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Sample records for neuromuscular performance characteristics

  1. [Characteristics of neuromuscular scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzier, M; Groß, C; Zahn, R K; Pumberger, M; Strube, P

    2016-06-01

    Usually, neuromuscular scolioses become clinically symptomatic relatively early and are rapidly progressive even after the end of growth. Without sufficient treatment they lead to a severe reduction of quality of life, to a loss of the ability of walking, standing or sitting as well as to an impairment of the cardiopulmonary system resulting in an increased mortality. Therefore, an intensive interdisciplinary treatment by physio- and ergotherapists, internists, pediatricians, orthotists, and orthopedists is indispensable. In contrast to idiopathic scoliosis the treatment of patients with neuromuscular scoliosis with orthosis is controversially discussed, whereas physiotherapy is established and essential to prevent contractures and to maintain the residual sensorimotor function.Frequently, the surgical treatment of the scoliosis is indicated. It should be noted that only long-segment posterior correction and fusion of the whole deformity leads to a significant improvement of the quality of life as well as to a prevention of a progression of the scoliosis and the development of junctional problems. The surgical intervention is usually performed before the end of growth. A prolonged delay of surgical intervention does not result in an increased height but only in a deformity progression and is therefore not justifiable. In early onset neuromuscular scolioses guided-growth implants are used to guarantee the adequat development. Because of the high complication rates, further optimization of these implant systems with regard to efficiency and safety have to be addressed in future research.

  2. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  3. Robotic assessment of neuromuscular characteristics using musculoskeletal models: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaneththi, V R; Viloria, J; Wiedemann, L G; Jarrett, C; McDaid, A J

    2017-07-01

    Non-invasive neuromuscular characterization aims to provide greater insight into the effectiveness of existing and emerging rehabilitation therapies by quantifying neuromuscular characteristics relating to force production, muscle viscoelasticity and voluntary neural activation. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to evaluate neuromuscular characteristics, such as muscle fiber stiffness and viscosity, by combining robotic and HD-sEMG measurements with computational musculoskeletal modeling. This pilot study investigates the efficacy of this approach on a healthy population and provides new insight on potential limitations of conventional musculoskeletal models for this application. Subject-specific neuromuscular characteristics of the biceps and triceps brachii were evaluated using robot-measured kinetics, kinematics and EMG activity as inputs to a musculoskeletal model. Repeatability experiments in five participants revealed large variability within each subjects evaluated characteristics, with almost all experiencing variation greater than 50% of full scale when repeating the same task. The use of robotics and HD-sEMG, in conjunction with musculoskeletal modeling, to quantify neuromuscular characteristics has been explored. Despite the ability to predict joint kinematics with relatively high accuracy, parameter characterization was inconsistent i.e. many parameter combinations gave rise to minimal kinematic error. The proposed technique is a novel approach for in vivo neuromuscular characterization and is a step towards the realization of objective in-home robot-assisted rehabilitation. Importantly, the results have confirmed the technical (robot and HD-sEMG) feasibility while highlighting the need to develop new musculoskeletal models and optimization techniques capable of achieving consistent results across a range of dynamic tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  5. Pseudoephedrine and circadian rhythm interaction on neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, J G; López-Samanes, Á; Fernández-Elías, V E; Aguado-Jiménez, R; Ortega, J F; Gómez, C; Ventura, R; Segura, J; Mora-Rodríguez, R

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the effects of pseudoephedrine (PSE) provided at different time of day on neuromuscular performance, side effects, and violation of the current doping cut-off threshold [World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)]. Nine resistance-trained males carried out bench press and full squat exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% one repetition maximum [1RM]), in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Participants ingested either 180 mg of PSE (supra-therapeutic dose) or placebo in the morning (7:00 h; AM(PLAC) and AM(PSE)) and in the afternoon (17:00 h; PM(PLAC) and PM(PSE)). PSE enhanced muscle contraction velocity against 25% and 50% 1RM loads, only when it was ingested in the mornings, and only in the full squat exercise (4.4-8.7%; P performance improvements are accompanied by undesirable side effects and an 11% risk of surpassing the doping threshold. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation fosters motor imagery performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, Tiffany; Iturrate, Iñaki; Pereira, Michael; Perdikis, Serafeim; Millán, José Del R

    2018-04-21

    Motor imagery (MI) has been largely studied as a way to enhance motor learning and to restore motor functions. Although it is agreed that users should emphasize kinesthetic imagery during MI, recordings of MI brain patterns are not sufficiently reliable for many subjects. It has been suggested that the usage of somatosensory feedback would be more suitable than standardly used visual feedback to enhance MI brain patterns. However, somatosensory feed-back should not interfere with the recorded MI brain pattern. In this study we propose a novel feedback modality to guide subjects during MI based on sensory threshold neuromuscular electrical stimulation (St-NMES). St-NMES depolarizes sensory and motor axons without eliciting any muscular contraction. We hypothesize that St-NMES does not induce detectable ERD brain patterns and fosters MI performance. Twelve novice subjects were included in a cross-over design study. We recorded their EEG, comparing St-NMES with visual feed-back during MI or resting tasks. We found that St-NMES not only induced significantly larger desynchronization over sensorimotor areas (p<0.05) but also significantly enhanced MI brain connectivity patterns. Moreover, classification accuracy and stability were significantly higher with St-NMES. Importantly, St-NMES alone did not induce detectable artifacts, but rather the changes in the detected patterns were due to an increased MI performance. Our findings indicate that St-NMES is a promising feedback in order to foster MI performance and cold be used for BMI online applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Association of Neuromuscular Attributes With Performance-Based Mobility Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Catherine T; Ward, Rachel E; Suri, Pradeep; Kiely, Dan K; Ni, Pengsheng; Anderson, Dennis E; Bean, Jonathan F

    2017-07-01

    To identify differences in health factors, neuromuscular attributes, and performance-based mobility among community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis; and to determine which neuromuscular attributes are associated with performance-based measures of mobility. Cross-sectional; secondary data analysis of a cohort study. Outpatient rehabilitation center. Community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years with self-reported mobility limitations and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (N=54). Not applicable. Short Physical Performance Battery score, habitual gait speed, and chair stand test. Symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis was classified using self-reported symptoms of neurogenic claudication and imaging. Among 430 community-dwelling older adults, 54 (13%) met criteria for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Compared with participants without symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis, those with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis had more comorbidities, higher body mass index, greater pain, and less balance confidence. Participants with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis had greater impairment in trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength, leg strength asymmetry, knee flexion range of motion (ROM), knee extension ROM, and ankle ROM compared with participants without symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Five neuromuscular attributes were associated with performance-based mobility among participants with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis: trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength, leg strength asymmetry, knee flexion ROM, and knee extension ROM asymmetry. Community-dwelling older adults with self-reported mobility limitations and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis exhibit poorer health characteristics, greater neuromuscular impairment, and worse mobility when compared with those without symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Poorer trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength, leg strength asymmetry, knee flexion ROM, and knee extension ROM asymmetry

  8. Joint angle affects volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, C; Rees, D; Gleeson, N P

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance of the quadriceps femoris at functional knee joint angles adjacent to full extension. Indices of volitional and magnetically-evoked neuromuscular performance (N=15 healthy males, 23.5 ± 2.9 years, 71.5 ± 5.4 kg, 176.5 ± 5.5 cm) were obtained at 25°, 35° and 45° of knee flexion. Results showed that volitional and magnetically-evoked peak force (PF(V) and P(T)F(E), respectively) and electromechanical delay (EMD(V) and EMD(E), respectively) were enhanced by increased knee flexion. However, greater relative improvements in volitional compared to evoked indices of neuromuscular performance were observed with increasing flexion from 25° to 45° (e.g. EMD(V), EMD(E): 36% vs. 11% improvement, respectively; F([2,14])=6.8, pjoint positions. These findings suggest that the extent of the relative differential between volitional and evoked neuromuscular performance capabilities is joint angle-specific and not correlated with performance capabilities at adjacent angles, but tends to be smaller with increased flexion. As such, effective prediction of volitional from evoked performance capabilities at both analogous and adjacent knee joint positions would lack robustness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance runners should include heavy resistance training in their training programmes to enhance endurance performance, such as

  10. Neuromuscular performance in the hip joint of elderly fallers and non-fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcelli, Mary Hellen; LaRoche, Dain Patrick; Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Rossi, Denise Martineli; Gonçalves, Mauro; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2016-06-01

    Low strength and neuromuscular activation of the lower limbs have been associated with falls making it an important predictor of functional status in the elderly. To compare the rate of neuromuscular activation, rate of torque development, peak torque and reaction time between young and elderly fallers and non-fallers for hip flexion and extension. We evaluated 44 elderly people who were divided into two groups: elderly fallers (n = 20) and elderly non-fallers (n = 24); and 18 young people. The subjects performed three isometric hip flexion and extension contractions. Electromyography data were collected for the rectus femoris, gluteus maximus and biceps femoris muscles. The elderly had 49 % lower peak torque and 68 % lower rate of torque development for hip extension, 28 % lower rate of neuromuscular activation for gluteus maximus and 38 % lower rate of neuromuscular activation for biceps femoris than the young (p neuromuscular for rectus femoris than the young (p < 0.05). The elderly fallers showed consistent trend toward a lower rate of torque development than elderly non-fallers for hip extension at 50 ms (29 %, p = 0.298, d = 0.76) and 100 ms (26 %, p = 0.452, d = 0.68).The motor time was 30 % slower for gluteus maximus, 42 % slower for rectus femoris and 50 % slower for biceps femoris in the elderly than in the young. Impaired capacity of the elderly, especially fallers, may be explained by neural and morphological aspects of the muscles. The process of senescence affects the muscle function of the hip flexion and extension, and falls may be related to lower rate of torque development and slower motor time of biceps femoris.

  11. Neuromuscular activity during bench press exercise performed with and without the preexhaustion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecke, Allan; Guimarães, Thiago M; Leone, Ricardo; Cadarci, Mauro; Mochizuki, Luiz; Simão, Roberto; Amadio, Alberto Carlos; Serrão, Júlio C

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on the tonic and phasic characteristics of upper-body muscle activity during bench press exercise in trained subjects. The preexhaustion method involves working a muscle or a muscle group combining a single-joint exercise immediately followed by a multi-joint exercise (e.g., flying exercise followed by bench press exercise). Twelve subjects performed 1 set of bench press exercises with and without the preexhaustion method following 2 protocols (P1-flying before bench press; P2-bench press). Both exercises were performed at a load of 10 repetition maximum (10RM). Electromyography (EMG) sampled at 1 kHz was recorded from the pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (DA), and triceps brachii (TB). Kinematic data (60 Hz) were synchronized to define upward and downward phases of exercise. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were seen in tonic control of PM and DA muscles between P1 and P2. However, TB tonic aspect of neurophysiologic behavior of motor units was significantly higher (p 0.05). The kinematic pattern of movement changed as a result of muscular weakness in P1. Angular velocity of the right shoulder performed during the upward phase of the bench press exercise was significantly slower (p < 0.05) during P1. Our results suggest that the strategies set by the central nervous system to provide the performance required by the exercise are held constant throughout the exercise, but the tonic aspects of the central drive are increased so as to adapt to the progressive occurrence of the neuromuscular fatigue. Changes in tonic control as a result of the muscular weakness and fatigue can cause changes in movement techniques. These changes may be related to limited ability to control mechanical loads and mechanical energy transmission to joints and passive structures.

  12. The effect of additional joint mobilization on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Fen; Yu, Hsiang-Ting; Chen, Wen-Yin; Liao, Kwong-Kum; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Yang, Yea-Ru

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of joint mobilization and exercise training on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI). A cross-sectional study. Forty five subjects with FAI were randomized into three groups: control (CG, n = 15, 27.9 ± 6.6yr), training (TG, n = 15, 26.9 ± 5.8yr) and mobilization with training group (MTG, n = 15, 26.5 ± 4.8yr). Four weeks of neuromuscular training for TG; neuromuscular training and joint mobilization for MTG. Electromyography of the peroneus longus (PL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) and the reaching distance of the Y balance test (YBT), dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM), Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT), and global rating scale (GRS). Two-way repeated measures MANOVA were used with the significance level p Joint mobilization resulted in additional benefits on self-reported ankle instability severity, dorsiflexion mobility, and posterolateral balance performance in individuals with FAI, but its effects on general improvement, muscle activation, and other balance tasks remained uncertain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  14. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability. RESULTS: SFHA athletes had lower estrogen (0.12 ±0.03 vs. 0.17 ±0.09 nmol/L, ptriiodothyronine (T3) (1.4 ±0.2 vs. 1.7 ±0.3 nmol/L, p

  15. Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern. METHODS: Twelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i morning (10:00 a.m. with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg(-1; AM(CAFF trial; ii morning (10:00 a.m. with placebo ingestion (AM(PLAC trial; and iii afternoon (18:00 p.m. with placebo ingestion (PM(PLAC trial. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled experimental design was used, with all subjects serving as their own controls. The neuromuscular test battery consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity during free-weight full-squat (SQ and bench press (BP exercises against loads that elicit maximum strength (75% 1RM load and muscle power adaptations (1 m s(-1 load. Isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC(LEG and isometric electrically evoked strength of the right knee (EVOK(LEG were measured to identify caffeine's action mechanisms. Steroid hormone levels (serum testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone were evaluated at the beginning of each trial (PRE. In addition, plasma norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine were measured PRE and at the end of each trial following a standardized intense (85% 1RM 6 repetitions bout of SQ (POST. RESULTS: In the PM(PLAC trial, dynamic muscle strength and power output were significantly enhanced compared with AM(PLAC treatment (3.0%-7.5%; p≤0.05. During AM(CAFF trial, muscle strength and power output increased above AM(PLAC levels (4.6%-5.7%; p≤0.05 except for BP velocity with 1 m s(-1 load (p = 0.06. During AM(CAFF, EVOK(LEG and NE (a surrogate of maximal muscle sympathetic nerve activation were increased above AM(PLAC trial (14.6% and 96.8% respectively; p≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that caffeine ingestion reverses the morning neuromuscular declines in highly resistance

  16. Improving neuromuscular performance in young basketball players: plyometric vs. technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene, G; Iuliano, E; Di Cagno, A; Calcagno, G; Moalla, W; Aquino, G; Padulo, J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric training versus basketball technique training on improving neuro-muscular performance. Thirty-six (age 14.9±0.9 years, body height 164.0±7.6 cm, body weight 54.0±8.7 kg, BMI 20.1±2.4 kg·m-2) basketball players girls were randomly allocated to 2 groups: Basketball Plyometric Training (BPT, N.=18) and Basketball Technique Training (BTT, N.=18). The players were tested by two specific tests: counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) before and after 6 training weeks. The jump height, as dependent variable, showed a different trend as an effect of the different training protocols, in contrast with the current knowledge. Manova did not show significant interactions between the two groups for the height of jumps, while significant differences were found for interaction time × training (Ptraining, the BPT group increased significantly CMJ performance by 11.3% (Ptraining protocols proposed in this study improved vertical jump performance. However, a combination of the two protocols, plyometric training and sport-specific-exercises, could be useful to optimize performance by an easy transition from controlled a-specific to sport-specific performance requirements. In conclusion, BPT is a safe and effective method of achieving a favourable neuro-muscular performance than BTT in female basketball players.

  17. A training program to improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players.

  18. Muscular power, neuromuscular activation, and performance in shot put athletes at preseason and at competition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Thomas A; Terzis, Gerasimos; Boudolos, Konstantinos; Georgiadis, Georgios

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes in shot put performance, muscular power, and neuromuscular activation of the lower extremities, between the preseason and the competition period, in skilled shot put athletes using the rotational technique. Shot put performance was assessed at the start of the pre-season period as well as after 12 weeks, at the competition period, in nine shot putters. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the right vastus lateralis muscle was recorded during all shot put trials. Maximum squat strength (1RM) and mechanical parameters during the countermovement jump (CMJ) on a force platform were also determined at pre-season and at competition period. Shot put performance increased 4.7% (p phase was increased significantly (p training period. Shot put performance was significantly related with muscular power and takeoff velocity during the CMJ, at competition period (r = 0.66, p competition period.

  19. Isometric quadriceps strength determines sailing performance and neuromuscular fatigue during an upwind sailing emulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Jan G; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses to upwind sailing on a laser emulation ergometer and analyses the components of the physical profile that determine the physiological responses related to sailing level. Ten male high-level laser sailors performed an upwind sailing test, incremental cycling test and quadriceps strength test. During the upwind sailing test, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate concentration were measured, combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electromyography (EMG) registration of the M. Vastus lateralis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed for the cardio-respiratory, metabolic and muscles responses (mean power frequency [MPF], root mean square [RMS], deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during the upwind sailing test an initial significant increase followed by a stabilisation, despite a constant increase in RPE. Stepwise regression analysis showed that better sailing level was for 46.5% predicted by lower MPF decrease. Lower MPF decrease was for 57.8% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. In conclusion, this study indicates that higher sailing level was mainly determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during the upwind sailing test (as indicated by MPF decrease). Additionally, the level of neuromuscular fatigue was mainly determined by higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength stressing the importance of resistance training in the planning of training.

  20. Sleep Extension before Sleep Loss: Effects on Performance and Neuromuscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Lapole, Thomas; Erblang, Mégane; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Léger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of six nights of sleep extension on motor performance and associated neuromuscular function before and after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Twelve healthy men participated in two experimental conditions (randomized crossover design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed six nights of either EXT or HAB at home followed by an assessment of motor performance and neuromuscular function at baseline (D0) and after one night of TSD, i.e., 34-37 h of continuous wakefulness (D1). Maximal voluntary contractions with superimposed femoral nerve electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulations and stimulations on relaxed muscles were investigated before and after submaximal isometric knee extensor exercises performed until task failure. Time to exhaustion was longer in EXT compared with HAB (+3.9% ± 7.7% and +8.1% ± 12.3% at D0 and D1, respectively). Performance at D1 decreased from D0 similarly between conditions (-7.2% ± 5.6% and -3.7% ± 7.3% in HAB and EXT, respectively). At D1, the RPE during exercise was lower in EXT compared with HAB (-7.2% ± 7.5%) with no difference at D0. No difference was observed in voluntary activation between the two conditions. Six nights of sleep extension improved sustained contraction time to exhaustion, and this result cannot be explained by smaller reductions in voluntary activation, measured by both nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The beneficial effect on motor performance in the EXT condition was likely due to reduced RPE after TSD.

  1. Body Composition, Neuromuscular Performance, and Mobility: Comparison Between Regularly Exercising and Inactive Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rava, Anni; Pihlak, Anu; Ereline, Jaan; Gapeyeva, Helena; Kums, Tatjana; Purge, Priit; Jürimäe, Jaak; Pääsuke, Mati

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.

  2. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc . Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination.

  3. Effects of six weeks of resistance exercise with reciprocal contractions on knee extensors neuromuscular performance : Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, Euler; Bottaro, Martim; Rodrigues, Pâmella; Souza, Igor Eduardo; Durigan, João; Lima, Ricardo Moreno; Júnior, Silvio Assis Oliveira; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that reciprocal exercise using a pre-Activation of antagonist muscles may increase the agonist neuromuscular performance. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficiency of two modalities of resistance training (with and without antagonist muscle pre-Activation) during a six week

  4. Futsal match-related fatigue affects running performance and neuromuscular parameters but not finishing kick speed or accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milioni, Fabio; Vieira, Luiz H P; Barbieri, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2 ± 2.5 years) and initially...

  5. Assessment of gastrocnemius tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics as risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament injury in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    There is a large number of publications evaluating neuromuscular risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in athletes. However, most of them have involved the female athlete and, in addition, the gastrocnemius muscles have been less investigated by far compared with the quadriceps and hamstring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the gastrocnemius muscles as neuromuscular risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players, through tensiomyography (TMG). All competitive male soccer players with confirmed ACL tear included in this study underwent resting TMG assessment of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the uninjured side. The same values were obtained from a sex-, and sports level-matched control group in both sides. The maximal displacement (D m), delay time (T d), contraction time (T c), sustained time (T s), and half-relaxation time (T r) were obtained for both muscles. TMG values of the uninjured side in ACL-injured group were compared with the mean values between both sides in the control subjects. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics. Most TMG parameters of the gastrocnemius muscles were not significantly different between the two groups. Only the GM-T r (p = 0.02) and GM-D m (p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the ACL-injured group compared with control group. Neuromuscular characteristics in terms of mechanical and contractile properties of the gastrocnemius muscles may not be significant risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players.

  6. The effect of 6-week combined agility-balance training on neuromuscular performance in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, E; Hamar, D

    2010-09-01

    The study evaluates the effect of 6-week combined agility-balance training on neuromuscular performance in basketball players. Subjects divided into experimental (EG, n = 17) and control group (CG, n = 17) underwent a combined agility-balance training (in duration of 30 min) for a period of 6 weeks (4-5 sessions/week). Both groups performed reaction tasks similar to game-like situations, however EG on wobble boards and CG on stable surface. Prior to and after the training parameters of agility, balance, speed of step initiation, strength differentiation accuracy, and explosive power of lower limbs were evaluated. Postural stability was assessed under both static and dynamic conditions (wobble board) with eyes open and eyes closed, respectively. The velocity of the centre of pressure (COP) was registered at 100 Hz by means of posturography system FiTRO Sway check based on dynamometric platform. Using FiTRO Reaction check simple and multi-choice reaction times were measured. The same system was applied to evaluate the agility performance including reaction and movement task. Speed of step initiation was measured using FiTRO Dyne Premium. Jumping abilities were evaluated by means of FiTRO Jumper (10-seconds maximal jumps, Countermovement jump, Squat jump, Drop jump). Using the same system, the subject´s ability to match 50 % of their maximal height of the jump was evaluated. Results showed that a combined agility-balance training improved dynamic balance not only under visual control but also in eyes closed conditions. Training also increased run-out speed that likely contributed to better agility performance, reduced ground contact time during drop jump, and improved the ability to differentiate the force of muscle contraction during repeated jumps. However, such training has been found to be insufficient to improve both simple and multi-choice reaction time, and jumping performance. On the other hand, control group failed to show any significant improvement in

  7. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT 60 ). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s -1 ) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT 60 . Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT 60 segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  8. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  9. Neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training in elite youth soccer: Role of instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Recovery characteristics of patients receiving either sugammadex or neostigmine and glycopyrrolate for reversal of neuromuscular block: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, M J; Kaye, R; Baber, C; Nathan, E A

    2018-03-01

    Sugammadex more rapidly and reliably reverses rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block compared with neostigmine, but it is not known if subsequent patient outcomes, including nausea, vomiting and other aspects of recovery are modified. In this study, we compared the recovery characteristics of sugammadex and neostigmine/glycopyrrolate following reversal of neuromuscular block. This was a single-centre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group clinical trial in women undergoing elective day-surgical laparoscopic gynaecological surgery, with a standardised general anaesthesia regimen that included rocuronium. Neuromuscular block was reversed with either sugammadex 2 mg.kg -1 or neostigmine 40 μg.kg -1 and glycopyrrolate 400 μg. The primary outcome was the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first six postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes included other measures of postoperative recovery such as patient symptoms and recovery scores. Three-hundred and four women were analysed by intention-to-treat (sugammadex n = 151, neostigmine n = 153), which included four major protocol violations. There was no significant difference between sugammadex and neostigmine groups in the incidence of early nausea and vomiting (49.0% vs. 51.0%, respectively; OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.59-1.45; p = 0.731). Double vision (11.5% vs. 20.0%; p = 0.044) and dry mouth (71.6% vs. 85.5%; p = 0.003) were less common after sugammadex. Sedation scores at 2 h were also lower after sugammadex (median (IQR [range]) 0 (0-3 [0-10]) vs. 2 (0-4.[0-10]); p = 0.021). Twenty-four-hour recovery scores were not significantly different between groups. Reversal with sugammadex in this patient population did not reduce postoperative nausea or vomiting compared with neostigmine/glycopyrrolate. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  11. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin

    2009-10-01

    This study compared the neuromuscular performance (speed, power, strength) of elite rugby union players, by position, and examined the relationship between player performance and salivary hormones, by squad and position. Thirty-four professional male rugby players were assessed for running speed (10-m, 20-m or 30-m sprints), concentric mean (MP) and peak power (PP) during a 70-kg squat jump (SJ) and 50-kg bench press throw (BT), and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength for a box squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Tests were performed on separate days with absolute and normalized (power and strength only) values computed. Saliva was collected before each test and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). In absolute terms, the backs demonstrated greater speed and BT MP, whereas the forwards produced greater SJ PP and MP and BS 1RM (p 0.05). A comparison (absolute and normalized) of BT PP showed no positional differences (p > 0.05), whereas BP 1RM was greater for the forwards (p rugby. The Sal-T and/or Sal-C concentrations of players correlated to speed, power, and strength, especially for the backs (p benefit from acute and chronic hormone monitoring to identify those individuals likely to respond more to hormonal change.

  12. Acute effects of the use of external instability generating devices on neuromuscular performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Peña García-Orea

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n6p722   Physical training with the use of instability generator devices has become popular in the health area, in sport training and clinical practice (mainly in the prevention and treatment of injuries. To understand how the process of using these devices occurs and the results of their acute effects is important to guide professionals in choosing the appropriate device. The aim of this review was to present the main features of instability devices and analyze their acute effects on core muscle activation, neuromuscular performance and activation of lower and upper limbs. Studies have shown that the main acute effects of exercises performed with these devices are: 1 increased activation / muscular recruitment (especially in the middle zone or core; 2 greater co-activation of antagonist muscles (trunk, upper and lower limbs, with increased stiffness and joint stability; 3 lower force output, power and speed in extremities.

  13. Improvements on neuromuscular performance with caffeine ingestion depend on the time-of-day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; López-Gullón, José María; López-Samanes, Álvaro; Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether the ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on neuromuscular performance are similar when ingestion takes place in the morning and in the afternoon. Double blind, cross-over, randomized, placebo controlled design. Thirteen resistance-trained males carried out bench press and full squat exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% 1RM), at maximal velocity. Trials took place 60 min after ingesting either 6 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or placebo. Two trials took place in the morning (AMPLAC and AMCAFF) and two in the afternoon (PMPLAC and PMCAFF), all separated by 36-48 h. Tympanic temperature, plasma caffeine concentration and side-effects were measured. Plasma caffeine increased similarly during AMCAFF and PMCAFF. Tympanic temperature was lower in the mornings without caffeine effects (36.7±0.4 vs. 37.0±0.5°C for AM vs. PM; pperformance, but increases the rate of negative side-effects reported. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P

    2007-01-01

    quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men......%), contractile RFD (W: 17-26%; M: 15-24%), impulse (W: 10-19%, M: 19-20%), maximal EMG amplitude (W: 22-25%, M: 22-28%), and an increased muscle activation deficit (-18%) compared with UN. Furthermore, women were less strong (AF: 40%; UN: 39%), had less muscle mass (AF: 33%; UN: 34%), and had a lower RFD (AF: 38......-50%; UN: 41-48%) compared with men. Similarly, maximum EMG amplitude was smaller for both agonists (AF: 51-63%; UN: 35-61%) and antagonist (AF: 49-64%; UN: 36-56%) muscles in women compared with men. However, when MVC and RFD were normalized to LCSA, there were no differences between genders. The present...

  15. Effect of Early Physical Activity Programs on Motor Performance and Neuromuscular Development in Infants Born Preterm: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the survival rate of infants born preterm has increased, the prevalence of developmental problems and motor disorders among this population of infants remains the same. This study investigated the effect of physical activity programs in and out of water on motor performance and neuromuscular development of infants born preterm and had induced immobility by mechanical ventilation.Methods: This study was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. 76 premature infants were randomly assigned into four groups. One group received daily passive range of motion to all extremities based on the Moyer-Mileur protocol. Hydrotherapy group received exercises for shoulders and pelvic area in water every other day. A combination group received physical activity programs in and out of water on alternating days. Infants in a containment group were held in a fetal position. Duration of study was two weeks ‘from 32 through 33 weeks post menstrual age (PMA. Motor outcomes were measured by the Test of Infant Motor Performance. Neuromuscular developmental was assessed by New Ballard scale and leg recoil and Ankle dorsiflexion items from Dubowitz scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.Results: TIMP and neuromuscular scores improved in all groups. Motor performance did not differ between groups at 34 weeks PMA. Postural tone of leg recoil was significantly higher in physical activity groups post intervention.Conclusion: Physical activities and containment didn’t have different effects on motor performance in infants born preterm. Leg recoil of neuromuscular development items was affected by physical activity programs.

  16. Effect Of Plyometric Training On Vertical Jump Performance And Neuromuscular Adaptation In Volleyball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 12-week plyometric training on vertical jump performance (Vj, maximal surface EMG, M-wave amplitude, Mwave latency, and nerve conduction velocity (NCV in men volleyball player. Thirty junior high school volleyball players' volunteers (age: 17.53 0.74; Height: 177.67 3.14; Weight: 61.31 5.32 were divided into plyometric training [PT] (n=15 and control group[c] (n=15. PT group trained so.w' but C group didn't participate in this training. Both groups were pre- and post tested in EMG, M-wave parameters, NCV and Vj test. Tow way ANOVA (group*time interaction and Bonferroni post hoes test demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05 in PT group of pre to post test in VJ performance (9.67 % and in M-wave latency 16.55 % t ; nerve conduction velocity 14.19 % t ; there is no significant differences in IEMG (4.6 5 % J, and M-wave amplitude (20.91 % t , but there is no significant improvement during this period in control group. Comparison between groups after 12wk showed that there was a significant improvement in Latency (16.74 % J, and NCV (19.10% t in PT group during the course of the study than C group (P<0.05. based on the results of this study, it is possible to conclude that coaches and trainers consider PT as a strategy for increasing volleyball players' explosive performance that this may have taken place in neuromuscular responses such as; optimizing motor unites (MU pattern, optimizing MUs recruitment, augmentation in nerve conduction velocity, decrement in reflex excitability of the motor pool.

  17. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R. Noyes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97, the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47, the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64, the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57, hamstring strength (p < 0.0001, and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01. The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03. The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.

  18. Influence of proprioceptive training in the improvement of neuromuscular performance after ACL reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljanin-Raspopović Emilija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available ACL injury leads to a decrease in proprioceptive abilities, which can be improved with ACL surgery and postoperative rehabilitation. The goal of our study was to investigate whether the impact of coordinative training can be differentiated from the influence of surgery on proprioceptive improvement, and whether there is a correlation between improvement in coordinative abilities and other objective parameters of functional recovery. This follow-up study included 45 patients who had undergone ACL reconstruction and who were randomized into a conservative (TH-C and an intensive (TH-I rehabilitation group. In the TH-I group, coordinative training began earlier due to unrestricted weight-bearing. The groups were first compared preoperatively, then postoperatively, after 6 weeks, 4,6,9, and 12 months via the single leg stance test, the one leg hop test, the Lysholm knee score, and the Tegner score. A faster recovery of coordinative skills was registered in the TH-I group. Already after 6 weeks, highly statistically significant progress in one leg stance abilities was noticed, while in the TH-C group the same was not noticed until 4 months after surgery (p<0.01. Such a result speaks for the distinct influence of proprioceptive training on coordinative abilities. Also, a highly statistically significant correlation was noticed between the single leg stance, one leg hop, Lysholm, and Tegner tests (p<0.01, which points out the importance of a good rehabilitation programme, since neuromuscular performance cannot be separated from other parameters of functional recovery.

  19. Elite Female Basketball Players' Body-Weight Neuromuscular Training and Performance on the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, Roberto; Bonato, Matteo; La Torre, Antonio La

    2016-09-01

    Neuromuscular training enhances unconscious motor responses by stimulating both the afferent signals and central mechanisms responsible for dynamic joint control. Dynamic joint-control training is a vital component of injury-prevention programs. To investigate the effects of body-weight neuromuscular training on Y-Balance Test (YBT) performance and postural control in female basketball players. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Basketball practice sessions. A total of 28 healthy elite female basketball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 14) or a control group (n = 14). Before their regular practice sessions, the experimental group warmed up with body-weight neuromuscular exercises and the control group with standard tactical-technical exercises twice weekly for 8 weeks. Anterior-, posteromedial-, and posterolateral-reach and composite YBT scores were measured before and after 8 weeks of training. Improvement over baseline scores was noted in the posteromedial (right = 86.5 ± 4.5 cm versus 89.6 ± 2.2 cm, +3.5%, P = .049; left = 85.5 ± 4.3 cm versus 90.2 ± 2.7 cm, +5.5%, P = .038)- and posterolateral (right = 90.7 ± 3.6 cm versus 94.0 ± 2.7 cm, +3.6%, P = .016; left = 90.9 ± 3.5 cm versus 94.2 ± 2.6 cm, +3.6%, P = .011)-reach directions and in the composite YBT scores (right = 88.6% ± 3.2% versus 94.0% ± 1.8%, +5.4%, P = .0004; left = 89.2% ± 3.2% versus 94.5% ± 3.0%, +5.8%, P = .001) of the experimental group. No differences in anterior reach were detected in either group. Differences were noted in postintervention scores for posteromedial reach (right = 89.6 ± 2.2 cm versus 84.3 ± 4.4 cm, +4.1%, P = .005; left = 94.2 ± 2.6 cm versus 84.8 ± 4.4 cm, +10%, P = .003) and composite scores (right = 94.0% ± 1.8% versus 87.3% ± 2.0%, +7.1%, P = .003; left = 94.8% ± 3.0% versus 87.9% ± 3.4%, +7.3%, P weight neuromuscular training improved postural control and lower limb stability in female basketball players as assessed with the

  20. Neuromuscular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia ...

  1. Neuromuscular exercise improves functional performance in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard

    . Randomized controlled trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01003756). 84 patients, 51% female, mean age 68.6±7.8 years, BMI 28.7±4.7 scheduled for total hip replacement at Svendborg Community Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Denmark were included. Intervention. Participants were randomized...... to an eight-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX-TJR) intervention or care-as-usual (verbal and written preoperative information). Intervention was supervised and offered twice a week with each session lasting one hour. The program is considered feasible and safe in this patient group and previously described......±4 sessions (Table 1). In favor of the intervention group, the between-group difference was significant for 20-m walk (2.2 seconds, p=.009), chair stands (1.7 seconds, p=.022) and leg extension for the non operated leg (.17 W/kg, p=.049) (Table 2). Conclusion. Eight weeks neuromuscular exercise according...

  2. The Effect of Different Repeated-High-Intensity-Effort Bouts on Subsequent Running, Skill Performance, and Neuromuscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Speranza, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of different repeated-high-intensity-effort (RHIE) bouts on player activity profiles, skill involvements, and neuromuscular fatigue during small-sided games. 22 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 24.0 ± 1.8 y, body mass 95.6 ± 7.4 kg). During 4 testing sessions, they performed RHIE bouts that each differed in the combination of contact and running efforts, followed by a 5-min off-side small-sided game before performing a second bout of RHIE activity and another 5-min small-sided game. Global positioning system microtechnology and video recordings provided information on activity profiles and skill involvements. A countermovement jump and a plyometric push-up assessed changes in lower- and upper-body neuromuscular function after each session. After running-dominant RHIE bouts, players maintained running intensities during both games. In the contact-dominant RHIE bouts, reductions in moderate-speed activity were observed from game 1 to game 2 (ES = -0.71 to -1.06). There was also moderately lower disposal efficiency across both games after contact-dominant RHIE activity compared with running-dominant activity (ES = 0.62-1.02). Greater reductions in lower-body fatigue occurred as RHIE bouts became more running dominant (ES = -0.01 to -1.36), whereas upper-body fatigue increased as RHIE bouts became more contact dominant (ES = -0.07 to -1.55). Physical contact causes reductions in running intensity and the quality of skill involvements during game-based activities. In addition, the neuromuscular fatigue experienced by players is specific to the activities performed.

  3. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training Based on the Neuromuscular Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of targeted neuromuscular training (TNMT) on movement biomechanics associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are currently unknown. Purpose/Hypotheses: To determine the effectiveness of TNMT specifically designed to increase trunk control and hip strength. The hypotheses were that (1) TNMT would decrease biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to an increased ACL injury risk and (2) TNMT would decrease these biomechanical and neuromuscular factors to a greater extent in athletes identified as being at a high risk for future ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent 3-dimensional biomechanical testing before the season and after completing TNMT. During testing, athletes performed 3 different types of tasks: (1) drop vertical jump, (2) single-leg drop, and (3) single-leg cross drop. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the treatment effects of TNMT designed to enhance core and hip strength on biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Differences were also evaluated by risk profile. Differences were considered statistically significant at P risk before the intervention (risk profile III) had a more significant treatment effect of TNMT than low-risk groups (risk profiles I and II). TNMT significantly improved proximal biomechanics, including increased hip external rotation moments and moment impulses, increased peak trunk flexion, and decreased peak trunk extension. TNMT that focuses exclusively on proximal leg and trunk risk factors is not, however, adequate to induce significant changes in frontal-plane knee loading. Biomechanical changes varied across the risk profile groups, with higher risk groups exhibiting greater improvements in their biomechanics.

  4. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  5. Effect of progressive resistance exercise with neuromuscular joint facilitation on the dynamic balance performance of junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhao; Huo, Ming; Guan, Peipei; Onoda, Ko; Chen, Di; Huang, Qiuchen; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in dynamic balance performance of junior soccer players after progressive resistance treatment with neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF). [Subjects] The subjects were 14 healthy males who were divided into two groups, namely the NJF and control groups. The NJF group consisted of 8 subjects, and the control group consisted of 6 subjects. [Methods] The participants in the NJF group received NJF progressive resistance treatment. Dynamic balance performance was measured before and after 3 weeks of exercise. [Results] Significant improvement in dynamic balance performance was observed both in the NJF and control groups. In the NJF group, dynamic balance performance was significantly increased compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] The NJF intervention shortened movement time, which implies that NJF is effective for dynamic balance performance.

  6. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular fatigue and performance during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, Bruno P C; de Moraes, Antonio Carlos; Angius, Luca; Marcora, Samuele M

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of caffeine on performance, neuromuscular fatigue and perception of effort during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. Seven adult male participants firstly underwent an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer in conditions of acute normobaric hypoxia (fraction inspired oxygen = 0.15) to establish peak power output (PPO). In the following two visits, they performed a time to exhaustion test (78 ± 3% PPO) in the same hypoxic conditions after caffeine ingestion (4 mg kg -1 ) and one after placebo ingestion in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design. Caffeine significantly improved time to exhaustion by 12%. A significant decrease in subjective fatigue was found after caffeine consumption. Perception of effort and surface electromyographic signal amplitude of the vastus lateralis were lower and heart rate was higher in the caffeine condition when compared to placebo. However, caffeine did not reduce the peripheral and central fatigue induced by high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. The caffeine-induced improvement in time to exhaustion during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia seems to be mediated by a reduction in perception of effort, which occurs despite no reduction in neuromuscular fatigue.

  7. FUTSAL MATCH-RELATED FATIGUE AFFECTS RUNNING PERFORMANCE AND NEUROMUSCULAR PARAMETERS BUT NOT FINISHING KICK SPEED OR ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Milioni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of futsal match-related fatigue on running performance, neuromuscular variables, and finishing kick speed and accuracy. Methods: Ten professional futsal players participated in the study (age: 22.2±2.5 years; and initially performed an incremental protocol to determine maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max : 50.6±4.9 mL.kg-1.min-1. Next, simulated games were performed, in four periods of 10 min during which heart rate and blood lactate concentration were monitored. The entire games were video recorded for subsequent automatic tracking. Before and immediately after the simulated game, neuromuscular function was measured by maximal isometric force of knee extension, voluntary activation using twitch interpolation technique, and electromyographic activity. Before, at half time, and immediately after the simulated game, the athletes also performed a set of finishing kicks for ball speed and accuracy measurements. Results: Total distance covered (1st half: 1986.6±74.4 m; 2nd half: 1856.0±129.7 m – P=0.00 and distance covered per minute (1st half: 103.2±4.4 m.min-1; 2nd half: 96.4±7.5 m.min-1 – P=0.00 demonstrated significant declines during the simulated game, as well as maximal isometric force of knee extension (Before: 840.2±66.2 N; After: 751.6±114.3 N – P=0.04 and voluntary activation (Before: 85.9±7.5%; After: 74.1±12.3% – P=0.04, however ball speed and accuracy during the finishing kicks were not significantly affected.Conclusion: Therefore, we conclude that despite the decline in running performance and neuromuscular variables presenting an important manifestation of central fatigue, this condition apparently does not affect the speed and accuracy of finishing kicks.

  8. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbertina C. Reed

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo. Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de hipotonia muscular secundária ao comprometimento do sistema nervoso central ou a doenças sistêmicas não-neurológicas, são enfatizados, com base na experiência clínica vinda do atendimento a crianças com doenças neuromusculares durante os últimos 12 anos, no ambulatório de doenças neuromusculares do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de São Paulo. A revisão bibliográfica foi efetuada através do Medline e do periódico Neuromuscular Disorders, publicação oficial da World Muscle Society. Síntese dos dados: nas crianças, a maior parte destas afecções é geneticamente determinada, sendo as mais comuns a distrofia muscular progressiva ligada ao sexo, de Duchenne, a amiotrofia espinal infantil, a distrofia muscular congênita, a distrofia miotônica de Steinert, e as miopatias congênitas, estruturais e não estruturais. Polineuropatias hereditárias, síndrome miastênica congênita e miopatias metabólicas são menos comuns, porém mostram correlação geno-fenotípica cada vez mais precisa. Conclusões: na década passada, inúmeros avanços da genética molecular facilitaram imensamente o diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético das doenças neuromusculares mais comuns das crianças, inclusive possibilitando diagnóstico fetal e, adicionalmente, vieram permitir melhor caracterização fenotípica e classificação mais objetiva.Objective: to discuss the most important aspects for performing a

  9. Effects of an 8-Week Body-Weight Neuromuscular Training on Dynamic Balance and Vertical Jump Performances in Elite Junior Skiing Athletes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Jacopo A; La Torre, Antonio; Banfi, Giuseppe; Bonato, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Vitale, JA, La Torre, A, Banfi, G, and Bonato, M. Effects of an 8-week body-weight neuromuscular training on dynamic balance and vertical jump performances in elite junior skiing athletes: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 911-920, 2018-The aim of the present randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week neuromuscular training program focused on core stability, plyometric, and body-weight strengthening exercises on dynamic postural control and vertical jump performance in elite junior skiers. Twenty-four Italian elite junior male skiers were recruited and randomized to either an experimental group (EG), performing neuromuscular warm-up exercises, (EG; n = 12; age 18 ± 1 years; body mass 66 ± 21 kg; height 1.70 ± 0.1 m) or a control group (CG) involved in a standard warm-up (CG; n = 12; age 18 ± 1 years; body mass 62 ± 14 kg; height 1.73 ± 0.1 m). lower quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT), countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ) at baseline (PRE) and at the end (POST) of the experimental procedures were performed. No significant differences between EG and CG were observed at baseline. Results showed that EG achieved positive effects from PRE to POST measures in the anterior, posteromedial, posterolateral directions, and composite score of YBT for both lower limbs, whereas no significant differences were detected for CG. Furthermore, 2-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test did not reveal any significant differences in CMJ and DJ for both EG and CG. The inclusion of an 8-week neuromuscular warm-up program led to positive effects in dynamic balance ability but not in vertical jump performance in elite junior skiers. Neuromuscular training may be an effective intervention to specifically increase lower limb joint awareness and postural control.

  10. Risk of Unsuccessful Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Heterogeneous Neuromuscular Diseases: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nanaura, Hitoki; Kinugawa, Kaoru; Uchihara, Yuto; Ohara, Hiroya; Eura, Nobuyuki; Syobatake, Ryogo; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Kiriyama; Sugie, Kazuma; Ueno, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    If invasive ventilation can be avoided by performing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), the disease can be effectively managed. It is important to clarify the characteristics of patients with neuromuscular diseases in whom initial NIV is likely to be unsuccessful. We studied 27 patients in stable neuromuscular condition who initially received NIV to manage fatal ARF to identify differences in factors immediately before the onset of ARF a...

  11. Effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) bout on neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors during isokinetic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Guedes, R; Rocha Junior, V A; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E; Bottaro, M

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that body cooling may decrease neuromuscular performance. However, the effect of a single session of whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) on neuromuscular performance has not been well documented. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single exposure of WBC on elbow flexor neuromuscular performance. Thirteen physically active, healthy young men (age=27.9±4.2 years, mass=79.4±9.7 kg, height=176.7±5.2 cm) were randomly exposed to 2 different experimental conditions separated by a minimum of 72 h: 1) whole body cryotherapy- 3 min at -110°C; 2) control- 3 min at 21°C. All subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic elbow flexion at 60°.s(-1) 30 min before and 10 min after each condition. There were no significant differences in peak torque, average power, total work or muscle activity between conditions. Peak torque was lower at post-test compared to pre-test in both conditions (F=6.58, p=0.025). However, there were no differences between pre-test and post-test for any other variables. These results indicate that strength specialists, athletic trainers and physical therapists might utilize whole body cryotherapy before training or rehabilitation without compromising neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The influence of variable range of motion training on neuromuscular performance and control of external loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Humphries, Brendan; Hohmann, Erik; Bryant, Adam L

    2011-03-01

    Resistance training programs that emphasize high force production in different regions of the range of motion (ROM) may provide performance benefits. This study examined whether variable ROM (VROM) training, which consists of partial ROM training with countermovements performed in a different phase of the ROM for each set, results in improved functional performance. Twenty-two athletes (age 22.7 ± 2.4 years, height 1.81 ± 0.07 m, and body mass 94.6 ± 14.5 kg) with extensive resistance training backgrounds performed either a VROM or full ROM control (CON) 5-week, concentric work-matched training program. The participants were assigned to a group based on stratified randomization incorporating their strength levels and performance gains in preceding training microcycles. Testing consisted of assessing the force-ROM relationship during isokinetic and isometric bench press and ballistic bench throws, with normalized electromyography amplitude assessed during the isometric tests. Repeated-measure analyses of variance revealed that the VROM intervention significantly (p force (+15.7%), in addition to isokinetic peak force in the terminal ROM (13.5% increase). No significant differences were observed in the CON group or between groups for any other outcome measures. Analysis of the force-ROM relationship revealed that that the VROM intervention enhanced performance at shorter muscle lengths. These findings suggest that VROM training improves terminal and midrange performance gains, resulting in the athlete possessing an improved ability to control external loading and produce dynamic force.

  13. Developing countries SMEs innovation characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jan; Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita

    An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance.......An econometric study analysing developing countries’ SMEs innovation characteristics and their correlation with performance....

  14. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and randomly assigned (Strata: physical activity (PA, BMI, gender, workload to a prompt (INT or non-prompt (CON group. INT received three daily screen-based prompts within 12 weeks. CON was only instructed once concerning the benefits of using HAWDs prior to the start of the study. Sitting and standing times were objectively assessed as primary outcomes for one entire working week using the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT at baseline (pre, after 6 (mid and 12 weeks (post. Concentration (d2-test, postural sway during upright stance (under single, dual and triple task and lower limb strength endurance (heel-rise were collected as secondary outcomes. Results: With large but not statistically significant within group effects from pre to post, INT increased weekly standing time at work by 9% (p = 0.22, d = 0.8 representing an increase from 7.2 h (4.8 to 9.7 (6.6 h (p = 0.07. Concentration and neuromuscular performance did not change from pre to post testing (0.23 < p < 0.95; 0.001 < ηp² < 0.05. Conclusion: Low-frequent and low cost screen-based point of choice prompts (3 per day within 12 weeks already result in notable increases of occupational standing time of approx. daily 30 min. These stimuli, however, did not relevantly affect neuromuscular outcomes.

  15. Effect Of Plyometric Training On Vertical Jump Performance And Neuromuscular Adaptation In Volleyball Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara Hosseini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 12-week plyometric training on vertical jump performance (Vj, maximal surface EMG, M-wave amplitude, M�wave latency, and nerve conduction velocity (NCV in men volleyball player. Thirty junior high school volleyball players' volunteers (age: 17.53� 0.74; Height: 177.67� 3.14; Weight: 61.31 � 5.32 were divided into plyometric training [PT] (n=15 and control group[c] (n=15. PT group trained so.w' but C group didn't participate in this training. Both groups were pre- and post tested in EMG, M-wave parameters, NCV and Vj test. Tow way ANOVA (group*time interaction and Bonferroni post hoes test demonstrated significant differences (P

  16. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.

  17. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation delays neuromuscular fatigue without changes in performance outcomes during a basketball match simulation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Paul; Dekerle, Jeanne

    2017-10-10

    To investigate the development of neuromuscular fatigue during a basketball game simulation and ascertain whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation attenuates any neuromuscular fatigue that persists. Ten participants ingested 0.2 g.kg of NaHCO3 (or an equimolar placebo dosage of sodium chloride [NaCl]) 90 and 60 minutes prior to commencing a basketball game simulation (ALK-T vs PLA-T). Isometric maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors (MVIC) and potentiated high (100 Hz) and low (10 Hz) frequency doublet twitches were recorded before and after each match quarter for both trials. In addition, 15 m sprint times and layup completion (%) were recorded during each quarter. MVIC, 100 and 10 Hz twitch forces declined progressively in both trials (P0.05). A basketball simulation protocol induces a substantial amount of neuromuscular (reduction in knee extensor MVICs) and peripheral fatigue with a concomitant increase in 15 m sprint time over the protocol. NaHCO3 supplementation attenuated the rate of fatigue development by protecting contractile elements of the muscle fibres. This study provides coaches with information about the magnitude of fatigue induced by a simulated basketball game, and provides evidence of the efficacy of NaHCO3 in attenuating fatigue.

  18. Isometric and dynamic strength and neuromuscular attributes as predictors of vertical jump performance in 11- to 13-year-old male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, Brandon John; Wallace, Phillip J; Dotan, Raffy; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; Gabriel, David A; Falk, Bareket

    2017-09-01

    In explosive contractions, neural activation is a major factor in determining the rate of torque development, while the latter is an important determinant of jump performance. However, the contribution of neuromuscular activation and rate of torque development to jump performance in children and youth is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the rate of neuromuscular activation, peak torque, rate of torque development, and jump performance in young male athletes. Forty-one 12.5 ± 0.5-year-old male soccer players completed explosive, unilateral isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions (Biodex System III), as well as countermovement-, squat-, and drop-jumps. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), and rate of vastus lateralis activation (Q 30 ) during the isometric and dynamic contractions were examined in relation to attained jump heights. Isometric pT and pRTD were strongly correlated (r = 0.71) but not related to jump performance. Dynamic pT and pRTD, normalized to body mass, were significantly related to jump height in all 3 jumps (r = 0.38-0.66, p jump performance, while isometric contractions are not. These findings have implications in the choice of training and assessment methods for young athletes.

  19. Objective neuromuscular monitoring of neuromuscular blockade in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, C M; Eskildsen, K Z; Gätke, M R

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used during general anaesthesia but can lead to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade and associated morbidity. With appropriate objective neuromuscular monitoring (objNMM) residual blockade can be avoided. In this survey, we investig...

  20. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Garg; Hardeep Singh Malhotra; Amita Jain; Kiran Preet Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evo...

  1. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  2. Board characteristics, governance objectives, and hospital performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Andrea; Winter, Vera; Büchner, Vera Antonia

    2018-01-01

    membership relates to board characteristics and financial performance. METHODOLOGY: Using factor analysis, we identify latent classes of governance objectives and use hierarchical cluster analysis to detect distinct clusters with varying emphasis on the classes. We then use multinomial regression to explore...... the associations between cluster membership and board characteristics (size, gender diversity, and occupational diversity) and examine the associations between clusters and financial performance using OLS regression. RESULTS: Classes of objectives reflecting three governance theories-agency theory, stewardship...... and hospital financial performance, with two of three groups performing significantly better than the reference group. CONCLUSION: High performance in hospitals can be the result of governance logics, which, compared to simple board characteristics, are associated with better financial outcomes. PRACTICE...

  3. Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, carcass and hematological characteristics of rabbits fed graded levels of tiger nuts ( Cyperus esculentus ) ... (p>0.05) difference between treatments. Results demonstrated that (Cyperus esculentus) could be used up to 5% in rabbit's diets without adverse effect on the animals' performance and health.

  4. Thermic diode performance characteristics and design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, D. E.; Buckley, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thermic diode solar panels are a passive method of space and hot water heating using the thermosyphon principle. Simplified methods of sizing and performing economic analyses of solar heating systems had until now been limited to passive systems. A mathematical model of the thermic diode including its high level of stratification has been constructed allowing its performance characteristics to be studied. Further analysis resulted in a thermic diode design manual based on the f-chart method.

  5. Neuromuscular complications of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Annie W C

    2007-11-01

    Thyroid hormones exert multiple effects on the neuromuscular system and the brain, with the most important being their role in stimulating the development and differentiation of the neuromuscular system and brain in foetal and neonatal life. In the presence of hyperthyroidism, muscular and neurological symptoms may be the presenting clinical features of the disease. The frequency and severity of neuromuscular complications vary considerably and are probably related to the degree of hyperthyroidism, although in some patients the neuromuscular dysfunction is caused by associated disorders rather than by hyperthyroidism per se. This update focuses on the most common neurological and muscular disorders that occur in patients with thyrotoxicosis. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss thyroid eye disease and cardiac complications, in themselves separate complications of specific myocytes.

  6. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding crude petroleum contaminated forage on haematological characteristics and performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the impact of real crude oil spillage on livestock and game. Graded levels (0.0, 1.5 and 3.0 g per kg forage) of stabilized “Bonny ...

  7. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  8. Effects of electromyography-driven robot-aided hand training with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hand control performance after chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wei; Tong, Kai Yu; Hu, Xiao Ling; Ho, Sze Kit

    2015-03-01

    An electromyography-driven robot system integrated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was developed to investigate its effectiveness on post-stroke rehabilitation. The performance of this system in assisting finger flexion/extension with different assistance combinations was evaluated in five stroke subjects. Then, a pilot study with 20-sessions training was conducted to evaluate the training's effectiveness. The results showed that combined assistance from the NMES-robot could improve finger movement accuracy, encourage muscle activation of the finger muscles and suppress excessive muscular activities in the elbow joint. When assistances from both NMES and the robot were 50% of their maximum assistances, finger-tracking performance had the best results, with the lowest root mean square error, greater range of motion, higher voluntary muscle activations of the finger joints and lower muscle co-contraction in the finger and elbow joints. Upper limb function improved after the 20-session training, indicated by the increased clinical scores of Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test. Muscle co-contraction was reduced in the finger and elbow joints reflected by the Modified Ashworth Scale. The findings demonstrated that an electromyography-driven NMES-robot used for chronic stroke improved hand function and tracking performance. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Implications for Rehabilitation The hand robotics and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) techniques are still separate systems in current post-stroke hand rehabilitation. This is the first study to investigate the combined effects of the NMES and robot on hand rehabilitation. The finger tracking performance was improved with the combined assistance from the EMG-driven NMES-robot hand system. The assistance from the robot could improve the finger movement accuracy and the assistance from the NMES could reduce the

  9. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  10. Characteristics and performances of electronic personal dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2002-01-01

    The regulations have made obligation for 2 years to measure and analyse the amounts of radiations actually received during an operation. The whole of these measurements taken uninterrupted for an immediate reading is indicated like the operational dosimetry, which is carried out with the means of personal electronic dosemeters. This study analyses the legislation relating to this type of dosimetry as well as the requirements in medical environment, and presents an assessment of the characteristics and performances of the devices available on the French market at the beginning of 2002 starting from the information provided by the various manufacturers. (author)

  11. Characteristics explaining performance in downhill mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Joel B; MacGregor, Alexandra L; Martin, Caoimhe; Arthur, Calum A; Macdonald, Jamie H

    2015-03-01

    To identify physiological, psychological, and skill characteristics that explain performance in downhill (DH) mountain-bike racing. Four studies were used to (1) identify factors potentially contributing to DH performance (using an expert focus group), (2) develop and validate a measure of rider skill (using video analysis and expert judge evaluation), (3) evaluate whether physiological, psychological, and skill variables contribute to performance at a DH competition, and (4) test the specific contribution of aerobic capacity to DH performance. STUDY 1 identified aerobic capacity, handgrip endurance, anaerobic power, rider skill, and self-confidence as potentially important for DH. In study 2 the rider-skill measure displayed good interrater reliability. Study 3 found that rider skill and handgrip endurance were significantly related to DH ride time (β=-0.76 and -0.14, respectively; R2=.73), with exploratory analyses suggesting that DH ride time may also be influenced by self-confidence and aerobic capacity. Study 4 confirmed aerobic capacity as an important variable influencing DH performance (for a DH ride, mean oxygen uptake was 49±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), and 90% of the ride was completed above the 1st ventilatory threshold). In order of importance, rider skill, handgrip endurance, self-confidence, and aerobic capacity were identified as variables influencing DH performance. Practically, this study provides a novel assessment of rider skill that could be used by coaches to monitor training and identify talent. Novel intervention targets to enhance DH performance were also identified, including self-confidence and aerobic capacity.

  12. Neuromuscular adaptations to training, injury and passive interventions: implications for running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Chapman, Andrew; Blanch, Peter; Vicenzino, Bill

    2009-01-01

    Performance in endurance sports such as running, cycling and triathlon has long been investigated from a physiological perspective. A strong relationship between running economy and distance running performance is well established in the literature. From this established base, improvements in running economy have traditionally been achieved through endurance training. More recently, research has demonstrated short-term resistance and plyometric training has resulted in enhanced running economy. This improvement in running economy has been hypothesized to be a result of enhanced neuromuscular characteristics such as improved muscle power development and more efficient use of stored elastic energy during running. Changes in indirect measures of neuromuscular control (i.e. stance phase contact times, maximal forward jumps) have been used to support this hypothesis. These results suggest that neuromuscular adaptations in response to training (i.e. neuromuscular learning effects) are an important contributor to enhancements in running economy. However, there is no direct evidence to suggest that these adaptations translate into more efficient muscle recruitment patterns during running. Optimization of training and run performance may be facilitated through direct investigation of muscle recruitment patterns before and after training interventions. There is emerging evidence that demonstrates neuromuscular adaptations during running and cycling vary with training status. Highly trained runners and cyclists display more refined patterns of muscle recruitment than their novice counterparts. In contrast, interference with motor learning and neuromuscular adaptation may occur as a result of ongoing multidiscipline training (e.g. triathlon). In the sport of triathlon, impairments in running economy are frequently observed after cycling. This impairment is related mainly to physiological stress, but an alteration in lower limb muscle coordination during running after cycling

  13. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmerling Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.

  14. Nanotechnological inventions considerably improve performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of production of carbon nanomaterial (RU 2509053» can be used as an additive for concretes and polymers which significantly improves their performance characteristics. The method of production of carbon nanomaterial consists of the following stages: preliminary preparation of sphagnous moss when it is refined from foreign admixtures, dried up to 10% humidity and ground, then ground material is exposed to pyrolysis under the temperature 850–950оC for 1–2 hours and cooled up to the environment temperature. After that amorphous carbon obtained in pyrolysis is treated with mechanical activation in the variable planetary mill for 7–10 hours. The invention makes it possible to provide increased outcome of nanotubes with high cleanliness. The invention «The method of production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them (RU 2509626» relates to the powder metallurgy. Powder metal chloride or powder mixture at least of two metal chlorides is treated in the environment of the water steam which is supplied in reaction space at the rate of 50–100 ml/min at the temperature 400–800оC at the presence of absorbent carbon or introducing carbon oxide (II obtained during dissolution of formic acid HCOOH. The invention provides reliable production of nanodispersed metal powders and alloys of them from 3-d metal range: Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Zn which can be used in powder metallurgy to improve baking process, in chemical industry as the fillers of polymers and reaction catalysts; as additives to anticorrosive covers, etc.

  15. Effects of carbohydrates-BCAAs-caffeine ingestion on performance and neuromuscular function during a 2-h treadmill run: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltier Sébastien L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates (CHOs, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and caffeine are known to improve running performance. However, no information is available on the effects of a combination of these ingredients on performance and neuromuscular function during running. Methods The present study was designed as a randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Thirteen trained adult males completed two protocols, each including two conditions: placebo (PLA and Sports Drink (SPD: CHOs 68.6 g.L-1, BCAAs 4 g.L-1, caffeine 75 mg.L-1. Protocol 1 consisted of an all-out 2 h treadmill run. Total distance run and glycemia were measured. In protocol 2, subjects exercised for 2 h at 95% of their lowest average speeds recorded during protocol 1 (whatever the condition. Glycemia, blood lactate concentration and neuromuscular function were determined immediately before and after exercise. Oxygen consumption (V˙O2, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were recorded during the exercise. Total fluids ingested were 2 L whatever the protocols and conditions. Results Compared to PLA, ingestion of SPD increased running performance (p = 0.01, maintained glycemia and attenuated central fatigue (p = 0.04, an index of peripheral fatigue (p = 0.04 and RPE (p = 0.006. Maximal voluntary contraction, V˙O2, and HR did not differ between the two conditions. Conclusions This study showed that ingestion of a combination of CHOs, BCAAs and caffeine increased performance by about 2% during a 2-h treadmill run. The results of neuromuscular function were contrasted: no clear cut effects of SPD were observed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00799630

  16. MRI in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischmann, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  17. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Destination Characteristics that Drive Hotel Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Woo, Linda

    2017-01-01

    , government support, disposable income, and number of international arrivals within a tourism destination. Results indicate that the most important barriers to hotel performance are the competition among accommodation providers, tax rate and fuel price. We argue for the need for hotel providers to develop......The increased market saturation and competition in both domestic and international tourism destinations have renewed interest among hotel operators in identifying the key drivers of hotel performance. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of hotel performance...... strategies that take cognisance of the key drivers and barriers to enhancing hotel performance in an ever-changing global tourism sector....

  19. Neuromuscular diseases: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, P; Servais, L; Vialle, R

    2018-02-01

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) affect the peripheral nervous system, which includes the motor neurons and sensory neurons; the muscle itself; or the neuromuscular junction. Thus, the term NMDs encompasses a vast array of different syndromes. Some of these syndromes are of direct relevance to paediatric orthopaedic surgeons, either because the presenting manifestation is a functional sign (e.g., toe-walking) or deformity (e.g., pes cavus or scoliosis) suggesting a need for orthopaedic attention or because orthopaedic abnormalities requiring treatment develop during the course of a known NMD. The main NMDs relevant to the orthopaedic surgeon are infantile spinal muscular atrophy (a motor neuron disease), peripheral neuropathies (chiefly, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease), congenital muscular dystrophies, progressive muscular dystrophies, and Steinert myotonic dystrophy (or myotonic dystrophy type 1). Muscle weakness is a symptom shared by all these conditions. The paediatric orthopaedic surgeon must be familiar, not only with the musculoskeletal system, but also with many other domains (particularly respiratory and cardiac function and nutrition) that may interfere with the treatment and require preoperative management. Good knowledge of the natural history of each NMD is essential to ensure optimal timing of the therapeutic interventions, which must be performed under the best possible conditions in these usually frail patients. Timing is particularly crucial for the treatment of spinal deformities due to paraspinal muscle hypotonia during growth: depending on the disease and natural history, the treatment may involve non-operative methods or growing rods, followed by spinal fusion. A multidisciplinary approach is always required. Finally, the survival gains achieved in recent years increasingly require attention to preparing for adult life, to orthopaedic problems requiring treatment before the patient leaves the paediatric environment, and to the transition towards the

  20. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the .... cause antibody depression, alter white blood cell counts,.

  1. Sire influence on reproductive, performance characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Panda White x Cinnamon Brown (PWxCB) and Silver Brown x Cinnamon Brown (SBxCB). The experiment was a randomized complete block design. Parameters measured include: fertility and hatchability traits, growth performance traits and ...

  2. Data characteristics that determine classifier performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available available at [11]. The kNN uses a LinearNN nearest neighbour search algorithm with an Euclidean distance metric [8]. The optimal k value is determined by performing 10-fold cross-validation. An optimal k value between 1 and 10 is used for Experiments 1... classifiers. 10-fold cross-validation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of the classifiers on the different data sets. 3.1. Artificial data generation Multivariate Gaussian distributions are used to generate artificial data sets. We use d...

  3. performance characteristics of a cam turning attachment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. A modification of a cylindrical turning unit has been done to give a non- cylindrical turning attachment for production of irregular shapes, like cams on the lathe machine. To assess the performance of the attachment, cutting forces have been measured using a 'Sigma' Cutting Tool. Dynamometer. Furthermore ...

  4. Performance characteristics of a shower cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaoni; Liu Zhenyan; Li Dandan

    2007-01-01

    This study was prompted by the need to design towers for applications in which, due to salt deposition on the packing and subsequent blockage, the use of tower packing is not practical. In contrast to conventional cooling towers, the cooling tower analyzed in this study is void of fill. By means of efficient atomization nozzles, a shower cooling tower (SCT) is possible to be applied in industry, which, in terms of water cooling, energy saving and equipment investing, is better than conventional packed cooling towers. However, no systematic thermodynamic numerical method could be found in the literature up to now. Based on the kinetic model and mass and heat transfer model, this paper has developed a one dimensional model for studying the motional process and evaporative cooling process occurring at the water droplet level in the SCT. The finite difference approach is used for three motional processes to obtain relative parameters in each different stage, and the possibility of the droplets being entrained outside the tower is fully analyzed. The accuracy of this model is checked by practical operational results from a full scale prototype in real conditions, and some exclusive factors that affect the cooling characteristics for the SCT are analyzed in detail. This study provides the theoretical foundation for practical application of the SCT in industry

  5. Some useful characteristics of performance models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the demands placed upon models of human cognitive decision processes in application to Probabilistic Risk Assessment. Successful models, for this purpose, should, 1) be based on proven or plausible psychological knowledge, e.g., Rasmussen's mental schematic, 2) incorporate opportunities for slips, 3) take account of the recursive nature, in time, of corrections to mistaken actions, and 4) depend on the crew's predominant mental states that accompany such recursions. The latter is equivalent to an explicit coupling between input and output of Rasmussen's mental schematic. A family of such models is proposed with observable rate processes mediating the (conscious) mental states involved. It is expected that the cumulative probability distributions corresponding to the individual rate processes can be identified with probability-time correlations of the HCR Human Cognitive Reliability type discussed elsewhere in this session. The functional forms of the conditional rates are intuitively shown to have simple characteristics that lead to a strongly recursive stochastic process with significant predictive capability. Models of the type proposed have few parts and form a representation that is intentionally far short of a fully transparent exposition of the mental process in order to avoid making impossible demands on data

  6. Performance and carcass characteristics of Yankasa ram fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me ... and 50% maize and wheat offal mixture, were better when compared to the control (B0) and other test diet in terms of performance and carcass characteristics. ... Key words: Performance, carcass, biscuit waste, Yankasa ram.

  7. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M.; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista Junior, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. Objective: To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. Methods: A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Results: Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confir...

  8. Neuromuscular prehabilitation to prevent osteoarthritis after a traumatic joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenforde, Adam S; Shull, Pete B; Fredericson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a process resulting from direct forces applied to a joint that cause injury and degenerative changes. An estimated 12% of all symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip, knee, and ankle can be attributed to a post-traumatic cause. Neuromuscular prehabilitation is the process of improving neuromuscular function to prevent development of PTOA after an initial traumatic joint injury. Prehabilitation strategies include restoration of normative movement patterns that have been altered as the result of traumatic injury, along with neuromuscular exercises and gait retraining to prevent the development of OA after an injury occurs. A review of the current literature shows that no studies have been performed to evaluate methods of neuromuscular prehabilitation to prevent PTOA after a joint injury. Instead, current research has focused on management strategies after knee injuries, the value of exercise in the management of OA, and neuromuscular exercises after total knee arthroplasty. Recent work in gait retraining that alters knee joint loading holds promise for preventing the development of PTOA after joint trauma. Future research should evaluate methods of neuromuscular prehabilitation strategies in relationship to the outcome of PTOA after joint injury. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance characteristics for advanced control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    A growing collection of control techniques is becoming available to the design engineer. This make selection of the most appropriate technique for a given application a difficult task. A systematic approach to evaluating alternative control schemes is needed. The approach discussed in this paper expands the traditional concepts of quantitative performance analysis to include other relevant factors such as robustness of the technique, resource requirements, and effects on operators and other personnel. This collection of factors, termed measures of utility, may be used as qualitative and quantitative means of evaluating and comparing properties of alternative control system designs. This paper, although not an in-depth study, serves to outline several measures of utility and suggests a general structure for control system development. This method of comparing the usefulness of alternative control system will prove valuable to the ORNL Advanced Controls Program (ACTO) for optimizing compatibility with actual systems and equipment

  10. MODEL OF EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT NURSE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON ASSOCIATION OF INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC, ORGANIZATION CHARACTERISTIC AND JOB CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaretha Bogar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing care is integral part of health care and having important role in management of patient with emergency condition. The purpose of this research was to develop nurse performance improvement model based on individual, organization and job characteristics association in Emergency Department of RSUD dr TC Hillers Maumere. Method: This was an explanative survey by cross sectional approach held on July -August 2012. Respondents in this study were 22 nurses and 44 patients were obtained by purposive sampling technique. Data were analyzed by partial least square test and signi fi cant t value > 1.64 (alpha 10%. Result: Results showed that individual characteristic had effect on nurse performance (t = 7.59, organization characteristic had effect on nurse performance (t = 2.03 and job characteristic didn’t have effect on nurse performance (t = 0.88. Nurse performance had effect on patient satisfaction (t = 6.54 but nurse satisfaction didn’t have effect on nurse performance (t = 1.31, and nurse satisfaction didn’t have effect either on patient satisfaction (t = 0.94. Discussion: This research concluded that individual characteristics which in fl uence nurse performance in nursing care were ability and skill, experience, age, sex, attitude and motivation. Organization characteristic that influence nurse performance was reward while job characteristic that include job design and feedback didn’t influence nurse performance in nursing care. Nurse performance influenced patient satisfaction but nurse satisfaction didn’t influence patient satisfaction and nurse performance.

  11. Research about reactor operator's personality characteristics and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2003-01-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  12. Risk of Unsuccessful Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure in Heterogeneous Neuromuscular Diseases: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Nanaura, Hitoki; Kinugawa, Kaoru; Uchihara, Yuto; Ohara, Hiroya; Eura, Nobuyuki; Syobatake, Ryogo; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Takao, Kiriyama; Sugie, Kazuma; Ueno, Satoshi

    2017-02-20

    If invasive ventilation can be avoided by performing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), the disease can be effectively managed. It is important to clarify the characteristics of patients with neuromuscular diseases in whom initial NIV is likely to be unsuccessful. We studied 27 patients in stable neuromuscular condition who initially received NIV to manage fatal ARF to identify differences in factors immediately before the onset of ARF among patients who receive continuous NIV support, patients who are switched from NIV to invasive ventilation, and patients in whom NIV is discontinued. Endpoints were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after the initiation of NIV. After 24 hours, all but 1 patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) received continuous NIV support. 72 hours later, 5 patients were switched from NIV to invasive ventilation, and 5 patients continued to receive NIV support. 72 hours after the initiation of NIV, the proportion of patients with a diagnosis of ALS differed significantly among the three groups (P=0.039). NIV may be attempted to manage acute fatal respiratory failure associated with neuromuscular diseases, but clinicians should carefully manage the clinical course in patients with ALS.

  13. Risk of unsuccessful noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure in heterogeneous neuromuscular diseases: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kataoka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available If invasive ventilation can be avoided by performing noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF, the disease can be effectively managed. It is important to clarify the characteristics of patients with neuromuscular diseases in whom initial NIV is likely to be unsuccessful. We studied 27 patients in stable neuromuscular condition who initially received NIV to manage fatal ARF to identify differences in factors immediately before the onset of ARF among patients who receive continuous NIV support, patients who are switched from NIV to invasive ventilation, and patients in whom NIV is discontinued. Endpoints were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after the initiation of NIV. After 24 hours, all but 1 patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS received continuous NIV support. 72 hours later, 5 patients were switched from NIV to invasive ventilation, and 5 patients continued to receive NIV support. 72 hours after the initiation of NIV, the proportion of patients with a diagnosis of ALS differed significantly among the three groups (P=0.039. NIV may be attempted to manage acute fatal respiratory failure associated with neuromuscular diseases, but clinicians should carefully manage the clinical course in patients with ALS.

  14. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  15. Analysis of characteristic performance curves in radiodiagnosis by an observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossovoj, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods and ways of construction of performance characteristic curves (PX-curves) in roentgenology, their qualitative and quantitative estimation are described. Estimation of PX curves application for analysis of scintigraphic and sonographic images is presented

  16. Evaluation of the productive performance characteristics of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the productive performance characteristics of red tilapia ( Oreochromis sp.) injected with shark DNA into skeletal muscles and maintained diets containing different levels of probiotic and amino yeast.

  17. The Influence of Top Management Team Characteristics on BPD Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Elly Tulung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on ”upper echelons theory”, this paper investigates the relation between top management team composition and BPD performance. For top management team characteristics, we employ age, level of education, background of education, gender, and functional background, while for measured the BPD performance we employ return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE, capital adequacy ratio (CAR, net interest margin (NIM, loan to deposit ratio (LDR, non-performing loan (NPL and operation expenses to operation income (BOPO. The results show that all characteristics have positive significant influences on BPD performance.

  18. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  19. Neuromuscular control and ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Gregory M; Kaminski, Thomas W; Douex, Al T

    2009-04-01

    Lateral ankle sprains (LAS) are common injuries in athletics and daily activity. Although most are resolved with conservative treatment, others develop chronic ankle instability (AI)-a condition associated with persistent pain, weakness, and instability-both mechanical (such as ligamentous laxity) and functional (neuromuscular impairment with or without mechanical laxity). The predominant theory in AI is one of articular deafferentation from the injury, affecting closed-loop (feedback/reflexive) neuromuscular control, but recent research has called that theory into question. A considerable amount of attention has been directed toward understanding the underlying causes of this pathology; however, little is known concerning the neuromuscular mechanisms behind the development of AI. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available literature on neuromuscular control in uninjured individuals and individuals with AI. Based on available research and reasonable speculation, it seems that open-loop (feedforward/anticipatory) neuromuscular control may be more important for the maintenance of dynamic joint stability than closed-loop control systems that rely primarily on proprioception. Therefore, incorporating perturbation activities into patient rehabilitation schemes may be of some benefit in enhancing these open-loop control mechanisms. Despite the amount of research conducted in this area, analysis of individuals with AI during dynamic conditions is limited. Future work should aim to evaluate dynamic perturbations in individuals with AI, as well as subjects who have a history of at least one LAS and never experienced recurrent symptoms. These potential findings may help elucidate some compensatory mechanisms, or more appropriate neuromuscular control strategies after an LAS event, thus laying the groundwork for future intervention studies that can attempt to reduce the incidence and severity of acute and chronic lateral ankle injury.

  20. Neuromuscular ultrasound of cranial nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Eman A; Walker, Francis O; Cartwright, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed.

  1. Hospital ownership, decisions on supervisory board characteristics, and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Pulm, Jannis; Wittland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic and complex transformations in the hospital market increase the relevance of good corporate governance. However, hospital performance and the characteristics of supervisory boards differ depending on ownership. The question therefore arises whether hospital owners can influence performance by addressing supervisory board characteristics. The objective of this study is to explain differences in the financial performance of hospitals with regard to ownership by studying the size and composition of supervisory boards. The AMADEUS database was used to collect information on hospital financial performance in 2009 and 2010. Business and quality reports, hospital websites, and data from health insurer were used to obtain information on hospital and board characteristics. The resulting sample consisted of 175 German hospital corporations. We utilized ANOVA and regression analysis to test a mediation hypothesis that investigated whether decisions regarding board size and composition were associated with financial performance and could explain performance differences. Financial performance and board size and composition depend on ownership. An increase in board size and greater politician participation were negatively associated with all five tested measures of financial performance. Furthermore, an increase in physician participation was positively associated with one dimension of financial performance, whereas one negative relationship was identified for nurse and economist participation. For clerics, no associations were found. Decisions concerning board size and composition are important as they relate to hospital financial performance. We contribute to existing research by showing that, in addition to board size and physician participation, the participation of other professionals can also influence financial performance.

  2. Alterations in neuromuscular function in girls with generalized joint hypermobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Melcher, Jesper Sandfeld; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal joint pain. We investigated neuromuscular performance and muscle activation strategy. METHODS: Girls with GJH and non-GJH (NGJH) performed isometric knee flexions (90°,110°,130°), and extensions...

  3. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  4. Relationship Between Job Characteristics And Job Performance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agricultural extension agent is a key stakeholder in extension systems. The nature of their work is so important that it has overriding effect on their job performance. This study investigates the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of agricultural extension agents in Imo and Rivers States, Nigeria.

  5. Influence of course characteristics, student characteristics, and behavior in learning management systems on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course characteristics and student characteristics have shown to influence student performance as well. However, these different sets of features are rarely combined or compared. Therefore, in the current study we...

  6. fectos en el rendimiento físico a corto plazo de dos programas de entrenamiento neuromuscular con diferente orientación aplicados en jugadores de fútbol de élite U-17. [Short-term physical performance effects of two different neuromuscular oriented training programs on U-17 elite soccer players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Raya-González

    2017-04-01

    neuromuscular training programs (vertical vs. horizontal orientation, conducted during 6 weeks, on the physical performance of soccer players in-season. Sixteen soccer players of 16.6 ± 0.3 years were randomly assigned to two equally large experimental groups, and both supplemented the soccer training with a specific neuromuscular training program 2 days/week. Vertical group´s training (n=8, VG was composed by half-squat using a flywheel device and vertical jump to box and horizontal group´s training (n=8, HG consisted on linear and non-linear resisted sprints. Before and after the training period jumping ability, linear and non-linear sprint and lower-limb power were measured. Substantial improvements (likely to very likely were found in the VG in countermovement jump (CMJ (ES: 0.49, Abalakov test (ABK (ES: 0.38 and Mean Propulsive Velocity (all load measured, in addition to decrease the performance in linear and non-linear sprint (COD-L. The HG improved substantially in 10m sprint (Effect size [ES]: 0.63, COD-R (ES: 0.36, COD-L (ES: 0.34 and in Mean Propulsive Velocity in 15-30-50kg. Furthermore, a possible improvement in 20 and 30m sprint was also reported in HG. Between-groups analysis showed greater substantial improvements in VG in CMJ (ES: 0.39, and in HG in 10-20-30m sprint and COD-R. The results obtained suggest that horizontal group´s training program could be more effective in order to optimize the specific physical condition of the soccer players.

  7. Nonlinear Performance Characteristics of Flux-Switching PM Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear performance characteristics of 3-phase flux-switching permanent magnet motors (FSPM are overviewed. These machines show advantages of a robust rotor structure and a high energy density. Research on the FSPM is predominated by topics such as modeling and machine comparison, with little emphasis given on its performance and limits. Performance characteristics include phase flux linkage, phase torque, and phase inductance. In the paper, this analysis is done by a cross-correlation of rotor position and armature current. Due to the high amount of processed data, which cannot be handled analytically within an acceptable time period, a multistatic 2D finite element model (FEM is used. For generalization, the most commonly discussed FSPM topology, 12/10 FSPM, is chosen. Limitations on the motor performance due to the saturation are discussed on each characteristic. Additionally, a focused overview is given on energy conversion loops and dq-axes identification for the FSPM.

  8. Covariance of engineering management characteristics with engineering employee performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Andrew Arthur

    1998-12-01

    As business in the 1990's grapples with the impact of continuous improvement and quality to meet market demands, there is an increased need to improve the leadership capabilities of our managers. Engineers have indicated desire for certain managerial characteristics in their leadership but there have been no studies completed that approached the problem of determining what managerial characteristics were best at improving employee performance. This study addressed the idea of identifying certain managerial characteristics that enhance employee performance. In the early 1990's, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace in St. Louis used a forced distribution system and allocated 35% of its employees into a "exceeds expectations" category and 60% into a "meets expectations" category. A twenty-question 5 point Likert scale survey on managerial capabilities was administered to a sample engineering population that also obtained their "expectations" category. A single factor ANOVA on the survey results determined a statistical difference between the "exceeds" and "meets" employees with four of the managerial capability questions. The "exceeds expectations" employee indicated that supervision did a better job of supporting subordinate development, clearly communicating performance expectations, and providing timely performance feedback when compared to the "meets expectations" employee. The "meets expectations" employee felt that their opinions, when different from their supervisor's, were more often ignored when compared to the "exceeds expectations" employee. These four questions relate to two specific managerial characteristics, "gaining (informal) authority and support" or "control" characteristic and "providing assistance and guidance" or "command" characteristic, that can be emphasized in managerial training programs.

  9. The immediate effect of neuromuscular joint facilitation on the rotation of the tibia during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Desheng; Huang, Qiuchen; Huo, Ming; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in tibial rotation during walking among young adults after neuromuscular joint facilitation therapy. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were twelve healthy young people (6 males, 6 females). A neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention and nonintervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other, separated by a 1-week interval. The order of the interventions was completely randomized. The rotation of the tibia during walking was evaluated before and after treatment. [Results] The neuromuscular joint facilitation group demonstrated increased lateral rotation of the tibia in the overall gait cycle and stance phase, and decreased medial rotation of the tibia in the overall gait cycle, stance phase, and swing phase after the neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention. In the control group, there were no significant differences. [Conclusion] These results suggest neuromuscular joint facilitation intervention has an immediate effect on the rotational function of the knee.

  10. The Preparation Period in Basketball: Training Load and Neuromuscular Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferioli, Davide; Bosio, Andrea; Bilsborough, Johann C; Torre, Antonio La; Tornaghi, Michele; Rampinini, Ermanno

    2018-01-18

    To investigate the 1) effect of the preparation period on the neuromuscular characteristics of 12 professional (PRO) and 16 semi-professional (SEMI-PRO) basketball players; 2) relationships between training load indices and changes in neuromuscular physical performance. Prior to and following the preparation period, players underwent a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test, followed by a repeated change of direction (COD) test consisting of 4 levels with increasing intensities. The peripheral neuromuscular functions of the knee extensors (peak torque, PT) were measured using electrical stimulations after each level (PT1, PT2, PT3 and PT4). Furthermore, PT Max (the highest value of PT) and PT Dec (PT decrement from PT Max to PT4) were calculated. Trivial-to-small (effect size, ES: -0.17 to 0.46) improvements were found in CMJ variables, regardless of the competitive levels. After the preparation period, peripheral fatigue induced by a COD test was similarly reduced in both PRO (PT Dec: from 27.8±21.3% to 11.4±13.7%, ES±90%CI= -0.71±0.30) and SEMI-PRO (PT Dec: from 26.1±21.9% to 10.2±8.2%, ES±90%CI= -0.69±0.32). Moderate-to-large relationships were found between session rating of perceived exertion training load and changes in PPO measured during the CMJs (r s ±90%CI: PPOabs, -0.46±0.26; PPOrel, -0.53±0.23) and in some PTs measured during the COD test (PT1, -0.45±0.26; PT2, -0.44±0.26; PT3, -0.40±0.27 and PT Max, -0.38±0.28). Preparation period induced minimal changes in the CMJ, while the ability to sustain repeated COD efforts was improved. Reaching high session rating of perceived exertion training loads might partially and negatively affect the ability to produce strength and power.

  11. Vocational perspectives and neuromuscular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, F.; Wevers, C. W.; Wintzen, A. R.; Busch, H. F.; Höweler, C. J.; de Jager, A. E.; Padberg, G. W.; de Visser, M.; Wokke, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    The present study analyses the actual occupational situation, vocational handicaps and past labour career of a group of about 1000 Dutch patients suffering from a neuromuscular disorder (NMD). On the basis of the likelihood of a substantial employment history and sufficient numbers of patients, four

  12. Vocational perspectives and neuromuscular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries, F; Wevers, CWJ; Wintzen, AR; Busch, HFM; Howeler, CJ; deJager, AEJ; Padberg, GW; deVisser, M; Wokke, JHJ

    The present study analyses the actual occupational situation, vocational handicaps and past labour career of a group of about 1000 Dutch patients suffering from a neuromuscular disorder (NMD). On the basis of the likelihood of a substantial employment history and sufficient numbers of patients, four

  13. Palliative care in neuromuscular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, Marianne; Oliver, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness. Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness, leading to pronounced and incapacitating

  14. Research of psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the working tasks of an operator being taken into full consideration in this paper, on the one hand the table of measuring psychological characteristics is designed through the selection of special dimensions; on the other hand the table of performance appraisal is drafted through the choice of suitable standards of an operator. The paper analyzes the results of two aspects, sets relevant nuclear power plant operators as the research objective, and obtains the psychological characteristics and performance relativity of operators. The research can be as important and applied reference for the selection, evaluation and use of operators

  15. Partial neuromuscular blockade in humans enhances muscle blood flow during exercise independently of muscle oxygen uptake and acetylcholine receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged k......This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one...... conductance during exercise, events that are not associated with either acetylcholine or an increased oxygen demand. The results do not support an essential role for acetylcholine, released form the neuromuscular junction, in exercise hyperaemia or for the enhanced blood flow during neuromuscular blockade....... The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibres. Key words: blood flow, neuromuscular blockade, exercise, skeletal muscle....

  16. Neuromuscular adaptations induced by adjacent joint training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, R; Saito, I; Akagi, R

    2018-03-01

    Effects of resistance training are well known to be specific to tasks that are involved during training. However, it remains unclear whether neuromuscular adaptations are induced after adjacent joint training. This study examined the effects of hip flexion training on maximal and explosive knee extension strength and neuromuscular performance of the rectus femoris (RF, hip flexor, and knee extensor) compared with the effects of knee extension training. Thirty-seven untrained young men were randomly assigned to hip flexion training, knee extension training, or a control group. Participants in the training groups completed 4 weeks of isometric hip flexion or knee extension training. Standardized differences in the mean change between the training groups and control group were interpreted as an effect size, and the substantial effect was assumed to be ≥0.20 of the between-participant standard deviation at baseline. Both types of training resulted in substantial increases in maximal (hip flexion training group: 6.2% ± 10.1%, effect size = 0.25; knee extension training group: 20.8% ± 9.9%, effect size = 1.11) and explosive isometric knee extension torques and muscle thickness of the RF in the proximal and distal regions. Improvements in strength were accompanied by substantial enhancements in voluntary activation, which was determined using the twitch interpolation technique and RF activation. Differences in training effects on explosive torques and neural variables between the two training groups were trivial. Our findings indicate that hip flexion training results in substantial neuromuscular adaptations during knee extensions similar to those induced by knee extension training. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Facebook use, personality characteristics and academic performance: A correlational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sapsani, Georgia; Tselios, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between the students personality, use of social media and their academic performance and engagement. In specific, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship of students facebook (fb) use and personality characteristics using the Big Five Personality Test with (a) student engagement, (b) time spent preparing for class, (c) time spent in co-curricular activities and (d) academic performance. Results illustrate that fb time was significantly ...

  18. Performance characteristics of the Mayo/IBM PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Kenneth R.; Gehring, Dale G.; Pavicic, Mark J.; Ding, Yingjai

    1991-07-01

    The Mayo Clinic and IBM (at Rochester, Minnesota) have jointly developed a picture archiving system for use with Mayo's MRI and Neuro CT imaging modalities. The communications backbone of the PACS is a portion of the Mayo institutional network: a series of 4-Mbps token rings interconnected by bridges and fiber optic extensions. The performance characteristics of this system are important to understand because they affect the response time a PACS user can expect, and the response time for non-PACS users competing for resources on the institutional network. The performance characteristics of each component and the average load levels of the network were measured for various load distributions. These data were used to quantify the response characteristics of the existing system and to tune a model developed by North Dakota State University Department of Computer Science for predicting response times of more complex topologies.

  19. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2015-01-01

    endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, anesthetized with propofol and fentanyl, and randomized into two groups in a cross-over assessor-blinded design. Neuromuscular block was established with rocuronium. Artificial laparotomy for ileus was performed. We investigated the influence of intense...

  20. Performance Characteristics of an Armature Voltage Controlled D.C. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the performance study of a separately excited d. c. motor whose speed is controlled by armature voltage variation is presented. Both the open loop and the closed loop steady state and transient characteristics are reported. The speed controllers considered in the closed loop mode are the proportional and the ...

  1. Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Finisher Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) 4 weeks old Anak broiler strain were subjected to 28 days feeding trial at the Poultry Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm, Evan Enwerem, Owerri, Nigeria, to determine the dietary effect of pineapple wine sediment (PWSM) on their performance and carcass characteristics. The birds were divided into four ...

  2. Do the Managerial Characteristics of Schools Influence Their Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Bonomi, Francesca; Sibiano, Piergiacomo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of governance and managerial characteristics of schools. More specifically, the aim is to individuate the factors that are associated to higher schools' performances, as measured through student achievement. Design/methodology/approach: The research is conducted by means of a survey in…

  3. Performance characteristics of proximity focused ultraviolet image converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. T.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Bendix type BX 8025-4522 proximity focused image tubes for UV to visible light conversion are presented. Quantum efficiency, resolution, background, geometric distortion, and environmental test results are discussed. The converters use magnesium fluoride input windows with Cs-Te photocathodes and P-11 phosphors on fiber optic output windows.

  4. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Bayero University Kano, to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in diets on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of weaned rabbits. Twenty eight grower rabbits of ...

  5. Performance and ileal characteristics of finishing broilers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of prebiotics supplemented diets on performance characteristics and gut morphology of broiler chickens. The study involved 320 day-old Anak broiler chicks, used to assess the utilization of prebiotics [Mannose oligosaccharides (MOS) and Lactose oligosaccharides ...

  6. Nonlinear performance characteristics of flux-switching PM motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilhan, E.; Kremers, M.F.J.; Motoasca, T.E.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear performance characteristics of 3-phase flux-switching permanent magnet motors (FSPM) are overviewed. These machines show advantages of a robust rotor structure and a high energy density. Research on the FSPM is predominated by topics such as modeling and machine comparison, with little

  7. Performance characteristics of broiler chicks fed kidney bean as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of replacing soybean meal and groundnut cake meal with cooked and decorticated kidney bean seed meals on the performance characteristics of broilers. One hundred and eighty day old broiler chicks of Anak strain were raised on six experimental diets.

  8. A review of hospital characteristics associated with improved performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Caroline A; Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Vitale, Michael R; Evans, Sue M; Scott, Ian A; Stoelwinder, Johannes U; Cameron, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this review was to critically appraise the literature relating to associations between high-level structural and operational hospital characteristics and improved performance. The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), CINAHL, proQuest and PsychINFO were searched for articles published between January 1996 and May 2010. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. and data extraction Studies were included if they were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, controlled before and after studies or observational studies (cohort and cross-sectional) that were multicentre, comparative performance studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data, assigned grades of evidence according to the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines and critically appraised the included articles. Data synthesis Fifty-seven studies were reported within 12 systematic reviews and 47 observational articles. There was heterogeneity in use and definition of performance outcomes. Hospital characteristics investigated were environment (incentives, market characteristics), structure (network membership, ownership, teaching status, geographical setting, service size) and operational design (innovativeness, leadership, organizational culture, public reporting and patient safety practices, information technology systems and decision support, service activity and planning, workforce design, staff training and education). The strongest evidence for an association with overall performance was identified for computerized physician order entry systems. Some evidence supported the associations with workforce design, use of financial incentives, nursing leadership and hospital volume. There is limited, mainly low-quality evidence, supporting the associations between hospital characteristics and healthcare performance. Further characteristic-specific systematic reviews are

  9. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  10. Job characteristics, flow, and performance: the moderating role of conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia

    2006-07-01

    The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that (a) motivating job characteristics are positively related to flow at work and (b) conscientiousness moderates the relationship between flow and other ratings of (in-role and out-of-role) performance. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 113 employees from several occupations. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Motivating job characteristics were predictive of flow, and flow predicted in-role and extra-role performance, for only conscientious employees.

  11. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for geologic waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-11-01

    One of the major objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program is to identify potential geologic sites for storage and isolation of radioactive waste (and possibly irradiated fuel). Potential sites for the storage and isolation of radioactive waste or spent fuel in a geologic rock unit are being carefully evaluated to ensure that radionuclides from the stored waste or fuel will never appear in the biosphere in amounts that would constitute a hazard to the health and safety of the public. The objective of this report is to quantify and present in graphical form the effects of significant geohydrologic and other performance characteristics that would influence the movement of radionuclides from a storage site in a rock unit to the biosphere. The effort in this study was focused on transport by groundwater because that is the most likely method of radionuclide escape. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater are presented. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere. These major performance characteristics are combind with each other and with the results of certain other combinations and presented in graphical form to provide the interrelationships of values measured during field studies. The graphical form of presentation should be useful in the screening process of site selection. An appendix illustrates the use of these graphs to assess the suitability of a site

  12. General performance characteristics of an irreversible ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, G.; Tegus, O.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.

    2004-01-01

    A new magnetic-refrigeration-cycle model using ferromagnetic materials as a cyclic working substance is set up, in which finite-rate heat transfer, heat leak and regeneration time are taken into account. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of a ferromagnetic material, the general performance characteristics of the ferromagnetic Stirling refrigeration cycle are investigated and the effects of some key irreversibilities on the performance of the cycle are revealed. By using the optimal-control theory, the optimal relation between the coefficient of performance and the cooling rate is derived and some important performance bounds, e.g., the maximum cooling rate, the maximum coefficient of performance, are determined. Moreover, the optimal operating regions for cooling rate, coefficient of performance and the optimal operating temperatures of a cyclic working substance in the two heat-transfer processes are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of magnetization and magnetic field on the performance characteristics of the cycle are discussed. The results obtained here have general significance and can be deduced to the related ones of the Stirling refrigeration cycle using paramagnetic salt as a cyclic working substance

  13. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Multidimensional performance characteristics and standard of performance in talented youth field hockey players : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Mulder, Theo

    2007-01-01

    To identify performance characteristics that could help predict future elite field hockey players, we measured the anthropometric, physiological, technical, tactical, and psychological characteristics of 30 elite and 35 sub-elite youth players at the end of three consecutive seasons. The mean age of

  15. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  16. Influence of prey body characteristics and performance on predator selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas H; McCormick, Mark I

    2009-03-01

    At the time of settlement to the reef environment, coral reef fishes differ in a number of characteristics that may influence their survival during a predatory encounter. This study investigated the selective nature of predation by both a multi-species predator pool, and a single common predator (Pseudochromis fuscus), on the reef fish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. The study focused on the early post-settlement period of P. amboinensis, when mortality, and hence selection, is known to be highest. Correlations between nine different measures of body condition/performance were examined at the time of settlement, in order to elucidate the relationships between different traits. Single-predator (P. fuscus) choice trials were conducted in 57.4-l aquaria with respect to three different prey characteristics [standard length (SL), body weight and burst swimming speed], whilst multi-species trials were conducted on open patch reefs, manipulating prey body weight only. Relationships between the nine measures of condition/performance were generally poor, with the strongest correlations occurring between the morphological measures and within the performance measures. During aquaria trials, P. fuscus was found to be selective with respect to prey SL only, with larger individuals being selected significantly more often. Multi-species predator communities, however, were selective with respect to prey body weight, with heavier individuals being selected significantly more often than their lighter counterparts. Our results suggest that under controlled conditions, body length may be the most important prey characteristic influencing prey survival during predatory encounters with P. fuscus. In such cases, larger prey size may actually be a distinct disadvantage to survival. However, these relationships appear to be more complex under natural conditions, where the expression of prey characteristics, the selectivity fields of a number of different predators, their relative abundance, and

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MUSCLE FATIGUE CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKERS OF ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn G. Morris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of a range of in-vivo whole muscle characteristics to determinants of endurance performance. Eleven healthy males completed a cycle ergometer step test to exhaustion for the determination of the lactate threshold, gross mechanical efficiency, peak power and VO2max. On two separate occasions, contractile and fatigue characteristics of the quadriceps femoris were collected using a specially designed isometric strength-testing chair. Muscle fatigue was then assessed by stimulating the muscle for 3 minutes. Force, rate of force development and rates of relaxation were calculated at the beginning and end of the 3 minute protocol and examined for reliability and in relation to lactate threshold, VO2max, gross mechanical efficiency and peak power. Muscle characteristics, rate of force development and relaxation rate were demonstrated to be reliable measures. Force drop off over the 3 minutes (fatigue index was related to lactate threshold (r = -0.72 p < 0.01 but not to VO2max. The rate of force development related to the peak power at the end of the cycle ergometer test (r = -0.75 p < 0.01. Rates of relaxation did not relate to any of the performance markers. We found in-vivo whole muscle characteristics, such as the fatigue index and rate of force development, relate to specific markers of peripheral, but not to central, fitness components. Our investigation suggests that muscle characteristics assessed in this way is reliable and could be feasibly utilised to further our understanding of the peripheral factors underpinning performance

  18. Relationships between Isometric Force-Time Characteristics and Dynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dos’Santos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP force-time characteristics (peak force and time-specific force vales (100–250 ms and dynamic performance and compare dynamic performance between stronger and weaker athletes. Forty-three athletes from different sports (rowing, soccer, bicycle motocross, and hockey performed three trials of the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, and IMTP, and performed a one repetition maximum power clean (PC. Reactive strength index modified (RSImod was also calculated from the CMJ. Statistically significant large correlations between IMTP force-time characteristics and PC (ρ = 0.569–0.674, p < 0.001, and moderate correlations between IMTP force-time characteristics (excluding force at 100 ms and RSImod (ρ = 0.389–0.449, p = 0.013–0.050 were observed. Only force at 250 ms demonstrated a statistically significant moderate correlation with CMJ height (ρ = 0.346, p = 0.016 and no statistically significant associations were observed between IMTP force-time characteristics and SJ height. Stronger athletes (top 10 demonstrated statistically significantly greater CMJ heights, RSImods, and PCs (p ≤ 0.004, g = 1.32–1.89 compared to weaker (bottom 10 athletes, but no differences in SJ height were observed (p = 0.871, g = 0.06. These findings highlight that the ability to apply rapidly high levels of force in short time intervals is integral for PC, CMJ height, and reactive strength.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O.P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been showed. With...

  20. Novel vibration-exercise instrument with dedicated adaptive filtering for electromyographic investigation of neuromuscular activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.; Rabotti, C.; Mischi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration exercise (VE) has been suggested as an effective methodology to improve muscle strength and power performance. Several studies link the effects of vibration training to enhanced neuromuscular demand, typically ascribed to involuntary reflex mechanisms. However, the underlying mechanisms

  1. Selective activation of neuromuscular compartments within the human trapezius muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Roeleveld, K; Mork, P J

    2009-01-01

    of the human trapezius muscle can be independently activated by voluntary command, indicating neuromuscular compartmentalization of the trapezius muscle. The independent activation of the upper and lower subdivisions of the trapezius is in accordance with the selective innervation by the fine cranial and main...... branch of the accessory nerve to the upper and lower subdivisions. These findings provide new insight into motor control characteristics, learning possibilities, and function of the clinically relevant human trapezius muscle....

  2. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  3. The Neuromuscular System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, R.J.A.W.; Abbink, D.A.; Cardullo, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of flight simulation is to create an environment for the pilot wherein he or she can perform the piloting task in such a way that the objective of the simulation, training or research, is reached. To simulate the flight environment in a simulator models describing the aircraft dynamic

  4. Performance characteristics of solar air heater with surface mounted obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekele, Adisu; Mishra, Manish; Dutta, Sushanta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar air heater with delta shaped obstacles have been studied. • Obstacle angle of incidence strongly affects the thermo-hydraulic performance. • Thermal performance of obstacle mounted collectors is superior to smooth collectors. • Thermo-hydraulic performance of the present SAH is higher than those in previous studies. - Abstract: The performance of conventional solar air heaters (SAHs) can be improved by providing obstacles on the heated wall (i.e. on the absorber plate). Experiments have been performed to collect heat transfer and flow-friction data from an air heater duct with delta-shaped obstacles mounted on the absorber surface and having an aspect ratio 6:1 resembling the conditions close to the solar air heaters. This study encompassed for the range of Reynolds number (Re) from 2100 to 30,000, relative obstacle height (e/H) from 0.25 to 0.75, relative obstacle longitudinal pitch (P l /e) from 3/2 to 11/2, relative obstacle transverse pitch (P t /b) from 1 to 7/3 and the angle of incidence (α) varied from 30° to 90°. The thermo-hydraulic performance characteristics of SAH have been compared with the previous published works and the optimum range of the geometries have been explored for the better performance of such air-heaters compared to the other designs of solar air heaters

  5. Model Of Emergency Department Nurse Performance Improvement Based on Association of Individual Characteristic, Organization Characteristic and Job Characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Bogar, Maria Margaretha; Nursalam, Nursalam; Dewi, Yulis Setiya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nursing care is integral part of health care and having important role in management of patient with emergency condition. The purpose of this research was to develop nurse performance improvement model based on individual, organization and job characteristics association in Emergency Department of RSUD dr TC Hillers Maumere. Method: This was an explanative survey by cross sectional approach held on July -August 2012. Respondents in this study were 22 nurses and 44 patients were ...

  6. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Its Mechanisms and Effects on Range of Motion and Muscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Kayla B.; Whitcomb, Tyler J.; Briggs, Wyatt O.; Hong, Junggi

    2012-01-01

    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is common practice for increasing range of motion, though little research has been done to evaluate theories behind it. The purpose of this study was to review possible mechanisms, proposed theories, and physiological changes that occur due to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. Four theoretical mechanisms were identified: autogenic inhibition, reciprocal inhibition, stress relaxation, and the gate control theory. The studies suggest that a combination of these four mechanisms enhance range of motion. When completed prior to exercise, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation decreases performance in maximal effort exercises. When this stretching technique is performed consistently and post exercise, it increases athletic performance, along with range of motion. Little investigation has been done regarding the theoretical mechanisms of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, though four mechanisms were identified from the literature. As stated, the main goal of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is to increase range of motion and performance. Studies found both of these to be true when completed under the correct conditions. These mechanisms were found to be plausible; however, further investigation needs to be conducted. All four mechanisms behind the stretching technique explain the reasoning behind the increase in range of motion, as well as in strength and athletic performance. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation shows potential benefits if performed correctly and consistently. PMID:23487249

  7. Performance characteristics of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jizhou; Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2009-01-01

    The Diesel refrigeration cycle using an ideal quantum gas as the working substance is called quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle, which is different from Carnot, Ericsson, Brayton, Otto and Stirling refrigeration cycles. For ideal quantum gases, a corrected equation of state, which considers the quantum behavior of gas particles, is used instead of the classical one. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of quantum gas as the working substance on the performance of a quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle. It is found that coefficients of performance of the cycle are not affected by the quantum degeneracy of the working substance, which is the same as that of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. However, the refrigeration load is different from those of the classical Diesel refrigeration cycle. Lastly, the influence of the quantum degeneracy on the performance characteristics of the quantum Diesel refrigeration cycle operated in different temperature regions is discussed

  8. Identification and Simulation as Tools for Measurement of Neuromuscular Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kearney, R

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative, objective methods for the evaluation of neuromuscular properties are required for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders and the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment and rehabilitation...

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  10. Some performance characteristics of a fluidized bed heat recovery unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Militzer, J.; Basu, P.; Adaikkappan, N.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages of using fluidized bed heat recovery units with diesel engines are well documented. Two of those are: significantly less tube fouling and heat transfer coefficient four to five time higher than that of conventional shell and tube heat exchangers. The high concentration of soot in the exhaust gases of diesel engines make fouling a major concern in design of any kind of heat recovery unit. In the experiment a conventional fluidized bed heat exchanger was connected to the exhaust of a diesel engine mounted on a dynamometer. With this arrangement it was possible to test the heat recovery unit under a wide range of operating conditions. The main objective of this experiment was the determination of the performance characteristics of the heat recovery unit, especially with reference to its heat transfer and fouling characteristics. (author)

  11. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, Ryan S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  12. BIOLOGY OF SOME NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerta Vrbova

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand and possibly interfere/ treat neuromuscular disorders it is important to analyze the biological events that may be causing the disability. We illustrate such attempts on two examples of genetically determined neuromuscular diseases: 1 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, and 2 Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA.DMD is an x-linked hereditary muscle disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness. The altered gene in DMD affects dystrophin, a muscle membrane associated proteine. Attempts were made to replace the deficient or missing gene/ protein into muscles of Duchenne children. Two main strategies were explored: 1 Myoblast and stem cell transfer and 2 Gene delivery. The possible use of methods other than the introduction of the missing gene for dystrophin into muscle fibres are based on the knowledge about the adaptive potential of muscle to different functional demands and the ability of the muscle to express a new set of genes in response to such stimuli. Stretch or overload is now known to lead to changes of gene expression in normal muscle, and the success of muscle stretch in the management of Duchenne boys is most likely to be due to such adaptive changes. Electrical stimulation of muscles is also a powerful stimulus for inducing the expression of new genes and this method too has produced beneficial effects on the progress of the disease in mice and men.SMA is a heterogeneous group of hereditary neuromuscular disorders where the loss of lower motoneurones leads to progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. The disease subdivides into 3 forms according to the severity of the symptoms and age of onset. All three forms of SMA have been mapped to chromosome 5q11.2-13.2. Clinical features of all these forms of SMA include hypotonia shortly after birth, symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy, finger tremor, areflexia or hyporeflexia and later contractures. In patients with SMA 1 and 2 the development of all parts of the motor

  13. Performance characteristics of CdTe drift ring detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruhaili, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Lohstroh, A.; Veeramani, P.; Kazemi, S.; Veale, M. C.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Kachkanov, V.

    2014-03-01

    CdTe and CdZnTe material is an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high energy X-ray spectroscopic detectors due to their good quantum efficiency and room temperature operation. The main material limitation is associated with the poor charge transport properties of holes. The motivation of this work is to investigate the performance characteristics of a detector fabricated with a drift ring geometry that is insensitive to the transport of holes. The performance of a prototype Ohmic CdTe drift ring detector fabricated by Acrorad with 3 drift rings is reported; measurements include room temperature current voltage characteristics (IV) and spectroscopic performance. The data shows that the energy resolution of the detector is limited by leakage current which is a combination of bulk and surface leakage currents. The energy resolution was studied as a function of incident X-ray position with an X-ray microbeam at the Diamond Light Source. Different ring biasing schemes were investigated and the results show that by increasing the lateral field (i.e. the bias gradient across the rings) the active area, evaluated by the detected count rate, increased significantly.

  14. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC MEMS-BASED IMUs FOR UAVs NAVIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Accurate 3D reconstruction has become essential for non-traditional mapping applications such as urban planning, mining industry, environmental monitoring, navigation, surveillance, pipeline inspection, infrastructure monitoring, landslide hazard analysis, indoor localization, and military simulation. The needs of these applications cannot be satisfied by traditional mapping, which is based on dedicated data acquisition systems designed for mapping purposes. Recent advances in hardware and software development have made it possible to conduct accurate 3D mapping without using costly and high-end data acquisition systems. Low-cost digital cameras, laser scanners, and navigation systems can provide accurate mapping if they are properly integrated at the hardware and software levels. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are emerging as a mobile mapping platform that can provide additional economical and practical advantages. However, such economical and practical requirements need navigation systems that can provide uninterrupted navigation solution. Hence, testing the performance characteristics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS or low cost navigation sensors for various UAV applications is important research. This work focuses on studying the performance characteristics under different manoeuvres using inertial measurements integrated with single point positioning, Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK, and additional navigational aiding sensors. Furthermore, the performance of the inertial sensors is tested during Global Positioning System (GPS signal outage.

  15. Performance Characteristic Mems-Based IMUs for UAVs Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H. A.; Hansen, J. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, A. B.

    2015-08-01

    Accurate 3D reconstruction has become essential for non-traditional mapping applications such as urban planning, mining industry, environmental monitoring, navigation, surveillance, pipeline inspection, infrastructure monitoring, landslide hazard analysis, indoor localization, and military simulation. The needs of these applications cannot be satisfied by traditional mapping, which is based on dedicated data acquisition systems designed for mapping purposes. Recent advances in hardware and software development have made it possible to conduct accurate 3D mapping without using costly and high-end data acquisition systems. Low-cost digital cameras, laser scanners, and navigation systems can provide accurate mapping if they are properly integrated at the hardware and software levels. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a mobile mapping platform that can provide additional economical and practical advantages. However, such economical and practical requirements need navigation systems that can provide uninterrupted navigation solution. Hence, testing the performance characteristics of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) or low cost navigation sensors for various UAV applications is important research. This work focuses on studying the performance characteristics under different manoeuvres using inertial measurements integrated with single point positioning, Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK), and additional navigational aiding sensors. Furthermore, the performance of the inertial sensors is tested during Global Positioning System (GPS) signal outage.

  16. Performance and emissions characteristics of biodiesel from soybean oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Faculty of Technical Education

    2005-07-15

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oils, waste frying oils, and animal fats. It is an oxygenated, non-toxic, sulphur-free, biodegradable, and renewable fuel. Many engine manufacturers have included this fuel in their warranties since it can be used in diesel engines without significant modification. However, the fuel properties such as cetane number, heat of combustion, specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity affect the combustion, engine performance and emission characteristics. In this study, the engine performance and emissions characteristics of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels) and biodiesel from soybean oil and its 20 per cent blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were compared. The results showed that the engine performance of the neat biodiesel and its blend was similar to that of No. 2 diesel fuel with nearly the same brake fuel conversion efficiency, and slightly higher fuel consumption. CO{sub 2} emission for the biodiesel was slightly higher than for the No. 2 diesel fuel. Compared with diesel fuels, biodiesel produced lower exhaust emissions, except NO{sub x}. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the neuromuscular compartments in the peroneus longus muscle through electrical stimulation and accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Mendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscles are innervated exclusively by a nerve branch and possess definite actions. However, mammalian skeletal muscles, such as the trapezius, the medial gastrocnemius, and the peroneus longus, are compartmentalized. In the peroneus longus muscle, multiple motor points, which innervate individual neuromuscular compartments (NMC, the superior (S-NMC, anteroinferior (AI-NMC, and posteroinferior (PI-NMC, have been described. The contribution of each neuromuscular compartment to the final action of the muscle is fundamental for the rehabilitation of patients afflicted by neurological and muscle dysfunctions. Interventions are often based on electrical principles that take advantage of the physiological characteristics of muscles and nerves to generate therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of stimulating the different neuromuscular compartments (NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle on the motor threshold (MT and acceleration of the foot. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 37 subjects. The three NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle were stimulated, and the acceleration of the foot and the motor threshold of each NMC were evaluated. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections of two intra-subjects factors was performed. RESULTS: The stimulation of the different NMCs did not result in any differences in MT (F=2.635, P=0.079. There were significant differences between the axes of acceleration caused by the stimulation of the different NMCs (F=56,233; P=0.000. The stimulation of the posteroinferior compartment resulted in the greatest acceleration in the X-axis (mean 0.614; standard deviation 0.253. CONCLUSIONS: The posteroinferior compartment primarily contributes to the eversion movement of the foot. NMCs have specific functional roles that contribute to the actions of the muscles to which they belong.

  18. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.; Atefi, B.; Yang, J.W.; Galperin, A.; Segev, M.

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low

  19. Performance characteristics of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Holtrop, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Laughon, G.J.; Makariou, C.C.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Scoville, J.T.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1993-10-01

    A cryocondensation pump, cooled by forced flow of two-phase helium, has been installed for particle exhaust from the divertor region of the DIII-D tokamak. The Inconel pumping surface is of coaxial geometry, 25.4 mm in outer diameter and 11.65 m in length. Because of the tokamak environment, the pump is designed to perform under relatively high pulsed heat loads (300 Wm -2 ). Results of measurements made on the pumping characteristics for D 2 , H 2 , and Ar are discussed

  20. Neuromuscular Control and Coordination during Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2004-01-01

    The neuromuscular control aspect of cycling has been investigated through the effects of modifying posture and cadence. These studies show that changing posture has a more profound influence on neuromuscular coordination than does changing slope. Most of the changes with standing posture occur late in the downstroke: increased ankle and knee joint…

  1. Kinship and interaction in neuromuscular pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, Sjouke

    2006-01-01

    The background of this thesis is presented in the introductory chapters and stafts with a brief history of neuromuscular relaxants. It is followed by a short description of the neuromuscular physiology and pharmacology in chapters 2 and 3, respectively. In chapter 4 the aim of the thesis is

  2. Stunted PFC activity during neuromuscular control under stress with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for impaired cognition, which is primarily regulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, very little is known about the neural pathways that underlie obesity-related declines in neuromuscular control, particularly under stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the PFC on neuromuscular control during handgrip exertions under stress with obesity. Twenty non-obese and obese young adults performed submaximal handgrip exertions in the absence and presence of a concurrent stressful task. Primary dependent measures included oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2: a measure of PFC activity) and force fluctuations (an indicator of neuromuscular control). Higher HbO2 levels in the PFC were observed in the non-obese compared to the obese group (P = 0.009). In addition, higher HbO2 levels were observed in the stress compared to the control condition in the non-obese group; however, this trend was reversed in the obese group (P = 0.043). In general, force fluctuations increased by 26% in the stress when compared to the control condition (P = 0.001) and obesity was associated with 39% greater force fluctuation (P = 0.024). Finally, while not significant, obesity-related decrements in force fluctuations were magnified under stress (P = 0.063). The current study provides the first evidence that neuromuscular decrements with obesity were associated with impaired PFC activity and this relationship was augmented in stress conditions. These findings are important because they provide new information on obesity-specific changes in brain function associated with neuromuscular control since the knowledge previously focused largely on obesity-specific changes in peripheral muscle capacity.

  3. Board Characteristics and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athalia Ariati Hidayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effect of board characteristics (comprising in different sized proportions: family commissioners, family directors, independent commissioners, ex-government officer commissioners, and board of commissioners size to firm performance. Using fixed-effects data panel regression, this research investigates 293 firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2008-2012. Firm performance is proxied by market measure (Tobin’s Q and accounting measure (ROA. The findings of this research suggest that the proportion of family commissioners and family directors have positive impact only to Tobin’s Q value, while the proportion of independent directors can increase both Tobin’s Q and ROA. On the other hand, this research finds that the proportion of ex-government officers in the board gives no impact to firm performance. This research also finds that the board size has U-shaped non-linear relationship with firm performance as proxied by Tobin’s Q and ROA.

  4. Firm performance: The role of CEOs' emotional and cognitive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthis K. Katsaros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationships between CEOs’ personal traits, emotions, attitudes and tolerance of ambiguity; and subsequently, the influence of CEOs’ ambiguity tolerance in firms' performance. Design/methodology/approach – Survey data were collected from 256 ICT firms established in Greece. Their CEOs completed questionnaires examining TOA, personal traits, emotions and attitudes in the workplace. Principal components analysis and ordinary least-squares regressions were used to explore the hypotheses of the paper. Findings – Three factors characterize CEOs' emotions, namely pleasure, dominance and arousal; two factors their involvement, namely importance and interest; and, respectively, one their emotional intelligence namely, empathy/handling relationships. Further, locus of control; importance; arousal; empathy/handling relationships and interest affect decisively CEOs' tolerance of ambiguity, which in turn, seems to influence positively firms' performance. Research limitations/implications – Further research is required in Greek ICT industry regarding the influence of CEOs' emotional and cognitive attributes in organizations' financial performance. Likewise, this research should be expanded to other industries. Originality/value – The originality of this study lies in the finding that emotional and cognitive characteristics affect CEOs' TOA, which, in turn, influences significantly firms' performance. Another significant contributing factor is that the study is carried out in Greece, where few studies have been conducted in this area.

  5. Neuromuscular coordination of masticatory muscles in subjects with two types of implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Maglione, Michele; Simion, Massimo; Sforza, Chiarella

    2004-04-01

    To compare the electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of masticatory muscles in patients with fixed implant-supported prostheses and implant overdentures. Nineteen subjects aged 45-79 years were examined. Fourteen were edentulous and had been successfully rehabilitated with (a) maxillary and mandibular implant-supported fixed prostheses (seven patients); (b) mandibular implant overdentures and maxillary complete dentures (seven patients). Five control subjects had natural dentition or single/partial (no more than two teeth) tooth or implant fixed dentures. Surface EMG of the masseter and temporal muscles was performed during unilateral gum chewing and during maximum teeth clenching. To reduce biological and instrumental noise, all values were standardized as percentage of a maximum clenching on cotton rolls. During clenching, temporal muscle symmetry was larger in control subjects and fixed implant-supported prosthesis patients than in overdenture patients (analysis of variance, P=0.005). No differences were found in masseter muscle symmetry or in muscular torque. Muscle activities (integrated areas of the EMG potentials over time) were significantly larger in control subjects than in implant-supported prosthesis patients (P=0.014). In both patient groups, a poor neuromuscular coordination during chewing, with altered muscular patterns, and a smaller left-right symmetry than in control subjects were found (P=0.05). No differences in masticatory frequency were found. Surface EMG analysis of clenching and chewing showed that fixed implant-supported prostheses and implant overdentures were functionally equivalent. Neuromuscular coordination during chewing was inferior to that found in subjects with natural dentition.

  6. Distributed utility technology cost, performance, and environmental characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y; Adelman, S

    1995-06-01

    Distributed Utility (DU) is an emerging concept in which modular generation and storage technologies sited near customer loads in distribution systems and specifically targeted demand-side management programs are used to supplement conventional central station generation plants to meet customer energy service needs. Research has shown that implementation of the DU concept could provide substantial benefits to utilities. This report summarizes the cost, performance, and environmental and siting characteristics of existing and emerging modular generation and storage technologies that are applicable under the DU concept. It is intended to be a practical reference guide for utility planners and engineers seeking information on DU technology options. This work was funded by the Office of Utility Technologies of the US Department of Energy.

  7. Performance characteristics of a continuous-flow fluidic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Counce, R.M.; Smith, G.V.

    1987-01-01

    The fluidic pump is a type of positive-displacement pump in which basic fluid mechanics phenomena are utilized to eliminate valves and other moving parts that are exposed to the fluid being transferred. The version described in this article is powered by gas pressure serving as gas pistons and is virtually maintenance-free. It utilizes two displacement vessels and is designed to produce a steady and continuous liquid flow. This type of pump may be very useful for the transfer of radioactive or hazardous liquids where mechanical maintenance may be difficult or exposure of personnel to the fluid is undesirable. This paper presents experimental and model-predicted characteristics of such systems. The effects of several geometric parameters and operating conditions on the performance of the pump are briefly discussed

  8. Evaluation of the Combined Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contractions on Thigh Muscle Strength, Knee Pain and Physical Performance in Women at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Kaitlin G; Matsuse, Hiroo; Jackson, Anthony; Segal, Neil A

    2018-05-28

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability that is associated with quadriceps weakness. However, strengthening in people with or with risk factors for knee OA can be poorly tolerated. To assess the efficacy of a twelve-week low-load exercise program, using a hybrid training system (HTS) that utilizes the combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional contractions, for improving thigh muscle strength, knee pain and physical performance in women with or with risk factors for knee OA. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial SETTING: Exercise training laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two women, age 44-85 years, with risk factors for knee OA INTERVENTIONS: Participants randomized to 12 weeks of biweekly low-load resistance training either with HTS or on an isokinetic dynamometer (control). Maximum isokinetic knee extensor torque. Secondary measures included: maximum isokinetic knee flexor torque, knee pain (KOOS), and timed 20-meter walk and chair-stand tests. HTS and control both resulted in muscle strengthening, reduced knee pain and improved physical performance. HTS group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.06±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.05±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.02), respectively. Control group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.03±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.06±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.009), respectively. Knee pain improved by 11.9±11.5 points (pmeter walk time decreased by 1.60±2.04 seconds (p=.005) and 0.95±1.2 seconds (p=.004), and chair stand time decreased by 4.8±10.0 seconds (p>.05) and 1.9±4.7 seconds (p>.05) in the HTS and control groups, respectively. These results did not differ statistically between HTS and control groups. These results suggest HTS is effective for improving pain and physical performance in women with risk factors for knee OA. However, HTS does not appear to be superior to low-load resistance training for improving muscle strength, pain or physical function. Copyright © 2018 American

  9. Roasted sesame hulls improve broiler performance without affecting carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Z. Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of using graded levels of roasted sesame hulls (RSH on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in broiler chickens. A total of 360 day-old Lohmann chicks were randomly allocated into 24 floor pens and raised over 42 days. One of four dietary treatments was assigned to each group of six pens in a completely randomized fashion. The chicks in the control group were fed a corn-soybean based diet (RSH-0, while the chicks in treatments two, three, and four were fed graded levels of RSH at 4% (RSH-4, 8% (RSH-8, and 12% (RSH-12, respectively. Diets were formulated to meet broiler chicks’ requirements according to the National Research Council for both starter and finisher rations. The results showed that RSH inclusion increased (P<0.05 feed intake and final body weight without adversely affecting the feed conversion ratio. Broiler chicks fed RSH-12 had heavier (P<0.05 breast and leg cuts compared to the control-fed group with no change to their chemical composition. Water holding capacity (WHC, cooking loss (CL, and shear force (SF reported similar results in all dietary groups. The chemical composition of both thigh and breast cuts was not affected by the RSH. After one day of thawing, colour coordinates of breast cuts behaved similarly in all dietary groups. The results of this study suggest that the addition of RSH to broiler diets up to 12% improves their growth performance; nevertheless, carcass characteristics and meat quality showed no alterations compared to the control-fed group.

  10. Performance characteristics of counter flow wet cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jameel-Ur-Rehman; Yaqub, M.; Zubair, Syed M.

    2003-01-01

    Cooling towers are one of the biggest heat and mass transfer devices that are in widespread use. In this paper, we use a detailed model of counter flow wet cooling towers in investigating the performance characteristics. The validity of the model is checked by experimental data reported in the literature. The thermal performance of the cooling towers is clearly explained in terms of varying air and water temperatures, as well as the driving potential for convection and evaporation heat transfer, along the height of the tower. The relative contribution of each mode of heat transfer rate to the total heat transfer rate in the cooling tower is established. It is demonstrated with an example problem that the predominant mode of heat transfer is evaporation. For example, evaporation contributes about 62.5% of the total rate of heat transfer at the bottom of the tower and almost 90% at the top of the tower. The variation of air and water temperatures along the height of the tower (process line) is explained on psychometric charts

  11. Transonic Performance Characteristics of Several Jet Noise Suppressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, James W.; Salters, Leland B., Jr.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation of the transonic performance characteristics of several noise-suppressor configurations has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The models were tested statically and over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.05 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. The primary jet total-pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 4.5. The effect of secondary air flow on the performance of two of the configurations was investigated. A hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was used to supply the hot-jet exhaust. An 8-lobe afterbody with centerbody, short shroud, and secondary air had the highest thrust-minus-drag coefficients of the six noise-suppressor configurations tested. The 12-tube and 12-lobe afterbodies had the lowest internal losses. The presence of an ejector shroud partially shields the external pressure distribution of the 8-lobe after-body from the influence of the primary jet. A ring-airfoil shroud increased the static thrust of the annular nozzle but generally decreased the thrust minus drag at transonic Mach numbers.

  12. Performance and cavitation characteristics of bi-directional hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Tidal turbines extract energy from flows which reverse direction. One way to address this bi-directionality in horizontal axis turbines that avoid the use of complex and maintenance-intensive yaw or blade pitch mechanisms, is to design bi-directional blades which perform (equally) well in either flow direction. A large number of proposed hydrofoil designs were investigated using numerical simulations. Selected candidate foils were also tested (at various speeds and angles of attack) in the High-Speed Cavitation Tunnel (HICaT) at the University of New Hampshire. Lift and drag were measured using a force balance, and cavitation inception and desinence were recorded. Experimental and numerical results were compared, and the foils were compared to each other and to reference foils. Bi-directional hydrofoils may provide a feasible solution to the problem of reversing flow direction, when their performance and cavitation characteristics are comparable to those for unidirectional foils, and the penalty in decreased energy production is outweighed by the cost reduction due to lower complexity and respectively lower installation and maintenance costs.

  13. Report on Adaptive Force, a specific neuromuscular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Hoff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In real life motions, as well as in sports, the adaptation of the neuromuscular systems to externally applied forces plays an important role. The term Adaptive Force (AF shall characterize the ability of the nerve-muscle-system to adapt to impacting external forces during isometric and eccentric muscle action. The focus in this paper is on the concept of this neuromuscular action, which is not yet described in this way. A measuring system was constructed and evaluated for this specific neuromuscular function, but only the main information of the evaluation of the measuring system and the preliminary reference values are mentioned here, while an article with detailed description will be published separately. This paper concentrates on the three following points: 1 What is the peculiarity of this neuromuscular function, introduced as AF? 2 Is the measuring system able to capture its specific characteristics and which phases of measurement occur? 3 It seems reasonable to discuss if AF can be distinguished and classified among the known force concepts. The article describes the measuring system and how it is able to capture special features of real life motions like submaximal intensities and the subjects’ option to react adequately on external varying forces. Furthermore, within one measurement the system records three different force qualities: the isometric submaximal Adaptive Force (AFiso, the maximal isometric Adaptive Force (AFisomax and the maximal eccentric Adaptive Force (AFeccmax. Each of these phases provide different and unique information on the nerve-muscle-system that are discussed in detail. Important, in terms of the Adaptive Force, seems to be the combination of conditional and coordinative abilities.

  14. FUNCTIONS OF A NEUROMUSCULAR CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Zidar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Main functions of a neuromuscular (NM centre are making diagnosis, treatment and counselling. Some other functions, e. g. forming a register and epidemiological endeavours, could be added. All these activities are expected to be achieved by multidisciplinary approach with the idea that members use the same guidelines and share the same knowledge.NM diseases affect lower levels of the nervous system that is motor units (motor cells in the brainstem and spinal cord, nerve roots, cranial and peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. There are many such diseases; a few are more common others are rare.Rational approach in making a diagnosis can be divided into several steps. The process begins with a person with clinical symptoms and signs which raise the suspicion of NM disease. The first step is the description of the predominant pattern of muscular wasting and weakness (e. g. limb-girdle, distal, ocular, facio-scapulo-humeral. Each of these syndromes require a differential diagnosis within the motor unit territory what is achieved by means of EMG and muscle biopsy. The latter is even more important to define the nature of the abnormality. Disease nature can also be determined biochemically and, as NM disorders are commonly genetically determined, at the molecular genetic level. Treatment modalities include drugs (causative and symptomatic and other measures such as promoting and maintaining good general health, preventing skeletal deformities, physiotherapy, orthoses, surgery, and prevention of respiratory and cardiac functions. Counselling is mainly by social workers that focus on the practical aspects of coping with illness and disability and by genetic counsellors who gave advise on family planning.

  15. Performance characteristics of a Kodak computed radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C D; Peppler, W W; Dobbins, J T

    1999-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a photostimulable phosphor based computed radiographic (CR) system were studied. The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the Kodak Digital Science computed radiography (CR) system (Eastman Kodak Co.-model 400) were measured and compared to previously published results of a Fuji based CR system (Philips Medical Systems-PCR model 7000). To maximize comparability, the same measurement techniques and analysis methods were used. The DQE at four exposure levels (30, 3, 0.3, 0.03 mR) and two plate types (standard and high resolution) were calculated from the NPS and MTF measurements. The NPS was determined from two-dimensional Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed plates. The presampling MTF was determined from the Fourier transform (FT) of the system's finely sampled line spread function (LSF) as produced by a narrow slit. A comparison of the slit type ("beveled edge" versus "straight edge") and its effect on the resulting MTF measurements was also performed. The results show that both systems are comparable in resolution performance. The noise power studies indicated a higher level of noise for the Kodak images (approximately 20% at the low exposure levels and 40%-70% at higher exposure levels). Within the clinically relevant exposure range (0.3-3 mR), the resulting DQE for the Kodak plates ranged between 20%-50% lower than for the corresponding Fuji plates. Measurements of the presampling MTF with the two slit types have shown that a correction factor can be applied to compensate for transmission through the relief edges.

  16. Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.

  17. Differences in daily disposable circle lens performance characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schafer JM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Jeffery M Schafer, William T Reindel, Marjorie J Rah, Osbert Chan, Lening Zhang Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to compare the performance characteristics of two cosmetically tinted contact lenses in the circle lens category that differ in lens design, lens material, and pigment print pattern: etafilcon A (1-Day Acuvue Define; Johnson & Johnson Vision Care and hilafilcon B (Naturelle; Bausch & Lomb Incorporated. Methods: Two hundred Asian subjects (400 eyes were enrolled in this 1-month parallel, bilateral, randomized study at ten investigative sites. Study lenses were dispensed at a screening/dispensing visit, and follow-up visits occurred at 2 weeks and 1 month. Lenses were worn on a daily disposable basis. Fit characteristics were evaluated at each visit, and slit-lamp evaluations were completed at each follow-up visit. Results: Of the 200 patients enrolled, 172 (344 eyes completed the study. The proportion of eyes with fully centered lenses was statistically significantly higher for the hilafilcon B group at the 2-week and 1-month visits, P<0.05. Over all visits, 0.6% of hilafilcon B eyes demonstrated incomplete corneal coverage, whereas for the etafilcon A group, 8.5% of eyes demonstrated incomplete corneal coverage and/or edge lift. The proportion of eyes with adequate lens movement was statistically significantly higher for the hilafilcon B group, P<0.05. Over all visits, none of the hilafilcon B eyes was reported to have excessive movement, whereas for etafilcon A lenses, 10.2% of eyes were reported to have excessive movement. Conclusions: Etafilcon A lenses were significantly less likely to be fully centered and significantly more likely to have incomplete corneal coverage and/or edge lift compared with the hilafilcon B lenses. Keywords: cosmetic contact lens, circle contact lens

  18. Profile of sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade in the elderly: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Michele; Bertoncello, Francesco; Ieppariello, Giovanna

    2018-01-01

    The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients. Therefore, neuromuscular blockade in the elderly should be carefully monitored and completely reversed before awakening patients at the end of anesthesia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are traditionally used for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Although the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade is reduced by reversal with neostigmine, it continues to complicate the postoperative course. Sugammadex represents an innovative approach to reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by aminosteroid neuromuscular-blocking agents, particularly rocuronium, with useful applications in clinical practice. However, aging is associated with certain changes in the pharmacokinetics of sugammadex, and to date there has been no thorough evaluation of the use of sugammadex in elderly patients. The aim of this review was to perform an analysis of the use of sugammadex in older adults based on the current literature. Major issues surrounding the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of aging in elderly patients and how these may impact the routine use of sugammadex in elderly patients are discussed.

  19. Neuromuscular complications of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Noah A; Trevino, Christopher R; Waheed, Waqar; Sobhani, Fatemeh; Landry, Kara K; Thomas, Alissa A; Hehir, Mike

    2018-01-17

    Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy unleashes the body's natural immune system to fight cancer. ICPIs improve overall cancer survival, however, the unbridling of the immune system may induce a variety of immune-related adverse events. Neuromuscular immune complications are rare but they can be severe. Myasthenia gravis and inflammatory neuropathy are the most common neuromuscular adverse events but a variety of others including inflammatory myopathy are reported. The pathophysiologic mechanism of these autoimmune disorders may differ from that of non-ICPI-related immune diseases. Accordingly, while the optimal treatment for ICPI-related neuromuscular disorders generally follows a traditional paradigm, there are important novel considerations in selecting appropriate immunosuppressive therapy. This review presents 2 new cases, a summary of neuromuscular ICPI complications, and an approach to the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Deep Neuromuscular Blockade Improves Laparoscopic Surgical Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Jacob; Herring, W Joseph; Blobner, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sustained deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during laparoscopic surgery may facilitate optimal surgical conditions. This exploratory study assessed whether deep NMB improves surgical conditions and, in doing so, allows use of lower insufflation pressures during laparoscopic cholecys...

  1. Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikawa, K C

    1999-01-01

    While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular cont...

  2. Key Performance Characteristics of Organic Shrimp Aquaculture in Southwest Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Reinhard Vogl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Fabricius, 1798 aquaculture has come to be one of the most important sectors in both the rural and national economies. Likewise, organic shrimp aquaculture has emerged as an alternative farming enterprise for farmers especially in the southwestern districts of Bangladesh. The present study aims to show key performance characteristics of organic shrimp farmers and farming in a prototypical shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Data was collected in 2009 from organic shrimp farmers in the Kaligonj and Shyamnagar sub-districts through questionnaire interviews, transect walks and focus group discussions. The mean productivity of organic shrimp farming in the area is 320 kg ha−1 yr−1 (ranging from 120 to 711 kg ha−1year−1. Organic farmers are more likely to have a higher monthly income and less aquaculture experience. Moreover, suitable landholdings and classified labor distribution have been found to play an important role in the development of organic shrimp aquaculture. The most common assets of organic shrimp aquaculture are high yield, low production cost, available post larvae and high market prices. Small business farmers are likely to earn more income benefits from organic shrimp aquaculture than their larger-scale counterparts. Finally, the paper suggests that more research is needed to stimulate the success of organic shrimp aquaculture.

  3. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic Performance Characteristic Tests of Real Scale Lead Rubber Bearing for the Evaluation of Performance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung-Han; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic characteristic tests of full scale lead rubber bearing were performed for the evaluation of performance criteria of isolation system for nuclear power plants. For the dynamic test for a full scale rubber bearing, two 1500mm diameter lead rubber bearings were manufactured. The viewpoints of this dynamic test are determination of an ultimate shear strain level of lead rubber bearing, behavior of rubber bearing according to static and dynamic input motion, sinusoidal and random (earthquake) motion, and 1-dimentional and 2-dimensional input motion. In this study, seismic isolation device tests were performed for the evaluation of performance criteria of isolation system. Through this test, it can be recognized that in the case of considering a mechanical property test, dynamic and multi degree of loading conditions should be determined. But these differences should be examined how much affect to the global structural behavior

  5. Sugammadex: A Review of Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-07-01

    Sugammadex (Bridion(®)) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin that reverses the effect of the steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium and vecuronium. Intravenous sugammadex resulted in rapid, predictable recovery from moderate and deep neuromuscular blockade in patients undergoing surgery who received rocuronium or vecuronium. Recovery from moderate neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 2 mg/kg than with neostigmine, and recovery from deep neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 4 mg/kg than with neostigmine or spontaneous recovery. In addition, recovery from neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster when sugammadex 16 mg/kg was administered 3 min after rocuronium than when patients spontaneously recovered from succinylcholine. Sugammadex also demonstrated efficacy in various special patient populations, including patients with pulmonary disease, cardiac disease, hepatic dysfunction or myasthenia gravis and morbidly obese patients. Intravenous sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, sugammadex is an important option for the rapid reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

  6. Neuromuscular blockade in the elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee LA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Luis A Lee, Vassilis Athanassoglou, Jaideep J Pandit Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK Abstract: Neuromuscular blockade is a desirable or even essential component of general anesthesia for major surgical operations. As the population continues to age, and more operations are conducted in the elderly, due consideration must be given to neuromuscular blockade in these patients to avoid possible complications. This review considers the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of neuromuscular blockade that may be altered in the elderly. Compartment distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs may vary due to age-related changes in physiology, altering the duration of action with a need for reduced dosage (eg, aminosteroids. Other drugs (atracurium, cisatracurium have more reliable duration of action and should perhaps be considered for use in the elderly. The range of interpatient variability that neuromuscular blocking drugs may exhibit is then considered and drugs with a narrower range, such as cisatracurium, may produce more predictable, and inherently safer, outcomes. Ultimately, appropriate neuromuscular monitoring should be used to guide the administration of muscle relaxants so that the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade postoperatively can be minimized. The reliability of various monitoring is considered. This paper concludes with a review of the various reversal agents, namely, anticholinesterase drugs and sugammadex, and the alterations in dosing of these that should be considered for the elderly patient. Keywords: anesthesia, elderly, drugs, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics 

  7. Neuromuscular dose-response studies: determining sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopman, A F; Lien, C A; Naguib, M

    2011-02-01

    Investigators planning dose-response studies of neuromuscular blockers have rarely used a priori power analysis to determine the minimal sample size their protocols require. Institutional Review Boards and peer-reviewed journals now generally ask for this information. This study outlines a proposed method for meeting these requirements. The slopes of the dose-response relationships of eight neuromuscular blocking agents were determined using regression analysis. These values were substituted for γ in the Hill equation. When this is done, the coefficient of variation (COV) around the mean value of the ED₅₀ for each drug is easily calculated. Using these values, we performed an a priori one-sample two-tailed t-test of the means to determine the required sample size when the allowable error in the ED₅₀ was varied from ±10-20%. The COV averaged 22% (range 15-27%). We used a COV value of 25% in determining the sample size. If the allowable error in finding the mean ED₅₀ is ±15%, a sample size of 24 is needed to achieve a power of 80%. Increasing 'accuracy' beyond this point requires increasing greater sample sizes (e.g. an 'n' of 37 for a ±12% error). On the basis of the results of this retrospective analysis, a total sample size of not less than 24 subjects should be adequate for determining a neuromuscular blocking drug's clinical potency with a reasonable degree of assurance.

  8. Neuromuscular interactions around the knee in children, adults and elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Mademli, Lida; Patikas, Dimitrios; Kofotolis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Although injury and neuromuscular activation patterns may be common for all individuals, there are certain factors which differentiate neuromuscular activity responses between children, adults and elderly. The purpose of this study is to review recent evidence on age differences in neural activation and muscle balances around the knee when performing single joint movements. Particularly, current evidence indicates that there are some interesting similarities in the neuromuscular mechanisms by which children or the elderly differ compared with adults. Both children and elderly display a lower absolute muscle strength capacity than adults which cannot fully be explained by differences in muscle mass. Quadriceps activation failure is a common symptom of all knee injuries, irrespective of age but it is likely that its effect is more evident in children or adults. While one might expect that antagonist co-activation would differ between age categories, it appears that this is not the case. Although hamstring: quadriceps ratio levels are altered after knee injury, it is not clear whether this is an age specific response. Finally, evidence suggests that both children and the elderly display less stiffness of the quadriceps muscle-tendon unit than adults which affects their knee joint function. PMID:25232523

  9. Bilateral neuromuscular and force differences during a plyometric task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nick B; Scurr, Joanna C

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare the bilateral neuromuscular and force contribution during a plyometric bounce drop jump task and to assess the affects of nonsimultaneous foot placement. Sixteen male participants performed bounce drop jumps from a height of 0.4 m. Mean peak electromyography activity of the soleus, medial, and lateral gastrocnemius of both legs was recorded from each phase of the drop jump and normalized to a reference dynamic muscle action. Resultant ground reaction force, ground contact time, and duration of the drop jumps were recorded from each leg. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare bilateral electromyographic activity, resultant peak ground reaction force, and contact duration. Pearson's correlations (r) ascertained relationships between normalized electromyographic activity and contact time. Significant differences were shown between left and right triceps surae normalized electromyography during precontact and contact40ms (p 0.01). Significant differences were found between normalized soleus electromyography and both gastrocnemii for both legs during precontact (p 0.01). Weak relationships were found between normalized electromyographic activity and nonsimultaneous foot contact (r < 0.2). This study showed differences between left and right triceps surae in neuromuscular strategies engaged in the early stages of a drop jump task. Differences in contact time initiation were present; however, they are not significant enough to cause neuromuscular differences in the plantar flexor muscles.

  10. Neuromuscular signs associated with acute hypophosphatemia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Kimberly N; Day, Thomas K; Wolf, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to describe the successful recognition and management of neuromuscular dysfunction secondary to severe, acute hypophosphatemia in an adult dog with a 2 day history of vomiting, anorexia, and abdominal pain. Radiographs were suggestive of a foreign body obstruction, and surgery was recommended. Resection and anastomosis of the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum was performed. The dog recovered uneventfully, but approximately 36 hr postoperatively, he was found to have significant weakness and muscle tremors that were accompanied by hyperthermia. The only significant abnormality on a serum biochemical profile was a phosphorous level of 0.26 mmol/L. Within 6 hr of initiating phosphorous supplementation, the patient fully recovered and had no residual signs of neuromuscular dysfunction. Signs of neurologic dysfunction secondary to hypophosphatemia are commonly recognized in human patients. Reports of patients with severe muscle weakness, some of which necessitate ventilation due to weakening of muscles of respiration, are common throughout the literature. Less commonly, tremors are noted. This is the first known report of neuromuscular signs recognized and rapidly corrected in a dog. Although it is likely to be uncommon, hypophosphatemia should be recognized as a differential diagnosis in patients with tremors and/or muscle weakness.

  11. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, M de; Verbeeten, Jr, B J

    1988-06-04

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs.

  12. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, M. de; Verbeeten, B.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Utilization of ACL Injury Biomechanical and Neuromuscular Risk Profile Analysis to Determine the Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2016-12-01

    The widespread use of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention interventions has not been effective in reducing the injury incidence among female athletes who participate in high-risk sports. The purpose of this study was to determine if biomechanical and neuromuscular factors that contribute to the knee abduction moment (KAM), a predictor of future ACL injuries, could be used to characterize athletes by a distinct factor. Specifically, we hypothesized that a priori selected biomechanical and neuromuscular factors would characterize participants into distinct at-risk profiles. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 624 female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent testing before their competitive season. During testing, athletes performed drop-jump tasks from which biomechanical measures were captured. Using data from these tasks, latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify distinct profiles based on preintervention biomechanical and neuromuscular measures. As a validation, we examined whether the profile membership was a significant predictor of the KAM. LPA using 6 preintervention biomechanical measures selected a priori resulted in 3 distinct profiles, including a low (profile 1), moderate (profile 2), and high (profile 3) risk for ACL injuries. Athletes with profiles 2 and 3 had a significantly higher KAM compared with those with profile 1 (P risk profiles. Three distinct risk groups were identified based on differences in the peak KAM. These findings demonstrate the existence of discernable groups of athletes that may benefit from injury prevention interventions. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT identifier: NCT01034527. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Performance characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohite

    2016-08-01

    July 10th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Mohite. S, Kumar, S. &  Maji, S.  (2016 Performance  characteristics of mix oil biodiesel blends with smoke emissions. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 163-170. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.163-170 

  15. Neuromuscular Fatigue During 200 M Breaststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Conceição

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: i to analyze activation patterns of four upper limb muscles (duration of the active and non-active phase in each lap of 200m breaststroke, ii quantify neuromuscular fatigue, with kinematics and physiologic assessment. Surface electromyogram was collected for the biceps brachii, deltoid anterior, pectoralis major and triceps brachii of nine male swimmers performing a maximal 200m breaststroke trial. Swimming speed, SL, SR, SI decreased from the 1st to the 3rd lap. SR increased on the 4th lap (35.91 ± 2.99 stroke·min-1. Peak blood lactate was 13.02 ± 1.72 mmol·l-1 three minutes after the maximal trial. The EMG average rectified value (ARV increased at the end of the race for all selected muscles, but the deltoid anterior and pectoralis major in the 1st lap and for biceps brachii, deltoid anterior and triceps brachii in the 4th lap. The mean frequency of the power spectral density (MNF decreased at the 4th lap for all muscles. These findings suggest the occurrence of fatigue at the beginning of the 2nd lap in the 200m breaststroke trial, characterized by changes in kinematic parameters and selective changes in upper limb muscle action. There was a trend towards a non-linear fatigue state.

  16. Knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular control during gait before and after total knee arthroplasty are sex-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Dunbar, Michael J; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    The future of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery will involve planning that incorporates more patient-specific characteristics. Despite known biological, morphological, and functional differences between men and women, there has been little investigation into knee joint biomechanical and neuromuscular differences between men and women with osteoarthritis, and none that have examined sex-specific biomechanical and neuromuscular responses to TKA surgery. The objective of this study was to examine sex-associated differences in knee kinematics, kinetics and neuromuscular patterns during gait before and after TKA. Fifty-two patients with end-stage knee OA (28 women, 24 men) underwent gait and neuromuscular analysis within the week prior to and one year after surgery. A number of sex-specific differences were identified which suggest a different manifestation of end-stage knee OA between the sexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Intrauterine neuromuscular blockade in fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S Z; Huang, F Y; Lin, S Y; Wang, Y P; Hsieh, F J

    1990-03-01

    Antenatal intrauterine fetal therapy has now become the target of numerous invasive diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. Fetal motion during intrauterine fetal therapy not only makes these procedures technically more difficult but also increases the likelihood of trauma to the umbilical vessels and the fetus. Combination of high doses of sedatives, tranquilizers, and narcotics rarely results in adequate suppression of fetal movement. Such medication puts the mother at risk of respiratory depression, regurgitation and aspiration. The use of pancuronium or atracurium to temporarily arrest fetal movement in ten fetus is reported. After an initial ultrasound assessment of fetal lie, placental location, and umbilical cord insertion site, the fetal weight was calculated by the ultrasound parameters of biparietal diameter and abdominal circumference. Under ultrasound guidance, we injected pancuronium 0.15 mg/kg or atracurium 1.0 mg/kg using a 23-gauge spinal needle into the fetal gluteal muscle. Short-term paralysis of the fetus was induced in all cases. Fetal movement stopped by sonographic observation within 5.8 +/- 2.3 min in the pancuronium group and 4.7 +/- 1.8 min in the atracurium group. Fetal movements returned both to maternal sensation or ultrasonic observation by 92 +/- 23 min in the first group and 36 +/- 11 min in the second group. No adverse effect of the relaxant has been observed in any of the mothers. There was no evidence of local soft tissue, nerve or muscle damage at the site of injection on initial examination of the neonates after delivery. The use of neuromuscular relaxant in fetus was a safe and useful method.

  18. Protein defects in neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainzof M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined progressive disorders of the muscle with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from severe congenital forms with rapid progression to milder forms with later onset and a slower course. In recent years, several proteins from the sarcolemmal muscle membrane (dystrophin, sarcoglycans, dysferlin, caveolin-3, from the extracellular matrix (alpha2-laminin, collagen VI, from the sarcomere (telethonin, myotilin, titin, nebulin, from the muscle cytosol (calpain 3, TRIM32, from the nucleus (emerin, lamin A/C, survival motor neuron protein, and from the glycosylation pathway (fukutin, fukutin-related protein have been identified. Mutations in their respective genes are responsible for different forms of neuromuscular diseases. Protein analysis using Western blotting or immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies is of the utmost importance for the differential diagnosis and elucidation of the physiopathology of each genetic disorder involved. Recent molecular studies have shown clinical inter- and intra-familial variability in several genetic disorders highlighting the importance of other factors in determining phenotypic expression and the role of possible modifying genes and protein interactions. Developmental studies can help elucidate the mechanism of normal muscle formation and thus muscle regeneration. In the last fifteen years, our research has focused on muscle protein expression, localization and possible interactions in patients affected by different forms of muscular dystrophies. The main objective of this review is to summarize the most recent findings in the field and our own contribution.

  19. Profile of sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade in the elderly: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carron M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Michele Carron, Francesco Bertoncello, Giovanna Ieppariello Department of Medicine, Anesthesiology, and Intensive Care, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The number of elderly patients is increasing worldwide. This will have a significant impact on the practice of anesthesia in future decades. Anesthesiologists must provide care for an increasing number of elderly patients, who have an elevated risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Complications related to postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade, such as muscle weakness, airway obstruction, hypoxemia, atelectasis, pneumonia, and acute respiratory failure, are more frequent in older than in younger patients. Therefore, neuromuscular blockade in the elderly should be carefully monitored and completely reversed before awakening patients at the end of anesthesia. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are traditionally used for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Although the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade is reduced by reversal with neostigmine, it continues to complicate the postoperative course. Sugammadex represents an innovative approach to reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by aminosteroid neuromuscular-blocking agents, particularly rocuronium, with useful applications in clinical practice. However, aging is associated with certain changes in the pharmacokinetics of sugammadex, and to date there has been no thorough evaluation of the use of sugammadex in elderly patients. The aim of this review was to perform an analysis of the use of sugammadex in older adults based on the current literature. Major issues surrounding the physiologic and pharmacologic effects of aging in elderly patients and how these may impact the routine use of sugammadex in elderly patients are discussed. Keywords: sugammadex, aging, elderly, neuromuscular blockade, rocuronium, anesthesia, safety

  20. Can Knowledge of the Characteristics of "High Performers" Be Generalised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Two managers described as high performing constructed complexity maps of their organization/world. The maps suggested that high performance is socially constructed and negotiated in specific contexts and management competencies associated with it are context specific. Development of high performers thus requires personalized coaching more than…

  1. Prolongation of rapacuronium neuromuscular blockade by clindamycin and magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Paul A; Rasul, Mazhar

    2002-01-01

    We report a prolonged neuromuscular block with the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rapacuronium in the presence of clindamycin. Even when using "short-acting" muscle relaxants, the anesthesiologist must routinely monitor the neuromuscular function.

  2. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Steib, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular training effects on functional, dynamic and static balance measures. Thirty youth (14.9 ± 3 years) field hockey athletes were randomised to an intervention or control group. The intervention included a 20-min neuromuscular warm-up program performed twice weekly for 10 weeks. Balance assessments were performed at baseline, week three, week six and post-intervention. They included the star excursion balance test (SEBT), balance error scoring system (BESS), jump-landing time to stabilization (TTS) and center of pressure (COP) sway velocity during single-leg standing. No baseline differences were found between groups in demographic data and balance measures. Adherence was at 86%. All balance measures except the medial-lateral TTS improved significantly over time (p controls (31.8 ± 22.1%). There were no significant group by time interactions in the SEBT, TTS and COP sway velocity. Neuromuscular training was effective in improving postural control in youth team athletes. However, this effect was not reflected in all balance measures suggesting that the neuromuscular training did not influence all dimensions of postural control. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of specific warm-up programs to improve postural control.

  3. Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.

  4. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of three Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breed affected the weights of internal fat depots. The findings indicate that breed affected the carcass characteristics of the three Ethiopian goat breeds. Keywords: Indigenous goats; carcass yield; carcass composition; primal cuts; non-carcass components. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol. 37 (4) 2007: pp.221- ...

  5. Hearing Instrument using receivers with different performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention regards a signal processing device in a hearing aid, wherein the signal processing device is electrically coupled to a connection socket operable to detachably connect a receiver to the socket and whereby the signal processing device further comprise a detector operable to detect...... a characteristics of the receiver which is connected to the signal processing device through the connection socket....

  6. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride (λ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Development of a discharge-pumped krypton chloride (KrCl) laser operating at 222 nm wavelength is demonstrated. In this paper the design, successful realization and operating characteristics of KrCl excimer laser are reported. The laser is driven by a simple and efficient excitation technique using ...

  7. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  8. performance characteristics of an armature voltage controlled dc motor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    obtained by digital computer analysis. The results show that closed loop operation, with appropriate control ... Using digital computer analysis, the driver characteristics of a test motor is investigated. In the closed loop ... system circuit failure especially with respect to the semiconductor devices that may be used in varying ...

  9. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  10. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R

    2011-01-01

    consisting of isokinetic muscle strength, neuromuscular activation measured with electromyography (EMG), electrically evoked muscle twitch contractile properties, and gait performance (10-m Walk Test and 6-min Walk Test). After the 12-week conditioning program, knee extensor and flexor strength increased...... the effect of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular and functional adaptations in outpatients suffering from hemiparesis after stroke. A within-subject repeated-measures design with the paretic leg as the experimental leg and the nonparetic leg as the control leg was used. Eleven outpatients...... observed in the nonparetic control leg. Gait performance increased 52-68%. In conclusion, intensive physical rehabilitation after stroke leads to clinically relevant neuromuscular improvements, leading to increased voluntary strength during a wide range of contraction modes and velocities, and improved...

  11. MANAGEMENT TEAM CHARACTERISTICS: EVIDENCE FROM UNIVERSITY GOVERNANCE AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Tsai Chiang; Mei-Chih Lin

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines cognition from the viewpoint of internal management teams of private universities against satisfaction with school performance, applying the SEM model. Empirical results show that the board’s operational effectiveness and attendance rate for internal important meetings held on campus have a significantly positive relationship with implementing effectiveness and satisfaction with school administrative performance. The satisfaction with school administrative performance and...

  12. Computed tomography (CT) in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, M.; Ambler, Z.

    1997-01-01

    For 24 patients with confirmed neuromuscular disorders, the clinical picture of the disease was complemented with CT examination. It is concluded, in accordance with the literature, that CT has a supplementary value as regards the extent and degree of disorder of the affected muscle groups. The basic pathological picture includes muscular atrophies, dystrophies, hypertrophies, and their combinations. The CT images are non-specific for the individual neuromuscular disorders and are of minor importance in the diagnostic process. 1 tab., 7 figs., 6 refs

  13. Research highlights of partial neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the latest progression on neuromuscular disorders for clinicians, this review screened and systemized the papers on neuromuscular disorders which were collected by PubMed from January 2013 to February 2014. This review also introduced the clinical diagnosis and treatment hightlights on glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ (GSD Ⅱ, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The important references will be useful for clinicians. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.004

  14. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing AC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of : flexible pavements that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from the Long Term Pavemen...

  15. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing PCC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of concrete pavements (JPCP, JRCP, CRCP) that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from Long...

  16. Variability of Performance: A "Signature" Characteristic of Learning Disabled Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Douglas; And Others

    Two studies were conducted to compare the performance instability of children (grades 3-9) labeled learning disabled/brain injured (LD/BI) to the performance instability of emotionally handicapped (EH) children. In the first study, 50 LD/BI and 37 EH students were measured on three third grade reading passages twice, once within one sitting and…

  17. Poor physician performance in the Netherlands: characteristics, causes, and prevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, M.M.P.G. van den; Wagner, C.; Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Poor physician performance has a profound impact on patient safety and society's trust in the health care system. The attention that this topic has received in the media suggests that it is a large-scale issue. However, research about physician performance is still scant; there is

  18. Neuromuscular disease and respiratory physiology in children: putting lung function into perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauroux, Brigitte; Khirani, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Neuromuscular diseases represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of the muscle, nerve or neuromuscular junction. The respiratory muscles are rarely spared in neuromuscular diseases even if the type of muscle involvement, severity and time course greatly varies among the different diseases. Diagnosis of respiratory muscle weakness is crucial because of the importance of respiratory morbidity and mortality. Presently, routine respiratory evaluation is based on non-invasive volitional tests, such as the measurement of lung volumes, spirometry and the maximal static pressures, which may be difficult or impossible to obtain in some young children. Other tools or parameters are thus needed to assess the respiratory muscle weakness and its consequences in young children. The measurement of oesogastric pressures can be helpful as they allow the diagnosis and quantification of paradoxical breathing, as well as the assessment of the strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles by means of the oesophageal pressure during a maximal sniff and of the gastric pressure during a maximal cough. Sleep assessment should also be part of the respiratory evaluation of children with neuromuscular disease with at least the recording of nocturnal gas exchange if polysomnography is not possible or unavailable. This improvement in the assessment of respiratory muscle performance may increase our understanding of the respiratory pathophysiology of the different neuromuscular diseases, improve patient care, and guide research and innovative therapies by identifying and validating respiratory parameters. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. A Dutch guideline for the treatment of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titarsolej PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with neuromuscular disorders with a progressive muscle weakness such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy frequently develop a progressive scoliosis. A severe scoliosis compromises respiratory function and makes sitting more difficult. Spinal surgery is considered the primary treatment option for correcting severe scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. Surgery in this population requires a multidisciplinary approach, careful planning, dedicated surgical procedures, and specialized after care. Methods The guideline is based on scientific evidence and expert opinions. A multidisciplinary working group representing experts from all relevant specialties performed the research. A literature search was conducted to collect scientific evidence in answer to specific questions posed by the working group. Literature was classified according to the level of evidence. Results For most aspects of the treatment scientific evidence is scarce and only low level cohort studies were found. Nevertheless, a high degree of consensus was reached about the management of patients with scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. This was translated into a set of recommendations, which are now officially accepted as a general guideline in the Netherlands. Conclusion In order to optimize the treatment for scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders a Dutch guideline has been composed. This evidence-based, multidisciplinary guideline addresses conservative treatment, the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders.

  20. Performance ratio hardness characteristics polystyrene-metal composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, V.F.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Lytvynenko, V.V.; Zakharchenko, A.A.; Hazhmuradov, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The methods of measuring the hardness of layered polystyrene-metallic composite materials. It is proposed to use powder-like tungsten and powder-like steel as radiation-protective layer. A measurement of the hardness of composites of different composition, and given its dependence on the particle size and their form. The possibility of increasing the hardness of the composites reinforced with metallic additives. Radiation-protective characteristics were calculated for the studied species of composite materials. Influence of the quantitative composition of the metal components is studied on the change of the absorbed dose of gamma radiation

  1. the steady-state performance characteristics of single phase transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... field (SPTF) machine operating in the asynchronous mode from which the performance charac- teristics could be ... motor from a poly-phase induction motor by discon- necting one of its .... tating magnetic field. The pulsating ...

  2. Investigation of transfer characteristics of high performance graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Gunasekaran; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we attempted a study on field effect transport characteristics of graphene flakes. These graphene flakes were exfoliated by mechanical peeling-off technique and the electrical contacts were patterned by photo-lithographic method. Graphene devices have shown better transfer characteristics which was obtained even in low-voltage (graphene transistors were patterned on oxidized silicon wafers. A clear n-type to p-type transition at Dirac point and higher electron drain-current modulation in positive back-gate field with current minimum (the Dirac point) were observed at V(GS) = -1.7 V. The carrier mobility was determined from the measured transconductance. The transconductance of the graphene transistors was observed as high as 18.6 microS with a channel length of 68 microm. A maximum electron mobility of 1870 +/- 143 cm2/V x s and hole mobility of 1050 +/- 35 cm2/V x s were achieved at a drain bias 2.1 V which are comparatively higher values among reported for mechanically exfoliated graphene using lithographic method. The fabricated devices also sustained with high-current density for 40 hr in continuous operation without any change in device resistance, which could be applied for robust wiring applications.

  3. Running Economy: Neuromuscular and Joint Stiffness Contributions in Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Tucker, Ross; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Prins, Danielle; Lamberts, Robert P

    2018-05-29

    It is debated whether running biomechanics make good predictors of running economy, with little known information about the neuromuscular and joint stiffness contributions to economical running gait. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between certain neuromuscular and spatiotemporal biomechanical factors associated with running economy. Thirty trained runners performed a 6-minute constant-speed running set at 3.3 m∙s -1 , where oxygen consumption was assessed. Overground running trials were also performed at 3.3 m∙s -1 to assess kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity. Spatiotemporal gait variables, joint stiffness, pre-activation and stance phase muscle activity (gluteus medius; rectus femoris (RF); biceps femoris(BF); peroneus longus (PL); tibialis anterior (TA); gastrocnemius lateralis and medius (LG and MG) were variables of specific interest and thus determined. Additionally, pre-activation and ground contact of agonist:antagonist co-activation were calculated. More economical runners presented with short ground contact times (r=0.639, p<0.001) and greater strides frequencies (r=-0.630, p<0.001). Lower ankle and greater knee stiffness were associated with lower oxygen consumption (r=0.527, p=0.007 & r=0.384, p=0.043, respectively). Only LG:TA co-activation during stance were associated with lower oxygen cost of transport (r=0.672, p<0.0001). Greater muscle pre-activation and bi-articular muscle activity during stance were associated with more economical runners. Consequently, trained runners who exhibit greater neuromuscular activation prior to and during ground contact, in turn optimise spatiotemporal variables and joint stiffness, will be the most economical runners.

  4. [Impact of a quality assurance program on the use of neuromuscular monitoring and reversal of muscle relaxants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, C; Bourgain, J-L

    2009-04-01

    As part of a quality assurance in the anaesthesia department, this study was designed to enhance the rate of neuromuscular blockade monitoring for patients receiving muscle relaxant during anaesthesia. After approval of our local ethical committee, we assessed 200 computerized anaesthesia records in which neuromuscular relaxants were used. The following data were collected: demographic characteristics, durations of anaesthesia and surgery, use of neuromuscular monitoring, reversal agents and the quality of neuromuscular monitoring. The results were discussed with all anaesthesia providers of the department and an internal guideline was elaborated with the endpoint that all patients having muscle relaxants should have quantitative neuromuscular monitoring. Six months later, another assessment of 200 consecutive records collected the same data to check the efficiency of the elaborated guideline. The monitoring rate was of 67% at the first assessment and increased to 94% (passessment and was stable at the second assessment (50%). The rate of patients not monitored and not reversed decreased from 5 to 2% (pquality assurance program systematic quantitative monitoring of neuromuscular blockade can be significantly increased.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics and heat radiation performance of sportswear fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, H.; Hiratsuka, M.; Ito, S.; Konno, A.

    2017-10-01

    Sports such as swimming, speed skating, and marathon are sports competing for time. In recent years, reduction of the fluid drag of sportswear is required for these competitions in order to improve the record. In addition, sweating and discomfort due to body temperature rise during competition are thought to affect competitor performance, and heat radiation performance is also an important factor for sportswear. The authors have measured fluid force drag by wrapping cloth around a cylinder and have confirmed their differences due to the roughness of the fabric surface, differences in sewing. The authors could be verified the drag can be reduced by the position of the wear stitch. This time, we measured the heat radiation performance of 14 types of cloths whose aero dynamic properties are known using cylinders which are regarded as human fuselages, and found elements of cloth with heat radiation performance. It was found to be important for raising the heat radiation performance of sportswear that the fabric is thin and flat surface processing.

  6. The Role of Neuromuscular Changes in Aging and Knee Osteoarthritis on Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G.; Garland, S. Jayne; Hunt, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint condition, with 30% of those over the age of 75 exhibiting severe radiographic disease. Nearly 50% of those with knee OA have experienced a fall in the past year. Falls are a considerable public health concern, with a high risk of serious injury and a significant socioeconomic impact. The ability to defend against a fall relies on adequate dynamic postural control, and alterations in dynamic postural control are seen with normal aging. Neuromuscular changes associated with aging may be responsible for some of these alterations in dynamic postural control. Even greater neuromuscular deficits, which may impact dynamic postural control and the ability to defend against a fall, are seen in people with knee OA. There is little evidence to date on how knee OA affects the ability to respond to and defend against falls and the neuromuscular changes that contribute to balance deficits. As a result, this review will: summarize the key characteristics of postural responses to an external perturbation, highlight the changes in dynamic postural control seen with normal aging, review the neuromuscular changes associated with aging that have known and possible effects on dynamic postural control, and summarize the neuromuscular changes and balance problems in knee OA. Future research to better understand the role of neuromuscular changes in knee OA and their effect on dynamic postural control will be suggested. Such an understanding is critical to the successful creation and implementation of fall prevention and treatment programs, in order to reduce the excessive risk of falling in knee OA. PMID:23696951

  7. Effects of Muscle Fatigue, Creep, and Musculoskeletal Pain on Neuromuscular Responses to Unexpected Perturbation of the Trunk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Jacques; Lardon, Arnaud; Boivin, Frédéric; Dugas, Claude; Descarreaux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Trunk neuromuscular responses have been shown to adapt under the influence of muscle fatigue, as well as spinal tissue creep or even with the presence of low back pain (LBP). Despite a large number of studies exploring how these external perturbations affect the spinal stability, characteristics of such adaptations remains unclear. Aim: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of evidence of studies investigating trunk neuromuscular responses to unexpected trunk perturbation. More specifically, the targeted neuromuscular responses were trunk muscle activity reflex and trunk kinematics under the influence of muscle fatigue, spinal creep, and musculoskeletal pain. Methods: A research of the literature was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, and Sport-Discus databases using terms related to trunk neuromuscular reflex responses, measured by electromyography (baseline activity, reflex latency, and reflex amplitude) and/or trunk kinematic, in context of unexpected external perturbation. Moreover, independent variables must be either trunk muscle fatigue or spinal tissue creep or LBP. All included articles were scored for their electromyography methodology based on the "Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscles (SENIAM)" and the "International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK)" recommendations whereas overall quality of articles was scored using a specific quality checklist modified from the Quality Index. Meta-analysis was performed on reflex latency variable. Results: A final set of 29 articles underwent quality assessments. The mean quality score was 79%. No effect of muscle fatigue on erector spinae reflex latency following an unexpected perturbation, nor any other distinctive effects was found for back muscle fatigue and reflex parameters. As for spinal tissue creep effects, no alteration was found for any of the trunk reflex variables. Finally, the meta-analysis revealed an increased erector

  8. Sugammadex Improves Neuromuscular Function in Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... aminoglycosides), history of allergy to neuromuscular blocking agents, opioids or other drugs, and alcohol and drug dependence. Patients were divided into two ... titration microcalorimetry investigated the likelihood of the formation of complexes between sugammadex and other steroidal and nonsteroidal ...

  9. Neuromuscular transmission: new concepts and agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de

    2009-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first selective relaxant binding agent which was originally designed to reverse the steroidal NMB drug rocuronium. The results of recent studies demonstrate that sugammadex is effective for reversal of rocuronium and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block without apparent

  10. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping

  11. Performance characteristics and blood profile of West African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A twelve week trial was investigated to evaluate performance and blood profile of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed malted sorghum sprout with pineapple waste (MSPW) based diet. The malted sorghum sprout and pineapple waste was at ratio 1:2 (weight/weight) respectively. Sixteen WAD goats with average initial ...

  12. Job characteristics, flow, and performance : the moderating role of conscientiousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.

    2006-01-01

    The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was

  13. Performance gaps in energy consumption : household groups and building characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brom, P.I.; Meijer, A.; Visscher, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The difference between actual and calculated energy is called the ‘energy-performance gap’. Possible explanations for this gap are construction mistakes, improper adjusting of equipment, excessive simplification in simulation models and occupant behaviour. Many researchers and governmental

  14. Performance and carcass characteristics of Japanese quail as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sex and the supplementation of the prebiotic, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), the acidifier, calcium propionate (CPr) or their combination in the feed of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) on their performance and carcass quality was examined in this experimentation. Three hundred, 1-day old Japanese quail ...

  15. Southern hemisphere coal characteristics and their impact on plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y Y; Dickson, A J; Lowe, A; Pearson, J M; Pitman, B L; Semark, P M [Taiwan Power Company (Taiwan)

    1992-09-01

    The paper reports performance information of specific utilities fired by coal mined in the Southern Hemisphere. It includes information from Pacific Power Services, Australia, the China Light and Power Company, Hong Kong, the Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan, and the South Africa Electricity Power Company, South Africa. 12 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Sibsize, Family Environment, Cognitive Performance, and Affective Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    1976-01-01

    Incorporates measures of family environment (parent-child interaction) into research methodology to study the effects of sibsize (family size and birth order) on a child's cognitive performance and affective behavior. Provides tentative support for the confluence model of sibsize influences on children's behaviors. (RL)

  17. PGF2α induced estrus characteristics and reproductive performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structured questionnaire and a field survey were applied on a total of 200 randomly selected households. ... Records of animal identification, parameters of reproductive performance such as weaning age and age at puberty, litter size, kidding interval (KI), the type of management practice and clinical parameters were taken ...

  18. PWR and WWER fuel performance. A comparison of major characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    2006-01-01

    PWR and WWER fuel technologies have the same basic performance targets: most effective use of the energy stored in the fuel and highest possible reliability. Both fuel technologies use basically the same strategies to reach these targets: 1) Optimized reload strategies; 2) Maximal use of structural material with low neutron cross sections; 3) Decrease the fuel failure frequency towards a 'zero failure' performance by understanding and eliminating the root causes of those defects. The key driving force of the technology of both, PWR and WWER fuel is high burn-up. Presently a range of 45 - 50 MWD/kgU have been reached commercially for PWR and WWER fuel. The main technical limitations to reach high burn-up are typically different for PWR and WWER fuel: for PWR fuel it is the corrosion and hydrogen uptake of the Zr-based materials; for WWER fuel it is the mechanical and dimensional stability of the FA (and the whole core). Corrosion and hydrogen uptake of Zr-materials is a 'non-problem' for WWER fuel. Other performance criteria that are important for high burn-up are the creep and growth behaviour of the Zr materials and the fission gas release in the fuel rod. There exists a good and broad data base to model and design both fuel types. FA and fuel rod vibration appears to be a generic problem for both fuel types but with more evidence for PWR fuel performance reliability. Grid-to-rod fretting is still a major issue in the fuel failure statistics of PWR fuel. Fuel rod cladding defects by debris fretting is no longer a key problem for PWR fuel, while it still appears to be a significant root cause for WWER fuel failures. 'Zero defect' fuel performance is achievable with a high probability, as statistics for US PWR and WWER-1000 fuel has shown

  19. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    ) for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare AMG and MMG for establishing dose-response relationship and potency, using rocuronium as an example. METHODS: We included 40 adult patients in this randomized-controlled single-dose response study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol...... and opioid. Neuromuscular blockade was induced with rocuronium 100, 150, 200 or 250 microg/kg. Neuromuscular monitoring was performed with AMG (TOF-Watch SX) with pre-load (Hand Adapter) at one arm and MMG (modified TOF-Watch SX) on the other, using 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation. Dose...

  20. Suns-VOC characteristics of high performance kesterite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Oki; Gokmen, Tayfun; Mitzi, David B.

    2014-08-01

    Low open circuit voltage (VOC) has been recognized as the number one problem in the current generation of Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells. We report high light intensity and low temperature Suns-VOC measurement in high performance CZTSSe devices. The Suns-VOC curves exhibit bending at high light intensity, which points to several prospective VOC limiting mechanisms that could impact the VOC, even at 1 sun for lower performing samples. These VOC limiting mechanisms include low bulk conductivity (because of low hole density or low mobility), bulk or interface defects, including tail states, and a non-ohmic back contact for low carrier density CZTSSe. The non-ohmic back contact problem can be detected by Suns-VOC measurements with different monochromatic illuminations. These limiting factors may also contribute to an artificially lower JSC-VOC diode ideality factor.

  1. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  2. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; McInturff, A.; Savord, T.; Tool, G.

    1993-05-01

    The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

  3. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Dombeck, T.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; McInturff, A.; Savord, T.; Tool, G.

    1993-01-01

    The string test facility was constructed to provide a development test bed for the arc regions of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). Significant effort has been devoted to the development and testing of superconducting magnets, spools, and accelerator control systems required for the SSC. The string test facility provides the necessary environment required to evaluate the operational performance of these components as they are configured as an accelerator lens in the collider. This discussion will review the results of high current testing of the string conducted to evaluate magnet element uniformity and compatibility, the splice resistance used to connect the magnets, and system response to various quench conditions. Performance results of the spools, energy bypass systems, energy dump, and the power supply system are also discussed

  4. The HARP resistive plate chambers: Characteristics and physics performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.; Boyko, I.; Chelkov, G.; Dedovitch, D.; Dumps, R.; Dydak, F.; Elagin, A.; Gapienko, V.; Gostkin, M.; Guskov, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Koreshev, V.; Linssen, L.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nikolaev, K.; Semak, A.; Sviridov, Yu.; Usenko, E.; Wotschack, J.; Zaets, V.; Zhemchugov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The HARP Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) system was designed for time-of-flight measurement in the large-angle acceptance region of the HARP spectrometer. It comprised 46 four-gap glass RPCs covering an area of ∼8m 2 . The design of the RPCs, their operation, intrinsic properties, and system performance are described. The intrinsic time resolution of the RPCs is better than 130ps leading to a system time resolution of ∼175ps

  5. The performance characteristics of groundnut ( Arachis hypogea , L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethyl-esters were blended with automotive gas oil at (0 to 20%) mix with 5% increment of groundnut ethyl-esters to produce biodiesel. The performance of a 2.46 kW diesel engine was evaluated using the groundnut biodiesel at five loading conditions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full load). Automotive gas oil was used as ...

  6. The characteristics and performance of international joint ventures in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannarat, P

    2010-01-01

    The importance of strategic alliances in the form of international joint ventures (IJVs) is growing in the present international business environment where competition is on a global scale. A review of the IJV literature, especially in developing countries, shows an over-emphasis on China and the NIEs (the first tier newly-industrialising economies: Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea). To date, relatively little attention has been paid to the ASEAN4 countries (the high-performing e...

  7. Adaptation and learning: characteristic time scales of performance dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Karl M; Mayer-Kress, Gottfried; Hong, S Lee; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2009-12-01

    A multiple time scales landscape model is presented that reveals structures of performance dynamics that were not resolved in the traditional power law analysis of motor learning. It shows the co-existence of separate processes during and between practice sessions that evolve in two independent dimensions characterized by time scales that differ by about an order of magnitude. Performance along the slow persistent dimension of learning improves often as much and sometimes more during rest (memory consolidation and/or insight generation processes) than during a practice session itself. In contrast, the process characterized by the fast, transient dimension of adaptation reverses direction between practice sessions, thereby significantly degrading performance at the beginning of the next practice session (warm-up decrement). The theoretical model fits qualitatively and quantitatively the data from Snoddy's [Snoddy, G. S. (1926). Learning and stability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 10, 1-36] classic learning study of mirror tracing and other averaged and individual data sets, and provides a new account of the processes of change in adaptation and learning. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of sprint performance in college football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechue, William F; Mayhew, Jerry L; Piper, Fontaine C

    2010-05-01

    To investigate sprinting strategy, acceleration and velocity patterns were determined in college football players (n = 61) during performance of a 9.1-, 36.6-, and 54.9-m sprints. Acceleration and velocity were determined at 9.1-m intervals during each sprint. Lower-body strength and power were evaluated by 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) squat, power clean, jerk, vertical jump, standing long jump, and standing triple jump. Sprint times averaged 1.78 +/- 0.11 seconds (9.1 m), 5.18 +/- 0.35 seconds (36.6 m), and 7.40 +/- 0.53 seconds. Acceleration peaked at 9.1 m (2.96 +/- 0.44 m x s(-2)), was held constant at 18.3 m (3.55 +/- 0.0.94 m x s(-2)), and was negative at 27.4 m (-1.02 +/- 0.72 m x s(-2)). Velocity peaked at 18.3 m (8.38 +/- 0.65 m x s(-2)) and decreased slightly, but significantly at 27.4 m (7.55 +/- 0.66 m x s(-2)), associated with the negative acceleration. Measures of lower-body strength were significantly related to acceleration, velocity, and sprint performance only when corrected for body mass. Lower-body strength/BM and power correlated highest with 36.6-m time (rs = -0.55 to -0.80) and with acceleration (strength r = 0.67-0.49; power r = 0.73-0.81) and velocity (strength r = 0.68-0.53; power r = 0.74-0.82) at 9.1 m. Sprint times and strength per body mass were significantly lower in lineman compared with linebackers-tight ends and backs. The acceleration and velocity patterns were the same for each position group, and differences in sprint time were determined by the magnitude of acceleration and velocity at 9.1 and 18.3 m. Sprint performance in football players is determined by a rapid increase in acceleration (through 18.3 m) and a high velocity maintained throughout the sprint and is independent of position played. The best sprint performances (independent of sprint distance) appear to be related to the highest initial acceleration (through 18.3 m) and highest attained and maintained velocity. Strength relative to body mass and power appears to

  9. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT anti-HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Gesa; Pelzer, Claudia; Beckert, Christian; Hausmann, Michael; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2005-10-01

    The ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay is a fully automated high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). To further enhance the performance of this test, the assay was modified to improve the specificity for blood donor specimens. The specificity of the enhanced ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay was evaluated by screening blood donor samples randomly collected from various German blood banks, as well as hospitalized patient samples derived from Germany and the US. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels and on a commercially available worldwide anti-HCV genotype performance panel. Apparent specificity of the modified ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay in a blood donor population consisting of 3811 specimens was 99.92%, compared to 99.76% for the current on-market assay. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels. Seroconversion sensitivity equivalent to or better than the current on-market product was observed by testing 33 seroconversion panels. This study demonstrates that the modified version of the ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay shows improved specificity for blood donor specimens compared to the current assay on market without compromising sensitivity. With the availability of the improved ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay and the recent launch of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, the ARCHITECT system now offers a full hepatitis/retrovirus menu with excellent performance on a high throughput, random access, automated analyzer, ideally suited for blood screening and diagnostic applications.

  10. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  11. Performance characteristics of a horizontal axis turbine with fusion winglet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Sun, Xiaojing; Wang, Ying; Huang, Diangui

    2017-01-01

    Any technique or method that can improve the efficiency in exploiting renewable wind or marine current energy has got a great significance today. It has been reported that adding a winglet at the tip of the rotor blades on a horizontal axis wind turbine can increase its power performance. The purpose of this paper is to adopt a numerical method to investigate the effects of different winglet configurations on turbine performance, especially focusing on the direction for the winglet tip to point towards (the suction side, pressure side or both sides of the main blade). The results show that the new design of an integrated fusion winglet proposed in this paper can generally improve the main blade's power producing ability, which is further enhanced with the increase of turbine's tip speed ratio with a maximum power augmentation of about 3.96%. No matter which direction the winglet tip faces, the installation angle of the winglet should match well with the real angle of incoming flow. As a whole, the turbine with winglet of two tips facing to both sides of the main blade can produce much more power than the one of winglet configuration whose tip faces only one side for different blade hub pitch angles and vast majority of tip speed ratios. The working principle behind the winglet in improving turbine performance may be that it can block the downwash fluid easily flowing around the tip section of the main blade from the pressure side to suction side, and hence diffuse and spread out the tip vortex. As a result, it finally decreases the energy loss. Besides, the relative projected rotor area in incoming flow direction will also be reduced due to the addition of the winglet, which is also helpful to turbine's power coefficient. - Highlights: • Added winglet generally increase the turbine energy extraction performance. • Winglet facing blade both sides is usually superior to that of facing one side. • Winglet can isolate downwash fluid easily flowing

  12. Performance characteristics of ZLC 37 Siemens gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgadir, Wafaa Abdelrahman

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between the ZLC 37 Siemens γ camera parameters (energy resolution, plane sensitivity, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic resolution, system uniformity and system resolution) and diagnostic imaging performance was investigated. These parameters when computers when compared with internationally published data showed that the ZLC 37 Siemens γ cameras is in good operative conditions. The effect of the scattering media and WW on the spatial resolution, when the distance is kept fixed were investigated. Comparison of resolution for the media (air, water, water + radioactivity when using WW (10, 15,20%) showed that the resolution is best for air, better for water and worse for water + radioactivity up to a concentration of 8% for a 10% WW. (Author)

  13. Performance characteristics of ZLC 37 Siemens gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelgadir, Wafaa Abdelrahman [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1994-04-01

    The relationships between the ZLC 37 Siemens {gamma} camera parameters (energy resolution, plane sensitivity, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic resolution, system uniformity and system resolution) and diagnostic imaging performance was investigated. These parameters when computers when compared with internationally published data showed that the ZLC 37 Siemens {gamma} cameras is in good operative conditions. The effect of the scattering media and WW on the spatial resolution, when the distance is kept fixed were investigated. Comparison of resolution for the media (air, water, water + radioactivity) when using WW (10, 15,20%) showed that the resolution is best for air, better for water and worse for water + radioactivity up to a concentration of 8% for a 10% WW. (Author) 28 refs. , 10 tabs. , 22 figs. Also available from the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (SD)

  14. Electrical performance characteristics of the SSC Accelerator System String Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, W.; Burgett, W.; Gannon, J.; Kraushaar, P.; Mcinturff, A.; Nehring, R.; Saladin, V.; Savord, T.; Sorrensen, G.; Smellie, R.; Tool, G.; Voy, D.

    1993-05-01

    The intent of the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) is to obtain data for model verification and information on the magnitudes of pressures and voltages encountered in an accelerator environment. The ASST milestone run was achieved during July and August, 1992 and consisted of demonstrating the accelerator components could be configured together as a system operating at full current. Following the milestone run, the string was warmed to counteract some design flaws that impeded the operational range. The string was again cooled to cryogenic temperatures in October, and a comprehensive power testing program was conducted through the end of January, 1993. This paper describes how the collider arc components operate in an accelerator environment during quenches induced by firing both strip heaters and spot heaters. Evaluation of the data illustrates how variations in the design parameters on magnets used in a string environment can impact system performance

  15. Performance characteristics of a methanol ejector refrigeration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexis, G.K.; Katsanis, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavior of methanol through an ejector operating in a refrigeration system with a medium temperature thermal source. For detailed calculation of the proposed system, a method has been developed, which employs analytical functions describing the thermodynamic properties of methanol. The proposed cycle has been compared with a Carnot cycle working at the same temperature levels. The influences of three major parameters, generator, condenser and evaporator temperatures, on ejector efficiency and coefficient of performance are discussed. Also, the maximum value of COP was estimated by correlation of the above three temperatures for constant superheated temperature 150 deg. C, and it was 0.139-0.467. The design conditions were generator temperature 117.7-132.5 deg. C, condenser temperature 42-50 deg. C and evaporator temperature -10-5 deg. C

  16. Is there any relationship between orthotic usage and functional activities in children with neuromuscular disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemdaroğlu, İpek; Gür, Gozde; Bek, Nilgün; Yilmaz, Öznur T; Yakut, Yavuz; Uygur, Fatma; Karaduman, Ayşe

    2014-02-01

    Contractures of Achilles tendons and gastrocnemius muscle deteriorate the performance in daily living activities of patients with neuromuscular diseases. Ankle-foot orthoses help to prevent the progression of deformities and to obtain optimal position of the joints to support standing and walking. To investigate the relationship between orthotic usage and functional activities in pediatric patients with different neuromuscular diseases. Retrospective study. A total of 127 subjects' physical assessment forms were analyzed. Functional level, type of orthoses, falling frequencies, ankle joint range of motion, and timed performance tests were examined in two consecutive dates with an interval of 3 months. A total of 91 patients were using orthoses while 36 patients were not within assessment dates. A total of 64 of 91 (70.3%) patients were diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A total of 81 (89.0%) subjects were using plastic ankle-foot orthoses for positioning at nights and 10 (11%) were using different types of the orthoses (knee-ankle-foot orthoses, dynamic ankle-foot orthoses, and so on) for gait in the study group. Night ankle-foot orthoses were not found to be effective directly on functional performance in children with neuromuscular diseases, although they protect ankle from contractures and may help to correct gait and balance. This retrospective study shows that the positive effects of using an ankle-foot orthosis at night are not reflected in the functional performance of children with neuromuscular diseases. This may be due to the progressive deteriorating nature of the disease.

  17. The Effect of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation on Learning Fine Motor Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahabi Kaseb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preparation of neuromuscular system prior to performing motor skills affects the learning of motor skills. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF on limb coordination and accuracy in dart throwing skill. Methods: Thirty two male students were randomly selected as study sample. Based on the pretest scores, the participants were divided into three groups: experimental (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, first control (without warm-up, and second control (specific warm-up. During the acquisition phase, the participants first performed the preparation training related to their own group, then all groups performed the exercise program of dart throwing consisting of 6 blocks of 9 trials in 4 training sessions. Finally, 20 days following the last exercise session, the subjects took the retention and transfer tests. Results: The results of one-way ANOVA test for coordination variable in acquisition test showed no significant difference between the groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups regarding coordination variable in retention and transfer tests. Furthermore, the results of one-way ANOVA for the accuracy variable in acquisition and retention tests showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between groups for accuracy variable in transfer test. Conclusion: It seems that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, as a preparation method before performance, can enhance the efficacy of training to better learn the coordination pattern of fine motor skills.

  18. Effect of a neuromuscular training program on the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jonathan D; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2008-06-01

    Altered motor control strategies are a proposed cause of the female athlete's increased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Injury prevention programs have shown promising results in decreasing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. To evaluate the effect of the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Modified Neuromuscular Training Program on the biomechanics of select jumping tasks in the female collegiate athlete. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer and basketball players performed vertical jump, hopping tests, and 2 jumping tasks (drop jump and stop jump). All subjects completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program with core strengthening and plyometric training. Three-dimensional motion analysis and force plate data were used to compare the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks before and after training. Dynamic knee valgus moment during the stance phase of stop jump tasks decreased after completion of the neuromuscular training program (P = .04), but differences were not observed for the drop jump. Initial knee flexion (P = .003) and maximum knee flexion (P = .006) angles increased during the stance phase of drop jumps after training, but differences were not observed for the stop jump. The athletes showed improved performance in vertical jump (P training program improved select athletic performance measures and changed movement patterns during jumping tasks in the subject population. The use of this neuromuscular training program could potentially modify the collegiate athlete's motion strategies, improve performance, and lower the athlete's risk for injury.

  19. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single...... than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing...

  20. Influence of course characteristics, student characteristics, and behavior in learning management systems on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course

  1. Separator Characteristics for Increasing Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2009-11-01

    Two challenges for improving the performance of air cathode, single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) include increasing Coulombic efficiency (CE) and decreasing internal resistance. Nonbiodegradable glass fiber separators between the two electrodes were shown to increase power and CE, compared to cloth separators (J-cloth) that were degraded over time. MFCtestswereconductedusing glass fibermatswith thicknesses of 1.0mm (GF1) or 0.4 mm (GF0.4), a cation exchange membrane (CEM), and a J-cloth (JC), using reactors with different configurations. Higher power densities were obtained with either GF1 (46 ± 4 W/m3) or JC (46 ± 1 W/m3) in MFCs with a 2 cm electrode spacing, when the separator was placed against the cathode (S-configuration), rather than MFCs with GF0.4 (36 ± 1 W/m3) or CEM (14 ± 1 W/m3). Power was increased to 70 ± 2 W/m3 by placing the electrodes on either side of the GF1 separator (single separator electrode assembly, SSEA) and further to 150 ± 6 W/m3 using two sets of electrodes spaced 2 cm a part (double separator electrode assembly, DSEA). Reducing the DSEA electrode spacing to 0.3 cm increased power to 696 ± 26 W/m3 as a result of a decrease in the ohmic resistance from 5.9 to 2.2 Ω. The main advantages of a GF1 separator compared to JC were an improvement in the CE from 40% to 81% (S-configuration), compared to only 20-40% for JC under similar conditions, and the fact that GF1 was not biodegradable. The high CE for the GF1 separator was attributed to a low oxygen mass transfer coefficient (ko ) 5.0 x 10-5 cm/s). The GF1 andJCmaterials differed in the amount of biomass that accumulated on the separator and its biodegradability, which affected long-term power production and oxygen transport. These results show that materials and mass transfer properties of separators are important factors for improving power densities, CE, and long-term performance of MFCs. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  2. Runway drainage characteristics related to tire friction performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The capability of a runway pavement to rapidly drain water buildup during periods of precipitation is crucial to minimize tire hydroplaning potential and maintain adequate aircraft ground operational safety. Test results from instrumented aircraft, ground friction measuring vehicles, and NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) track have been summarized to indicate the adverse effects of pavement wetness conditions on tire friction performance. Water drainage measurements under a range of rainfall rates have been evaluated for several different runway surface treatments including the transversely grooved and longitudinally grinded concrete surfaces at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The major parameters influencing drainage rates and extent of flooding/drying conditions are identified. Existing drainage test data are compared to a previously derived empirical relationship and the need for some modification is indicated. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed toward improving empirical relationships to properly define runway drainage capability and consequently, enhance aircraft ground operational safety, is given.

  3. Performance characteristics of the novel PETRRA positron camera

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, R J; Erlandsson, K; Reader, A; Duxbury, D; Bateman, J; Stephenson, R; Spill, E

    2002-01-01

    The PETRRA positron camera consists of two 60 cmx40 cm annihilation photon detectors mounted on a rotating gantry. Each detector contains large BaF sub 2 scintillators interfaced to large area multiwire proportional chambers filled with a photo-sensitive vapour (tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-ethylene). The spatial resolution of the camera has been measured as 6.5+-1.0 mm FWHM throughout the sensitive field-of-view (FoV), the timing resolution is between 7 and 10 ns FWHM and the detection efficiency for annihilation photons is approx 30% per detector. The count-rates obtained, from a 20 cm diameter by 11 cm long water filled phantom containing 90 MBq of sup 1 sup 8 F, were approx 1.25x10 sup 6 singles and approx 1.1x10 sup 5 cps raw coincidences, limited only by the read-out system dead-time of approx 4 mu s. The count-rate performance, sensitivity and large FoV make the camera ideal for whole-body imaging in oncology.

  4. Effects of Zeolite (Clinoptelolite on Performance Characteristics of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hassan Abadim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 70-days experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of natural zeolite (clinoptelolite on the performance of commercial laying hens. 288 Hy-Line W36 strain laying hens (50 weeks old were allotted to 6 dietary treatments including basal diet as control and basal diet supplemented with 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% zeolite that were fed ad -libitum throughout the experiment. Experimental diets for the 6 treatments were prepared to be iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. A completely randomized design with six treatments, eight replicates of six birds per replicate was used at this experiment. Daily feed intake (DFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, egg production, egg weight, egg white quality, eggshell quality (thickness and percentage and body weight changes were measured during the experiment. Results of this experiment showed that DFI, FCR, egg production and egg abnormality were not significantly (P>0.05 affected by zeolite supplementation. Zeolite supplementation significantly increased egg weight, eggshell thickness and live body weight gain of the hens. Dietary zeolite significantly decreased haugh unit of the eggs. In conclusion, natural zeolite significantly improved egg weight and eggshell quality, decreased haugh unit and live weight gain, and had no significant effects on other parameters.

  5. Neuromuscular blockade in children Bloqueadores neuromusculares em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fernando Lourenço de Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs have been widely used to control patients who need to be immobilized for some kind of medical intervention, such as an invasive procedure or synchronism with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this monograph is to review the pharmacology of the NMBAs, to compare the main differences between the neuromuscular junction in neonates, infants, toddlers and adults, and moreover to discuss their indications in critically ill pediatric patients. Continuous improvement of knowledge about NMBAs pharmacology, adverse effects, and the many other remaining unanswered questions about neuromuscular junction and neuromuscular blockade in children is essential for the correct use of these drugs. Therefore, the indication of these agents in pediatrics is determined with extreme judiciousness. Computorized (Medline 1990-2000 and active search of articles were the mechanisms used in this review.Os bloqueadores neuromusculares têm sido amplamente utilizados para controlar pacientes que necessitem imobilidade para algum tipo de intervenção médica, desde a realização de procedimentos invasivos até a obtenção de sincronismo com a ventilação mecânica. O objetivo básico desta monografia é revisar a farmacologia dos principais bloqueadores neuromusculares, analisar as diferenças existentes na junção neuromuscular de neonatos, lactentes, pré-escolares e adultos, além de discutir suas indicações em pacientes criticamente enfermos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Revisão computadorizada da literatura (Medline 1990-2000 associado a busca ativa de artigos compuseram o mecanismo de busca dos dados desta revisão.

  6. NEUROMUSCULAR CONTROL IN LUMBAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Leinonen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Impaired motor and sensory functions have been associated with low back pain (LBP. This includes disturbances in a wide range of sensorimotor control e.g. sensory dysfunctions, impaired postural responses and psychomotor control. However, the physiological mechanisms, clinical relevance and characteristics of these findings in different spinal pathologies require further clarification. The purposes of this study were to investigate postural control, lumbar muscle function, movement perception and associations between these findings in healthy volunteers (n=35, patients with lumbar disc herniation (n=20 and lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS, n=26. Paraspinal muscle responses for sudden upper limb loading and muscle activation during flexion-extension movement and the lumbar endurance test were measured by surface electromyography (EMG. Postural stability was measured on a force platform during two- and one-footed standing. Lumbar movement perception was assessed in a motorised trunk rotation unit in the seated position. In addition, measurements of motor-(MEP and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP and needle EMG examination of lumbar multifidus muscles were performed in the LSS patients. Clinical and questionnaire data were also recorded. A short latency paraspinal muscle response (~50 ms for sudden upper limb loading was observed. The latency of the response was shortened by expectation (p=0.017. The response latency for unexpected loading was similar in healthy persons and disc herniation patients but the latency was not shortened by expectation in the patients (p = 0.014. Also impaired postural control (p < 0.05 and lumbar movement perception (p = 0.012 were observed in disc herniation patients. The impaired lumbar movement perception (p=0.054 and anticipatory muscle activation (p = 0.043 tended to be restored after successful surgery but postural control had still not recovered after 3 months of follow-up. The majority of LSS patients were unable

  7. Research about reactor operator's personability characteristics and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan [Tsinghua Univ., Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Beijing (China)

    2003-03-01

    To predict and evaluate the reactor operator's performance by personality characteristics is an important part of reactor operator safety assessment. Using related psychological theory combined with the Chinese operator's fact and considering the effect of environmental factors to personality analysis, paper does the research about the about the relationships between reactor operator's performance and personality characteristics, and offers the reference for operator's selection, using and performance in the future. (author)

  8. Motor unit recruitment during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, C Scott; Gregory, Chris M; Dean, Jesse C

    2011-10-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in clinical settings to activate skeletal muscle in an effort to mimic voluntary contractions and enhance the rehabilitation of human skeletal muscles. It is also used as a tool in research to assess muscle performance and/or neuromuscular activation levels. However, there are fundamental differences between voluntary- and artificial-activation of motor units that need to be appreciated before NMES protocol design can be most effective. The unique effects of NMES have been attributed to several mechanisms, most notably, a reversal of the voluntary recruitment pattern that is known to occur during voluntary muscle contractions. This review outlines the assertion that electrical stimulation recruits motor units in a nonselective, spatially fixed, and temporally synchronous pattern. Additionally, it synthesizes the evidence that supports the contention that this recruitment pattern contributes to increased muscle fatigue when compared with voluntary actions and provides some commentary on the parameters of electrical stimulation as well as emerging technologies being developed to facilitate NMES implementation. A greater understanding of how electrical stimulation recruits motor units, as well as the benefits and limitations of its use, is highly relevant when using this tool for testing and training in rehabilitation, exercise, and/or research.

  9. Ultrastructural findings in noncompaction prevail with neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the ultrastructural abnormalities of left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction (LVHT). This literature review aimed to summarize and discuss ultrastructural abnormalities described in LVHT so far. The literature search was conducted via MEDLINE using the search terms 'non-compaction', 'noncompaction', 'left ventricular hypertrabeculation', 'spongy myocardium' in combination with the terms 'ultra-structural', or 'electron microscopy'. Altogether, 11 studies reporting ultrastructural investigations of LVHT were retrieved. In these 11 studies, data on 13 patients with LVHT were presented. Ultrastructural abnormalities found in these study patients were generally nonspecific and included an increase in the number of mitochondria (n = 3), abnormally shaped mitochondria (n = 2), distorted cristae (n = 3), sarcomeric derangement (n = 3), immature cardiomyocytes (n = 1), lipid-like inclusions (n = 1), enlarged interstitial spaces (n = 1), increased interstitial collagen (n = 1), or increased glycogen (n = 1). The morphological abnormalities were most prominent in patients with a neuromuscular disorder like Barth syndrome or mitochondrial myopathy. Only in few patients with LVHT, ultrastructural investigations have been performed so far. Ultrastructural abnormalities in LVHT are nonspecific and most prominent in patients with a neuromuscular disorder. There is a strong need to carry out thorough ultrastructural investigations of LVHT to contribute to the understanding of this still unexplained myocardial abnormality.

  10. [Six-minute walk test in children with neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Anleu, Israel Didier; Baños-Mejía, Benjamín Omar; Galicia-Amor, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Background: neuromuscular diseases affect the motor unit. When they evolve, respiratory complications are common; the six-minute walk test plays an important role in the assessment of functional capacity. Methods: prospective, transversal, descriptive and observational study. We studied seven children with a variety of neuromuscular diseases and spontaneous ambulation. We tested their lung function, and administered a six-minute walk test and a test of respiratory muscle strength to these children. Results: the age was 9.8 ± 2.4 years. All patients were males. Forced vital capacity decreased in three patients (42.8 %), forced expiratory volume during the first second (2.04 ± 1.4 L) and peak expiratory flow (4.33 ± 3.3 L/s) were normal. The maximum strength of respiratory muscles was less than 60 % of predicted values. The distance covered in the six-minute walk test was lower when compared with healthy controls (29.9 %). Conclusions: the six-minute walk test can be a useful tool in early stages of this disease, since it is easy to perform and well tolerated by the patients.

  11. Effect of salbutamol on neuromuscular function in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decorte, Nicolas; Bachasson, Damien; Guinot, Michel; Flore, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Wuyam, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    The potential ergogenic effects of therapeutic inhaled salbutamol doses in endurance athletes have been controversially discussed for decades. We hypothesized that salbutamol inhalation may increase peripheral muscle contractility, reduce fatigability, and improve force recovery after a localized exercise in endurance athletes. Eleven healthy, nonasthmatic male athletes with high aerobic capacities were recruited to be compared in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of two dose levels of salbutamol (200 and 800 μg) and a placebo administered by inhalation before a quadriceps fatigue test. Subjects performed an incremental exercise protocol consisting in sets of 10 intermittent isometric contractions starting at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with 10% MVC increment until exhaustion. Femoral nerve magnetic stimulation was used during and after MVC to evaluate neuromuscular fatigue after each set, at task failure, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. Initial MVC and evoked muscular responses were not modified with salbutamol (P > 0.05). The total number of submaximal contractions until task failure significantly differed between treatments (placebo, 72 ± 7; 200 µg, 78 ± 8; and 800 µg, 82 ± 7; P 0.05). Voluntary activation was unaffected by the fatiguing task and treatments (P > 0.05). Supratherapeutic inhaled doses of β2-agonists increased quadriceps endurance during an incremental and localized fatiguing task in healthy endurance-trained athletes without significant effect on neuromuscular fatigue. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  12. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS......: An assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial including people aged 30-50 years with no to mild pain following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy was conducted. Participants were randomly allocated to either a 12-week neuromuscular exercise program that targeted neutral lower limb alignment...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  13. Study on transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of high-speed mixed-flow pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T; Liu, Y L; Sun, Y B; Wang, L Q; Wu, D Z

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyse the hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristic of a high-speed mixed-flow pump during transient operations, experimental studies were carried out. The transient hydrodynamic performance and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump with guide vane during start-up operation processes were tested on the pump performance test-bed. Performance tests of the pump were carried out under various inlet pressures and speed-changing operations. The real-time instantaneous external characteristics such as rotational speed, hydraulic head, flow rate, suction pressure and discharge pressure of the pump were measured. Based on the experimental results, the effect of fluid acceleration on the hydrodynamic performances and cavitation characteristics of the mixed-flow pump were analysed and evaluated

  14. South African exporter performance: new research into firm-specific and market characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher May

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The export marketing performance of any firm is influenced by a multitude of different factors. Given the multi-faceted nature of the export market, this research study investigated specific factors such as how firm-specific characteristics, product characteristics, market characteristics and export marketing strategies impact on the export marketing performance of South African manufacturing firms. Some of the findings of this research study indicated that firm size, investment commitment and careful planning, as firm-specific characteristics, had a significant influence on export marketing performance. The relationship between export experience and export marketing performance was insignificant. The degree of pricing adaptation and product adaptation had a significant effect on export marketing performance, while this was not the case with respect to the degree of promotion adaptation and distributor support.

  15. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System, a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS. In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  16. Man-machine interface system for neuromuscular training and evaluation based on EMG and MMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Ramon; Alonso, Alonso; Carrera, Albano; Durán, Ramon; Fernández, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  17. Improving Neuromuscular Monitoring and Reducing Residual Neuromuscular Blockade With E-Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Louis Demant; Mathiesen, Ole; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    neuromuscular blockade in surgical patients at 6 Danish teaching hospitals. METHODS: In this interrupted time series study, we are collecting data repeatedly, in consecutive 3-week periods, before and after the intervention, and we will analyze the effect using segmented regression analysis. Anesthesia...... and an increased risk of respiratory complications. Use of an objective neuromuscular monitoring device may prevent residual block. Despite this, many anesthetists refrain from using the device. Efforts to increase the use of objective monitoring are time consuming and require the presence of expert personnel...... practice, and patient outcomes. The primary outcome is use of neuromuscular monitoring in patients according to the type of muscle relaxant received. Secondary outcomes include last recorded train-of-four value, administration of reversal agents, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit...

  18. The Influence of Top Management Team Characteristics on BPD Performance (P.155-166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Elly Tulung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on ”upper echelons theory”, this paper investigates the relation between top management team composition and BPD performance. For top management team characteristics, we employ age, level of education, background of education, gender, and functional background, while for measured the BPD performance we employ return on asset (ROA, return on equity (ROE, capital adequacy ratio (CAR, net interest margin (NIM, loan to deposit ratio (LDR, non-performing loan (NPL and operation expenses to operation income (BOPO. The results show that all characteristics have positive significant influences on BPD performance.Keywords: Top Management Team,BPD Performance, Upper Echelons Theory 

  19. Operational characteristics, strategies and performance of foreign and demestic banks in India

    OpenAIRE

    Keshari, Pradeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper has tried to examine the relative characteristics and performance of foreign and domestic banks operating in India. A comparison of their characteristics undoubtedly suggest that foreign banks as a group differ significantly from domestic banks. It was also found that foreign banks enjoyed higher profitability than the domestic banks. The higher profitability of the former was a reflection of their particular operational characteristics, strategies and the favourable attitude of t...

  20. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation During Hemodialysis on Peripheral Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Ana Karla; Mello, Carolina Luana; Dal Pont, Tarcila; Hizume Kunzler, Deborah; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Bobinski, Franciane; Pereira Yamaguti, Wellington; Paulin, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of high and low frequency and intensity, performed during hemodialysis, on physical function and inflammation markers in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Randomized clinical trial. Hemodialysis clinic. Patients with CKD (N=51) were randomized into blocks of 4 using opaque sealed envelopes. They were divided into a group of high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation and a group of low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group was submitted to neuromuscular electrical stimulation at a frequency of 50Hz and a medium intensity of 72.90mA, and the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group used a frequency of 5Hz and a medium intensity of 13.85mA, 3 times per week for 1 hour, during 12 sessions. Peripheral muscle strength, exercise capacity, levels of muscle trophism marker (insulin growth factor 1) and levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor α) and anti-inflammatory (interleukin 10) cytokines. The high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group showed a significant increase in right peripheral muscle strength (155.35±65.32Nm initial vs 161.60±68.73Nm final; P=.01) and left peripheral muscle strength (156.60±66.51Nm initial vs 164.10±69.76Nm final; P=.02) after the training, which did not occur in the low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group for both right muscle strength (109.40±32.08Nm initial vs 112.65±38.44Nm final; P=.50) and left muscle strength (113.65±37.79Nm initial vs 116.15±43.01Nm final; P=.61). The 6-minute walk test distance (6MWTD) increased in both groups: high frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (435.55±95.81m initial vs 457.25±90.64m final; P=.02) and low frequency and intensity neuromuscular electrical stimulation group (403.80

  1. Improving Neuromuscular Monitoring and Reducing Residual Neuromuscular Blockade With E-Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Louis Demant; Mathiesen, Ole; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Muscle relaxants facilitate endotracheal intubation under general anesthesia and improve surgical conditions. Residual neuromuscular blockade occurs when the patient is still partially paralyzed when awakened after surgery. The condition is associated with subjective discomfort and an......-learning module can increase anesthetists' use of neuromuscular monitoring. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02925143; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02925143 (Archived by WebCite® at http://www.webcitation.org/6s50iTV2x)....

  2. Chemical encapsulation of rocuronium by synthetic cyclodextrin derivatives: reversal of neuromuscular block in anaesthetized Rhesus monkeys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Pol, F. van de; Bom, A.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present, reversal of neuromuscular block induced by steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) is achieved by administration of cholinesterase inhibitors. Chemical encapsulation of steroidal NMBAs, such as rocuronium, by a cyclodextrin is a new concept in neuromuscular block

  3. Reliability modeling of degradation of products with multiple performance characteristics based on gamma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhengqiang; Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Many highly reliable products usually have complex structure, with their reliability being evaluated by two or more performance characteristics. In certain physical situations, the degradation of these performance characteristics would be always positive and strictly increasing. In such a case, the gamma process is usually considered as a degradation process due to its independent and non-negative increments properties. In this paper, we suppose that a product has two dependent performance characteristics and that their degradation can be modeled by gamma processes. For such a bivariate degradation involving two performance characteristics, we propose to use a bivariate Birnbaum-Saunders distribution and its marginal distributions to approximate the reliability function. Inferential method for the corresponding model parameters is then developed. Finally, for an illustration of the proposed model and method, a numerical example about fatigue cracks is discussed and some computational results are presented.

  4. Relationship characteristics and performance in fresh produce supply chains: the case of the Mexican avocado industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronado, J.J.A.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Inter-organisational relations research has shown that relationship characteristics can influence performance in seller-buyer transactions. Using a transaction cost economics approach, this research shows that relational elements such as expectation of continuity reduce the transaction

  5. COMPETENCY, ENTREPRENEUR CHARACTERISTIC AND BUSINESS PERFORMANCE: STUDY OF THE PEMPEK BUSINESS IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Soejono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine empirically the effects of entrepreneurial compe-tencies and characteristics on business performance. Previous studies found that competencies and entrepreneurial characteristics significantly influenced business performance. A quantita-tive method was used and 122 respondents were involved as the sample in this study, who were pempek business owners in Palembang, South Sumatra. The results indicated an effect from entrepreneurial competencies on business performance. It was also found that the entrepre-neurs’ characteristics (owners’ ages significantly affected the businesses’ performance. This implication requires some sort of course or program for the entrepreneurs to improve their competence to direct the owners to gain better business performance. The growing age of the business owners requires equal insights to ensure age does not stop the owners from improving their business’ performance.

  6. A theoretical framework for understanding neuromuscular response to lower extremity joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; McLeod, Michelle M; Lepley, Adam S

    2012-01-01

    Neuromuscular alterations are common following lower extremity joint injury and often lead to decreased function and disability. These neuromuscular alterations manifest in inhibition or abnormal facilitation of the uninjured musculature surrounding an injured joint. Unfortunately, these neural alterations are poorly understood, which may affect clinical recognition and treatment of these injuries. Understanding how these neural alterations affect physical function may be important for proper clinical management of lower extremity joint injuries. Pertinent articles focusing on neuromuscular consequences and treatment of knee and ankle injuries were collected from peer-reviewed sources available on the Web of Science and Medline databases from 1975 through 2010. A theoretical model to illustrate potential relationships between neural alterations and clinical impairments was constructed from the current literature. Lower extremity joint injury affects upstream cortical and spinal reflexive excitability pathways as well as downstream muscle function and overall physical performance. Treatment targeting the central nervous system provides an alternate means of treating joint injury that may be effective for patients with neuromuscular alterations. Disability is common following joint injury. There is mounting evidence that alterations in the central nervous system may relate to clinical changes in biomechanics that may predispose patients to further injury, and novel clinical interventions that target neural alterations may improve therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Whole-body vibration does not influence knee joint neuromuscular function or proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, R; Minshull, C; Folland, J P

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the acute effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on knee joint position sense and indices of neuromuscular function, specifically strength, electromechanical delay and the rate of force development. Electromyography and electrically evoked contractions were used to investigate neural and contractile responses to WBV. Fourteen healthy males completed two treatment conditions on separate occasions: (1) 5 × 1 min of unilateral isometric squat exercise on a synchronous vibrating platform [30 Hz, 4 mm peak-to-peak amplitude] (WBV) and (2) a control condition (CON) of the same exercise without WBV. Knee joint position sense (joint angle replication task) and quadriceps neuromuscular function were assessed pre-, immediately-post and 1 h post-exercise. During maximum voluntary knee extensions, the peak force (PF(V)), electromechanical delay (EMD(V)), rate of force development (RFD(V)) and EMG of the quadriceps were measured. Twitch contractions of the knee extensors were electrically evoked to assess EMD(E) and RFD(E). The results showed no influence of WBV on knee joint position, EMD(V), PF(V) and RFD(V) during the initial 50, 100 or 150 ms of contraction. Similarly, electrically evoked neuromuscular function and neural activation remained unchanged following the vibration exercise. A single session of unilateral WBV did not influence any indices of thigh muscle neuromuscular performance or knee joint proprioception. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. A robust neuromuscular system protects rat and human skeletal muscle from sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannérec, Alice; Springer, Margherita; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Ireland, Alex; Piasecki, Mathew; Karaz, Sonia; Jacot, Guillaume; Métairon, Sylviane; Danenberg, Esther; Raymond, Frédéric; Descombes, Patrick; McPhee, Jamie S; Feige, Jerome N

    2016-04-01

    Declining muscle mass and function is one of the main drivers of loss of independence in the elderly. Sarcopenia is associated with numerous cellular and endocrine perturbations, and it remains challenging to identify those changes that play a causal role and could serve as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we uncovered a remarkable differential susceptibility of certain muscles to age-related decline. Aging rats specifically lose muscle mass and function in the hindlimbs, but not in the forelimbs. By performing a comprehensive comparative analysis of these muscles, we demonstrate that regional susceptibility to sarcopenia is dependent on neuromuscular junction fragmentation, loss of motoneuron innervation, and reduced excitability. Remarkably, muscle loss in elderly humans also differs in vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior muscles in direct relation to neuromuscular dysfunction. By comparing gene expression in susceptible and non-susceptible muscles, we identified a specific transcriptomic signature of neuromuscular impairment. Importantly, differential molecular profiling of the associated peripheral nerves revealed fundamental changes in cholesterol biosynthetic pathways. Altogether our results provide compelling evidence that susceptibility to sarcopenia is tightly linked to neuromuscular decline in rats and humans, and identify dysregulation of sterol metabolism in the peripheral nervous system as an early event in this process.

  9. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro

    2017-11-01

    The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confirmatory results: 782 (48.78%) underwent molecular studies, and 821 (51.21%) had muscle biopsies. The most frequent diagnoses were: dystrophinopathy 460 (28.70%), mitochondriopathy 330 (20.59%), spinal muscular atrophy 158 (9.86%), limb girdle muscular dystrophy 157 (9.79%), Steinert myotonic dystrophy 138 (8.61%), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 99 (6.17%), and other diagnoses 261 (16.28%). Using the presently-available diagnostic techniques in this service, a specific limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype diagnosis was reached in 61% of the patients. A neuromuscular-appropriate diagnosis is important for genetic counseling, rehabilitation orientation, and early treatment of respiratory and cardiac complications.

  10. Dysfunction of the neuromuscular junction in spinal muscular atrophy types 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Renske I; Vrancken, Alexander F J E; van den Berg, Leonard H; van der Pol, W Ludo

    2012-11-13

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is pathologically characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells. Recent observations in animal models of SMA and muscle tissue from patients with SMA suggest additional abnormalities in the development and maturation of the neuromuscular junction. We therefore evaluated neuromuscular junction function in SMA with repetitive nerve stimulation. In this case-control study, repetitive nerve stimulation was performed in 35 patients with SMA types 2, 3, and 4, 20 healthy controls, and 5 controls with motor neuron disease. Pathologic decremental responses (>10%) during 3-Hz repetitive nerve stimulation were observed in 17 of 35 patients (49%) with SMA types 2 and 3, but not in healthy controls or controls with motor neuron disease. None of the patients or controls had an abnormal incremental response of >60%. The presence of an abnormal decremental response was not specific for the type of SMA, nor was it associated with compound muscle action potential amplitude, clinical scores, or disease duration. Two of 4 patients with SMA type 3 who tried pyridostigmine reported increased stamina. These data suggest dysfunction of the neuromuscular junction in patients with SMA types 2 and 3. Therefore, drugs that facilitate neuromuscular transmission are candidate drugs for evaluation in carefully designed, placebo-controlled, clinical trials.

  11. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cotta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. Objective: To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. Methods: A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Results: Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98% yielded confirmatory results: 782 (48.78% underwent molecular studies, and 821 (51.21% had muscle biopsies. The most frequent diagnoses were: dystrophinopathy 460 (28.70%, mitochondriopathy 330 (20.59%, spinal muscular atrophy 158 (9.86%, limb girdle muscular dystrophy 157 (9.79%, Steinert myotonic dystrophy 138 (8.61%, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 99 (6.17%, and other diagnoses 261 (16.28%. Conclusion: Using the presently-available diagnostic techniques in this service, a specific limb girdle muscular dystrophy subtype diagnosis was reached in 61% of the patients. A neuromuscular-appropriate diagnosis is important for genetic counseling, rehabilitation orientation, and early treatment of respiratory and cardiac complications.

  12. An adaptive neuromuscular controller for assistive lower-limb exoskeletons : A preliminary study on subjects with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Amy R.; Dzeladini, Florin; Brug, Tycho J.H.; Tamburella, Federica; Tagliamonte, Nevio L.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, H.; Ijspeert, Auke J.

    2017-01-01

    Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery.

  13. An adaptive neuromuscular controller for assistive lower-limb exoskeletons : A preliminary study on subjects with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Amy R.; Dzeladini, Florin; Brug, Tycho J.H.; Tamburella, Federica; Tagliamonte, Nevio L.; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Van Der Kooij, Herman; IJspeert, Auke Jan

    2017-01-01

    Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery.

  14. The Influence of Robotic Assistance on Reducing Neuromuscular Effort and Fatigue during Extravehicular Activity Glove Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kaci E.; Deshpande, Ashish D.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Rogers, Jonathan M.; Laske, Evan A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2017-01-01

    The three-layered, pressurized space suit glove worn by Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew members during missions commonly causes hand and forearm fatigue. The Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG), a Phase VI EVA space suit glove modified with robotic grasp-assist capabilities, has been developed to augment grip strength in order to improve endurance and reduce the risk of injury in astronauts. The overall goals of this study were to i) quantify the neuromuscular modulations that occur in response to wearing a conventional Phase VI space suit glove (SSG) during a fatiguing task, and ii) determine the efficacy of Spacesuit RoboGlove (SSRG) in reversing the adverse neuromuscular modulations and restoring altered muscular activity to barehanded levels. Six subjects performed a fatigue sequence consisting of repetitive dynamic-gripping interspersed with isometric grip-holds under three conditions: barehanded, wearing pressurized SSG, and wearing pressurized SSRG. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from six forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), extensor digitorum (ED), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)) and subjective fatigue ratings were collected during each condition. Trends in amplitude and spectral distributions of the sEMG signals were used to derive metrics quantifying neuromuscular effort and fatigue that were compared across the glove conditions. Results showed that by augmenting finger flexion, the SSRG successfully reduced the neuromuscular effort needed to close the fingers of the space suit glove in more than half of subjects during two types of tasks. However, the SSRG required more neuromuscular effort to extend the fingers compared to a conventional SSG in many subjects. Psychologically, the SSRG aided subjects in feeling less fatigued during short periods of intense work compared to the SSG. The results of this study reveal the promise of the SSRG as a

  15. Fatiguing exercise intensity influences the relationship between parameters reflecting neuromuscular function and postural control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boyas

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of fatiguing exercise intensity on the nature and extent of fatigue-induced changes in neuromuscular function and postural stability in quiet standing. We also explored the contribution of selected neuromuscular mechanisms involved in force production to postural stability impairment observed following fatigue using an approach based on multivariate regressions. Eighteen young subjects performed 30-s postural trials on one leg with their eyes closed. Postural trials were performed before and after fatiguing exercises of different intensities: 25, 50 and 75% of maximal isometric plantarflexor torque. Fatiguing exercises consisted of sustaining a plantarflexor isometric contraction at the target intensity until task failure. Maximal isometric plantarflexor torque, electromyographic activity of plantarflexor and dorsiflexor muscles, activation level (twitch interpolation technique and twitch contractile properties of plantarflexors were used to characterize neuromuscular function. The 25% exercise was associated with greater central fatigue whereas the 50 and 75% exercises involved mostly peripheral fatigue. However, all fatiguing exercises induced similar alterations in postural stability, which was unexpected considering previous literature. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that fatigue-related changes in selected parameters related to neuromuscular function could explain more than half (0.51≤R(2≤0.82 of the changes in postural variables for the 25% exercise. On the other hand, regression models were less predictive (0.17≤R(2≤0.73 for the 50 and 75% exercises. This study suggests that fatiguing exercise intensity does not influence the extent of postural stability impairment, but does influence the type of fatigue induced and the neuromuscular function predictors explaining changes in postural variables.

  16. How Partner Characteristics Can Affect Performance of Alliances with Different Time Frames?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein JALALI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Firms increasingly adopt cooperative strategies and form strategic alliances with foreign partners to be prosperous in entering to international market. Most of scholars have typically focused on generic, conceptual models for alliances partner selection, addressing only limited dimensions of the partner characteristics. This paper presents a new empirical framework that considering the effect of partner characteristics on export performance of alliances, in the case of short/mediumterm alliances and long-term ones. The study explores the effective partner characteristics for each type of alliances based on a sample of 540 alliances which rooted in East European region and also, have at least one Iranian partner. The findings stress the differences between varied partner characteristics in short/medium-term and long-term alliances. More specifically, results introduce a framework that addresses certain and specific partner characteristics to improve the export performance of alliances, due to the time frame of strategic alliances.

  17. Psychosocial Characteristics of Optimum Performance in Isolated and Confined Environments (ICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Shea, Camille; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), including the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. BHP supports and conducts research to help characteristics and mitigate the Behavioral Medicine risk for exploration missions, and in some instances, current Flight Medical Operations. The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element identified research gaps within the Behavioral Medicine Risk, including Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE)? To address this gap, we conducted an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the following: 1) psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICE environments; 2) characteristics that are most malleable; and 3) specific countermeasures that could enhance malleable characteristics.

  18. Standard guide for evaluating performance characteristics of phased-Array ultrasonic testing instruments and systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes procedures for evaluating some performance characteristics of phased-array ultrasonic examination instruments and systems. 1.2 Evaluation of these characteristics is intended to be used for comparing instruments and systems or, by periodic repetition, for detecting long-term changes in the characteristics of a given instrument or system that may be indicative of impending failure, and which, if beyond certain limits, will require corrective maintenance. Instrument characteristics measured in accordance with this guide are expressed in terms that relate to their potential usefulness for ultrasonic examinations. Other electronic instrument characteristics in phased-array units are similar to non-phased-array units and may be measured as described in E 1065 or E 1324. 1.3 Ultrasonic examination systems using pulsed-wave trains and A-scan presentation (rf or video) may be evaluated. 1.4 This guide establishes no performance limits for examination systems; if such acceptance criteria ar...

  19. Neuromuscular training in construction workers: a longitudinal controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars; Bopp, Micha; Hofmann, Sara; Erlacher, Daniel; Zahner, Lukas

    2015-08-01

    Many accidents at construction sites are due to falls. An exercise-based workplace intervention may improve intrinsic fall risk factors. In this pilot study, we aimed at evaluating the effects of neuromuscular exercise on static and functional balance performance as well as on lower limb explosive power in construction workers. Healthy middle-aged construction workers were non-randomly assigned to an intervention [N = 20, age = 40.3 (SD 8.3) years] or a control group [N = 20, age = 41.8 (9.9) years]. The intervention group performed static and dynamic balance and strength exercises (13 weeks, 15 min each day). Before and after the intervention and after an 8-week follow-up, unilateral postural sway, backward balancing (on 3- and 4.5-cm-wide beams) as well as vertical jump height were assessed. We observed a group × time interaction for postural sway (p = 0.002) with a reduction in the intervention group and no relevant change in the control group. Similarly, the number of successful steps while walking backwards on the 3-cm beam increased only in the intervention group (p = 0.047). These effects were likely to most likely practically beneficial from pretest to posttest and to follow-up test for postural sway (+12%, standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.65 and 17%, SMD = 0.92) and backward balancing on the 3-cm beam (+58%, SMD = 0.59 and 37%, SMD = 0.40). Fifteen minutes of neuromuscular training each day can improve balance performance in construction workers and, thus, may contribute to a decreased fall risk.

  20. Classification of neuromuscular blocking agents in a new neuromuscular preparation of the chick in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezen, H. van

    1968-01-01

    A neuromuscular preparation of the chick is described: 1. 1. The sciatic nerve-tibilis anterior muscle preparation of the 2–10 days old chick fulfils all criteria of an assay preparation and differentiates between curare-like and decamethonium-like agents. 2. 2. The preparation responds to

  1. Design of low-cost general purpose microcontroller based neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, S; Rahmi Canal, M; Güler, I

    2000-04-01

    In this study, a general purpose, low-cost, programmable, portable and high performance stimulator is designed and implemented. For this purpose, a microcontroller is used in the design of the stimulator. The duty cycle and amplitude of the designed system can be controlled using a keyboard. The performance test of the system has shown that the results are reliable. The overall system can be used as the neuromuscular stimulator under safe conditions.

  2. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  3. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanjit Singh Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.

  4. CSR organisational taxonomy and job characteristics on performance: SME case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanalechumy Seeramulu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the CSR of organizational structure and job characteristics that influence employee job performance in the Malaysian context. Hence, it is important to study and analyze these two factors within the CSR taxonomy describing how these factors significantly influence employee job performance and to make recommendations how performance can be promoted among employees. This paper is based on a quantitative research approach where responses were gathered from the working population within Malaysia SMEs. The results from this study will help to point out the influence of these factors on the employee job performance and provide guidance to an organization for which these aspects should be emphasized in order to increase employees’ job performance to align performance with organizational goals. The analysis includes two dimensions of CSR taxonomy of organizational structure namely, centralization and formalization, as well as a set of five dimensions of job characteristics, such as task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy and feedback. The results of these findings show that job characteristics such as task significance, autonomy, feedback, and skill variety, positively influence job performance with autonomy having highest predictive power on job performance. The results of these findings reveal that the organizational structure does not contribute to the prediction of job performance even though a significant positive correlation exists between the structure and job performance in the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Therefore, this study will enrich the existing knowledge in the area of human resource management by focusing on job performance management.

  5. The effect of individual characteristics of decision making and judgment on stock-flow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, S.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Vennix, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Extending the line of research on stock-flow performance we examined the impact of personality characteristics on task performance. It was assumed that the need for cognition, the need for closure and the preference for intuition and deliberation would relate to individual variations in

  6. Personality Characteristics and Level of Performance of Male County Extension Agents in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Dasharathrai Navnitrai

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between selected personality characteristics and attitudes of male extension agents in Wisconsin, and their level of job performance. The relationships between selected background factors and the level of agent's job performance were also studied. Subjects were 79 male county agents…

  7. Supervisors' Performance Ratings Correlated with Selected Personal Characteristics of Attendants in a Mental Retardation Developmental Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Joseph; And Others

    A research study investigated the relationship between personal characteristics and selected demographic data of 75 attendants in a mental retardation developmental center and the assessment by 24 administrators of the attendants' job performance. Instruments used included a 20-item Direct Care Performance Scale and the Demographic Data Scale,…

  8. Do firm characteristics influence mutual fund performance? An empirical study for European mutual funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Wingens, L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of fund management firm characteristics on mutual fund performance. Using a sample of European domiciled open-end equity funds for the period 1998-2008, this study finds that the funds of private companies have performed better than the funds of public

  9. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee... findings. The Task The FAA tasked ARAC to consider several areas within the airplane performance and...

  10. Students' Demographic, Academic Characteristics and Performance in Registered General Nursing Licensing Examination in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Patience Fakornam; Oppong, Elizabeth Agyeiwaa; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2018-01-01

    The decreasing performance of student nurses in the professional licensure examinations (LE) in Ghana is a major concern to stakeholders, especially at a time when the nurse-patient ratio stands at 1: 1500. The study sought to determine the effect of students' demographic and academic characteristics on performance in the Registered General…

  11. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  12. Neuromuscular function during a forward lunge in meniscectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Damgaard, Jacob; Roos, Ewa M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate differences in knee joint kinematics, ground reaction force kinetics and neuromuscular activity including muscle coactivation, and medial versus lateral muscle activity during a forward lunge between the operated and contralateral legs of meniscectomized patients....... Such differences may represent early changes in neuromuscular function potentially contributing to the development of knee osteoarthritis....

  13. Recent achievements in restorative neurology: Progressive neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, M.R.; Kakulas, B.A.; Vrbova, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 27 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Computed Tomography of Muscles in Neuromuscular Disease; Mapping the Genes for Muscular Dystrophy; Trophic Factors and Motor Neuron Development; Size of Motor Units and Firing Rate in Muscular Dystrophy; Restorative Possibilities in Relation to the Pathology of Progressive Neuromuscular Disease; and An Approach to the Pathogenesis of some Congenital Myopathies

  14. Neuromuscular findings in thyroid dysfunction: a prospective clinical and electrodiagnostic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyff, R.; Van den Bosch, J.; Laman, D; van Loon, B.-J. P.; Linssen, W.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate neuromuscular signs and symptoms in patients with newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
METHODS—A prospective cohort study was performed in adult patients with newly diagnosed thyroid dysfunction. Patients were evaluated clinically with hand held dynamometry and with electrodiagnosis. The clinical features of weakness and sensory signs and the biochemical data were evaluated during treatment.
RESULTS—In hypothyroid patients 79% had neuromuscular complaints, 38% had clinical weakness (manual muscle strength testing) in one or more muscle groups, 42% had signs of sensorimotor axonal neuropathy, and 29% had carpal tunnel syndrome. Serum creatine kinase did not correlate with weakness. After 1 year of treatment 13% of the patients still had weakness. In hyperthyroid patients 67% had neuromuscular symptoms, 62% had clinical weakness in at least one muscle group that correlated with FT4 concentrations, but not with serum CK. Nineteen per cent of the patients had sensory-motor axonal neuropathy and 0% had carpal tunnel syndrome. The neuromuscular signs developed rapidly, early in the course of the disorder and were severe, but resolved rapidly and completely during treatment (average time 3.6months).
CONCLUSIONS—Neuromuscular symptoms and signs were present in most patients. About 40% of the hypothyroid patients and 20% of the hyperthyroid patients had predominantly sensory signs of a sensorimotor axonal neuropathy early in the course of thyroid disease. Weakness in hyperthyroidism evolved rapidly at an early stage of the disorder and resolved completely during treatment, suggesting a functional muscle disorder. Hand held dynamometry is sensitive for the detection of weakness and for the clinical evaluation of treatment effects. Weakness in hypothyroidism is more difficult to treat, suggesting myopathy.

 PMID:10811699

  15. The immediate effect of lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation in young amateur baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other with one week between them. The order of the interventions was completely randomized. [Methods] The baseball pitching velocity, the FR and the SRT were evaluated before and after treatment. [Results] In the NJF group, there were significant differences in baseball pitching velocity, FR and SRT after treatment. In the PNF group, there was a significant difference in SRT after treatment. [Conclusion] NJF intervention shortens the SRT, increases the baseball pitching velocity and FR, and may be recommended to improve performance in baseball players.

  16. Neuromechanical evidence of improved neuromuscular control around knee joint in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gizzi, Leonardo; Bellotti, Pasquale; Felici, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to verify that skilled volleyball players present specific adaptations in both neuromuscular control and movement biomechanics, showing an improved neuromuscular control around the knee joint than in non-jumper athletes. Seven male volleyball players and seven male non-jumper athletes were recruited for this study. The following tests were performed in a random order: single countermovement jump (CMJ), single squat jump. At the end of the series, subjects performed a repetitive CMJ test. Electromyographic signals were recorded from vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles on both sides. Ground reaction forces and moments were measured with a force plate. Volleyball athletes performed better in all tests and were more resistant to fatigue than non-jumper athletes. Furthermore, volleyball athletes showed a reduced co-activation of knee flexor/extensor muscles. The present results seem to stand for a neural adaptation of the motor control scheme to training.

  17. Secrets of virtuoso: neuromuscular attributes of motor virtuosity in expert musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Oku, Takanori; Miyazaki, Fumio; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Musical performance requires extremely fast and dexterous limb movements. The underlying biological mechanisms have been an object of interest among scientists and non-scientists for centuries. Numerous studies of musicians and non-musicians have demonstrated that neuroplastic adaptations through early and deliberate musical training endowed superior motor skill. However, little has been unveiled about what makes inter-individual differences in motor skills among musicians. Here we determined the attributes of inter-individual differences in the maximum rate of repetitive piano keystrokes in twenty-four pianists. Among various representative factors of neuromuscular functions, anatomical characteristics, and training history, a stepwise multiple regression analysis and generalized linear model identified two predominant predictors of the maximum rate of repetitive piano keystrokes; finger tapping rate and muscular strength of the elbow extensor. These results suggest a non-uniform role of individual limb muscles in the production of extremely fast repetitive multi-joint movements. Neither age of musical training initiation nor the amount of extensive musical training before age twenty was a predictor. Power grip strength was negatively related to the maximum rate of piano keystrokes only during the smallest tone production. These findings highlight the importance of innate biological nature and explicit training for motor virtuosity.

  18. A Study of the Associations between Conditions of Performance and Characteristics of Performers and New York State Solo Performance Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonWurmb, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation undertakes an analysis of 1,044 performance evaluations from New York State School Music Association (NYSSMA) Spring Festival solo adjudication ratings of student performers from a large suburban school district. It relies on results of evaluations of observed performances, and takes these evaluations as assessments of what the…

  19. Construction Professionals Job Performance and Characteristics: A Comparison of Indigenous and Expatriate Construction Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndubuisi Onukwube

    2011-06-01

    Job performance is considered one of the most important constructs in human resources management because it helps to explain the value and utility that each employee adds to the organisation. The professionals in the Nigerian construction companies are not exception to the perceived low job performance rate within the industry. Extant literature points to the fact that job characteristics of employees can account for variance in their job performance rate.This study compares the job performance rate and job characteristics of construction professionals in indigenous and expatriate construction companies with a view to establish a relationship between job performance and job characteristics of construction professionals. A total of 762 questionnaires were collected and used for the study.  Eighty one (81 construction companies, 50 (62% indigenous and 31 (38% expatriate were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Data collected were analysed using mean item score, spearman rank correlation, linear regression analysis where appropriate. Findings of the study revealed that the relationship between job characteristics and job performance of construction professionals in construction companies in Nigeria is positive but low and the correlation coefficient is higher in expatriate construction companies. Based on the above finding, the study recommends that construction companies in Nigeria should endeavour and improve on their current core job dimensions (task significance, skill variety, task identity, autonomy and feedback inherent in various jobs designed within their respective organizations as this will constitute as one of the variants that will improve the job performance rate of construction professionals.

  20. Rocuronium and sugammadex in a 3 days old neonate for draining an ovarian cyst. Neuromuscular management and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vieira Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case is reported in which a 3-days old neonate with a giant ovarian cyst was scheduled for surgery. The patient received a dose of sugammadex to reverse a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block. A fast and efficient recovery from neuromuscular block was achieved within 90 s. No adverse events or other safety concerns were observed. Furthermore, a review of the literature on the use of sugammadex in neonates was performed.

  1. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for nuclear-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to present geohydrologic information in graphical form covering a wide range of parameters to aid in determining site specifications based on functional criteria. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater were developed. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere

  2. Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M E; Pilutti, L A; Crowell, J A; Kaczmarski, H; Motl, R W

    2017-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions (i.e., no distraction and phone conversation), and participants performed 20 trials per condition. Participants were instructed that the goal of the task was to cross the street successfully (i.e., without being hit be a vehicle). The primary outcome was task feasibility, assessed as completion and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were measures of street-crossing performance. Overall, the simulated street-crossing task was feasible (i.e., 90% completion, no adverse events) in participants with MS. Participants with MS waited longer and were less attentive to traffic before entering the street compared with controls (all P .05). A virtual street-crossing task is feasible for studying street-crossing behavior in persons with mild MS and most individuals with moderate MS. Virtual street-crossing performance is impaired in persons with MS compared to controls; however, persons with MS do not appear to be more vulnerable to a distracting condition. The virtual reality environment presents a safe and useful setting for understanding pedestrian behavior in persons with MS.

  3. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  4. Motor neuron, nerve, and neuromuscular junction disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Papić, Lea; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-10-01

    The aim is to review the most relevant findings published during the last year concerning clinical, genetic, pathogenic, and therapeutic advances in motor neuron disease, neuropathies, and neuromuscular junction disorders. Studies on animal and cell models have improved the understanding of how mutated survival motor neuron protein in spinal muscular atrophy governs the pathogenetic processes. New phenotypes of SOD1 mutations have been described. Moreover, animal models enhanced the insight into the pathogenetic background of sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Novel treatment options for motor neuron disease have been described in humans and animal models. Considerable progress has been achieved also in elucidating the genetic background of many forms of inherited neuropathies and high clinical and genetic heterogeneity has been demonstrated. Mutations in MuSK and GFTP1 have been shown to cause new types of congenital myasthenic syndromes. A third type of autoantibodies (Lrp4) has been detected to cause myasthenia gravis. Advances in the clinical and genetic characterization of motor neuron diseases, neuropathies, and neuromuscular transmission defects have important implications on the fundamental understanding, diagnosis, and management of these disorders. Identification of crucial steps of the pathogenetic process may provide the basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  5. An Adaptive Neuromuscular Controller for Assistive Lower-Limb Exoskeletons: A Preliminary Study on Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI, where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a novel, biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC which uses dynamical models of lower limb muscles to assist the gait of SCI subjects. Advantages of this controller include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. The controller requires very few inputs (i.e., joint angles, stance, and swing detection, can be decomposed into relevant control modules (e.g., only knee or hip control, and can generate walking at different speeds and terrains in simulation. We performed a preliminary evaluation of this controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer with seven subjects (N = 7, four with complete paraplegia, two incomplete, one healthy to determine if the NMC could enable normal-like walking. During the experiment, SCI subjects walked with body weight support on a treadmill and could use the handrails. With controller assistance, subjects were able to walk at fast walking speeds for ambulatory SCI subjects—from 0.6 to 1.4 m/s. Measured joint angles and NMC-provided joint torques agreed reasonably well with kinematics and biological joint torques of a healthy subject in shod walking. Some differences were found between the torques, such as the lack of knee flexion near mid-stance, but joint angle trajectories did not seem greatly affected. The NMC also adjusted its torque output to provide more joint work at faster speeds and thus greater joint angles and step length. We also found that the optimal speed-step length curve observed in healthy humans emerged for most of the subjects, albeit with relatively longer step length at faster speeds. Therefore, with very few sensors and no predefined

  6. An Adaptive Neuromuscular Controller for Assistive Lower-Limb Exoskeletons: A Preliminary Study on Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy R; Dzeladini, Florin; Brug, Tycho J H; Tamburella, Federica; Tagliamonte, Nevio L; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; van der Kooij, Herman; Ijspeert, Auke J

    2017-01-01

    Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a novel, biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC) which uses dynamical models of lower limb muscles to assist the gait of SCI subjects. Advantages of this controller include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. The controller requires very few inputs (i.e., joint angles, stance, and swing detection), can be decomposed into relevant control modules (e.g., only knee or hip control), and can generate walking at different speeds and terrains in simulation. We performed a preliminary evaluation of this controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer with seven subjects ( N = 7, four with complete paraplegia, two incomplete, one healthy) to determine if the NMC could enable normal-like walking. During the experiment, SCI subjects walked with body weight support on a treadmill and could use the handrails. With controller assistance, subjects were able to walk at fast walking speeds for ambulatory SCI subjects-from 0.6 to 1.4 m/s. Measured joint angles and NMC-provided joint torques agreed reasonably well with kinematics and biological joint torques of a healthy subject in shod walking. Some differences were found between the torques, such as the lack of knee flexion near mid-stance, but joint angle trajectories did not seem greatly affected. The NMC also adjusted its torque output to provide more joint work at faster speeds and thus greater joint angles and step length. We also found that the optimal speed-step length curve observed in healthy humans emerged for most of the subjects, albeit with relatively longer step length at faster speeds. Therefore, with very few sensors and no predefined settings for

  7. An Adaptive Neuromuscular Controller for Assistive Lower-Limb Exoskeletons: A Preliminary Study on Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy R.; Dzeladini, Florin; Brug, Tycho J. H.; Tamburella, Federica; Tagliamonte, Nevio L.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H. F.; van der Kooij, Herman; Ijspeert, Auke J.

    2017-01-01

    Versatility is important for a wearable exoskeleton controller to be responsive to both the user and the environment. These characteristics are especially important for subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), where active recruitment of their own neuromuscular system could promote motor recovery. Here we demonstrate the capability of a novel, biologically-inspired neuromuscular controller (NMC) which uses dynamical models of lower limb muscles to assist the gait of SCI subjects. Advantages of this controller include robustness, modularity, and adaptability. The controller requires very few inputs (i.e., joint angles, stance, and swing detection), can be decomposed into relevant control modules (e.g., only knee or hip control), and can generate walking at different speeds and terrains in simulation. We performed a preliminary evaluation of this controller on a lower-limb knee and hip robotic gait trainer with seven subjects (N = 7, four with complete paraplegia, two incomplete, one healthy) to determine if the NMC could enable normal-like walking. During the experiment, SCI subjects walked with body weight support on a treadmill and could use the handrails. With controller assistance, subjects were able to walk at fast walking speeds for ambulatory SCI subjects—from 0.6 to 1.4 m/s. Measured joint angles and NMC-provided joint torques agreed reasonably well with kinematics and biological joint torques of a healthy subject in shod walking. Some differences were found between the torques, such as the lack of knee flexion near mid-stance, but joint angle trajectories did not seem greatly affected. The NMC also adjusted its torque output to provide more joint work at faster speeds and thus greater joint angles and step length. We also found that the optimal speed-step length curve observed in healthy humans emerged for most of the subjects, albeit with relatively longer step length at faster speeds. Therefore, with very few sensors and no predefined settings for

  8. Efficacy and safety of sugammadex in the reversal of deep neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium in patients with end-stage renal disease: A comparative prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila M; Tardelli, Maria A; Tedesco, Helio; Garcia, Natalia N; Caparros, Mario P; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A; de Oliveira Junior, Itamar S

    2015-10-01

    Renal failure affects the pharmacology of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers making recovery of neuromuscular function unpredictable. Sugammadex antagonises rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by encapsulating rocuronium, creating a stable complex molecule that is mainly excreted by the kidneys. Previous studies suggest that sugammadex is effective in reversing moderate neuromuscular block in the presence of renal failure, but no data are available regarding reversal of profound neuromuscular block in patients with renal failure. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of sugammadex in reversing profound neuromuscular block induced by rocuronium in patients with end-stage renal disease and those with normal renal function. A prospective clinical trial. Two university hospitals, from 1 October 2011 to 31 January 2012. Forty patients undergoing kidney transplant: 20 with renal failure [creatinine clearance (ClCr) 90 ml min). Neuromuscular monitoring was performed by acceleromyography and train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. Profound neuromuscular block (posttetanic count, one to three responses) was maintained during surgery. Sugammadex 4 mg kg was administered on completion of skin closure. Recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was recorded. Monitoring of neuromuscular function continued in the postanesthesia care unit for a further 2 h. The efficacy of sugammadex was evaluated by the time taken for the TOF ratio to recover to 0.9. The safety of sugammadex was assessed by monitoring for recurrence of neuromuscular block every 15 min for 2 h. Secondary variables were time to recovery of TOF ratio to 0.7 and 0.8. After sugammadex administration, the mean time for recovery of the TOF ratio to 0.9 was prolonged in the renal failure group (5.6 ± 3.6 min) compared with the control group (2.7 ± 1.3 min, P = 0.003). No adverse events or evidence of recurrence of neuromuscular block were observed. In patients with

  9. Uncertainty characteristics of EPA's ground-water transport model for low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Man-Sung

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment is an essential step either in design or in licensing processes to ensure the safety of any proposed radioactive waste disposal facilities. Since performance assessment requires the use of computer codes, understanding the characteristics of computer models used and the uncertainties of the estimated results is important. The PRESTO-EPA code, which was the basis of the Environmental Protection Agency's analysis for low-level-waste rulemaking, is widely used for various performance assessment activities in the country with no adequate information available for the uncertainty characteristics of the results. In this study, the groundwater transport model PRESTO-EPA was examined based on the analysis of 14 C transport along with the investigation of uncertainty characteristics

  10. Anthropometric, physiological and performance characteristics of elite team-handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Brughelli, Matt; Levin, Gregory; Boudhina, Nahla Ben Brahim; Cronin, John; Chamari, Karim

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to provide anthropometric, physiological, and performance characteristics of an elite international handball team. Twenty-one elite handball players were tested and categorized according to their playing positions (goalkeepers, backs, pivots, and wings). Testing consisted of anthropometric and physiological measures of height, body mass, percentage body fat and endurance (VO(2max)), performance measures of speed (5, 10, and 30 m), strength (bench press and squat), unilateral and bilateral horizontal jumping ability, and a 5-jump horizontal test. Significant differences were found between player positions for some anthropometric characteristics (height and percentage body fat) but not for the physiological or performance characteristics. Strong correlations were noted between single leg horizontal jumping distances with 5-, 10-, and 30-m sprint times (r = 0.51-0.80; P team-handball players appear to be very similar. Single leg horizontal jumping distance could be a specific standardized test for predicting sprinting ability in elite handball players.

  11. Optimization of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Using Grey-Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Pohit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performances and emission characteristics of Karanja oil methyl ester blended with diesel were carried out on a variable compression diesel engine. In order to search for the optimal process response through a limited number of experiment runs, application of Taguchi method in combination with grey relational analysis had been applied for solving a multiple response optimization problem. Using grey relational grade and signal-to-noise ratio as a performance index, a particular combination of input parameters was predicted so as to achieve optimum response characteristics. It was observed that a blend of fifty percent was most suitable for use in a diesel engine without significantly affecting the engine performance and emissions characteristics.

  12. The Neuromuscular Qualities of Higher- and Lower-Level Mixed-Martial-Arts Competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the maximal strength, impulse, and power characteristics of competitive mixed-martial-arts (MMA) athletes differ according to competition level. Twenty-nine male semiprofessional and amateur MMA competitors were stratified into either higher-level (HL) or lower-level (LL) performers on the basis of competition grade and success. The 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat was used to assess lower-body dynamic strength, and a spectrum of impulse, power, force, and velocity variables were evaluated during an incremental-load jump squat. In addition, participants performed an isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and 1RM bench press to determine whole-body isometric force and upper-body dynamic strength capabilities, respectively. All force and power variables were expressed relative to body mass (BM). The HL competitors produced significantly superior values across a multitude of measures. These included 1RM squat strength (1.84 ± 0.23 vs 1.56 ± 0.24 kg BM; P = .003), in addition to performance in the incremental-load jump squat that revealed greater peak power (P = .005-.002), force (P = .002-.004), and velocity (P = .002-.03) at each load. Higher measures of impulse (P = .01-.04) were noted in a number of conditions. Average power (P = .002-.02) and velocity (P = .01-.04) at all loads in addition to a series of rate-dependent measures were also superior in the HL group (P = .005-.02). The HL competitors' 1RM bench-press values approached significantly greater levels (P = .056) than the LL group's, but IMTP performance did not differ between groups. Maximal lower-body neuromuscular capabilities are key attributes distinguishing HL from LL MMA competitors. This information can be used to inform evidenced-based training and performance-monitoring practices.

  13. Governance and performance: the performance of Dutch hospitals explained by governance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Jos L T; van Hulst, Bart Laurents

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of Dutch hospitals using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method with bootstrapping. In particular, the analysis focuses on accounting for cost inefficiency measures on the part of hospital corporate governance. We use bootstrap techniques, as introduced by Simar and Wilson (J. Econom. 136(1):31-64, 2007), in order to obtain more efficient estimates of the effects of governance on the efficiency. The results show that part of the cost efficiency can be explained with governance. In particular we find that a higher remuneration of the board as well as a higher remuneration of the supervisory board does not implicate better performance.

  14. Preventive Care Quality of Medicare Accountable Care Organizations: Associations of Organizational Characteristics With Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Benjamin B; Lewis, Valerie A; Ross, Joseph S; Colla, Carrie H

    2016-03-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are a delivery and payment model aiming to coordinate care, control costs, and improve quality. Medicare ACOs are responsible for 8 measures of preventive care quality. To create composite measures of preventive care quality and examine associations of ACO characteristics with performance. This is a cross-sectional study of Medicare Shared Savings Program and Pioneer participants. We linked quality performance to descriptive data from the National Survey of ACOs. We created composite measures using exploratory factor analysis, and used regression to assess associations with organizational characteristics. Of 252 eligible ACOs, 246 reported on preventive care quality, 177 of which completed the survey (response rate=72%). In their first year, ACOs lagged behind PPO performance on the majority of comparable measures. We identified 2 underlying factors among 8 measures and created composites for each: disease prevention, driven by vaccines and cancer screenings, and wellness screening, driven by annual health screenings. Participation in the Advanced Payment Model, having fewer specialists, and having more Medicare ACO beneficiaries per primary care provider were associated with significantly better performance on both composites. Better performance on disease prevention was also associated with inclusion of a hospital, greater electronic health record capabilities, a larger primary care workforce, and fewer minority beneficiaries. ACO preventive care quality performance is related to provider composition and benefitted by upfront investment. Vaccine and cancer screening quality performance is more dependent on organizational structure and characteristics than performance on annual wellness screenings, likely due to greater complexity in eligibility determination and service administration.

  15. Stability and migration across femoral varus derotation osteotomies in children with neuromuscular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxbom, Peter; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Ellitsgaard, Niels

    2017-01-01

    ), and acetabuloplasty. Relapse is observed in one-fifth of cases during adolescence. In this prospective cohort study, we performed a descriptive evaluation of translation and rotation across VDROs in children with neuromuscular disorders and syndromes by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We assessed "RSA stability......" and migration across the VDROs. Patients and methods - Children with a neuromuscular disorder were set up for skeletal corrective surgery of the hip. RSA follow-ups were performed postoperatively, at 5 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Results - 27 femoral VDROs were included; 2 patients were...... excluded during the study period. RSA data showed stability across the VDRO in the majority of cases within the first 5 weeks. At the 1-year follow-up, the mean translations (SD) of the femoral shaft distal to the VDRO were 0.51 (1.12) mm medial, 0.69 (1.61) mm superior, and 0.21 (1.28) mm posterior...

  16. How do task characteristics affect learning and performance? The roles of variably mapped and dynamic tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Frank, David J

    2018-05-01

    For well over a century, scientists have investigated individual differences in performance. The majority of studies have focused on either differences in practice, or differences in cognitive resources. However, the predictive ability of either practice or cognitive resources varies considerably across tasks. We are the first to examine task characteristics' impact on learning and performance in a complex task while controlling for other task characteristics. In 2 experiments we test key theoretical task characteristic thought to moderate the relationship between practice, cognitive resources, and performance. We devised a task where each of several key task characteristics can be manipulated independently. Participants played 5 rounds of a game similar to the popular tower defense videogame Plants vs. Zombies where both cognitive load and game characteristics were manipulated. In Experiment 1, participants either played a consistently mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties were constant across the 5 rounds-or played a variably mapped version-the stimuli and the associated meaning of their properties changed every few minutes. In Experiment 2, participants either played a static version-that is, turn taking with no time pressure-or played a dynamic version-that is, the stimuli moved regardless of participants' response rates. In Experiment 1, participants' accuracy and efficiency were substantially hindered in the variably mapped conditions. In Experiment 2, learning and performance accuracy were hindered in the dynamic conditions, especially when under cognitive load. Our results suggest that task characteristics impact the relative importance of cognitive resources and practice on predicting learning and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Managerial Characteristics and its Impact on Organizational Performance: Evidence from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Milana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore impact of managerial human capital in performance of a Syrian public organization, Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus, through use some of managerial characteristics are age, level of education, tenure and functional track. This study applied on a sample of 12 managers and 138 employees. The study reveals that there are no significant effect of age, level of education and functional track in performance of Directorate of Finance of province of Damascus, while there is a positive, strong and significant effect of tenure manager in organizational performance, which indicates that managerial characteristics almost irrelevant with performance of Directorate of Finance of the province of Damascus, and the public sector in general. Such results appear a need for efforts are invested in the formulation and implementation of human resource procedures and policies which can bring about effective change in behaviours and roles of the public managers and employees.

  18. Performance Characteristic of Cold Recycled Mixture with Asphalt Emulsion and Chemical Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowen Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three types of chemical additives were used to modify asphalt emulsion recycled mixture. These chemical additives include composite Portland cement (CPC, hydrated lime (HL, and a combination of hydrated lime and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBF. The influence of different additives on the recycled mixture performance was investigated by volumetric and strength tests, moisture susceptibility test, rutting resistance test, and low temperature bending test. To better understand its performance characteristic, the microstructure images of the recycled mixture were observed by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM. Test results demonstrate that the performance improvement of the emulsion recycled mixture depends on the types and content of chemical additives. Several recommendations are presented for the selection of chemical materials. Based on ESEM image analysis, the interface bonding mechanism is proposed to explain the performance characteristic of the recycled mixture with asphalt emulsion and cementitious materials.

  19. Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Dall'ora, Chiara; Griffiths, P.; Ball, J.; Recio Saucedo, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shift work is recognised as a component of work organisation that may affect the balance between employee’s efficiency, effectiveness and wellbeing. Shift work is frequent in healthcare and for nurses in particular, as they typically comprise a large proportion of the workforce in healthcare AIM: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee’s performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse ev...

  20. Performance characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Ajasa, O.Y.; Abiona, J.A.; Fafiolu, A.O.; Egbeyale, L.T.; Njoku1, C.P.; Omotayo1, I.G.; Odeyemi1, A.Y.; Abel, F.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cost of conventional protein sources is on the increase recently; hence, there is the need for cheaper alternative sources that will not compromise the performance characteristics of broiler birds taking into consideration the cost of production. Moringa leaf meal has been reported to increase the performance of broiler birds due to its rich protein content. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were used to assess the effects of partial replacement of soya bean meal with Moringa (Moringa oleife...

  1. Performance Characteristics of Long-Track Speed Skaters : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, Marco J.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Stoter, Inge K.; van der Meer, Dirk; Otten, Egbert; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    Speed skating is an intriguing sport to study from different perspectives due to the peculiar way of motion and the multiple determinants for performance. This review aimed to identify what is known on (long-track) speed skating, and which individual characteristics determine speed skating

  2. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  3. Using Differential Item Functioning Procedures to Explore Sources of Item Difficulty and Group Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; Gerritz, Kalle

    1990-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology for revealing sources of item difficulty and performance characteristics of different groups was explored. A total of 150 Scholastic Aptitude Test items and 132 Graduate Record Examination general test items were analyzed. DIF was evaluated for males and females and Blacks and Whites. (SLD)

  4. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  5. Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Performance characteristics of an excimer laser (XeCl) with single-stage magnetic ... the stress can increase the lifetime of the switches and ..... work. References. [1] Ying-Tung Chen, Kris Naessens, Roel Bates, Yunn-Shiuan.

  6. Preferences of Mexican anesthesiologists for vecuronium, rocuronium, or other neuromuscular blocking agents: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garduño-Espinosa J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several neuromuscular blocking (NMB agents are available for clinical use in anesthesia. The present study was performed in order to identify preferences and behaviors of anesthesiologists for using vecuronium, rocuronium or other NMB agents in their clinical practice. Material and methods The cross-sectional survey was applied at the Updated Course of the Colegio Mexicano de Anestesiología performed last year. Of 989, 282 (28.5% surveys were returned. Results Most anesthesiologists were working at both public and private hospitals, performed anesthetic procedures for hospitalized and ambulatory patients, and anesthetized children as well as adults. Respondents did not consider mechanomyography as the gold standard method for neuromuscular monitoring. The T25 was not recognized as a pharmacodynamic parameter that represents the clinical duration of the neuromuscular block. Most answered that vecuronium induces less histamine release than rocuronium, had never used any neuromuscular monitor, did not know the cost of vecuronium and rocuronium, and preferred rocuronium in multiple-sampling vials and vecuronium in either a vial for single or multiple sampling. Rocuronium was preferred for emergency surgery in patients with full stomach only. Almost all of anesthesiologists that conserve the unused drug did it without refrigeration and more than 30% conserve the unused drug in one syringe for further use. Conclusion Vecuronium was preferred for most clinical situations, and the decision for this choice was not based on costs. Storage of unused drugs without refrigeration in a single syringe for purpose of future use in several patients represented a dangerous common practice.

  7. Effects of Short- and Long-Duration Space Flight on Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; Spiering, Barry A.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Task Tests (FTT) is an interdisciplinary study designed to correlate the changes in functional tasks (such as emergency egress, ladder climbing, and hatch opening) with changes in neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor function. One aspect of the FTT, the neuromuscular function test, is used to investigate the neuromuscular component underlying changes in the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks (representative of critical mission tasks) safely and quickly after flight. PURPOSE: To describe neuromuscular function after short- and long-duration space flight. METHODS: To date, 5 crewmembers on short-duration (10- to 15-day) missions and 3 on long-duration missions have participated. Crewmembers were assessed 30 days before flight, on landing day (short-duration subjects only) and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The interpolated twitch technique, which utilizes a combination of maximal voluntary contractions and electrically evoked contractions, was used to assess the maximal voluntary isometric force (MIF) and central activation capacity of the knee extensors. Leg-press and bench-press devices were used to assess MIF and maximal dynamic power of the lower and upper body respectively. Specifically, power was measured during concentric-only ballistic throws of the leg-press sled and bench-press bar loaded to 40% and 30% of MIF respectively. RESULTS: Data are currently being collected from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers. Emerging data indicate that measures of knee extensor muscle function are decreased with long-duration flight. DISCUSSION: The relationships between flight duration, neural drive, and muscle performance are of particular interest. Ongoing research will add to the current sample size and will focus on defining changes in muscle performance measures after long-duration space flight.

  8. [The hip joint in neuromuscular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, W M

    2009-07-01

    Physiologic motor and biomechanical parameters are prerequisites for normal hip development and hip function. Disorders of muscle activity and lack of weight bearing due to neuromuscular diseases may cause clinical symptoms such as an unstable hip or reduced range of motion. Disability and handicap because of pain, hip dislocation, osteoarthritis, gait disorders, or problems in seating and positioning are dependent on the severity of the disease, the time of occurrence, and the means of prevention and treatment. Preservation of pain-free and stable hip joints should be gained by balancing muscular forces and by preventing progressive dislocation. Most important is the exact indication of therapeutic options such as movement and standing therapy as well as drugs and surgery.

  9. Knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination during three phases of the menstrual cycle in moderately active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, Cecilia; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Saartok, Tönu; Renström, Per

    2006-04-01

    An increased incidence of sports related injuries in the premenstrual phase as well as in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle has been described. This may be explained by alterations in proprioception and neuromuscular coordination due to hormonal variations. Prospective, within women analysis of knee joint kinesthesia and neuromuscular coordination were performed by repeated measures analysis of variance in three hormonally verified phases of three consecutive menstrual cycles. Thirty-two healthy, moderately active female subjects volunteered to participate in the study. Twenty-five of the subjects performed at least one hormonally verified menstrual cycle. A specially designed device was used to investigate knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination was measured with the square hop test. These tests were carried out in the menstrual phase, ovulation phase and premenstrual phase determined by hormone analyses in three consecutive menstrual cycles. An impaired knee joint kinaesthesia was detected in the premenstrual phase and the performance of square hop test was significantly improved in the ovulation phase compared to the other two phases. The results of this study indicate that the variation of sex hormones in the menstrual cycle has an effect on performance of knee joint kinaesthesia and neuromuscular coordination.

  10. Kinesiotaping enhances the rate of force development but not the neuromuscular efficiency of physically active young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Mezzarane, Rinaldo André; Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Bruno A.; Ferreira-Júnior, João B.; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Investigations on the effects of KT on human performance have been increasing in the last few years. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating its effects on neuromuscular efficiency (NME) and rate of force development (RFD). Objective: To evaluate the NME and RFD of the

  11. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The immediate effect of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment on the standing balance in younger persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Ko; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in standing balance of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 57 healthy young people, who were divided into three groups: The NJF group, and the Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) group and the control group. [Methods] Functional reach test and body sway were measured before and after intervention in three groups. Four hip patterns of NJF or PNF were used. Two-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons were performed. [Results] The rate of change of FRT in the NJF group increased than the PNF group. The root mean square area at NJF and PNF group increased than control group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that caput femoris rotation function can be improved by NJF treatment, and that improvement of caput femoris rotation contributes to improve dynamic balance.

  13. Neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity intermittent exercise in individuals with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, Rihab; Sahli, Sonia; Zarrouk, Nidhal; Zghal, Firas; Rebai, Haithem

    2013-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular fatigue after high-intensity intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with 10 controls. Both groups performed three maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extension with 5 min in-between. The highest level achieved was selected as reference MVC. The fatiguing exercise consists of five sets with a maximal number of flexion-extension cycles at 80% of the one maximal repetition (1RM) for the right leg at 90° with 90 s rest interval between sets. The MVC was tested again after the last set. Peak force and electromyography (EMG) signals were measured during the MVC tests. Root Mean Square (RMS) and Median Frequency (MF) were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was calculated as the ratio of peak force to the RMS. Before exercise, individuals with ID had a lower MVC (psport train ID individuals, they should consider this nervous system weakness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reversal of neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex in laparoscopic bariatric surgery: In support of dose reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaoui, Rachid; Cabaret, Aurélie; Alami, Youssef; Zogheib, Elie; Popov, Ivan; Lorne, Emmanuel; Dupont, Hervé

    2016-02-01

    =NS). Reversal of deep neuromuscular blockades by sugammadex in obese subjects can be performed at doses of 4mg/kg of ideal weight plus 35-50% with no clinical consequences and no accentuation of adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Reader characteristics linked to detection of pulmonary nodules on radiographs: ROC vs. JAFROC analyses of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Akshay; Robinson, John W.; Ryan, John; McEntee, Mark F.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether reader characteristics are linked to heightened levels of diagnostic performance in chest radiology using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and jackknife free response ROC (JAFROC) methodologies. A set of 40 postero-anterior chest radiographs was developed, of which 20 were abnormal containing one or more simulated nodules, of varying subtlety. Images were independently reviewed by 12 boardcertified radiologists including six chest specialists. The observer performance was measured in terms of ROC and JAFROC scores. For the ROC analysis, readers were asked to rate their degree of suspicion for the presence of nodules by using a confidence rating scale (1-6). JAFROC analysis required the readers to locate and rate as many suspicious areas as they wished using the same scale and resultant data were used to generate Az and FOM scores for ROC and JAFROC analyses respectively. Using Pearson methods, scores of performance were correlated with 7 reader characteristics recorded using a questionnaire. JAFROC analysis showed that improved reader performance was significantly (pchest specialty (pchest radiographs (pchest readings per year (pchest radiographs (pchest specialty, hours reading per week and number of radiographs read per year. Also, JAFROC is a more powerful predictor of performance as compared to ROC.

  16. Performance characteristics of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) under transient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Gareth; Mishra, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the performance characteristics of a novel Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) for use in the urban environment. Here the performance of the wind turbine has been analyzed experimentally using a full scale prototype measuring 2.0m diameter and 1.0m in height. The turbine was located at the exit of a 0.6m x 0.6m wind tunnel section and was subjected to a jet flow. The performance output from the turbine has been obtained using a torque transducer unit which provides...

  17. Performance characteristics of digital vs film screen mammography in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbous, Firas; Dolecek, Therese A; Friedewald, Sarah M; Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Macarol, Tere; Summerfelt, Wm Thomas; Rauscher, Garth H

    2018-05-01

    We compared the performance characteristics of 297 629 full field digital (FFDM) and 416 791 screen film mammograms (SFM). Sensitivity increased with age, decreased with breast density, and was lower for more aggressive and lobular tumors. While sensitivity did not differ significantly by modality, specificity was generally 1%-2% points higher for FFDM than for SFM across age and breast density categories. The lower recall rate for FFDM vs SFM in our study may partially explain performance differences by modality. In this large health care organization, modest gains in performance were achieved with the introduction of FFDM as a replacement for SFM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Performance and combustion characteristics of direct-injection stratified-charge rotary engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee

    1987-01-01

    Computer simulations of the direct-injection stratified-charge (DISC) Wankel engine have been used to calculate heat release rates and performance and efficiency characteristics of the 1007R engine. Engine pressure data have been used in a heat release analysis to study the effects of heat transfer, leakage, and crevice flows. Predicted engine performance data are compared with experimental test data over a range of engine speeds and loads. An examination of methods to improve the performance of the Wankel engine with faster combustion, reduced leakage, higher compression ratio, and turbocharging is presented.

  19. Microcystin Detection Characteristics of Fluorescence Immunochromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Dong Jin; Park, Geun Young; Choi, Jong Chon; Oh, Chang Suk

    2005-01-01

    Different detection characteristics of fluorescence immunochromatography method and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the analysis of cyanobacterial toxins were studied. In particular, low and high limits of detection, detection time and reproducibility and detectable microcystin species were compared when fluorescence immunochromatography method and high performance liquid chromatography method were applied for the detection of microcystin (MC), a cyclic peptide toxin of the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. A Fluorescence immunochromatography assay system has the unique advantages of short detection time and low detection limit, and high performance liquid chromatography detection method has the strong advantage of individual quantifications of several species of microcystins

  20. Performance characteristics of long-track speed skaters: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Marco J; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Stoter, Inge K; van der Meer, Dirk; Otten, Egbert; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2015-04-01

    Speed skating is an intriguing sport to study from different perspectives due to the peculiar way of motion and the multiple determinants for performance. This review aimed to identify what is known on (long-track) speed skating, and which individual characteristics determine speed skating performance. A total of 49 studies were included. Based on a multidimensional performance model, person-related performance characteristics were categorized in anthropometrical, technical, physiological, tactical, and psychological characteristics. Literature was found on anthropometry, technique, physiology, and tactics. However, psychological studies were clearly under-represented. In particular, the role of self-regulation might deserve more attention to further understand mechanisms relevant for optimal performance and for instance pacing. Another remarkable finding was that the technically/biomechanically favourable crouched skating technique (i.e. small knee and trunk angle) leads to a physiological disadvantage: a smaller knee angle may increase the deoxygenation of the working muscles. This is an important underlying aspect for the pacing tactics in speed skating. Elite speed skaters need to find the optimal balance between obtaining a fast start and preventing negative technical adaptations later on in the race by distributing their available energy over the race in an optimal way. More research is required to gain more insight into how this impacts on the processes of fatigue and coordination during speed skating races. This can lead to a better understanding on how elite speed skaters can maintain the optimal technical characteristics throughout the entire race, and how they can adapt their pacing to optimize all identified aspects that determine performance.

  1. Performance characteristics of plane-wall venturi-like reverse flow diverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.V.; Counce, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of plane-wall venturi-like reverse flow diverters (RFD) are presented. In general, the flow characteristics of the RFD are reasonably well predicted by the mathematical model of the RFD, although a divergence between theory and data is observed for the output characteristics in the reverse flow mode as the output impedance is reduced. Overall, the performance of these devices indicates their usefulness in fluid control and fluid power systems, such as displacement pumping systems

  2. The effect of management team characteristics on performance and style extremity of mutual fund portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Along with mutual funds’ scale and quantity expanding for our country, it is common for fund management companies hiring new managers or the original fund managers mobilizing from one to another. The high liquidity of fund managers makes different managers regroup to manage the funds that belong to the same fund management company in each fund year. The characteristics of these different management team will influence the fund performance, and also affect the earnings of the fund management company and portfolio investors. The purpose of this paper is as follows. First, evaluating the effect of management team characteristics on portfolio characteristics: risk, performance, and extremity. Second, testing the hypothesis that the ranking of mid-year performance have effect on investment style extremity and research what relationship exists between this phenomenon and management team characteristics in depth.Design/methodology/approach: On the analysis of the relationships between the management team characteristics and portfolio characteristics, a series of OLS regressions is run where the time series regression model (the factor model and cross-sectional regression are included based on using the STATA, EVIEWS and MATLAB. The validity and practicability of the model will be verified in the paper. All of the above are aimed at achieving portfolio optimization and realizing the maximization of the interests of fund management companies and investors.Findings: The main findings are as follows. Teams with more doctors or MBA (CPA and CFA hold more risky portfolios, while teams with long team tenure hold less. More members and large gender diversity have negative effect on performance, and the opposite is age diversity. Teams with more members and long tenure tend to hold less extreme style decisions, but age diversity is related to more. Besides, tournament hypothesis does exist in China investment funds industry especially when the

  3. The influence of tyre characteristics on measures of rolling performance during cross-country mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, Paul William; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sets out to assess the effect of five different models of mountain bike tyre on rolling performance over hard-pack mud. Independent characteristics included total weight, volume, tread surface area and tread depth. One male cyclist performed multiple (30) trials of a deceleration field test to assess reliability. Further tests performed on a separate occasion included multiple (15) trials of the deceleration test and six fixed power output hill climb tests for each tyre. The deceleration test proved to be reliable as a means of assessing rolling performance via differences in initial and final speed (coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.52%). Overall differences between tyre performance for both deceleration test (P = 0.014) and hill climb (P = 0.032) were found, enabling significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.049) models to be generated, allowing tyre performance prediction based on tyre characteristics. The ideal tyre for rolling and climbing performance on hard-pack surfaces would be to decrease tyre weight by way of reductions in tread surface area and tread depth while keeping volume high.

  4. Genetics of Pediatric-Onset Motor Neuron and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Muscular Dystrophy; Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress 1; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Neuron Disease; Neuromuscular Disease; Peroneal Muscular Atrophy; Fragile X Syndrome

  5. The role of proprioception and neuromuscular stability in carpal instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagert, E; Lluch, A; Rein, S

    2016-01-01

    Carpal stability has traditionally been defined as dependent on the articular congruity of joint surfaces, the static stability maintained by intact ligaments, and the dynamic stability caused by muscle contractions resulting in a compression of joint surfaces. In the past decade, a fourth factor in carpal stability has been proposed, involving the neuromuscular and proprioceptive control of joints. The proprioception of the wrist originates from afferent signals elicited by sensory end organs (mechanoreceptors) in ligaments and joint capsules that elicit spinal reflexes for immediate joint stability, as well as higher order neuromuscular influx to the cerebellum and sensorimotor cortices for planning and executing joint control. The aim of this review is to provide an understanding of the role of proprioception and neuromuscular control in carpal instabilities by delineating the sensory innervation and the neuromuscular control of the carpus, as well as descriptions of clinical applications of proprioception in carpal instabilities. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Effects of napping on neuromuscular fatigue in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassardjian, Charles D; Murray, Brian J; Kokokyi, Seint; Jewell, Dana; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Katzberg, Hans D

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between sleep and neuromuscular fatigue is understood poorly. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of napping on quantitative measures of neuromuscular fatigue in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Eight patients with mild to moderate MG were recruited. Patients underwent maintenance of wakefulness tests (MWT) and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). The Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMGS) was measured before nap and after each nap to examine the effects of napping and sleep on neuromuscular weakness. Results showed that QMGS improves only after naps where patients slept more than 5 min but not where patients did not sleep or slept less than 5 min. Daytime napping mitigates neuromuscular fatigue in patients with MG, especially if patients slept for more than 5 min. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. How Do Board Characteristics Influence Business Performance? Evidence from Non-life Insurance Firms in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to contribute to the corporate governance literature by establishing the relationship between board characteristics and corporate performance within the nonlife insurance firms in Zimbabwe. The study sought to provide some insights on corporate governance since the phenomenon is relatively an emerging discipline in Zimbabwe. The paper sought to complement other corporate governance studies that were conducted in other environments by producing evidence on the phenomenon from a developing country context. A quantitative research approach was adopted and respondents were selected through a stratified random sampling. The results of the study confirm that board characteristics (board composition, diversity, and size exhibit a statistically significant positive predictive relationship with the performance of non-life insurance firms measured by gross premium written and customer retention. However, CEO/Chairman duality showed a negative relationship with business performance. Non-life insurance companies need to be cognizant of board characteristics in order to improve their performance. Moreover , the findings in this research has practical relevance for the selection process of directors as it highlights the importance of having a sizeable number of board members as well as an appropriate mix of competences and qualifications on the board. Although corporate governance is has been extensively researched, there is limited study in this area from a developing country like Zimbabwe with relatively less developed capital markets. It would be wrong to assume that the findings found in other countries can apply here because the conditions are different.

  8. Relationship of nurses' intrapersonal characteristics with work performance and caring behaviors: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Nelouise-Marié; Coetzee, Siedine K; Ellis, Suria M; Uys, Leana R

    2018-02-28

    This study aimed to describe intrapersonal characteristics (professional values, personality, empathy, and job involvement), work performance as perceived by nurses, and caring behaviors as perceived by patients, and to examine the relationships among these variables. A cross-sectional design was employed. A sample was recruited of 218 nurses and 116 patients in four private hospitals and four public hospitals. Data were collected using self-report measures. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, hierarchical linear modelling, correlations, and structural equation modeling. Nurses perceived their work performance to be of high quality. Among the intrapersonal characteristics, nurses had high scores for professional values, and moderately high scores for personality, empathy and job involvement. Patients perceived nurses' caring behaviors as moderately high. Professional values of nurses were the only selected intrapersonal characteristic with a statistically significant positive relationship, of practical importance, with work performance as perceived by nurses and with caring behaviors as perceived by patients at ward level. Managers can enhance nurses' work performance and caring behaviors through provision of in-service training that focuses on development of professional values. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Borji , Rihab; Zghal , Firas; Zarrouk , Nidhal; Martin , Vincent; Sahli , Sonia; Rebai , Haithem

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Purpose: This study aimed to explore neuromuscular fatigue and recovery profiles in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) after exhausting submaximal contraction.Methods: Ten men with ID were compared to 10 men without ID. The evaluation of neuromuscular function consisted in brief (3 s) isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) of the knee extension superimposed with electrical nerve stimulation before, immediately after, and during 33 min after an exhaus...

  10. Physico-chemical characteristics of high performance polymer modified by low and atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Nitu; Sangeeta, Jha; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Gupta, Govind; Moon, J.B.; Kim, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the effect of low pressure plasma and atmospheric p ressure plasma treatment on surface properties and adhesion characteristics of high performance polymer, Polyether Ether Ketone (PEEK) are investigated in terms of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The experimental results show that the PEEK surface treated by atmospheric pressure plasma lead to an increase in the polar component of the surface energy, resulting in improving the adhesion characteristics of the PEEK/Epoxy adhesive system. Also, the roughness of the treated surfaces is largely increased as confirmed by AFM observation. These results can be explained by the fact that the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of PEEK surface yields several oxygen functionalities on hydrophobic surface, which play an important role in increasing the surface polarity, wettability, and the adhesion characteristics of the PEEK/Epoxy adhesive system. (authors)

  11. Kinematic and neuromuscular relationships between lower extremity clinical movement assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Cram, Tyler R; Frank, Barnett S; Begalle, Rebecca L; Norcross, Marc F; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A

    2018-06-01

    Lower extremity injuries have immediate and long-term consequences. Lower extremity movement assessments can assist with identifying individuals at greater injury risk and guide injury prevention interventions. Movement assessments identify similar movement characteristics and evidence suggests large magnitude kinematic relationships exist between movement patterns observed across assessments; however, the magnitude of the relationships for electromyographic (EMG) measures across movement assessments remains largely unknown. This study examined relationships between lower extremity kinematic and EMG measures during jump landings and single leg squats. Lower extremity three-dimensional kinematic and EMG data were sampled from healthy adults (males = 20, females = 20) during the movement assessments. Pearson correlations examined the relationships of the kinematic and EMG measures and paired samples t-tests compared mean kinematic and EMG measures between the assessments. Overall, significant moderate correlations were observed for lower extremity kinematic (r avg  = 0.41, r range  = 0.10-0.61) and EMG (r avg  = 0.47, r range  = 0.32-0.80) measures across assessments. Kinematic and EMG measures were greater during the jump landings. Jump landings and single leg squats place different demands on the body and necessitate different kinematic and EMG patterns, such that these measures are not highly correlated between assessments. Clinicians should, therefore, use multiple assessments to identify aberrant movement and neuromuscular control patterns so that comprehensive interventions can be implemented.

  12. Applications of Shape Memory Alloys for Neurology and Neuromuscular Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pittaccio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shape memory alloys (SMAs are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE, shape memory effect (SME and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous.

  13. Transformational leadership and safety performance among nurses: the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Ilse; Vlerick, Peter

    2014-03-01

    To report the impact of transformational leadership on two dimensions of nurses' safety performance (i.e. safety compliance and safety participation) and to study the mediating role of knowledge-related job characteristics in this relationship. Safety performance refers to the behaviours that employees exhibit to adhere to safety guidelines and to promote health and safety at their workplace. Nurses' safety performance is a major challenge for healthcare settings, urging the need to identify the key determinants and psychological mechanisms that influence it. A cross-sectional survey study. The study was carried out in September 2010 in a large Belgian hospital. We used self-administered questionnaires; 152 nurses participated. The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analyses. In line with our first hypothesis, the results show that transformational leadership exerted a significant positive impact on both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This positive relation was mediated by knowledge-related job characteristics, supporting our second hypothesis. Head nurses' transformational leadership can enhance nurses' compliance with and participation in safety. Furthermore, transformational head nurses are able to influence the perception that their nurses have about the kind and amount of knowledge in their job, which can also lead to increases in both dimensions of nurses' safety performance. This study therefore demonstrates the key impact that transformational head nurses have, both directly and indirectly, on the safety performance of their nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The performance characteristics of the Philips Gemini PET/CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keefe, G.J.; Papenfuss, A.T.; Scott, A.M.; Rowe, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre for PET at the ARMC is commissioning a next generation PET/CT scanner based on gadolinium silicic dioxide (GSO) crystal technology to replace the BGO crystal PET scanner that has been in operation since 1992. The Gemini PET/CT scanner is a fully 3D PET system which offers significantly increased resolution and sensitivity allowing wholebody scans in under 30 minutes. Until the late 90's, PET scanners were largely used with septa for neurological imaging and the performance characteristics of PET scanners were presented according to the NEMA-NU2-94 standard which specifically addresses the performance of PET scanners for neurological applications. PET is now largely used without septa for oncological imaging and as such, the NEMA-NU2-94 standard does not adequately reflect performance. The NEMA-NU2-2001 standard was designed to incorporate the effects of out-of-FOV activity and its contribution to performance by virtue of the increased scatter and randoms that result when performing wholebody scans without the use of septa. As part of the acceptance program of the Allegro/Gemini systems, the NEMA-NU2-2001 standard will be used to characterise the spatial resolution, sensitivity, randoms and scatter contributions and the Noise Equivalent Count rate (NECr). These results will be presented and compared with the ECAT 951/31R performance characteristics. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Performance characteristics and parametric optimization of an irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Fang; Lin Guoxing; Chen Jincan; Brueck, Ekkes

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the finite-rate heat transfer in the heat-transfer processes, heat leak between the two external heat reservoirs, regenerative loss, regeneration time, and internal irreversibility due to dissipation of the cycle working substance, an irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump cycle is presented. On the basis of the thermodynamic properties of magnetic materials, the performance characteristics of the irreversible magnetic Ericsson heat-pump are investigated and the relationship between the optimal heating load and the coefficient of performance (COP) is derived. Moreover, the maximum heating load and the corresponding COP as well as the maximum COP and the corresponding heating load are obtained. Furthermore, the other optimal performance characteristics are discussed in detail. The results obtained here may provide some new information for the optimal parameter design and the development of real magnetic Ericsson heat-pumps. -- Research Highlights: →The effects of multi-irreversibilities on the performance of a magnetic heat-pump are revealed. →Mathematical expressions of the heating load and the COP are derived and the optimal performance and operating parameters are analyzed and discussed. →Several important performance bounds are determined.

  16. Effects of Selected Corporate Governance Characteristics on Firm Performance: Empirical Evidence from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Okoth Ongore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interrelations among ownership, board and manager characteristics and firm performance in a sample of 54 firms listed at the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE. These governance characteristics, designed to minimize agency problems between principals and agents are operationalized in terms of ownership concentration, ownership identity, board effectiveness and managerial discretion. The typical ownership identities at the NSE are government, foreign, institutional, manager and diverse ownership forms. Firm performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE and Dividend Yield (DY. Using PPMC, Logistic Regression and Stepwise Regression, the paper presents evidence of significant positive relationship between foreign, insider, institutional and diverse ownership forms, and firm performance. However, the relationship between ownership concentration and government, and firm performance was significantly negative. The role of boards was found to be of very little value, mainly due to lack of adherence to board member selection criteria. The results also show significant positive relationship between managerial discretion and performance. Collectively, these results are consistent with pertinent literature with regard to the implications of government, foreign, manager (insider and institutional ownership forms, but significantly differ concerning the effects of ownership concentration and diverse ownership on firm performance.

  17. SELECTION OF ENDOCRINOLOGY SUBSPECIALTY TRAINEES: WHICH APPLICANT CHARACTERISTICS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PERFORMANCE DURING FELLOWSHIP TRAINING?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natt, Neena; Chang, Alice Y; Berbari, Elie F; Kennel, Kurt A; Kearns, Ann E

    2016-01-01

    To determine which residency characteristics are associated with performance during endocrinology fellowship training as measured by competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings of trainee performance. We performed a retrospective review of interview applications from endocrinology fellows who graduated from a single academic institution between 2006 and 2013. Performance measures included competency-based faculty evaluation scores and faculty global ratings. The association between applicant characteristics and measures of performance during fellowship was examined by linear regression. The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director's letter of recommendation (LoR) or experience as a chief resident was significantly associated with competency-based faculty evaluation scores (β = 0.22, P = .001; and β = 0.24, P = .009, respectively) and faculty global ratings (β = 0.85, P = .006; and β = 0.96, P = .015, respectively). The presence of a laudatory comparative statement in the residency program director's LoR or experience as a chief resident were significantly associated with overall performance during subspecialty fellowship training. Future studies are needed in other cohorts to determine the broader implications of these findings in the application and selection process.

  18. Numerical study of influence of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Zeng-wen; Wang, Zhan-xue

    2015-01-01

    The atomization and combustion flowfield of the combustion chamber with swirl-nozzle were simulated using different biofuels; the thermodynamic cycle of the aircraft engine system were also analyzed, influences of biofuels on the combustion characteristics and performance of aircraft engine system were explored. Results show that viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting the atomization and combustion characteristics of biofuels, and then dominate the distribution of the temperature and NO concentration. Due to the characteristic of low viscosity and low caloric value for biofuels adopted, the biofuels accumulate near the head of combustion chamber, and the corresponding NO emission is lower than that it has for conventional kerosene. When biofuels with low caloric value are used under the operation condition which is same as the condition for the conventional kerosene, lower turbine inlet temperature, lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption would be achieved for the aircraft engine. - Highlights: • Influences of biofuels properties on combustion characteristic are explored. • Effects of biofuels on cycle parameters of aircraft engine are discussed. • Viscosity and caloric value are key factors affecting combustion of biofuels. • NO emission becomes lower when biofuels with low caloric value is adopted. • The performance of aircraft engine becomes worse for biofuels with low caloric value.

  19. Talent in Female Gymnastics: a Survival Analysis Based upon Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, J; Lenoir, M; Vandorpe, B; Segers, V

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the link between the anthropometric, physical and motor characteristics assessed during talent identification and dropout in young female gymnasts. 3 cohorts of female gymnasts (n=243; 6-9 years) completed a test battery for talent identification. Performance-levels were monitored over 5 years of competition. Kaplan-Meier and Cox Proportional Hazards analyses were conducted to determine the survival rate and the characteristics that influence dropout respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that only 18% of the female gymnasts that passed the baseline talent identification test survived at the highest competition level 5 years later. The Cox Proportional Hazards Model indicated that gymnasts with a score in the best quartile for a specific characteristic significantly increased chances of survival by 45-129%. These characteristics being: basic motor skills (129%), shoulder strength (96%), leg strength (53%) and 3 gross motor coordination items (45-73%). These results suggest that tests batteries commonly used for talent identification in young female gymnasts may also provide valuable insights into future dropout. Therefore, multidimensional test batteries deserve a prominent place in the selection process. The individual test results should encourage trainers to invest in an early development of basic physical and motor characteristics to prevent attrition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Evaluation of the performance characteristic for mammography by using edge device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Dept. of Medical Science, The Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eul Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Paik University Hospital Jeo-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, The Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluation of the performance characteristic for mammography by using edge device that mammography equipment improves essential in the correct diagnosis for the maintenance. We measured the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) using the 61267 RQA-M2 based on commission standard international electro-technical commission (IEC). As a results, spatial resolution of dimensions tomo and lorad selenia mammography were maintained at 10 mm-1 and NPS and DQE including the low nyquist frequency indicated to 6.0 mm-1. Therefore, regularly QA of mammography system should be necessary. This study can be contribute to evaluate QA for performance characteristic of mammography of DDR system.

  1. Design characteristics of metallic fuel rod on its in-LMR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang Hee Young; Nam, Cheol; Kim, Jong Oh

    1997-01-01

    Fuel design is a key feature to assure LMR safety goals. To date, a large effort had been devoted to develop metallic fuels at ANL's experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II). The major design and performance parameters investigated include; thermal conductivity and temperature profile; smear density; axial plenum; FCMI and cladding deformation including creep, and fission gas release. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of each parameter, in-LMR performances of metallic fuels are not only reviewed by the experiment results in literatures, but also key design characteristics according to the variation of metallic fuel rod design parameters are analyzed by using the MACSIS code which simulates in-reactor behaviors of metal fuel rod. In this study, key design characteristics and the criteria which must be considered to design fuel rod in LMR, are proposed and discussed. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  2. The impact of ownership and other corporate characteristics on performance of V4 companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Procházka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess financial performance of Czech, Hungarian, Polish, and Slovak unlisted companies. The sample retrieved from the Amadeus database contains 171,095 firm-year observations for the period of 2010-2014. A linear regression model (weighted least squares with robust correction for standard errors is run to regress Return on Assets (ROA as the dependent variable against selected entity-specific factors, including ownership characteristics. Empirical evidence uncovers several findings. Firstly, the performance of V4 companies is comparable except for Hungary, where companies report lower ROA on average. Secondly, firms established after the failure of communist regimes outperform the privatised companies. Thirdly, the ownership characteristics do matter. Having domestic owners is not a disadvantage, as only the companies with controlling shareholders from the Anglo-Saxon countries perform better. Other jurisdictions of parents lead either to comparable (e.g., old EU members, developed Asian countries or even worse (e.g., new EU members, post-Soviet bloc performance as compared to domestic ownership. Similarly, family firms perform significantly better than the companies controlled by institutional owners or by public sector, but worse than the firms controlled by financial institutions. The listing status of a parent is not an influential factor of performance. Fourthly, the size of a company also matters, as small enterprises report better performance in their financial statements than medium and large undertakings. Fifthly, higher leverage undermines performance. Finally, there is a wide dispersion in average performance across the industries. The study results might be relevant for policy makers while choosing between direct and indirect support for diverse types of businesses.

  3. Physical Characteristics and Performance of Japanese Top-Level American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Daichi; Asakura, Masaki; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shinzo; Yamada, Yosuke

    2017-09-01

    Yamashita, D, Asakura, M, Ito, Y, Yamada, S, and Yamada, Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2455-2461, 2017-This study aimed to compare the physical characteristics and performance between top-level nonprofessional football players in Japan and National Football League (NFL) Combine invited players and between top-level and middle-level players in Japan to determine the factors that enhance performance in international and national competitions. A total of 168 American football players (>20 years) in Japan participated in an anthropometric (height and weight) and physical (vertical jump, long jump, 40-yard dash, pro-agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, and bench press repetition test) measurement program based on the NFL Combine program to compete in the selection of candidates for the Senior World Championship. All players were categorized into 1 of the 3 position groups based on playing position: skill players, big skill players, and linemen. Japanese players were additionally categorized into selected and nonselected players for the second tryout. The NFL Combine candidates had significantly better performance than selected Japanese players on all variables except on performance related to quickness among the 3 position groups. Compared with nonselected players, selected Japanese skill players had better performance in the 40-yard dash and bench press test and big skill players had better performance in the vertical jump, broad jump, and 40-yard dash. Selected and nonselected Japanese linemen were not different in any measurements. These results showed the challenges in American football in Japan, which include not only improving physical performance of top-level players, but also increasing the number of football players with good physical performance.

  4. Description and performance characteristics for the neutron Coincidence Collar for the verification of reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.

    1981-08-01

    An active neutron interrogation method has been developed for the measurement of 235 U content in fresh fuel assemblies. The neutron Coincidence Collar uses neutron interrogation with an AmLi neutron source and coincidence counting the induced fission reaction neutrons from the 235 U. This manual describes the system components, operation, and performance characteristics. Applications of the Coincidence Collar to PWR and BWR types of reactor fuel assemblies are described

  5. Co-crystallization: An approach to improve the performance characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    2015-01-01

    Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen boding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can be resolved using co-crystallization approach. Proper understanding of crystal structure of an API is required for successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co-former. This review article focus on explanation about co-crystals, in...

  6. Board of Directors, Audit Committee Characteristics and the Performance of Saudi Arabia Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Matari, Yahya Ali; Al-Swidi, Abdullah Kaid; Fadzil, Faudziah Hanim Bt Hanim; Al-Matari, Ebrahim Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internal corporate governance mechanism related to the board of directors, the audit committee characteristics and the performance of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock exchange (TADAWL) in 2010, excluding financial companies. The statistical results of the study are not in line with the agency theory that board of directors and audit committee might mitigate agency problems leading to reduced agency cost by aligning the interests of...

  7. Board of Directors, Audit Committee Characteristics and Performance of Saudi Arabia Listed Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ali Al-Matari; Abdullah Kaid Al-Swidi; Faudziah Hanim Bt Fadzil; Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Matari

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internal corporate governance mechanism related to the board of directors, the audit committee characteristics and the performance of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock exchange (TADAWL) in 2010, excluding financial companies. The statistical results of the study are not in line with the agency theory that board of directors and audit committee might mitigate agency problems leading to reduced agency cost by aligning the interests of...

  8. Performance Characteristics and Prediction of Bodyweight using Linear Body Measurements in Four Strains of Broiler Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    I. Udeh; J.O. Isikwenu and G. Ukughere

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the performance characteristics of four strains of broiler chicken from 2 to 8 weeks of age and predict body weight of the broilers using linear body measurements. The four strains of broiler chicken used were Anak, Arbor Acre, Ross and Marshall. The parameters recorded were bodyweight, weight gain, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and some linear body measurements (body length, body width, breast width, drumstick length, shank l...

  9. Windmilling of turbofan engine; calculation of performance characteristics of a turbofan engine under windmilling

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, A.

    2014-01-01

    The turbofan is a type of air breathing jet engine that finds wide use in aircraft propulsion. During the normal operation of a turbofan engine installed in aircraft, the combustor is supplied with fuel, flow to the combustor is cut off and the engine runs under so called Windmilling conditions being driven only by the ram pressure ratio by producing drag. In-depth analysis is done to study the performance characteristics at this state.

  10. Effect of Engine Modifications on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Alternative Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, B.S.R

    2010-01-01

    Performance and emission characteristics unmodified diesel engines operating on different alternative fuels with smaller blend proportions are comparable with pure diesel operation. But with increased blend proportions due to the associated problems of vegetable oils like high viscosity and low volatility pollution levels increase which however is accompanied by operating and durability problems with the long term usage of engine. This paper discusses the necessary modifications required to o...

  11. Usage of performance measurement and evaluation systems : the impact of evaluator characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelderman, Maarten

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between characteristics of the evaluating manager and the way performance measurement and evaluation information is used. First a discussion is provided about the dependent variable. It is recognized that categorization into archetypes (e.g., evaluative styles) is unsatisfactory. Instead the information content/emphasis dimensions financial-non- financial, quantitative-qualitative, process-outcome, past-future and external-internal, along with the dimension f...

  12. An experimental study on performance and emission characteristics of a hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Erol; Özcanlı, Şevket Cihangir; Özerdem, Barış

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional four cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine operated on hydrogen and gasoline are investigated experimentally. The compressed hydrogen at 20 MPa has been introduced to the engine adopted to operate on gaseous hydrogen by external mixing. Two regulators have been used to drop the pressure first to 300 kPa, then to atmospheric pressure. The variations of torque, power, brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effectiv...

  13. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    FUJII, Terushige; OHTA, Jun-ichi; AKAGAWA, Koji; NAKAMURA, Toshi; ASANO, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    From the viewpoint of energy conservation and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. Among energy conversion device,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine,i.e.,Hero's turbine. Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine are analytically and experimentally clarified for flashing expansion of initially subcooled hot water. It is found that: (a)there is an optimum number of revolutions at which maximum tubine e...

  14. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 照重; 太田, 淳一; 赤川, 浩爾; 中村, 登志; 浅野, 等

    1990-01-01

    From the view point of energy saving and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. As one of the energy conversion expanders,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine(that is,Hero's turbine). Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine using subcooled hot water as a working fluid are clarified analytically and experimentally. It is found that:(a)there is an optimum rotational speed at which maximum turbine efficie...

  15. INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC-DISPERSED REINFORCEMENT ADDITIVES ON THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernov Sergey Anatolevych

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The technique and results of the studies of the influence of a polymeric-dispersed reinforcement additive on the performance characteristics of road hot asphalt concrete, namely, its resistance to fatigue failures, rutting and development of residual deformation are described. It is shown that the proposed method of modification of asphalt-concrete mixtures ensures an increase in the durability of layers of pavement road surface.

  16. Effects of neuromuscular training on the reaction time and electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Christena W; Hopkins, J Ty; Schulthies, Shane S; Freland, Brent; Draper, David O; Hunter, Iain

    2006-03-01

    To examine the influence of a 6-week neuromuscular training program on the electromechanical delay and reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle. A 2 x 2 pre-post factorial design. Human performance research center biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-six healthy, physically active, college-age subjects were recruited for this study and 26 completed it. There were 5 men and 8 women in the treatment group (mean age +/- standard deviation, 21.9+/-2.1 y; height, 173.7+/-11.1cm; weight, 67.4+/-17.8 kg) and 6 men and 7 women in the control group (age, 21.8+/-2.3 y; height, 173.7+/-11.9 cm; weight, 70.8+/-19.4 kg). Subjects were not currently experiencing any lower-extremity pathology and had no history of injuries requiring treatment to either lower extremity. Subjects in the treatment group completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program involving various therapeutic exercises. Subjects in the control group were asked to continue their normal physical activity during the 6-week period. The electromechanical delay of the peroneus longus was determined by the onset of force contribution after artificial activation, as measured by electromyographic and forceplate data. Reaction time was measured after a perturbation during walking. Data were analyzed using two 2 x 2 analyses of covariance (covariate pretest score). Group (treatment, control) and sex (male, female) were between-subject factors. Neuromuscular training caused a decrease in reaction time to perturbation during walking compared with controls (F=4.030, P=.029), while there was a trend toward an increase in electromechanical delay (F=4.227, P=.052). There was no significant difference between sexes or the interaction of sex and treatment in either reaction time or electromechanical delay. The 6-week training program significantly reduced reaction time of the peroneus longus muscle in healthy subjects. Neuromuscular training may have a beneficial effect on improving dynamic restraint during activity.

  17. Comparing targeted exome and whole exome approaches for genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Gorokhova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing is rapidly becoming a widely used method in genetic diagnostics. However, there is still no clear consensus as to which approach can most efficiently identify the pathogenic mutations carried by a given patient, while avoiding false negative and false positive results. We developed a targeted exome approach (MyoPanel2 in order to optimize genetic diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders. Using this approach, we were able to analyse 306 genes known to be mutated in myopathies as well as in related disorders, obtaining 98.8% target sequence coverage at 20×. Moreover, MyoPanel2 was able to detect 99.7% of 11,467 known mutations responsible for neuromuscular disorders. We have then used several quality control parameters to compare performance of the targeted exome approach with that of whole exome sequencing. The results of this pilot study of 140 DNA samples suggest that targeted exome sequencing approach is an efficient genetic diagnostic test for most neuromuscular diseases.

  18. Sugammadex reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in a patient with ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, E.; Jung, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old adolescent with ataxia-telangiectasia was scheduled to have laparoscopic colectomy for a resection of colon cancer. He had symptoms and signs of dyspnea, generalized dystonia, dysmetria, ataxia, and telangiectasia on the orbit. General anesthesia was performed, and rocuronium 30 mg was administered for muscle relaxation. Deep neuromuscular block (post-tetanic count: 0-8) was maintained for 95 minutes without additional rocuronium. On completion of surgery, sugammadex 80 mg was injected and train-of-four ratio was 0.93 at 210 seconds after administration. The tracheal tube was removed 5 min after the end of surgery. He recovered full spontaneous respiration and voluntary movements within 1 minute after extubation. After the surgery, he transferred to the intensive care unit and discharged 14 days after the surgery without any concrete problem. The reversal of rocuronium induced neuromuscular block by sugammadex was fast, complete, and recovered to the initial preoperative level of neuromuscular function in this patient. (author)

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback on Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Lin, Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Juan; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Zhi-Kai; Lin, Zhao-Min; Chen, Jian-Hao

    2017-09-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and electromyographic biofeedback (EMG-biofeedback) therapy in improving swallowing function of Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia.A series of 103 Alzheimer's disease patients with dysphagia were divided into 2 groups, among which the control group (n = 50) received swallowing function training and the treatment group (n = 53) received neuromuscular electrical stimulation plus EMG-biofeedback therapy. The mini-mental state scale score was performed in all patients along the treatment period. Twelve weeks after the treatment, the swallowing function was assessed by the water swallow test. The nutritional status was evaluated by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) as well as the levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin. The frequency and course of aspiration pneumonia were also recorded.No significant difference on mini-mental state scale score was noted between 2 groups. More improvement of swallowing function, better nutritional status, and less frequency and shorter course of aspiration pneumonia were presented in treatment group when compared with the control group.Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and EMG-biofeedback treatment can improve swallowing function in patients with Alzheimer's disease and significantly reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes. Thus, they should be promoted in clinical practice.

  20. Evaluation of skeletal muscular involvement in neuromuscular disorders with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Sotobata, Iwao; Indo, Toshikatsu; Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Matsushima, Hideo; Suzuki, Akio; Abe, Tetsutaro; Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1986-01-01

    The extent as well as severity of pathologic changes of skeletal muscles were analyzed with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) in 29 cases of various types of neuromuscular diseases (18 cases of myogenic and 11 cases of neurogenic muscular diseases) and 14 cases of normal controls. After intravenous injection of 2 mCi of thallium-201 chloride, WBS was performed for 15 minutes using a gamma camera with twin-opposed large rectangular detectors. Counts at brachia, forearms, thighs, and calves were assessed after reconstruction of the scintigram of the whole body by taking the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior data. WBS showed uniform tracer activities in the 4 extremities in 12 cases among 14 controls. Laterality in distribution of counts of both legs and arms was noted in the remaining 2 controls. WBS revealed decrease of perfusion in the extremities with muscular atrophy and/or weakness in neuromuscular diseases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of WBS for evaluation of skeletal muscle involvement was 75 to 80 % except for the bilateral brachia for which it decreased to 65 %. All of the three cases of muscular dystrophy with pseudohypertrophy of the calves or thighs showed unequivocal decrease of perfusion of those regions in WBS. In conclusion, thallium-201 WBS was considered to be a useful clinical means in evaluating the extent and severity of muscular involvement of various types of neuromuscular disorders. (author)

  1. Kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Singh, M; Rathi, B

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the kinanthropometric and performance characteristics of elite and non-elite female softball players. A total forty elite and non-elite level female softball players were selected from the different colleges affiliated to the Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, for the present study. The height of subjects was measured by using the standard anthropometric rod. Weight was measured with portable weighing machine. Widths and diameters of body parts were measured by using digital caliper. Girths and lengths were taken with steel tape. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using the Slimguide skinfold caliper. All subjects were also assessed for performance tests i.e. vertical jump, 50m sprint, medicine ball throw, 10×4m shuttle run and reaction time. Independent samples t-test reveals that elite female softball players were significantly taller (Psoftball players also had significantly greater biacromial (Psoftball players. The non-elite female softball players were found to have significantly greater thigh circumference (Psoftball players. The non-elite players were also found to have significantly higher percentage body fat (Psoftball players. The elite female softball players had significantly greater kinanthropometric characteristics, body composition and performance characteristics than the non-elite female softball players.

  2. Performance characteristics of axisymmetric venturi-like reverse-flow diverters. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.V.; Counce, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents experimental and model-predicted pressure-flow characteristics of axisymmetric venturi-like reverse-flow diverters (RFDs), the key component of fluid pumping systems utilized for the transport of hazardous fluids. The effects of several key geometric parameters, operating conditions, and fluid properties on the performance of the RFD are presented and compared to model predictions. The results indicate good agreement between data and theory over a large portion of the range of variables studied. Cavitation is observed to be the primary factor in limiting the performance of the RFD at small values of load impedances

  3. Effects of dimethyl ether on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Hern; Lee, Chang Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Activation loss is significantly reduced in fuel cell with DME-methanol. • DME crossover through the membrane reduces. • The open circuit voltage of DME-methanol the fuel cell increases. • The overall efficiency of the mixed fuel cell is higher than that of DMFC. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the performance characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell. Impedance and crossover experiments were performed in order to investigate the performance losses such as ohmic loss, activation loss and crossover loss accurately. The DME was pressurized to 5 bar to supply with liquid phase was and blended with an aqueous methanol solution. In this experiment, the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) was composed of Nafion 115, anode catalyst loaded Pt–Ru and cathode catalyst loaded Pt-Black. Experimental results showed that fuel cells with DME-methanol enhanced performance when compared to fuel cells with methanol only. Such performance enhancement was due to a decrease in activation losses by DME oxidation reactions. As the DME crossover through the membrane was reduced, the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the fuel cell increased. Other output characteristics are also discussed

  4. PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF MUTUAL FUNDS: EVIDENCE FROM THE PORTUGUESE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Lobão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to study the relation between fund performance and fund attributes in the Portuguese market. The sample includes 124 equity funds, bond funds and money market funds that traded in the 2004-2011 period. A comprehensive set of fund-specific characteristics, never used before in conjunction in the literature, was considered. The methodology which was adopted had two distinct phases. Firstly, we compared the returns of each category of funds with the appropriate reference markets. Secondly, the fund performance, measured by the Jensen’s alpha, was used in a multi-factor model with panel data in which the independent variables were the fund attributes. The results show that Portuguese funds were, in general, not able to beat the benchmarks which is consistent with the existence of efficient financial markets. Only the fixed income mutual funds performed well. Moreover, it is possible to conclude that, for each category of mutual funds, their characteristics are useful to the investor in the moment of choosing the best funds. For example, in the case of funds that invest in Portuguese stocks, the best performance occurs among older and larger funds, funds with higher costs, funds with good past performance and funds whose trading activity is low.

  5. Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the supraspinal processes of fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in response to repeated cycling sprints. METHODS: Twelve active individuals performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s, followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s. Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations during brief (5-s and sustained (30-s isometric contractions of the knee extensors were performed before and 3 min post-exercise. RESULTS: Maximal strength of the knee extensors decreased during brief and sustained contractions (~11% and 9%, respectively; P0.05. While cortical voluntary activation declined (P 40% reduced (P<0.001 following exercise. CONCLUSION: The capacity of the motor cortex to optimally drive the knee extensors following a repeated-sprint test was shown in sustained, but not brief, maximal isometric contractions. Additionally, peripheral factors were largely involved in the exercise-induced impairment in neuromuscular function, while corticospinal excitability was well-preserved.

  6. Alterations in neuromuscular function in girls with generalized joint hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bente Rona; Sandfeld, Jesper; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Johansen, Katrine Lyders; Hendriksen, Peter; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-10-03

    Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal joint pain. We investigated neuromuscular performance and muscle activation strategy. Girls with GJH and non-GJH (NGJH) performed isometric knee flexions (90°,110°,130°), and extensions (90°) at 20 % Maximum Voluntary Contraction, and explosive isometric knee flexions while sitting. EMG was recorded from knee flexor and extensor muscles. Early rate of torque development was 53 % faster for GJH. Reduced hamstring muscle activation in girls with GJH was found while knee extensor and calf muscle activation did not differ between groups. Flexion-extension and medial-lateral co-activation ratio during flexions were higher for girls with GJH than NGJH girls. Girls with GJH had higher capacity to rapidly generate force than NGJH girls which may reflect motor adaptation to compensate for hypermobility. Higher medial muscle activation indicated higher levels of medial knee joint compression in girls with GJH. Increased flexion-extension co-activation ratios in GJH were explained by decreased agonist drive to the hamstrings.

  7. Evaluation of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation in neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Delord, Vincent; Leroux, Karl; Lofaso, Frédéric; Hautot, Solène; Toussaint, Michel; Orlikowski, David; Louis, Bruno; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2014-09-01

    Daytime mouthpiece ventilation is a useful adjunct to nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with neuromuscular disease. The aims of the study were to analyze the practice of mouthpiece ventilation and to evaluate the performance of ventilators for mouthpiece ventilation. Practice of mouthpiece ventilation was assessed by a questionnaire, and the performance of 6 home ventilators with mouthpiece ventilation was assessed in a bench test using 24 different conditions per ventilator: 3 mouthpieces, a child and an adult patient profile, and 4 ventilatory modes. Questionnaires were obtained from 30 subjects (mean age 33 ± 11 y) using NIV for 12 ± 7 y. Fifteen subjects used NIV for > 20 h/day, and 11 were totally ventilator-dependent. The subject-reported benefits of mouthpiece ventilation were a reduction in dyspnea (73%) and fatigue (93%) and an improvement in speech (43%) and eating (27%). The bench study showed that none of the ventilators, even those with mouthpiece ventilation software, were able to deliver mouthpiece ventilation without alarms and/or autotriggering in each condition. Alarms and/or ineffective triggering or autotriggering were observed in 135 of the 198 conditions. The occurrence of alarms was more common with a large mouthpiece without a filter compared to a small mouthpiece with a filter (P ventilator. Subjects are satisfied with mouthpiece ventilation. Alarms are common with home ventilators, although less common in those with mouthpiece ventilation software. Improvements in home ventilators are needed to facilitate the expansion of mouthpiece ventilation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Gual, Gabriel; Romero-Rodriguez, Daniel; Unnitha, Viswanath

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL) (determined subjectively) and the stronger leg (SL) (determined via a functional test) in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL) and the SL vs the weaker (WL) leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years) performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ) on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Only 32 (40%) of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (pjump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  9. Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C K; Shin, M S; Yoon, J Y

    2010-01-01

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m 3 /hr ∼ 2500 m 3 /hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

  10. Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu Chul Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30% and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM, crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis, respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months (641±123 kg from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i Control (TMR, ii WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis and iii WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis. The body weight (BW, ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI (kg/d of control (9.11 was higher (p<0.05 than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70. Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not

  11. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group). © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Specific smartphone usage and cognitive performance affect gait characteristics during free-living and treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Bumann, Anke; Mühlhauser, Yvonne; Schmitt, Mareike; Wess, Katja; Engeroff, Tobias; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2018-04-06

    Mobile phone tasks like texting, typing, and dialling during walking are known to impact gait characteristics. Beyond that, the effects of performing smartphone-typical actions like researching and taking self-portraits (selfie) on gait have not been investigated yet. We aimed to investigate the effects of smartphone usage on relevant gait characteristics and to reveal potential association of basic cognitive and walking plus smartphone dual-task abilities. Our cross-sectional, cross-over study on physically active, healthy participants was performed on two days, interrupted by a 24-h washout in between. Assessments were: 1) Cognitive testing battery consisting of the trail making test (TMT A and B) and the Stroop test 2) Treadmill walking under five smartphone usage conditions: no use (control condition), reading, dialling, internet searching and taking a selfie in randomized order. Kinematic and kinetic gait characteristics were assessed to estimate conditions influence. In our sample of 36 adults (24.6 ± 1 years, 23 female, 13 male), ANCOVAs followed by post-hoc t-tests revealed that smartphone usage impaired all tested gait characteristics: gait speed (decrease, all conditions): F = 54.7, p smartphone usage was systematically associated with the TMT B time regarding cadence and double stride length for reading (r = -0.37), dialling (r = -0.35) and taking a selfie (r = -0.34). Smartphone usage substantially impacts walking characteristics in most situations. Changes of gait patterns indicate higher cognitive loads and lower awareness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance and carcass characteristics of lambs fed on diets supplemented with glycerin from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Bensimon Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of diets supplemented with glycerin as an alternative ingredient to corn on the performance and carcass characteristics of Santa Inês confined lambs. The study involved 27 lambs aged 90 days, having an average initial weight of 26.33 ± 0.15 kg. Lambs were randomly distributed into a control group and groups with diets containing 15 and 30% glycerin in the total feed. Diet was formulated with 40% roughage and 60% concentrate. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the production performance and carcass characteristics were analyzed by analysis of variance, and the subjective carcass characteristics, by general linear models. The daily average gain was 0.21, 0.24 and 0.23 kg/day; feeding conversion was 6.39, 5.73 and 5.92 kg of diet/kg BW for control animals, and those fed with 15 or 30% glycerin, respectively, without treatment differences. Lambs were slaughtered, weighing 34 to 36 kg, and average weight of the cold carcass and commercial carcass yield were evaluated. The results were, respectively, 15.97 kg and 49.18%, for control, 15.96 kg and 48.31% for animals fed with 15% glycerin, and 15.79 kg and 47.87% for those treated with 30% glycerin, with no treatment effects. Meat tenderness and cooking loss averages were not affected by diets, with 5.07 kg and 40.45%, 5.10 kg and 40.81%, and 5.27 kg and 39.04%, respectively, for control, and those fed with 15 or 30% glycerin. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that up to 30% of medium purity glycerin in the dry matter of the diet can be used to replace corn, without any negative effect on lamb performance or carcass characteristics.

  14. Class modality, student characteristics, and performance in a community college introductory STEM course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Thomas Ty

    Research on introductory STEM course performance has indicated that student characteristics (age, ethnicity and gender) and Grade Point Average (G.P.A.) can be predictive of student performance, and by implication, a correlation among these factors can help determine course design interventions to help certain types of students perform well in introductory STEM courses. The basis of this study was a community college Visual Basic programming course taught in both online and hybrid format. Beginning students in this course represented a diverse population residing in a large, mid-western, city and surrounding communities. Many of these students were defined as "at-Risk" or "non-traditional, which generally means any combination of socio-economic, cultural, family and employment factors that indicate a student is non-traditional. Research has shown these students struggle academically in technologically dense STEM courses, and may require student services and support to achieve their individual performance goals. The overall number in the study range was 392 distance students and 287 blended course students. The main question of this research was to determine to what extent student characteristics in a community college context, and previous success, as measured in overall G.P.A., were related to course performance in an introductory Visual Basic programming (STEM) course; and, whether or not a combination of these factors and course modality was predictive of success. The study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental design to assess whether students' course performance was linked to course modality, student characteristics and overall G.P.A. The results indicated that the only predictor of student performance was overall G.P.A. Despite the research analyzed in Chapter 2, there was no statistically significant relationship to modality, age, ethnicity, or gender to performance in the course. Cognitive load is significant in a computer programming course and it

  15. The neuromuscular differential diagnosis of joint hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkervoort, S; Bonnemann, C G; Loeys, B; Jungbluth, H; Voermans, N C

    2015-03-01

    Joint hypermobility is the defining feature of various inherited connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome and various types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and these will generally be the first conditions to be considered by geneticists and pediatricians in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with such findings. However, several congenital and adult-onset inherited myopathies also present with joint hypermobility in the context of often only mild-to-moderate muscle weakness and should, therefore, be included in the differential diagnosis of joint hypermobility. In fact, on the molecular level disorders within both groups represent different ends of the same spectrum of inherited extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders. In this review we will summarize the measures of joint hypermobility, illustrate molecular mechanisms these groups of disorders have in common, and subsequently discuss the clinical features of: 1) the most common connective tissue disorders with myopathic or other neuromuscular features: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome; 2) myopathy and connective tissue overlap disorders (muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) disorders), including collagen VI related dystrophies and FKBP14 related kyphoscoliotic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome; and 3) various (congenital) myopathies with prominent joint hypermobility including RYR1- and SEPN1-related myopathy. The aim of this review is to assist clinical geneticists and other clinicians with recognition of these disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Assessment of Motor Units in Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Robert D; McCombe, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    The motor unit comprises the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers that it innervates. Although the true number of motor units is unknown, the number of motor units appears to vary greatly between different muscles and between different individuals. Assessment of the number and function of motor units is needed in diseases of the anterior horn cell and other motor nerve disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most important disease of anterior horn cells. The need for an effective biomarker for assessing disease progression and for use in clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has stimulated the study of methods to measure the number of motor units. Since 1970 a number of different methods, including the incremental, F-wave, multipoint, and statistical methods, have been developed but none has achieved widespread applicability. Two methods (MUNIX and the multipoint incremental method) are in current use across multiple centres and are discussed in detail in this review, together with other recently published methods. Imaging with magnetic resonance and ultrasound is increasingly being applied to this area. Motor unit number estimates have also been applied to other neuromuscular diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy, compression neuropathies, and prior poliomyelitis. The need for an objective measure for the assessment of motor units remains tantalizingly close but unfulfilled in 2016.

  17. Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Toseef; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Zahid, Syed Naved; Chaudhary, Prabhat K

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular dentistry has been a controversial topic in the field of dentistry and still remains debatable. The issue of good occlusion and sound health has been repeatedly discussed. Sometimes we get complains of sensitive teeth and sometimes of tired facial muscles on getting up in the morning. Owing to the intimate relation of masticatory apparatus with the cranium and cervico-scapular muscular system, the disorders in any system, draw attention from concerned clinicians involved in management, to develop an integrated treatment protocol for the suffering patients. There may be patients reporting to the dental clinics after an occlusal restoration or extraction, having pain in or around the temporomandibular joint, headache or neck pain. Although their esthetic demands must not be undermined during the course of treatment plan, whenever dental treatment of any sort is planned, occlusion/bite should be given prime importance. Very few dentist are able to diagnose the occlusal disease and of those who diagnose many people resort to aggressive treatment modalities. This paper aims to report the signs of occlusal disease, and discuss their association with TMDs and posture.

  18. Silent synapses in neuromuscular junction development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Josep; Santafé, Manel M; Lanuza, Maria A; García, Neus; Besalduch, Nuria; Tomàs, Marta

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, evidence has been found to suggest that some synaptic contacts become silent but can be functionally recruited before they completely retract during postnatal synapse elimination in muscle. The physiological mechanism of developmental synapse elimination may be better understood by studying this synapse recruitment. This Mini-Review collects previously published data and new results to propose a molecular mechanism for axonal disconnection. The mechanism is based on protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent inhibition of acetylcholine (ACh) release. PKC activity may be stimulated by a methoctramine-sensitive M2-type muscarinic receptor and by calcium inflow though P/Q- and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. In addition, tropomyosin-related tyrosine kinase B (trkB) receptor-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) activity may oppose the PKC-mediated ACh release depression. Thus, a balance between trkB and muscarinic pathways may contribute to the final functional suppression of some neuromuscular synapses during development. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Stem cell route to neuromuscular therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Terence A

    2003-02-01

    As applied to skeletal muscle, stem cell therapy is a reincarnation of myoblast transfer therapy that has resulted from recent advances in the cell biology of skeletal muscle. Both strategies envisage the reconstruction of damaged muscle from its precursors, but stem cell therapy employs precursors that are earlier in the developmental hierarchy. It is founded on demonstrations of apparently multipotential cells in a wide variety of tissues that can assume, among others, a myogenic phenotype. The main demonstrated advantage of such cells is that they are capable of colonizing many tissues, including skeletal and cardiac muscle via the blood vascular system, thereby providing the potential for a body-wide distribution of myogenic progenitors. From a practical viewpoint, the chief disadvantage is that such colonization has been many orders of magnitude too inefficient to be useful. Proposals for overcoming this drawback are the subject of much speculation but, so far, relatively little experimentation. This review attempts to give some perspective to the status of the stem cell as a therapeutic instrument for neuromuscular disease and to identify issues that need to be addressed for application of this technology.

  20. Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Ora, Chiara; Ball, Jane; Recio-Saucedo, Alejandra; Griffiths, Peter

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee's performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse events and client satisfaction) and wellbeing (including burnout, job satisfaction, absenteeism, intention to leave the job) in all sectors including healthcare. A scoping review of the literature was undertaken. We searched electronic databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SCOPUS) to identify primary quantitative studies. The search was conducted between January and March 2015. Studies were drawn from all occupational sectors (i.e. health and non health), meeting the inclusion criteria: involved participants aged ≥18 who have been working shifts or serve as control group for others working shifts, exploring the association of characteristics of shift work with at least one of the selected outcomes. Reference lists from retrieved studies were checked to identify any further studies. 35 studies were included in the review; 25 studies were performed in the health sector. A variety of shift work characteristics are associated with compromised employee's performance and wellbeing. Findings from large multicentre studies highlight that shifts of 12h or longer are associated with jeopardised outcomes. Working more than 40h per week is associated with adverse events, while no conclusive evidence was found regarding working a 'Compressed Working Week'; working overtime was associated with decreased job performance. Working rotating shifts was associated with worse job performance outcomes, whilst fixed night shifts appeared to enable resynchronisation. However, job satisfaction of employees working fixed nights was reduced. Timely breaks had a positive impact on employee fatigue and alertness, whilst quick returns between shifts appeared to increase pathologic fatigue. The effect of shift work characteristics on outcomes in the studies reviewed is consistent across occupational sectors

  1. Firm Characteristics and Performance Disclosure in Annual Reports of Nigerian Banks using the Balanced Scorecard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solabomi Ajibolade

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of four firm characteristics (size, organisational structure, age and systemic importance on extent of performance disclosures by Nigerian banks using the balanced scorecard (BSC model. The population of the study comprised of publicly-listed banks in Nigeria, in operation from 2012 to 2014. Using a self-designed disclosure checklist, the annual reports of a sample of 15 publicly quoted banks in Nigeria were content-analysed for performance disclosure for the period 2012-2014. Descriptive statistics, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were applied in data analysis, deducing inference at 5% significance level. It was observed that firms did not significantly differ in the extent of performance disclosure in each of the four BSC perspectives on one hand, and the overall BSC measure on the other hand, on the account of the four firm attributes examined. Considering that annual reports are mainstream amongst the media used to communicate firm performance to the public, it was recommended that preparers of such documents should consider disclosing financial and non-financial performance; this will not only provide a comprehensive basis to judge organisational performance, but will also assist in diffusing the clout created by asymmetry of information between preparers and users of performance reports.

  2. Teacher characteristics and student performance: An analysis using hierarchical linear modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Armstrong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research makes use of hierarchical linear modelling to investigate which teacher characteristics are significantly associated with student performance. Using data from the SACMEQ III study of 2007, an interesting and potentially important finding is that younger teachers are better able to improve the mean mathematics performance of their students. Furthermore, younger teachers themselves perform better on subject tests than do their older counterparts. Identical models are run for Sub Saharan countries bordering on South Africa, as well for Kenya and the strong relationship between teacher age and student performance is not observed. Similarly, the model is run for South Africa using data from SACMEQ II (conducted in 2002 and the relationship between teacher age and student performance is also not observed. It must be noted that South African teachers were not tested in SACMEQ II so it was not possible to observe differences in subject knowledge amongst teachers in different cohorts and it was not possible to control for teachers’ level of subject knowledge when observing the relationship between teacher age and student performance. Changes in teacher education in the late 1990s and early 2000s may explain the differences in the performance of younger teachers relative to their older counterparts observed in the later dataset.

  3. Work-group characteristics and performance in collectivistic and individualistic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J; Jung, Dong I

    2002-02-01

    The authors conducted a cross-cultural longitudinal investigation of the effects of culture (individualism-collectivism dichotomy) on group characteristics (functional heterogeneity, preference for teamwork, group potency, outcome expectation) and on performance of 83 work groups performing 2 decision-making tasks over a 15-week period. The individualists (U.S. students) reported higher levels of functional heterogeneity and group potency and attained higher levels of group performance than did the collectivists (Korean students). In addition, culture and time interacted to influence ratings of group potency and outcome expectation. The difference in ratings of group potency between individualists and collectivists increased over time. Outcome expectation was greater among the collectivists in Time 1 and among the individualists in Time 2. The authors discuss implications for future cross-cultural group research and international management.

  4. Determination of performance characteristics of robotic manipulator's permanent magnet synchronous motor by learning its FEM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadvaj, Bimmi; Saini, Surendra Singh; Swaroop, Teja Tumapala; Sarkar, Ushnish; Ray, Debashish Datta

    2016-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) are widely used as actuators because of high torque density, high efficiency and reliability. Robotic Manipulator designed for specific task generally requires actuators with very high intermittent torque and speed for their operation in limited space. Hence accurate performance characteristics of PMSM must be known beforehand under these conditions as it may damage the motor. Therefore an advanced mathematical model of PMSM is required for its control synthesis and performance analysis over wide operating range. The existing mathematical models are developed considering ideal motor without including the geometrical deviations that occur during manufacturing process of the motor or its components. These manufacturing tolerance affect torque ripple, operating current range etc. thereby affecting motor performance. In this work, the magnetically non-linear dynamic model is further exploited to refine the FE model using a proposed algorithm to iteratively compensate for the experimentally observed deviations due to manufacturing. (author)

  5. BOARD OF DIRECTORS, AUDIT COMMITTEE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF SAUDI ARABIA LISTED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ali Al-Matari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between the internal corporate governance mechanism related to the board of directors, the audit committee characteristics and the performance of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock exchange (TADAWL in 2010, excluding financial companies. The statistical results of the study are not in line with the agency theory that board of directors and audit committee might mitigate agency problems leading to reduced agency cost by aligning the interests of controlling owners with those of the company. While audit Committee size (ACSIZE is found to have a significant relationship with firm performance (but in the opposite direction to expectation, other hypothesized variables, the proportion of non-executive directors (BODCOM, CEO Duality (DUAL, Board Size (BSIZE, Audit Committee Independence (ACIND, audit committee meeting (ACMEET were found to be as expected directions but insignificantly related to firm performance measure except the direction of the proportion of non-executive directors (BODCOM was opposite to the expectations.

  6. Effect of Fuel Injection and Mixing Characteristics on Pulse-Combustor Performance at High-Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yungster, Shaye; Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, Hugh D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations of pulse-combustors operating at high-pressure conditions produced pressure gains significantly lower than those observed experimentally and computationally at atmospheric conditions. The factors limiting the pressure-gain at high-pressure conditions are identified, and the effects of fuel injection and air mixing characteristics on performance are investigated. New pulse-combustor configurations were developed, and the results show that by suitable changes to the combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and valve dynamics the performance of the pulse-combustor operating at high-pressure conditions can be increased to levels comparable to those observed at atmospheric conditions. In addition, the new configurations can significantly reduce the levels of NOx emissions. One particular configuration resulted in extremely low levels of NO, producing an emission index much less than one, although at a lower pressure-gain. Calculations at representative cruise conditions demonstrated that pulse-combustors can achieve a high level of performance at such conditions.

  7. Performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z M; Choi, Y D

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the performance and internal flow characteristics of a cross-flow turbine by guide vane angle. In order to improve the performance of a cross flow turbine, the paper presents a numerical investigation of the turbine with air supply and discusses the influence of variable guide vane angle on the internal flow. A newly developed air supply from air suction Hole is adopted. To investigate the performance and internal flow of the cross-flow turbine, the CFD software based on the two-phase flow model is utilized. The numerical grids are made in two-dimensional geometry in order to shorten the time of two-phase calculations. Then a series of CFD analysis has been conducted in the range of different guide vane angle. Moreover, local output power is divided at different stages and the effect of air layer in each stage is examined

  8. A study on performance characteristic: The effect of different parameter of renewable energy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudin Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia government still identify the best system in giving people solution on renewable energy. This study will focus on the performance of PV module. The characteristic of PV module still can be argued especially in absorbing the direct effect of sun light energy. The previous authors were not having a specific solution on the problem of the PV module implication after received the direct effect of sun light. This study will suggesting on the innovation of the process and system of PV module and restructuring the characteristic and provides information. The tools of quality PDCA and (OEE will be used to identify the best solution using the different type of cooling system. From this information, the stake holder can decrease the cost of using this type of technology.

  9. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling."

  10. Design and performance characteristic analysis of servo valve-type water hydraulic poppet valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Hwan

    2009-01-01

    For water hydraulic system control, the flow or pressure control using high-speed solenoid valve controlled by PWM control method could be a good solution for prevention of internal leakage. However, since the PWM control of on-off valves cause extensive flow and pressure fluctuation, it is difficult to control the water hydraulic actuators precisely. In this study, the servo valve-type water hydraulic valve using proportional poppet as the main valve is designed and the performance characteristics of the servo valve-type water hydraulic valve are analyzed. Furthermore, it is demonstrated through experiments that a decline in control chamber pressure that follows the change of pilot flow is caused by the occurrence of cavitation around the proportional poppet, and that fundamental characteristics of the developed valve remain unaffected by the occurrence of cavitation

  11. Long-term neuromuscular training and ankle joint position sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynsburg, A; Pánics, G; Halasi, T

    2010-06-01

    Preventive effect of proprioceptive training is proven by decreasing injury incidence, but its proprioceptive mechanism is not. Major hypothesis: the training has a positive long-term effect on ankle joint position sense in athletes of a high-risk sport (handball). Ten elite-level female handball-players represented the intervention group (training-group), 10 healthy athletes of other sports formed the control-group. Proprioceptive training was incorporated into the regular training regimen of the training-group. Ankle joint position sense function was measured with the "slope-box" test, first described by Robbins et al. Testing was performed one day before the intervention and 20 months later. Mean absolute estimate errors were processed for statistical analysis. Proprioceptive sensory function improved regarding all four directions with a high significance (pneuromuscular training has improved ankle joint position sense function in the investigated athletes. This joint position sense improvement can be one of the explanations for injury rate reduction effect of neuromuscular training.

  12. An examination of neuromuscular and metabolic fatigue thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Cochrane, Kristen C; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Lewis, Robert W Jr; Traylor, Daniel A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T; Zuniga, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWC FT ), the power outputs associated with the gas exchange threshold (PGET) and the respiratory compensation point (PRCP), and critical power (CP) to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Ten participants (mean ± SD age: 20 ± 1 years) performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test to determine the PWC FT , PGET, and PRCP. CP was determined from the 3 min all-out test. The PWC FT (197 ± 55 W), PRCP (212 ± 50 W), and CP (208 ± 63 W) were significantly greater than the PGET (168 ± 40 W), but there were no significant differences among the PWC FT , PRCP, and CP. All thresholds were significantly inter-4 (r = 0.794–0.958). The 17% greater estimates for the PWC FT than PGET were likely related to differences in the physiological mechanisms that underlie these fatigue thresholds, while the non-significant difference and high correlation between the PWC FT and the PRCP suggested that hyperkalemia may underlie both thresholds. Furthermore, it is possible that the 5% lower estimate of the PWC FT than CP could more accurately reflect the demarcation of the heavy from severe exercise intensity domains. (paper)

  13. Computational model to investigate the relative contributions of different neuromuscular properties of tibialis anterior on force generated during ankle dorsiflexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2018-01-16

    This study describes a new model of the force generated by tibialis anterior muscle with three new features: single-fiber action potential, twitch force, and pennation angle. This model was used to investigate the relative effects and interaction of ten age-associated neuromuscular parameters. Regression analysis (significance level of 0.05) between the neuromuscular properties and corresponding simulated force produced at the footplate was performed. Standardized slope coefficients were computed to rank the effect of the parameters. The results show that reduction in the average firing rate is the reason for the sharp decline in the force and other factors, such as number of muscle fibers, specific force, pennation angle, and innervation ratio. The fast fiber ratio affects the simulated force through two significant interactions. This study has ranked the individual contributions of the neuromuscular factors to muscle strength decline of the TA and identified firing rate decline as the biggest cause followed by decrease in muscle fiber number and specific force. The strategy for strength preservation for the elderly should focus on improving firing rate. Graphical abstract Neuromuscular properties of Tibialis Anterior on force generated during ankle dorsiflexion.

  14. Generic anthropometric and performance characteristics among elite adolescent boys in nine different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan; Segers, Veerle; Fransen, Job; Debuyck, Gijs; Deprez, Dieter; Haerens, Leen; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Flemish Sports Compass (FSC), a non-sport-specific generic testing battery. It was hypothesised that a set of 22 tests would have sufficient discriminant power to allocate athletes to their own sport based on a unique combination of test scores. First, discriminant analyses were applied to the 22 tests of anthropometry, physical fitness and motor coordination in 141 boys under age 18 (16.1 ± 0.8 years) and post age at peak height velocity (maturity offset = 2.674 ± 0.926) from Flemish Top Sport Academies for badminton, basketball, gymnastics, handball, judo, soccer, table tennis, triathlon and volleyball. Second, nine sequential discriminant analyses were used to assess the ability of a set of relevant performance characteristics classifying participants and non-participants for the respective sports. Discriminant analyses resulted in a 96.4% correct classification of all participants for the nine different sports. When focusing on relevant performance characteristics, 80.1% to 97.2% of the total test sample was classified correctly within their respective disciplines. The discriminating characteristics were briefly the following: flexibility in gymnastics, explosive lower-limb strength in badminton and volleyball, speed and agility in badminton, judo, soccer and volleyball, upper-body strength in badminton, basketball and gymnastics, cardiorespiratory endurance in triathletes, dribbling skills in handball, basketball and soccer and overhead-throwing skills in badminton and volleyball. The generic talent characteristics of the FSC enable the distinction of adolescent boys according to their particular sport. Implications for talent programmes are discussed.

  15. Intercomparison of performance characteristics of OSLDs and TLDs used for individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meye, Phillipe Ondo

    2016-07-01

    This research work performed an intercomparison on some important performance characteristics of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry systems used by dosimetry services in Gabon and Ghana, respectively. The study verified the status of the selected performance indicators and propose ways to improve the performances of individual monitoring services of Ghana and Gabon if found necessary. The performance indicators assessed included the zero - dose, the minimum detectability and some important reader performance characteristics. These tests were performed using statistical and experimental methods. The overall uncertainty in measurement of the dosimetry systems of Ghana and Gabon for Hp(10) was determined using the IEC technical report TR 62461, and comparisons were carried out with IAEA 99, PTB 99, IEC 1066 and IEC1283 series performance standards. The IEC 62387 standard was used to assess the linearity dependence of the response and the coefficient of variation of the two dosimetry systems. For the Harshaw TLD 6600 system of the dosimetry service of Ghana, the Reference light QC test meets the requirement given in the user manual. For the OSL system microStar of the dosimetry system of Gabon, the three QC tests, DRK count, CAL count and LED count, meet the user manual requirements. However all these tests failed the statistical test that is part of counting statistics. This led to the conclusion that there may be some abnormalities in the counting system, and that the statistical abnormalities suspected have apparently no impact on the results of the reading. It was also concluded that since the DRK count and the CAL count failed the Chi - squared test by very small margin, a Gaussian distribution could still be considered as an approximation of the experimental data distributions of these two QC measurements. The zero dose for the Harshaw 6600 and the microStar system were found to be 0.026 mSv and 0.08 mSv respectively

  16. Channel Characteristics and Transmission Performance for Various Channel Configurations at 60 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing Yang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive measurements are conducted in room environments at 60 GHz to analyze the channel characteristics for various channel configurations. Channel parameters retrieved from measurements are presented and analyzed based on generic channel models. Particularly, a simple single-cluster model is applied for the parameter retrieval and performance evaluation. By this model, power delay profiles are simply described by a K-factor, a root-mean-squared delay spread, and a shape parameter. The considered channels are configured with the combination of omnidirectional, fan-beam, and pencil-beam antennas at transmitter and receiver sides. Both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS channels are considered. Further, to evaluate the transmission performance, we analyze the link budget in the considered environments, then design and simulate an OFDM system with a data rate of 2 Gbps to compare the bit-error-rate (BER performance by using the measured and modeled channels. Both coded and uncoded OFDM systems are simulated. It is observed that the BER performance agrees well for the measured and modeled channels. In addition, directive configurations can provide sufficient link margins and BER performance for high data rate communications. To increase the coverage and performance in the NLOS area, it is preferable to apply directive antennas.

  17. Study on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine using exhaust gas recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Raman Lakshmipathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas re-circulation is a method used in compression ignition engines to control and reduce NOx emission. These emissions are controlled by reducing the oxygen concentration inside the cylinder and thereby reducing the flame temperature of the charge mixture inside the combustion chamber. In the present investigation, experiments were performed to study the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on performance and emission characteristics in a four stroke single cylinder, water cooled and constant speed diesel engine. The experiments were performed to study the performance and emissions for different exhaust gas re-circulation ratios of the engine. Performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, total fuel consumption and emission parameters such as oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and smoke opacity were measured. Reductions in NOx and CO2 were observed but other emissions like HC, CO, and smoke opacity were found to have increased with the usage of exhaust gas re-circulation. The 15% exhaust gas re-circulation was found optimum for the engine in the aspects of performance and emission.

  18. Channel Characteristics and Transmission Performance for Various Channel Configurations at 60 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Haibing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive measurements are conducted in room environments at 60 GHz to analyze the channel characteristics for various channel configurations. Channel parameters retrieved from measurements are presented and analyzed based on generic channel models. Particularly, a simple single-cluster model is applied for the parameter retrieval and performance evaluation. By this model, power delay profiles are simply described by a -factor, a root-mean-squared delay spread, and a shape parameter. The considered channels are configured with the combination of omnidirectional, fan-beam, and pencil-beam antennas at transmitter and receiver sides. Both line-of-sight (LOS and non-LOS (NLOS channels are considered. Further, to evaluate the transmission performance, we analyze the link budget in the considered environments, then design and simulate an OFDM system with a data rate of 2 Gbps to compare the bit-error-rate (BER performance by using the measured and modeled channels. Both coded and uncoded OFDM systems are simulated. It is observed that the BER performance agrees well for the measured and modeled channels. In addition, directive configurations can provide sufficient link margins and BER performance for high data rate communications. To increase the coverage and performance in the NLOS area, it is preferable to apply directive antennas.

  19. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  20. Production, performance, slaughter characteristics, and meat quality of Ziwuling wild crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoshun; Sui, Yanan

    2018-02-01

    Wild boars, because of their large size and ability to survive adverse conditions, are usually used to cross with domestic breeds to improve the quality of domesticated pigs. This study aimed to investigate the growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of Ziwuling crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs in four groups (n = 8 per group, 4 boars and 4 sows, all aged 100 days), F 1 [wild × B (Bamei)], F 1  × B, F 1  × Y (Yorkshire), and F 1  × F 1 , were selected at a commercial pig farm. Growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of these crossbred pigs were determined. Characteristics of fatty acids, amino acids, and longissimus muscle fiber in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were also investigated. Pigs in F 1 and F 1  × F 1 groups had lower average daily weight gain, water and storage loss rates, larger meat color score, higher muscle amino acid levels, larger muscle fiber diameter, and higher ratio of flavor amino acids to unsaturated fatty acids compared to other groups. Crossbred pigs with higher rate of wild boar's consanguinity could improve production performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality. Thus, crossbreeding wild pig with domestic breeds might be an effective method to improve meat quality and flavor.

  1. Combustion, emission and engine performance characteristics of used cooking oil biodiesel - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enweremadu, C.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa); Rutto, H.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Private Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    As the environment degrades at an alarming rate, there have been steady calls by most governments following international energy policies for the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels whose use is rapidly expanding is biodiesel. One of the economical sources for biodiesel production which doubles in the reduction of liquid waste and the subsequent burden of sewage treatment is used cooking oil (UCO). However, the products formed during frying, such as free fatty acid and some polymerized triglycerides, can affect the transesterification reaction and the biodiesel properties. This paper attempts to collect and analyze published works mainly in scientific journals about the engine performance, combustion and emissions characteristics of UCO biodiesel on diesel engine. Overall, the engine performance of the UCO biodiesel and its blends was only marginally poorer compared to diesel. From the standpoint of emissions, NOx emissions were slightly higher while un-burnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) emissions were lower for UCO biodiesel when compares to diesel fuel. There were no noticeable differences between UCO biodiesel and fresh oil biodiesel as their engine performances, combustion and emissions characteristics bear a close resemblance. This is probably more closely related to the oxygenated nature of biodiesel which is almost constant for every biodiesel (biodiesel has some level of oxygen bound to its chemical structure) and also to its higher viscosity and lower calorific value, which have a major bearing on spray formation and initial combustion. (author)

  2. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and carcass characteristics in wool and hair lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel M. Romero-Maya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics of wool and hair lambs. For this purpose, 48 lambs averaging 31.3 kg body weight, of which twenty were wool (Ramboullet x Suffolk and twenty eight were hair (Tabasco lambs, and four levels of RAC (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg diet, dry matter basis were used. Wool lambs fed 20 and 30 mg RAC had higher (P<0.05 total gain weight and lower feed conversion than 0 and 10 mg RAC. Wool lambs fed 20 mg RAC had the highest carcass weight, dressing, legs weight and longissimus area as compared to 0, 10 and 30 mg RAC.  In hair lambs there were not effect of RAC on growth performance and carcass characteristics.It was concluded that addition of RAC to finishing diets offered the best growth performance and carcass traits in wool lambs as compared to hair lambs. 

  3. Board Characteristics and Accounting Performance in Banking Industry: The Indonesian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Agung Prabowo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of board characteristics on accounting return in Indonesian banking industry. The conceptual framework borrows from agency theory claiming that board is held liable for monitoring responsibilities and that monitoring effectiveness will lead to higher corporate achievement. Yet the theory predicts that board characteristics matter in constituting firm performance. It is hypothesized that leadership structure, representation of independent directors, board size, and the rank of college board chairperson attended are necessary attributes enable the board to deliver better performance. The investigation is based on a dataset consisting of 83 banks during 2009-2015. Panel data analysis reveal that the proportion of independent directors, board leadership structure, and board size shows insignificant influence. The rank of universities the board chairperson graduated is found to have an impact on accounting earnings. The impact is robust after the type of controlling owners is taken into account. Yet the association between university rank and performance is more pronounced in the listed-banks.

  4. The Effect of Chinese Propolis Supplementation on Ross Broiler Performance and Carcass Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama T. Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Ether Extract of Propolis (EEP on Ross (308 broiler performance and carcass characteristics. This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments (different levels of propolis including 0, 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet for 6 weeks. The mean weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly. In addition At 42 days old the total body weight, total body weight gain, carcass and some internal organs relative weights were recorded. The results clarified that, the weight gain was significantly reduced in the 4th and 6th week (P0.05 reduced for propolis fed birds in comparison to those fed control diet, Furthermore, inclusion of 100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg diet Propolis significantly reduced body weight at 42 days old and total body weight gain in comparison to control diet (P < 0.05. Under the condition of this experiment, prolonged use of propolis had adverse effect on performance of broilers. Also, all doses of propolis had non-significant negative effect on liver, heart, gizzard and carcass relative weight. In conclusion, EEP has no beneficial effect on performance and Carcass characteristics of Broilers.

  5. Performance characteristics of the 12 GHz, 200 watt Transmitter Experiment Package for CTS. [Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. F.; Fiala, J. L.; Hansen, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Measured performance characteristics from ground test of the Transmitter Experiment Package (TEP) for the Communications Technology Satellite are presented. The experiment package consists of a 200 W Output Stage Tube (OST) powered by a Power Processing System (PPS). Descriptions of both the PPS and OST are given. The PPS provides the necessary voltages with a measured dc/dc conversion efficiency of 89 per cent. The OST, a traveling wave tube with multiple collectors, has a saturated rf output power of 224 W and operates at an overall efficiency exceeding 40 per cent over an 85 MHz bandwidth at 12 GHz. OST performance given includes frequency response, saturation characteristics, group delay, AM to PM conversion, intermodulation distortion, and two channel gain suppression. Single and dual channel FM video performance is presented. It was determined that for 12 MHz peak to peak frequency deviation on each channel, dual channel FM television signals can be transmitted through the TEP at 60 W, each channel, with 40 MHz channel spacing (center to center).

  6. Performance characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agents or sedation in pediatric appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Hopkins, Katharine L.; Coakley, Fergus V.; Foster, Bryan R. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Portland, OR (United States); Krishnaswami, Sanjay [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Surgery, Portland, OR (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States); Spiro, David M. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Pediatrics, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising modality for evaluating pediatric appendicitis. However optimal imaging protocols, including roles of contrast agents and sedation, have not been established and diagnostic criteria have not been fully evaluated. To investigate performance characteristics of rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation in the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. We included patients ages 4-18 years with suspicion of appendicitis who underwent rapid MRI between October 2013 and March 2015 without contrast agent or sedation. After two-radiologist review, we determined performance characteristics of individual diagnostic criteria and aggregate diagnostic criteria by comparing MRI results to clinical outcomes. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness for optimization of predictive power, and we calculated area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of test accuracy. Ninety-eight MRI examinations were performed in 97 subjects. Overall, MRI had a 94% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 91% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. Optimal cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness were ≥7 mm and ≥2 mm, respectively. Independently, those cut-points produced sensitivities of 91% and 84% and specificities of 84% and 43%. Presence of intraluminal fluid (30/33) or localized periappendiceal fluid (32/33) showed a significant association with acute appendicitis (P<0.01), with sensitivities of 91% and 97% and specificities of 60% and 50%. For examinations in which the appendix was not identified by one or both reviewers (23/98), the clinical outcome was negative. Rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation is accurate for diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis when multiple diagnostic criteria are considered in aggregate. Individual diagnostic criteria including optimized cut-points of ≥7 mm for diameter and ≥2 mm for wall

  7. Performance characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agents or sedation in pediatric appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, Ryne A.; Hopkins, Katharine L.; Coakley, Fergus V.; Foster, Bryan R.; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Spiro, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising modality for evaluating pediatric appendicitis. However optimal imaging protocols, including roles of contrast agents and sedation, have not been established and diagnostic criteria have not been fully evaluated. To investigate performance characteristics of rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation in the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. We included patients ages 4-18 years with suspicion of appendicitis who underwent rapid MRI between October 2013 and March 2015 without contrast agent or sedation. After two-radiologist review, we determined performance characteristics of individual diagnostic criteria and aggregate diagnostic criteria by comparing MRI results to clinical outcomes. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness for optimization of predictive power, and we calculated area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of test accuracy. Ninety-eight MRI examinations were performed in 97 subjects. Overall, MRI had a 94% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 91% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. Optimal cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness were ≥7 mm and ≥2 mm, respectively. Independently, those cut-points produced sensitivities of 91% and 84% and specificities of 84% and 43%. Presence of intraluminal fluid (30/33) or localized periappendiceal fluid (32/33) showed a significant association with acute appendicitis (P<0.01), with sensitivities of 91% and 97% and specificities of 60% and 50%. For examinations in which the appendix was not identified by one or both reviewers (23/98), the clinical outcome was negative. Rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation is accurate for diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis when multiple diagnostic criteria are considered in aggregate. Individual diagnostic criteria including optimized cut-points of ≥7 mm for diameter and ≥2 mm for wall

  8. Performance characteristics of NuVal and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index (ONQI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Njike, Valentine Y; Rhee, Lauren Q; Reingold, Arthur; Ayoob, Keith T

    2010-04-01

    Improving diets has considerable potential to improve health, but progress in this area has been limited, and advice to increase fruit and vegetable intake has largely gone unheeded. Our objective was to test the performance characteristics of the Overall Nutritional Quality Index (ONQI), a tool designed to help improve dietary patterns one well-informed choice at a time. The ONQI was developed by a multidisciplinary group of nutrition and public health scientists independent of food industry interests and is the basis for the NuVal Nutritional Guidance System. Dietary guidelines, existing nutritional scoring systems, and other pertinent scientific literature were reviewed. An algorithm incorporating >30 entries that represent both micro- and macronutrient properties of foods, as well as weighting coefficients representing epidemiologic associations between nutrients and health outcomes, was developed and subjected to consumer research and testing of performance characteristics. ONQI and expert panel rankings correlated highly (R = 0.92, P consumer testing, approximately 80% of >800 study participants indicated that the ONQI would influence their purchase intent. ONQI scoring distinguished the more-healthful DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet (mean score: 46) from the typical American diet according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 (mean score: 26.5; P purchase patterns and significant correlation with health outcomes in large cohorts of men and women followed for decades. NuVal offers universally applicable nutrition guidance that is independent of food industry interests and is supported by consumer research and scientific evaluation of its performance characteristics.

  9. Performance characteristics of mobile MOSFET dosimeter for kilovoltage X-rays used in image guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A Sathish; Singh, I Rabi Raja; Sharma, S D; Ravindran, B Paul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter for kilovoltage (kV) X-ray beams in order to perform the in vivo dosimetry during image guidance in radiotherapy. The performance characteristics of high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeters were investigated for 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, and 125 kV X-ray beams used for imaging in radiotherapy. This study was performed using Clinac 2100 C/D medical electron linear accelerator with on-board imaging and kV cone beam computed tomography system. The characteristics studied in this work include energy dependence, angular dependence, and linearity. The X-ray beam outputs were measured as per American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TG 61 recommendations using PTW parallel plate (PP) ionization chamber, which was calibrated in terms of air kerma (Nk) by the National Standard Laboratory. The MOSFET dosimeters were calibrated against the PP ionization chamber for all the kV X-ray beams and the calibration coefficient was found to be 0.11 cGy/mV with a standard deviation of about ±1%. The response of MOSFET was found to be energy independent for the kV X-ray energies used in this study. The response of the MOSFET dosimeter was also found independent of angle of incidence for the gantry angles in the range of 0° to 360° in-air as well as at 3 cm depth in tissue equivalent phantom.

  10. Performance characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging without contrast agents or sedation in pediatric appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Ryne A; Hopkins, Katharine L; Coakley, Fergus V; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Spiro, David M; Foster, Bryan R

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising modality for evaluating pediatric appendicitis. However optimal imaging protocols, including roles of contrast agents and sedation, have not been established and diagnostic criteria have not been fully evaluated. To investigate performance characteristics of rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation in the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. We included patients ages 4-18 years with suspicion of appendicitis who underwent rapid MRI between October 2013 and March 2015 without contrast agent or sedation. After two-radiologist review, we determined performance characteristics of individual diagnostic criteria and aggregate diagnostic criteria by comparing MRI results to clinical outcomes. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness for optimization of predictive power, and we calculated area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of test accuracy. Ninety-eight MRI examinations were performed in 97 subjects. Overall, MRI had a 94% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 91% positive predictive value and 97% negative predictive value. Optimal cut-points for appendiceal diameter and wall thickness were ≥7 mm and ≥2 mm, respectively. Independently, those cut-points produced sensitivities of 91% and 84% and specificities of 84% and 43%. Presence of intraluminal fluid (30/33) or localized periappendiceal fluid (32/33) showed a significant association with acute appendicitis (Pappendicitis when multiple diagnostic criteria are considered in aggregate. Individual diagnostic criteria including optimized cut-points of ≥7 mm for diameter and ≥2 mm for wall thickness demonstrate high sensitivities but relatively low specificities. Nonvisualization of the appendix favors a negative diagnosis.

  11. Effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on neuromuscular function and locomotion: a military-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane G Grenier

    Full Text Available Trekking and military missions generally consist of carrying heavy loads for extreme durations. These factors have been separately shown to be sources of neuromuscular (NM fatigue and locomotor alterations. However, the question of their combined effects remains unresolved, and addressing this issue required a representative context.The aim was to investigate the effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on NM function and walking characteristics.Ten experienced infantrymen performed a 21-h simulated military mission (SMM in a middle-mountain environment with equipment weighing ∼27 kg during battles and ∼43 kg during marches. NM function was evaluated for knee extensors (KE and plantar flexors (PF pre- and immediately post-SMM using isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC measurement, neural electrical stimulation and surface EMG. The twitch-interpolation method was used to assess central fatigue. Peripheral changes were examined by stimulating the muscle in the relaxed state. The energy cost, mechanical work and spatio-temporal pattern of walking were also evaluated pre-/post-SMM on an instrumented treadmill in three equipment conditions: Sportswear, Battle and March.After the SMM, MVC declined by -10.2±3.6% for KE (P<0.01 and -10.7±16.1% for PF (P = 0.06. The origin of fatigue was essentially peripheral for both muscle groups. A trend toward low-frequency fatigue was detected for KE (5.5%, P = 0.08. These moderate NM alterations were concomitant with a large increase in perceived fatigue from pre- (rating of 8.3±2.2 to post-SMM (15.9±2.1, P<0.01. The SMM-related fatigue did not alter walking energetics or mechanics, and the different equipment carried on the treadmill did not interact with this fatigue either.this study reports the first data on physiological and biomechanical consequences of extreme-duration heavy load carriage. Unexpectedly, NM function alterations due to the 21-h SMM were moderate and did not

  12. Effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on neuromuscular function and locomotion: a military-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Jordane G; Millet, Guillaume Y; Peyrot, Nicolas; Samozino, Pierre; Oullion, Roger; Messonnier, Laurent; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2012-01-01

    Trekking and military missions generally consist of carrying heavy loads for extreme durations. These factors have been separately shown to be sources of neuromuscular (NM) fatigue and locomotor alterations. However, the question of their combined effects remains unresolved, and addressing this issue required a representative context. The aim was to investigate the effects of extreme-duration heavy load carriage on NM function and walking characteristics. Ten experienced infantrymen performed a 21-h simulated military mission (SMM) in a middle-mountain environment with equipment weighing ∼27 kg during battles and ∼43 kg during marches. NM function was evaluated for knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF) pre- and immediately post-SMM using isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) measurement, neural electrical stimulation and surface EMG. The twitch-interpolation method was used to assess central fatigue. Peripheral changes were examined by stimulating the muscle in the relaxed state. The energy cost, mechanical work and spatio-temporal pattern of walking were also evaluated pre-/post-SMM on an instrumented treadmill in three equipment conditions: Sportswear, Battle and March. After the SMM, MVC declined by -10.2±3.6% for KE (P<0.01) and -10.7±16.1% for PF (P = 0.06). The origin of fatigue was essentially peripheral for both muscle groups. A trend toward low-frequency fatigue was detected for KE (5.5%, P = 0.08). These moderate NM alterations were concomitant with a large increase in perceived fatigue from pre- (rating of 8.3±2.2) to post-SMM (15.9±2.1, P<0.01). The SMM-related fatigue did not alter walking energetics or mechanics, and the different equipment carried on the treadmill did not interact with this fatigue either. this study reports the first data on physiological and biomechanical consequences of extreme-duration heavy load carriage. Unexpectedly, NM function alterations due to the 21-h SMM were moderate and did not alter

  13. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers’ performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Idzwan Mohd Salleh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Methods: Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Results and conclusions: Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider’s performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers’ performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients’ needs that eventually increased their productivity. Keywords: Electronic health records system, System quality characteristics, Care providers’ performance, Evaluation, Partial least squares-structural equation modeling

  15. Study of two-stage turbine characteristic and its influence on turbo-compound engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rongchao; Zhuge, Weilin; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Yin, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An analytical model was built to study the interactions between two turbines in series. • The impacts of HP VGT and LP VGT on turbo-compound engine performance were investigated. • The fuel reductions obtained by HP VGT at 1900 rpm and 1000 rpm are 3.08% and 7.83% respectively. • The optimum value of AR ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 as the turbo-compound engine speed decreases. - Abstract: Turbo-compounding is an effective way to recover waste heat from engine exhaust and reduce fuel consumption for internal combustion engine (ICE). The characteristics of two-stage turbine, including turbocharger turbine and power turbine, have significant effects on the overall performance of turbo-compound engine. This paper investigates the interaction between two turbines in a turbo-compound engine and its impact on the engine performance. Firstly an analytical model is built to investigate the effects of turbine equivalent flow area on the two-stage turbine characteristics, including swallowing capacity and load split. Next both simulation and experimental method are carried out to study the effects of high pressure variable geometry turbine (HP VGT), low pressure variable geometry turbine (LP VGT) and combined VGT on the engine overall performance. The results show that the engine performance is more sensitive to HP VGT compared with LP VGT at all the operation conditions, which is caused by the larger influences of HP VGT on the total expansion ratio and engine air–fuel ratio. Using the HP VGT method, the fuel reductions of the turbo-compound engine at 1900 rpm and 1000 rpm are 3.08% and 7.83% respectively, in comparison with the baseline engine. The corresponding optimum values of AR are 2.0 and 2.5

  16. Relationship between musical characteristics and temporal breathing pattern in piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sakaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon’s exercise, J. S. Bach’s Invention, Mozart’s Sonatas, and Debussy’s Clair de lune, was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. 1 Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. 2 Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. 3 Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise, but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. 4 Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. 5 Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  17. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  18. Performance and beam characteristics of the PANTAK THERAPAX HF225 X-ray therapy machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiannakkaras, C; Papadopoulos, N; Christodoulides, G [Department of Medical Physics, Nicosia General Hospital, 1450 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    1999-12-31

    The performance and beam characteristics of the new PANTAK THERAPAX HF225 X-ray therapy machine have been measured, evaluated and discussed. Eight beam qualities within the working range of generating potentials between 50 and 225 kVp are used in our department. These beam qualities have been investigated in order to provide a data base specific to our machine. Beam Quality, Central Axis Depth Dose, Output, Relative Field Uniformity and Timer Error were investigated. (authors) 11 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Implementation of palm biodiesel based on economic aspects, performance, emission, and wear characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosarof, M.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ashraful, A.M.; Rashed, M.M.; Imdadul, H.K.; Monirul, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Global environmental protection of using alternative fuel. • Economic aspects of palm oil biodiesel in Malaysia. • Tribological characteristics of palm oil biodiesel in engine components. • Engine performance and emission of palm oil biodiesel. • Effect of temperature on density and kinematic viscosity for various biodiesel. - Abstract: The high cost of energy supplies and the growing concern over the dependency on fossil fuels have impelled many countries to search for renewable and alternative energy sources. The extensive use of fossil fuels for transportation and power generation all over the world have caused the supply of fossil fuels to continuously decrease and have aggravated environmental pollution. Searching for alternative fuels has become imperative to reduce pollution and address the problems on fossil fuels. Vegetable oil fuels, such as palm oil biodiesel, serve as alternative forms of energy and are currently being studied, particularly as a diesel fuel substitute. The purpose of this study is to review the potential of palm oil as an energy source and alternative diesel fuel in terms of its performance, environmental impact, wear characteristics, and economic considerations. Compared with other vegetable oils, palm oil is a relatively sustainable, environment-friendly, less expensive, and economically beneficial potential source of energy. Palm oil plantation and production is a major industry in Malaysia, contributing to the economic growth and development of the country. The properties of palm oil biodiesel, namely, high oxidation stability, good cold properties, cetane number, and higher viscosity, makes it a suitable diesel substitute. Compared with other vegetable oils and petroleum diesel fuels, palm oil is associated with better engine performance, higher specific fuel consumption, and shorter ignition delay. Use of palm oil also reduces exhaust emission of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and smoke, but

  20. Performance Characteristics and Temperature Compensation Method of Fluid Property Sensor Based on Tuning-Fork Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid property sensor (FPS based on tuning-fork technology is applied to the measurement of the contaminant level of lubricant oil. The measuring principle of FPS sensor is derived and proved together with its resolution. The performance characteristics of the FPS sensor, such as sensitivity coefficient, resolution, and quality factor, are analyzed. A temperature compensation method is proposed to eliminate the temperature-dependence of the measuring parameters, and its validity is investigated by numerical simulation of sensitivity, oscillating frequency, and dielectric constant. The values of purification efficiency obtained using microwave and without microwave are compared experimentally.

  1. The characteristics of ultra-high performance concrete and cracking behavior of reinforced concrete tensile specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Rahdar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behavior of concrete depends on some factors such as member dimensions, reinforcement ratio, diameter of rebar, strength and elasticity modulus of material. In this research the experimental method is used to examine the characteristics and the behavior of ultra-high performance concrete on the tensile behavior of concrete members reinforced by steel rebar. The results show that increasing the rebar cover on diameter rebar ratio (C/d increases the initial stiffening before the cracking stage in concrete. Also, by increasing of reinforcement ratio the cracking space decreased.

  2. Pilates and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Methods Induce Similar Strength Gains but Different Neuromuscular Adaptations in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira de Carvalho, Fabiana; de Andrade Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda; Pereira, Rafael; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Amaro Zangaro, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: The aging process is associated with a decline in muscle mass, strength, and conditioning. Two training methods that may be useful to improve muscle function are Pilates and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Thus, the present study aimed to compare the influence of training programs using Pilates and PNF methods with elderly women. Sixty healthy elderly women were randomly divided into three groups: Pilates group, PNF group, and control group. Pilates and PNF groups underwent 1-month training programs with Pilates and PNF methods, respectively. The control group received no intervention during the 1 month. The maximal isometric force levels from knee extension and flexion, as well as the electromyography (EMG) signals from quadriceps and biceps femoris, were recorded before and after the 1-month intervention period. A two-way analysis of variance revealed that the Pilates and PNF methods induced similar strength gains from knee flexors and extensors, but Pilates exhibited greater low-gamma drive (i.e., oscillations in 30-60 Hz) in the EMG power spectrum after the training period. These results support use of both Pilates and PNF methods to enhance lower limb muscle strength in older groups, which is very important for gait, postural stability, and performance of daily life activities.

  3. Identifying the performance characteristics of a winning outcome in elite mixed martial arts competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Robertson, Sam; Haff, G Gregory; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-03-01

    To determine those performance indicators that have the greatest influence on classifying outcome at the elite level of mixed martial arts (MMA). A secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of decision tree analysis in explaining the characteristics of victory when compared to alternate statistical methods. Cross-sectional observational. Eleven raw performance indicators from male Ultimate Fighting Championship bouts (n=234) from July 2014 to December 2014 were screened for analysis. Each raw performance indicator was also converted to a rate-dependent measure to be scaled to fight duration. Further, three additional performance indicators were calculated from the dataset and included in the analysis. Cohen's d effect sizes were employed to determine the magnitude of the differences between Wins and Losses, while decision tree (chi-square automatic interaction detector (CHAID)) and discriminant function analyses (DFA) were used to classify outcome (Win and Loss). Effect size comparisons revealed differences between Wins and Losses across a number of performance indicators. Decision tree (raw: 71.8%; rate-scaled: 76.3%) and DFA (raw: 71.4%; rate-scaled 71.2%) achieved similar classification accuracies. Grappling and accuracy performance indicators were the most influential in explaining outcome. The decision tree models also revealed multiple combinations of performance indicators leading to victory. The decision tree analyses suggest that grappling activity and technique accuracy are of particular importance in achieving victory in elite-level MMA competition. The DFA results supported the importance of these performance indicators. Decision tree induction represents an intuitive and slightly more accurate approach to explaining bout outcome in this sport when compared to DFA. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance Evaluation of 14 Neural Network Architectures Used for Predicting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Engine Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajmi, R. M.; Abou-Ziyan, H. Z.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive study that aimed at identifying best neural network architecture and parameters to predict subcooled boiling characteristics of engine oils. A total of 57 different neural networks (NNs) that were derived from 14 different NN architectures were evaluated for four different prediction cases. The NNs were trained on experimental datasets performed on five engine oils of different chemical compositions. The performance of each NN was evaluated using a rigorous statistical analysis as well as careful examination of smoothness of predicted boiling curves. One NN, out of the 57 evaluated, correctly predicted the boiling curves for all cases considered either for individual oils or for all oils taken together. It was found that the pattern selection and weight update techniques strongly affect the performance of the NNs. It was also revealed that the use of descriptive statistical analysis such as R2, mean error, standard deviation, and T and slope tests, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for evaluating NN performance. The performance criteria should also include inspection of the smoothness of the predicted curves either visually or by plotting the slopes of these curves.

  5. An experimental study on performance and emission characteristics of a hydrogen fuelled spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Erol [Program of Energy Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey); Cihangir Ozcanli, S.; Ozerdem, Baris [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla, Izmir 35430 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    In the present paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional four cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine operated on hydrogen and gasoline are investigated experimentally. The compressed hydrogen at 20 MPa has been introduced to the engine adopted to operate on gaseous hydrogen by external mixing. Two regulators have been used to drop the pressure first to 300 kPa, then to atmospheric pressure. The variations of torque, power, brake thermal efficiency, brake mean effective pressure, exhaust gas temperature, and emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, HC, and O{sub 2} versus engine speed are compared for a carbureted SI engine operating on gasoline and hydrogen. Energy analysis also has studied for comparison purpose. The test results have been demonstrated that power loss occurs at low speed hydrogen operation whereas high speed characteristics compete well with gasoline operation. Fast burning characteristics of hydrogen have permitted high speed engine operation. Less heat loss has occurred for hydrogen than gasoline. NO{sub x} emission of hydrogen fuelled engine is about 10 times lower than gasoline fuelled engine. Finally, both first and second law efficiencies have improved with hydrogen fuelled engine compared to gasoline engine. It has been proved that hydrogen is a very good candidate as an engine fuel. The obtained data are also very useful for operational changes needed to optimize the hydrogen fueled SI engine design. (author)

  6. Experimental study on performance characteristics of servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Mingrui; Han Weishi; Zhou Jie; Liu Chunyu; Yang Zhida; Wang Ge

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on the performance characteristics of the servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism is carried out, the dynamic processes of the driving mechanism are obtained through the experiments in different working conditions. Combined with the structure characteristics of the driving mechanism, the change rule between the characteristics parameters and the working condition is analyzed. The results indicate that the traction of the servo-tube decreases quickly at first, then slowly and finally trends to be a constant with the working pressure increasing, the tractions are the largest in the startup and deboost phases. The under pressure of the drive cylinder rises slowly and the upper pressure decreases rapidly at the beginning of the rise, the variation trend is opposite in the falling stage. There exists quick and clear flow change processes in the startup and deboost phases, the flow mutation value reduces and the mutation time changes a little with the working pressure increasing. The driving mechanism runs stable and has high sensitivity precision, the load does not vibrate at all when working conditions has small disturbance, a steady transform can be realized among every condition. (authors)

  7. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents: Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viby-Mogensen, J.; Østergaard, D.; Donati, F.

    2000-01-01

    Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design......Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP), neuromuscular blocking agents, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling, population pharmacokinetics, statistics, study design...

  8. Reversal of profound rocuronium neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Pol, F. van de; Bom, A.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reversal of neuromuscular blockade can be accomplished by chemical encapsulation of rocuronium by sugammadex, a synthetic gamma-cyclodextrin derivative. The current study determined the feasibility of reversal of rocuronium-induced profound neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in the

  9. The impact of green roof ageing on substrate characteristics and hydrological performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Ville, Simon; Menon, Manoj; Jia, Xiaodong; Reed, George; Stovin, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs contribute to stormwater management through the retention of rainfall and the detention of runoff. However, there is very limited knowledge concerning the evolution of green roof hydrological performance with system age. This study presents a non-invasive technique which allows for repeatable determination of key substrate characteristics over time, and evaluates the impact of observed substrate changes on hydrological performance. The physical properties of 12 green roof substrate cores have been evaluated using non-invasive X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging. The cores comprised three replicates of two contrasting substrate types at two different ages: unused virgin samples; and 5-year-old samples from existing green roof test beds. Whilst significant structural differences (density, pore and particle sizes, tortuosity) between virgin and aged samples of a crushed brick substrate were observed, these differences did not significantly affect hydrological characteristics (maximum water holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity). A contrasting substrate based upon a light expanded clay aggregate experienced increases in the number of fine particles and pores over time, which led to increases in maximum water holding capacity of 7%. In both substrates, the saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated from the XMT images was lower in aged compared with virgin samples. Comparisons between physically-derived and XMT-derived substrate hydrological properties showed that similar values and trends in the data were identified, confirming the suitability of the non-invasive XMT technique for monitoring changes in engineered substrates over time. The observed effects of ageing on hydrological performance were modelled as two distinct hydrological processes, retention and detention. Retention performance was determined via a moisture-flux model using physically-derived values of virgin and aged maximum water holding capacity. Increased water holding

  10. Performance and emission characteristics of a turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [I.C. Engines Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using bio-oil namely turpentine obtained from the resin of pine tree. The emission and performance characteristics of a D.I. diesel engine were studied through dual fuel (DF) mode. Turpentine was inducted as a primary fuel through induction manifold and diesel was admitted into the engine through conventional fueling device as an igniter. The result showed that except volumetric efficiency, all other performance and emission parameters are better than those of diesel fuel with in 75% load. The toxic gases like CO, UBHC are slightly higher than that of the diesel baseline (DBL). Around 40-45% smoke reduction is obtained with DF mode. The pollutant No{sub x} is found to be equal to that of DBL except at full load. This study has proved that approximately 75% diesel replacement with turpentine is possible by DF mode with little engine modification. (author)

  11. Performance Characteristics of a Modularized and Integrated PTC Heating System for an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hyuk Shin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A modularized positive temperature coefficient heating system has controller-integrated heater modules. Such a heating system that uses a high-voltage power of 330 V was developed in the present study for use in electric vehicles. Four heater modules and one controller with an input power of 5.6 kW were integrated in the modularized system, which was designed for improved heating power density and light weight compared to the conventional heating system, in which the controller is separated. We experimentally investigated the performance characteristics, namely, the heating capacity, energy efficiency, and pressure drop, of a prototype of the developed heating system and found it to have satisfactory performance. The findings of this study will contribute to the development of heating systems for electric vehicles.

  12. Prediction of multi performance characteristics of wire EDM process using grey ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanan, Somasundaram; Nair, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Super alloys are used to fabricate components in ultra-supercritical power plants. These hard to machine materials are processed using non-traditional machining methods like Wire cut electrical discharge machining and needs attention. This paper details about multi performance optimization of wire EDM process using Grey ANFIS. Experiments are designed to establish the performance characteristics of wire EDM such as surface roughness, material removal rate, wire wear rate and geometric tolerances. The control parameters are pulse on time, pulse off time, current, voltage, flushing pressure, wire tension, table feed and wire speed. Grey relational analysis is employed to optimise the multi objectives. Analysis of variance of the grey grades is used to identify the critical parameters. A regression model is developed and used to generate datasets for the training of proposed adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The developed prediction model is tested for its prediction ability.

  13. Flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves using numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, S Y; Shin, M S; Yoon, J Y

    2010-01-01

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to various fields that transport fluid in volume, especially water supply and drainage pipeline for flow control. The butterfly valves in various shapes are manufactured, but a fitting performance comparison is not made up. For this reason, we carried out numerical analysis of some kind of butterfly valves for water supply and drainage pipeline using commercial CFD code FLUENT, and made a comparative study of these results. Also, the flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and pressure distribution of valves according to valve opening rate were compared each other and the influence of these design variables on valve performance were checked over. Through flow around the valve disk, such as pressure distribution, flow pattern, velocity vectors, and form of vortex, we grasped flow characteristics.

  14. Investigating the effect of communication characteristics on crew performance under the simulated emergency condition of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the safety of large process control systems could be significantly affected by the communication characteristics of crews that have a responsibility for their operations. Accordingly, many researchers have spent huge amount of effort to grasp the relationship between the characteristics of crew communications and the associated crew performance. Unfortunately, in the case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), it seems that most of existing studies have tried to identify the relationship between the characteristics of crew communications and the associated crew performance using empirical observations without a firm technical underpinning. For these reasons, Park suggested a novel framework that is able to represent the characteristics of crew communications based on social network analysis (SNA) metrics. In order to confirm the appropriateness of the suggested framework, in this study, the characteristics of crew communications that are gathered from the simulated emergency condition of NPPs are additionally compared with the associated crew performance data. As a consequence, it is observed that there are significant relationships between communication characteristics and the associated crew performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the characteristics of crew communications can be properly grasped using the suggested framework. - Highlights: ► Communication data of MCR operating crews are collected from a simulated emergency condition. ► Communication characteristics are represented by the associated SNA metrics. ► Identified communication characteristics are compared with the results of existing studies. ► SNA metrics are meaningful for explaining the characteristics of crew communications.

  15. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing bulls fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of Longissimusmuscle (LM of the bulls. Twenty-four Nellore bulls were used in a complete randomised design. The bulls were randomly assigned to one of the three diets containing 0, 5 or 12% glycerin. Final BW and ADG were similar (P>0.05 between the bulls fed with 5 or 12% of glycerin but were higher (P0.05 by glycerin level. Hot carcass weight increased (P0.05 the conformation, colour, texture, marbling and pH. There was difference (P>0.05 for moisture, ashes and crude protein among glycerin levels. Bulls fed 12% glycerin present the highest (P<0.03 total lipids on LM. The percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, monounsaturated acids (MUFA, polyunsaturated acids (PUFA, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA and n-6:n-3 ratios of the LM were similar among the diets. In conclusion, glycerin level did not affect the animal performance and carcass characteristics of Nellore bulls finished in feedlot.

  16. Performance characteristics and parametric choices of a solar thermophotovoltaic cell at the maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Qingchun; Liao, Tianjun; Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Xiaohang; Chen, Jincan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. - Highlights: • A new model of the irreversible solar thermophotovoltaic system is proposed. • The material and structure parameters of the system are considered. • The performance characteristics at the maximum efficiency are revealed. • The optimal values of key parameters are determined. • The system can obtain a large efficiency under a relative low concentration ratio. - Abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. The power output and efficiency of the cell are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the STPVC at the maximum efficiency are revealed. The optimum values of several important parameters, such as the voltage output of the PV cell, the area ratio of the absorber to the emitter, and the band-gap of the semiconductor material, are determined. It is found that under the condition of a relative low concentration ratio, the optimally designed STPVC can obtain a relative large efficiency.

  17. Effect of passion fruit seed meal on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinello, Marcelise Regina; Pozza, Paulo Cesar; Moreira, Ivan; Carvalho, Paulo Levi Oliveira; Castilha, Leandro Dalcin; Pasquetti, Tiago Junior; Esteves, Lucas Antonio Costa; Huepa, Laura Marcela Diaz

    2015-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out in Paraná State, Brazil, to evaluate the nutritional value of passion fruit seed meal (PFM) and to study the effect of PFM on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter pigs (Topigs 20 × Tybor). In experiment 1, 25 castrated males, averaging 19.1-kg body weight, were individually fed in a completely randomized block design, consisting of five treatments and five replicates and an experimental period that lasted 14 days. In experiment 2, a total of 60 pigs (30 females and 30 castrated males) were distributed in a randomized block design with five treatments, six replications, and two animals per experimental unit and 90 days of experimentation. For both experiments, the same PFM inclusion rates were used in the experimental diets, namely, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 %. The metabolizable energy of PFM was estimated to be 15.0 MJ/kg. Inclusion of PFM at any level did not affect average daily gain, daily feed intake, feed/gain ratio, backfat thickness, loin depth, and plasma or blood components. It is concluded that passion fruit seed meal for swine in the starting phase can be added at a rate of up to 16 % in the diet without any negative effects on growth performance, carcass, and blood characteristics in starter commercial line pigs.

  18. Effects of 6-week pre-season plyometric training to performance characteristics in female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week pre-season plyometric training on the performance characteristics in female handball players. Nineteen female handball players voluntarily participated in the study. They were divided into 2 groups [experimental group (ETG; N = 10, and control group (NTG; N = 9]. Both groups continued regular pre-season training for 6-weeks. The ETG also did plyometric training. Sprints (10 m, 20 m, and 30 m, squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, anaerobic power and capacity (AP and AC, and aerobic variables at fixed blood lactate levels (FBLLs [running velocity (RV, heart rate (HR, and oxygen consumption (VO2] were compared before and after the training. The results have shown that there are significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, AP and AC (p<0.05, VO2max (p<0.01, RV, HR, and VO2 at each of FBLLs (p<0.01 between pre- and post-training results of ETG. Pre- and post training results also showed significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, and AP (p<0.05 in NTG. In conclusion, was found that a 6-week plyometric training is an important parameter in addition to physical fitness, technical, and tactical training for the female handball players who get prepared for the woman handball super league which affects pre-season performance characteristics.

  19. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  20. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yue [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Hu, Weiqiang [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Ou Congjie [College of Information Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Chen Jincan [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)], E-mail: jcchen@xmu.edu.cn

    2009-06-15

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions.

  1. Numerical investigation and performance characteristic mapping of an Archimedean screw hydroturbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, W. Chris

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a crucial tool in the design and analysis of hydraulic machinery, especially in the design of a micro hydro turbine. The micro hydro turbine in question is for a low head (less than 60 meters), low volumetric flow rate (0.005 m3/s to 0.5 m 3/s) application with rotation rates varying from 200 RPM to 1500 RPM. The design of the runner geometry is discussed, specifically a non-uniform Archimedean Spiral with an outer diameter of 6 inches and length of 19.5 inches. The transient simulation method, making use of a frame of reference change and a rotating mesh between time-steps, is explained as well as the corresponding boundary conditions. Both simulation methods are compared and are determined to produce similar results. The rotating frame of reference method was determined to be the most suitable method for the mapping of performance characteristic such as required head, torque, power, and efficiency. Results of simulations for a non-uniform Archimedean Spiral are then presented. First, a spectral and temporal convergence study is conducted to make sure that the results are independent of time-step and mesh selection. Performance characteristics of a non-uniform pitched blade turbine are determined for a wide range of volumetric flow rates and rotation rates. The maximum efficiency of the turbine is calculated around 72% for the design of the turbine blade considered in the present study.

  2. Standard test methods for performance characteristics of metallic bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform test methods for the determination of strain gauge performance characteristics. Suggested testing equipment designs are included. 1.2 Test Methods E 251 describes methods and procedures for determining five strain gauge parameters: Section Part I—General Requirements 7 Part II—Resistance at a Reference Temperature 8 Part III—Gauge Factor at a Reference Temperature 9 Part IV—Temperature Coefficient of Gauge Factor\t10 Part V—Transverse Sensitivity\t11 Part VI—Thermal Output\t12 1.3 Strain gauges are very sensitive devices with essentially infinite resolution. Their response to strain, however, is low and great care must be exercised in their use. The performance characteristics identified by these test methods must be known to an acceptable accuracy to obtain meaningful results in field applications. 1.3.1 Strain gauge resistance is used to balance instrumentation circuits and to provide a reference value for measurements since all data are...

  3. A unified model of combined energy systems with different cycle modes and its optimum performance characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Hu, Weiqiang; Ou Congjie; Chen Jincan

    2009-01-01

    A unified model is presented for a class of combined energy systems, in which the systems mainly consist of a heat engine, a combustor and a counter-flow heat exchanger and the heat engine in the systems may have different thermodynamic cycle modes such as the Brayton cycle, Carnot cycle, Stirling cycle, Ericsson cycle, and so on. Not only the irreversibilities of the heat leak and finite-rate heat transfer but also the different cycle modes of the heat engine are considered in the model. On the basis of Newton's law, expressions for the overall efficiency and power output of the combined energy system with an irreversible Brayton cycle are derived. The maximum overall efficiency and power output and other relevant parameters are calculated. The general characteristic curves of the system are presented for some given parameters. Several interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained here are very general and significant and can be used to discuss the optimal performance characteristics of a class of combined energy systems with different cycle modes. Moreover, it is significant to point out that not only the important conclusions obtained in Bejan's first combustor model and Peterson's general combustion driven model but also the optimal performance of a class of solar-driven heat engine systems can be directly derived from the present paper under some limit conditions

  4. Organizational characteristics, financial performance measures, and funding sources of faith based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Lynne; Raghavan, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of organizational characteristics and financial performance measures of faith based organizations (FBOS) in Pennsylvania and Ohio on the decisions of the funding sources. Organizational characteristics of size, age, and type of service, and financial performance measures such as expense, liquidity, and solvency ratios were gathered from the data on IRS form 990 for 97 FBOS for the period of 1995 to 2004. The study found that the 1996 Charitable Choice provisions and the 2001 Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives have led to increased government funding for FBOS. The results showed that government funding of FBOS is affected positively by age of the FBO, and negatively by its size. For smaller FBOS, savings ratio had a negative relationship to government funding and a positive relationship to direct public support. For social service FBOS government funding was positively affected by age and negatively affected by size and debt ratio, while days-cash-on-hand had a negative impact on direct public support. All of the above relationships were statistically significant.

  5. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Performance: Do Organizational and Market Characteristics Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Edwardson, Nick; Zhao, Mei

    The hospital value-based purchasing (HVBP) program of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services challenges hospitals to deliver high-quality care or face a reduction in Medicare payments. How do different organizational structures and market characteristics enable or inhibit successful transition to this new model of value-based care? To address that question, this study employs an institutional theory lens to test whether certain organizational structures and market characteristics mediate hospitals' ability to perform across HVBP domains.Data from the 2014 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, Area Health Resource File, the Medicare Hospital Compare Database, and the association between external environment and hospital performance are assessed through multiple regression analysis. Results indicate that hospitals that belong to a system are more likely than independent hospitals to score highly on the domains associated with the HVBP incentive arrangement. However, varying and sometimes counterintuitive market influences bring different dimensions to the HVBP program. A hospital's ability to score well in this new value arrangement may be heavily based on the organization's ability to learn from others, implement change, and apply the appropriate amount of control in various markets.

  6. Decision support aids with anthropomorphic characteristics influence trust and performance in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Richard; Fink, Nicole; Price, Margaux; Bass, Brock; Sturre, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of deliberately anthropomorphic automation on younger and older adults' trust, dependence and performance on a diabetes decision-making task. Research with anthropomorphic interface agents has shown mixed effects in judgments of preferences but has rarely examined effects on performance. Meanwhile, research in automation has shown some forms of anthropomorphism (e.g. etiquette) have effects on trust and dependence on automation. Participants answered diabetes questions with no-aid, a non-anthropomorphic aid or an anthropomorphised aid. Trust and dependence in the aid was measured. A minimally anthropomorphic aide primarily affected younger adults' trust in the aid. Dependence, however, for both age groups was influenced by the anthropomorphic aid. Automation that deliberately embodies person-like characteristics can influence trust and dependence on reasonably reliable automation. However, further research is necessary to better understand the specific aspects of the aid that affect different age groups. Automation that embodies human-like characteristics may be useful in situations where there is under-utilisation of reasonably reliable aids by enhancing trust and dependence in that aid. Practitioner Summary: The design of decision-support aids on consumer devices (e.g. smartphones) may influence the level of trust that users place in that system and their amount of use. This study is the first step in articulating how the design of aids may influence user's trust and use of such systems.

  7. Numerical simulation of flow characteristics behind the aerodynamic performances on an airfoil with leading edge protuberances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a numerical investigation of the effects of leading-edge protuberances on airfoil stall and post-stall performance. An improved delayed detached eddy simulation (IDDES method was adopted. As a result, to clarify the effects of ‘bi-periodic’ phenomenon around stall region, it was found that the flow separation at troughs was the main inducement of aerodynamic lift degradation within pre-stall regime and the flow pattern where vortices diverged was predominant. It was also found that the variations in flow patterns led to the gentle stall process. Furthermore, to study the statistical characteristics of unsteady vortex shedding, corresponding spectrum characteristics were also analyzed from another perspective, suggesting that the vortex shedding frequency was higher where vortices converged. Eventually, the improved performances of tubercled airfoil within post-stall regime could be attributed to the strong streamwise vortices generated by the leading-edge protuberances. Deploying the methods of vortex dynamics, the generation and evolution of the streamwise vortices were depicted. It turned out that the primary and secondary vortices were induced by spanwise pressure gradient at airfoil surface; meanwhile, vortex stretching played a key role in primary vortex evolution, which initially enhanced the strength of vortices corresponding to the acceleration of streamwise velocity.

  8. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual...... measured at PACU entry. Zero out of 74 sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch® SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], P

  9. Total hip arthroplasty in patients with neuromuscular imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konan, S; Duncan, C P

    2018-01-01

    Patients with neuromuscular imbalance who require total hip arthroplasty (THA) present particular technical problems due to altered anatomy, abnormal bone stock, muscular imbalance and problems of rehabilitation. In this systematic review, we studied articles dealing with THA in patients with neuromuscular imbalance, published before April 2017. We recorded the demographics of the patients and the type of neuromuscular pathology, the indication for surgery, surgical approach, concomitant soft-tissue releases, the type of implant and bearing, pain and functional outcome as well as complications and survival. Recent advances in THA technology allow for successful outcomes in these patients. Our review suggests excellent benefits for pain relief and good functional outcome might be expected with a modest risk of complication. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B(1 Supple A):17-21. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, M; Trezzini, B; Ronca, E; Schwegler, U

    2017-08-08

    Descriptive qualitative and quantitative study using cross-sectional data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI). To determine the key demands and characteristics of occupations performed by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Swiss community. Job titles indicated by SwiSCI participants were linked to occupational titles from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and then frequency-analyzed across sociodemographic and injury-related factors. Subsequently, average O*NET relevance values ranging from 0 to 100 were calculated for the occupations' demands and characteristics, both in general and stratified by injury-related factors. The 1549 study participants indicated a total of 717 job titles and were primarily employed in administrative and management occupations (22.1% and 16.4%, respectively). The participants' occupations predominantly required verbal abilities (average relevance [AR]=68.4) and complex problem solving skills (AR=55.8) and were characterized by conventional work tasks (AR=62.9) and social relationships (AR=58.6). Both the occupations' frequency distribution as well as the average relevance levels of their demands and characteristics differed by SCI severity. Individuals with SCI perform a broad range of occupations that are mainly characterized by cognitive and communicative demands, while physical demands are of minor importance. By informing the development of job matching profiles for vocational guidance, our study facilitates the determination of well-matching jobs for persons with SCI and may contribute to a more sustainable return to work of the affected persons.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 8 August 2017; doi:10.1038/sc.2017.84.

  11. Surgical Space Conditions During Low-Pressure Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy with Deep Versus Moderate Neuromuscular Blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr-Rye, Anne K; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    : In this assessor-blinded study, 48 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were administered rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade and randomized to either deep neuromuscular blockade (rocuronium bolus plus infusion maintaining a posttetanic count 0-1) or moderate neuromuscular blockade...... (rocuronium repeat bolus only for inadequate surgical conditions with spontaneous recovery of neuromuscular function). Patients received anesthesia with propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium. The primary outcome was the proportion of procedures with optimal surgical space conditions (assessed by the surgeon...

  12. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of the German rugby union 7s team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Rucker, Alfred M; Clarys, Peter; Küng, Ursula M; Stoop, Rahel; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-12-01

    Somatotyping is advantageous in sports for the optimal development of performance level and injury prevention. The aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of the German national rugby union 7s team. Seventeen male rugby players, classified as forwards (N.=9; 24.2±2.1 years) and backs (N.=8; 24.3±5.05 years) were assessed. Anthropometric measurements included: body height, weight, height to weight ratio (H/W), five skinfolds, biepicondylar humerus and femur breadth, upper arm- and calf girth, estimated lower body fat percentage and determination of the individual and mean somatotype. The physical performance tests included: sit-and-reach, handgrip strength, one minute of sit-ups, one minute of push-ups, vertical jump performance, peak power performance, bent arm hanging, 40-m sprint, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test. The forward players were significantly taller (P=0.003), heavier (P=0.001) with a smaller H/W (P=0.009) compared to the backs. Humerus and femur bone breadths (P<0.05) and flexed upper arm and calf girths (P<0.05) were significantly different between the groups. Handgrip strength left (P=0.04), one minute of sit-ups (P=0.03), and peak power output (P=0.015) were also significantly different between the groups. The data indicate that German forward and back players have a similar somatotype and performance level. However, a higher body mass of forward players could be advantageous in that their playing position is much more body contact intensive, and requires a significant amount of tackling. The nominative data of this study may assist coaches to detect weak links in rugby specific athletic performance.

  13. Relationships between maximal strength of lower limb, anthropometric characteristics and fundamental explosive performance in handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Wagner, Herbert; Fieseler, Georg; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2018-02-14

     The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between lower body muscular strength, anthropometric characteristics and several measures of explosive performance in elite team-handball players.  22 male elite team-handball players (age: 19.1 ± 1.7 years) were studied during the competitive season. Standard anthropometric and body composition measures included body mass index, lower limb and thigh muscle volume, and body fat percentage. Maximal leg strength was determined by a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) half back-squat. Vertical jump performance was assessed using a squat jump (SJ) and a counter movement jump (CMJ). Repeated shuttle-sprint ability (RSA) was tested by 6 (2 × 15 m) shuttle sprints with 20 s of active recovery intervals. The best time in a single shuttle sprint (30m; RSA best ), fastest total time (RSA TT ) and RSA test performance decrement (RSA dec ) were recorded. Agility was measured using a modified T-half test (MAT). Throwing velocities of jump shooting and 3-step throwing were recorded by digital video camera.  The explained variance of 1-RM half-back-squats ranged from 0.2 % (RSA% Fatigue Index) to 70.1 % (CMJ). Four out of 8 variables (RSA Best Time, CMJ, SJ, throwing velocity of jump shoot) demonstrated an r 2  > 0.5. Jump performances seemed closely related to 1-RM half-back-squats. Furthermore, 1-RM half-back-squats were positively correlated with leg and thigh muscle volumes (r = 0.652, r = 0.768).  The anthropometric characteristics and some physical performance tests are closely related to the maximal strength performance of handball players. Coaches should focus on maximal strength training programs for the lower limbs when seeking improvements in the throwing velocity and jump performance of handball players. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A preliminary investigation on the effects of characteristics and contractual behaviour on civil engineering project performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, W. N. W.; Adnan, H.; Yusuwan, N.; Maisham, M.; Hassan, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The significant role of civil engineering project is not only to make the lives of people easier and secure but also to trigger the economic growth by providing infrastructure facilities as well as job opportunities. As it is dominantly initiated by government sectors, performance of the civil engineering projects is always observed. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of civil engineering project and the contractual behavior of the key participants and how do these two factors affect civil engineering projects performance. Literature reviews, content analysis and questionnaires survey were conducted to undertake the research. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed and 10 questionnaires were returned, resulting in a 20% response rate. The research unveiled that performance of civil engineering projects are influenced greatly by the ability to handle the unpredictable character of the civil engineering projects and adequate behavioral management. Apart from that, balancing the factors with high quality of workmanship, avoidance or well managed conflicts and high satisfaction level will ensure performance in projects.

  16. Investigation on heat transfer characteristics and flow performance of Methane at supercritical pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hong Wei; Oumer, A. N.; Basrawi, F.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the heat transfer and flow characteristic of cryogenic methane in regenerative cooling system at supercritical pressures. The thermo-physical properties of supercritical methane were obtained from the National institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) webbook. The numerical model was developed based on the assumptions of steady, turbulent and Newtonian flow. For mesh independence test and model validation, the simulation results were compared with published experimental results. The effect of four different performance parameter ranges namely inlet pressure (5 to 8 MPa), inlet temperature (120 to 150 K), heat flux (2 to 5 MW/m2) and mass flux (7000 to 15000 kg/m2s) on heat transfer and flow performances were investigated. It was found that the simulation results showed good agreement with experimental data with maximum deviation of 10 % which indicates the validity of the developed model. At low inlet temperature, the change of specific heat capacity at near-wall region along the tube length was not significant while the pressure drop registered was high. However, significant variation was observed for the case of higher inlet temperature. It was also observed that the heat transfer performance and pressure drop penalty increased when the mass flux was increased. Regarding the effect of inlet pressure, the heat transfer performance and pressure drop results decreased when the inlet pressure is increased.

  17. The effect of environmental performance and accounting characteristics to earnings informativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawaty, V.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this empirical study is to analyze the influence of environmental performance and company’s accounting characteristics to earnings informativeness proxied by earnings response coefficient (ERC) on manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange and consistently follow the PROPER assessment in 2010-2014. One of the company’s considerations is to create the green environment reflecting its environmental measures, drawing investors to respond to the company’s environmental performance. The data were obtained from Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD), the Indonesia Stock Exchange homepage, the company’s annual reports, the decree of the Minister of Environment. The samples used in this research are 27 go public manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange that consistently follow the PROPER in 2010-2014. The sampling technique used was the purposive method. This research uses multiple regression analysis. The results show that the environmental performance and profitability have a positive influence to earnings informativeness, while leverage has a negative influence to earnings informativeness. Growth opportunities as a control variable has a positive effect on earnings informativeness. This research has proved that the environmental performance is crucial through observing the investors’ reaction in the capital market.

  18. Anti-GM2 gangliosides IgM paraprotein induces neuromuscular block without neuromuscular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santafé, Manel M; Sabaté, M Mar; Garcia, Neus; Ortiz, Nico; Lanuza, M Angel; Tomàs, Josep

    2008-11-15

    We analyzed the effect on the mouse neuromuscular synapses of a human monoclonal IgM, which binds specifically to gangliosides with the common epitope [GalNAc beta 1-4Gal(3-2 alpha NeuAc)beta 1-]. We focused on the role of the complement. Evoked neurotransmission was partially blocked by IgM both acutely (1 h) and chronically (10 days). Transmission electron microscopy shows important nerve terminal growth and retraction remodelling though axonal injury can be ruled out. Synapses did not show mouse C5b-9 immunofluorescence and were only immunolabelled when human complement was added. Therefore, the IgM-induced synaptic changes occur without complement-mediated membrane attack.

  19. Exercise Therapy in Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy and Other Neuromuscular Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia Rebecka; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    There is no curative treatment for most neuromuscular disorders. Exercise, as a treatment for these diseases, has therefore received growing attention. When executed properly, exercise can maintain and improve health and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. In persons...... in patients with neuromuscular diseases associated with weakness and wasting. We review studies that have investigated different types of exercise in both myopathies and motor neuron diseases, with particular emphasis on training of persons affected by spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Finally, we provide...

  20. New techniques in the tissue diagnosis of gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles H Knowles; Joanne E Martin

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal neuromuscular diseases are a clinically heterogeneous group of disorders of children and adults in which symptoms are presumed or proven to arise as a result of neuromuscular (including interstitial cell of Cajal) dysfunction. Common to most of these diseases are symptoms of impaired motor activity which manifest as slowed or obstructed transit with or without evidence of transient or persistent radiological visceral dilatation. A variety of histopathological techniques and allied investigations are being increasingly applied to tissue biopsies from such patients. This review outlines some of the more recent advances in this field, particularly in the most contentious area of small bowel disease manifesting as intestinal pseudo-obstruction.