermos de Crohn pediátricos

    OpenAIRE

    Blanca Pueyo; Núria Mach

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) pediátrica es un desorden caracterizado por presentar inflamación crónica que puede afectar cualquier segmento del tracto gastrointestinal. La disbiosis intestinal es un factor implicado en la patogénesis multifactorial de esta enfermedad. Diferentes suplementos dietarios se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión de la EC. Objetivo: Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre disbiosis intestinal en paciente...

  3. [Intestinal microbiocenosis in children with intestinal enzymopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilova, A T; Akhmedov, N N; Pulatova, D B; Nurmatov, B A

    2001-01-01

    141 children with different kinds of intestinal enzymopathy were examined; of these, 33 had celiac disease, 39--the syndrome of celiac disease, 12--congenital lactase deficiency and 57--the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency. In these patients a significant decrease in the average characteristics of the main protective flora and the growth of hemolytic and lactose-negative enterobacteria were established. In all groups of patients increased amounts of Proteus were detected, which was indicative of profound dysbiosis. The content of bifidobacteria was found to be decreased in 89.5-97% of the patients and the content of lactic acid bacteria, in 15.8-33.3%. The decreased content of Escherichia coli with normal enzymatic activity (less than 10(7) colony-forming units) was noted in one-third of the patients with the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency, in about a half of the patients with the syndrome of disaccharidase insufficiency and least of all in patients with celiac disease (9.1%). The association of opportunistic microbes was detected in 15.6% of the patients, more often in those with celiac disease, the syndrome of celiac disease and congenital lactase deficiency. The severity of disturbances in intestinal eubiosis was found to depend on the gravity of the patients' state.

  4. Increased intestinal permeability correlates with sigmoid mucosa alpha-synuclein staining and endotoxin exposure markers in early Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Forsyth

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. The pathological hallmark of PD is neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies whose main component is alpha-synuclein protein. The finding of these Lewy bodies in the intestinal enteric nerves led to the hypothesis that the intestine might be an early site of PD disease in response to an environmental toxin or pathogen. One potential mechanism for environmental toxin(s and proinflammatory luminal products to gain access to mucosal neuronal tissue and promote oxidative stress is compromised intestinal barrier integrity. However, the role of intestinal permeability in PD has never been tested. We hypothesized that PD subjects might exhibit increased intestinal permeability to proinflammatory bacterial products in the intestine. To test our hypothesis we evaluated intestinal permeability in subjects newly diagnosed with PD and compared their values to healthy subjects. In addition, we obtained intestinal biopsies from both groups and used immunohistochemistry to assess bacterial translocation, nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress, and alpha-synuclein. We also evaluated serum markers of endotoxin exposure including LPS binding protein (LBP. Our data show that our PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness than controls. In addition, this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects. These data represent not only the first demonstration of abnormal intestinal permeability in PD subjects but also the first correlation of increased intestinal permeability in PD with intestinal alpha-synuclein (the hallmark of PD, as well as staining for gram negative bacteria and tissue oxidative stress. Our study may thus shed new light on PD pathogenesis as well as provide a new method for

  5. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  6. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  7. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  8. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  9. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan; Bures; Jiri; Cyrany; Darina; Kohoutova; Miroslav; Frstl; Stanislav; Rejchrt; Jaroslav; Kvetina; Viktor; Vorisek; Marcela; Kopacova

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymi-crobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO).SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. There...

  10. An electrophysiological investigation of the effects of cholecystokinin entric neurons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, I.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide, which is present in the gastrointestinat tract in endocrine cells and in the enteric nervous system (ENS). A possible function in the control of motility of the small intestine has been attributed to neuronal CCK. The aim of this thesis was  to obtain a fundamenta

  11. Intestinal paracoccidioidomycosis simulating colon cancer Paracoccidioidomicose intestinal simulando câncer de cólon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Chojniak

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intestinal involvement of Paracoccidioidomycosis, in a patient considered to have colonic cancer. The diagnosis of this mycosis should be considered when an abdominal mass associated with intra-lesional calcifications on X-ray is observed. CT scans increase the findings.Relatamos um caso de envolvimento intestinal pela Paracoccidioidomicose, em paciente considerado como portador de câncer. O diagnóstico desta micose deve ser considerado na presença de massa abdominal associada a calcificações intralesionais ao raio X. A tomografia amplia os achados.

  12. La persona como creatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal dimensión aparece, según Housset, junto con la idea de persona como creatura y en oposición a la de individuo racional dueño de sí. La dimensión afectiva, la personalidad despertada por las diversas figuras de la alteridad son algunas de las dimensiones de la persona que examina el autor a partir del examen de la carne, las pasiones, la memoria, la historicidad y el amor alteridad.Emmanuel Housset's paper is an effort to revitalize the concept of 'person' for contemporary philosophy and phenomenology To this end the author looks to show how little by little the understanding of 'person' took on a different meaning to that of 'character' or "right bearing individual". It is in authors such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas that a different approach is found, one that puts emphasis on the relational and responsive character of a person, rather than on the autonomous and auto telic dimension. According to Housset, such a dimension appears together with the idea of the person as a creation, and in opposition to the idea of the rational individual, that is his own master. The emotional dimension and the personality that is awoken by the many figures of alterity are some of the dimensions of the person that the author analyzes, based on examining the flesh, passions, memory historicity and love.

  13. Aging and the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Over the lifetime of the animal, there are many changes in the function of the body's organ systems. In the gastrointestinal tract there is a general modest decline in the function of the esophagus, stomach, colon,pancreas and liver. In the small intestine, there may be subtle alterations in the intestinal morphology, as well as a decline in the uptake of fatty acids and sugars.The malabsorption may be partially reversed by aging glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) or dexamethasone.Modifications in the type of lipids in the diet will influence the intestinal absorption of nutrients: for example, in mature rats a diet enriched with saturated as compared with polysaturated fatty acids will enhance lipid and sugar uptake, whereas in older animals the opposite effect is observed. Thus, the results of studies of the intestinal adaptation performed in mature rats does not necessarily apply in older animals. The age-associated malabsorption of nutrients that occurs with aging may be one of the several factors which contribute to the malnutrition that occurs with aging.

  14. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increases with the duration and severity of the disease. A link between colorectal cancer and Crohn’s disease is less strong, but it applies more to ... usually effective in the replacement of nutrients. BILE SALT DIARRHEA ... in Crohn’s disease. This is the principal area for intestinal absorption ...

  15. El signo como emblema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáez, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the signs and symbols that appear in the hispanic medieval documents and manuscripts. These signs and symbols have usually been considered simply as mere elements to validate the charters. However, these alements were useful as a mean of visual communication between the high classes, able to generate charters, and the rest of medieval society—the majority illiterate— who received those charters. Because of their inability of understand an alphabetical code, they needed the graphic help to comprehend the message. Besides this, the article deals with non diplomatic signs and their function.

    Este artículo se centra en los signos o símbolos presentes en los documentos y manuscritos medievales hispanos, que habitualmente han sido tratados como meros elementos de validación de los diplomas. Pero estos elementos servían también de nexos de comunicación visual entre las clases poderosas, capaces de producir escritos, y los demás miembros de la sociedad medieval, receptores y destinatarios de tales escritos, en su mayoría analfabetos. Precisamente por esta razón, su incapacidad de descifrar un código alfabético, necesitan de auxilio gráfico para acercarse a la comprensión del mensaje. Asimismo, tratamos de los signos no diplomáticos y de su función.

  16. Arte como espelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Süssekind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como ponto de partida o exemplo da relação espelhada entre um livro e uma pintura de mesmo nome: o retrato que Lucian Freud fez do crítico de arte Martin Gayford e o diário que esse crítico escreveu sobre seu retratista, ambas as obras chamadas Homem com cachecol azul. A partir do exemplo, discuto a metáfora do espelho para caracterizar a arte, recorrendo para isso à teoria da representação artísticas elaborada pelo filósofo norte-americano Arthur Danto no artigo “O mundo da arte”, de 1964, e no primeiro capítulo do livro A transfiguração do lugar-comum, de 1981. Recorro, por fim, a dois exemplos artísticos de espelhamento na representação analisados por Danto em O abuso da beleza, de 2003, um quadro holandês do século dezessete e um poema de Rainer Maria Rilke.

  17. El riesgo como oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gargantini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el crecimiento mundial de catástrofes naturales ha ido en franco aumento. Sin embargo, desde un enfoque sistémico puede verificarse que la gran mayoría de los desastres se origina en los países en desarrollo (entre ellos los latinoamericanos, siendo las pérdidas en ellos significativamente más altas que en los países industrializados. Bajo esta postura los desastres no son sólo naturales sino socio- naturales, enfatizando la estrecha relación de causalidad entre modelos de desarrollo y urbanización y procesos de generación de riesgos, al incrementar la vulnerabilidad de los sectores más desprotegidos. El desastre pone en evidencia así una situación (la pobreza y segregación urbana ya existente, pero no considerada hasta el momento de la catástrofe. Frente a este panorama el desastre aparece como oportunidad que precipita tres catalizadores de políticas habitacionales: tierra, asistencia técnica y financiamiento, incrementando la celeridad y la creatividad de las respuestas. El interrogante que surge es por qué esperar el desastre para ponerlos en marcha, cuando ninguno de ellos es estrictamente dependiente de la situación de riesgo, sino sujeto de luchas de poder.

  18. como fuentes mutuas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Morales Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor analiza, a partir de la antropología filosófica de Martín Heidegger y de la filosofía ilustrada de Immanuel Kant, la postura del filósofo francés Étienne Balibar en torno a la categoría de ciudadanía como base para esbozar una antropología filosófica renovada. A partir de la concepción kantiana de ciudadanía, Balibar construye una propuesta de antropología filosófica estructurada alrededor de tres pares de polos: el par hombresujeto, el par subjectus-subjectum y el par cosmos-polis. El autor va mostrando, a lo largo del trabajo, la manera en que la categoría «ciudadanía» articula cada uno de estos pares de términos y concluye con algunas consideraciones sobre las ventajas de la propuesta balibariana.

  19. Endomarketing: como diferencial competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, com a profissionalização das empresas e com a grande concorrência no mercado, observa-se uma demanda cada vez maior de gestores comprometidos com o bem-estar pessoal e profissional de seus colaboradores. E, com esse intuito, de apresentar algumas idéias básicas de gestão voltadas à aplicação nas mais diversas técnicas de Endomarketing. Demonstra assim, a importância da utilização de feedback, tanto por parte dos colaboradores quanto dos gestores, destacando a importância de trabalhos de motivação, do clima organizacional favorável e de uma comunicação interna eficaz e a necessidade ímpar de tratar o colaborador como o diferencial dentro de uma empresa. Desta forma, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica que auxiliará e dará subsídios que lhe permitam retribuir em ações e atitudes de sucesso e, também, fazer um confronto de idéias, onde os autores apresentam suas mais diversas opiniões. Contudo, valendo-se, muitas vezes, de narrativas de experiências de outros gestores e até mesmo de suas próprias, tirando cada um suas próprias conclusões.

  20. Crohn's disease but not chronic ulcerative colitis induces the expression of PAI-1 in enteric neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laerum, O.D.; Illemann, M.; Skarstein, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic inflammation of the intestinal wall is the common characteristic of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; disorders, which in some cases can be difficult to distinguish. The inflammation also affects the local neuronal plexuses of the enteric nervous system. It is known...... by immunohistochemical techniques. RESULTS: PAI-1 was found in a subset of neurons primarily located in the submucosal plexus of the small and large intestine in 24 of 28 cases (86%) with Crohn's disease, but in none of 17 cases with chronic ulcerative colitis and other severe inflammatory conditions in the intestinal....... CONCLUSIONS: PAI-1-positive neurons in inflammatory bowel disease are linked to chronic inflammation in Crohn's disease, implying PAI-1 as a potential parameter for the differential diagnosis between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The findings also suggest that PAI-1 in neurons is related to pain...

  1. HIV, opiates, and enteric neuron dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, J J

    2015-04-01

    Human immune deficient virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive virus that targets CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. HIV infections cause increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancer. HIV infection can also alter central nervous system (CNS) function causing cognitive impairment. HIV does not infect neurons but it does infect astrocytes and microglia in the CNS. HIV can also infect enteric glia initiating an intestinal inflammatory response which causes enteric neural injury and gut dysfunction. Part of the inflammatory response is HIV induced production of proteins including, Transactivator of transcription (Tat) which contribute to neuronal injury after release from HIV infected glial cells. A risk factor for HIV infection is intravenous drug use with contaminated needles and chronic opiate use can exacerbate neural injury in the nervous system. While most research focuses on the actions of Tat and other HIV related proteins and opiates on the brain, recent data indicate that Tat can cause intestinal inflammation and disruption of enteric neuron function, including alteration of Na(+) channel activity and action potential generation. A paper published in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility extends these findings by identifying an interaction between Tat and morphine on enteric neuron Na(+) channels and on intestinal motility in vivo using a Tat expressing transgenic mouse model. These new data show that Tat protein can enhance the inhibitory actions of morphine on action potential generation and propulsive motility. These findings are important to our understanding of how HIV causes diarrhea in infected patients and for the use of opioid drugs to treat HIV-induced diarrhea.

  2. Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa as a function of intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.; Sandt, H. van de

    2003-01-01

    Interaction between food components, intestinal microbiota and intestinal mucosa was studied as a function of intestinal health. A microbiota was found to be important for the onset and progression of inflammatory diseases. Studies revealed a prominent effect of micro-organisms on the gene expressio

  3. O direito como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloter Miglioriani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available We have examined one of the facets which Law presents to society, looking at the theme through a brief history of Law, in which Roman Law stands out, up to modem times, comparing current juridical systems such as the Continental System, Common Law, and Soviet Law. We have looked at Law from the viewpoint of society 's need to have basic mies for living together, with the juridical ruZe being one of the most important. We have highlighted the views of Hart and Kelsen on the foundations of the validity of Law. We have also considered the obligatoriness of Law; giving the point of view of tadbruch who, explaining his ''Theory of the Obligatoriness of Law ", concluded that the obligatoriness of Law can only be withdraw when there is a Clash between morals, law, use and social conventions. We have looked at the notion of the imperativeness of Law the central theme of the work -drawing on the views of Miguel Reale, for whom the juridical nonn cannot be reduced to a "command of a volitional nature", but rather the obligatory character of the juridical nonn arises from the pressure of social values. Del Vecchio, who is also quoted, recognized that imperativeness exists in the juridical norm, whether it is preceptive (a positive command or permissive. Also mentioned is the opinion of Tercio Sampaio Ferraz, for whom the juridical norm has imperativeness to the extent that the imposition of behaviour is unconditionally guaranteed. Foi feita a abordagem de uma das facetas com que o Direito se apresenta à sociedade, enfocando o tema a partir de um brevíssimo histórico do Direito, onde revela a fase romana, até os períodos modernos, com comparações dos sistemas jurídicos hodiernos, como o sistema continental, o da Commum Law e o soviético. Foi enfocado o Direito em face da necessidade sociedade em ter básicas de convivência, despontando a regra jurídica como das mais importantes. Foi dado destaque às posições de Hart e Kelsen, sobre os

  4. Ouabaina como Hormona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Comentario sobre su origen endógeno y sus aplicaciones terapéuticas

    Pocas drogas han sido más estudiadas que el grupo de los digitálicos, estrofantinas y ouabaina, cuyo estudio es objeto del presente trabajo.

    La ouabaina empezó a ser estudiada desde el siglo pasado. La primera referencia conocida corresponde a Pelikan, 1865 (1, como veneno que empleaban para las flechas en Gabón (Africa. (.

    (. Vinieron luego los trabajos de Fraser, 1869, (2, 3, 6, Polaillon, 1871 (4, Amaud, 1888 (5, Vaquez y Lutembacher, 1917 (7, Stoll, 1939 (8, Lapicque, 1929 (9, Wiggers, 1927 (10, Ytantos otros (11, 12, 13. En la obra de Kisch (14 aparecen más de 700 referencias bibliográficas sobre el particular.

    Ouabaina de origen endógeno. Purificación
    Durante muchos años se conoció la ouabaina como de origen vegetal, elaborada por las plantas Strophanthus Glaber(k-estrofantina,AcocantheraOuabaio(Ouabaina yStrophanthus Kombe (k-estrofantina y kestrofantósido. Una propiedad común a todos los digitálicos, estrofantina y ouabaina es que todos son inhibidores de la bomba de Na-K, encargada de regular la salida de Na y la entrada de K celular.

    Estudiando los inhibido res de esta bomba han encontrado en años recientes resultados extraordinarios en relación con el origen endógeno de algunos de estos inhibidores, entre ellos la ouabaina. Por considerarlos de extrema importancia y actualidad científica me permito citar algunos de ellos. Hamlyn y Manunta (15, 16, 17, 18, Y 19 hicieron estudios sobre el particular y lograron identificar en el plasma humano un compuesto igual a la ouabaina. Estos hallazgos fueron confirmados después por otros autores (20, 21, 22, 23 Y24.

    Ham bl yn (19 da varios argumentos que ponen en evidencia que el compuesto químico encontrado es ouabaina pura, y, lo que es más interesante, que tiene un origen endógeno. a Por espectroscopia de alta resoluci

  5. [Intestinal microbiota and the brain: multilevel interactions in health and disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomova, A; Pivovarciová, A; Babinská, K; Mravec, B

    2015-01-01

    Commensal bacteria of the digestive tract are separated from the brain by multiple barriers. Despite that bacteria residing in the intestine and the neurons of the brain interact by neural and humoral pathways. Mental processes, such as the stress response, may affect the composition and function of intestinal bacteria via the brain-gut axis. On the other hand, intestinal bacteria can influence the processes in the brain through the gut-brain axis. Disruption of these interactions may be involved in various alterations both in the function of the gastrointestinal tract and the brain function.

  6. [Neuronal network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmeier, M; Maresová, D

    2005-01-01

    Function of the central nervous system is based on mutual relations among the nerve cells. Description of nerve cells and their processes, including their contacts was enabled by improvement of optical features of the microscope and by the development of impregnation techniques. It is associated with the name of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), J. Ev. Purkyne (1787-1869), Camillo Golgi (1843-1926), and Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934). Principal units of the neuronal network are the synapses. The term synapse was introduced into neurophysiology by Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952). Majority of the interactions between nerve cells is mediated by neurotransmitters acting at the receptors of the postsynaptic membrane or at the autoreceptors of the presynaptic part of the synapse. Attachment of the vesicles to the presynaptic membrane and the release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft depend on the intracellular calcium concentration and on the presence of several proteins in the presynaptic element.

  7. High-resolution 3D analysis of mouse small-intestinal stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier-Latmani, Jeremiah; Petrova, Tatiana V

    2016-09-01

    Here we detail a protocol for whole-mount immunostaining of mouse small-intestinal villi that can be used to generate high-resolution 3D images of all gut cell types, including blood and lymphatic vessel cells, neurons, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. The procedure describes perfusion, fixation, dissection, immunostaining, mounting, clearing, confocal imaging and quantification, using intestinal vasculature as an example. As intestinal epithelial cells prevent visualization with some antibodies, we also provide an optional protocol to remove these cells before fixation. In contrast to alternative current techniques, our protocol enables the entire villus to be visualized with increased spatial resolution of cell location, morphology and cell-cell interactions, thus allowing for easy quantification of phenotypes. The technique, which takes 7 d from mouse dissection to microscopic examination, will be useful for researchers who are interested in most aspects of intestinal biology, including mucosal immunology, infection, nutrition, cancer biology and intestinal microbiota.

  8. Casamento como contrato. Brasil - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Carla Giselle Neves

    2014-01-01

    O casamento como contrato, trata-se de um dos negócios jurídicos mais celebrados, assim como, também é dos negócios jurídicos mais minuciosos, e que, por algumas vezes, ou mais que isso, é, de certa forma, ignorado os efeitos que advém do mesmo contrato. O casamento como contrato, assim como os demais negócios jurídicos, também domina o princípio da autonomia privada. Contudo, existe uma certa imperatividade na lei, uma vez que, no contrato de casamento pode-se escolher o regim...

  9. Exacerbation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal lesions by antisecretory drugs in rats: the role of intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-11-01

    Antisecretory drugs such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2-RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, the effects of these drugs on NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcers are not fully understood. The effects of H2-RAs and PPIs on NSAID-induced gastrointestinal lesions and small intestinal motility were examined in rats. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were used. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was administered orally in fasted or fed rats, and gastrointestinal lesions were examined 24 h after indomethacin administration. Intestinal motility was measured by using a balloon method under urethane anesthesia. Indomethacin produced multiple lesions in the gastric corpus in fasted rats and in the small intestine in fed rats: 1) H2-RAs (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine) and PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole) markedly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions. 2) The drugs, except for lansoprazole, increased intestinal lesions. 3) H2-RAs augmented the increase in intestinal motility caused by indomethacin, and the effects of H2-RAs on motility and intestinal lesions were markedly inhibited by atropine. 4) Lansoprazole inhibited the formation of intestinal lesions, and the effect was prevented by both pharmacological ablation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and pretreatment with N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a selective inhibitor of nitric-oxide synthesis. The results suggest that: 1) inhibition of acid secretion by antisecretory drugs may exacerbate NSAID-induced intestinal lesions, 2) H2-RAs further aggravate lesions by increasing intestinal motility via the activation of cholinergic pathways, and 3) lansoprazole protects the intestinal mucosa against NSAID-related ulcerative stimuli.

  10. Intestinal ascariasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Imtiaz; Rather, Muddasir; Naikoo, Ghulam; Amin, Abid; Mushtaq, Syed; Nazir, Mir

    2010-05-01

    Ascariasis is a staggering health problem commonly seen in children of endemic areas. In the abdomen, ascaris lumbricoides can cause a myriad of surgical complications. Intestinal obstruction by ascaris lumbricoides is commonly seen in children. Most cases are managed conservatively. The purpose was to study the clinical presentation and management of symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. A 3-year study was performed from April 2006 to April 2009 of pediatric-age patients who had symptomatic intestinal ascariasis. All patients had detailed clinical history, examination, plain X-ray of abdomen, and ultrasonography of abdomen. Peroperative findings were recorded in all patients who had surgical intervention. This prospective study had 360 patients. Male to female ratio was 1.37:1. 187 patients (52%) presented within 2-4 days of duration of illness. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) age of patients was 6.35 +/- 2.25 years. Age group of 4-7 years (80%) was commonest group affected. Abdominal pain was a leading symptom in 357 patients (99%) with the pain in periumbilical area present in 215 patients (60%). In 227 patients (63%) abdominal distension was seen and was the commonest physical finding. Palpable worm masses were seen in 129 patients (36%); 81 patients (63%) had palpable worm masses in the umbilical quadrant. On X-ray of abdomen, visible worm masses were seen in 83 patients (23%). Abdominal sonography showed interloop fluid in 177 patients (49%) and free fluid in the pelvis of 97 patients (27%). The number of patients who were managed conservatively was 281 (78%), and 79 patients (22%) had surgical intervention. In patients who had surgical intervention, 39 patients (49%) had enterotomy and 7 patients (9%) had kneading of worms. Postoperative complications occurred in 33 patients, and an overall mortality of 1% (1 patient) was seen. Ascaridial intestinal obstruction is common in children in the Kashmir. Abdominal pain is the leading symptom in

  11. Nutrición artificial en la insuficiencia intestinal: síndrome de intestino corto: Enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Artificial nutrition in intestinal failure: short bowel syndrome. Intestinal inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grau Carmona

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La resección intestinal amplia produce suficientes alteraciones como para requerir soporte nutricional especializado. Las medidas básicas de tratamiento, especial-mente en la fase aguda tras la resección intestinal o en presencia de complicaciones graves sobre pacientes con intestino corto, incluyen la repleción de fluidos y electro-litos y la instauración de soporte nutricional con el fin de prevenir la malnutrición. La nutrición enteral es el principal factor estimulador de la adaptación del intestino remanente. No obstante, su aplicación presenta dificultades en las fases agudas, por lo que los pacientes deben ser tratados frecuentemente con nutrición parenteral. La presencia de desnutrición puede ser también de importancia en los pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. El soporte nutricional está indicado en estos casos como tratamiento primario de la enfermedad, como tratamiento de la desnutrición o como tratamiento perioperatorio en los pacientes que requieren cirugía. A pesar de la patología digestiva, existen datos para recomendar la nutrición enteral como método inicial para el aporte de nutrientes en los pacientes que lo precisen.Large intestinal resection produces a sufficient number of impairments as to require specialized nutritional support. Basic treatment measures, especially during the acute phase after intestinal resection or in the presence of severe complications in patients with short bowel syndrome, include fluid and electrolytes reposition and nutritional support implementation in order to prevent hyponutrition. Enteral nutrition is the main stimulating factor for adaptation of the remaining bowel. However, its application has some difficulties during the acute phase, and thus patients must be frequently treated with parenteral nutrition. The presence of hyponutrition may be also important in patients with intestinal inflammatory disease. Nutritional support is indicated in these cases as the

  12. Manifestaciones orales y periodontales de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    La Enfermedad Inflamatoria Intestinal (EII) incluye la enfermedad de Crohn y la colitis ulcerosa. Numerosos estudios relacionan dichas afectaciones con la manifestación de determinadas lesiones orales. Respecto a la enfermedad periodontal algunos autores la correlacionan con la EII tanto en su prevalencia como en su grado de actividad. Se ha apuntado la alteración de los PMN como posible factor común en la patogénesis de ambas entidades. El propósito de nuestro artículo es revisar las manifes...

  13. Intestinal Malakoplakia in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mahjoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, related to enterobacterial infection in the context of a disorder of cell-mediated immunity. Malakoplakia is exceptional in children and usually involves the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis is exclusively based on histological analysis.Cases Presentation: In this paper we have reported 3 children with intestinal malakoplakia which were enrolled during a period of 6 years between 2001 to 2006 at Childrens Medical Center. Two were male, and one female. The main clinical manifestations were: chronic bloody and mucosal diarrhea, abdominal pain and polypoid masses detected by diagnostic colonoscopy. Histological diagnosis proved to be definite in these cases. The response to drug treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamthoxazole in all three patients was good. Conclusion: The presence of intestinal malakoplakia must be ruled out in every child having chronic bloody mucosal diarrhea.

  14. Intestinal sugar transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie A Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet.The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucraseisomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine.

  15. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  16. Osteoporosis in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Louis; Skallerup, Anders; Olesen, Søren Schou

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure are associated with malabsorption of micro- and macronutrients that may negatively influence bone metabolism and increase the risk for developing osteoporosis. However, information regarding prevalence and contribution of individual...... risk factors is scarce. We investigated the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients with intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure and identified associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study including 167 clinically stable outpatients with intestinal...... insufficiency or intestinal failure. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry and the prevalence of osteoporosis was compared to a gender and age matched population. Several clinical and demographic parameters, including body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D, smoking habits...

  17. Fisiología y fisiopatología de la distensión abdominal: Gas intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Mego Silva, Marianela

    2015-01-01

    Los trabajos que componen esta tesis doctoral están enfocados al estudio de la fisiología del gas intestinal. En nuestro primer trabajo determinamos el volumen de gas intestinal producido tras una comida rica en residuos fermentables como las alubias, con y sin lavado intestinal. Observamos una gran diferencia entre el volumen de gas intestinal evacuado con y sin lavado, sin lavado sólo se evacuaron una cuarta parte del volumen total producido, demostrando que la homeostasis del gas intestina...

  18. El CO2 como disolvente y como reactivo

    OpenAIRE

    La Franca Pitarresi, Vincenzo Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Existen numerosas ventajas asociada con el uso de CO2 , tanto como disolvente que como reactivo, y todas se pueden resumir en cuatro categorías generales: beneficios ambiental, beneficios de salud y seguridad, beneficios en el procedimiento y beneficios químicos. Los procesos que implican el CO2 como disolvente no aumentaría las emisiones de CO2, más bien proporcionaría una oportunidad para el reciclaje de CO2 residual. Además, los esfuerzos para secuestrar el CO2 producido de los gases de co...

  19. Different populations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons are specialized to control pyramidal cells or interneurons in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acsády, L; Görcs, T J; Freund, T F

    1996-07-01

    The postsynaptic targets of three vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing GABAergic interneuron types were examined in the rat hippocampus. Two of them showed remarkable target selectivity for other GABAergic neurons, while the third contacted the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons innervating the stratum oriens/alveus border in the CA1 region were shown to establish multiple contacts with horizontal GABAergic interneurons immunoreactive for type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor. Similarly, identified axons of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons projecting to stratum radiatum were found to establish symmetrical synapses largely on GABAergic dendrites. The majority of these postsynaptic GABAergic neurons were shown to contain calbindin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. In contrast to the first two vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing cell populations, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons arborizing in stratum pyramidale formed baskets around pyramidal cells. These results revealed a new element in cortical microcircuits, interneurons which are specialized to innervate other GABAergic interneurons. The role of this new component may be the synchronization of dendritic inhibition, or an input-specific disinhibition of pyramidal cells in various dendritic domains. In contrast, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells are likely to be involved in perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal neurons, and represents a new basket cell type different from that containing parvalbumin.

  20. Neurochemical phenotypes of endomorphin-2-containing neurons in vagal nodose neurons of the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Le; Chen, Tao; Wang, Ya-Yun; Li, Yun-Qing

    2009-12-01

    It has been shown that endomorphin-2-like immunoreactive (EM2-LI) neurons in dorsal root ganglion play important roles in regulating somatic information transmission. Although EM2-ergic neurons have been found in nodose ganglion (NG) which is mainly involved in transmitting visceral information into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), the neurochemical phenotypes of EM2-ergic neurons have not yet been investigated. In the present study, immunofluorescent histochemical staining showed that 43.5% of the NG neurons contained EM2 and these neurons were small to medium in size. 15.2%, 27.8%, 74.4% and 25.2% of the EM2-LI NG neurons expressed substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), respectively. In addition, about 90.8% of EM2-LI NG neurons also contained mu-opioid receptor (MOR). EM2/MOR and EM2/SP double-labeled peripheral axons were observed in the vagal trunk. Anterograde tracing combined with immunofluorescent staining showed EM2/MOR and EM2/SP double-labeled vagal afferents in the NTS. EM2/MOR/SP and EM2/MOR/CGRP triple-labeled neurons and axons were observed in the NG. Importantly, at the ultrastructrual level, post-embedding electron microscopy revealed that EM2-LI and SP-LI gold particles coexisted in the same large dense-cored synaptic vesicles in the pre-synaptic button, while MOR-LI gold particles existed on both pre- and post-synaptic membranes in the NTS. These results suggest that EM2 in axon terminals of NG neurons might be involved in visceral information transmission and homeostatic control through modulating the release of other neurotransmitters (such as SP, CGRP, NO, VIP) via pre-synaptic MOR and through post-synaptic mechanisms in the NTS.

  1. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    ção Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos.

  2. Microbes, intestinal inflammation and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad W; Kale, Amod A; Bere, Praveen; Vajjala, Sriharsha; Gounaris, Elias; Pakanati, Krishna Chaitanya

    2012-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is known for causing disturbed homeostatic balance among the intestinal immune compartment, epithelium and microbiota. Owing to the emergence of IBD as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, great efforts have been put into understanding the sequence of intestinal inflammatory events. Intestinal macrophages and dendritic cells act in a synergistic fashion with intestinal epithelial cells and microbiota to initiate the triad that governs the intestinal immune responses (whether inflammatory or regulatory). In this review, we will discuss the interplay of intestinal epithelial cells, bacteria and the innate immune component. Moreover, whether or not genetic intervention of probiotic bacteria is a valid approach for attenuating/mitigating exaggerated inflammation and IBD will also be discussed.

  3. Platelet-activating factor in the enteric nervous system of the guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun

    2006-11-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory mediator that may influence neuronal activity in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and RT-PCR were used to study the action of PAF and the expression of PAF receptor (PAFR) in the ENS. PAFR immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by 6.9% of the neurons in the myenteric plexus and 14.5% of the neurons in the submucosal plexus in all segments of the guinea pig intestinal tract as determined by double staining with anti-human neuronal protein antibody. PAFR IR was found in 6.1% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 35.8% of the neurons with IR for neuropeptide Y (NPY), 30.6% of the neurons with IR for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and 1.96% of the neurons with IR for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the submucosal plexus. PAFR IR was also found in 1.5% of the neurons with IR for calbindin, 51.1% of the neurons with IR for NPY, and 32.9% of the neurons with IR for ChAT in the myenteric plexus. In the submucosal plexus, exposure to PAF (200-600 nM) evoked depolarizing responses (8.2 +/- 3.8 mV) in 12.4% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.5% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology, whereas in the myenteric preparations, depolarizing responses were elicited by a similar concentration of PAF in 9.5% of the neurons with S-type electrophysiological behavior and uniaxonal morphology and in 12.0% of the neurons with AH-type electrophysiological behavior and Dogiel II morphology. The results suggest that subgroups of secreto- and musculomotor neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses express PAFR. Coexpression of PAFR IR with ChAT IR in the myenteric plexus and ChAT IR and VIP IR in the submucosal plexus suggests that PAF, after release in the inflamed bowel, might act to elevate the excitability of submucosal secretomotor and myenteric musculomotor

  4. O Taekwondo como modalidade paradesportiva

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Martins Patatas

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O fenômeno Lutas nos remete a um conjunto de modalidades, cada uma com sua história, filosofia e características específicas. Considerando o Taekwondo e suas características como o objeto deste estudo, observamos suas manifestações como esporte para pessoas com deficiência. Então, o presente estudo desenvolve-se sob as bases de uma pesquisa do tipo qualitativa e teve como objetivos gerais apresentar aos profissionais da área da Educação Física conhecimentos sobre o Para-Taekwondo em n...

  5. General artificial neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Schiopu, Paul; Degeratu, Stefania

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of artificial neuron named the general artificial neuron. Depending on application this neuron can change self number of inputs, the type of inputs (from excitatory in inhibitory or vice versa), the synaptic weights, the threshold, the type of intensifying functions. It is achieved into optoelectronic technology. Also, into optoelectronic technology a model of general McCulloch-Pitts neuron is showed. The advantages of these neurons are very high because we have to solve different applications with the same neural network, achieved from these neurons, named general neural network.

  6. The feeding behavior of cross-intestine parabiotic rats are modulated by brain histamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism in which signals to regulate food intake are transmitted from the gastro-intestinal system to the brain, we analyzed changes in hypothalamic neuronal histamine using cross-intestine parabiotic rats. Pairs of weight matched Lewis rats were sewn together in such a way as to form a common abdominal cavity. The small intestines of rats were transected and reconnected so that food eaten by one rat passed through a segment of its partner's intestine before returning to the intestine of the first rat. Concentrations of neuronal histamine were measured in microdissected hypothalami using radioimmnoassay. Sustained alteration of food intake were observed in both rats, one rat eating an average of 2.2 times (SE 0.15) as much as the other, without development of any significant difference in body weight after seven weeks. We found significant increase in hypothalamic neuronal histamine concentrations in the arcuate and tublomamelary nuclei of the hypophagic rats.These results are supportive of the theory that histamine acts in response to signals from the gut to regulate food intake.

  7. From intestinal permeability to dysmotility: the biobreeding rat as a model for functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vanuytsel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired intestinal barrier function, low-grade inflammation and altered neuronal control are reported in functional gastrointestinal disorders. However, the sequence of and causal relation between these events is unclear, necessitating a spontaneous animal model. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of intestinal permeability, mucosal and neuromuscular inflammation and nitrergic motor neuron function during the lifetime of the BioBreeding (BB rat. METHODS: Normoglycemic BB-diabetes prone (DP and control rats were sacrificed at different ages and jejunum was harvested to characterize intestinal permeability, inflammation and neuromuscular function. RESULTS: Both structural and functional evidence of increased intestinal permeability was found in young BB-DP rats from the age of 50 days. In older animals, starting in the mucosa from 70 days and in half of the animals also in the muscularis propria from 110 days, an inflammatory reaction, characterized by an influx of polymorphonuclear cells and higher myeloperoxidase activity, was observed. Finally, in animals older than 110 days, coinciding with a myenteric ganglionitis, a loss of nitrergic neurons and motor function was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: In the BB-rat, mucosal inflammatory cell infiltration is preceded by intestinal barrier dysfunction and followed by myenteric ganglionitis and loss of nitrergic function. This sequence supports a primary role for impaired barrier function and provides an insightful model for the pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

  8. Mechanical stress activates neurites and somata of myenteric neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Kugler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The particular location of myenteric neurons, sandwiched between the 2 muscle layers of the gut, implies that their somata and neurites undergo mechanical stress during gastrointestinal motility. Existence of mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN is undoubted but many of their basic features remain to be studied. In this study, we used ultra-fast neuroimaging to record activity of primary cultured myenteric neurons of guinea pig and human intestine after von Frey hair evoked deformation of neurites and somata. Independent component analysis was applied to reconstruct neuronal morphology and follow neuronal signals. Of the cultured neurons 45% (114 out of 256, 30 guinea pigs responded to neurite probing with a burst spike frequency of 13.4 Hz. Action potentials generated at the stimulation site invaded the soma and other neurites. Mechanosensitive sites were expressed across large areas of neurites. Many mechanosensitive neurites appeared to have afferent and efferent functions as those that responded to deformation also conducted spikes coming from the soma. Mechanosensitive neurites were also activated by nicotine application. This supported the concept of multifunctional MEN. 14% of the neurons (13 out of 96, 18 guinea pigs responded to soma deformation with burst spike discharge of 17.9 Hz. Firing of MEN adapted rapidly (RAMEN, slowly (SAMEN or ultra-slowly (USAMEN. The majority of MEN showed SAMEN behavior although significantly more RAMEN occurred after neurite probing. Cultured myenteric neurons from human intestine had similar properties. Compared to MEN, dorsal root ganglion neurons were activated by neurite but not by soma deformation with slow adaptation of firing. We demonstrated that MEN exhibit specific features very likely reflecting adaptation to their specialized functions in the gut.

  9. Intestinal epithelial stem/progenitor cells are controlled by mucosal afferent nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Lundgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The maintenance of the intestinal epithelium is of great importance for the survival of the organism. A possible nervous control of epithelial cell renewal was studied in rats and mice. METHODS: Mucosal afferent nerves were stimulated by exposing the intestinal mucosa to capsaicin (1.6 mM, which stimulates intestinal external axons. Epithelial cell renewal was investigated in the jejunum by measuring intestinal thymidine kinase (TK activity, intestinal (3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA, and the number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU. The influence of the external gut innervation was minimized by severing the periarterial nerves. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Luminal capsaicin increased all the studied variables, an effect nervously mediated to judge from inhibitory effects on TK activity or (3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA by exposing the mucosa to lidocaine (a local anesthetic or by giving four different neurotransmitter receptor antagonists i.v. (muscarinic, nicotinic, neurokinin1 (NK1 or calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP receptors. After degeneration of the intestinal external nerves capsaicin did not increase TK activity, suggesting the involvement of an axon reflex. Intra-arterial infusion of Substance P (SP or CGRP increased intestinal TK activity, a response abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade. Immunohistochemistry suggested presence of M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors on the intestinal stem/progenitor cells. We propose that the stem/progenitor cells are controlled by cholinergic nerves, which, in turn, are influenced by mucosal afferent neuron(s releasing acetylcholine and/or SP and/or CGRP. In mice lacking the capsaicin receptor, thymidine incorporation into DNA and number of crypt cells labeled with BrdU was lower than in wild type animals suggesting that nerves are important also in the absence of luminal capsaicin, a conclusion also supported by the observation that atropine lowered thymidine incorporation into DNA

  10. Vagal afferents are essential for maximal resection-induced intestinal adaptive growth in orally fed rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, David W; Liu, Xiaowen; Holst, Jens Juul

    2006-01-01

    Small bowel resection stimulates intestinal adaptive growth by a neuroendocrine process thought to involve both sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation and enterotrophic hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We investigated whether capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent neurons are es...

  11. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  12. Las organizaciones educativas como instituciones

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Caracterizar los centros educativos como instituciones o como organizaciones institucionalizadas tiene connotaciones precisas y de gran relevancia en cuanto a su comprensión, diseño. funcionamiento y cambio. Se abordan los conceptos de cultura, institución y organización institucionalizada, prestando especial atención al papel desempeñado por las estructuras organizativas, en conexión con el ambiente. Abstract: The portrait of schools as institutions and institutionalized organizatio...

  13. Liver Cirrhosis and Intestinal Bacterial Translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microlfora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microlfora may lead to microbial translocation, deifned as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal lfora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.

  14. Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica se caracteriza por la presencia de cuadros clínicos recidivantes que simulan una obstrucción intestinal pero en ausencia de proceso obstructivo anatómico. Es poco frecuente pero determina una alta morbilidad. Se origina como consecuencia de una alteración de la motilidad intestinal que no puede hacer progresar su contenido debido a la afectación de su componente muscular, neurológico o de ambos. Son más frecuentes los casos secundarios a un proceso sistémico pero cada vez se describen más cuadros debidos a la afectación primaria de dichos componentes. El desarrollo de técnicas manométricas e histológicas más específicas ha permitido aclarar la patogenia de algunos de estos síndromes, entre los que se incluyen las manifestaciones paraneoplásicas y las enfermedades mitocondriales. La expresión clínica es variable y depende de la causa y de la localización y extensión de la afectación. El diagnóstico de esta entidad es habitualmente difícil lo que origina que a estos pacientes se les practiquen cirugías innecesarias, se les etiquete como enfermos psiquiátricos y el diagnóstico se realice varios años después del inicio de los síntomas. El tratamiento se dirige a mejorar los síntomas y a mantener su estado nutricional mediante medidas dietético-nutricionales, fármacos y actitudes endoscópico-quirúrgicas. La complejidad de estos enfermos aconseja su seguimiento multidisciplinar.Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical intestinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure of the intestinal motility is a consequence of muscular disorder, neurological disorder or both

  15. Juvenil neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, J R; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1998-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis is a group of neurodegenerative diseases which are characterized by an abnormal accumulation of lipopigment in neuronal and extraneuronal cells. The diseases can be differentiated into several subgroups according to age of onset, the clinical picture...

  16. Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoff, Michel R.; Poulain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Toxins are potent molecules used by various bacteria to interact with a host organism. Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections. But many other toxins are multifunctional and recognize a wider range of cell types including neuronal cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, for example by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, in amplification of the diarrhea, or in intestinal inflammation process. Other toxins can pass the blood brain barrier and directly act on specific neurons. PMID:22069606

  17. Bacterial toxins and the nervous system: neurotoxins and multipotential toxins interacting with neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoff, Michel R; Poulain, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    Toxins are potent molecules used by various bacteria to interact with a host organism. Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections. But many other toxins are multifunctional and recognize a wider range of cell types including neuronal cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, for example by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, in amplification of the diarrhea, or in intestinal inflammation process. Other toxins can pass the blood brain barrier and directly act on specific neurons.

  18. A role for Pten in paediatric intestinal dysmotility disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that lies within the gut wall. It is responsible for the normal regulation of gut motility and secretory activities. Hirschsprung\\'s disease (HD) is a congenital defect of the ENS, characterised by an absence of ganglia in the distal colon. Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is a condition that clinically resembles HD, characterised by hyperganglionosis, giant and ectopic ganglia, resulting in intestinal dysmotility. Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis is characterised by hyperplasia and hypertrophy of enteric neuronal cells and causes chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO). Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten) is a phosphatase that is critical for controlling cell growth, proliferation and cell death. A recent study of Pten knockout mice showed evidence of ganglioneuromatosis in the ENS suggesting a role for this protein in ENS development. Ganglioneuromatosis patients have also been shown to have a decreased level of Pten expression in the colon. The aim of our study was to investigate Pten expression in the ENS of HD and IND patients compared to normal controls. METHODS: Resected tissue from 10 HD and 10 IND type B patients was fixed and embedded in paraffin wax. Normal control colon tissue was obtained from ten patients who underwent a colostomy closure for imperforate anus. Sections were cut and immunohistochemistry was carried out using a Pten antibody. Results were analysed by light microscopy. RESULTS: Staining showed that Pten was strongly expressed in ganglia of both the submucosal and myenteric plexus of normal and HD specimens from the ganglionic colon. Pten expression was significantly reduced in the giant ganglia in IND patients in both the myenteric and submucosal plexuses compared to the normal controls. Specimens from the aganglionic region of HD did not show Pten expression. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study

  19. AgRP Neurons Can Increase Food Intake during Conditions of Appetite Suppression and Inhibit Anorexigenic Parabrachial Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essner, Rachel A; Smith, Alison G; Jamnik, Adam A; Ryba, Anna R; Trutner, Zoe D; Carter, Matthew E

    2017-09-06

    To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine. Additionally, exogenous compounds, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), a salt that creates gastric discomfort, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial cell wall component that induces inflammation, exert appetite-suppressing effects and activate PBN CGRP neurons. The effects of increasing the homeostatic drive to eat on feeding behavior during appetite suppressing conditions are unknown. Here, we show in mice that food deprivation or optogenetic activation of AgRP neurons induces feeding to overcome the appetite suppressing effects of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. AgRP neuron photostimulation can also increase feeding during chemogenetic-mediated stimulation of PBN CGRP neurons. AgRP neuron stimulation reduces Fos expression in PBN CGRP neurons across all conditions. Finally, stimulation of projections from AgRP neurons to the PBN increases feeding following administration of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. These results demonstrate that AgRP neurons are sufficient to increase feeding during noninflammatory-based appetite suppression and to decrease activity in anorexigenic PBN CGRP neurons, thereby increasing food intake during homeostatic need.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The motivation to eat depends on the relative balance of activity in distinct brain regions that induce or suppress appetite. An abnormal amount of activity in

  20. NEURON and Python

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hines; Davison, Andrew P.; Eilif Muller

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because ...

  1. Changes of Intestinal Permeability in Cholelithiasis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-long Sun; Shuo-dong Wu; Dong-xu Cui; Bao-lin Liu; Xian-wei Dai

    2009-01-01

    @@ In normal condition,intestine mucosa possesses barrier function.When the barrier function of intestine mucosa was damaged,intestinal bacteria,endotoxin,or other substances would enter blood.It is generally accepted that biliary bacteria origins from the intestine either via duodenal papilla or intestinal mucosa.In this study,we aimed to investigate the intestinal permeability changes of cholelithiasis patients to elucidate the possible pathogenesis of cholelithiasis.

  2. Development of layer 1 neurons in the mouse neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yao, Xing-Hua; Fu, Yinghui; Yu, Yong-Chun

    2014-10-01

    Layer 1 of the neocortex harbors a unique group of neurons that play crucial roles in synaptic integration and information processing. Although extensive studies have characterized the properties of layer 1 neurons in the mature neocortex, it remains unclear how these neurons progressively acquire their distinct morphological, neurochemical, and physiological traits. In this study, we systematically examined the dynamic development of Cajal-Retzius cells and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons in layer 1 during the first 2 postnatal weeks. Cajal-Retzius cells underwent morphological degeneration after birth and gradually disappeared from layer 1. The majority of GABAergic interneurons showed clear expression of at least 1 of the 6 distinct neurochemical markers, including Reelin, GABA-A receptor subunit delta (GABAARδ), neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calretinin, and somatostatin from postnatal day 8. Furthermore, according to firing pattern, layer 1 interneurons can be divided into 2 groups: late-spiking (LS) and burst-spiking (BS) neurons. LS neurons preferentially expressed GABAARδ, whereas BS neurons preferentially expressed VIP. Interestingly, both LS and BS neurons exhibited a rapid electrophysiological and morphological development during the first postnatal week. Our results provide new insights into the molecular, morphological, and functional developments of the neurons in layer 1 of the neocortex.

  3. Glucose sensing and signalling; regulation of intestinal glucose transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-Beechey, S P; Moran, A W; Batchelor, D J; Daly, K; Al-Rammahi, M

    2011-05-01

    Epithelial cells lining the inner surface of the intestinal epithelium are in direct contact with a lumenal environment that varies dramatically with diet. It has long been suggested that the intestinal epithelium can sense the nutrient composition of lumenal contents. It is only recently that the nature of intestinal nutrient-sensing molecules and underlying mechanisms have been elucidated. There are a number of nutrient sensors expressed on the luminal membrane of endocrine cells that are activated by various dietary nutrients. We showed that the intestinal glucose sensor, T1R2+T1R3 and the G-protein, gustducin are expressed in endocrine cells. Eliminating sweet transduction in mice in vivo by deletion of either gustducin or T1R3 prevented dietary monosaccharide- and artificial sweetener-induced up-regulation of the Na+/glucose cotransporter, SGLT1 observed in wild-type mice. Transgenic mice, lacking gustducin or T1R3 had deficiencies in secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and, glucose-dependent insulinotrophic peptide (GIP). Furthermore, they had an abnormal insulin profile and prolonged elevation of postprandial blood glucose in response to orally ingested carbohydrates. GIP and GLP-1 increase insulin secretion, while glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) modulates intestinal growth, blood flow and expression of SGLT1. The receptor for GLP-2 resides in enteric neurons and not in any surface epithelial cells, suggesting the involvement of the enteric nervous system in SGLT1 up-regulation. The accessibility of the glucose sensor and the important role that it plays in regulation of intestinal glucose absorption and glucose homeostasis makes it an attractive nutritional and therapeutic target for manipulation.

  4. Exercise, Intestinal Absorption, and Rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ KEYPOINTS 1. The proximal small intestine (duodenum & jejunum) is the primary site of fluid absorption. It absorbs about 50% to 60% of any given fluid load. The colon or large intestine absorbs approximately 80 to 90% of the fluid it receives, but accounts for only about 15% of the total fluid load.

  5. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  6. Intestinal failure in obstructive jaundice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stelios F. Assimakopoulos; Constantine E. Vagianos; Aristides Charonis; Vassiliki N. Nikolopoulou; Chrisoula D. Scopa

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with great interest the article by Ding LA and LiJS, which aimed to review the current knowledge on the physiology of normal intestinal barrier function and highlight the role of intestinal failure after various injurious insults in the development of septic complications or multiple organ failure with subsequent rapid clinical deterioration or even death.

  7. Enteric neuropathology of congenital intestinal obstruction: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Di Nardo; Rosanna Cogliandro; Cesare Cremon; Alessandra Gori; Roberto Corinaldesi; Kenton M Sanders; Roberto De Giorgio; Vincenzo Stanghellini; Salvatore Cucchiara; Giovanni Barbara; Gianandrea Pasquinelli; Donatella Santini; Cristina Felicani; Gianluca Grazi; Antonio D Pinna

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that chronic mechanical sub-occlusion of the intestine may damage the enteric nervous system (ENS), although data in humans are lacking. We here describe the first case of enteric degenerative neuropathy related to a congenital obstruction of the gut. A 3-year and 9-mo old girl began to complain of vomiting, abdominal distension, constipation with air-fluid levels at plane abdominal radiology.Her subsequent medical history was characterized by 3 operations: the first showed dilated duodeno-jejunal loops in the absence of occlusive lesions; the second (2 years later) was performed to obtain full-thickness biopsies of the dilated intestinal loops and revealed hyperganglionosis at histopathology; the third (9 years after the hyperganglionosis was identified) disclosed a Ladd's band which was removed and the associated gut malrotation was corrected. Repeated intraoperative full-thickness biopsies showed enteric degenerative neuropathy along with reduced interstitial cells of Cajal network in dilated loops above the obstruction and a normal neuromuscular layer below the Ladd's band. One year after the latest surgery the patient tolerated oral feeding and did well, suggesting that congenital (partial) mechanical obstruction of the small bowel in humans can evoke progressive adaptive changes of the ENS which are similar to those found in animal models of intestinal mechanical occlusion. Such ENS changes mimic neuronal abnormalities observed in intestinal pseudoobstruction.

  8. [Treatment of children with intestinal failure: intestinal rehabilitation, home parenteral nutrition or small intestine transplantation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelis, E.G.; Oers, H.A. van; Escher, J.C.; Damen, G.M.; Rings, E.H.; Tabbers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal failure is characterised by inadequate absorption of food or fluids, which is caused by insufficient bowel surface area or functioning. Children with chronic intestinal failure are dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN), which can be provided at home (HPN). In the Netherlands, HPN for chi

  9. Time-related action of Lactobacillus plantarum in the bacterial microbiota of shrimp digestive tract and its action as immunostimulant Tempo de atuação de Lactobacillus plantarum na microbiota bacteriana intestinal de camarão e sua ação como imunoestimulante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the time-related action of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the bacterial microbiota of the digestive tract of Litopenaeus vannamei, and the relation of total haemocyte count and serum phenol oxidase activity of shrimp challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Shrimps were fed with a probiotic-supplemented diet, for eight days, then shifted to a commercial diet. Shrimps fed only with the commercial diet served as control. Evaluations were made on the 8th day of experiment and repeated two, four, six and eight days later. Total lactic bacteria in the digestive tract was higher until the 4th day of evaluation in the probiotic-supplemented group. Vibrio spp. counts were higher in the control at days zero and two. Until the 4th day of evaluation, the total haemocyte counts in shrimps after challenge with V. harveyi were higher in probiotic-supplemented group than in control group. Significant difference was not observed in phenol oxidase activity. On the 6th day after shifting from supplemented to control diet, all parameters were equal in both groups, suggesting that the time-related action of L. plantarum in shrimp is short.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o tempo de atuação de Lactobacillus plantarum, na microbiota bacteriana intestinal de Litopenaeus vannamei, e sua relação com a contagem total de hemócitos e a atividade da fenoloxidase após a exposição a Vibrio harveyi. Os camarões foram alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos por oito dias e, depois, substituída por dieta comercial. Os camarões alimentados com dieta comercial constituíram o controle. As avaliações foram realizadas no oitavo dia de experimento e repetidas dois, quatro, seis e oito dias depois. A contagem total de bactérias lácticas no intestino foi maior até o quarto dia de avaliação, no grupo alimentado com probióticos. A contagem de Vibrio spp. foi superior no grupo controle nos dias zero e dois. Até o

  10. El museo como espacio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Trabajo Fin de Grado titulado "El museo como espacio educativo" tutelado por D. Jesús Féliz Pascual Molina, trata sobre el estudio acerca de cómo se usan los museos como espacios lúdicos y como mediadores de enseñanza. Para su realización se ha tenido en cuenta la legislación vigente y sobre todo el Decreto 122/2007 de 27 de Diciembre, por el que se establece el currículo de Educación Infantil en Castilla y León. En él se hace mención a la evolución de los museos, los diferentes tipos exis...

  11. INTESTINAL PARASITES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and epidemiology of Intestinal Parasites in Iran. The information was driven from an extensive Health Survey which was done by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education, deputy of Research Affairs in 1990-92. Sampling fraction was 1 per 1000 of individuals aged between 2 and 69, the sampling method was cluster sampling and each cluster consisted of 7 families. Formal-ether was the method of finding parasites which included: Oxior, Ascariasis, Giardiasis, Entamoeba-histolytica, Tinea, Strongyloidiasis, Ancylostoma, and Trichocephaliasis. The highest prevalence rate belonged to Giardiasis with 14.4% and the lowest one belonged to Tinea and Ancylostoma with 0.2%. The prevalence rate in rural area was significantly lower than urban area (p<0.0001.

  12. Identification and mechanosensitivity of viscerofugal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, T J; Zagorodnyuk, V P; Spencer, N J; Brookes, S J H

    2012-12-06

    Enteric viscerofugal neurons are interneurons with cell bodies in the gut wall; they project to prevertebral ganglia where they provide excitatory synaptic drive to sympathetic neurons which control intestinal motility and secretion. Here, we studied the mechanosensitivity and firing of single, identified viscerofugal neurons in guinea-pig distal colon. Flat sheet preparations of gut were set up in vitro and conventional extracellular recordings made from colonic nerve trunks. The nicotinic agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) (1mM), was locally pressure ejected onto individual myenteric ganglia. In a few ganglia, DMPP promptly evoked firing in colonic nerves. Biotinamide filling of colonic nerves revealed that DMPP-responsive sites corresponded to viscerofugal nerve cell bodies. This provides a robust means to positively identify viscerofugal neuron firing. Of 15 single units identified in this way, none responded to locally-applied capsaicin (1 μM). Probing with von Frey hairs at DMPP-responsive sites reliably evoked firing in all identified viscerofugal neurons (18/18 units tested; 0.8-5 mN). Circumferential stretch of the preparation increased firing in all 14/14 units (1-5 g, p<0.05). Both stretch and von Frey hair responses persisted in Ca(2+)-free solution (6 mM Mg(2+), 1mM EDTA), indicating that viscerofugal neurons are directly mechanosensitive. To investigate their adequate stimulus, circular muscle tension and length were independently modulated (BAY K8644, 1 μM and 10 μM, respectively). Increases in intramural tension without changes in length did not affect firing. However, contraction-evoked shortening, under constant load, significantly decreased firing (p<0.001). In conclusion, viscerofugal neuron action potentials contribute to recordings from colonic nerve trunks, in vitro. They provide a significant primary afferent output from the colon, encoding circumferential length, largely independent of muscle tension. All

  13. Montagem e Imagem como Paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Huapaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O pensar como montagem e imagem tornou-se um método revelador nos processos de estudos práticos e teóricos do artista e dos pesquisadores nos séculos XX e XXI. Este artigo procura articular três formas de pensar por montagem: nas obras de Bertolt Brecht, Sergei Eisenstein e Georges DidiHuberman. O filósofo e historiador da arte Georges Didi-Huberman reinaugura o debate e o exercício de pensar a antropologia da imagem e a montagem como metalinguagem e forma de conhecimento.

  14. Intestinal flora, probiotics, and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Hernández, Ignacio; Torre Delgadillo, Aldo; Vargas Vorackova, Florencia; Uribe, Misael

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microflora constitutes a symbiotic ecosystem in permanent equilibrium, composed mainly of anaerobic bacteria. However, such equilibrium may be altered by daily conditions as drug use or pathologies interfering with intestinal physiology, generating an unfavorable environment for the organism. Besides, there are factors which may cause alterations in the intestinal wall, creating the conditions for translocation or permeation of substances or bacteria. In cirrhotic patients, there are many conditions that combine to alter the amount and populations of intestinal bacteria, as well as the functional capacity of the intestinal wall to prevent the permeation of substances and bacteria. Nowadays, numerous complications associated with cirrhosis have been identified, where such mechanisms could play an important role. There is evidence that some probiotic microorganisms could restore the microbiologic and immunologic equilibrium in the intestinal wall in cirrhotic patients and help in the treatment of complications due to cirrhosis. This article has the objective to review the interactions between intestinal flora, gut permeability, and the actual role of probiotics in the field of cirrhotic patients.

  15. Study of a new neuron

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen Louis; Weckel, J D

    1994-01-01

    We study a modular neuron alternative to the McCulloch-Pitts neuron that arises naturally in analog devices in which the neuron inputs are represented as coherent oscillatory wave signals. Although the modular neuron can compute XOR at the one neuron level, it is still characterized by the same Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension as the standard neuron. We give the formulas needed for constructing networks using the new neuron and training them using back-propagation. A numerical study of the modular neuron on two data sets is presented, which demonstrates that the new neuron performs at least as well as the standard neuron.

  16. Effect of colostrum and milk on small intestine expression of AQP4 and AQP5 in newborn buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillacioti, C; De Luca, A; Pero, M E; Vassalotti, G; Lombardi, P; Avallone, L; Mirabella, N; Pelagalli, A

    2015-12-01

    Functional studies indicate differences in newborn gastrointestinal morphology and physiology after a meal. Both water and solutes transfer across the intestinal epithelial membrane appear to occur via aquaporins (AQPs). Given that the physiological roles of AQP4 and AQP5 in the developing intestine have not been fully established, the objective of this investigation was to determine their distribution, expression and respective mRNA in the small intestine of colostrums-suckling buffalo calves by using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Results showed different tissue distribution between AQP4 and AQP5 with the presence of the former along the enteric neurons and the latter in the endocrine cells. Moreover, their expression levels were high in the ileum of colostrum-suckling buffalo calves. The data present a link between feeding, intestinal development and water homeostasis, suggesting the involvement of these channel proteins in intestinal permeability and fluid secretion/absorption during this stage of development after birth.

  17. Intestinal spirochetosis and colon diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Marcus Aurelho de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal spirochetosis in a 62-year-old white male is reported. The condition was characterized by chronic flatulence and episodes of intestinal hemorrhage, in addition to the evidence of hypotonic diverticular disease, with a large number of slender organisms in the colon epithelium and cryptae. Spirochetes were demonstrated by Whartin-Starry stain. The serologic tests for syphilis and HIV were positive. Spirochetosis was treated with penicillin G, and the patient remains free of intestinal complaints 20 months later.

  18. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter.

  19. Cajal bodies in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarga, Miguel; Tapia, Olga; Romero, Ana M; Berciano, Maria T

    2016-09-14

    Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience in recognition of his fundamental work on the structure of the nervous system. But Cajal also made seminal contributions to the knowledge of nuclear structure in the early 1900s, including the discovery of the "accessory body" later renamed "Cajal body" (CB). This important nuclear structure has emerged as a center for the assembly of ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) required for splicing, ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance. The modern era of CB research started in the 1990s with the discovery of coilin, now known as a scaffold protein of CBs, and specific probes for small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). In this review, we summarize what we have learned in the recent decades concerning CBs in post-mitotic neurons, thereby ruling out dynamic changes in CB functions during the cell cycle. We show that CBs are particularly prominent in neurons, where they frequently associate with the nucleolus. Neuronal CBs are transcription-dependent nuclear organelles. Indeed, their number dynamically accommodates to support the high neuronal demand for splicing and ribosome biogenesis required for sustaining metabolic and bioelectrical activity. Mature neurons have canonical CBs enriched in coilin, survival motor neuron protein and snRNPs. Disruption and loss of neuronal CBs associate with severe neuronal dysfunctions in several neurological disorders such as motor neuron diseases. In particular, CB depletion in motor neurons seems to reflect a perturbation of transcription and splicing in spinal muscular atrophy, the most common genetic cause of infant mortality.

  20. La ciudad como ecosistema urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther

    2013-01-01

    LA CIUDAD COMO ECOSISTEMA URBANO .- La ecología y los ecosistemas .- El ecosistema urbano, definición, alcance y oportunidad .- El metabolismo urbano .- Los síntomas de la patología urbana .- Los objetivos del nuevo ecosistema urbano .- Las aportaciones de los ecobarrios

  1. La ciudad como ecosistema urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther

    2013-01-01

    LA CIUDAD COMO ECOSISTEMA URBANO .- La ecología y los ecosistemas .- El ecosistema urbano, definición, alcance y oportunidad .- El metabolismo urbano .- Los síntomas de la patología urbana .- Los objetivos del nuevo ecosistema urbano .- Las aportaciones de los ecobarrios

  2. Sobre la escritura como experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pulido Cortés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Escribir se ha convertido en una de las prácticas más solicitadas y promocionadas en la actualidad. En el mundo académico no solo como una posibilidad de comunicación de los hallazgos de los procesos y proyectos de investigación, sino como una forma de mercantilización de los saberes y circulación de discursos impersonales que se han constreñido a formatos, condiciones específicas y normas para seguir paso a paso. Qué pena que este arte de la vida, la existencia y la razón haya sido colonizado y utilizado por los centros de poder y de saber, que en favor del capital y de sus flujos e intensidades la han colocado, a la escritura, como una esclava, para legitimar la circulación y apropiación de ciertos estatutos teóricos hegemónicos, a los intelectuales y académicos, a su vez como los medios para conseguir estos fines a cambio de salarios, puntos, índices de citación y clasificación en los rankings propios de las diferentes manifestaciones de la ciencia.

  3. Intestinal serotonin acts as a paracrine substance to mediate vagal signal transmission evoked by luminal factors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J X; Zhu, X Y; Owyang, C; Li, Y

    2001-02-01

    The vagus nerve conveys primary afferent information produced by a meal to the brainstem. Serotonin (5-HT), which abounds in intestinal enterochromaffin cells, is released in response to various stimuli. We have recently demonstrated that 5-HT released from intestinal enterochromaffin cells activates 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferent fibres to mediate luminal non-cholecystokinin-stimulated pancreatic secretion. The present study was designed to evaluate the responses of vagal sensory neurons to intraluminal osmotic stimulation and luminal infusion of maltose, glucose or 5-HT. We investigated the role of endogenous 5-HT in signal transmission evoked by luminal stimuli to activate vagal sensory neurons. The discharges of vagal primary afferent neurons innervating the intestine were recorded from rat nodose ganglia. Luminal factors such as intestinal osmotic stimuli and perfusion of carbohydrates elicited powerful vagal nodose responses. Electrical subdiaphragmatic vagal stimulation activated 364 single units; 40 of these responded to intestinal mucosal stimuli. Of these 40, 30 responded to intraduodenal perfusion of hyperosmolar NaCl (500 mosmol l(-1)), 27 responded to tap water (5 mosmol l(-1)) and 20 and 19 responded to maltose (300 mM) and glucose (277.5 mM), respectively. The 5-HT3/4 antagonist tropisetron (ICS 205-930) or 5-HT3 antagonist granisetron abolished luminal stimuli-evoked nodose neuronal responses. Intraluminal infusion of 10(-5) and 10(-4) M 5-HT elicited increases in vagal afferent discharge in 25 and 31 units, respectively, by activating the 5-HT3 receptors. Acute subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, intestinal mucosal application of the local anaesthetic lidocaine (lignocaine) or administration of 5-HT3 antagonist each abolished the luminal 5-HT-induced nodose neuronal responses. In contrast, distension-sensitive neurons did not respond to duodenal infusion of 5-HT. Pharmacological depletion of 5-HT stores using p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a 5-HT

  4. Noise and Neuronal Heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We consider signal transaction in a simple neuronal model featuring intrinsic noise. The presence of noise limits the precision of neural responses and impacts the quality of neural signal transduction. We assess the signal transduction quality in relation to the level of noise, and show it to be maximized by a non-zero level of noise, analogous to the stochastic resonance effect. The quality enhancement occurs for a finite range of stimuli to a single neuron; we show how to construct networks of neurons that extend the range. The range increases more rapidly with network size when we make use of heterogeneous populations of neurons with a variety of thresholds, rather than homogeneous populations of neurons all with the same threshold. The limited precision of neural responses thus can have a direct effect on the optimal network structure, with diverse functional properties of the constituent neurons supporting an economical information processing strategy that reduces the metabolic costs of handling a broad...

  5. The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Verheijden, Simon; Bosmans, Goele; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    One of the main tasks of the immune system is to discriminate and appropriately react to "danger" or "non-danger" signals. This is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract, where the immune system is confronted with a myriad of food antigens and symbiotic microflora that are in constant contact with the mucosa, in addition to any potential pathogens. This large number of antigens and commensal microflora, which are essential for providing vital nutrients, must be tolerated by the intestinal immune system to prevent aberrant inflammation. Hence, the balance between immune activation versus tolerance should be tightly regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent immune activation indiscriminately against all luminal antigens. Loss of this delicate equilibrium can lead to chronic activation of the intestinal immune response resulting in intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In order to maintain homeostasis, the immune system has evolved diverse regulatory strategies including additional non-immunological actors able to control the immune response. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates a bidirectional link between the two systems in which the brain modulates the immune response via the detection of circulating cytokines and via direct afferent input from sensory fibers and from enteric neurons. In the current review, we will highlight the most recent findings regarding the cross-talk between the nervous system and the mucosal immune system and will discuss the potential use of these neuronal circuits and neuromediators as novel therapeutic tools to reestablish immune tolerance and treat intestinal chronic inflammation.

  6. Neurons and tumor suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-08-20

    Neurons choose growth pathways with half hearted reluctance, behavior that may be appropriate to maintain fixed long lasting connections but not to regenerate them. We now recognize that intrinsic brakes on regrowth are widely expressed in these hesitant neurons and include classical tumor suppressor molecules. Here, we review how two brakes, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and retinoblastoma emerge as new and exciting knockdown targets to enhance neuron plasticity and improve outcome from damage or disease.

  7. Sperm Affects Head Sensory Neuron in Temperature Tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Sonoda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to environmental temperature change is essential for the survival and proliferation of animals. The process is controlled by various body tissues, but the orchestration of activity within the tissue network has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we show that sperm affects the activity of temperature-sensing neurons (ASJ that control cold tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetic impairment of sperm caused abnormal cold tolerance, which was unexpectedly restored by impairment of temperature signaling in ASJ neurons. Calcium imaging revealed that ASJ neuronal activity in response to temperature was decreased in sperm mutant gsp-4 with impaired protein phosphatase 1 and rescued by expressing gsp-4 in sperm. Genetic analysis revealed a feedback network in which ASJ neuronal activity regulates the intestine through insulin and a steroid hormone, which then affects sperm and, in turn, controls ASJ neuronal activity. Thus, we propose that feedback between sperm and a sensory neuron mediating temperature tolerance.

  8. Trasplante intestinal en el paciente con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria Intestinal transplant in patients with parenteral nutrition at home

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. de Cos; C. Gómez Candela; C. Vázquez; M. López Santamaría; de Vicente, E

    2003-01-01

    El fracaso intestinal, bien sea por causa anatómica o funcional, condiciona el tratamiento con nutrición parenteral en niños o adultos que, como resultado de resecciones intestinales, alteración de la motilidad, enfermedad de microvellosidades u otras causas, presentan un intestino insuficiente para proveer sus necesidades en nutrientes y fluidos. Sin embargo, en sujetos con fallo intestinal irreversible el mantenimiento del soporte con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria no esta exento de comp...

  9. Tratamiento nutricional del fallo intestinal y potenciales mecanismos de estimulación Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    A. J. Pérez de la Cruz; R Moreno-Torres Herrera; C. Pérez Roca

    2007-01-01

    El Fallo Intestinal en sus formas graves representa una de las patologías de manejo más complejo, tanto en niños como adultos. En adultos las causas más frecuentes son la Pseudoobstrucción Intestinal Crónica y el Síndrome del Intestino Corto severo que sigue a las grandes resecciones intestinales, sobre todo las debidas a isquemia mesentérica masiva, en el marco de cardiopatías que cursan con fibrilación auricular. El tratamiento fundamental tras la estabilización del paciente, está represent...

  10. Intestinal acariasis in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Pin Li; Jian Wang

    2000-01-01

    The mites found in stored food and house comprise a large group of subclass Acari, belonging to the suborder Acardida of the order Acarifornes. They can be found in dust and vacuum samples from floors, furniture, mattresses, Chinese herbal medicine, dry fruit, grain, flour, sugar, and bedding. These mites are nidicolous and feed on organic debris, including sloughed human skin, fungi, spilled food, pollen, etc. These mites are particularly prevalent in Chinese herbal medicine, dry fruit, grain, flour, sugar, beds, though carpeted floors near beds or couches may also have large numbers. The most common species are Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae , Dermatophagoides farinae , D . pteronyssinus, Glycyphagus domesticus, G. Ornatus, Carpoglyphus lactis and Tarsonemus granarius, etc. The viability of mites in storage is quite strong and they can invade and parasitize the intestines of humans[1 -15]. They can cause pulmonary acariasis[16-25] , urinary acariasis[26-33] and so on. The dejecta of mites is a quite strong allergen and can cause different allergic diseases[34-44]. Intestinal acariasis can be caused by some mites related to the way of diet intake and invading against intestinal mucosa, intestinal muscle[45-5a]. The first report of intestinal acariasis caused by these mites was made by Hinman et al (1934)[45]. From then on, all kinds of studies on the disease have been reported gradually. In order to make an epidemiological survey of intestinal acariasis the investigation of the disease was taken in some areas of Anhui Province from 1989 to 1996.

  11. Acute GI bleeding by multiple jejunal gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumour associated with neurofibromatosis type I Urgencia quirúrgica por sangrado intestinal debido a tumor intestinal de nervios autónomos asociados a neurofibromatosis tipo I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Keese

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a surgical emergency due to GI-bleeding caused by gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumours (GANT's in a patient with von Recklinghausen's disease. A 72 year old female patient with von Recklinghausen's disease was admitted with maelena. Endoscopy showed no active bleeding in the stomach and the colon. Therefore an angio-CT-scan was performed which revealed masses of the proximal jejunum as source of bleeding. Laparotomy was indicated and a 20 cm segment of jejunum which carried multiple extraluminal tumours was resected. The source of the bleeding was a 2 cm tumour which had eroded the mucosal surface. Immunohistologically, evidence of neuronal differentiation could be shown in the spindle-formed cells with positive staining for C-Kit (CD 117, CD 34, and a locally positive staining for synaptophysine and S100. This case report illustrates the association between neurofibromatosis and stromal tumours and should alert surgeons and gastroenterologist about gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease.Se describe una urgencia quirúrgica por sangrado intestinal debido a tumor gastrointestinal de nervios autónomos (GANT asociado a enfermedad de von Recklinghausen. Una mujer de 72 años con neurofibromatosis fue ingresada con signos de melena. La endoscopia digestiva alta y baja fue negativa. Se indicó TAC con contraste que advirtió tumores yeyunales como causa del sangrado. Se realizó laparotomía y resección de un segmento de 20 cm de yeyuno que incluía varios tumores. La causa del sangrado activo fue lesión en mucosa intestinal por erosión tumoral. El análisis por inmunohistoquímica de la pieza mostró diferenciación neuronal, con células fusiformes con tinción positiva para el C-Kit (CD 117, CD 34. Esta nota clínica pone de manifiesto la asociación entre la neurofibromatosis y los tumores estromales y debe alertar a gastroenterólogos y cirujanos sobre las posibles manifestaciones

  12. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

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    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  13. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  14. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Malacoplaquia intestinal Colonic malakoplakia

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    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  16. El arte como posible conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janitzio Alatriste Tobilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es producto de una investigación que intenta construir un modelo metodológico para concebir la producción artística como una forma de conocimiento e incorporar el quehacer imaginario del artista dentro de los esquemas que regulan la investigación académica tanto en México como en el mundo. La construcción de esta propuesta metodológica ha sido creada desde tres posiciones con respecto al conocimiento: la semiótica de Charles S. Peirce, la teoría psicoanalítica de Jacques Lacan y la práctica artística visual.

  17. El singular como diferencia divina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Binetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha hablado sobre la posición de la diferencia como motor dialéctico de la existencia singular kierkegaardiana. El pecado, el otro o el Otro fisuran la subjetividad humana y la obligan a una identidad que guardará siempre la herida. El sujeto de la escisión es, en este sentido, el existente mismo, y tal debe ser el caso si la perspectiva se concentra en la individualidad. No obstante, y desde el punto de vista especulativo, creemos que los mismos principios utilizados por Kierkegaard para explicar el dinamismo de la existencia singular nos llevan más lejos, a saber, nos conducen al absoluto mismo como sujeto último de toda alteridad, respecto del cual el singular hace la diferencia.

  18. del museo como proyecto ilustrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Vásquez Rocca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se intenta aquí superar la tradicional antinomia entre arte y tecnología. En cambio, se propone una comprensión del arte posmoderno a partir de la inscripción del artista en el seno de una cultura de la información. Es así como asistimos a un cambio de paradigma en el estatuto del arte, a una revolución en la escena artística y de nuestros regímenes de visibilidad, de allí la necesidad de explorar el desarrollo de las estéticas de la virtualidad que nos instalan en nuevas lógicas de producción de verdad, emancipadas del museo como instancia última de legitimación artística.

  19. Neurochemical phenotype of cytoglobin-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb), a novel oxygen-binding protein, is expressed in the majority of tissues and has been proposed to function in nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in the vasculature and to have cytoprotective properties. However, the overall functions of Cygb remain elusive. Cygb is also expressed in a subpopulation of brain neurons. Recently, it has been shown that stress upregulates Cygb expression in the brain and the majority of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons, an enzyme that produces NO, co-express Cygb. However, there are more neurons expressing Cygb than nNOS, thus a large number of Cygb neurons remain uncharacterized by the neurochemical content. The aim of the present study was to provide an additional and more detailed neurochemical phenotype of Cygb-expressing neurons in the rat hippocampus. The rat hippocampus was chosen due to the abundance of Cygb, as well as this limbic structure being an important target in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Using triple immunohistochemistry, it was demonstrated that nearly all the parvalbumin- and heme oxygenase 1-positive neurons co-express Cygb and to a large extent, these neuron populations are distinct from the population of Cygb neurons co-expressing nNOS. Furthermore, it was shown that the majority of neurons expressing somastostatin and vasoactive intestinal peptide also co-express Cygb and nNOS. Detailed information regarding the neurochemical phenotype of Cygb neurons in the hippocampus can be a valuable tool in determining the function of Cygb in the brain.

  20. Electrical and morphological characteristics of anteroventral periventricular nucleus kisspeptin and other neurons in the female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, Eric; Gaidamaka, Galina; Herbison, Allan E

    2010-05-01

    Neurons in the rodent anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) play a key role in integrating circadian and gonadal steroid hormone information in the control of fertility. In particular, estradiol-sensitive kisspeptin neurons located in the AVPV, and adjacent structures [together termed the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V)], are critical for puberty onset and the preovulatory LH surge. The present study aimed to establish the morphological and electrical firing characteristics of RP3V neurons, including kisspeptin neurons, in the adult female mouse. Cell-attached electrical recordings, followed by juxtacellular dye filling, of 129 RP3V neurons in the acute brain slice preparation revealed these cells to exhibit multipolar (53%), bipolar (43%), or unipolar (4%) dendritic morphologies along with silent (16%), irregular (41%), bursting (25%), or tonic (34%) firing patterns. Postrecording immunocytochemistry identified 17 of 100 filled RP3V cells as being kisspeptin neurons, all of which exhibited complex multipolar dendritic trees and significantly (P neurons. The firing pattern of RP3V neurons fluctuated across the estrous cycle with a significant (P neurons. All RP3V neurons responded to gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate, about 10% to RFamide-related peptide-3, about 5% to vasopressin, 0% to vasoactive intestinal peptide, and 0% to kisspeptin. These studies provide a morphological and electrical description of AVPV/RP3V neurons and demonstrate their cycle-dependent firing patterns along with an unexpected lack of acute response to the circadian neuropeptides.

  1. A literatura como antropologia especulativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Andre Nodari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se décadas atrás, Lyotard identificou a crise de legitimação política e do conhecimento de então como a crise dos grandes relatos, talvez se possa dizer que a crise atual é uma crise do grande Relator: a crise das humanidades seria, assim, parte mais geral da crise do Humano. Diante do Antropoceno, as ciências do homem (as antropologias têm como um dos seus desafios converterem-se em humanidades, isto é, especular sobre as definições de homem e mundo, descobrindo outras humanidades e mundos. Aqui, a literatura, entendida a partir de Juan José Saer como uma “antropologia especulativa”, pode revelar-se uma linha de fuga: diante do contingenciamento econômico das humanidades, ela apresenta a contingência ecológica desse modelo de mundo.     This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  2. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis Papel del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal y de la motilidad intestinal en la traslocación bacteriana en un modelo experimental de cirrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sánchez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. Objectives: the aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. Material and methods: we included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. Results: the prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p Introducción: el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal (SBI está relacionado con la motilidad del intestino delgado y diferentes trabajos con modelos experimentales han sugerido su relación con el desarrollo de traslocación bacteriana (TB. Tanto el sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal como la traslocación bacteriana son eventos frecuentes en la cirrosis hepática. Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio han sido analizar la población cecal de bacterias aerobias y el tránsito intestinal en un modelo de ratas cirróticas y su relación con la TB. Material y métodos: el estudio se ha realizado en un modelo experimental de cirrosis inducida por tetracloruro de carbono por vía oral en ratas Sprague-Dawley. Se llevaron a cabo cultivos microbiológicos convencionales a partir de ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos (GLM, sangre portal y periférica, h

  3. Pacemaking Kisspeptin Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Martin J.; Zhang, Chunguang; Qiu, Jian; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neurons are vital for reproduction. GnRH neurons express the kisspeptin receptor, GPR 54, and kisspeptins potently stimulate the release of GnRH by depolarising and inducing sustained action potential firing in GnRH neurons. As such Kiss1 neurons may be the pre-synaptic pacemaker neurons in the hypothalamic circuitry that controls reproduction. There are at least two different populations of Kiss1 neurons: one in the rostral periventricular area (RP3V) that is stimulated by oestrogens and the other in the arcuate nucleus that is inhibited by oestrogens. How each of these Kiss1 neuronal populations participate in the regulation of the reproductive cycle is currently under intense investigation. Based on electrophysiological studies in the guinea pig and mouse, Kiss1 neurons in general are capable of generating burst firing behavior. Essentially all Kiss1 neurons, which have been studied thus far in the arcuate nucleus, express the ion channels necessary for burst firing, which include hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated cation (HCN) channels and the T-type calcium (Cav3.1) channels. Under voltage clamp conditions, these channels produce distinct currents that under current clamp conditions can generate burst firing behavior. The future challenge is to identify other key channels and synaptic inputs involved in the regulation of the firing properties of Kiss1 neurons and the physiological regulation of the expression of these channels and receptors by oestrogens and other hormones. The ultimate goal is to understand how Kiss1 neurons control the different phases of GnRH neurosecretion and hence reproduction. PMID:23884368

  4. Tratamiento de la obstrucción intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-García, Antonio; Araji, O.; Balongo, R.; Fernández, F; Jiménez Calderón, Mª. C.; Méndez, J.L.; Río Lafuente, Francisco Del; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Sánchez, F.; Naranjo, M.; Capitan-Morales, Luis-Cristobal; Ortega, J.Mª.; Cantillana, J.

    1998-01-01

    Existen aforismos, que refuerzan con intensidad no exenta de cierto drama, la obligación imperiosa de ser oportunos en el tiempo que han de ser tratados determinados síndromes. Sucede, como entre tantos otros con la obstrucción intestinal; que se ha visto gravada desde primeros de siglo por una elevada mortalidad próxima al 90%, hasta que el desarrollo del conocimiento fisiopatológico, planteamiento de actitudes terapéuticas más decididas y renovadas, con el impulso de la cirugía electiva en ...

  5. Corticospinal mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraskov, A; Philipp, R; Waldert, S; Vigneswaran, G; Quallo, M M; Lemon, R N

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the properties of neurons with mirror-like characteristics that were identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) and recorded in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and primary motor cortex (M1) of three macaque monkeys. We analysed the neurons' discharge while the monkeys performed active grasp of either food or an object, and also while they observed an experimenter carrying out a similar range of grasps. A considerable proportion of tested PTNs showed clear mirror-like properties (52% F5 and 58% M1). Some PTNs exhibited 'classical' mirror neuron properties, increasing activity for both execution and observation, while others decreased their discharge during observation ('suppression mirror-neurons'). These experiments not only demonstrate the existence of PTNs as mirror neurons in M1, but also reveal some interesting differences between M1 and F5 mirror PTNs. Although observation-related changes in the discharge of PTNs must reach the spinal cord and will include some direct projections to motoneurons supplying grasping muscles, there was no EMG activity in these muscles during action observation. We suggest that the mirror neuron system is involved in the withholding of unwanted movement during action observation. Mirror neurons are differentially recruited in the behaviour that switches rapidly between making your own movements and observing those of others.

  6. Culturing rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.

  7. Controle neuronal e manifestações digestórias na paralisia cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubiana A. Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Abordar as peculiaridades do controle neuronal digestório e descrever as principais manifestações digestórias na paralisia cerebral, atentando-se à importância do diagnóstico precoce para intervenção interdisciplinar eficaz. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão sistemática de 1997 a 2012 das bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO e Cochrane Library. Incluem-se 70 artigos, como revisões relevantes, estudos observacionais, ensaios clínicos e estudos de prevalência. Excluíram-se pesquisas qualitativas. Os termos pesquisados foram: paralisia cerebral, disfagia, doença do refluxo gastroesofágico, constipação intestinal, infecção respiratória e gastrostomia. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O controle adequado do trato digestório depende do funcionamento e integridade do sistema nervoso. Como indivíduos portadores de paralisia cerebral possuem anormalidades estruturais evidentes no sistema nervoso central e periférico, estão mais propensos a desenvolver distúrbios do trato digestório, com repercussões nutricionais. As alterações vão desde imaturidade neurológica até interferência do estado de humor e capacitação dos cuidadores. Trata-se, portanto, de etiologia multifatorial. As desordens digestórias mais prevalentes são disfagia, doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e constipação intestinal, com consequentes quadros de infecções respiratórias de repetição e repercussão deletéria no estado nutricional. CONCLUSÕES: Indivíduos com paralisia cerebral apresentam alterações neurológicas do controle do sistema digestório, portanto manifestações digestórias são frequentes. As questões abordadas são fundamentais para profissionais das equipes interdisciplinares que atendem indivíduos com paralisia cerebral acerca da importância da anamnese ampla, exame clínico e complementar detalhado que incluam investigação das desordens gastrointestinais associadas e suas consequências. A detecção precoce dessas altera

  8. Linfangiectasia intestinal primaria: 20 años de experiencia en el Instituto Nacional de Pediatría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Valdovinos-Oregón

    2014-01-01

    Conclusiones: La linfangiectasia intestinal debe sospecharse ante un cuadro de diarrea crónica, enteropatía perdedora de proteínas, que se acompaña de edema a cualquier nivel, así como hipoalbuminemia, hipocalcemia, linfopenia, hipogammaglobulinemia e hipocolesterolemia como los principales hallazgos bioquímicos de esta entidad. Ante esta enfermedad debe realizarse estudio de serie esofagogastroduodenal con tránsito intestinal y endoscopia con toma de biopsias a nivel de duodeno. El tratamiento incluye dieta y administración periódica de albúmina y gammaglobulina.

  9. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  10. NEURON and Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hines

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including GUI tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the XML module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  11. NEURON and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  12. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide provokes acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, M.; Tsai, L.H.; Taniyama, K.; Tanaka, C.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from longitudinal muscle strips with myenteric plexus (LM) preparations were examined in the guinea pig small intestine. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of LM preparation. The VIP-induced contractions seem to be related to three components, the scopolamine-sensitive, the scopolamine-insensitive, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive, and the tetrodotoxin-insensitive contractions. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the release of (TH)ACh from LM preparations preloaded with (TH)choline. The VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was inhibited by removal of CaS from the perfusion medium and by treatment with tetrodotoxin but not by scopolamine and hexamethonium. The spontaneous and VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was not affected by phentolamine, propranolol, methysergide, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, bicuculline, or (D-ProS, D-Trp/sup 7,9/)substance P. The result demonstrates that VIP induces contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle directly and indirectly by the stimulation of both cholinergic neurons and noncholinergic excitatory neurons.

  13. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellanger Jérôme

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool α1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other

  14. Intestinal dysfunction associated with acute thoracolumbar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschiera, J L; Beerman, S P

    1990-03-01

    The frequency of intestinal dysfunction, particularly intestinal ileus, among patients with acute thoracolumbar fractures and no neurologic compromise was assessed. We reviewed the medical records of 70 patients who met specific criteria. Only four (6%) of these patients developed intestinal dysfunction, manifested by vomiting, abdominal distention, diminished bowel sounds, or an intestinal ileus documented by an abdominal roentgenogram. Conservative initial nutritional management of the patients did not reduce the incidence of intestinal dysfunction. This study suggests that patients with acute thoracolumbar fractures and no neurologic compromise are not at substantial risk of intestinal dysfunction and that nasogastric suction and restriction of oral intake are unnecessary in the initial management of these patients.

  15. GLP-2 receptor in POMC neurons suppresses feeding behavior and gastric motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1/2) are cosecreted from endocrine L cells in the gut and preproglucagonergic neurons in the brain. Peripheral GLP-2 action is essential for maintaining intestinal homeostasis, improving absorption efficiency and blood flow, promoting immune defense, and producing efficac...

  16. An electrophysiological investigation of the effects of cholecystokinin on enteric neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, I.W.M.

    1998-01-01


    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide, which is present in the gastrointestinat tract in endocrine cells and in the enteric nervous system (ENS). A possible function in the control of motility of the small intestine has been attributed to neuronal CCK. The aim of this thesis was to obtain a

  17. Sonography of the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Nylund; Svein (φ)degaard; Trygve Hausken; Geir Folvik; Gülen Arslan Lied; Ivan Viola; Helwig Hauser; Odd-Helge Gilja

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases.

  18. Small intestinal sulphoxidation of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, C; Alvarez, A I; Redondo, P; Voces, J; Del Estal, J L; Prieto, J G

    1995-05-01

    1. The in vitro sulphoxidation of Albendazole (ABZ) by rat intestinal microsomes has been examined. The results revealed intestinal sulphoxidation of ABZ by intestinal microsomes in a NADPH-dependent enzymatic system. The kinetic constants for sulphoxidase activity were Vmax = 46 pmol/min/mg protein and Michaelis constant Km = 6.8 microM. 2. The possible effect of inducers (Arochlor 1254 and ABZ pretreatment) and inhibitors (erythromycin, methimazole, carbon monoxide and fenbendazole), was also studied. In rat pretreated with Arochlor 1254, Vmax was 52 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas oral administration of ABZ increased the intestinal sulphoxidation of the drug, Vmax being 103 pmol/min/mg protein. 3. Erythromycin did not change the enzymatic bioconversion of ABZ, but methimazole and carbon monoxide inhibited the enzyme activity by approximately 60 and 30% respectively. Fenbendazole (a structural analogue of ABZ) was a competitive inhibitor of the sulphoxidation process, characterized by a Ki or 69 microM. 4. These data demonstrate that the intestinal enzymes contributing to the initial sulphoxidation of ABZ may be similar to the hepatic enzymes involved in the biotransformation process by the P450 and FMO systems, a conclusion that needs to be further established.

  19. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xing Liu; Hai-Tao Niu; Shu-Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target.Data Sources:This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30,2015.Articles were selected using the following search temps:"Intestinal microbiota","trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)","trimethylamine (TMA)","cardiovascular",and "atherosclerosis".Study Selection:Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis.Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included.Results:A new CVD risk factor,TMAO,was recently identified.It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota,resulting in TMA release.TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver.Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD,particularly atherosclerosis;however,the details of this relationship remain unclear.Conclusions:Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management.

  20. Human intestinal capillariasis in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasert Saichua; Choosak Nithikathkul; Natthawut Kaewpitoon

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt and Taiwan; major outbreaks have occurred in the Philippines and Thailand. This article reviews the epidemiology, history and sources of C. philippinensis infection in Thailand. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports indicated that 82 accumulated cases of intestinal capillariasis were found in Thailand from 1994-2006. That made Thailand a Capillaria-prevalent area. Sisaket, in northeast Thailand, was the first province which has reported intestinal capillariasis. Moreover, Buri Ram presented a high prevalence of intestinal capillariasis, totaling 24 cases from 1994-2006. About half of all cases have consumed raw or undercooked fish. However, even if the numbers of the intestinal capillariasis cases in Thailand is reduced, C. philippinensis infection cases are still reported. The improvement of personal hygiene, specifically avoiding consumption of undercooked fish and promoting a health education campaign are required. These strategies may minimize or eliminate C. philippinensis infection in Thailand.

  1. Parenteral nutrition in intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkchubasche AG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arlet G Kurkchubasche,1 Thomas J Herron,2 Marion F Winkler31Department of Surgery and Pediatrics, 2Department of Surgery, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 3Department of Surgery/Nutritional Support Service, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: Intestinal failure is a consequence of extensive surgical resection resulting in anatomic loss and/or functional impairment in motility or absorptive capacity. The condition is clinically characterized by the inability to maintain fluid, energy, protein, electrolyte, or micronutrient balance when on a conventionally accepted, normal diet. Parenteral nutrition (PN is the cornerstone of management until intestinal adaptation returns the patient to a PN-independent state. Intestinal length, residual anatomic segments and motility determine the need for and duration of parenteral support. The goals of therapy are to provide sufficient nutrients to enable normal growth and development in children, and support a healthy functional status in adults. This review addresses indications for PN, the formulation of the PN solution, patient monitoring, and considerations for prevention of PN-associated complications. With the ultimate goal of achieving enteral autonomy, the important role of diet, pharmacologic interventions, and surgery is discussed.Keywords: intestinal failure, short-bowel syndrome, parenteral nutrition, home nutrition support, intestinal rehabilitation

  2. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  3. Transplanted progenitors generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ryo; Stamp, Lincon A.; Foong, Jaime P.P.; McConnell, Sophie N.; Bergner, Annette J.; Anderson, Richard B.; Enomoto, Hideki; Newgreen, Donald F.; Obermayr, Florian; Furness, John B.; Young, Heather M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapy has the potential to treat gastrointestinal motility disorders caused by diseases of the enteric nervous system. Many studies have demonstrated that various stem/progenitor cells can give rise to functional neurons in the embryonic gut; however, it is not yet known whether transplanted neural progenitor cells can migrate, proliferate, and generate functional neurons in the postnatal bowel in vivo. We transplanted neurospheres generated from fetal and postnatal intestinal neural crest–derived cells into the colon of postnatal mice. The neurosphere-derived cells migrated, proliferated, and generated neurons and glial cells that formed ganglion-like clusters within the recipient colon. Graft-derived neurons exhibited morphological, neurochemical, and electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of enteric neurons; they received synaptic inputs; and their neurites projected to muscle layers and the enteric ganglia of the recipient mice. These findings show that transplanted enteric neural progenitor cells can generate functional enteric neurons in the postnatal bowel and advances the notion that cell therapy is a promising strategy for enteric neuropathies. PMID:23454768

  4. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting,such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partⅠ, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors,epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part Ⅱ will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids.

  5. La cronicidad como concepto contratransferencial.

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Vidal Otero

    1998-01-01

    Durante años, el discurso de la reforma psiquiátrica -tanto el institucional como el reivindicativo-ha venido utilizando una serie de expresiones y conceptos que hoy parecen gastados, convertidos en meros referentes formales de la retórica de dicho discurso. Fenómeno éste que en parte está relacionado con la actual mengua conceptual dentro de los campos ideológico y epistemológico. En parte, también, con la deficiente concreción práctica de las reformas que dichos conceptos sugerían. Pero que...

  6. Characterization of moose intestinal glycosphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Miralda Madar; Dedic, Benjamin; Lundholm, Klara; Branzell, Filip Berner; Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann

    2015-08-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Galα3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized.

  7. The intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, Samuel J; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been and continues to be an epidemic in the United States. Obesity has been addressed in multiple health initiatives, including Healthy People 2010, with no state meeting the proposed goal of a prevalence of obesity fad diets, incentive-based exercise programs, and gastric bypass surgery; none of which have been optimal. In a murine model, it was shown that the majority of the intestinal microbiome consists of two bacterial phyla, the Bacteroidetes and the Firmicutes, and that the relative abundance of these two phyla differs among lean and obese mice; the obese mouse had a higher proportion of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (50% greater) than the lean mouse. The same results were appreciated in obese humans compared to lean subjects. The postulated explanation for this finding is that Firmicutes produce more complete metabolism of a given energy source than do Bacteroidetes, thus promoting more efficient absorption of calories and subsequent weight gain. Researchers were able to demonstrate that colonizing germ-free mice with the intestinal microbiome from obese mice led to an increased total body fat in the recipient mice despite a lack of change in diet. The converse, that, colonizing germ-free obese mice with the intestinal microbiome of thin mice causing a decreased total body fat in the recipient mice, has not yet been done. Other possible mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects host obesity include induction of low-grade inflammation with lipopolysaccharide, regulation of host genes responsible for energy expenditure and storage, and hormonal communication between the intestinal microbiome and the host. The following review discusses the microbiome-obesity relationship and proposed mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiota is hypothesized to influence weight gain.

  8. La paz como proyecto constitucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo García Jaramillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la históricamente alegada estabilidad democrática de Colombia, se trata de un país que ha oscilado desde hace más de 50 años entre indicadores desfavorables respecto de la violencia y la inestabilidad institucional, en algunas ocasiones particularmente negativos. A finales de 1980 una serie de factores políticos, jurídicos, económicos y sociales, agravados por la confrontación entre el Estado y el cartel de Medellín, así como por el surgimiento de nuevas guerrillas y luego de los paramilitares, confluyeron en la necesidad imperativa de cambiar el texto constitucional. No solo se consignó en la nueva Constitución que "la paz es un derecho y un deber de obligatorio cumplimiento", sino que tras 20 años de desarrollo legislativo y judicial de esta disposición la paz se ha procurado alcanzar aumentando la seguridad pero con cada vez mayor consciencia de la necesidad de implementar políticas de justicia social. En pocos contextos como el colombiano se ha procurado reivindicar la idea de Bobbio: "Una constitución es un pacto de paz".

  9. Terroristas como pessoas no direito?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Jakobs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A punição de terroristas, em larga medida preliminar, ou os severos interrogatórios, não se adequam a um perfeito Estado de direito. Pertencem ao direito de exceção. Um Estado de direito que tudo abarque não poderia travar esta guerra, pois ele deveria tratar seus inimigos como pessoas e, conseqüentemente, não poderia tratá-las como fonte de perigo. Em Estados de direito que operam na prática de modo ótimo procede-se de outra maneira, e isso lhes dá a chance de não se quebrarem durante o ataque a seus inimigos.The preemptive punishment of terrorists and the use of harsh interrogation techniques are not within the classical standards of the Rule of Law. They belong rather to a state of exception. A State committed to all the usually accepted requirements of the Rule of Law would not be allowed to carry such a war, because it would have the duty to treat its enemies as persons. Therefore, it would not be authorized to treat them as a source of danger. Nevertheless, these classical standards have been challenged in the last two decades by major institutional changes that are now being discussed both in theoretical as in practical levels.

  10. El dictado como tarea comunicativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cassany

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las utilidades didácticas del dictado (la práctica comunicativa de oralizar o leer en voz alta un escrito para el aprendizaje funcional de una lengua materna o extranjera, en los diversos niveles de enseñanza. Después de criticar el uso tradicional de este ejercicio lingüístico, presentamos once formas diferentes de desarrollar un dictado en clase, con sus particulares contenidos, objetivos y metodologías. También analizamos con detalle la técnica más tradicional del dictado magistral, en la que el docente dicta palabra por palabra un texto al alumnado, poniendo énfasis en la ortografía; ofrecemos algunas orientaciones para incrementar el componente comunicativo de esta propuesta. Las conclusiones finales proponen entender esta técnica como un recurso metodológico variado, rico y sugerente, adaptado a cada situación de aprendizaje —y no como una práctica obligatoria y fosilizada.

  11. Targeted electrophysiological analysis of viscerofugal neurons in the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, T J; Spencer, N J; Zagorodnyuk, V P; Chen, B N; Brookes, S J H

    2014-09-05

    Enteric viscerofugal neurons are mechanosensory interneurons that form the afferent limb of intestino-intestinal reflexes involving prevertebral sympathetic neurons. Fast synaptic inputs to viscerofugal neurons arise from other enteric neurons, but their sources are unknown. We aimed to describe the origins of synaptic inputs to viscerofugal neurons by mapping the locations of their cell bodies within the myenteric plexus. Viscerofugal neuron somata were retrogradely traced with 1,1'-didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) from colonic nerve trunks and impaled with microelectrodes, in longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparations of the guinea-pig distal colon (39 impalements, n=14). Thirty-eight viscerofugal neurons were uni-axonal and had the electrophysiological characteristics of myenteric S-neurons; one neuron was multipolar with AH-neuron electrophysiological characteristics. Depolarizing current pulses evoked either single- or multiple action potentials in viscerofugal neurons (range 1-25 spikes, 500 ms, 100-900 pA, 21 cells). Electrical stimulation of internodal strands circumferential to viscerofugal neurons evoked fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in 19/24 cells. Focal pressure-ejection of the nicotinic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP, 10 μm) directly onto viscerofugal nerve cell bodies evoked large depolarizations and action potentials (23 ± 10 mV, latency 350 ± 230 ms, 21/22 cells). DMPP was then focally applied to multiple sites, up to 3mm from the recorded viscerofugal neuron, to activate other myenteric S-neurons. In a few sites in myenteric ganglia, DMPP evoked repeatable fast EPSPs in viscerofugal neurons (latency 300 ± 316 ms, 38/394 sites, 10 cells). The cellular sources of synaptic inputs to viscerofugal neurons were located both orally and aborally (19 oral, 19 aboral), but the amplitude of oral inputs was consistently greater than aboral inputs (13.1 ± 4.3 mV vs. 10.1

  12. Small intestinal tophus mimicking tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Katoch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 72 year old male with hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2 and previous gouty arthritis presented with weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Ultrasound and CT scanning of the abdomen revealed a circumscribed tumor mass of the jejunum, 3.7 cm in diameter. Microscopic examination of the resected jejunum revealed the tumor to be a gouty tophus. To the best of our knowledge, three cases of tophi in the large intestine have previously been reported but none in the small intestine.

  13. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  14. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. TEMA 16-2014: Síndrome de Obstrucción Intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Granados Quesada, Ronny; Vargas Carranza, Julia

    2014-01-01

    La obstrucción intestinal es un conjunto de signos y síntomas que se pueden producir por diversas patologías luminales (bezoares, litos), extraluminales (adherencias) o intramurales (enfermedad de Crohn) del tracto gastrointestinal, peritoneales y sistémicas, que dan como problema principal la imposibilidad de canalizar gases y evacuar el contenido intestinal. Ocupa un 20% de las admisiones quirúrgicas agudas y es una de las causas más frecuentes de intervención quirúrgica.

  16. Chronic pancreatitis: Maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2009-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency caused by chronic pancreatitis results from various factors whichregulate digestion and absorption of nutrients. Pancreatic function has been extensively studied over the last 40 years, even if some aspects of secretion and gastrointestinal adaptation are not completely understood. The main clinical manifestations of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are fat malabsorption, known as steatorrhea, which consists of fecal excretion of more than 6 g of fat per day, weightloss, abdominal discomfort and abdominal swelling sensation. Fat malabsorption also results in a deficit of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) with consequent clinical manifestations. The relationships between pancreatic maldigestion, intestinal ecology and intestinal inflammation have not received particular attention, even if in clinical practice these mechanisms may be responsible for the low efficacy of pancreatic extracts in abolishing steatorrhea in some patients. The best treatments for pancreatic maldigestion should be re-evaluated, taking into account not only the correction of pancreatic insufficiency using pancreatic extracts and the best duodenal pH to permit optimal efficacy of these extracts, but we also need to consider other therapeutic approaches including the decontamination of intestinal lumen, supplementation of bile acids and, probably, the use of probiotics which may attenuate intestinal inflammation

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  18. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  19. Microbiota, Intestinal Immunity, and Mouse Bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  20. Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welters, C.F.M.; Dejong, C.H.C.; Deutz, N.E.P.; Heineman, E.

    2002-01-01

    Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Welters CF, Dejong CH, Deutz NE, Heineman E. Department of Surgery, Academic Hospital and University of Maastricht, The Netherlands. Regaining enteral autonomy after extensive small bowel resection is dependent on intestinal adaptation. This adaptationa

  1. Tratamiento nutricional del fallo intestinal y potenciales mecanismos de estimulación Nutritional management of intestinal failure and potential stimulation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Pérez de la Cruz

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El Fallo Intestinal en sus formas graves representa una de las patologías de manejo más complejo, tanto en niños como adultos. En adultos las causas más frecuentes son la Pseudoobstrucción Intestinal Crónica y el Síndrome del Intestino Corto severo que sigue a las grandes resecciones intestinales, sobre todo las debidas a isquemia mesentérica masiva, en el marco de cardiopatías que cursan con fibrilación auricular. El tratamiento fundamental tras la estabilización del paciente, está representado por el soporte nutricional por las vías parenteral y/o enteral, constituyendo la tolerancia a la dieta oral, el éxito final de la adaptación intestinal en estos procesos. La cirugía puede estar indicada en algunos casos para incrementar la superficie absortiva. La Nutrición Parenteral es una medida de apoyo fundamental, que a veces hay que mantener durante un tiempo prolongado, e incluso adquirir carácter permanente, salvo que complicaciones ligadas a la técnica, o la evolución clínica desfavorable, obliguen a alternativas quirúrgicas extremas como el trasplante intestinal. El tratamiento hormonal con factores estimulantes del trofismo abre nuevas alternativas que ya se están ensayando en humanos.Severe forms of intestinal failure represent one of the most complex pathologies to manage, in both children and adults. In adults, the most common causes are chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and severe short bowel syndrome following large intestinal resections, particularly due to massive mesenteric ischemic, within the context of cardiopathies occurring with atrial fibrillation. The essential management after stabilizing the patient consists in nutritional support, either by parenteral or enteral routes, with tolerance to oral diet being the final goal of intestinal adaptation in these pathologies. Surgery may be indicated in some cases to increase the absorptive surface area. Parenteral nutrition is an essential support measure

  2. Translocation and neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in RMEs motor neurons in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wang, Xiong; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    We employed Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on RMEs motor neurons, which are involved in controlling foraging behavior, and the underlying mechanism of such neurotoxicity. After prolonged exposure to 0.1-1 μg/L of CdTe QDs, abnormal foraging behavior and deficits in development of RMEs motor neurons were observed. The observed neurotoxicity from CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons might be not due to released Cd(2+). Overexpression of genes encoding Mn-SODs or unc-30 gene controlling cell identity of RMEs neurons prevented neurotoxic effects of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons, suggesting the crucial roles of oxidative stress and cell identity in regulating CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. In nematodes, CdTe QDs could be translocated through intestinal barrier and be deposited in RMEs motor neurons. In contrast, CdTe@ZnS QDs could not be translocated into RMEs motor neurons and therefore, could only moderately accumulated in intestinal cells, suggesting that ZnS coating might reduce neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons. Therefore, the combinational effects of oxidative stress, cell identity, and bioavailability may contribute greatly to the mechanism of CdTe QDs neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. Our results provide insights into understanding the potential risks of CdTe QDs on the development and function of nervous systems in animals.

  3. Intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia; Roda; Alessandro; Sartini; Elisabetta; Zambon; Andrea; Calafiore; Margherita; Marocchi; Alessandra; Caponi; Andrea; Belluzzi; Enrico; Roda

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) seems to involve a primary defect in one or more of the elements responsible for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and oral tolerance. The most important element is represented by the intestinal barrier, a complex system formed mostly by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IECs have an active role in producing mucus and regulating its composition; they provide a physical barrier capable of controlling antigen traff ic through the intestinal muco...

  4. Identification of interstitial cells of Cajal. Significance for studies of human small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1994-01-01

    electron microscopical studies emphasized similarities between ICC and fibroblasts. In our early studies of ICC in the external musculature of mouse small intestine, we identified ICC by their characteristic morphology and topography, and we analyzed the relation between ICC, autonomic nerves and smooth......Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) were described a century ago by Ramón y Cajal a.o. as primitive neurons in the intestines. In the period 1900-1960 a large number of light microscopical studies of ICC were published, in which ICC were identified by heir characteristic morphology. After 1960...... functions (mechanoreceptive, mediating inhibitory nervous input). In spite of this possible fundamental importance for G-I motility, ICC have not been adequately described or even identified in human intestine, and hence, never included in ultrastructural studies of G-I neuropathology. This survey presents...

  5. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  6. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments i

  7. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  8. Vivencias afectivas como discurso virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijaíl Málishev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El discurso virtual expresa nuestras vivencias afectivas tanto en el futuro -esperanza- como en el pasado -culpa y venganza-. La esperanza es un estímulo que nos alienta a alcanzar nuestras metas. A diferencia del futuro, el pasado es irreversible y, sin embargo, el pluscuamperfecto es un "mago" que "transforma" lo irreparable en lo virtual. Nuestra conciencia nos hace sentir culpables, haciéndonos creer que lo indebido que hemos cometido, hubiéramos podido hacerlo de otra manera. El pluscuamperfecto expresa la venganza que nos hace "lavar la ofensa" causada por nuestro adversario, pero el discurso virtual en el pluscuamperfecto nos ayuda a sublimar nuestros rencores sin causar algún daño a nuestro adversario y a nuestra propia reputación.

  9. Motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Essential facts Motor neurone disease describes a group of related diseases, affecting the neurones in the brain and spinal cord. Progressive, incurable and life-limiting, MND is rare, with about 1,100 people developing it each year in the UK and up to 5,000 people affected at any one time. One third of people will die within a year of diagnosis and more than half within two years. About 5% to 10% are alive at ten years.

  10. Neurons and Tumor Suppressors

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas W Zochodne

    2014-01-01

    Neurons choose growth pathways with half hearted reluctance, behavior that may be appropriate to maintain fixed long lasting connections but not to regenerate them. We now recognize that intrinsic brakes on regrowth are widely expressed in these hesitant neurons and include classical tumor suppressor molecules. Here, we review how two brakes, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and retinoblastoma emerge as new and exciting knockdown targets to e...

  11. Pesquisa del Parasitismo Intestinal y su Tratamiento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenis Ramírez González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal en pacientes que presentaron síntomas clínicos de parasitosis intestinal u otros aparentemente sanos, de un universo de 187 casos de los cuales 171 fueron positivos y solo 8 resultaron negativos. Los pacientes pertenecen a diferentes comunidades del municipio Manzanillo, Yara, Media Luna, Campechuela, así como pacientes ingresados de diferentes salas del Hospital "Celia Sánchez Manduley" y pacientes con seguimiento en la consulta de gastroenterología. Predominó la parasitosis por Entamoeba histolytica y Giardia Lamblia, en todos los grupos etáreos. Dentro de los helmintos de mayor incidencia se encontró el Enterobius vermiculares. Hubo un mayor porciento de pacientes que consumían agua no potable. Se demostró que la educación higiénica - sanitaria es insuficiente aún. Resultó satisfactoria la terapia con el albendazol para tratar la giardiasis y la helmintiasis. Se obtuvo buenos resultados con fitofármacos obtenidos de la Mirabilis jalapa para tratar algunos de los helmintos mas frecuentes.

  12. administra como anticonceptivo de emergencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Croxatto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La anticoncepción hormonal de emergencia (AHE es uno de los pocos recursos que la mujer puede usar para prevenir un embarazo no deseado después de haber tenido una relación sexual en la que no usó método anticonceptivo o el que usó presentó una falla. Actualmente, el método preferido para la AHE es la píldora que contiene solamente levonorgestrel (LNG. Según la OMS, puede prevenir embarazos si se usa hasta 120 horas después del acto sexual, pero su eficacia disminuye drásticamente desde 85% a 31% mientras más se posterga su administración. La introducción de la AHE ha generado controversia en muchos países latinoamericanos por la percepción errónea de que induce aborto y la oposición de los sectores más conservadores de la sociedad que temen que favorezca la promiscuidad. Con el propósito de dar a conocer la evidencia científica producida por las investigaciones diseñadas para dilucidar como el LNG previene el embarazo cuando se administra como AHE, y su correcta interpretación, este artículo analiza críticamente dichos estudios y explica además en que circunstancias este método no logra prevenir el embarazo. El conjunto de la evidencia indica que LNG previene el embarazo solamente cuando impide la fecundación y descarta que el prevenga el embarazo interfiriendo con la implantación del embrión, por lo que la creencia de que es abortivo no tiene sustento científico.

  13. Number and size of myenteric neurons of the duodenum of adult rats with acute diabetes Número e tamanho dos neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos adultos com diabetes agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA MONTSERRAT D.P. FURLAN

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study had as its purpose to assess the effects of acute diabetes induced by streptozotocin (35 mg/kg body weight on the number and size of the myenteric neurons of the duodenum of adult rats considering equally the antimesenteric and intermediate regions of the intestinal circumference. Experimental period extended for a week. Neuronal counts were carried out on the same number of fields of both regions of the duodenal circumference and measurements of neuronal and nuclear areas on equal numbers of cells. Number and size of the myenteric neurons stained with Giemsa were not significantly different between groups. On the other hand, the proportion of NADH-positive neurons increased from 18.54% on the controls to 39.33% on the diabetics. The authors discuss that this increased reactivity probably results from a greater NADH/NAD+ ratio, described in many tissues of diabetic animals, which has consequences on the modulation of the enzymes that use these cofactors and whose activity is detected by the NADH-diaphorase technique.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do diabetes agudo induzido por estreptozootocina (35 mg/kg de peso corporal sobre o número e tamanho dos neurônios mientéricos do duodeno de ratos adultos considerando de forma equivalente as regiões antimesentérica e intermediária da circunferência intestinal. O período experimental se estendeu por uma semana. As contagens neuronais foram feitas em igual número de campos nas duas regiões da circunferência duodenal e as mensurações das áreas neuronais e nucleares em igual número de células. O número e o tamanho dos neurônios corados por Giemsa não foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos. Por outro lado, a proporção de neurônios NADH-positivos aumentou de 18,54% nos animais controles para 39,33% nos diabéticos. Os autores discutem que essa maior reatividade possivelmente resultou do aumento da proporção NADH/NAD+, descrita em diversos

  14. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy Pseudo-osbtrucción intestinal crónica primaria debida a miopatía visceral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz-Yagüe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.La pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica es un síndrome infrecuente caracterizado por episodios recidivantes, sugestivos de obstrucción intestinal, durante los cuales no se detectan causas mecánicas que justifiquen la sintomatología. Los factores etiológicos pueden ser múltiples. Entre ellos destacan diversas enfermedades neurológicas, miopatías de la musculatura lisa gastrointestinal, enfermedades endocrino-metabólicas y autoinmunes y el uso de determinados fármacos. Presentamos un caso de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica originada por una miopatía intestinal primaria y esporádica que no corresponde a ningún tipo descrito hasta el momento. El estudio histológico de la pared intestinal mostró que los haces musculares estaban desestructurados y que existía edema intersticial. Los miocitos presentaban marcados cambios degenerativos y no existían alteraciones en las neuronas de los plexos submucoso y mientérico. La actividad de los complejos enzimáticos de la cadena

  15. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense mechanis

  16. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peristaltic). They occur mostly in the upper small intestine and fade out before moving too far down-stream. They occur in most people at infrequent intervals, but in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) they may be associated with abdominal pain. ...

  17. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  18. Entomoftoromicose intestinal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Aparecida Carvalho

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de entomoftoromicose intestinal causada por Entomophthorales, em indivíduo de 19 anos, agricultor e sem doença associada. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção intestinal e o diagnóstico foi feito após análise da peça cirúrgica. Após revisão da literatura, são discutidos a evolução clínica, as características clinicopatológicas, as dificuldades no diagnóstico e o tratamento dessa entidade rara.A case of intestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Entomophthorales in a man with 19 years-old, farmer and without associated disease. The patient was submitted to a intestinal ressection and diagnosis was carried through after analisys of the surgical specimen. After a review of the literature, the clinical evolution, clinico-pathologic features, difficulties in diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  19. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    The enterocyte monolayer in the intestinal membrane impacts on the bioavailability (BA) of many orally administered active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The monolayer expresses a multitude of membrane transporters belonging to the solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) families ...

  20. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    1998-01-01

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  1. Neuron division or enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, O S; Laktionova, A A; Solovieva, I A; Krasnova, T V

    2010-10-01

    The classical Bielschowsky-Gross neurohistological method was used to reproduce all the morphological phenomena interpreted by many authors as signs of neuron division, budding, and fission. It is suggested that these signs are associated with the effects of enucleation, which occurs in many cells of other tissue types in response to a variety of chemical and physical treatments. Studies were performed using neurons isolated from the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis and exposed in tissue culture to the actin microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin B. Phase contrast time-lapse video recording over periods of 4-8 h demonstrated nuclear displacement, ectopization, and budding, to the level of almost complete fission of the neuron body. This repeats the pattern seen in static fixed preparations in "normal" conditions and after different experimental treatments. Budding of the cytoplasm was also sometimes seen at the early stages of the experiments. Control experiments in which cultured neurons were exposed to the solvent for cytochalasin B, i.e., dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), did not reveal any changes in neurons over a period of 8 h. We take the view that the picture previously interpreted as neuron division and fission can be explained in terms of the inhibition of actin microfilaments, sometimes developing spontaneously in cells undergoing individual metabolic changes preventing the maintenance of cytoskeleton stability.

  2. NeuronBank: A Tool for Cataloging Neuronal Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Paul S; Calin-Jageman, Robert; Dhawan, Akshaye; Frederick, Chad; Guo, Shuman; Dissanayaka, Rasanjalee; Hiremath, Naveen; Ma, Wenjun; Shen, Xiuyn; Wang, Hsui C; Yang, Hong; Prasad, Sushil; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar; Zhu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  3. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  4. NeuronBank: A Tool for Cataloging Neuronal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Paul S.; Calin-Jageman, Robert; Dhawan, Akshaye; Frederick, Chad; Guo, Shuman; Dissanayaka, Rasanjalee; Hiremath, Naveen; Ma, Wenjun; Shen, Xiuyn; Wang, Hsui C.; Yang, Hong; Prasad, Sushil; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar; Zhu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models. PMID:20428500

  5. Electrical behaviour of myenteric neurones in the gastric corpus of the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, M; Wood, J D

    1989-10-01

    1. Electrical behaviour of ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus of the guinea-pig stomach was investigated using intracellular recording methods. 2. Three subpopulations were identified and classified for convenience of discussion as gastric I, II and III neurones. Gastric I neurones were characterized by repetitive spike discharge during depolarizing current pulses and by higher input resistance than the other types. Gastric II neurones discharged one or two spikes only at the onset of long-lasting depolarizing current pulses. Gastric III neurones did not discharge spikes to depolarizing current pulses and had higher membrane potentials and lower input resistances than the other types. Non-stimulus evoked discharge ('spontaneous' discharge) did not occur in any of the neurones. 3. Resting membrane potentials were generated primarily by resting K+ conductance, but were smaller than the estimated K+ equilibrium potential. Analysis based on the constant field equation predicted lower K+ conductance in gastric I than in gastric III neurones. 4. Action potentials in gastric I and II neurones were suppressed or blocked by tetrodotoxin. Spikes that were broadened by tetraethylammonium appeared to have an inward component of Ca2+ current. 5. Hyperpolarizing after-potentials were associated with the spikes of both kinds of neurones. These after-potentials had much shorter duration (less than 300 ms) than the post-spike hyperpolarization of AH/type 2 intestinal neurones and unlike intestinal neurones there was no latency between the positive after-potential of the spike and the onset of the hyperpolarization. After-hyperpolarization in the gastric neurones was enhanced when the spikes were broadened by tetraethylammonium and was suppressed by removal of Ca2+ from the bathing solution. 6. Treatment with either tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine enhanced excitability and induced 'spontaneously' occurring repetitive spike discharge. 7. The electrophysiological behaviour

  6. Structural and functional changes of neuronal and glial components of the feline enteric nervous system in cats with chronic inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Sven; Nolte, Ingo; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Immunohistochemical examinations of the enteric nervous system (ENS) were performed on biopsies of healthy cats and compared to findings in cats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease or intestinal lymphoma. In lymphocytic-plasmacytic enterocolitis all affected samples had significant reductions in glial fibrillary acidic protein and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and mostly of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) possibly reflecting alterations in enteric glial cells and neurons. In cases with eosinophilic gastroenterocolitis significantly reduced phosphorylated neurofilament (PN) expression was present suggesting a disturbance in neuronal cytoskeleton, whereas cats with fibrosing enteropathy had reduced expression of NSE, non-phosphorylated neurofilaments (NPN), PN and VIP, possibly reflecting neuronal disturbances. In cases with intestinal lymphoma only the reduction in PN and the increase in NPN were obvious suggesting direct damage or interference of neoplastic cells with enteric neurons. In conclusion, structural and functional alterations of the ENS may contribute to clinically evident signs of vomiting and/or diarrhea.

  7. [Intestinal dysbiosis in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, Blanca; Mach, Núria

    2013-11-01

    Introducción La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) pediátrica es un desorden caracterizado por presentar inflamación crónica que puede afectar cualquier segmento del tracto gastrointestinal. La disbiosis intestinal es un factor implicado en la patogénesis multifactorial de esta enfermedad. Diferentes suplementos dietarios se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión de la EC. Objetivo Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre disbiosis intestinal en pacientes de Crohn pediátricos y la eficacia de la terapia con suplementos dietarios (especialmente probióticos). Material y métodos Se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NCBI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct. Resultados y Discusión Se ha observado en la población pediátrica de EC un aumento de Proteobacteria y una reducción de Firmicutes. Los resultados referentes a los phyla Bacteroidetes y Actinobacteria son divergentes. Referente al uso de suplementos dietarios, el uso de probióticos no ha mostrado ningún impacto positivo en la EC pediátrica. Conclusiones Los resultados publicados hasta la fecha referentes a la disbiosis intestinal en pacientes pediátricos de Crohn, contribuyen al mejor conocimiento y entendimiento de las modificaciones en la flora bacteriana. Sin embargo, no es posible definir una microbiota asociada o causante de la EC. Además, los resultados publicados hasta la fecha no aportan evidencias sólidas de la eficacia de los probióticos como terapia en dichos pacientes.

  8. Disbiosis intestinal en enfermos de Crohn pediátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Pueyo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad de Crohn (EC pediátrica es un desorden caracterizado por presentar inflamación crónica que puede afectar cualquier segmento del tracto gastrointestinal. La disbiosis intestinal es un factor implicado en la patogénesis multifactorial de esta enfermedad. Diferentes suplementos dietarios se han propuesto como terapia alternativa para inducir o mantener la remisión de la EC. Objetivo: Revisar las evidencias científicas publicadas sobre disbiosis intestinal en pacientes de Crohn pediátricos y la eficacia de la terapia con suplementos dietarios (especialmente probióticos. Material y métodos: Se ha realizado una extensa búsqueda de publicaciones científicas en las principales bases de datos electrónicas especializadas: NCBI, Elsevier, Scielo, Scirus y Science Direct. Resultados y Discusión: Se ha observado en la población pediátrica de EC un aumento de Proteobacteria y una reducción de Firmicutes. Los resultados referentes a los phyla Bacteroidetes y Actinobacteria son divergentes. Referente al uso de suplementos dietarios, el uso de probióticos no ha mostrado ningún impacto positivo en la EC pediátrica. Conclusiones: Los resultados publicados hasta la fecha referentes a la disbiosis intestinal en pacientes pediátricos de Crohn, contribuyen al mejor conocimiento y entendimiento de las modificaciones en la flora bacteriana. Sin embargo, no es posible definir una microbiota asociada o causante de la EC. Además, los resultados publicados hasta la fecha no aportan evidencias sólidas de la eficacia de los probióticos como terapia en dichos pacientes.

  9. El investigador como educador musical y como divulgador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Pajares, Javier

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La presente ponencia trataba de plantear en la Mesa redonda "Investigación aplicada a la educación musical" una serie de problemas que surgen no tanto a quienes se dedican profesionalmente a la educación musical, sino a quienes, dedicados a la investigación y al estudio de temas relacionados con la historia de la música desde perspectivas diversas, tienen finalmente que transmitirlos a una audiencia determinada, ya sea otros colegas, alumnos de universidad, u otros públicos en los que se centra el concepto "divulgación" aludido en el título.Se incide particularmente en los problemas de la educación musical universitaria para no especialistas y en la divulgación científica aplicada a la música, un campo casi yermo sobre el que hay mucho que reflexionar: desde las nuevas posibilidades para la explicación de la música que ofrecen soportes nuevos como el CD-Rom, hasta las tradicionales formas de relación con un público melómano a través de notas a programas y críticas de conciertos.

  10. Neurons of human nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazdanović Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nucleus accumbens is a part of the ventral striatum also known as a drug active brain region, especially related with drug addiction. The aim of the study was to investigate the Golgi morphology of the nucleus accumbens neurons. Methods. The study was performed on the frontal and sagittal sections of 15 human brains by the Golgi Kopsch method. We classified neurons in the human nucleus accumbens according to their morphology and size into four types: type I - fusiform neurons; type II - fusiform neurons with lateral dendrite, arising from a part of the cell body; type III - pyramidal-like neuron; type IV - multipolar neuron. The medium spiny neurons, which are mostly noted regarding to the drug addictive conditions of the brain, correspond to the type IV - multipolar neurons. Results. Two regions of human nucleus accumbens could be clearly recognized on Nissl and Golgi preparations each containing different predominant neuronal types. Central part of nucleus accumbens, core region, has a low density of impregnated neurons with predominant type III, pyramidal-like neurons, with spines on secondary branches and rare type IV, multipolar neurons. Contrary to the core, peripheral region, shell of nucleus, has a high density of impregnated neurons predominantly contained of type I and type IV - multipolar neurons, which all are rich in spines on secondary and tertiary dendritic branches. Conclusion. Our results indicate great morphological variability of human nucleus accumbens neurons. This requires further investigations and clarifying clinical significance of this important brain region.

  11. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  12. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-01-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. IgA isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  13. El plomo como contaminante alimentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El plomo es un metal pesado caracterizado por ocasionar efectos tóxicos sobre el tracto gastrointestinal, sobre el sistema renal y sobre el SNC y periférico, así como interferencias con sistemas enzimáticos implicados en la síntesis del grupo hemo. A pesar de que en los últimos diez años, los contenidos de plomo de los productos alimenticios se han reducido sensiblemente gracias a los esfuerzos realizados para reducir la emisión de plomo en su origen y por los progresos en la garantía de calidad de los análisis químicos, la dieta sigue siendo una fuente importante de exposición de plomo. Es por ello que, el objetivo a largo plazo de las autoridades sanitarias es el de continuar reduciendo los contenidos medios de plomo en los productos alimenticios con el fin de que las ingestas medias dietéticas de Pb de las poblaciones cumplan con la PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake de 25 µg Pb/Kg/semana establecida por el Comité Mixto FAO/OMS

  14. La Justicia como valor Constitucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavilla Alsina, Landelino

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución Española, sin menoscabo de su carácter prescriptivo, atiende a la necesidad de poner un vigoroso acento —y mejor si lo hace en términos jurídicos— sobre las notas identificadoras del aliento político que más y mejor expresan el fundamento y orientación de la voluntad constituyente. Pero, con independencia de tal aseveración, es definitiva la interpretación del precepto, según criterios y métodos jurídicos, en cuanto enuncia unos «valores» que el Estado constituido «propugna», que se califican como «superiores» y que se predican, precisamente, del «ordenamiento jurídico». La justicia es, desde luego y en sí misma, un valor, al que conviene la nota de clásico en la determinación de los que han de regir una convivencia política estable. Uno u otro sentido de la justicia ha latido con fuerza en la conciencia humana y en toda pretensión racional de ordenación de la convivencia.

  15. Amyloidosis of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kala, Zdenek [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zkala@tiscali.cz; Valek, Vlastimil [Department of Radiology, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: v.valek@fnbrno.cz; Kysela, Petr [Department of Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 62500 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: pkysel@email.cz

    2007-07-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by forming pathological protein deposits - amyloid - in many organs and tissues. This decreases their functionality. The aim of this small study was to determine, whether the radiological picture of the small intestine involvement in amyloidosis is in some sense specific as sometimes described in literature giving rise to high suspicion for the disease in symptomatic patients. Material and methods: The prospective study comprising seven patients hospitalized in surgical department is presented together with a survey on the disease, its appearance in radiological imaging. All patients underwent abdominal ultrasound (ATL 5000 HDI, 7-12 MHz linear probe, no contrast enhancement, supine position), abdominal CT (Somatom Plus, Siemens, single detector, conventional abdominal CT protocol) and enteroclysis (Micropaque suspension 300 ml, application rate of 75 ml/min, dilution with HP-7000 being 1:1 and HP-7000 solution 2000 ml, application rate of 120 ml/min.). Results: The amyloid deposits in the small intestine could be visualized in five of seven patients with the disease. Enteroclysis revealed a diffuse slowed down intestinal motility with an obstruction-like picture in all of our seven patients. The intestinal secretion was normal, plicae were getting polyp-like shape in five of them forming so called 'thumb printing' picture. CT showed thickening of the intestinal wall due to deposits with poor blood supply and contrast retention in five of seven patients. Ultrasound visualized thickened, hypoechoic nodular plicae and slowed down motility in these five patients. The most striking finding was the pathological deposits in the intestinal wall were highly hypo-vascular. However, this picture is very similar to that of ischemic enteritis. All seven patients had proven amyloid deposits from bioptic specimens. Conclusion: The diagnosis of amyloidosis must be supported by bioptic examination as it has no pathognomic

  16. Inflammation enhances mu-opioid receptor transcription and expression in mice intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, O; Alameda, F; Puig, M M

    2001-11-01

    Opioid receptors (ORs) and their mRNA are present in the central and peripheral nervous systems of mammals and in different peripheral tissues, including the gut. Using a model of croton oil-induced (CO) intestinal inflammation in mice, we have shown a 6-fold increase in the potency of the antitransit and antisecretory effects of mu-OR agonists, mediated by peripheral ORs. We postulate that the enhanced effects are mediated by an increase in the expression of intestinal OR. We used jejunum (stripped of the mucosal layer) from mice with CO-induced intestinal inflammation and, as control subjects, saline-treated animals (SS). We evaluated the quantity of mu-OR mRNA determined by a competitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; the levels of mu-OR protein by Western blot immunoassay, and the localization and number of cells expressing mu-OR using immunohistochemistry. The results show a significant increase of mu-OR mRNA (7.7-fold) and receptor protein (3-fold) during intestinal inflammation. Inflammation also induced a 64.3% increase in the number of neurons expressing mu-OR immunoreactivity in the myenteric plexus but not in the submucosal plexus. Our results show that intestinal inflammation enhances the transcription and translation of mu-OR mRNA, thus explaining the increased potency of mu-opioids during inflammation.

  17. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subtypes differentially modulate the excitability of murine small intestinal afferents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ping Wang; Bi-Ying Sun; Qian Li; Li Dong; Guo-Hua Zhang; David Grundy; Wei-Fang Rong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels in regulating the excitability of vagal and spinal gut afferents.METHODS: The mechanosensory response of mesen-teric afferent activity was measured in an ex vivo murine jejunum preparation. HCN channel activity was recorded through voltage and current clamp in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nodose ganglia (NG) neurons retrogradely labeled from the small intestine through injection of a fluorescent marker (DiI). The isoforms of HCN channels expressed in DRG and NG neurons were examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Ramp distension of the small intestine evoked biphasic increases in the afferent nerve activity, reflecting the activation of low- and high-threshold fibers.HCN blocker CsCl (5 mmol/L) preferentially inhibited the responses of low-threshold fibers to distension and showed no significant effects on the high-threshold responses. The effect of CsCl was mimicked by the more selective HCN blocker ZD7288 (10 ?mol/L). In 71.4% of DiI labeled DRG neurons (n = 20) and 90.9% of DiI labeled NG neurons (n = 10), an inward current (Ih current) was evoked by hyperpolarization pulses which was fully eliminated by extracellular CsCl. In neurons expressing Ih current, a typical "sag" was observed upon injection of hyperpolarizing current pulses in current-clamp recordings. CsCl abolished the sag entirely. In some DiI labeled DRG neurons, the Ih current was potentiated by 8-Br-cAMP, which had no effect on the Ih current of DiI labeled NG neurons. Immunohistochemistry revealed differential expression of HCN isoforms in vagal and spinal afferents, and HCN2 and HCN3 seemed to be the dominant isoform in DRG and NG, respectively.CONCLUSION: HCNs differentially regulate the excitability of vagal and spinal afferent of murine small intestine.

  18. Complication related to colostomy orifice: intestinal evisceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemir José Alegre Salles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal evisceration at the site of a stoma is a rare event, with high morbimortality. Its clinical manifestation often occurs between the sixth and seventh days after surgery. The risk factors most frequently related to evisceration are: increased intra-abdominal pressure, digestive tract cancer surgery, emergency surgery and stomas in the surgical incision. The authors report the case of a male patient, aged 62, suffering from adenocarcinoma of the rectum with obstructive acute abdomen, who underwent loop transversotomy for decompression. On the fourth day after surgery, he had a bronchospasm crisis, with evisceration of ileum and colon through the colostomic hole. The association of some triggering factors, such as emergency surgery, colorectal malignant neoplasm, increased intra-abdominal pressure and technical failure of colostomy were decisive in the development of this rare peri-colostomy complication.A evisceração intestinal desenvolvida no sítio de um estoma é um evento raro, tendo elevada morbimortalidade. Sua manifestação clínica ocorre frequentemente entre o sexto e o sétimo dias de pós-operatório. Os fatores de risco mais frequentemente relacionados à evisceração são: aumento da pressão intra-abdominal, câncer do aparelho digestório, cirurgia de urgência e estomias na incisão cirúrgica. Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, com 62 anos, portador de adenocarcinoma do reto médio com abdômen agudo obstrutivo, sendo submetido à transversostomia em alça, com finalidade descompressiva. No quarto dia de pós-operatório com crise de broncoespasmo, apresentou evisceração do cólon e íleo pelo orifício abdominal colostômico. A associação de alguns fatores desencadeantes, como a cirurgia de urgência, a doença neoplásica colorretal maligna, o aumento da pressão intra-abdominal e a falha técnica na confecção da colostomia, foram determinantes para o desenvolvimento desta rara

  19. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-03-02

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation. Furthermore, pro-survival factors and intracellular responses depend on the type of neuron and region of the brain. Thus, in addition to some common neuronal pro-survival signaling, different types of neurons possess a variety of 'neuron type-specific' pro-survival constituents that might help them to adapt for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various types of immature neurons. Importantly, we mainly focus on in vivo data to describe neuronal survival specifically in the brain, without extrapolating data obtained in the PNS or spinal cord, and thus emphasize the influence of the complex brain environment on neuronal survival during development.

  20. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-02-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  1. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  2. Translocation and neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots in RMEs motor neurons in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yunli; Wang, Xiong; Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yiping; Wang, Dayong, E-mail: dayongw@seu.edu.cn

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We investigated in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons in C. elegans. • CdTe QDs in the range of μg/L caused neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. • Bioavailability of CdTe QDs may be the primary inducer for CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • Both oxidative stress and cell identity regulate the CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. • CdTe QDs were translocated and deposited into RMEs motor neurons. - Abstract: We employed Caenorhabditis elegans assay system to investigate in vivo neurotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) on RMEs motor neurons, which are involved in controlling foraging behavior, and the underlying mechanism of such neurotoxicity. After prolonged exposure to 0.1–1 μg/L of CdTe QDs, abnormal foraging behavior and deficits in development of RMEs motor neurons were observed. The observed neurotoxicity from CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons might be not due to released Cd{sup 2+}. Overexpression of genes encoding Mn-SODs or unc-30 gene controlling cell identity of RMEs neurons prevented neurotoxic effects of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons, suggesting the crucial roles of oxidative stress and cell identity in regulating CdTe QDs neurotoxicity. In nematodes, CdTe QDs could be translocated through intestinal barrier and be deposited in RMEs motor neurons. In contrast, CdTe@ZnS QDs could not be translocated into RMEs motor neurons and therefore, could only moderately accumulated in intestinal cells, suggesting that ZnS coating might reduce neurotoxicity of CdTe QDs on RMEs motor neurons. Therefore, the combinational effects of oxidative stress, cell identity, and bioavailability may contribute greatly to the mechanism of CdTe QDs neurotoxicity on RMEs motor neurons. Our results provide insights into understanding the potential risks of CdTe QDs on the development and function of nervous systems in animals.

  3. Interleucina-1ß, crisis convulsivas y muerte neuronal

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús S. Medel-Matus; Libia X Cortijo-Palacios; Dulce M Álvarez-Croda; Joel Martínez-Quiroz; María L López-Meraz

    2013-01-01

    La epilepsia es un trastorno neurológico que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población mundial. Estudios realizados en humanos y animales de experimentación sugieren que mediadores de inflamación, como las citocinas, participan en la fisiopatología de la epilepsia; entre ellos, la interleucina-1beta (IL-1ß) podría participar en la susceptibilidad para generar crisis convulsivas así como en la muerte neuronal causada por las convulsiones, aunque algunos hallazgos son contradictorios. En est...

  4. Schizencephaly: a disorder of neuronal migration Esquizencefalia: un trastorno de la migración neuronal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gómez Hoyos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizencephaly is the most frequent neuronal migration disorder and it develops between the third and fifth gestational months. Genetic (EMX2, vascular and infectious etiologies have been described. Its clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics are described in this article. Treatment should be symptomatic and multidisciplinary. La esquizencefalia es el trastorno más frecuente de la migración neuronal y ocurre entre el tercero y quinto meses de la gestación. Se describen en este artículo sus posibles causas genéticas (EMX2, vasculares e infecciosas, así como sus manifestaciones clínicas, radiológicas y electroencefalográficas. El tratamiento es sintomático y multidisciplinario.

  5. [Chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, T; Navarrete, J; Celestina, A

    1989-01-01

    Much has been written about gastric mucosae behavior and the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to learn something more about these matters in peruvian population. We selected 100 patients with endoscopically no localized lesions between 30 to 70 years of age. We took 8 samples of gastric mucosae in each patient which were carefully examined for the presence of inflammatory changes, settle the line type between antral and fundic mucosae and the frequency of intestinal metaplasia finding. The results showed disagreement between endoscopic and histological findings, so we conclude it is better to diagnose chronic gastritis on the basis of histological parameters. The line between antral and fundic mucosae was of the close type one found in 87% of all cases and it advanced proximally with increasing age. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 46% of the whole number of patients and the rate of occurrence increased in 50% over 50 years age. These findings will let us compare future investigations of gastric mucosae behavior with localized benign or malign lesions.

  6. Hirschsprung's disease - Postsurgical intestinal dysmotility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tresoldi das Neves Romaneli

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the case of an infant with Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis, which, after surgical resection of the aganglionic segment persisted with irreversible functional intestinal obstruction; discuss the difficulties in managing this form of congenital aganglionosis and discuss a plausible pathogenetic mechanism for this case. Case description: The diagnosis of Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis was established in a two-month-old infant, after an episode of enterocolitis, hypovolemic shock and severe malnutrition. After colonic resection, the patient did not recover intestinal motor function that would allow enteral feeding. Postoperative examination of remnant ileum showed the presence of ganglionic plexus and a reduced number of interstitial cells of Cajal in the proximal bowel segments. At 12 months, the patient remains dependent on total parenteral nutrition. Comments: Hirschsprung's disease presenting as total colonic aganglionosis has clinical and surgical characteristics that differentiate it from the classic forms, complicating the diagnosis and the clinical and surgical management. The postoperative course may be associated with permanent morbidity due to intestinal dysmotility. The numerical reduction or alteration of neural connections in the interstitial cells of Cajal may represent a possible physiopathological basis for the condition.

  7. From Neurons to Newtons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    proteins generate forces, to the macroscopic levels where overt arm movements are vol- untarily controlled within an unpredictable environment by legions of neurons¯ring in orderly fashion. An extensive computer simulation system has been developed for this thesis, which at present contains a neural...... network scripting language for specifying arbitrary neural architectures, de¯nition ¯les for detailed spinal networks, various biologically realistic models of neurons, and dynamic synapses. Also included are structurally accurate models of intrafusal and extra-fusal muscle ¯bers and a general body...

  8. Intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-yi; WANG Fang; FENG Jie-xiong

    2013-01-01

    Objective Based on the observation that coagulation necrosis occurs in the majority of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) patients,it is clear that intestinal ischemia is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NEC.However,the published studies regarding the role of intestinal ischemia in NEC are controversial.The aim of this paper is to review the current studies regarding intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and NEC,and try to elucidate the exact role of intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in NEC.Data sources The studies cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed.The search terms used were "intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction" and "neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis".Study selection Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected.Results Immature regulatory control of mesentery circulation makes the neonatal intestinal microvasculature vulnerable.When neonates are subjected to stress,endothelial cell dysfunction occurs and results in vasoconstriction of arterioles,inflammatory cell infiltration and activation in venules,and endothelial barrier disruption in capillaries.The compromised vasculature increases circulation resistance and therefore decreases intestinal perfusion,and may eventually progress to intestinal necrosis.Conclusion Intestinal ischemia plays an important role through the whole course of NEC.New therapeutic agents targeting intestinal ischemia,like HB-EGF,are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of NEC.

  9. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora.

  10. Los videojuegos como objetos desarrolladores de aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rusinque, Claudia Victoria; Gómez Sánchez, Ligda; Guarnizo Pinto, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto, es valorar el uso y apropiación de los videojuegos como objetos desarrolladores de aprendizaje; así como, analizar el uso de los videojuegos como medio de alfabetización; reconocer las diferentes características de los videojuegos, diseñar una ruta de videojuegos que amplíe la visión del maestro en la utilización de herramientas pedagógicas

  11. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... a particular neuron will die. To accommodate this signaling, immature neurons in the brain express a number of transmembrane factors as well as intracellular signaling molecules that will regulate the cell survival/death decision, and many of these factors cease being expressed upon neuronal maturation...... for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various...

  12. Interleucina-1ß, crisis convulsivas y muerte neuronal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús S Medel-Matus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La epilepsia es un trastorno neurológico que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población mundial. Estudios realizados en humanos y animales de experimentación sugieren que mediadores de inflamación, como las citocinas, participan en la fisiopatología de la epilepsia; entre ellos, la interleucina-1beta (IL-1ß podría participar en la susceptibilidad para generar crisis convulsivas así como en la muerte neuronal causada por las convulsiones, aunque algunos hallazgos son contradictorios. En este documento se revisa el conocimiento actual que establece una relación entre la IL-1ß, las crisis convulsivas y la muerte neuronal.

  13. Nerve fiber outgrowth is increased in the intestinal mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dothel, Giovanni; Barbaro, Maria Raffaella; Boudin, Hélène; Vasina, Valentina; Cremon, Cesare; Gargano, Luciana; Bellacosa, Lara; De Giorgio, Roberto; Le Berre-Scoul, Catherine; Aubert, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Barbara, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Mediators released by the intestinal mucosa of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affect the function of enteric and extrinsic sensory nerves, which can contribute to the development of symptoms. Little is known about the effects of mucosal mediators on intestinal neuroplasticity. We investigated how these mediators affect the phenotypes of colonic mucosa nerve fibers, neuron differentiation, and fiber outgrowth. We analyzed mucosal biopsy samples collected from 101 patients with IBS and 23 asymptomatic healthy individuals (controls). We measured levels of neuronal-specific enolase, growth-associated protein 43, nerve growth factor (NGF), and tyrosine kinase receptor A (NTRK1) by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary rat enteric neurons and human SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with supernatants from the mucosal biopsies and analyzed by morphometric and polymerase chain reaction analyses. Compared with mucosal tissues of controls, mucosa from patients with IBS had a significant increase in the area of lamina propria occupied by neuronal-specific enolase-positive (57.7% increase) and growth-associated protein 43-positive fibers (56.1% increase) and staining density of NGF (89.3% increase) (P < .05 for all). Levels of NGF protein were also increased in tissues from patients with IBS vs controls (18% increase; P = .16) along with levels of NTRK1 (64% increase; P < .05). Mucosal supernatants from tissues of patients with IBS induced higher levels of neuritogenesis in primary culture of enteric neurons, compared with controls, and more NGF-dependent neuronal sprouting in SH-SY5Y cells. Nerve fiber density and sprouting, as well as expression of NGF and NTRK1, are significantly increased in mucosal tissues of patients with IBS. Mucosal mediators participate to these neuroplastic changes. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  15. La lengua inglesa como neolengua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando BELTRÁN LLAVADOR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo examina algunos usos y abusos de la lengua inglesa en la actualidad en el contexto de la globalización. Se define la neolengua, se ofrecen similitudes de la misma en el lenguaje publicitario en España, se trazan sus orígenes y se apuntan algunos antecedentes en la historia de la literatura inglesa, al tiempo que se ilustran ejemplos de variantes contemporáneas de la misma bajo la denominación de «nukespeak», especialmente abundantes en el discurso de los conflictos bélicos. La lengua inglesa está indisociablemente unida a complejos factores de orden económico, tecnológico y cultural que afectan a su misma morfología. Por otra parte, la presencia ubicua de la lengua inglesa, como idioma global, opera sobre las estructuras de sentimiento, pensamiento y acción de los ciudadanos en todo el mundo. Para los profesionales de la enseñanza del idioma inglés, ello comporta la obligación de discernir y resistir sus efectos potencialmente perversos al tiempo que siguen promoviendo sus valiosos beneficios culturales.ABSTRACT: Contemporary uses and abuses of the English language are examined in the context of complex issues and globalization trends. The term «newspeak» is defined, similitudes of it are found today in the language of advertising in Spain, its origins are traced back and antecedents are located in the history of English literature, while the presence of new modalities of the Orwellian reductionist language, such as «nukespeak», is illustrated within the language of warfare. The English language is inextricably bound up with economical, technological and cultural factors which affect its very morphology just as much as the pervasive influence of English as a global language affects the structures of feeling, thought and action of citizens all over the world, which poses an obligation on the part of EFL teachers to discern and resist its ill effects while they promote its still highly valuable cultural

  16. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube. Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  17. Functional role of a glycolipid in directional movements of neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSALIA MENDEZ-OTERO

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration of neurons from their site of origin to their final destination is a critical and universal step in the formation of the complex structure of the nervous system. The migratory process is thought to be governed in part by genetically and epigenetically defined sequences of signals which are interpreted by migrating cells. The molecular mechanisms that underlie neuronal migration have been the subject of intense investigation. As in other developmental processes, many molecules must participate in neuronal migration. Some molecules, such as cell adhesion molecules and motor proteins, may contribute to discrete steps in the migration act; others, like extracellular signaling molecules, may regulate the activation and/or termination of the migration program. In this article we review findings from our group that demonstrate the functional role(s of a specific glycolipid in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth in the developing and adult nervous system.A migração de neurônios de seus sítios de origem a seus destinos finais é uma etapa universal e crítica na formação da complexa estrutura do sistema nervoso. Admite-se que o processo migratório seja governado, em parte, por sequências de sinais definidas genetica e epigeneticamente que são interpretadas pelas células migrantes. Os mecanismos moleculares subjacentes à migração neuronal têm sido objeto de intensa investigação. Como em outros processos do desenvolvimento, muitas moléculas devem participar na migração neuronal. Algumas delas, como as moléculas de adesão e proteínas motoras, podem contribuir para etapas discretas no ato de migração; outras, como moléculas extra-celulares de sinalização, podem regular a ativação e/ou o término do programa de migração. Neste artigo nós revisamos achados de nosso grupo que demonstram o(s papel (papéis funcional(ais de um glicolipídeo específico na migração neuronal e no crescimento de neuritos no sistema

  18. Nanoresolution radiology of neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.R.; Chen, S.T.; Chu, Y.S.; Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Chien, C.C.; Chen, H.H.; Lin, C.H.; Tung, H.T.; Chen, Y.S.; Margaritondo, G.; Je, J.H.; Hwu, Y. (IP-Taiwan); (Ecole); (BNL); (POSTECH)

    2013-04-08

    We report recent advances in hard-x-ray optics - including record spatial resolution - and in staining techniques that enable synchrotron microradiology to produce neurobiology images of quality comparable to electron and visible microscopy. In addition, microradiology offers excellent penetration and effective three-dimensional detection as required for many neuron studies. Our tests include tomographic reconstruction based on projection image sets.

  19. Short segment Barrett's esophagus and distal gastric intestinal metaplasia Esôfago de Barrett de segmento curto e metaplasia intestinal gástrica distal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judite Dietz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Short segment Barrett's esophagus is defined by the presence of RACIONAL: Esôfago de Barrett de segmento curto é definido pela presença de mucosa semelhante à gástrica no esôfago distal, extensão <3 cm, com metaplasia intestinal na histopatologia. Esôfago de Barrett é fator de risco ao adenocarcinoma do esôfago. Enquanto esôfago de Barrett se desenvolve como resultado do refluxo gastroesofágico crônico, metaplasia intestinal da cárdia é conseqüência da infecção crônica pelo Helicobacter pylori e está associada à metaplasia gástrica distal. Epitélio colunar com metaplasia intestinal localizada no esôfago distal, extensão <3 cm (condição denominada de esôfago de Barrett de segmento curto ou a mesma entidade localizada no estômago proximal (condição denominada de metaplasia intestinal da cárdia por ser muitas vezes confundida. OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação de esôfago de Barrett segmento curto (extensão <3 cm com metaplasia intestinal gástrica (corpo e antro e infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 89 pacientes com mucosa do esôfago distal semelhante à gástrica, extensão <3 cm. Os pacientes foram questionados sobre sintomas de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. Biopsias foram obtidas imediatamente abaixo da transição escamocolunar e do corpo e antro gástrico para investigação de metaplasia intestinal e pesquisa de Helicobacter pylori. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e dois dos 89 (47,2% pacientes foram diagnosticados com metaplasia intestinal esofágica na histopatologia. A idade média foi significativamente mais alta no grupo com metaplasia intestinal esofágica. Nos dois grupos estudados (com e sem metaplasia intestinal de esôfago distal, a relação masculino/feminino, sintomas de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e infecção pelo Helicobacter pylori foi semelhante. Metaplasia intestinal gástrica (corpo e antro foi diagnosticada em 21 de 42 (50

  20. New findings on neuron development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A mature neuron receives inputs from multiple dendrites and sends its output to other neurons via a single axon.This polarized morphology requires proper axonal/dendritic differentiation during development.

  1. Exploring neuronal activity with photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Laurent; Léger, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Information coding * Optical recordings of neuronal activity * Functional organization of the cortex at the level of a cortical column * Microarchitecture of a cortical column * Dynamics of neuronal populations * Outlook * Bibliography

  2. Biodegradable intestinal stents:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanhui Wang; Nan Li; Rui Li; Yawei Li; Liqun Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable stents are an attractive alternative to self-expanding metal stents in the treatment of intestinal strictures. Biodegradable stent can be made of biodegradable polymers and biodegradable metals (magnesium alloys). An overview on current biodegradable intestinal stents is presented. The future trends and perspectives in the development of biodegradable intestinal stents are proposed. For the biodegradable polymer intestinal stents, the clinical trials have shown promising results, although improved design of stents and reduced migration rate are expected. For the biodegradable magnesium intestinal stents, results of preliminary studies indicate magnesium alloys to have good biocompatibility. With many of the key fundamental and practical issues resolved and better methods for adjusting corrosion resistance and progressing biocompatibilities of magnesium alloys, it is possible to use biodegradable intestinal stents made of magnesium alloys in hospital in the not too distant future.

  3. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  4. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  6. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  7. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  8. Binary neuron with optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeratu, Vasile; Degeratu, Ştefania; Şchiopu, Paul; Şchiopu, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a model of binary neuron, a model of McCulloch-Pitts neuron with optical devices. This model of neuron can be implemented not only in the optic integrated circuits but also in the classic optical circuits it being cheap and immune not only into electromagnetic fields but also into any kind of radiation. The transfer speed of information through the neuron is very higher, it being limited only by the light speed from the received medium.

  9. Cholinergic Neurons Excite Cortically Projecting Basal Forebrain GABAergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; McKenna, James T.; Zant, Janneke C.; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in the control of cortical activation and attention. Understanding the modulation of BF neuronal activity is a prerequisite to treat disorders of cortical activation involving BF dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we reveal the interaction between cholinergic neurons and cortically projecting BF GABAergic neurons using immunohistochemistry and whole-cell recordings in vitro. In GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, BF cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase-positive) neurons were intermingled with GABAergic (GFP+) neurons. Immunohistochemistry for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter showed that cholinergic fibers apposed putative cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing parvalbumin (PV). In coronal BF slices from GAD67-GFP knock-in or PV-tdTomato mice, pharmacological activation of cholinergic receptors with bath application of carbachol increased the firing rate of large (>20 μm diameter) BF GFP+ and PV (tdTomato+) neurons, which exhibited the intrinsic membrane properties of cortically projecting neurons. The excitatory effect of carbachol was blocked by antagonists of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors in two subpopulations of BF GABAergic neurons [large hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) and small Ih, respectively]. Ion substitution experiments and reversal potential measurements suggested that the carbachol-induced inward current was mediated mainly by sodium-permeable cation channels. Carbachol also increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic neurons/fibers caused a mecamylamine- and atropine-sensitive inward current in putative GABAergic neurons. Thus, cortically projecting, BF GABAergic/PV neurons are excited by neighboring BF and/or brainstem cholinergic neurons. Loss of cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer's disease may impair cortical activation, in part, through disfacilitation of BF cortically

  10. Regulation of intestinal lactase in adult hypolactasia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, M.; Mevissen, G; Fischer, M; Olsen, W.; Goodspeed, D; Genini, M; Boll, W; Semenza, G; Mantei, N

    1992-01-01

    Relative deficiency of intestinal lactase activity during adulthood, adult hypolactasia, is a common condition worldwide. We studied the regulation of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in normal and adult hypolactasic subjects by correlating transcript abundance in intestinal biopsies with relative synthetic rates for the protein in cultured intestinal explants. After metabolic labelling studies in six subjects, precursor lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was identified in amounts directly proportional t...

  11. Appendicular Tourniquet: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivashankar, Santhosh Chikkanayakanahalli; Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Varghese, Edison Vadakkenchery

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is one of the common surgical emergencies seen in daily practice. Postoperative adhesions are notorious for being the most common cause for intestinal obstruction. Occasionally, laparotomy findings do come as a surprise to surgeons. Here one such case is discussed. A patient was operated on with suspicion of intestinal obstruction secondary to postoperative adhesions. However, laparotomy revealed the appendix to be inflamed, curled around the terminal ileum and acting as a tourniquet. PMID:27437300

  12. Regenerative process evaluation of neuronal subclasses in chagasic patients with megacolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Milena Dionízio; Brehmer, Axel; de Oliveira, Enio Chaves; Neto, Salustiano Gabriel; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; de Freitas, Michelle Aparecida Ribeiro; da Silveira, Alexandre Barcelos Morais

    2013-02-01

    Chagas' disease is one of the most serious parasitic diseases of Latin America, with a social and economic impact far outweighing the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. In the chronic phase of this disease, the destruction of enteric nervous system (ENS) components leads to megacolon development. Previous data presented that the regeneration tax in the ENS neurons is augmented in chagasic patients. Although, there are several neuronal types with different functions in the intestine a detailed study about the regeneration of every neuronal type was never performed before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration tax of every neuronal cell type in the ENS from chagasic patients with megacolon and non-infected individuals. A neuronal regeneration marker (GAP-43) was used in combination with a pan-neuronal marker (Peripherin) and several neuropeptides markers (cChat, Substance P, NPY, VIP and NOS), and it was considered as positive just with the combination of these markers. Our results demonstrated that the regeneration levels of cChat, Substance P, and NPY were similar in chagasic patients and non-infected individuals. However, levels of VIP and NOS neuropeptides were increased in chagasic patients when compared with non-infected individuals. We believe that the augment in the regeneration occur due to an increased destruction of selective neuronal types. These results corroborates with previous studies that pointed out to selective destruction of VIP and NOS neurons in chagasic patients.

  13. Cancer-induced anorexia and malaise are mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos A; Bowen, Anna J; Han, Sung; Wisse, Brent E; Palmiter, Richard D; Schwartz, Michael W

    2017-07-01

    Anorexia is a common manifestation of chronic diseases, including cancer. Here we investigate the contribution to cancer anorexia made by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that transmit anorexic signals. We show that CGRP(PBN) neurons are activated in mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Inactivation of CGRP(PBN) neurons before tumor implantation prevents anorexia and loss of lean mass, and their inhibition after symptom onset reverses anorexia. CGRP(PBN) neurons are also activated in Apc(min/+) mice, which develop intestinal cancer and lose weight despite the absence of reduced food intake. Inactivation of CGRP(PBN) neurons in Apc(min/+) mice permits hyperphagia that counteracts weight loss, revealing a role for these neurons in a 'nonanorexic' cancer model. We also demonstrate that inactivation of CGRP(PBN) neurons prevents lethargy, anxiety and malaise associated with cancer. These findings establish CGRP(PBN) neurons as key mediators of cancer-induced appetite suppression and associated behavioral changes.

  14. Saberes e percep??es do paciente com estoma intestinal provis?rio: subs?dios para uma pr?tica dial?gica na enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo os saberes e percep??es do paciente com estoma intestinal provis?rio por neoplasia colorretal, visando o autocuidado. E como objetivos: - Descrever o conhecimento dos pacientes com estoma intestinal provis?rio, no pr?-operat?rio acerca do procedimento cir?rgico; - Analisar as percep??es e sensa??es anatomo-fisiol?gicas do paciente, no p?s-operat?rio; - Elaborar um roteiro com t?picos de interven??es espec?ficas de a??es educativas do cuidado de enfer...

  15. Review "Derecho y salud como realidades interactivas"

    OpenAIRE

    Vivas, Marcelo Dayrell

    2015-01-01

    Review "DERECHO Y SALUD COMO REALIDADES INTERACTIVAS" (Jorge Tomillo Urbina e Joaquín Cayón de Las Cuevas (Coord.), Aranzadi, Espanha, 2015) Resenha sobre a publicação "DERECHO Y SALUD COMO REALIDADES INTERACTIVAS", de Jorge Tomillo Urbina e Joaquín Cayón de Las Cuevas (Coord.) (Aranzadi, Espanha, 2015)

  16. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  17. Neuronal substrate of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeeva, Elena; Calvez, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are devastating and life-threatening psychiatric diseases. Although clinical and experimental investigations have significantly progressed in discovering the neuronal causes of eating disorders, the exact neuronal and molecular mechanisms of the development and maintenance of these pathologies are not fully understood. The complexity of the neuronal substrate of eating disorders hampers progress in revealing the precise mechanisms. The present re...

  18. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  19. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivekar, S; Senthil, K; Srinivasan, R; Sureshbabu, L; Chand, P; Shanmugam, J; Gopal, R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  20. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivekar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  1. Immunocytochemical detection of vasoactive intestinal peptide-like and peptide histidine isoleucine-like peptides in the nervous system and the excretory system of adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N

    1998-05-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide-like and peptide histidine isoleucine-like immunoreactivities were detected in the excretory duct of adult male and female Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, thus indicating the source of these two physiologically active peptides previously isolated from the excretory/secretory products of adult N. brasiliensis. In the nervous system immunoreactivity to both these peptides was confined to females and was found in the neurons of the ovijector associated ganglion. This is consistent with co-synthesis of vasoactive intestinal peptide-like and peptide histidine isoleucine-like peptides which has also been shown to occur in all mammalian vasoactive intestinal peptid-ergic neurons studied to date. However, in addition to this, and in common to some previous studies on helminth vasoactive intestinal peptide and peptide histidine isoleucine immunoreactivities, co-synthesis of the peptides was not indicated in a pair of branched neurons which projected posteriorly and peripherally from the ganglion associated with the ovijector of females and which terminated in two pairs of ganglia also exhibiting vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity only. The position of these ganglia indicated that they innervate muscles close to the body wall and may be responsible for the muscular contractions required for expulsion of eggs from female Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. This is also the first study to successfully detect these peptides in the excretory system of gastrointestinal nematodes.

  2. Human Enteroids/Colonoids and Intestinal Organoids Functionally Recapitulate Normal Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Kovbasnjuk (Olga); N.C. Zachos (Nicholas C.); J. Foulke-Abel (Jennifer); J. In (Julie); E. Blutt, E. (Sarah); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); M. Estes (Mary); M. Donowitz (Mark)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIdentification of Lgr5 as the intestinal stem cell marker as well as the growth factors necessary to replicate adult intestinal stem cell division has led to the establishment of the methods to generate “indefinite” ex vivo primary intestinal epithelial cultures, termed “mini-intesti

  3. Application of Three-Dimensional Imaging to the Intestinal Crypt Organoids and Biopsied Intestinal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor’s intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs in the muscle layer, while the recipient’s intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients.

  4. Eleven years of management of children with intestinal failure and not candidates for intestinal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Spagnuolo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available MI Spagnuolo, MP Cicalese, E Bruzzese, MA Caiazzo, S Di Caro, V Squeglia, A GuarinoDepartment of Paediatrics, University Federico II, Naples, ItalyBackground: Children with intestinal failure need parenteral nutrition to survive, and the only alternative is intestinal transplantation which still entails high mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes in candidates and noncandidates for intestinal transplantation, and to compare the outcomes with and without transplant surgery.Patients and methods: The clinical records of children admitted to hospital from 1997 to 2008 because of intestinal failure were reviewed for etiology of intestinal failure, age at start of parenteral nutrition, duration of parenteral nutrition, indications for intestinal transplantation, and outcome.Results: Thirty-four children were enrolled. Median age at start of parenteral nutrition was 13.1 (median 20.7 months. There was no difference in survival rate between candidates and noncandidates for intestinal transplantation. Survival was significantly higher in candidates who did not undergo intestinal transplantation than in children who underwent intestinal transplantation (P < 0.001.Conclusion: Candidates for intestinal transplantation who did not undergo transplant surgery had a better outcome than children who underwent transplant surgery.Keywords: intestinal transplantation, intestinal failure, parenteral nutrition, children

  5. Rhythm dynamics of complex neuronal networks with mixed bursting neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Yong-Bing; Shi Xia; Zheng Yan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal order and rhythm dynamics of a complex neuronal network with mixed bursting neurons are studied in this paper.A quantitative characteristic,the width factor,is introduced to describe the rhythm dynamics of an individual neuron,and the average width factor is used to characterize the rhythm dynamics of a neuronal network.An r parameter is introduced to denote the ratio of the short bursting neurons in the network.Then we investigate the effect of the ratio on the rhythm dynamics of the neuronal network.The critical value of r is derived,and the neurons in the network always remain short bursting when the r ratio is larger than the critical value.

  6. Radiation-induced intestinal inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meritxell Mollà; Julián Panés

    2007-01-01

    Radiation induces an important inflammatory response in the irradiated organs, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and vascular changes that are the main limiting factor in the application of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Recently, a considerable investigative effort has been directed at determining the molecular mechanisms by which radiation induces leukocyte recruitment, in order to create strategies to prevent intestinal inflammatory damage. In these review, we consider current available evidence on the factors governing the process of leukocyte recruitment in irradiated organs, mainly derived from experimental studies, with special attention to adhesion molecules, and their value as therapeutic targets.

  7. Dietary influences on intestinal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Marc; Brucklacher-Waldert, Verena

    2012-10-01

    The function of the gastrointestinal tract relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells, which are essential for the uptake of nutrients. The fragile lining requires protection against insults by a diverse array of antigens. This is accomplished by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, which constitute a highly organized immune organ. In this Review, we discuss several recent findings that provide a compelling link between dietary compounds and the organization and maintenance of immune tissues and lymphocytes in the intestine. We highlight some of the molecular players involved, in particular ligand-activated nuclear receptors in lymphoid cells.

  8. Inflammatory mediators and intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; MacKendrick, W

    1994-06-01

    Although the causes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well understood, there is compelling evidence to suggest that the inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article examines the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and other mediators on the development of NEC, and attempts to explain the association of the putative NEC risk factors with altered mediator production and subsequent intestinal injury. The authors hypothesize that PAF is a key mediator in the final common pathway leading to NEC.

  9. [Intestinal complications from vascular prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, C; Calvete, J; García, J; Buch, E; Castells, P; Lledó, S

    1993-01-01

    Secondary FAE is a rare complication, usually located at the duodenum. The typical clinical presentation is like a digestive hemorrhage or a sepsis. We report two cases of FAE with atypical manifestations. The first case presented a lower digestive hemorrhage produced by the fistulization to the sigma. The second case appeared like an intestinal obliteration caused by the full emigration of a prosthesis to the jejunum. We wish to remark the importance of the clinical suspicion of a FAE (Key of diagnosis), and the sparing relevance of the complementary examinations and the urgency of a surgical treatment in order to avoid the high rate of morbi-mortality associated with this complication.

  10. Restoration of intestinal function in an MPTP model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, L J; Hung, L W; Munckton, R; Sherratt, N A; Culvenor, J; Grubman, A; Furness, J B; White, A R; Finkelstein, D I; Barnham, K J; Lawson, V A

    2016-07-29

    Patients with Parkinson's disease often experience non-motor symptoms including constipation, which manifest prior to the onset of debilitating motor signs. Understanding the causes of these non-motor deficits and developing disease modifying therapeutic strategies has the potential to prevent disease progression. Specific neuronal subpopulations were reduced within the myenteric plexus of mice 21 days after intoxication by the intraperitoneal administration of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and was associated with a reduction in stool frequency, indicative of intestinal dysfunction. Oral administration of the divalent copper complex, Cu(II)(atsm), which has been shown to be neuroprotective and restore motor performance to MPTP lesioned mice, improved stool frequency and was correlated with restoration of neuronal subpopulations in the myenteric plexus of MPTP lesioned mice. Restoration of intestinal function was associated with reduced enteric glial cell reactivity and reduction of markers of inflammation. Therapeutics that have been shown to be neuroprotective in the central nervous system, such as Cu(II)(atsm), therefore also provide symptom relief and are disease modifying in the intestinal tract, suggesting that there is a common cause of Parkinson's disease pathogenesis in the enteric nervous system and central nervous system.

  11. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  12. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  13. Anemia y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Anemia and inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de la Morena

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La anemia es una de las complicaciones más comunes de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. La alta frecuencia de valores bajos de hemoglobina en estos enfermos provoca en muchas ocasiones una infravaloración por parte del médico de esta circunstancia, lo que se traduce en la falta de un tratamiento eficaz. Por otro lado, el carácter complejo de los mecanismos de producción de la anemia en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal con frecuencia plantea dudas acerca del tratamiento más adecuado. La identificación correcta de los pacientes con anemia así como la instauración del tratamiento más idóneo serán los dos pilares fundamentales para la mejoría de la calidad de vida de los enfermos. El uso correcto de los suplementos de hierro y las nuevas formulaciones de hierro parenteral, con o sin eritropoyetina asociada, han revolucionado nuestro abordaje de esta complicación evolutiva de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinalAnemia is a most common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. A high frequency of low hemoglobin values in these patients often leads physicians to subestimate this condition, which translates into ineffective treatment. On the other hand, the complex nature of anemia-inducing mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease frequently raises doubt about the most appropriate therapy. A correct identification of patients with anemia, and adequate therapy are the essential pillars for improved quality of life. The right use of iron supplementation, and novel parenteral iron formulations, either with or without associated erythropoietin, have revolutionized our approach of this complication in the course of inflammatory bowel disease

  14. Neuronal synchrony 

    OpenAIRE

    Buzsáki, Gyorgy

    2010-01-01

    1. Neuronal synchrony: metabolic and wiring costs of excitatory and inhibitory systems The major part of the brain’s energy budget (~ 60-80%) is devoted to its communication activities. While inhibition is critical to brain function, relatively little attention has been paid to its metabolic costs. Understanding how inhibitory interneurons contribute to brain energy consumption (brain work) is not only of interest in understanding a fundamental aspect of brain function but also in understandi...

  15. Lymphoma caused by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuko L; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  16. Micropatterning neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardelauf, Heike; Waide, Sarah; Sisnaiske, Julia; Jacob, Peter; Hausherr, Vanessa; Schöbel, Nicole; Janasek, Dirk; van Thriel, Christoph; West, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Spatially organised neuronal networks have wide reaching applications, including fundamental research, toxicology testing, pharmaceutical screening and the realisation of neuronal implant interfaces. Despite the large number of methods catalogued in the literature there remains the need to identify a method that delivers high pattern compliance, long-term stability and is widely accessible to neuroscientists. In this comparative study, aminated (polylysine/polyornithine and aminosilanes) and cytophobic (poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and methylated) material contrasts were evaluated. Backfilling plasma stencilled PEGylated substrates with polylysine does not produce good material contrasts, whereas polylysine patterned on methylated substrates becomes mobilised by agents in the cell culture media which results in rapid pattern decay. Aminosilanes, polylysine substitutes, are prone to hydrolysis and the chemistries prove challenging to master. Instead, the stable coupling between polylysine and PLL-g-PEG can be exploited: Microcontact printing polylysine onto a PLL-g-PEG coated glass substrate provides a simple means to produce microstructured networks of primary neurons that have superior pattern compliance during long term (>1 month) culture.

  17. Microbiota intestinal en la salud y la enfermedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Icaza-Chávez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La microbiota intestinal es la comunidad de microorganismos vivos residentes en el tubo digestivo. Muchos grupos de investigadores a nivel mundial trabajan descifrando el genoma de la microbiota. Las técnicas modernas de estudio de la microbiota nos han acercado al conocimiento de un número importante de bacterias que no son cultivables, y de la relación entre los microorganismos que nos habitan y nuestra homeostasis. La microbiota es indispensable para el correcto crecimiento corporal, el desarrollo de la inmunidad y la nutrición. Las alteraciones en la microbiota podrían explicar, por lo menos en parte, algunas epidemias de la humanidad como el asma y la obesidad. La disbiosis se ha asociado a una serie de trastornos gastrointestinales que incluyen el hígado graso no alcohólico, la enfermedad celíaca y el síndrome de intestino irritable. En el presente trabajo trataremos sobre la nomenclatura, las técnicas de estudio modernas, las funciones de la microbiota intestinal y la relación que tiene con la salud y la enfermedad.

  18. Medial septal and median raphe innervation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneurons in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, E C; Hajos, N; Acsády, L; Freund, T F

    1999-05-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons are known to form three anatomically and neurochemically well-characterized neuron populations in the hippocampus. Two of these establish synaptic contacts selectively with other GABAergic cells (interneuron-selective cells), whereas the third type innervates pyramidal cell bodies and proximal dendrites like a conventional basket cell. Our aim was to examine which of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneuron populations are among the targets of GABAergic septohippocampal and serotonergic raphe-hippocampal pathways. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with double immunocytochemistry for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was used at the light and electron microscopic levels. Our results show that both interneuron-selective cells and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells receive synaptic input from the medial septum and median raphe nucleus. The GABAergic component of the septohippocampal pathway establishes multiple contacts on both cell types. In the case of the raphe-hippocampal projection, single or double contacts were more frequent on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneuron selective cells (76%), whereas multiple contacts predominated on basket cells (83%). The extrinsic GABAergic innervation of interneuron-selective cells in the hippocampus indicates a complex interaction among GABAergic systems, which might ensure the timing and rhythmic synchronization of inhibitory processes in the hippocampus. On the other hand, our results suggest that the serotonergic effect on perisomatic inhibition is exerted via vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells that are functionally distinct from their parvalbumin-positive relatives, which appear to escape control of serotonergic as well as local interneuron-selective cells.

  19. La tipografía como marca

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Valero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Según Interbrand una marca es una combinación de atributos, tangibles e intangibles, simbolizados por una marca registrada que, si se gestiona adecuadamente, genera valor e influencia. La tipografía y la letra en general, como vehículo natural de expresión de la parte verbal de la marca, posee una capacidad de marcación especial que muchas veces no aprovechamos como merece. El objetivo de este estudio es tratar las tipografías como si fueran marcas y no productos para conseguir incrementar su...

  20. Los ritmos como terapia para la impulsividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Triviño

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigaciones recientes muestran que el uso de patrones rítmicos facilita la respuesta óptima en el tiempo, por lo que el entrenamiento mediante ritmos podría proponerse como terapia novedosa ante problemas como la impulsividad. Esto podría beneficiar a pacientes con daño prefrontal o personas con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH, que suelen mostrar conductas impulsivas, así como dificultad para estimar el paso del tiempo.

  1. La universidad como organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Aurelio Ordoñez Burbano

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo versa sobre la unviersidad como organización y tiene como objetivo hacer una reflexión sobre la misión de la universidad colombiana en el marco de diversos entornos. Como punto de partida, se propone una precisión sobre la misión de la universidad moderna y la investigación, a diferencia de la universidad colonial y decimonónica limitada a la divulgación de conocimientos preexistentes.

  2. Osteoporosis y enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal Osteoporosis and inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menchén

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal es una entidad crónica de etiología desconocida en cuyo desarrollo influyen múltiples variables, como son la susceptibilidad individual, genética e inmunológica, así como diferentes factores ambientales. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son muy variadas y pueden afectar a otros órganos diferentes del tracto digestivo, convirtiéndose por tanto en una enfermedad multisistémica. En los últimos años existe un interés creciente por una de estas manifestaciones, la osteoporosis y la osteopenia, que puede afectar hasta al 42% de los pacientes y condiciona un importante aumento de la morbilidad. La inactividad, el tratamiento corticoideo prolongado, las deficiencias nutricionales y la propia enfermedad pueden favorecer el desarrollo de esta complicación. En esta revisión se repasan aspectos clínicos y etiológicos de la osteoporosis asociada a la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y se ofrecen pautas para su diagnóstico y tratamiento.Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic disease with an unknown ethiology although multiple factors intervene such as individual, genetic and immunologic susceptibility, as well as different environmental factors. Like other multisystemic diseases, its clinical manifestations are diverse and it may affect other organs besides the gastrointestinal tract. In the last few years there is a growing interest for one of these extraintestinal manifestations, osteoporosis and osteopenia that may affect up to 42% of patients and can condition an important increase in morbility. Inactivity, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, nutritional deficiencies and the disease per se have an important role in the development of this complication. This article reviews clinical and ethiological aspects of inflammatory bowel disease associated osteoporosis and offers a strategy for diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Intestinal proteome changes during infant necrotizing enterocolitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Pingping; Smith, Birgitte; Qvist, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Changes in the intestinal and colonic proteome in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) may help to characterize the disease pathology and identify new biomarkers and treatment targets for NEC. Methods: Using gel-based proteomics, proteins in NEC-affected intestinal and coloni...

  4. Microbial functionality in the human intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Palva, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The extent of metabolic interactions between symbiotic intestinal microbes and the human host, and their system-wide effects on the host physiology are beginning to be understood. The metabolic capacity encoded by the intestinal microbiome significantly extends that of the host, making many of man's

  5. Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases: Pharmacological Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of studies show that alterations in intestinal microbiota are linked with metabolic diseases. Here, we propose that intestinal microbiota regulation by polyphenols may be an important mechanism underlying their therapeutic benefits for metabolic diseases. This helps elucidate the intriguing pharmacology of polyphenols and optimize the treatment of metabolic diseases.

  6. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  7. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  8. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  9. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  10. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  11. Clinical radiology of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlinger, H.; Maglinte, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed embryology, anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the small intestine. Radiographic procedures in the small intestine especially enterolysis are presented. Focus is on the role of other types of imaging techniques including sonography, computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, angiography, biopsy, and enteroscopy.

  12. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  13. Pyruvate metabolism and transport in intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Lamers (Jos)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThe small intestinal mucosa is known to have a high rate of aerobic glycolysis. The absence of a Pasteur effect in the small intestine is related to this observation. It was questioned whether this is an artefact. The knowledge of the rate-limiting factors of glycolysis is therefore impo

  14. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  15. Intestinal bile acid physiology and pathophysiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga Mart(I)nez-Augustin; Ferm(I)n Sánchez de Medina

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids (Bas) have a long established role in fat digestion in the intestine by acting as tensioactives,due to their amphipatic characteristics.Bas are reabsorbed very efficiently by the intestinal epithelium and recycled back to the liver v/a transport mechanisms that have been largely elucidated.The transport and synthesis of Bas are tightly regulated in part by specific plasma membrane receptors and nuclear receptors.In addition to their primary effect,Bas have been claimed to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer,intestinal inflammation and intestinal ionic transport.Bas are not equivalent in any of these biological activities,and structural requirements have been generally identified.In particular,some Bas may be useful for cancer chemoprevention and perhaps in inflammatory bowel disease,although further research is necessary in this field.This review covers the most recent developments in these aspects of BA intestinal biology.

  16. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease......The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...

  17. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  18. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  19. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  20. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca(++)/high Mg(++) Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the

  1. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eMazzuoli-Weber

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPANs, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair or tension (ganglionic stretch. We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/ 2.2 Hz, 5.1 (2.2/7.7 Hz and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5 Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. 55% of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%. In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  2. El Derecho como argumentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atienza, Manuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Frente a las concepciones del Derecho como norma, como hecho o como valor (que caracterizan, respectivamente, al norrnativismo, al realismo jurídico y al iusnaturalismo, se propone aquí un cuarto enfoque que consiste en ver el Derecho como argumentación (y que cohra especial relevancia en las sociedades democráticas. Sin embargo, no hay una única forma de entender la argumentación jurídica. Aunque conectadas entre sí, en el trabajo se distinguen tres concepciones: la formal, la material y la pragmática o dialéctica; muchas cuestiones que se plantean en el ámbito de la teoría de la argumentación jurídica pueden resolverse -o aclararse- teniendo en cuenta esa triple perspectiva.

  3. El videojuego como material educativo: La Odisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Mainer Blanco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se basa en la función educativa que pueden cumplir los videojuegos, un campo que consideramos inexplorado por tres motivos principalmente: su reciente incorporación, su impopularidad educativa (el rechazo el videojuego como herramienta de aprendizaje y considerado, por el contrario, como una distracción, y la incompleta incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC en el ámbito familiar y educativo. En una segunda parte, se ha realizado una aplicación práctica tomando como referencia la gran obra universal “La Odisea”, cuya intención es mostrar la utilidad del videojuego como complemento educativo.

  4. Las bellas artes como terapia en Aristoteles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez A., Sergio

    2010-01-01

    .... Para empezar, se expone la vision de la salud como armonia en el pensamiento de Aristoteles, a continuacion se describen y comparan los conceptos de tekhne y phronesis, se demuestra la necesidad...

  5. Small intestine bleeding due to multifocal angiosarcoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa Zacarias F(o)ohrding; Arne Macher; Stefan Braunstein; Wolfram Trudo Knoefel; Stefan Andreas Topp

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 84-year-old male patient with primary small intestinal angiosarcoma.The patient initially presented with anemia and melena.Consecutive endoscopy revealed no signs of upper or lower active gastrointestinal bleeding.The patient had been diagnosed 3 years previously with an aortic dilation,which was treated with a stent.Computed tomography suggested an aorto-intestinal fistula as the cause of the in-testinal bleeding,leading to operative stent explantation and aortic replacement.However,an aorto-intestinal fistula was not found,and the intestinal bleeding did not arrest postoperatively.The constant need for blood transfusions made an exploratory laparotomy imperative,which showed multiple bleeding sites,predominately in the jejunal wall.A distal loop jejunostomy was conducted to contain the small intestinal bleeding and a segmental resection for histological evaluation was performed.The histological analysis revealed a lessdifferentiated tumor with characteristic CD31,cytokeratin,and vimentin expression,which led to the diagnosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma.Consequently,the infiltrated part of the jejunum was successfully resected in a subsequent operation,and adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel was planned.Angiosarcoma of the small intestine is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that presents with bleeding and high mortality.Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcome.A small intestinal angiosarcoma is a challenging diagnosis to make because of its rarity,nonspecific symptoms of altered intestinal function,nonspecific abdominal pain,severe melena,and acute abdominal signs.Therefore,a quick clinical and histological diagnosis and decisive measures including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy should be the aim.

  6. Distribution of neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1 in the non-neuronal tissued of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Sadamoto, Yoshihiro; Konno, Akihiro; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2004-01-01

    Distribution of ASCT1, a neurtral amino acid transporter, in non-neuronal peripheral tissues of adult and developong mice was examines by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity for ASCT1 in the digestive system was localized in basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia from oral parietes to nonglandular region of the stomach, chief cells of the glandular stomach, acinar cells of the salivary gland and exocrine pancreas, and Paneth's cells of the small intestin...

  7. Morphological alterations in small intestine of rats with myenteric plexus denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M; Kilinç, M; Hatipoğlu, E S

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of myenteric denervation by benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on small intestine morphology in the rat, and whether segmental myenteric denervation alters morphology elsewhere in the small intestine. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into 4 groups: control (0.9% NaCl); denervation (0.062% BAC); chemical inflammation (5% acetic acid), and intraluminal stasis produced by partial obstruction. 28 days after operation tissue samples were taken from the treated segment, 10 cm distal to the treated segment, and 20 cm proximal to the treated segment. Morphological changes and the number of ganglion cells were examined under the light microscope. BAC application reduced the number of myenteric neurons by 85% in the treated segment. Denervation increased villus height and crypt depth in the treated and proximal segments. But changes in muscle thickness were seen throughout the intestine. As a result, although myenteric plexus denervation caused mucosa morphology in the treated and proximal segments, it caused smooth muscle changes throughout the small intestine.

  8. Parvalbumin+ Neurons and Npas1+ Neurons Are Distinct Neuron Classes in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vivian M.; Hegeman, Daniel J.; Cui, Qiaoling; Kelver, Daniel A.; Fiske, Michael P.; Glajch, Kelly E.; Pitt, Jason E.; Huang, Tina Y.; Justice, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that pathological activity of the external globus pallidus (GPe), a nucleus in the basal ganglia, contributes to the motor symptoms of a variety of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have challenged the idea that the GPe comprises a single, homogenous population of neurons that serves as a simple relay in the indirect pathway. However, we still lack a full understanding of the diversity of the neurons that make up the GPe. Specifically, a more precise classification scheme is needed to better describe the fundamental biology and function of different GPe neuron classes. To this end, we generated a novel multicistronic BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line under the regulatory elements of the Npas1 gene. Using a combinatorial transgenic and immunohistochemical approach, we discovered that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons in the GPe represent two nonoverlapping cell classes, amounting to 55% and 27% of the total GPe neuron population, respectively. These two genetically identified cell classes projected primarily to the subthalamic nucleus and to the striatum, respectively. Additionally, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons were distinct in their autonomous and driven firing characteristics, their expression of intrinsic ion conductances, and their responsiveness to chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. In summary, our data argue that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons are two distinct functional classes of GPe neurons. This work revises our understanding of the GPe, and provides the foundation for future studies of its function and dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Until recently, the heterogeneity of the constituent neurons within the external globus pallidus (GPe) was not fully appreciated. We addressed this knowledge gap by discovering two principal GPe neuron classes, which were identified by their nonoverlapping

  9. "La noche boca arriba" como encrucijada literaria

    OpenAIRE

    Amícola, José

    1997-01-01

    El principio de deslizamiento de planos había aparecido ya como principio constructivo tangencial en un cuento de Borges como "Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius"; sería tarea de Cortázar catapultarlo a factor dominante. Objetivo de nuestro análisis es demostrar la función que este principio desempeña en el relato. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  10. COMO ENTENDER AS PRINCIPAIS TEORIAS DA LE

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Francisco de Assis do; Carvalho, Jander Ramos; Costa, Priscila Márcia de Andrade; Bastos, Rafael Lira Gomes

    2013-01-01

    O presente artigo mostrará algumas das principais teorias de aquisiçãode LE. Desta forma mostraremos como fatores como afetividadee o meio, encontrados nessas teorias podem influenciar no processode aquisição de uma língua estrangeira. Observaremos também quecada teoria observa pontos diferentes do processo de aquisição de L2,uns tendem ao cognitivismo outras ao social, e outras aos aspectos lingüísticos.

  11. Neumatosis intestinal asociada a neumatosis portal intrahepática por oclusión intestinal: presentación de un caso Pneumatosis intestinalis and intrahepatic portal venous gas associated with small bowel occlusion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas E Granero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La neumatosis intestinal es una entidad muy infrecuente asociada a varias patologías, como el infarto intestino-mesentérico, la enterocolitis necrotizante y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Se caracteriza por la presencia de gas en la subserosa o submucosa a través del tracto gastrointestinal. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino de 63 años de edad que consultó por dolor en abdomen superior, vómitos y fiebre elevada (39º nueve días después de una gastrectomía total por cáncer. La radiografía directa de abdomen constató distensión intestinal y la tomografía computada (TC demostró distensión intestinal, edema mesentérico, neumatosis intestinal a través del intestino delgado y neumatosis portal, preferentemente en el lóbulo hepático izquierdo. Se realizó una laparotomía de urgencia que reveló únicamente distensión intestinal por adherencias, sin evidenciar necrosis intestinal. El paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente, falleciendo posteriormente. Reportamos un nuevo caso y revisamos la literatura de la neumatosis intestinal asociada con neumatosis portal.The pneumatosis intestinalis is a very infrequent condition associated with a number of diseases, such as mesenteric infarction, necrotizing enterocolitis, and obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by the presence of subserosal or submucosal gas cyst throughout the gastrointestinal tract. A 63- year- old man complained of upper abdominal pain, vomiting and high fever (39º C on the nine day after total gastrectomy for cancer. Abdominal X-ray revealed intestinal distension. The abdominal Computed Tomography (CT showed intestinal dilatation, mesenteric oedema, diffuse pneumatosis throughout the small intestine and gas in the portal venous system predominantly in the left hepatic lobe. It was performed emergency activity that revealed intestinal distension secondary to adhesion without intestinal necrosis. The patient had a downhill course

  12. Trasplante intestinal en el paciente con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria Intestinal transplant in patients with parenteral nutrition at home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. de Cos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El fracaso intestinal, bien sea por causa anatómica o funcional, condiciona el tratamiento con nutrición parenteral en niños o adultos que, como resultado de resecciones intestinales, alteración de la motilidad, enfermedad de microvellosidades u otras causas, presentan un intestino insuficiente para proveer sus necesidades en nutrientes y fluidos. Sin embargo, en sujetos con fallo intestinal irreversible el mantenimiento del soporte con nutrición parenteral domiciliaria no esta exento de complicaciones que amenazan su vida: enfermedad hepática, sepsis recurrentes y perdida de vías centrales recomiendan valorar en este grupo de pacientes la indicación del trasplante intestinal. La incidencia de morbilidad y mortalidad tras trasplante intestinal es mayor que la de otros trasplantes (riñón, hígado, pero la supervivencia a largo plazo se sitúa en el 50-60%. En España se han realizado hasta la actualidad 7 trasplantes, 3 de intestino aislado, 3 hepatointestinales y 1 multivisceral (6 niños y un adulto. En 4 casos la indicación de trasplante fue enfermedad hepática terminal, motivando el resto la pérdida de accesos venosos, diarrea intratable y tumor desmoide intraabdomial respectivamente. Salvo una niña que presentó rechazo severo del injerto, el resto alcanzaron autonomía digestiva. Un niño ha presentado a los 2 años neoplasia linfocitaria (PTLD y otro ha fallecido postrasplante como consecuencia de una biopsia hepática rutinaria (con injertos funcionantes. De 38 pacientes evaluados para trasplante 18 han sido considerados candidatos, de ellos tres niños candidatos a trasplante hepatointestinal (con síndrome de intestino corto han fallecido en lista de espera y un cuarto en quirófano antes del intento de un trasplante multivisceral. El trasplante intestinal no debe ser considerado la ultima y desesperada opción terapéutica en los pacientes con fallo intestinal permanente. El tipo de injerto, la experiencia clínica y el

  13. Las leyendas regionales como intangibles territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Martos Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el concepto de leyenda como intangible territorial en diversas escalas, desde la local a la regional o nacional, y su relación con la construcción de mitos étnicos y la emergencia de tradiciones translocales. Para ello, se revisan la metodología de los estudios corográficos y las nociones de ecotipo y de paisaje cultural, así como la etnografía de los territorios simbólicos a la luz de conceptos como el clásico «témenos» y modernos como el «mytho-moteur» (Abadal, 1958. Se aplican estudios de casos que evidencian cómo es el Imaginario, en interacción con factores geohistóricos del lugar, el que a menudo acota y perimetrea un territorio a través de cauces como la fabulación legendaria y los ritos paralitúgicos, como procesiones o peregrinaciones. La conclusión es que las leyendas y los arquetipos de origen étnico y genealógico reescriben tradiciones que crean identidades y se pueden proyectar en ámbitos diferentes de la vida política o recreativa, con perfiles igualmente diferentes.

  14. El humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Torres de Sánchez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Una tendencia mundial se ha originado: el uso del humor como herramienta para lograr aprendizajes y mejorar el ambiente donde la persona se encuentre. En el área educativa hay pruebas que demuestran su utilidad y que efectivamente origina cambios positivos, medidos en las evaluaciones, tanto en los estudiantes como en participantes de sesiones de facilitación. El objetivo del experimento realizado fue: Determinar el comportamiento a través de la calificaciones en la primera prueba, del efecto del uso del humor en el dictado de clases utilizando diferentes herramientas como: chistes, anécdotas, analogías en los contenidos. A través de un estudio experimental con un grupo de control realizado en dos aulas de clases con 35 alumnos cada uno, al grupo experimental se le aplicó diferentes recursos humorísticos como herramientas de aprendizaje. Se analizaron las calificaciones en la primera prueba a través de porcentajes de aprobados y aplazados, observándose que el grupo experimental arrojó los mayores porcentajes de aprobados. Tales resultados confirman que el humor como herramienta, si induce a un desempeño excelente en alumnos, lo que lleva a implementar acciones de adiestramiento para los facilitadores, así como el surgimiento de investigaciones más profundas sobre el uso del humor en la educación.

  15. Gastrointestinal transit is not impaired by regional loss of myenteric neurons in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, M S; White, J C; Bass, P

    1993-10-01

    Chronic absence of myenteric neurons from a 5-cm segment of rat jejunum causes alterations in myoelectric activity. Spike potentials characteristic of phase III activity of the migrating motor complex (MMC) are present; however, the number of propagating spike potentials through the myenterically denervated region is reduced. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the regional loss of myenteric neurons on gastrointestinal transit of a solid marker in the fasted rat. The rate of gastric emptying was not affected by the absence of the myenteric plexus in a 5-cm segment of the jejunum. However, 15 days after either myenteric denervation or vehicle treatment of a segment of jejunum, a more cephalad distribution and decreased rate of intestinal propulsion of the solid marker was observed in the small intestine. This delay in small intestinal transit observed at 15 days was not seen at 48 and 120 days. The decrease in transit at 15 days can be attributed to the handling of the bowel during the surgical procedure. The mouth-to-cecum transit time (MCT) was also not affected by chronic absence of the myenteric plexus. Furthermore, the MCT indicated that bacterial overgrowth, a common manifestation when gut motility is disrupted, did not occur in the small intestine after the experimental destruction of the myenteric plexus. The results of this study indicate that the regional loss of the myenteric plexus does not impair gastrointestinal transit in the fasted rat.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Malrotación intestinal asociada a vólvulo del ciego: Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Leal Mursulí

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available El vólvulo del ciego constituye la forma principal de presentación en el adulto del espectro de anomalías anatomoclínicas de los fenómenos de no rotación, rotación incompleta o fijación incompleta intestinal, conocidos genéricamente como "malrotación intestinal. El vólvulo del ciego ocurre como manifestación de defectos en la fijación intestinal; sin embargo, su asociación con una rotación intestinal incompleta no se ha podido encontrar en los casos reportados internacionalmente. Por lo poco frecuente de ella, se muestra una paciente intervenida quirúrgicamente por síndrome oclusivo, donde se comprobó rotación intestinal incompleta asociada a vólvulo del segmento ileocecocólico. Se describen las características clínicas de la paciente, y se discuten las causas, así como la conducta ante esta infrecuente y difícil situación

  17. Intestinal mucosal atrophy and adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darcy Shaw; Kartik Gohil; Marc D Basson

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal adaptation is an essential process in gut homeostasis.The intestinal mucosa adapts to a range of pathological conditions including starvation,short-gut syndrome,obesity,and bariatric surgery.Broadly,these adaptive functions can be grouped into proliferation and differentiation.These are influenced by diverse interactions with hormonal,immune,dietary,nervous,and mechanical stimuli.It seems likely that clinical outcomes can be improved by manipulating the physiology of adaptation.This review will summarize current understanding of the basic science surrounding adaptation,delineate the wide range of potential targets for therapeutic intervention,and discuss how these might be incorporated into an overall treatment plan.Deeper insight into the physiologic basis of adaptation will identify further targets for intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  18. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPARα signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPARα target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPARα-dependent processes also in the small intestine.

  19. Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form.

  20. A novel role of intestine epithelial GABAergic signaling in regulating intestinal fluid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Lu, Wei-Yang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2012-08-15

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and it is produced via the enzymatic activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). GABA generates fast biological signaling through type A receptors (GABA(A)R), an anionic channel. Intriguingly, GABA is found in the jejunum epithelium of rats. The present study intended to determine whether a functional GABA signaling system exists in the intestinal epithelium and if so whether the GABA signaling regulates intestinal epithelial functions. RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical assays of small intestinal tissues of various species were performed to determine the expression of GABA-signaling proteins in intestinal epithelial cells. Perforated patch-clamp recording was used to measure GABA-induced transmembrane current in the small intestine epithelial cell line IEC-18. The fluid weight-to-intestine length ratio was measured in mice that were treated with GABA(A)R agonist and antagonist. The effect of GABA(A)R antagonist on allergic diarrhea was examined using a mouse model. GABA, GAD, and GABA(A)R subunits were identified in small intestine epithelial cells of mice, rats, pigs, and humans. GABA(A)R agonist induced an inward current and depolarized IEC-18. Both GABA and the GABA(A)R agonist muscimol increased intestinal fluid secretion of rats. The increased intestinal secretion was largely decreased by the GABA(A)R antagonist picrotoxin or gabazine, but not by tetrodotoxin. The expression levels of GABA-signaling proteins were increased in the intestinal epithelium of mice that were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The OVA-treated mice exhibited diarrhea, which was alleviated by oral administration of gabazine or picrotoxin. An endogenous autocrine GABAergic signaling exists in the mammalian intestinal epithelium, which upregulates intestinal fluid secretion. The intestinal GABAergic signaling becomes intensified in allergic diarrhea, and

  1. Intestinal barrier homeostasis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Rasmus; van Beelen Granlund, Atle

    2015-01-01

    The single-cell thick intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lining with its protective layer of mucus is the primary barrier protecting the organism from the harsh environment of the intestinal lumen. Today it is clear that the balancing act necessary to maintain intestinal homeostasis is dependent on the coordinated action of all cell types of the IEC, and that there are no passive bystanders to gut immunity solely acting as absorptive or regenerative cells: Mucin and antimicrobial peptides on the epithelial surface are continually being replenished by goblet and Paneth's cells. Luminal antigens are being sensed by pattern recognition receptors on the enterocytes. The enteroendocrine cells sense the environment and coordinate the intestinal function by releasing neuropeptides acting both on IEC and inflammatory cells. All this while cells are continuously and rapidly being regenerated from a limited number of stem cells close to the intestinal crypt base. This review seeks to describe the cell types and structures of the intestinal epithelial barrier supporting intestinal homeostasis, and how disturbance in these systems might relate to inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  3. Wound healing of intestinal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Iizuka; Shiho Konno

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a selective permeability barrier separating luminal content from underlying tissues. Upon injury, the intestinal epithelium undergoes a wound healing process. Intestinal wound healing is dependent on the balance of three cellular events;restitution, proliferation, and differentiation of epithelial cells adjacent to the wounded area. Previous studies have shown that various regulatory peptides, including growth factors and cytokines, modulate intestinal epithelial wound healing. Recent studies have revealed that novel factors, which include toll-like receptors (TLRs), regulatory peptides, particular dietary factors, and some gastroprotective agents, also modulate intestinal epithelial wound repair. Among these factors, the activation of TLRs by commensal bacteria is suggested to play an essential role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that mutations and dysregulation of TLRs could be major contributing factors in the predisposition and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, studies have shown that specific signaling pathways are involved in IEC wound repair. In this review, we summarize the function of IECs, the process of intestinal epithelial wound healing, and the functions and mechanisms of the various factors that contribute to gut homeostasis and intestinal epithelial wound healing.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 modulates neurally evoked mucosal chloride secretion in guinea pig small intestine in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Sara; Wang, Guo-Du; Mulè, Flavia; Wood, Jackie D

    2012-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) acts at the G protein-coupled receptor, GLP-1R, to stimulate secretion of insulin and to inhibit secretion of glucagon and gastric acid. Involvement in mucosal secretory physiology has received negligible attention. We aimed to study involvement of GLP-1 in mucosal chloride secretion in the small intestine. Ussing chamber methods, in concert with transmural electrical field stimulation (EFS), were used to study actions on neurogenic chloride secretion. ELISA was used to study GLP-1R effects on neural release of acetylcholine (ACh). Intramural localization of GLP-1R was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Application of GLP-1 to serosal or mucosal sides of flat-sheet preparations in Ussing chambers did not change baseline short-circuit current (I(sc)), which served as a marker for chloride secretion. Transmural EFS evoked neurally mediated biphasic increases in I(sc) that had an initial spike-like rising phase followed by a sustained plateau-like phase. Blockade of the EFS-evoked responses by tetrodotoxin indicated that the responses were neurally mediated. Application of GLP-1 reduced the EFS-evoked biphasic responses in a concentration-dependent manner. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-(9-39) suppressed this action of GLP-1. The GLP-1 inhibitory action on EFS-evoked responses persisted in the presence of nicotinic or vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor antagonists but not in the presence of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. GLP-1 significantly reduced EFS-evoked ACh release. In the submucosal plexus, GLP-1R immunoreactivity (IR) was expressed by choline acetyltransferase-IR neurons, neuropeptide Y-IR neurons, somatostatin-IR neurons, and vasoactive intestinal peptide-IR neurons. Our results suggest that GLP-1R is expressed in guinea pig submucosal neurons and that its activation leads to a decrease in neurally evoked chloride secretion by suppressing release of ACh at neuroepithelial junctions in the enteric neural networks

  5. STDP in recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Gilson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent results about spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP in recurrently connected neurons are reviewed, with a focus on the relationship between the weight dynamics and the emergence of network structure. In particular, the evolution of synaptic weights in the two cases of incoming connections for a single neuron and recurrent connections are compared and contrasted. A theoretical framework is used that is based upon Poisson neurons with a temporally inhomogeneous firing rate and the asymptotic distribution of weights generated by the learning dynamics. Different network configurations examined in recent studies are discussed and an overview of the current understanding of STDP in recurrently connected neuronal networks is presented.

  6. The straintronic spin-neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ayan K; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-07-17

    In artificial neural networks, neurons are usually implemented with highly dissipative CMOS-based operational amplifiers. A more energy-efficient implementation is a 'spin-neuron' realized with a magneto-tunneling junction (MTJ) that is switched with a spin-polarized current (representing weighted sum of input currents) that either delivers a spin transfer torque or induces domain wall motion in the soft layer of the MTJ to mimic neuron firing. Here, we propose and analyze a different type of spin-neuron in which the soft layer of the MTJ is switched with mechanical strain generated by a voltage (representing weighted sum of input voltages) and term it straintronic spin-neuron. It dissipates orders of magnitude less energy in threshold operations than the traditional current-driven spin neuron at 0 K temperature and may even be faster. We have also studied the room-temperature firing behaviors of both types of spin neurons and find that thermal noise degrades the performance of both types, but the current-driven type is degraded much more than the straintronic type if both are optimized for maximum energy-efficiency. On the other hand, if both are designed to have the same level of thermal degradation, then the current-driven version will dissipate orders of magnitude more energy than the straintronic version. Thus, the straintronic spin-neuron is superior to current-driven spin neurons.

  7. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue.

  8. Capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferent neurons contribute to the detection of pathogenic bacterial colonization in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, T P; Neal-McKinney, J M; Buelow, D R; Konkel, M E; Simasko, S M

    2013-04-15

    Vagal activation can reduce inflammation and disease activity in various animal models of intestinal inflammation via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. In the current model of this pathway, activation of descending vagal efferents is dependent on a signal initiated by stimulation of vagal afferents. However, little is known about how vagal afferents are activated, especially in the context of subclinical or clinical pathogenic bacterial infection. To address this question, we first determined if selective lesions of capsaicin-sensitive vagal afferents altered c-Fos expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract (nTS) after mice were inoculated with either Campylobacter jejuni or Salmonella typhimurium. Our results demonstrate that the activation of nTS neurons by intraluminal pathogenic bacteria is dependent on intact, capsaicin sensitive vagal afferents. We next determined if inflammatory mediators could cause the observed increase in c-Fos expression in the nTS by a direct action on vagal afferents. This was tested by the use of single-cell calcium measurements in cultured vagal afferent neurons. We found that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) directly activate cultured vagal afferent neurons and that almost all TNFα and LPS responsive neurons were sensitive to capsaicin. We conclude that activation of the afferent arm of the parasympathetic neuroimmune reflex by pathogenic bacteria in the gut is dependent on capsaicin sensitive vagal afferent neurons and that the release of inflammatory mediators into intestinal tissue can be directly sensed by these neurons.

  9. Uterine rotation: a cause of intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Narbona, Isidoro; Cohen, Isaac; Villegas, Emilia; Cuenca, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is an uncommon surgical emergency during pregnancy that affects seriously the prognosis of gestation. The underlying cause can be identified in the majority of cases and usually consists of adhesions secondary to previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, followed in order of frequency by intestinal volvuli. In recent years there have been no reports in which the gravid uterus has been the cause of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a woman in week 33 + 4 of pregnancy who developed extrinsic compression of the colon secondary to uterine rotation and pelvic impaction of the head of the fetus.

  10. Evaluación de cepas probióticas (L. acidophilus, L. casei y E. faecium) como inmunomoduladores nutricionales en pollos de engorde

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Gómez, Liliana Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: Los probióticos son utilizados normalmente en la alimentación para favorecer el desarrollo intestinal y la salud de los animales. Entre ellos están las Bacterias Acidolácticas (BAL), que actúan en la regeneración de la microbiota intestinal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto que tiene la utilización de aditivos nutricionales diferentes a los antibióticos, como las BAL, en la alimentación de pollos de engorde para favorecer el estado inmunológico evitando posibles enfe...

  11. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina; Morărașu Diana Elena; Pascarenco Ofelia Daniela; Brsunic Olga; Onișor Danusia Maria; Alina Boeriu; Dobru Daniela Ecaterina

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  12. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drasovean Silvia Cosmina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  13. OPTN/SRTR 2015 Annual Data Report: Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2017-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant remains important in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2015, 196 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list, with equal numbers waiting for intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2015, 63.3% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 36.7% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was notably higher for intestine-liver than for intestine transplant candidates (respectively, 19.9 vs. 2.8 deaths per 100 waitlist years in 2014-2015). By age, pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 19.6 per 100 waitlist years, and lowest for children aged younger than 6 years, at 3.6 per 100 waitlist years. Pretransplant mortality by etiology was highest for candidates with non-congenital types of short-gut syndrome. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 70 in 2015. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 71 in 2015. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and non-congenital) was the main cause of disease leading to intestine and to intestine-liver transplant. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  14. Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia: Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, Endoscopic and Histological Features

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Gastric intestinal metaplasia represents a risk factor for intestinal type of gastric cancer. Gastric intestinal metaplasia seems to be associated with Helicobacter pilory infection in relatives of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, clinical, endoscopic and histological features of gastric intestinal metaplasia.

  15. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Jasmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM, and within the intestinal lumen (IL of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16 of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  16. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  17. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-01-01

    Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159), el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribui...

  18. Differential Inputs to the Perisomatic and Distal-Dendritic Compartments of VIP-Positive Neurons in Layer 2/3 of the Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaerin Sohn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recurrent network composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is fundamental to neocortical function. Inhibitory neurons in the mammalian neocortex are molecularly diverse, and individual cell types play unique functional roles in the neocortical microcircuit. Recently, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive (VIP+ neurons, comprising a subclass of inhibitory neurons, have attracted particular attention because they can disinhibit pyramidal cells through inhibition of other types of inhibitory neurons, such as parvalbumin- (PV+ and somatostatin-positive (SOM+ inhibitory neurons, promoting sensory information processing. Although VIP+ neurons have been reported to receive synaptic inputs from PV+ and SOM+ inhibitory neurons as well as from cortical and thalamic excitatory neurons, the somatodendritic localization of these synaptic inputs has yet to be elucidated at subcellular spatial resolution. In the present study, we visualized the somatodendritic membranes of layer (L 2/3 VIP+ neurons by injecting a newly developed adeno-associated virus vector into the barrel cortex of VIP-Cre knock-in mice, and we determined the extensive ramification of VIP+ neuron dendrites in the vertical orientation. After immunohistochemical labeling of presynaptic boutons and postsynaptic structures, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the synaptic contacts were unevenly distributed throughout the perisomatic (< 100 µm from the somata and distal-dendritic compartments (≥ 100 µm of VIP+ neurons. Both corticocortical and thalamocortical excitatory neurons preferentially targeted the distal-dendritic compartment of VIP+ neurons. On the other hand, SOM+ and PV+ inhibitory neurons preferentially targeted the distal-dendritic and perisomatic compartments of VIP+ neurons, respectively. Notably, VIP+ neurons had few reciprocal connections. These observations suggest different inhibitory effects of SOM+ and PV+ neuronal inputs on VIP+ neuron activity

  19. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159, el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribuir a la formación de un «realismo total» (Rodríguez Puértolas, 2000, II: 93, al que se une también la asimilación de enseñanzas esenciales como la que representa la narrativa de Cervantes: La novelística de Galdós hunde sus raíces en el mejor Cervantes, como puede verse en su peculiar sentido del humor y de la ironía, en la concepción perspectivista de la realidad y en tantas otras cosas, algunas de ellas en verdad fundamentales. Así el concepto de la Naturaleza y sus relaciones dialécticas con el ser humano; así el Amor como elemento vital y animador del orden cósmico, muy alejado del idealismo vulgar romántico (Ibid., 93.

  20. An unusual case of intestinal leiomyositis in a Bernese mountain dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, P; Tecilla, M; Bellino, C; Buracco, R; Martano, M; Zanatta, R; Cagnasso, A; D'angelo, A

    2015-10-01

    A 1-year-old, female Bernese mountain dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Turin University with a 3-month history of weight loss, intermittent anorexia, vomiting, constipation, and abdominal distension. Full-thickness biopsies from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Microscopic lesions displayed severe diffuse degeneration and loss of leiomyocytes, with lymphocytic leiomyositis, fibroplasia, angiogenesis, severe diffuse neuronal atrophy, and ganglioneuritis in the myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus. A diagnosis of chronic idiopatic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was made. Response to immunosuppressive therapy was poor and the dog was humanely euthanized. Unique findings were mononuclear infiltration composed predominantly of B-cell, angiogenesis and weak immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase.

  1. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal Parasites among Patients attending two ... the maintenance of proper personal hygiene, creating awareness to the ..... (2007), who reported a value of 21.1% in Owerri,. Imo State and ...

  2. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sentation of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those .... nal distension in 7(43.8%), and fever in another 7(43.8%). .... boys defaulted from definitive treatment after the initial ... rent abdominal pain and constipation.

  3. Intestinal preparation prior to capsule endoscopy administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Pons Beltrán; Cristina Carretero; Bego(n)a Gonzalez-Suárez; I(n)aqui Fernández-Urien; Miguel Mu(n)oz Navas

    2008-01-01

    In order to have an adequate view of the whole small intestine during capsule endoscopy,the preparation recommended consists of a clear liquid diet and an overnight fast.However,visualization of the small bowel during video capsule endoscopy can be impaired by intestinal contents.To improve mucosal visualization,some authors have evaluated different regimens of preparation.There is no consensus about the necessity of intestinal preparation for capsule endoscopy and it should be interesting to develop adequate guidelines to improve its efficacy and tolerability.Moreover,the effect of preparation type (purgative) on intestinal transit time is not clear.Since a bowel preparation cannot definitively improve its visibility (and theoretically the yield of the test),it is not routinely recommended.

  4. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  5. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...... by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  6. Outcomes of surgical management of intestinal atresias

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-22

    Nov 22, 2013 ... shock (1), anesthesia‑related (1), undetermined (1). Two of the mortalities (40%) had ... Key words: Intestinal atresia, outcomes, surgical management ... with information on prenatal ultrasonography (18/23), only 50% (9/18) ...

  7. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  8. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  9. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  10. Human intestinal microbiota and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaarala, Outi

    2013-10-01

    The role of intestinal microbiota in immune-mediated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, has deservedly received a lot of attention. Evidently, changes in the intestinal microbiota are associated with type 1 diabetes as demonstrated by recent studies. Children with beta-cell autoimmunity have shown low abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria and increase in the abundance of members of the Bacteroidetes phylum in fecal microbiota. These alterations could explain increased gut permeability, subclinical small intestinal inflammation, and dysregulation of oral tolerance in type 1 diabetes. However, these studies do not provide evidence of the causative role of the gut microbiota in the development of beta-cell autoimmunity, yet. In animal models, the composition of gut microbiota modulates the function of both innate and adaptive immunity, and intestinal bacteria are regulators of autoimmune diabetes. Thus, prevention of type 1 diabetes could, in the future, be based on the interventions targeted to the gut microbiota.

  11. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  12. La desigualdad como texto: relatos docentes

    OpenAIRE

    Scabuzzo, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Nuestra hipótesis de trabajo se orienta a la interpretación de la especificidad de la relación, en el marco de la desigualdad educativa, entre la escuela como texto y los sujetos pedagógicos (estudiantes y docentes) en términos de encuentro - desencuentro, diferencia, malestar, multivocidad, discontinuidad, tensión, equivocidad, malentendido, etc. Planteamos como metodología de trabajo un abordaje de tipo cualitativo. Nuestro universo de estudio para la realización de esta investigación de ca...

  13. La norma penal como norma de conducta

    OpenAIRE

    Regis Prado, Luiz

    2011-01-01

    El artículo trata de la dicotomía entre norma de determinación y norma de valoración, para concluir que la norma penal es una norma jurídica de conducta, que prescribe un modo determinado de actuar. De esta forma, señala su estructura lógica y principales características, así como sus efectos en el campo de la antijuridicidad. SUMARIO: 1. Consideraciones generales; 2. Norma penal como norma de conducta. Norma de determinación o norma de valoración: distinción conceptual; 3. Nor...

  14. O teatro como um estado de encontro

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundes, Silvia Patricia

    2009-01-01

    A partir da teoria da “estética relacional” proposta por Nicolas Bourriaud, o artigo desenvolve uma concepção do teatro como um estado de encontro, um fenômeno que só acontece em um espaço-tempo compartilhado entre atores e espectadores , condicionado por um mecanismo de autopoiesis: teatro como um processo que gera eventos e não obras acabadas, que só acontecem em relação. Esta dimensão pode ser identificada com muita intensidade nos processos criativos da cena, que implicam uma dinâmica col...

  15. El conflicto como constructor de ciudad

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El planteamiento central de este articulo, es el de sugerir una análisis en torno a algunas de las condiciones o mecanismo necesarios para que el conflicto opere como un potenciador de la diferencia y creador de alternativas para la convivencia Se realiza una distinción del concepto, un análisis de contenidos interaccionales en dinámicas de conflicto y su relación con el contexto urbano de Bogotá, enfocándose en ámbitos escolares. En ciudades como Bogotá, las discusiones y acciones que di...

  16. La entrevista como encuentro de subjetividades

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Martín del Campo, Emma; Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima - Perú.

    2014-01-01

    Entrevistar es generar un proceso de interacción en el que se implican al menos dos sujetos humanos. Como instrumento metodológico al servicio de las ciencias sociales, la entrevista puede variar tanto en su modalidad como en sus pretensiones. En el presente trabajo la reflexión se centra en las diferencias entre la entrevista psicoanalítica a profundidad y la entrevista etnológica y antropológica. La entrevista a profundidad de orientación psicoanalítica se usa para explorar la subjetividad...

  17. Como cumplir los mandatos de acceso abierto

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández San Miguel, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Mapa conceptual de como cumplir los mandatos de acceso abierto. Horizonte 2020 (UE) y la Ley de la ciencia [CAT] Mapa conceptual de com complir els mandats d'accés obert. Horitzó 2020 (UE) i la Llei de la ciència [EN] Conceptual map to fulfill the mandates of open access. 2020 horizon (UE) and Spanish Law of science Hernández San Miguel, FJ. (2013). Como cumplir los mandatos de acceso abierto. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/34087.

  18. Bullying: a escola como campo de guerra

    OpenAIRE

    Cossalter, Mônica Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A presente pesquisa tem como foco de estudos os bullies. Para tal, apresenta um amplo quadro de casos de bullying no Brasil e no mundo, estudados por pesquisadores diversos e ocorridos em ambientes físicos e virtuais. Analisa questões como agressividade, violência, preconceito, indústria cultural e instituição escolar. Realiza um levantamento semântico dos termos das agressões verbais dos bullies apontando preconceitos subjacentes, investiga qual o discurso social por trás dos ...

  19. La imagen del Inca como benefactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Espinoza Portocarrero

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres crónicas coloniales y de tres visiones historiográficas sobre los incas producidas en el siglo XX, y apelando a las herramientas metodológicas de la historia de las categorías, se pretende rastrear los discursos sobre la imagen del Inca como benefactor de la sociedad andina. El objetivo es dar luces sobre los discursos históricos que entienden al Inca como un modelo ideal de autoridad política y su carácter de construcción social afianzada por la historiografía.

  20. La fenomenología como atavismo

    OpenAIRE

    Galán, Iván

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with phenomenology as a result of phenomenological freedom in its possibility of understanding a phenomenon as wild phenomenon. From this perspective, we are enabled to transcend established symbolic systems and to pose the question on the existence of a sense which is immature, not-saturated and imperfect without exception.El artículo pretende mostrar la vigencia de la fenomenología como expresión de la libertad fenomenológica, como posibilidad siempre abierta de acceder al ...

  1. Neurones and neuropeptides in coelenterates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Ebbesen, Ditte Graff; McFarlane, I D

    1989-01-01

    The first nervous system probably evolved in coelenterates. Many neurons in coelenterates have morphological characteristics of both sensory and motor neurones, and appear to be multifunctional. Using immunocytochemistry with antisera to the sequence Arg-Phe-NH2 (RFamide), RFamide-like peptides w...... that these neuropeptides play a role in neurotransmission....

  2. The Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Michael J.; Rakheja, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL's, Batten disease) represent a group of severe neurodegenerative diseases, which mostly present in childhood. The phenotypes are similar and include visual loss, seizures, loss of motor and cognitive function, and early death. At autopsy, there is massive neuronal loss with characteristic storage in…

  3. Cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wu; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Chang, Eddie

    2006-07-31

    Neuronal networks have been widely used for neurophysiology, drug discovery and toxicity testing. An essential prerequisite for future widespread application of neuronal networks is the development of efficient cryopreservation protocols to facilitate their storage and transportation. Here is the first report on cryopreservation of mammalian adherent neuronal networks. Dissociated spinal cord cells were attached to a poly-d-lysine/laminin surface and allowed to form neuronal networks. Adherent neuronal networks were embedded in a thin film of collagen gel and loaded with trehalose prior to transfer to a freezing medium containing DMSO, FBS and culture medium. This was followed by a slow rate of cooling to -80 degrees C for 24 h and then storage for up to 2 months in liquid nitrogen at -196 degrees C. The three components: DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading combined provided the highest post-thaw viability, relative to individual or two component protocols. The post-thaw cells with this protocol demonstrated similar neuronal and astrocytic markers and morphological structure as those detected in unfrozen cells. Fluorescent dye FM1-43 staining revealed active recycling of synaptic vesicles upon depolarizing stimulation in the post-thaw neuronal networks. These results suggest that a combination of DMSO, collagen gel entrapment and trehalose loading can significantly improve conventional slow-cooling methods in cryopreservation of adherent neuronal networks.

  4. Cholecystokinin (CCK)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus: innervation, light responsiveness and entrainment in CCK-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hundahl, Christian; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Rehfeld, Jens F; Friis-Hansen, Lennart

    2010-09-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal pacemaker driving circadian rhythms of physiology and behaviour. Neurons within the SCN express both classical and neuropeptide transmitters which regulate clock functions. Cholecyctokinin (CCK) is a potent neurotransmitter expressed in neurons of the mammalian SCN, but its role in circadian timing is not known. In the present study, CCK was demonstrated in a distinct population of neurons located in the shell region of the SCN and in a few cells in the core region. The CCK neurons did not express vasopressin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. However, CCK-containing processes make synaptic contacts with both groups of neurons and some CCK cell bodies were innervated by VIPergic neurons. The CCK neurons received no direct input from the three major pathways to the SCN, and the CCK neurons were not light-responsive as evaluated by induction of cFOS, and did not express the core clock protein PER1. Accordingly, CCK-deficient mice showed normal entrainment and had similar τ, light-induced phase shift and negative masking behaviour as wild-type animals. In conclusion, CCK signalling seems not to be involved directly in light-induced resetting of the clock or in regulating core clock function. The expression of CCK in a subpopulation of neurons, which do not belonging to either the VIP or AVP cells but which have synaptic contacts to both cell types and reverse innervation of CCK neurons from VIP neurons, suggests that the CCK neurons may act in non-photic regulation within the clock and/or, via CCK projections, mediate clock information to hypothalamic nuclei.

  5. Small intestine dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Justyna; Szlufik, Stanisław; Nieciecki, Michał; Charzyńska, Ingeborga; Królicki, Leszek; Smektała, Piotr; Friedman, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the small bowel transit time in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Ten patients with PD with no gastrointestinal complaints and ten healthy control subjects were investigated using single photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography after swallowing of a specially prepared capsule containing technetium 99m, which allowed visualization of the passage in the intestines. Preliminary results show that the small intestine passage in PD patients was prolonged compared to controls.

  6. Human milk oligosaccharide consumption by intestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Marcobal, A.; Sonnenburg, J L

    2012-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) constitute the third most abundant class of molecules in breast milk. Since infants lack the enzymes required for milk glycan digestion, this group of carbohydrates passes undigested to the lower part of the intestinal tract, where they can be consumed by specific members of the infant gut microbiota. We review proposed mechanisms for the depletion and metabolism of HMO by two major bacterial genera within the infant intestinal microbiota, Bifidobacterium and...

  7. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uni Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urticarial vasculitis (UV is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia.

  8. Circadian regulators of intestinal lipid absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, M. Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Among all the metabolites present in the plasma, lipids, mainly triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol, show extensive circadian rhythms. These lipids are transported in the plasma as part of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are synthesized primarily in the liver and intestine and their production exhibits circadian rhythmicity. Studies have shown that various proteins involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein biosynthesis show circadian expression. Further, intestinal epithelial cells express circa...

  9. Vitamin D and Intestinal Calcium Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J.; Seth, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium throu...

  10. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude;

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe.......The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  11. Fluoxetine causes decrease in intestinal motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Afzal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Our study has indicated that fluoxetine on isolated ileal intestinal smooth muscle decrease the motility and this decrease in motility is possibly due to the inability of fluoxetine in vitro to enhance the serotonergic transmission and also because of the interaction of these agents with some of the other receptors, present in the intestinal smooth muscles. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 265-268

  12. Semi-obstrução intestinal por esclerodermia: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mendes Cardoso

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A esclerodermia ou esclerose sistêmica progressiva é uma doença auto-imune de causa desconhecida que se caracteriza por fibrose da pele, vasos sanguíneos e de alguns outros órgãos, como os pulmões, coração, rins e trato gastrintestinal. Sintomas atribuíveis ao comprometimento gastrintestinal podem estar presentes em até 50% dos pacientes, sendo os mais freqüentes, relacionados às manifestações esofagianas e anorretais. Anormalidades na motilidade intestinal com freqüência levam a desnutrição, supercrescimento bacteriano e quadro de pseudo-obstrução ou mesmo semi-obstrução intestinal. É apresentado um caso de paciente com esclerodermia há 43 anos, evoluindo com quadro de semi-obstrução, apresentando distensão abdominal, cólicas recorrentes e desnutrição grave. Sem resposta ao tratamento clínico foi submetida à cirurgia que evidenciou quadro obstrutivo por comprometimento ileal, o qual foi tratado por bypass íleo-cólico. Lesão intestinal por esclerodermia levando a quadro de obstrução é raramente descrita na literatura médica e, portanto, o tratamento de escolha ainda não foi definido.Scleroderma or progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS is a self-immune illness of unknown cause that is characterized by fibrosis of the skin, blood vessels and some other tissues like the lungs, heart, kidneys and gastrointestinal system. Attributable symptoms to the gastrointestinal involvement can be present in up to 50% of the patients, esophageal and anorectal manifestations being more frequent. Abnormalities in the intestinal motility frequently lead to malnutrition, bacterial over-growth and intestinal pseudo-obstruction. We report a case of scleroderma with intestinal pseudo-obstruction presenting chronic abdominal cramps, bloating and malnutrition with no response to clinical approach. Patient underwent surgery with diagnosis of intestinal obstruction by annular ileal fibrosis treated by ileocolic bypass. Intestinal

  13. Phenotypic checkpoints regulate neuronal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Spitzer, Nicholas C

    2010-11-01

    Nervous system development proceeds by sequential gene expression mediated by cascades of transcription factors in parallel with sequences of patterned network activity driven by receptors and ion channels. These sequences are cell type- and developmental stage-dependent and modulated by paracrine actions of substances released by neurons and glia. How and to what extent these sequences interact to enable neuronal network development is not understood. Recent evidence demonstrates that CNS development requires intermediate stages of differentiation providing functional feedback that influences gene expression. We suggest that embryonic neuronal functions constitute a series of phenotypic checkpoint signatures; neurons failing to express these functions are delayed or developmentally arrested. Such checkpoints are likely to be a general feature of neuronal development and constitute presymptomatic signatures of neurological disorders when they go awry.

  14. Cell biology of neuronal endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, R G; Dotti, C G

    1993-09-01

    Endocytosis is the process by which cells take in fluid and components of the plasma membrane. In this way cells obtain nutrients and trophic factors, retrieve membrane proteins for degradation, and sample their environment. In neuronal cells endocytosis is essential for the recycling of membrane after neurotransmitter release and plays a critical role during early developmental stages. Moreover, alterations of the endocytic pathway have been attributed a crucial role in the pathophysiology of certain neurological diseases. Although well characterized at the ultrastructural level, little is known of the dynamics and molecular organization of the neuronal endocytic pathways. In this respect most of our knowledge comes from studies of non-neuronal cells. In this review we will examine the endocytic pathways in neurons from a cell biological viewpoint by making comparisons with non-neuronal cells and in particular with another polarized cell, the epithelial cell.

  15. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  16. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  17. Perna canaliculus and the Intestinal Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tali Saltzman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity. Recent clinical studies have posited that extracts from green-lipped mussels may lead to prebiotic activity in the intestinal microbiome that in turn has been reported to improve symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee. Prebiotics have been reported to favorably interact with the intestinal microbiome through the proliferation of beneficial bacteria in the gut, suppressing exogenous and endogenous intestinal infections and promoting homeostasis by balancing local pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. Bioactive compounds from Perna canaliculus are functional foods and, in this regard, may positively interact with the intestinal microbiome and provide novel therapeutic solutions for intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal inflammatory conditions.

  18. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  19. Immunohistochemical Properties of the Peripheral Neurons Projecting to the Pig Bulbospongiosus Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Maddalena; Ragionieri, Luisa; Cacchioli, Antonio; Panu, Rino; Gazza, Ferdinando

    2016-09-01

    Retrograde neuronal tracing and single labelling immunofluorescence methods were used to define the neurochemical content of the peripheral autonomic and sensitive neurons projecting to the male pig striated bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM). The retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the left bulbospongiosus muscle of four intact impuberal pigs. After a 10-day survival time, the ipsilateral sacral sympathetic trunk ganglia (STGs), the caudal mesenteric ganglion (CMG), and the sacral spinal ganglia (SGs) were collected from each animal. In FB+ neurons of these ganglia, the presence of cathecolamine- (tyrosine hydroxylase-TH), acetylcholine- (vesicular acetylcholine transporter-VChAT), or nitric oxide-synthesizing (neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase-nNOS) enzymes and of some biologically active peptides (calcitonine gene-related peptide-CGRP, Leu-Enkephaline-LENK, Neuropeptide Y-NPY, Substance P-SP and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-VIP) were studied. The ipsilateral STGs FB+ neurons showed immunoreactivity principally for TH and NPY and in decreasing order for VIP, VChAT, SP, CGRP, nNOS, and LENK. The left CMG FB+ neurons were immunoreactive to TH and NPY, and in smaller proportions for VIP, LENK, VChAT, CGRP, nNOS, and SP. The ipsilateral SGs FB+ neurons resulted immunoractive for CGRP, LENK, NPY, nNOS, SP, and VChAT. The heterogeneous neurochemical content of the peripheral neurons projecting to the pig BSM allows us to hypothesize the involvement of autonomic ganglia in the activity of both blood vessels and striated fibers of the muscle and the involvement of sensory ganglia in the afferent transmission from the muscle to spinal cord and in antidromic mechanisms that causes the relaxation of the BSM blood vessels. Anat Rec, 299:1192-1202, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 directly activates neurons.

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    Michael Schemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compound 48/80 is widely used in animal and tissue models as a "selective" mast cell activator. With this study we demonstrate that compound 48/80 also directly activates enteric neurons and visceral afferents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used in vivo recordings from extrinsic intestinal afferents together with Ca(++ imaging from primary cultures of DRG and nodose neurons. Enteric neuronal activation was examined by Ca(++ and voltage sensitive dye imaging in isolated gut preparations and primary cultures of enteric neurons. Intraluminal application of compound 48/80 evoked marked afferent firing which desensitized on subsequent administration. In egg albumen-sensitized animals, intraluminal antigen evoked a similar pattern of afferent activation which also desensitized on subsequent exposure to antigen. In cross-desensitization experiments prior administration of compound 48/80 failed to influence the mast cell mediated response. Application of 1 and 10 µg/ml compound 48/80 evoked spike discharge and Ca(++ transients in enteric neurons. The same nerve activating effect was observed in primary cultures of DRG and nodose ganglion cells. Enteric neuron cultures were devoid of mast cells confirmed by negative staining for c-kit or toluidine blue. In addition, in cultured enteric neurons the excitatory action of compound 48/80 was preserved in the presence of histamine H(1 and H(2 antagonists. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn attenuated compound 48/80 and nicotine evoked Ca(++ transients in mast cell-free enteric neuron cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed direct excitatory action of compound 48/80 on enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Therefore, functional changes measured in tissue or animal models may involve a mast cell independent effect of compound 48/80 and cromolyn.

  1. Effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 and distal bowel resection on intestinal and systemic adaptive responses in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Sarah W; de Heuvel, Elaine; Wallace, Laurie E

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), with or without massive distal bowel resection, on adaptation of jejunal mucosa, enteric neurons, gut hormones and tissue reserves in rats. BACKGROUND: GLP-2 is a gut hormone known to be trophic for small bowel mucosa......-2 attenuated resection-induced increases in blood glucose and body fat loss. CONCLUSIONS: Exogenous GLP-2 stimulates jejunal adaptation independent of enteric neuronal VIP or nNOS changes, and has divergent effects on plasma amylin and peptide YY concentrations. The novel ability of exogenous GLP-2......, and to mimic intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome (SBS). However, the effects of exogenous GLP-2 and SBS on enteric neurons are unclear. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to four treatments: Transected Bowel (TB) (n = 8), TB + GLP-2 (2.5 nmol/kg/h, n = 8), SBS (n = 5), or SBS + GLP-2 (2...

  2. Heidegger E A Técnica Moderna Como Perigo E Como Salvação

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    Robson Costa Cordeiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O mundo contemporâneo é marcado por uma compreensão de técnica que se ergue como tal a partir de um sentido próprio e autônomo. Este sentido pode ser caracterizado como um logos que se constitui a partir de sua própria natureza e se manifesta como tecnologia no decorrer da história. Compreender esse sentido e assumi-lo como condição de nossa existência no mundo é comprender a técnica como nossa herança e nosso envio. Nesse sentido, compreender a essência da técnica é fundamental para o mundo contemporâneo, assumindo que, nesse processo, consiste o perigo e a salvação da espécie.

  3. Disinhibition Bursting of Dopaminergic Neurons

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    Collin J Lobb

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc dopaminergic neurons receive strong tonic inputs from GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr and globus pallidus (GP, and glutamatergic neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. The presence of these tonic inputs raises the possibility that phasic disinhibition may trigger phasic bursts in dopaminergic neurons. We first applied constant NMDA and GABAA conductances onto a two-compartment single cell model of the dopaminergic neuron (Kuznetsov et al., 2006. The model exhibited disinhibition bursting upon stepwise removal of inhibition. A further bifurcation analysis suggests that disinhibition may be more robust than excitation alone in that for most levels of NMDA conductance, the cell remains capable of bursting even after a complete removal of inhibition, whereas too much excitatory input will drive the cell into depolarization block. To investigate the network dynamics of disinhibition, we used a modified version of an integrate-and-fire based model of the basal ganglia (Humphries et al., 2006. Synaptic activity generated in the network was delivered to the two-compartment single cell dopaminergic neuron. Phasic activation of the D1-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum (D1STR produced disinhibition bursts in dopaminergic neurons through the direct pathway (D1STR to SNpr to SNpc. Anatomical studies have shown that D1STR neurons have collaterals that terminate in GP. Adding these collaterals to the model, we found that striatal activation increased the intra-burst firing frequency of the disinhibition burst as the weight of this connection was increased. Our studies suggest that striatal activation is a robust means by which disinhibition bursts can be generated by SNpc dopaminergic neurons, and that recruitment of the indirect pathway via collaterals may enhance disinhibition bursting.

  4. Orexin neurons receive glycinergic innervations.

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    Mari Hondo

    Full Text Available Glycine, a nonessential amino-acid that acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is currently used as a dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. We confirmed the effects of glycine on sleep/wakefulness behavior in mice when administered peripherally. Glycine administration increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep time and decreased the amount and mean episode duration of wakefulness when administered in the dark period. Since peripheral administration of glycine induced fragmentation of sleep/wakefulness states, which is a characteristic of orexin deficiency, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons. The number of Fos-positive orexin neurons markedly decreased after intraperitoneal administration of glycine to mice. To examine whether glycine acts directly on orexin neurons, we examined the effects of glycine on orexin neurons by patch-clamp electrophysiology. Glycine directly induced hyperpolarization and cessation of firing of orexin neurons. These responses were inhibited by a specific glycine receptor antagonist, strychnine. Triple-labeling immunofluorescent analysis showed close apposition of glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2-immunoreactive glycinergic fibers onto orexin-immunoreactive neurons. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that GlyT2-immunoreactive terminals made symmetrical synaptic contacts with somata and dendrites of orexin neurons. Double-labeling immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that glycine receptor alpha subunits were localized in the postsynaptic membrane of symmetrical inhibitory synapses on orexin neurons. Considering the importance of glycinergic regulation during REM sleep, our observations suggest that glycine injection might affect the activity of orexin neurons, and that glycinergic inhibition of orexin neurons might play a role in physiological sleep regulation.

  5. Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Review

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    Tamer Elbaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is an endemic disease in Egypt caused by the trematode Schistosoma which has different species. Hepatic schistosomiasis represents the best known form of chronic disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The pathogenesis of schistosomiasis is related to the host cellular immune response. This leads to granuloma formation and neo angiogenesis with subsequent periportal fibrosis manifested as portal hypertension, splenomegaly and esophageal varices. Intestinal schistosomiasis is another well identified form of chronic schistosomal affection. Egg deposition and granuloma formation eventually leads to acute then chronic schistosomal colitis and is commonly associated with polyp formation. It frequently presents as abdominal pain, diarrhea, tenesmus and anal pain. Definite diagnosis of schistosomiasis disease depends on microscopy and egg identification. Marked progress regarding serologic diagnosis occurred with development of recent PCR techniques that can confirm schistosomal affection at any stage. Many antischistosomal drugs have been described for treatment, praziquantel being the most safe and efficient drug. Still ongoing studies try to develop effective vaccines with identification of many target antigens. Preventive programs are highly needed to control the disease morbidity and to break the cycle of transmission.

  6. Como una luna en el agua [Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco del Pino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The title of the solo piano piece Como una luna en el agua, composed between June and July of 2014, refers to the end of the seventh chapter of the novel Rayuela (Hopscotch by the Argentine writer Julio Cortázar, in which an allegorical description of a kiss takes the form of a prose poem.

  7. El tesoro como objeto de derechos reales

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Bru, Rafael

    1989-01-01

    Posibilidad de constituir sobre el tesoro un derecho real independiente del bien que lo contiene. Bien sea un derecho real at??pico o una servidumbre personal de acuerdo con el numerus apertus que impera en nuestro derecho y del principio de autonom??a de la voluntad. As?? como otras materias relacionadas con el tesoro.

  8. Definitivamente, la arquitectura como modo de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Carrasco Zaldúa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Arturo Robledo. La arquitectura como modo de vida. Beatriz García Moreno et al. Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Instituto Distrital de Patrimonio Cultural, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2010, 240 págs., il.

  9. La biblioteca como editora de contenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Arévalo, Julio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características más innovadoras de la biblioteca del siglo 21 tiene que ver con la toma de una postura activa frente a la gestión y generación de contenidos. Con la llegada de la Web 2.0 las bibliotecas no sólo siguen salvaguardando y difundiendo información como han venido realizando a lo largo de su historia, también cada vez con más frecuencia crean nueva información con el objetivo de prestar los mejores servicios a sus ciudadanos, a través de recursos y servicios tales como la elaboración guías de investigación, boletines de alerta y novedades, recursos web, información a través de sus blogs, y como administradores de contenidos a través de repositorios y revistas de acceso abierto. Un paso más allá en esta dinámica tienen que ver con la biblioteca como editora y distribuidora de libros, especialmente en el ámbito local, siendo la impulsora, formadora, dinamizador y difusoras de las obras de los autores de su comunidad.

  10. El lenguaje como fundamento del derecho

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se rebate la concepción tradicional de la cultura jurídica según la cual el lenguaje es un simple instrumento de los juristas. Muestra como el Estado de Derecho y la democracia, fundan su legitimidad en el lenguaje, lo cual exige considerarlo en su significado más profundo.

  11. DENEGRINDO A FILOSOFIA: O PENSAMENTO COMO COREOGRAFIA

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    Renato Noguera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da ideia de Deleuze que filosofia é criar conceitos, este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a filosofia afroperspectivista, criando conceitos para articular ensino de filosofia e a educação das relações etnicorraciais. O conceito de denegrir trabalha para problematizar o nascimento da filosofia na busca por uma nova coreografia do pensamento.

  12. Hume: a teoria social como sistema

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuntz, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Hume defende na Investigação sobre o Entendimento Humano a parcimônia no uso de princípios explicativos. Tenta-se mostrar, neste artigo, como ele procurou seguir essa diretriz em seus trabalhos sobre os sentimentos morais...

  13. EL PERIODISMO CIVICO COMO COMUNICACION POLITICA

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    Ana María Miralles C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora retoma el ejercicio del periodismo cívico como el espacio en el cual la formación de la opinión pública adquiere características de un proyecto político dinámico en el que el ciudadano es el ente fundamental.

  14. COMO CONSTRUIR CIDADES SUSTENTÁVEIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Michelotti Loureiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcançar para as Cidades o patamar de sustentáveis, é uma pretensão necessária, já que, atualmente, são evidentes as consequências do desenvolvimento desenfreado e irresponsável. A abordagem da questão ambiental urbana está entre os temas de maior relevância no mundo atual, devido ao crescimento demasiado das cidades e à ausência de estruturas sustentáveis capazes de manter ambientes equilibrados nos espaços urbanos. Propõem-se, ações conjuntas tanto da administração, como dos grupos sociais, na busca de um ambiente urbano sustentável. A metodologia utilizada para realização do trabalho foi revisão bibliográfica, onde se almeja destacar a sustentabilidade como forma de prevenção do meio ambiente, assim como, a importância de ações sustentáveis como fonte de promoção de cidadania. Por fim, há uma gama de atitudes, que podem melhorar a qualidade de vida dos cidadãos de forma equitativa.

  15. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/Wv). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/Wv mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/Wv mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo. PMID:27572504

  16. Suppression of c-Kit signaling induces adult neurogenesis in the mouse intestine after myenteric plexus ablation with benzalkonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Hiromi; Kiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-08-30

    Adult neurogenesis rarely occurs in the enteric nervous system (ENS). In this study, we demonstrated that, after intestinal myenteric plexus (MP) ablation with benzalkonium chloride (BAC), adult neurogenesis in the ENS was significantly induced in c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice (W/W(v)). Almost all neurons and fibers in the MP disappeared after BAC treatment. However, 1 week after ablation, substantial penetration of nerve fibers from the non-damaged area was observed in the MP, longitudinal muscle and subserosal layers in both wildtype and W/W(v) mice. Two weeks after BAC treatment, in addition to the penetrating fibers, a substantial number of ectopic neurons appeared in the subserosal and longitudinal muscle layers of W/W(v) mice, whereas only a few ectopic neurons appeared in wildtype mice. Such ectopic neurons expressed either excitatory or inhibitory intrinsic motor neuron markers and formed ganglion-like structures, including glial cells, synaptic vesicles and basal lamina. Furthermore, oral administration of imatinib, an inhibitor of c-Kit and an anticancer agent for gastrointestinal stromal tumors, markedly induced appearance of ectopic neurons after BAC treatment, even in wildtype mice. These results suggest that adult neurogenesis in the ENS is negatively regulated by c-Kit signaling in vivo.

  17. Inhibidores de fosfodiesterasas como potenciales fármacos para el tratamiento de enfermedades neurodegenerativas

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    Las enfermedades neurodegenerativas se caracterizan por una pérdida progresiva de neuronas en zonas específicas del sistema nervioso central. Entre estas patologías se encuentran la enfermedad de Alzheimer, la enfermedad de Parkinson y la esclerosis múltiple. A pesar de la etiología desconocida que presentan este tipo de patologías, se han identificado mecanismos comunes que podrían dar lugar a la muerte neuronal, tales como la excitotoxicidad, la neuroinflamación, el estrés oxidativo, o la a...

  18. Los nematodos como indicadores ambientales en agroecosistemas

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    S. Sánchez-Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El suelo es una unidad básica en el funcionamiento y dinámica de los agroecosistemas, ya que proporciona el sustento físico y biológico para la producción vegetal. Aunque el efecto de las prácticas antropógenas sobre el componente abiótico del suelo está ampliamente documentado, existen pocas herramientas capaces de medir el impacto de estas prácticas en la biodiversidad del ecosistema edáfico. Los nematodos del suelo constituyen un grupo de invertebrados de elevada importancia ecológica que presentan atributos que les convierte en valiosas herramientas como indicadores biológicos. Su extraordinaria diversidad taxonómica y funcional, su abundancia y ubiquidad, y la rápida respuesta de las comunidades de nematodos edáficos a perturbaciones ambientales, como el laboreo o la aplicación de insumos químicos, han convertido la nematofauna en un indicador clave en la evaluación del efecto del manejo agrario sobre los ecosistemas. La participación de los nematodos en múltiples eslabones funcionales dentro de la red trófica edáfica hace que sean también indicadores de numerosos procesos ecológicos y biológicos, como el mantenimiento del ciclo de nutrientes o el control de especies plaga.Este trabajo sintetiza los resultados obtenidos en la utilización de la nematofauna como indicadora de perturbaciones ambientales en los agroecosistemas, y expone una breve reseña del estado de la Nematología como disciplina científica en España.

  19. In vivo imaging of enteric neurogenesis in the deep tissue of mouse small intestine.

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    Kei Goto

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of using imaging techniques as a tool to study cellular physiology has been the inability to resolve structures that are not located near the surface of the preparation. Nonlinear optical microscopy, in particular two photon-excited fluorescence microscopy (2PM, has overcome this limitation, providing deeper optical penetration (several hundred µm in ex vivo and in vivo preparations. We have used this approach in the gut to achieve the first in vivo imaging of enteric neurons and nerve fibers in the mucosa, submucosa, submucosal and myenteric plexuses, and circular and longitudinal muscles of the small intestine in H-line: Thy1 promoter GFP mice. Moreover, we obtained clear three-dimensional imaging of enteric neurons that were newly generated after gut transection and reanastomosis. Neurogenesis was promoted by oral application of the 5-HT(4-receptor agonist, mosapride citrate (MOS. The number of newly generated neurons observed in mice treated with MOS for one week was 421±89 per 864,900 µm(2 (n = 5, which was significantly greater than that observed in preparations treated with MOS plus an antagonist (113±76 per 864,900 µm(2 or in 4 week vehicle controls (100±34 per 864,900 µm(2 (n = 4 both. Most neurons were located within 100 µm of the surface. These results confirm that activation of enteric neural 5-HT(4-receptor by MOS promotes formation of new enteric neurons. We conclude that in vivo 2PM imaging made it possible to perform high-resolution deep imaging of the living mouse whole gut and reveal formation of new enteric neurons promoted by 5-HT(4-receptor activation.

  20. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2