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Sample records for neuromotor task training

  1. Effectiveness of neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, M.M.; Niemeijer, A.S.; Reynders, K.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Neuromotor Task Training (NTT), recently developed for the treatment of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) by pediatric physical therapists in the Netherlands. NTT is a task-oriented treatment program based upon

  2. Neuromotor Task Training for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder : a controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A. S.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Schoemaker, M. M.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neuromotor task training (NTT), a recently developed child-centred and task-oriented treatment programme for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A treatment and a non-treatment control group of children with DCD were included. Children were

  3. Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: a controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A.S.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Schoemaker, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neuromotor task training (NTT), a recently developed child-centred and task-oriented treatment programme for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A treatment and a non-treatment control group of children with DCD were included. Children were

  4. The efficacy of two task-orientated interventions for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder : Neuromotor Task Training and Nintendo Wii Fit training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, G. D.; Jelsma, D.; Jelsma, J.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.

    Neuromotor Task Training (NTT) and Nintendo Wii Fit Training (Wii training) are both task-based interventions used to improve performance in children with motor coordination problems. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two interventions on the motor performance, isometric

  5. Intra-individual stability of neuromotor tasks from 6 to 18 years: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Oskar G; Chaouch, Aziz; Locatelli, Isabella; Thoeni, Ines; Diezi, Maja; Werner, Helene; Caflisch, Jon; Rousson, Valentin

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the intra-individual stability of the speed of several motor tasks and the intensity of associated movements in 256 children (131 girls, 125 boys) from the Zurich generational study using the Zurich neuromotor assessment battery (ZNA) over a 12-year period from the age of 6 to 18 years. The stability was assessed by correlograms of standard deviation scores calculated from age- and gender-adjusted normative values and compared with standing height and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ). While motor tasks of hand, finger and foot (HFT) and contralateral associated movements (CAM) exhibited a moderate stability (summary measure as correlation coefficients between two measurements made 4 years apart: .61 and .60), other tasks (dynamic balance, static balance and pegboard) were only weakly stable (.46, .47 and .49). IQ and height were more stable than neuromotor components (.72 and .86). We conclude that the moderately stable HFT and CAM may reflect "motor traits", while the stability of the pegboard and balance tasks is weaker because these skills are more experience related and state-dependent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent developments in biofeedback for neuromotor rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jiping

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The original use of biofeedback to train single muscle activity in static positions or movement unrelated to function did not correlate well to motor function improvements in patients with central nervous system injuries. The concept of task-oriented repetitive training suggests that biofeedback therapy should be delivered during functionally related dynamic movement to optimize motor function improvement. Current, advanced technologies facilitate the design of novel biofeedback systems that possess diverse parameters, advanced cue display, and sophisticated control systems for use in task-oriented biofeedback. In light of these advancements, this article: (1 reviews early biofeedback studies and their conclusions; (2 presents recent developments in biofeedback technologies and their applications to task-oriented biofeedback interventions; and (3 discusses considerations regarding the therapeutic system design and the clinical application of task-oriented biofeedback therapy. This review should provide a framework to further broaden the application of task-oriented biofeedback therapy in neuromotor rehabilitation.

  7. Versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train locomotion and balance after neuromotor disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Nadia; Keller, Urs; Vallery, Heike; Friedli, Lucia; van den Brand, Rubia; Starkey, Michelle L; Musienko, Pavel; Riener, Robert; Courtine, Grégoire

    2012-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders distinctly impair locomotor pattern generation and balance, but technical limitations prevent independent assessment and rehabilitation of these subfunctions. Here we introduce a versatile robotic interface to evaluate, enable and train pattern generation and balance independently during natural walking behaviors in rats. In evaluation mode, the robotic interface affords detailed assessments of pattern generation and dynamic equilibrium after spinal cord injury (SCI) and stroke. In enabling mode,the robot acts as a propulsive or postural neuroprosthesis that instantly promotes unexpected locomotor capacities including overground walking after complete SCI, stair climbing following partial SCI and precise paw placement shortly after stroke. In training mode, robot-enabled rehabilitation, epidural electrical stimulation and monoamine agonists reestablish weight-supported locomotion, coordinated steering and balance in rats with a paralyzing SCI. This new robotic technology and associated concepts have broad implications for both assessing and restoring motor functions after CNS disorders, both in animals and in humans.

  8. Novice supervisors' tasks and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    2012-01-01

    The debut as a clinical supervisor is still rather unknown. The aim of this study is to explore what kind of tasks novice supervisors undertake and how they are prepared for these. During 2009–2010, 350 Danish clinical psychologists have responded to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core...... Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional development, experience, and practice. In this paper we focus on background data (experience, training and practice), specifically the tasks and training of the respondents as novice supervisors. The results show, that a majority of novice supervisors...... were confronted with complicated jobs, e.g., group, internal and interdisciplinary supervision, but were not prepared, i.e. trained, prior to these tasks. These findings imply that more training is needed for novice supervisors. Preferably, this training should be introduced before, or at least...

  9. Basic Motor Skills Instruction for Children with Neuromotor Delays: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eva M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper analyzes the methodology and effectiveness of the training approaches implemented in 28 empirical studies on basic motor skills instruction for children with neuromotor delays. For all types of training approaches (neuromotor interventions, sensory integration techniques, behavioral programing, and naturalistic programing), assessment…

  10. Assessing neuro-motor recovery in a stroke survivor with high-resolution EEG, robotics and Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comani, Silvia; Schinaia, Lorenzo; Tamburro, Gabriella; Velluto, Lucia; Sorbi, Sandro; Conforto, Silvia; Guarnieri, Biancamaria

    2015-01-01

    One post-stroke patient underwent neuro-motor rehabilitation of one upper limb with a novel system combining a passive robotic device, Virtual Reality training applications and high resolution electroencephalography (HR-EEG). The outcome of the clinical tests and the evaluation of the kinematic parameters recorded with the robotic device concurred to highlight an improved motor recovery of the impaired limb despite the age of the patient, his compromised motor function, and the start of rehabilitation at the 3rd week post stroke. The time frequency and functional source analysis of the HR-EEG signals permitted to quantify the functional changes occurring in the brain in association with the rehabilitation motor tasks, and to highlight the recovery of the neuro-motor function.

  11. Effects of Cholinergic Perturbations on Neuromotor - Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    impairment of visual, cognitive and neuromotor abilities (Ketchum et al., 1973). Furthermore, CNS syndromes , including amnestic delirium, which are produced...intravenous teflon catheter inserted in the forearm for drawing blood samples. Task and physiological assessments were performed and a blood sample was...data for individual subjects were analyzed using both compartmental and non- compartmental methods. For the compartmental analysis, the initial

  12. Children's Neuromotor and Muscle-Functional Attributes - Outstanding Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Raffy

    2016-05-01

    The current understanding of child-adult differences in muscular and neuromotor function will be reviewed while highlighting the gaps in our knowledge and raising research questions that could be addressed in the immediate or near future. Topics include muscle activation, muscle composition, strength attributes, strength- and aerobic-training, neuromotor development, where neuromuscular differences originate from, and the possible interrelationships between motor and cognitive function. The various differences will be discussed on their specific merits, but also as possible manifestations of a common underlying factor which, if true, could provide a more holistic view of child-adult functional differences.

  13. EFFICACY OF VARIOUS METHODS OF NEUROMOTOR CORRECTIONAL TRAINING OF LOCOMOTIVE STEREOTYPE IN PATIENTS WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA FORM OF INFANTILE CEREBRAL PARALYSIS WITH THE MEANS OF «GRAVITON» DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Titarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare efficacy of one course of reflex-lead device (RLD at standard regimen and at regimen of temporary aggravation of pathological placing of the lower extremities during the training of patients with spastic diplegia form of infantile cerebral paralysis. Patients and methods: children aged from 8 to 12 years old with moderate spastic diplegia were included into the study. The initial pattern of locomotion was characterized by cnemial flexion in the knee joints (n =61; among them 30 patients were applied correctional regimen of RLD, in 31 patient the severity of pathological placing of the lower extremities was increased by the means of traction of RLD. Results: after the treatment course (consisting of 20 sessions in RLD, ambulation of the patients in the group of correctional regimen of RLD (n =30 was characterized by the less diversity, while in the group of training aggravation of the pathological position of the lower extremities (n =31 more significant partial normalization of kinetic pattern of the articular angles in the lower extremities was observed. Conclusions: standard correctional regimen of RLD is an optimal method of neuromotor correctional training, while training aggravation of the severity of pathological positions of the lower extremities has better effects on modulation of locomotive stereotype and should be used in order to correction of ambulance in patients with independent ability to move.

  14. Task Oriented Training and Evaluation at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Veronica T; Neville, Marsha

    2018-01-01

    Principles of experience-dependent plasticity, motor learning theory, and the theory of Occupational Adaptation coalesce into a translational model for practice in neurorehabilitation. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a Task Oriented Training and Evaluation at Home (TOTE Home) program completed by people with subacute stroke, and whether effects persisted 1 month after this training. A single-subject design included a maximum of 30, 1hour sessions of training conducted in participants' homes. Repeated target measures of accelerometry and level of confidence were used to assess movement and confidence in weaker arm use through baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases of TOTE Home. Four participants completed TOTE Home and each demonstrated improvement in movement and confidence in function. The degree of improvement varied between participants, but a detectable change was evident in outcome measures. TOTE Home, using client-centered, salient tasks not only improved motor function but also facilitated an adaptive response demonstrated in continued improvement beyond the intervention.

  15. Plasticity of Executive Control through Task Switching Training in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinke, Katharina; Einert, Manuela; Pfennig, Lydia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. The current study was designed to explore if executive control, specifically task switching, can be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and if acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10-14 years, n = 20) that received a three-session task switching training was compared to a group (n = 20) that received the same task switching training but who exercised on a stationary bike before each training session. Additionally, a no-contact and an exercise only control group were included (both ns = 20). Analyses indicated that both training groups significantly reduced their switching costs over the course of the training sessions for reaction times and error rates, respectively. Analyses indicated transfer to mixing costs in a task switching task that was similar to the one used in training. Far transfer was limited to a choice reaction time task and a tendency for faster reaction times in an updating task. Analyses revealed no additional effects of the exercise intervention. Findings thus indicate that executive control can be enhanced in adolescents through training and that updating may be of particular relevance for the effects of task switching training.

  16. Biomechanics and developmental neuromotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicke, R F; Schneider, K

    1993-08-01

    By applying the principles and methods of mechanics to the musculoskeletal system, new insights can be discovered about control of human limb dynamics both in adults and infants. Here, we first provide a basic primer about biomechanics--its historical context, terminology, and analytical techniques. Next we review research with animals and human adults that illustrates how limb dynamics provides a window for examining the physical mechanisms underlying neuromotor control. Finally, we elaborate on how our research group has adapted dynamics techniques to investigate how infants gain control of their limbs and learn to reach in the first year of life.

  17. The application of motor learning strategies within functionally based interventions for children with neuromotor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle; Wishart, Laurie; Missiuna, Cheryl; Wright, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    To identify and describe the application of 3 motor learning strategies (verbal instructions, practice, and verbal feedback) within 4 intervention approaches (cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance, neuromotor task training, family-centered functional therapy, and activity-focused motor interventions). A scoping review of the literature was conducted. Two themes characterizing the application of motor learning strategies within the approaches are identified and described. Application of a motor learning strategy can be a defining component of the intervention or a means of enhancing generalization and transfer of learning beyond the intervention. Often, insufficient information limits full understanding of strategy application within the approach. A greater understanding of the application, and perceived nonapplication, of motor learning strategies within intervention approaches has important clinical and research implications.

  18. Transfer between training of part-tasks in complex skill training : Model development and supporting data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, J.J.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most common instruction-strategies for training complex skills is part-training. A complex task can often be divided into part-tasks. Part-training requires that certain part-tasks or combinations of part-tasks be practised in isolation in order to promote the transfer of skills

  19. Web Based Client/Server Interface for Part Task Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blemel, Peter

    2000-01-01

    .... The project focused on developing concepts for ways to use the Internet to provide individual and cooperative Distance Part Task Training using virtual or real training equipment. The Phase I goal was to define a commercially viable multi-media virtual training environment for providing realistic training wherever and whenever needed.

  20. Neurocognitive test profiles of extremely low birth weight five-year-old children differ according to neuromotor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Marit; Mikkola, Kaija; Ritari, Niina; Tommiska, Viena; Salokorpi, Teija; Haataja, Leena; Tammela, Outi; Pääkkönen, Leena; Olsén, Päivi; Fellman, Vineta

    2008-01-01

    The neurocognitive outcome of children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) is highly variable due to the complexity of morbidity. So far, no study has compared comprehensive neuropsychological test profiles in groups with different neuromotor status. In a national cohort of ELBW children neuropsychological test profiles were assessed in 4 groups defined according to a neurological examination at 5 years of age: normal neuromotor status (N = 56), motor coordination problems (N = 32), multiple subtle neuromotor signs including both motor coordination problems and deviant reflexes (N = 20), and spastic diplegia (N = 12). The neurocognitive assessment included a test of intelligence, the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) and 14 subtests of attention and executive functions, verbal functions, manual motor functions, visuoconstructional functions and verbal learning (NEPSY). The children with normal neuromotor status performed within the average range; children with motor coordination problems had widespread impairment; and children with spastic diplegia and children with multiple minor neuromotor signs had uneven test profiles with stronger verbal results but weaknesses in attention and executive functions, and in manual motor and visuoconstructional tasks. In conclusion, very preterm children with neuromotor signs, including motor coordination problems, are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, in spite of average intelligence. More impaired children have more irregular test profiles. Follow-up and neuropsychological assessment of very preterm children with minor neuromotor signs are therefore indicated.

  1. Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke : systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora

    Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke: systematic review. This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Stroke is the second leading

  2. Mental Rotation: Cross-Task Training and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, Debi; Wilcox, Laurie M.; Dubrowski, Adam

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that performance on standard mental rotation tasks improves with training (Peters et al., 1995), but thus far there is little consensus regarding the degree of transfer to other tasks which also involve mental rotation. In Experiment 1, we assessed the effect of mental rotation training on participants' Mental Rotation Test…

  3. The effectiveness of robotic training depends on motor task characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Rappo, Nicole; Riener, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Previous research suggests that the effectiveness of robotic training depends on the motor task to be learned. However, it is still an open question which specific task's characteristics influence the efficacy of error-modulating training strategies. Motor tasks can be classified based on the time characteristics of the task, in particular the task's duration (discrete vs. continuous). Continuous tasks require movements without distinct beginning or end. Discrete tasks require fast movements that include well-defined postures at the beginning and the end. We developed two games, one that requires a continuous movement-a tracking task-and one that requires discrete movements-a fast reaching task. We conducted an experiment with thirty healthy subjects to evaluate the effectiveness of three error-modulating training strategies-no guidance, error amplification (i.e., repulsive forces proportional to errors) and haptic guidance-on self-reported motivation and learning of the continuous and discrete games. Training with error amplification resulted in better motor learning than haptic guidance, besides the fact that error amplification reduced subjects' interest/enjoyment and perceived competence during training. Only subjects trained with error amplification improved their performance after training the discrete game. In fact, subjects trained without guidance improved the performance in the continuous game significantly more than in the discrete game, probably because the continuous task required greater attentional levels. Error-amplifying training strategies have a great potential to provoke better motor learning in continuous and discrete tasks. However, their long-lasting negative effects on motivation might limit their applicability in intense neurorehabilitation programs.

  4. Significant Tasks in Training of Job-Shop Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Leonard S.; Dresdow, Sally; Benson, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The need for effective training of first-line supervisors is well established. Well-trained supervision is essential to our future as a country. A fundamental step in developing effective training is to develop a jobs needs assessment. In order to develop an effective needs assessment, it is necessary to know what the tasks are of…

  5. Multifunctional Battalion Task Force Training: Slovenian Armed Forces Battalion Training Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    MULTIFUNCTIONAL BATTALION TASK FORCE TRAINING: SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES BATTALION TRAINING CYCLE A thesis presented to...AND SCIENCE General Studies by ALES AVSEC, MAJOR, SLOVENIAN ARMED FORCES Bachelors , University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2002...Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multifunctional Battalion Task Force Training: Slovenian Armed

  6. Stress appraisals and training performance on a complex laboratory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Kevin M; Schneider, Tamara R; Shebilske, Wayne L

    2007-08-01

    We investigated whether training performance on a complex laboratory task differs for trainees whose stress appraisals denote challenge or threat. Past research outside a training context found better performance on tasks when stress appraisals denoted challenge (in which perceived situational demands are commensurate with perceived resources) as opposed to threat (in which perceived coping resources fall short of the demands of the stressor). College students performed Space Fortress during 80 3-min practice trials, 20 tests, and posttests (retention, transfer, secondary task interference). Stress appraisals were measured with a two-item scale (Experiments 1-3) or an eight-item scale (Experiment 3) with (Study 1) or without (Experiments 2 and 3) brief hands-on experience. In all experiments, training improved performance and challenged trainees outperformed threatened trainees throughout training as well as on some baseline and posttraining tests. These studies are the first to document that stress appraisals predict training performance. They suggest that little information about a task is needed for appraisals to account for a significant amount of variance (11%) in training performance. Investigating the dynamic interplay of stress appraisals and training will increase the understanding of stress appraisals and of training. Stress appraisals may improve training if used as a screening tool and/or by implementing interventions aimed at changing appraisals from threat to challenge.

  7. Joint Task Force Headquarters Master Training Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    e) JCMT . (f) Corporate Services. 1 IPA/IPL (Imagery Product Archives/Imagery Product Library). 2 COLISEUM. 3 DITDBS. 4 MIDB. 5 FTP. 6 5D...JCMOTF Joint Civil-Military Operations Task Force JCMT Joint Collection Management Tools JCN Joint Communications Network JCSAR Joint Combat Search and

  8. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ninaus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level. 

  9. Low birthweight and neuromotor development: a population based, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerfelt, K; Ellertsen, B; Markestad, T

    1996-05-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate: (a) the relationship between low birthweight (LBW) and pre-school neuromotor development; and (b) the predictive value of various pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors for neuromotor development in LBW pre-school children. A population based sample of 144 5-year-old LBW children (birthweight neuromotor development. We conclude that motor functions essential for daily activities are intact in most LBW preschoolers.

  10. Understanding how train dispatchers manage and control trains : results of a cognitive task analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This report documents the results of a Cognitive Task Analysis that examined how experienced railroad dispatchers manage and : schedule trains in todays environment. The objective was to understand the cognitive demands placed on railroad dispatch...

  11. Effects Of Task Training And Instructions On Foveal Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinalducci, Edward J.; Rose, Paul N.

    1987-09-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the effects of foveal load on sensitivity in the peripheral visual field. Foveal load was manipulated by comparing the simple fixation of a cross vs. a first-order (i.e., rate) compensatory tracking task. Peripheral sensitivity was determined simultaneously for light flashes presented at different eccentricities along the horizontal meridian. The effects of training on the task were also evaluated in terms of changes in peripheral sensitivity. In general, the results showed no losses in peripheral sensitivity or a "tunnel vision" effect under the experimental conditions employed. These results are contrary to data obtained by previous investigators. Reasons for these findings are discussed.

  12. Dynamic, continuous multitasking training leads to task-specific improvements but does not transfer across action selection tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Angela D.; Filmer, Hannah L.; Naughtin, Claire K.; Dux, Paul E.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform multiple tasks concurrently is an ever-increasing requirement in our information-rich world. Despite this, multitasking typically compromises performance due to the processing limitations associated with cognitive control and decision-making. While intensive dual-task training is known to improve multitasking performance, only limited evidence suggests that training-related performance benefits can transfer to untrained tasks that share overlapping processes. In the real world, however, coordinating and selecting several responses within close temporal proximity will often occur in high-interference environments. Over the last decade, there have been notable reports that training on video action games that require dynamic multitasking in a demanding environment can lead to transfer effects on aspects of cognition such as attention and working memory. Here, we asked whether continuous and dynamic multitasking training extends benefits to tasks that are theoretically related to the trained tasks. To examine this issue, we asked a group of participants to train on a combined continuous visuomotor tracking task and a perceptual discrimination task for six sessions, while an active control group practiced the component tasks in isolation. A battery of tests measuring response selection, response inhibition, and spatial attention was administered before and immediately after training to investigate transfer. Multitasking training resulted in substantial, task-specific gains in dual-task ability, but there was no evidence that these benefits generalized to other action control tasks. The findings suggest that training on a combined visuomotor tracking and discrimination task results in task-specific benefits but provides no additional value for untrained action selection tasks.

  13. A TASK UNIT CONCEPT FOR ON-THE-JOB TRAINING IN FOOD SERVICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELCH, JOHN

    INDUSTRIAL TRAINING PROCEDURES ARE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF FOOD AND OTHER SERVICE INDUSTRIES TO ASCERTAIN RELEVANT TRAINING METHODS. HELPFUL PROCEDURES WERE--DESCRIBING EACH EMPLOYEE'S JOB BY LISTING HIS TASKS AND BREAKING DOWN EACH TASK INTO ITS SEPARATE OPERATIONS. THEN THE BEST METHOD OF TRAINING FOR EACH TASK CAN BE DETERMINED. A TIME AND…

  14. Generation of test tasks in the expert-training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Игорь Леонидович Братчиков

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of generating test tasks that use the knowledge bases of academic disciplines that are formed on the basis of a knowledge production model as well as the apparatus of formal grammars. We present two experimental expert-training systems Formula Tutor and Teoretik, focused mainly on studying the exact sciences. In the Formula Tutor system generation of tasks carried out in two stages: first, by applying the production rules, and then, if necessary, using the outputs in context-free formal grammar. To give tasks to the student familiar forms the apparatus of templates is used. The analysis of student answers is performed by comparing them with the correct answers. If the answer is a mathematical formula it is converted то standard form before comparison. In the Teoretik system production model is also applied. Unlike the first system production rules are used to fix the dependencies of terms of educational discipline. For example, in the course Geometry Ray Dot, Geometric figure shows that to understand the definition of angle the student should know the definition of the ray, dot and geometric figure. The tasks in the system formed by mixing pieces of definitions and provide selectively-constructed answers. Examples in the paper illustrate advantages of described methods.

  15. Task performance in spinal cord injury: effect of helplessness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, R N; Siegel, D; Fine, P R

    1980-07-01

    The effects of failure or helplessness training on the task performance of recently injured spinal cord patients were assessed using the learned helplessness theory as a model. The theory states that individuals who experience uncontrollable failure become depressed and feel helpless, while those who experience self-controlled success develop a sense of competence and feel industrious. To provide validation of the learned helplessness theory, 24 recently injured spinal cord patients were interviewed and then tested for helplessness effects and depression on 2 standard learned helplessness tasks. Results suggest that it may be possible to immunize spinal cord injured patients against debilitating emotional reactions to paralysis with a success-oriented rehabilitation regime during the initial stages of recovery.

  16. Continuously Adaptive vs. Discrete Changes of Task Difficulty in the Training of a Complex Perceptual-Motor Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Milton E.

    The purpose of the effort was to determine the benefits to be derived from the adaptive training technique of automatically adjusting task difficulty as a function of a student skill during early learning of a complex perceptual motor task. A digital computer provided the task dynamics, scoring, and adaptive control of a second-order, two-axis,…

  17. Training Sequences and their Effects on Task Performance and User Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of information technology (IT) training sequencesand examines how sequencing of conceptual and procedural training impact IT task performance, user satisfaction and users' self-efficacy. Using assimilation theory, we develop four hypotheses related to training...

  18. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabl...

  19. Task-Based Neurofeedback Training: A Novel Approach Toward Training Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, SM Hadi; Pritchard-Berman, Mika; Sosa, Natasha; Ceja, Angelica; Kesler, Shelli R.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach to improve cognitive functions in various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. However, current training programs can be relatively lengthy, making adherence potentially difficult for patients with cognitive difficulties. Previous studies suggest that providing individuals with real-time feedback about the level of brain activity (neurofeedback) can potentially help them learn to control the activation of specific brain regions. In the present study, we developed a novel task-based neurofeedback training paradigm that benefits from the effects of neurofeedback in parallel with computerized training. We focused on executive function training given its core involvement in various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed for providing neurofeedback by measuring changes in oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex. Of the twenty healthy adult participants, ten received real neurofeedback (NFB) on prefrontal activity during cognitive training, and ten were presented with sham feedback (SHAM). Compared with SHAM, the NFB group showed significantly improved executive function performance including measures of working memory after four sessions of training (100 minutes total). The NFB group also showed significantly reduced training-related brain activity in the executive function network including right middle frontal and inferior frontal regions compared with SHAM. Our data suggest that providing neurofeedback along with cognitive training can enhance executive function after a relatively short period of training. Similar designs could potentially be used for patient populations with known neuropathology, potentially helping them to boost/recover the activity in the affected brain regions. PMID:27015711

  20. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  1. Training Endogenous Task Shifting Using Music Therapy: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Colleen; LaGasse, A Blythe

    2016-01-01

    People with acquired brain injury (ABI) are highly susceptible to disturbances in executive functioning (EF), and these effects are pervasive. Research studies using music therapy for cognitive improvement in this population are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a Musical Executive Function Training (MEFT) intervention to address task-shifting skills in adults with ABI and to obtain preliminary evidence of intervention effect on task shifting. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a music therapy intervention group (MTG), a singing group (SG), or the no-intervention control group (CG). The SG and MTG met for one hour a day for five days. Feasibility measures included participant completion rates and intervention fidelity. Potential benefits were measured using the Trail Making Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task as a pre- and posttest measure. Participant completion rates and interventionist fidelity to the protocol supported feasibility. One-way ANOVA of the pre- and posttest group differences revealed a trend toward improvement in the MTG over the SG. Feasibility and effect size data support a larger trial of the MEFT protocol. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Impact of task-oriented training on hand function and activities of daily living after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Chanuk; Park, JuHyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose] We examined the improvement of hand function and activities of daily living in stroke patients after carrying out task-oriented training. [Subjects] Thirty-two patients who had been diagnosed with stroke and underwent rehabilitation therapy participated in the task-oriented training. [Methods] The participants carried out task-oriented training for 30 min per day for 4 weeks. Their hand function and activities of daily living were evaluated before and after the training. [Results] Th...

  3. Treadmill interventions with partial body weight support in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin-Gudiol, Marta; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa Maria

    2011-12-07

    Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or children born preterm, which in turn may limit the child's opportunities to explore the environment. Neurophysiologic and early intervention literature suggests that task-specific training facilitates motor development. Treadmill intervention is a good example of locomotor task-specific training. To assess the effectiveness of treadmill intervention on locomotor motor development in pre-ambulatory infants and children under six years of age who are at risk for neuromotor delay. In March 2011 we searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1948 to March Week 2, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 11, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to current), CINAHL (1937 to current), Science Citation Index (1970 to 19 March 2011), PEDro (until 7 March 2011), CPCI-S (1990 to 19 March 2011) and LILACS (until March 2011). We also searched ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov, mRCT and CenterWatch. We included randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that evaluated the effect of treadmill intervention in children up to six years of age with delays in gait development or the attainment of independent walking or who were at risk of neuromotor delay. Four authors independently extracted the data using standardised forms. Outcome parameters were structured according to the "Body functions" and "Activity and Participation" components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, Children & Youth version (ICFCY), which was developed by the World Health Organization. We included five studies, which reported on treadmill intervention in 139 children. Of the 139 children, 73 were allocated to treadmill intervention groups, with the other children serving as controls. The studies varied in the type of population studied (children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or who were at risk for neuromotor delay); the type of comparison (for

  4. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  5. Evaluation of child development: beyond the neuromotor aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To review the epidemiology and update the scientific knowledge on the problems of development and behavior in childhood, and the recommendations for the role of the pediatrician in identifying and managing delays and disturbances in child development and mental health. Sources: A search for relevant literature was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases and publications of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. Summary of the findings: With the decline in the incidence of communicable diseases in children, problems with development, behavior, and emotional regulation are increasingly becoming a part of the work of pediatricians, yet many are not trained and feel uncomfortable about this extension of their role. The available screening tools for child development and behavior are reviewed, and a ‘school readiness’ checklist is presented, together with recommendations on how the pediatrician can incorporate developmental surveillance into routine practice, aware of the need for children to acquire social, emotional, and cognitive skills so that they can develop their full potential. Conclusions: The pediatrician's role in the future will include both physical and mental health, recognizing that social development, resilience, and emotional maturity are as important as physical growth and neuromotor skills in a child's life course.

  6. Effects of Training on Computer-Mediated Communication in Single or Mixed Gender Small Task Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savicki, Victor; Kelley, Merle; Ammon, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Investigates group gender composition and communication styles in small task groups involved in computer-mediated communication. Describes a study that tried to train small task groups in the use of one communication style and suggests further research in the area of communication training for online task groups. (Author/LRW)

  7. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  8. Task-based neurofeedback training: A novel approach toward training executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M Hadi; Pritchard-Berman, Mika; Sosa, Natasha; Ceja, Angelica; Kesler, Shelli R

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive training is an emergent approach to improve cognitive functions in various neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. However, current training programs can be relatively lengthy, making adherence potentially difficult for patients with cognitive difficulties. Previous studies suggest that providing individuals with real-time feedback about the level of brain activity (neurofeedback) can potentially help them learn to control the activation of specific brain regions. In the present study, we developed a novel task-based neurofeedback training paradigm that benefits from the effects of neurofeedback in parallel with computerized training. We focused on executive function training given its core involvement in various developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed for providing neurofeedback by measuring changes in oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex. Of the twenty healthy adult participants, ten received real neurofeedback (NFB) on prefrontal activity during cognitive training, and ten were presented with sham feedback (SHAM). Compared with SHAM, the NFB group showed significantly improved executive function performance including measures of working memory after four sessions of training (100min total). The NFB group also showed significantly reduced training-related brain activity in the executive function network including right middle frontal and inferior frontal regions compared with SHAM. Our data suggest that providing neurofeedback along with cognitive training can enhance executive function after a relatively short period of training. Similar designs could potentially be used for patient populations with known neuropathology, potentially helping them to boost/recover the activity in the affected brain regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Task Analysis for the Jobs of Freight Train Conductor and Brakeman

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-31

    This document describes the results of a research effort undertaken to detail the tasks of freight train conductors and brakemen. Included with text are detailed operational sequence diagrams for both conductor and brakeman. This task : analysis is s...

  10. Evaluating the Relationship between Change in Performance on Training Tasks and on Untrained Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Zelinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Training interventions for older adults are designed to remediate performance on trained tasks and to generalize, or transfer, to untrained tasks. Evidence for transfer is typically based on the trained group showing greater improvement than controls on untrained tasks, or on a correlation between gains in training and in transfer tasks. However, this ignores potential correlational relationships between trained and untrained tasks that exist before training. By accounting for crossed (trained and untrained and lagged (pretraining and posttraining and cross-lagged relationships between trained and untrained scores in structural equation models, the training-transfer gain relationship can be independently estimated. Transfer is confirmed if only the trained but not control participants’ gain correlation is significant. Modeling data from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT study (Smith, et al., 2009, transfer from speeded auditory discrimination and syllable span to list and text memory and to working memory was demonstrated in 487 adults aged 65-93. Evaluation of age, sex, and education on pretest scores and on change did not alter this. The overlap of the training with transfer measures was also investigated to evaluate the hypothesis that performance gains in a nonverbal speeded auditory discrimination task may be associated with gains on fewer tasks than gains in a verbal working memory task. Gains in speeded processing were associated with gains on one list memory measure. Syllable span gains were associated with improvement in difficult list recall, story recall, and working memory factor scores. Findings confirmed that more overlap with task demands was associated with gains to more of the tasks assessed, suggesting that transfer effects are related to task overlap in multimodal training.

  11. How a Multidimensional View of Perceived Organizational Support Impacts Self-Efficacy and Task Understanding during Training for Boundary Spanning Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    ...: corporate headquarters, the home office, or the training environment. These dimensions of POS were tested to discover their effect on the self-efficacy and task understanding of individuals training for boundary-spanning tasks...

  12. Effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the clinical effects of virtual reality-based training and task-oriented training on balance performance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to 2 groups: virtual reality-based training group (n = 12) and task-oriented training group (n = 12). The patients in the virtual reality-based training group used the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus, which provided visual and auditory feedback as well as the movements that enabled shifting of weight to the right and left sides, for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. The patients in the task-oriented training group practiced additional task-oriented programs for 30 min/day, 3 times/week for 6 weeks. Patients in both groups also underwent conventional physical therapy for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 6 weeks. [Results] Balance and functional reach test outcomes were examined in both groups. The results showed that the static balance and functional reach test outcomes were significantly higher in the virtual reality-based training group than in the task-oriented training group. [Conclusion] This study suggested that virtual reality-based training might be a more feasible and suitable therapeutic intervention for dynamic balance in stroke patients compared to task-oriented training.

  13. Improvement of quality of training at base of the solution of the complex educational tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zverkov, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    Questions of improvement quality of training students on the basis the solution of the complex educational tasks, challenge demanding complex use of knowledge gained in the course of training specialists on automation of technological processes and productions are considered.

  14. Impact of task-oriented training on hand function and activities of daily living after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Chanuk; Park, JuHyung

    2015-08-01

    Purpose] We examined the improvement of hand function and activities of daily living in stroke patients after carrying out task-oriented training. [Subjects] Thirty-two patients who had been diagnosed with stroke and underwent rehabilitation therapy participated in the task-oriented training. [Methods] The participants carried out task-oriented training for 30 min per day for 4 weeks. Their hand function and activities of daily living were evaluated before and after the training. [Results] The task-oriented training had a significant impact in terms of improving hand function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, task-oriented training resulted in improved hand function and activities of daily living in stroke patients.

  15. Effectiveness of part-task training and increasing-difficulty training strategies: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D; Hutchins, Shaun; Carolan, Thomas; Cumming, John

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to conduct meta-analyses that investigated the effects of two training strategies, increasing difficulty (ID) and part-task training (PTT), on transfer of skills and the variables that moderate effectiveness of the strategies. Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a basis for predicting that training strategies reducing the intrinsic load of a task during training avail more resources to be devoted to learning. Two strategies that accomplish this goal, by dividing tasks in parts or by simplifying tasks in early training trials, have offered only mixed success. A pair of complementary effect size measures were used in the meta-analyses conducted on 37 transfer studies employing the two training strategies: (a) a transfer ratio analysis on the ratio of treatment transfer performance to control transfer performance and (b) a Hedges' g analysis on the standardized difference between treatment and control group means. PTT generally produced negative transfer when the parts were performed concurrently in the whole transfer task but not when the parts were performed in sequence. Variable-priority training of the whole task was a successful technique. ID training was successful when the increases were implemented adaptively but not when increased in fixed steps. Both strategies provided evidence that experienced learners benefited less, or suffered more, from the strategy, consistent with CLT. PTT can be successful if the integrated parts are varied in the priority they are given to the learner. ID training is successful if the increases are adaptive. The fundamental elements of CLT are confirmed.

  16. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Evaluating Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Training for Industrial Maintenance and Assembly Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavish, Nirit; Gutiérrez, Teresa; Webel, Sabine; Rodríguez, Jorge; Peveri, Matteo; Bockholt, Uli; Tecchia, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the use of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) platforms, developed within the scope of the SKILLS Integrated Project, for industrial maintenance and assembly (IMA) tasks training. VR and AR systems are now widely regarded as promising training platforms for complex and highly demanding IMA tasks. However,…

  18. Reducing Escape Behavior and Increasing Task Completion with Functional Communication Training, Extinction, and Response Chaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Joseph S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Functional communication training, extinction, and response chaining decreased escape-maintained aberrant behavior and increased task participation of 3 youth, ages 10 through 15, with moderate mental retardation, 2 of whom also had autism. Task escape was contingent on verbally responding and completing task steps. Behavior chaining also…

  19. Dual task training in persons with Multiple Sclerosis: a feasability randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Wajda, Douglas A; Sandroff, Brian M; Roeing, Kathleen L; Sung, JongHun; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of dual task training in persons with Multiple Sclerosis. Randomized, single-blinded controlled trial. University research laboratory. A total of 234 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 20 individuals with multiple sclerosis who self-reported problems with multitasking and were ambulatory volunteered for the investigation. 14 participants completed the post-assessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to either single task training program which focused on balance and walking function ( n=6) or dual task training program that incorporated cognitive tasks in balance and walking training ( n=8). Before and after the 12-week interventions participants underwent assessments of walking; dual task walking; balance (Berg Balance Scale and balance confidence) and cognition as indexed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS. There was an 8.5% recruitment rate, a 70% retention rate, and a 100% adherence rate. There was a trend for dual task gait speed to improve in the dual task training group following the intervention (Pre: task 1: 109.8±39, task 2: 104.2±34.1; Post: task 1:127.6±40.1, task 2: 122.8±37.4; P=0.14; η(2) = 0.24). There was also a trend for the dual task training group (28.1) to have greater performance than the control group (24.7) on visuospatial memory ( P=0.10; η(2)= 0.23). There were no changes in cognitive performance during walking trials. The study procedures were found to be feasible and improvements should be made in recruitment efforts going forward. Further examination of dual task training programs in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted.

  20. No evidence for task automatization after dual-task training in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the ability of older adults in contrast to younger adults to automatize new choice tasks as a result of simultaneous dual-task practice. Importantly, the study was carried out in conditions optimal for dual-task performance and task automatization. Despite this, the results of detailed analyses were not consistent with the assumption that either older or younger adults are able to automatize new choice tasks; neither group showed evidence of automatization. Even in analyses focusing on high dual-task performers (i.e., individuals who performed equally well in single and dual tasks) the results were not consistent with this assumption. Instead, it seems to be the case that both older and younger adults continue to use capacity-limited processes to process choice tasks after dual-task practice. These conclusions are consistent with findings from studies using single-task practice and tests of task automatization in dual tasks (Maquestiaux, Laguë-Beauvais, Ruthruff, Hartley, & Bherer, 2010; Maquestiaux, Didierjean, Ruthruff, Chauvel, & Hartley, 2013). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Aquatic intervention in children with neuro-motor impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getz, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis addresses the influence of aquatic interventions on motor performance of children with neuro-motor deficiencies in a functional context. The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach in compliance to the International Classification of Function and Disability (ICF).

  2. Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer-Mediated Firefighter Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtkamp, Joske M.; Toet, Alexander; Bos, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently intense to make the training viable and effective.…

  3. Effectiveness and feasibility of eccentric and task-oriented strength training in individuals with stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkerts, Mireille A; Hijmans, Juha M.; Elsinghorst, Anne L.; Mulderij, Yvon; Murgia, Alessio; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training can increase function in individuals with stroke. However it is unclear which type of strength training is most effective and feasible. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect and feasibility of an intervention combining eccentric and task-oriented strength training in

  4. Effects of Auditory Attention Training with the Dichotic Listening Task: Behavioural and Neurophysiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallus, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Tuomainen, Jyrki; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Facilitation of general cognitive capacities such as executive functions through training has stirred considerable research interest during the last decade. Recently we demonstrated that training of auditory attention with forced attention dichotic listening not only facilitated that performance but also generalized to an untrained attentional task. In the present study, 13 participants underwent a 4-week dichotic listening training programme with instructions to report syllables presented to the left ear (FL training group). Another group (n = 13) was trained using the non-forced instruction, asked to report whichever syllable they heard the best (NF training group). The study aimed to replicate our previous behavioural results, and to explore the neurophysiological correlates of training through event-related brain potentials (ERPs). We partially replicated our previous behavioural training effects, as the FL training group tended to show more allocation of auditory spatial attention to the left ear in a standard dichotic listening task. ERP measures showed diminished N1 and enhanced P2 responses to dichotic stimuli after training in both groups, interpreted as improvement in early perceptual processing of the stimuli. Additionally, enhanced anterior N2 amplitudes were found after training, with relatively larger changes in the FL training group in the forced-left condition, suggesting improved top-down control on the trained task. These results show that top-down cognitive training can modulate the left-right allocation of auditory spatial attention, accompanied by a change in an evoked brain potential related to cognitive control.

  5. Structural Task Analysis--The Bridge Between Selection and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, James W.

    A procedure for using Guilford's structure of the intellect as the theoretical basis for a task analysis model is presented. It is reasoned that such a model would furnish a bridge between task analysis and test selection, and also a bridge between test selection and test validation. Such a mechanism might answer some fo the EEOC criticisms of…

  6. Eye-scan behavior in a flight simulation task as a function of level of training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, J. R., Jr.; Coates, G. D.; Kirby, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The present study explored eye-scan behavior as a function of level of subject training. Oculometric (eye-scan) measures were recorded from each of ten subjects during training trials on a CRT-based flight simulation task. The task developed for the study incorporated subtasks representative of specific activities performed by pilots, but which could be performed at asymptotic levels within relatively short periods of training. Changes in eye-scan behavior were examined as initially untrained subjects developed skill in the task. Eye-scan predictors of performance on the task were found. Examination of eye-scan in proximity to selected task events revealed differences in the distribution of looks at the instruments as a function of level of training.

  7. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  8. Task to Training Matrix Design for Decommissioning Engineer on the basis of Systematic Approach to Training Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jeong Keun [KHNP, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In nuclear history, before Chernobyl Accident, Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident was the severest accident. For this reason, to resolve the disclosed or potential possibilities of nuclear accident, more than one hundred countermeasures were proposed by United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Among various recommendations by USNRC, one suggestion was related to training aspect. It was Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) and this event was the initiation of SAT methodology in the world. In Korea, upcoming June 2017, Kori Unit-1 NPP is scheduled to be shut down and it will experience NPP decommissioning for the first time. Present study aims to establish concrete training foundation for NPP decommissioning engineers based on Systematic Approach to Training (SAT) methodology, in particular, Task to Training Matrix (TTM). The objective of this paper is to organize TTM on the basis of SAT for NPP decommissioning engineer. For this reason, eighteen tasks are yielded through Job and Task Analysis (JTA) process. After that, for the settlement of Task to Training Matrix (TTM), various data are determined such as element, condition, standard, knowledge and skill, learning objective and training setting. When it comes to training in nuclear industry, SAT methodology has been the unwavering principle in Korea since NPPs export to UAE.

  9. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Time-On-Task During Bodyweight Resistance Training Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 minute cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance or control intervention (video. Data collection sessions were separated by 1 week. Participants rated the fatigue intervention as being significantly more mentally demanding than the control intervention (p .05. There was no statistical difference for heart rate or metabolic expenditure as a function of fatigue intervention during exercise. Cognitively fatigued athletes have decreased time-on-task in bodyweight resistance training exercise tasks.

  10. CSCL in Teacher Training: What Learning Tasks Lead to Collaboration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhorst, Ditte; Admiraal, Wilfried; Pilot, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Professional teacher communities appear to be positively related to student learning, teacher learning, teacher practice and school culture. Teacher collaboration is a significant element of these communities. In initial teacher training as well as in-service training and other initiatives for teacher learning, collaborative skills should be…

  11. CSCL in teacher training: what learning tasks lead to collaboration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockhorst, D.; Admiraal, W.F.; Pilot, A.

    2010-01-01

    Professional teacher communities appear to be positively related to student learning, teacher learning, teacher practice and school culture. Teacher collaboration is a significant element of these communities. In initial teacher training as well as in-service training and other initiatives for

  12. Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salden, Ron; Paas, Fred; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Salden, R.J.C.M., Paas, F., & Van Merriënboer, J.J.G. (2006). Personalised adaptive task selection in air traffic control: Effects on training efficiency and transfer. Learning and Instruction, 16, 350-362

  13. Peer feedback on complex tasks by tutors trained in content knowledge or tutoring skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hsiao, Y. P., Brouns, F., Van Bruggen, J., & Sloep, P. B. (2013, 7 November). Peer feedback on complex tasks by tutors trained in content knowledge or tutoring skills. Presentation at ICO Fall School, The Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  14. Training Dismounted Soldiers in Virtual Environments: Task and Research Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Sensory (Tactile) functions of the skin cf humans. New York: Modality Plenun. Klatzky , R.L., Lederman , S.J., & Balakrishnal, J.D. (1991, January). Task...driven extraction of object contour by human haptics.l. Robotica, 9, 43-51. Lederman , S.J., Klatzky , R.L., & Balakrishnan, J.D. (1991, April). Task...1 5 1994,;. LF Thomas A. Furness, Ill Eyereach, Inc. Steve E. Tice SimGraphics Engineering Corporation a 94-35128 , Octcbe-r 1994 DTIC Q.7UALTT- Y TI

  15. Functional Task Analysis. A Training Module. School Personnel Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBloois, Michael; Melton, Raymond G.

    The School Personnel Utilization Project developed a series of modules to assist school personnel in building the necessary skills for the development of organizational change strategies and collaborative, collegial educational problem solving capabilities. This specific module on functional task analysis will assist the user in monitoring and…

  16. Early Orthographic Influences on Phonemic Awareness Tasks: Evidence from a Preschool Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castles, Anne; Wilson, Katherine; Coltheart, Max

    2011-01-01

    Experienced readers show influences of orthographic knowledge on tasks ostensibly tapping phonemic awareness. Here we draw on data from an experimental training study to demonstrate that even preschoolers show influences of their emerging orthographic abilities in such tasks. A total of 40 children were taught some letter-sound correspondences but…

  17. Shock Incarceration in Georgia: An Analysis of Task Performance and Training Needs among Corrections Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Damon D.

    1991-01-01

    Conducted qualitative interviews and comprehensive job-task analysis to identify activities and training needs of correctional officers working in "shock incarceration" or "Boot Camp" corrections. Found that for correctional officers working in two major shock programs, most highly rated tasks were related to physical security.…

  18. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Karbach, Julia; Haenig, Susann; Freitag, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task-switching, and working memory (WM). In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training) on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal WM as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning). The children in both groups showed improvements in task-switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single-tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal WM, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  19. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta eKray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  20. Aquatic intervention in children with neuro-motor impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Getz, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis addresses the influence of aquatic interventions on motor performance of children with neuro-motor deficiencies in a functional context. The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach in compliance to the International Classification of Function and Disability (ICF). Chapter 2 addresses the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic environment setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by t...

  1. Resistance-training exercises with different stability requirements: time course of task specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle Hole; Andersen, Vidar; Behm, David G; Krohn-Hansen, Espen Krogseth; Smaamo, Mats; Fimland, Marius Steiro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the task-specificity (greater improvements in trained compared to non-trained tasks), transferability and time-course adaptations of resistance-training programs with varying instability requirements. Thirty-six resistance-trained men were randomized to train chest press 2 days week(-1) for 10 week (6 repetitions × 4 series) using a Swiss ball, Smith machine or dumbbells. A six-repetition maximum-strength test with the aforementioned exercises and traditional barbell chest press were performed by all participants at the first, 7th, 14th and final training session in addition to electromyographic activities of the prime movers measured during isometric bench press. The groups training with the unstable Swiss-ball and dumbbells, but not the stable Smith-machine, demonstrated task-specificity, which became apparent in the early phase and remained throughout the study. The improvements in the trained exercise tended to increase more with instability (dumbbells vs. Smith machine, p = 0.061). The group training with Smith machine had similar improvements in the non-trained exercises. Greater improvements were observed in the early phase of the strength-training program (first-7th session) for all groups in all three exercises, but most notably for the unstable exercises. No differences were observed between the groups or testing times for EMG activity. These findings suggest that among resistance-trained individuals, the concept of task-specificity could be most relevant in resistance training with greater stability requirements, particularly due to rapid strength improvements for unstable resistance exercises.

  2. Effect of training on the ability of dual-task coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosin F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the working memory model proposed by A. Baddeley and G. Hitch, a dual-task paradigm has been suggested to evaluate the capacity to perform simultaneously two concurrent tasks. This capacity is assumed to reflect the functioning of the central executive component, which appears to be impaired in patients with dysexecutive syndrome. The present study extends the investigation of an index ("mu", which is supposed to indicate the capacity of coordination of concurrent auditory digit span and tracking tasks, by testing the influence of training on the performance in the dual task. The presentation of the same digit sequence lists or always-different lists did not differently affect the performance. The span length affected the mu values. The improved performance in the tasks under the dual condition closely resembled the improvement in the single-task performance. So, although training improved performance in the single and dual conditions, especially for the tracking component, the mu values remained stable throughout the sessions when the single tasks were performed first. Conversely, training improved the capacity of dual-task coordination throughout the sessions when dual task was performed first, addressing the issue of the contribution of the within-session practice to the mu index.

  3. Transferring from the Simulator to a Live Robotic Environment: The Effectiveness of Part-Task and Whole-Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    concurrent monitoring and responding to stimuli, as well as Morse code, poetry , and preparing legal presentations. The meta-analysis investigated the...V. J. (1996). Analysis of part-task training using the backward-transfer technique. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2, 227–249...in older drivers. The Journals of Gerontology Series B, The Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences and The Journal of Gerontology: Social

  4. Performance of a visuomotor walking task in an augmented reality training setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Juliet A.M.; Choi, Julia T.; Buurke, Jaap H.; Rietman, Johan S.; Reenalda, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Visual cues can be used to train walking patterns. Here, we studied the performance and learning capacities of healthy subjects executing a high-precision visuomotor walking task, in an augmented reality training set-up. A beamer was used to project visual stepping targets on the walking surface of

  5. Task-relevant sound and user experience in computer-mediated firefighter training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.M.; Toet, A.; Bos, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently

  6. Task-Relevant Sound and User Experience in Computer- Mediated Firefighter Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.M.; Toet, A.; Bos, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors added task-relevant sounds to a computer-mediated instructor in-the-loop virtual training for firefighter commanders in an attempt to raise the engagement and arousal of the users. Computer-mediated training for crew commanders should provide a sensory experience that is sufficiently

  7. Effects of Task-Oriented Circuit Class Training on Walking Competency After Stroke A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, Lotte; van de Port, Ingrid; Vermue, Mathijs; Mead, Gillian; Kwakkel, Gert

    Background and Purpose-There is increasing interest in the potential benefits of circuit class training after stroke, but its effectiveness is uncertain. Our aim was to systematically review randomized, controlled trials of task-oriented circuit class training on gait and gait-related activities in

  8. Exploring Virtual Mental Practice in Maintenance Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, Tim; Brnich, Michael J.; Navoyski, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to a general understanding of mental practice by investigating the utility of and participant reaction to a virtual reality maintenance training among underground coal mine first responders. Design/Methodology/Approach: Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's Office of Mine…

  9. Stress at School? A Qualitative Study on Illegitimate Tasks during Teacher Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel, Stefanie; Otto, Kathleen; Krug, Henning; Kottwitz, Maria U

    2016-01-01

    What do I expect when stating that "I am going to be a teacher"? Social roles, including professional roles, often become part of people's identity and thus, of the self. As people typically strive for maintaining a positive sense of self, threats to one's role identity are likely to induce stress. In line with these considerations, Semmer et al. recently (e.g., Semmer et al., 2007, 2015) introduced "illegitimate tasks" as a new concept of stressors. Illegitimate tasks, which are defined as unnecessary or unreasonable tasks, threaten the self because they signal a lack of appreciation regarding one's professional role. Teacher training is a phase of role transition in which the occurrence of illegitimate tasks becomes likely. A holistic understanding of these tasks, however, has been missing up to now. Is there already a professional role identity during teacher training that is vulnerable to threats like the illegitimacy of tasks? What are typical illegitimate tasks in the context of teacher training? In order to close this research gap, 39 situations taken from 16 interviews with teaching trainees were analyzed in the present study on the basis of qualitative content analysis. Seminars and standing in to hold lessons for other teachers were identified as most prevalent illegitimate tasks. More specifically, unnecessary tasks could be classified as sub challenging, inefficient and lacking in organization (e.g., writing reports about workshops no one will ever read). Unreasonable tasks appeared overextending, fell outside responsibility, and lacked supervisory support. Training interventions focusing upon task design and supervisory behavior are suggested for improvement.

  10. Stress at school? A Qualitative Study on Illegitimate Tasks during Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Faupel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available What do I expect when stating that I am going to be a teacher? Social roles, including professional roles, often become part of people’s identity and thus, of the self. As people typically strive for maintaining a positive sense of self, threats to one’s role identity are likely to induce stress. In line with these considerations, Semmer et al. recently (e.g., 2007, 2015 introduced illegitimate tasks as a new concept of stressors. Illegitimate tasks, which are defined as unnecessary or unreasonable tasks, threaten the self because they signal a lack of appreciation regarding one’s professional role. Teacher training is a phase of role transition in which the occurrence of illegitimate tasks becomes likely. A holistic understanding of these tasks, however, has been missing up to now. Is there already a professional role identity during teacher training that is vulnerable to threats like the illegitimacy of tasks? What are typical illegitimate tasks in the context of teacher training? In order to close this research gap, 39 situations taken from 16 interviews with teaching trainees were analyzed in the present study on the basis of qualitative content analysis. Seminars and standing in to hold lessons for other teachers were identified as most prevalent illegitimate tasks. More specifically, unnecessary tasks could be classified as sub challenging, inefficient and lacking in organization (e.g., writing reports about workshops no one will ever read. Unreasonable tasks appeared overextending, fell outside responsibility, and lacked supervisory support. Training interventions focusing upon task design and supervisory behavior are suggested for improvement.

  11. The Effect of Motor Dual-task Balance Training on Balance and Gait of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Shil; An, Duk-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of a motor dual-task balance program on balance and gait of elderly women to suggest a more effective balance exercise method. [Subjects] Twenty elderly Korean women who could walk independently were recruited from the community dwelling. [Methods] The motor dual-task balance training (experimental) group stood on an Aero-step, and performed gym ball bouncing, catching, and throwing, while the simple task balance training (control) group merely stood on the Aero-step. Participants performed 45 minutes of training, 2 times a week for 6 weeks. Balance (fall index) was measured using a TETRAX. Gait variables were recorded on a GAITRite walkway at self-determined walking speed. [Results] The fall index of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Step length, stride length, velocity, and cadence of the experimental group improved significantly more than those of control group. [Conclusions] We found that motor dual-task balance training improved balance and walking ability more than simple balance training. Further studies should investigate motor dual-task training with kinematic and kinetic data, and muscle activation based on motor strategies.

  12. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K. G.; Dux, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations. PMID:26460014

  13. Training conquers multitasking costs by dividing task representations in the frontoparietal-subcortical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, K G; Dux, Paul E

    2015-11-17

    Negotiating the information-rich sensory world often requires the concurrent management of multiple tasks. Despite this requirement, humans are thought to be poor at multitasking because of the processing limitations of frontoparietal and subcortical (FP-SC) brain regions. Although training is known to improve multitasking performance, it is unknown how the FP-SC system functionally changes to support improved multitasking. To address this question, we characterized the FP-SC changes that predict training outcomes using an individual differences approach. Participants (n = 100) performed single and multiple tasks in pre- and posttraining magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions interspersed by either a multitasking or an active-control training regimen. Multivoxel pattern analyses (MVPA) revealed that training induced multitasking improvements were predicted by divergence in the FP-SC blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns to the trained tasks. Importantly, this finding was only observed for participants who completed training on the component (single) tasks and their combination (multitask) and not for the control group. Therefore, the FP-SC system supports multitasking behavior by segregating constituent task representations.

  14. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects.

  15. Effects of activity repetition training with Salat (prayer) versus task oriented training on functional outcomes of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghous, Misbah; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Mian Imran; Kanwal, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Stroke is one of most disabling condition which directly affects quality of life. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of activity repetition training with salat (prayer) versus task oriented training on functional outcomes of stroke. The study design was randomized control trial and 32 patients were randomly assigned into two groups'. The stroke including infarction or haemorrhagic, age bracket 30-70 years was included. The demographics were recorded and standardized assessment tool included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Motor assessment scale (MAS) and Time Up and Go Test (TUG). The measurements were obtained at baseline, after four and six weeks. The mean age of the patients was 54.44±10.59 years with 16 (59%) male and 11(41%) female patients. Activity Repetition Training group showed significant improvement (pfunctional status as compare to task oriented training group. The repetition with motivation and concentration is the key in re-learning process of neural plasticity.

  16. Novice supervisors' tasks and training - a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Jacobsen, Claus H.; Mathiesen, Birgit Bork

    There is a lack of data on the influence of the debut as a supervisor on the later career. However, extrapolating data from therapist development, we assume that the first years as novice supervisor are important for the following career as supervisor in particular. The first job as novice...... supervisor are likely to be formative for the way supervisors perceive themselves, just as the first years as a psychotherapist can be formative, especially if these are associated with negative experiences. Thus, the debut as supervisor may be of fundamental interest when studying supervisors' development....... The aim of this study was to explore what kind of tasks novice supervisors undertake and how they are prepared for these. During 2009--2010, 350 Danish clinical psychologists have responded to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire covering a wide range of items on professional...

  17. Neurofeedback training improves the dual-task performance ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Bae, Sea-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Yoon

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the reduced capacity for information processing following a stroke, patients commonly present with difficulties in performing activities of daily living that combine two or more tasks. To address this problem, in the present study, we investigated the effects of neurofeedback training on the abilities of stroke patients to perform dual motor tasks. We randomly assigned 20 patients who had sustained a stroke within the preceding 6 months to either a pseudo-neurofeedback (n = 10) or neurofeedback (n = 10) group. Both groups participated in a general exercise intervention for 8 weeks, three times a week for 30 min per session, under the same conditions. An electrode was secured to the scalp over the region of the central lobe (Cz), in compliance with the International 10-20 System. The electrode was inactive for the pseudo-training group. Participants in the neurofeedback training group received the 30-min neurofeedback training per session for reinforcing the sensorimotor rhythm. Electroencephalographic activity of the two groups was compared. In addition, selected parameters of gait (velocity, cadence [step/min], stance phase [%], and foot pressure) were analyzed using a 10-m walk test, attention-demanding task, walk task and quantified by the SmartStep system. The neurofeedback group showed significantly improved the regulation of the sensorimotor rhythm (p neurofeedback training is effective to improve the dual-task performance in stroke patients.

  18. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  19. Older Adults Improve on Everyday Tasks after Working Memory Training and Neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jaclyn A; Berryhill, Marian E

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with decline in executive function (EF), upper-level cognitive abilities such as planning, problem solving, and working memory (WM). This decline is associated with age-related volume loss and reduced functional connectivity in the frontal lobes. Cognitive training interventions aim to counter these losses, but often fail to elicit benefits beyond improvements on trained tasks. Recent interventions pairing WM training with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have improved WM and elicited transfer to untrained EF tasks. Limitations in previous work include exclusive use of laboratory-based computer training and testing and poor characterization of the mechanism(s) of durable tDCS-linked change. To determine if tDCS-linked WM training improves performance on ecologically valid transfer measures administered in participants' homes. To explore intervention-based changes using neuroimaging (fNIRS) and genotyping (COMT val158met). 90 healthy older adult participants completed 5 sessions of WM training paired with tDCS (Sham, 1 mA tDCS, 2 mA tDCS; 15 min). At follow-up, we assessed performance change on laboratory-based and ecologically valid tasks. All participants showed improvement on trained tasks. Importantly, 2 mA of tDCS induced significantly greater far transfer gains after 1 month without contact. Gains were observed on standard far transfer tasks along with ecologically valid far transfer tasks, and stimulation was well tolerated by all participants. FNIRS and genotyping results were less conclusive, but provide promising avenues for future research initiatives. These findings highlight the translational value for tDCS-based interventions in healthy older adults interested in maintaining cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Task decomposition: a framework for comparing diverse training models in human brain plasticity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B. J. Coffey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training studies, in which the structural or functional neurophysiology is compared before and after expertise is acquired, are increasingly being used as models for understanding the human brain’s potential for reorganization. It is proving difficult to use these results to answer basic and important questions like how task training leads to both specific and general changes in behaviour and how these changes correspond with modifications in the brain. The main culprit is the diversity of paradigms used as complex task models. An assortment of activities ranging from juggling to deciphering Morse code has been reported. Even when working in the same general domain, few researchers use similar training models. New ways to meaningfully compare complex tasks are needed. We propose a method for characterizing and deconstructing the task requirements of complex training paradigms, which is suitable for application to both structural and functional neuroimaging studies. We believe this approach will aid brain plasticity research by making it easier to compare training paradigms, identify ‘missing puzzle pieces’, and encourage researchers to design training protocols to bridge these gaps.

  1. Abacus Training Affects Math and Task Switching Abilities and Modulates Their Relationships in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Geng, Fengji; Yao, Yuan; Weng, Jian; Hu, Yuzheng; Chen, Feiyan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), a traditional Chinese calculation method, could help children improve their math abilities (e.g. basic arithmetical ability) and executive function (e.g. working memory). This study further examined the effects of long-term AMC training on math ability in visual-spatial domain and the task switching component of executive function. More importantly, this study investigated whether AMC training modulated the relationship between math abilities and task switching. The participants were seventy 7-year-old children who were randomly assigned into AMC and control groups at primary school entry. Children in AMC group received 2-hour AMC training every week since primary school entry. On the contrary, children in the control group had never received any AMC training. Math and task switching abilities were measured one year and three years respectively after AMC training began. The results showed that AMC children performed better than their peers on math abilities in arithmetical and visual-spatial domains. In addition, AMC group responded faster than control group in the switching task, while no group difference was found in switch cost. Most interestingly, group difference was present in the relationships between math abilities and switch cost. These results implied the effect of AMC training on math abilities as well as its relationship with executive function.

  2. Stimulus selectivity in dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex after training in working memory tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis; Qi, Xue-Lian; Stanford, Terrence R.; Constantinidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is known to represent different types of information in working memory. Contrasting theories propose that the dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex are innately specialized for the representation of spatial and non-spatial information respectively (Goldman-Rakic, 1996), or that the two regions are shaped by the demands of cognitive tasks imposed on them (Miller, 2000). To resolve this issue, we recorded from neurons in the two regions, prior to and at multiple stages of training monkeys on visual working memory tasks. Prior to training, substantial functional differences were present between the two regions. Dorsal prefrontal cortex exhibited higher overall responsiveness to visual stimuli and higher selectivity for spatial information. After training, stimulus selectivity generally decreased, though dorsal prefrontal cortex retained higher spatial selectivity regardless of task performed. Ventral prefrontal cortex appeared to be affected to a greater extent by the nature of task performed. Our results indicate that regional specialization for stimulus selectivity is present in the primate prefrontal cortex regardless of training. Dorsal areas of the prefrontal cortex are inherently organized to represent spatial information and training has little influence on this spatial bias. Ventral areas are biased toward non-spatial information although they are more influenced by training both in terms of activation and changes in stimulus selectivity. PMID:21525266

  3. Fundamentals of neurosurgery: virtual reality tasks for training and evaluation of technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nusrat; Gélinas-Phaneuf, Nicholas; Delorme, Sébastien; Del Maestro, Rolando

    2013-11-01

    Technical skills training in neurosurgery is mostly done in the operating room. New educational paradigms are encouraging the development of novel training methods for surgical skills. Simulation could answer some of these needs. This article presents the development of a conceptual training framework for use on a virtual reality neurosurgical simulator. Appropriate tasks were identified by reviewing neurosurgical oncology curricula requirements and performing cognitive task analyses of basic techniques and representative surgeries. The tasks were then elaborated into training modules by including learning objectives, instructions, levels of difficulty, and performance metrics. Surveys and interviews were iteratively conducted with subject matter experts to delimitate, review, discuss, and approve each of the development stages. Five tasks were selected as representative of basic and advanced neurosurgical skill. These tasks were: 1) ventriculostomy, 2) endoscopic nasal navigation, 3) tumor debulking, 4) hemostasis, and 5) microdissection. The complete training modules were structured into easy, intermediate, and advanced settings. Performance metrics were also integrated to provide feedback on outcome, efficiency, and errors. The subject matter experts deemed the proposed modules as pertinent and useful for neurosurgical skills training. The conceptual framework presented here, the Fundamentals of Neurosurgery, represents a first attempt to develop standardized training modules for technical skills acquisition in neurosurgical oncology. The National Research Council Canada is currently developing NeuroTouch, a virtual reality simulator for cranial microneurosurgery. The simulator presently includes the five Fundamentals of Neurosurgery modules at varying stages of completion. A first pilot study has shown that neurosurgical residents obtained higher performance scores on the simulator than medical students. Further work will validate its components and use in a

  4. Effect of a neuromuscular training program on the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Jonathan D; Limpisvasti, Orr

    2008-06-01

    Altered motor control strategies are a proposed cause of the female athlete's increased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Injury prevention programs have shown promising results in decreasing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. To evaluate the effect of the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Modified Neuromuscular Training Program on the biomechanics of select jumping tasks in the female collegiate athlete. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I soccer and basketball players performed vertical jump, hopping tests, and 2 jumping tasks (drop jump and stop jump). All subjects completed a 6-week neuromuscular training program with core strengthening and plyometric training. Three-dimensional motion analysis and force plate data were used to compare the kinetics and kinematics of jumping tasks before and after training. Dynamic knee valgus moment during the stance phase of stop jump tasks decreased after completion of the neuromuscular training program (P = .04), but differences were not observed for the drop jump. Initial knee flexion (P = .003) and maximum knee flexion (P = .006) angles increased during the stance phase of drop jumps after training, but differences were not observed for the stop jump. The athletes showed improved performance in vertical jump (P < .001), right 1-legged hop (P < .001), and left 1-legged hop (P < .001). Completion of a 6-week neuromuscular training program improved select athletic performance measures and changed movement patterns during jumping tasks in the subject population. The use of this neuromuscular training program could potentially modify the collegiate athlete's motion strategies, improve performance, and lower the athlete's risk for injury.

  5. Effects of Dual-Task Management and Resistance Training on Gait Performance in Older Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollesen, Bettina; Mattes, Klaus; Schulz, Sören; Bischoff, Laura L.; Seydell, L.; Bell, Jeffrey W.; von Duvillard, Serge P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dual-task (DT) training is a well-accepted modality for fall prevention in older adults. DT training should include task-managing strategies such as task switching or task prioritization to improve gait performance under DT conditions. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a balance and task managing training (BDT group) in gait performance compared to a single task (ST) strength and resistance training and a control group, which received no training. A total of 78 older individuals (72.0 ± 4.9 years) participated in this study. The DT group performed task managing training incorporating balance and coordination tasks while the ST group performed resistance training only. Training consisted of 12 weekly sessions, 60 min each, for 12 weeks. We assessed the effects of ST and BDT training on walking performance under ST and DT conditions in independent living elderly adults. ST and DT walking (visual verbal Stroop task) were measured utilizing a treadmill at self-selected walking speed (mean for all groups: 4.4 ± 1 km h-1). Specific gait variables, cognitive performance, and fear of falling were compared between all groups. >Results: Training improved gait performance for step length (p changes in cognitive performance. Both interventions reduced fear of falling (p management strategies into balance and strength training in our population revealed a promising modality to prevent falls in older individuals. Trial registration: German register of clinical trials DRKS00012382. PMID:29326581

  6. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Procedural Task Training of Remote Payload Operations at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James; Noneman, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) encode and apply the subject matter and teaching expertise of experienced instructors to provide students with individualized instruction automatically. ITSs complement training simulators by providing automated instruction when it is not economical or feasible to dedicate an instructor to each student during training simulations. Despite their proven training effectiveness and favorable operating cost, however, relatively few ITSs are in use. This is largely because it is usually costly and difficult to encode the task knowledge used by the ITS to evaluate the student's actions and assess the student's performance. Procedural tasks are tasks for which there exist procedures, guidelines, and strategies that determine the correct set of steps to be taken within each situation. To lower the cost and difficulty of creating tutoring systems for procedural task training, Stottler Henke Associates, Inc. (SHAI) worked closely with the Operations Training Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop the Task Tutor Toolkit (T (exp 3)), a generic tutoring system shell and scenario authoring tool. The Task Tutor Toolkit employs a case-based reasoning approach where the instructor creates a procedure template that specifies the range of student actions that are "correct" within each scenario. Because each procedure template is specific to a single scenario, the system can employ relatively simple reasoning methods to represent a correct set of actions and assess student performance. This simplicity enables a non-programmer to specify task knowledge quickly and easily by via graphical user interface, using a "demonstrate, generalize, and annotate" paradigm, that recognizes the range of possible valid actions and infers principles understood (or misunderstood) by the student when those actions are carried out. The Task Tutor Toolkit was also designed to be modular and general, so that it can be interfaced with a wide range of

  7. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Ward, Nathan; Geyer, Alexandra; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer), many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and “Mind Frontiers,” a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf) tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control). After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool. PMID:26555341

  8. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Baniqued

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer, many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and "Mind Frontiers," a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control. After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool.

  9. An instrument to assess subjective task value beliefs regarding the decision to pursue postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M

    2014-02-12

    To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents' (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.

  10. Feedback Error Learning in neuromotor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Abraham K.

    This thesis is concerned with adaptive human motor control. Adaptation is a highly desirable characteristic of any biological system. Failure is an undesirable, yet very real, characteristic of the human motor control systems. Variability is a ubiquitous observation in human movements that has no direct analogue in the design and analysis of robotic control algorithms. This thesis attempts to link these three aspects of motor control under the constraints of a biologically inspired control framework termed Feedback Error Learning (FEL). Utilizing nonlinear and adaptive control methods we prove conditions for which the FEL framework is stable and successful learning can occur. Utilizing singular perturbation methods, we derive conditions for which the system is guaranteed to fail. Variability is analyzed using Ito Calculus and stochastic Lyapunov functionals where signal dependent noise, a commonly observed phenomenon, enters in the learning algorithm. We also show how signal dependent noise might benefit biological control systems despite the inherent variability introduced into the motor control loops. Lastly, we investigate a force tracking control task, where subjects are asked to track a time-varying plant. Using basic control and system identification techniques, we probe the human motor learning system and extract learning rates with respect to the FEL model.

  11. A Task-Analytic Approach to the Determination of Training Requirements for the Precision Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nancy; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A task-analytic approach was used to evaluate the results from an experiment comparing two training methods for the "Precision Descent," a cockpit procedure designed to complement a new, computer-based air traffic control advisory system by allowing air traffic controllers to assign precise descent trajectories to aircraft. A task model was developed for the procedure using a methodology that represents four different categories of task-related knowledge: (1) ability to determine current flight goals; (2) ability to assess the current flight situation relative to those goals; (3) operational knowledge about flight-related tasks; and (4) knowledge about task selection. This model showed what knowledge experienced pilots already possessed, and how that knowledge was supplemented by training material provided in the two training conditions. All flight crews were given a "Precision Descent Chart" that explained the procedure's clearances and compliance requirements. This information enabled pilots to establish appropriate flight goals for the descent, and to monitor their compliance with those goals. In addition to this chart, half of the crews received a "Precision Descent Bulletin" containing technique recommendations for performing procedure-related tasks. The Bulletin's recommendations supported pilots in task selection and helped clarify the procedure's compliance requirements. Eight type-rated flight crews flew eight Precision Descents in a Boeing 747-400 simulator, with four crews in each of the two training conditions. Both conditions (Chart and Chart-with-Bulletin) relied exclusively on the use of those documents to introduce the procedure. No performance feedback was provided during the experiment. Preliminary result show better procedure compliance and higher acceptability ratings from flight crews in the Chart-with-Bulletin condition. These crews performed flight-related tasks less efficiently, however, using the simpler but less efficient methods suggested

  12. Neuronal Substrates Underlying Performance Variability in Well-Trained Skillful Motor Task in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Mizuguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor performance fluctuates trial by trial even in a well-trained motor skill. Here we show neural substrates underlying such behavioral fluctuation in humans. We first scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants repeatedly performed a 10 s skillful sequential finger-tapping task. Before starting the experiment, the participants had completed intensive training. We evaluated task performance per trial (number of correct sequences in 10 s and depicted brain regions where the activity changes in association with the fluctuation of the task performance across trials. We found that the activity in a broader range of frontoparietocerebellar network, including the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, anterior cingulate and anterior insular cortices, and left cerebellar hemisphere, was negatively correlated with the task performance. We further showed in another transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS experiment that task performance deteriorated, when we applied anodal tDCS to the right DLPFC. These results indicate that fluctuation of brain activity in the nonmotor frontoparietocerebellar network may underlie trial-by-trial performance variability even in a well-trained motor skill, and its neuromodulation with tDCS may affect the task performance.

  13. Six weeks of meditation training influences response bias in a discrimination task with emotional distractors

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina B Menezes; Mirtes G Pereira; Lisiane Bizarro

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Focused attention meditation is the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object in a sustained fashion, whose objective is to develop attentional and emotional regulatory skills./objective: We investigated the effect of a six-week focused attention meditation training on a discrimination task with emotional distractors by comparing participants’ discriminability and bias before and after training. Method: College students were randomly assigned to either focused meditatio...

  14. Effect of simulator orientation during skills training on performance of basic laparoscopic tasks by veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Rachael D; Ragle, Claude A; Kinser, Mathew L; Coffey, Todd; Fransson, Boel A

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether basic laparoscopic skills acquired during training in the horizontal plane would transfer to the vertical plane and vice versa. DESIGN Evaluation study. SAMPLE POPULATION 26 first- and second-year veterinary students with no prior laparoscopic skills training or surgical experience. PROCEDURES Participants were nonrandomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 (n = 15) underwent laparoscopic skills training in the horizontal plane, and group 2 (17) underwent laparoscopic skills training in the vertical plane. Following training, participants were tested on their ability to perform 5 laparoscopic tasks, first in the horizontal plane and then the vertical plane (group 1) or first in the vertical plane and then in the horizontal plane (group 2). All training and testing were performed with an augmented-reality laparoscopic simulator. RESULTS 3 participants in each group did not complete the study. For group 1, scores for 3 of the 5 tasks were significantly worse when tested in the vertical plane than when tested in the horizontal plane. For group 2, scores for 2 of the 5 tasks were significantly worse when tested in the horizontal plane than when tested in the vertical plane. For 3 tasks, the difference in scores for the training versus orthogonal plane was significantly lower for group 2 than for group 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that basic laparoscopic skills acquired in 1 plane frequently did not transfer to the orthogonal plane. Because veterinary surgeons may be required to treat patients in various positions, development of laparoscopic training models to simulate the vertical plane is recommended.

  15. An EEG-based mental workload estimator trained on working memory task can work well under simulated multi-attribute task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Liu, Shuang; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Lixin; Ming, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Mental workload (MW)-based adaptive system has been found to be an effective approach to enhance the performance of human-machine interaction and to avoid human error caused by overload. However, MW estimated from the spontaneously generated electroencephalogram (EEG) was found to be task-specific. In existing studies, EEG-based MW classifier can work well under the task used to train the classifier (within-task) but crash completely when used to classify MW of a task that is similar to but not included in the training data (cross-task). The possible causes have been considered to be the task-specific EEG patterns, the mismatched workload across tasks and the temporal effects. In this study, cross-task performance-based feature selection (FS) and regression model were tried to cope with these challenges, in order to make EEG-based MW estimator trained on working memory tasks work well under a complex simulated multi-attribute task (MAT). The results show that the performance of regression model trained on working memory task and tested on multi-attribute task with the feature subset picked-out were significantly improved (correlation coefficient (COR): 0.740 ± 0.147 and 0.598 ± 0.161 for FS data and validation data respectively) when compared to the performance in the same condition with all features (chance level). It can be inferred that there do exist some MW-related EEG features can be picked out and there are something in common between MW of a relatively simple task and a complex task. This study provides a promising approach to measure MW across tasks.

  16. Monitoring Neuro-Motor Recovery From Stroke With High-Resolution EEG, Robotics and Virtual Reality: A Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comani, Silvia; Velluto, Lucia; Schinaia, Lorenzo; Cerroni, Gianluigi; Serio, Antonio; Buzzelli, Sandro; Sorbi, Sandro; Guarnieri, Biancamaria

    2015-11-01

    A novel system for the neuro-motor rehabilitation of upper limbs was validated in three sub-acute post-stroke patients. The system permits synchronized cortical and kinematic measures by integrating high-resolution EEG, passive robotic device and Virtual Reality. The brain functional re-organization was monitored in association with motor patterns replicating activities of daily living (ADL). Patients underwent 13 rehabilitation sessions. At sessions 1, 7 and 13, clinical tests were administered to assess the level of motor impairment, and EEG was recorded during rehabilitation task execution. For each session and rehabilitation task, four kinematic indices of motor performance were calculated and compared with the outcome of clinical tests. Functional source maps were obtained from EEG data and projected on the real patients' anatomy (MRI data). Laterality indices were calculated for hemispheric dominance assessment. All patients showed increased participation in the rehabilitation process. Cortical activation changes during recovery were detected in relation to different motor patterns, hence verifying the system's suitability to add quantitative measures of motor performance and neural recovery to classical tests. We conclude that this system seems a promising tool for novel robot-based rehabilitation paradigms tailored to individual needs and neuro-motor responses of the patients.

  17. Working memory training is associated with lower prefrontal cortex activation in a divergent thinking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanian, O; Jobidon, M-E; Bouak, F; Nakashima, A; Smith, I; Lam, Q; Cheung, B

    2013-04-16

    Working memory (WM) training has been shown to lead to improvements in WM capacity and fluid intelligence. Given that divergent thinking loads on WM and fluid intelligence, we tested the hypothesis that WM training would improve performance and moderate neural function in the Alternate Uses Task (AUT)-a classic test of divergent thinking. We tested this hypothesis by administering the AUT in the functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner following a short regimen of WM training (experimental condition), or engagement in a choice reaction time task not expected to engage WM (active control condition). Participants in the experimental group exhibited significant improvement in performance in the WM task as a function of training, as well as a significant gain in fluid intelligence. Although the two groups did not differ in their performance on the AUT, activation was significantly lower in the experimental group in ventrolateral prefrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices-two brain regions known to play dissociable and critical roles in divergent thinking. Furthermore, gain in fluid intelligence mediated the effect of training on brain activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that a short regimen of WM training is associated with lower prefrontal activation-a marker of neural efficiency-in divergent thinking. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complex Skill Training Transfers to Improved Performance and Control of Simpler Tasks After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Shailesh S; Zahedi, Nazaneen; McGrath, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Given limited therapy time, it is important to practice tasks that optimize transfer to other tasks that cannot be practiced during therapy. However, little is known about how tasks can be selected for practice to optimize generalization. One dimension of task selection is the complexity of the task. The purpose of the current study was to test if learning of a complex motor skill with the paretic arm would transfer to a simpler unpracticed goal-directed reaching task. This is an observational study, repeated measures design. Fifteen participants with mild-to-moderate stroke practiced a complex motor skill using their paretic arm for 2 consecutive days. Complex skill learning was quantified using change in the speed-accuracy trade-off from baseline to 1 day and 1 month post-practice. Motor transfer was assessed as the change in goal-directed planar reaching performance and kinematics from 2 baselines to 1 day and 1 month post-practice. Nine additional participants with stroke were recruited as the test-alone group who only participated in the transfer tests to rule out the effects of repeated testing. Practice improved the speed-accuracy trade-off for the practiced complex skill that was retained over a period of 1 month. Importantly, complex skill practice, but not repeated testing alone, improved the long-term performance and kinematics of the unpracticed simpler goal-directed planar reaching task. Improvements in the unpracticed transfer task (reaching) strongly correlated with improvements in the practiced complex motor skill. We did not have a comparison stroke group that practiced task-specific reaching movements. Given the limited number of tasks that can be practiced during therapy, training complex tasks may have an added advantage of transfer to improved simpler task performance.

  19. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with severe neuromotor and verbal disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, M; Bonanni, R; Carlesimo, G A; Caltagirone, C

    2001-04-01

    In people with cerebral palsy, severe neuromotor disability and communication problems make standard neuropsychological tests impossible. Therefore, alternative methods and specific aids must be developed to allow patients to autonomously respond to the examiner's questions. In the present individuals and study, a neuropsychological evaluation was made of a group of eight individuals with cerebral palsy, and severe neuromotor and verbal disabilities, and a group of 19 normal subjects matched for mental age. The tests were administered using an autonomous selection method in which the patient selects the various responses through specific aids without the examiner's interference. Patients' group performances in visuo-spatial and memory tests were on average lower than the mean of the control group. In the verbal domain, patients' scores were comparable to those of normal children in all tests but one assessing the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences. An analysis of the patients' individual performances also revealed heterogeneous cognitive profiles: some patients presented a homogeneously distributed cognitive impairment and others a more selective one. This finding is particularly important for planning differentiated learning programmes, and identifying suitable communicative instruments in rehabilitative and educational settings.

  20. A Randomized Controlled ERP Study on the Effects of Multi-Domain Cognitive Training and Task Difficulty on Task Switching Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küper, Kristina; Gajewski, Patrick D; Frieg, Claudia; Falkenstein, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are subject to a marked age-related decline, but have been shown to benefit from cognitive training interventions. As of yet, it is, however, still relatively unclear which neural mechanism can mediate training-related performance gains. In the present electrophysiological study, we examined the effects of multi-domain cognitive training on performance in an untrained cue-based task switch paradigm featuring Stroop color words: participants either had to indicate the word meaning of Stroop stimuli (word task) or perform the more difficult task of color naming (color task). One-hundred and three older adults (>65 years old) were randomly assigned to a training group receiving a 4-month multi-domain cognitive training, a passive no-contact control group or an active (social) control group receiving a 4-month relaxation training. For all groups, we recorded performance and EEG measures before and after the intervention. For the cognitive training group, but not for the two control groups, we observed an increase in response accuracy at posttest, irrespective of task and trial type. No training-related effects on reaction times were found. Cognitive training was also associated with an overall increase in N2 amplitude and a decrease of P2 latency on single trials. Training-related performance gains were thus likely mediated by an enhancement of response selection and improved access to relevant stimulus-response mappings. Additionally, cognitive training was associated with an amplitude decrease in the time window of the target-locked P3 at fronto-central electrodes. An increase in the switch positivity during advance task preparation emerged after both cognitive and relaxation training. Training-related behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) effects were not modulated by task difficulty. The data suggest that cognitive training increased slow negative potentials during target processing which enhanced the N2 and reduced a subsequent P3-like

  1. Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Marijke Rensink; Eline Eline Lindeman; T. B. Hafsteinsdóttir; Marieke Schuurmans

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Background: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and one of the leading causes of adult disability

  2. Validation of the "recognition task" used in the training of interpretation biases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; van den Hout, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    It was recently established that interpretive bias plays a causal role in anxiety. The vast majority of studies examining this causal relationship have used a social script interpretive bias training and have tested whether interpretations were indeed changed. Typically, a recognition task is used

  3. Place of physical training in the task psychological training of servicemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gysak O.D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article exposed the use of forms of physical training for the formation of psychological readiness to act in military training and battlefield. Analysis of pedagogical, psychological and special literature, the analysis features of professional military airborne troops, and suggested areas of application of lessons on overcoming obstacles to the formation of the psychological readiness of military personnel.

  4. Rehabilitative training following unilateral pyramidotomy in adult rats improves forelimb function in a non-task-specific way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Michelle L; Bleul, Christiane; Maier, Irin C; Schwab, Martin E

    2011-11-01

    Spontaneous functional recovery following injury to the adult central nervous system can be enhanced with increased and focused activity, either through altered behaviour (skill learning, exercise or training) or by artificial stimulation (magnetic or electrical). In terms of training, the choice of paradigm plays a key role in the recovered behaviour. Here we show that task-specific training leads to improved forelimb function that can be translated to a novel forelimb task. Adult Long-Evans rats received a unilateral pyramidotomy and we studied the effects of different post-lesion training paradigms for their ability to recover function in the impaired limb. We trained rats on either the single pellet grasping or the horizontal ladder task. Rats were tested on both tasks regardless of the training paradigm and also on a related, but novel forelimb task, the Staircase. Horizontal ladder training led to full recovery of this task, and also limited recovery on the familiar but untrained single pellet grasping task. In comparison, single pellet grasping training led to a smaller improvement on the horizontal ladder, but interestingly the same degree of recovery on the single pellet grasping task as horizontal ladder trained animals. Both training groups performed equally well on a novel, untrained forelimb grasping task. These results show that task-specific forelimb training can lead to functional recovery also in non-trained, complex, forelimb movements. Anatomically, only single pellet grasping training was associated with enhanced sprouting of the intact corticospinal tract across the cervical spinal cord midline to innervate the denervated side of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Retention of laparoscopic psychomotor skills after a structured training program depends on the quality of the training and on the complexity of the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Carlos Roger; Campo, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This follow-up RCT was conducted to evaluate laparoscopic psychomotor skills retention after finishing a structured training program. In a first study, 80 gynecologists were randomly allocated to four groups to follow different training programs for hand-eye coordination (task 1) with the dominant hand (task 1-a) and the non-dominant hand (task 1-b) and laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying (task 2) in the Laparoscopic Skills Testing and Training (LASTT) model. First, baseline skills were tested (T1). Then, participants trained task 1 (G1: 1-a and 1-b, G2: 1-a only, G3 and G4: none) and then task 2 (all groups but G4). After training all groups were tested again to evaluate skills acquisition (T2). For this study, 2 years after a resting period, 73 participants were recruited and tested again to evaluate skills retention (T3). All groups had comparable skills at T1 for all tasks. At T2, G1, G2, and G3 improved their skills, but the level of improvement was different (G1 = G2 > G3 > G4 for task 1; G1 = G2 = G3 > G4 for task 2). At T3, all groups retained their task 1 skills at the same level than at T2. For task 2, however, a skill decay was already noticed for G2 and G3, being G1 the only group that retained their skills at the post-training level. Training improves laparoscopic skills, which can be retained over time depending on the comprehensiveness of the training program and on the complexity of the task. For high complexity tasks, full training is advisable for both skills acquisition and retention.

  6. Training Working Memory in Childhood Enhances Coupling between Frontoparietal Control Network and Task-Related Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J; Nobre, Anna Christina; Woolrich, Mark W; Baker, Kate; Astle, Duncan E

    2016-08-24

    Working memory is a capacity upon which many everyday tasks depend and which constrains a child's educational progress. We show that a child's working memory can be significantly enhanced by intensive computer-based training, relative to a placebo control intervention, in terms of both standardized assessments of working memory and performance on a working memory task performed in a magnetoencephalography scanner. Neurophysiologically, we identified significantly increased cross-frequency phase amplitude coupling in children who completed training. Following training, the coupling between the upper alpha rhythm (at 16 Hz), recorded in superior frontal and parietal cortex, became significantly coupled with high gamma activity (at ∼90 Hz) in inferior temporal cortex. This altered neural network activity associated with cognitive skill enhancement is consistent with a framework in which slower cortical rhythms enable the dynamic regulation of higher-frequency oscillatory activity related to task-related cognitive processes. Whether we can enhance cognitive abilities through intensive training is one of the most controversial topics of cognitive psychology in recent years. This is particularly controversial in childhood, where aspects of cognition, such as working memory, are closely related to school success and are implicated in numerous developmental disorders. We provide the first neurophysiological account of how working memory training may enhance ability in childhood, using a brain recording technique called magnetoencephalography. We borrowed an analysis approach previously used with intracranial recordings in adults, or more typically in other animal models, called "phase amplitude coupling." Copyright © 2016 Barnes et al.

  7. The Effect of Training and Task-Planning on the Complexity of Iranian Learners’ Oral Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Birjandi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The shift of emphasis away from written to oral skills has stimulated an incipient concern in second language research to investigate ways of helping second and foreign language learners achieve higher degrees of oral proficiency. Priority solely taken over accuracy, complexity, or fluency of speech might be justifiable with regard to the context in which learning takes place.  Accuracy and complexity have been suggested as paramount concern in syntactic processing typical of instructional contexts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a training program on the grammatical complexity of 114 English Major Students at Islamic Azad University-Tabriz Branch at three different planning levels. A 2x3 factorial design was employed with two levels of metacognitive training, trained and untrained, and three levels of pre-task planning, on-line task planning, and pre/on-line task planning. It was hypothesized that the trained participants would produce more complex speech than the untrained ones, and that various planners would produce speech with varying degrees of complexity. Yet, the findings revealed no significant difference in terms of grammatical complexity among the trained and untrained participants. The findings suggest proficiency level and learners' attitudes and goals as main factors influencing the complexity of oral speech.

  8. Performance of a visuomotor walking task in an augmented reality training setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarman, Juliet A M; Choi, Julia T; Buurke, Jaap H; Rietman, Johan S; Reenalda, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    Visual cues can be used to train walking patterns. Here, we studied the performance and learning capacities of healthy subjects executing a high-precision visuomotor walking task, in an augmented reality training set-up. A beamer was used to project visual stepping targets on the walking surface of an instrumented treadmill. Two speeds were used to manipulate task difficulty. All participants (n = 20) had to change their step length to hit visual stepping targets with a specific part of their foot, while walking on a treadmill over seven consecutive training blocks, each block composed of 100 stepping targets. Distance between stepping targets was varied between short, medium and long steps. Training blocks could either be composed of random stepping targets (no fixed sequence was present in the distance between the stepping targets) or sequenced stepping targets (repeating fixed sequence was present). Random training blocks were used to measure non-specific learning and sequenced training blocks were used to measure sequence-specific learning. Primary outcome measures were performance (% of correct hits), and learning effects (increase in performance over the training blocks: both sequence-specific and non-specific). Secondary outcome measures were the performance and stepping-error in relation to the step length (distance between stepping target). Subjects were able to score 76% and 54% at first try for lower speed (2.3 km/h) and higher speed (3.3 km/h) trials, respectively. Performance scores did not increase over the course of the trials, nor did the subjects show the ability to learn a sequenced walking task. Subjects were better able to hit targets while increasing their step length, compared to shortening it. In conclusion, augmented reality training by use of the current set-up was intuitive for the user. Suboptimal feedback presentation might have limited the learning effects of the subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gaze training enhances laparoscopic technical skill acquisition and multi-tasking performance: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W; Defriend, David; McGrath, John S

    2011-12-01

    The operating room environment is replete with stressors and distractions that increase the attention demands of what are already complex psychomotor procedures. Contemporary research in other fields (e.g., sport) has revealed that gaze training interventions may support the development of robust movement skills. This current study was designed to examine the utility of gaze training for technical laparoscopic skills and to test performance under multitasking conditions. Thirty medical trainees with no laparoscopic experience were divided randomly into one of three treatment groups: gaze trained (GAZE), movement trained (MOVE), and discovery learning/control (DISCOVERY). Participants were fitted with a Mobile Eye gaze registration system, which measures eye-line of gaze at 25 Hz. Training consisted of ten repetitions of the "eye-hand coordination" task from the LAP Mentor VR laparoscopic surgical simulator while receiving instruction and video feedback (specific to each treatment condition). After training, all participants completed a control test (designed to assess learning) and a multitasking transfer test, in which they completed the procedure while performing a concurrent tone counting task. Not only did the GAZE group learn more quickly than the MOVE and DISCOVERY groups (faster completion times in the control test), but the performance difference was even more pronounced when multitasking. Differences in gaze control (target locking fixations), rather than tool movement measures (tool path length), underpinned this performance advantage for GAZE training. These results suggest that although the GAZE intervention focused on training gaze behavior only, there were indirect benefits for movement behaviors and performance efficiency. Additionally, focusing on a single external target when learning, rather than on complex movement patterns, may have freed-up attentional resources that could be applied to concurrent cognitive tasks.

  10. Effects of post-training modafinil administration in a discriminative avoidance task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Helaine Arrais; Zanin, Karina Agustini; Patti, Camilla de Lima; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo Brito; Bizerra, Carolina Souza; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Although the cognitive-enhancing abilities after modafinil have been demonstrated, its effects on memory consolidation remain overlooked. We investigated the effects of repeated modafinil administration on consolidation of a discriminative avoidance task. Mice were trained in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task. After training, mice received intraperitonial modafinil (doses of 32, 64 or 128 mg/kg). Animals were treated for more 9 consecutive days; 30 min after the last injection, testing was performed. In addition, the effects of 32 mg/kg modafinil on consolidation at different time points were examined. The smaller dose of modafinil (32 mg/kg) impaired memory consolidation, without modifying anxiety or locomotion. Still, modafinil post-training administration at 1 or 2 h impaired memory persistence. Modafinil impaired memory consolidation in a dose- and time-dependent fashion.

  11. Game-based training of flexibility and attention improves task-switch performance: near and far transfer of cognitive training in an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfers, Kerwin J F; Band, Guido P H

    2017-12-20

    There is a demand for ways to enhance cognitive flexibility, as it can be a limiting factor for performance in daily life. Video game training has been linked to advantages in cognitive functioning, raising the question if training with video games can promote cognitive flexibility. In the current study, we investigated if game-based computerized cognitive training (GCCT) could enhance cognitive flexibility in a healthy young adult sample (N = 72), as measured by task-switch performance. Three GCCT schedules were contrasted, which targeted: (1) cognitive flexibility and task switching, (2) attention and working memory, or (3) an active control involving basic math games, in twenty 45-min sessions across 4-6 weeks. Performance on an alternating-runs task-switch paradigm during pretest and posttest sessions indicated greater overall reaction time improvements after both flexibility and attention training as compared to control, although not related to local switch cost. Flexibility training enhanced performance in the presence of distractor-related interference. In contrast, attention training was beneficial when low task difficulty undermined sustained selective attention. Furthermore, flexibility training improved response selection as indicated by a larger N2 amplitude after training as compared to control, and more efficient conflict monitoring as indicated by reduced Nc/CRN and larger Pe amplitude after training. These results provide tentative support for the efficacy of GCCT and suggest that an ideal training might include both task switching and attention components, with maximal task diversity both within and between training games.

  12. An EMG-driven exoskeleton hand robotic training device on chronic stroke subjects: task training system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE

  13. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eDörrenbächer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8 to 11 years of age. We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/ single-task training vs high-demanding/ task-switching training as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/ without video-game elements vs high-motivational/ with video-game elements separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement. However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement, the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing. Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.

  14. Principles of Training in Marine Corps Task Analysis. Training Manual 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    member, and 2) Skills to support cooperation among TA teams. 6. Festinger , Leon and Katz, Daniel, RESEARCH METHODS IN THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, Holt...Training Research Programs Psychological Sciences Division Office of Naval Research Contract No. N00014-74-A-0436-0001 NR 151-370 Approved for...and Training Research Programs Psychological Sciences Division Office of Naval Research Contract No. N00014-74-A-0436-0001 NR 151-370 Approved

  15. Neural Correlates of Changes in a Visual Search Task due to Cognitive Training in Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Wild-Wall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the underlying neural sources of near transfer after a multidomain cognitive training in older participants in a visual search task. Participants were randomly assigned to a social control, a no-contact control and a training group, receiving a 4-month paper-pencil and PC-based trainer guided cognitive intervention. All participants were tested in a before and after session with a conjunction visual search task. Performance and event-related potentials (ERPs suggest that the cognitive training improved feature processing of the stimuli which was expressed in an increased rate of target detection compared to the control groups. This was paralleled by enhanced amplitudes of the frontal P2 in the ERP and by higher activation in lingual and parahippocampal brain areas which are discussed to support visual feature processing. Enhanced N1 and N2 potentials in the ERP for nontarget stimuli after cognitive training additionally suggest improved attention and subsequent processing of arrays which were not immediately recognized as targets. Possible test repetition effects were confined to processes of stimulus categorisation as suggested by the P3b potential. The results show neurocognitive plasticity in aging after a broad cognitive training and allow pinpointing the functional loci of effects induced by cognitive training.

  16. E2Rebot: A robotic platform for upper limb rehabilitation in patients with neuromotor disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Fraile

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of robotic platforms for neuro-rehabilitation may boost the neural plasticity process and improve motor recovery in patients with upper limb mobility impairment as a consequence of an acquired brain injury. A robotic platform for this aim must provide ergonomic and friendly design, human safety, intensive task-oriented therapy, and assistive forces. Its implementation is a complex process that involves new developments in the mechanical, electronics, and control fields. This article presents the end-effector rehabilitation robot, a 2-degree-of-freedom planar robotic platform for upper limb rehabilitation in patients with neuromotor disability after a stroke. We describe the ergonomic mechanical design, the system control architecture, and the rehabilitation therapies that can be performed. The impedance-based haptic controller implemented in end-effector rehabilitation robot uses the information provided by a JR3 force sensor to achieve an efficient and friendly patient–robot interaction. Two task-oriented therapy modes have been implemented based on the “assist as needed” paradigm. As a result, the amount of support provided by the robot adapts to the patient’s requirements, maintaining the therapy as intensive as possible without compromising the patient’s health and safety and promoting engagement.

  17. Does treadmill training improve lower-extremity tasks in Parkinson disease? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtais, Yesim; Kutlay, Sehim; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Gok, Haydar; Akbostanci, Cenk

    2008-05-01

    To investigate whether gait training with treadmill improves functional tasks of lower extremities in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Randomized controlled trial including two groups, the treadmill training group and the nonintervention group. University hospital. Thirty consecutive patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD, who were on stable regimens of antiparkinsonian medication, able to walk independently, and had not participated in a rehabilitation program in the previous 3 months. Patients with severe cognitive impairments or severe musculoskeletal, cardiopulmonary, neurologic, or other systemic disorders were excluded. Twenty-four patients completed the study. Group I attended a training program on a treadmill for 6 weeks, and group II served as the control group. Both groups were instructed in home mobility exercises. The primary study outcome measures were timed functional lower-extremity tasks (walking at a corridor, U-turn, turning around a chair, stairs, standing on one foot, standing from a chair), and secondary outcome measures were exercise test and patient's global assessment. Assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the study. There were significant improvements in functional lower-extremity tests, exercise test parameters, and patients' global assessment in group I, whereas no significant improvements were observed in group II. Even though long-term effects remain unknown and the study sample was small, it was concluded that treadmill training in PD patients led to improvements in lower-extremity tasks, thus improving patients' physical well-being in daily life.

  18. A training tool to assess laparoscopic image navigation task performance in novice camera assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mahbub; Wilson, Michael S J; Tang, Benjie; Tait, Iain S; Alijani, Afshin

    2017-11-01

    A number of tools for assessing task performance of the laparoscopic camera assistant have been described, but few focus on the acquisition and assessment of the attainment of proficiency in novice laparoscopic camera assistants. Our aim was to develop a simulated objective assessment tool for a novice camera assistant. A 10-cycle image navigation task tool was developed. This involved a series of 360° clockwise and anticlockwise rotation maneuvers of a 30° laparoscope along its shaft, focusing on a predefined geometric target on a 45° fixed slope in a laparoscopic box trainer. The tasks were to simultaneously maintain neutral horizon, optimum distance, and centering. Task accuracy and time to completion were assessed objectively at 3-s intervals on an unedited video recording. Twenty-nine novice medical students were assessed. Novices improved mean total error and task completion time (first versus fifth cycle, mean errors 15.4 versus 8.4, P = 0.048; mean task time 158.1 versus 92.9 s, P = 0.04). This improvement continued until the task cycle was completed (sixth versus 10th cycles, 7.9 versus 6.2, P = 0.01; 91.9 versus 76.6 s, P camera navigation tasks. There was improvement in errors related to maintaining horizon, optimum distance, and centering. Mean task completion time also decreased. This tool could be used as an additional mean of assessment and training in novice surgical trainees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Training Guide for Observation and Interviewing in Marine Corps Task Analysis. Training Manual 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    methods inasmuch as development of task statements for TA Inventories is, as previously noted, essential- ly a research process. 5. Kerlinger , Fred ...New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1968, p. 273. 8. Kerlinger , op. cit., (See Footnote, p. 14), ch. 24 and 25. -21- desired range, the reliability...in the schedule. 10. Kerlinger , op. cit., (See footnote, p. 14), ch. 26. -24- The Unguided Interview, which is characteristically used in non

  20. Rehabilitative training following unilateral pyramidotomy in adult rats improves forelimb function in a non-task-specific way

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, Michelle L.; Bleul, Christiane; Maier, Irin C.; Martin E Schwab

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous functional recovery following injury to the adult central nervous system can be enhanced with increased and focused activity, either through altered behaviour (skill learning, exercise or training) or by artificial stimulation (magnetic or electrical). In terms of training, the choice of paradigm plays a key role in the recovered behaviour. Here we show that task-specific training leads to improved forelimb function that can be translated to a novel forelimb task. Adult Long–Evans...

  1. Efficacy and Feasibility of Functional Upper Extremity Task-Specific Training for Older Adults With and Without Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Sydney Y; Dibble, Leland E; Duff, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    Although functional task-specific training is a viable approach for upper extremity neurorehabilitation, its appropriateness for older populations is unclear. If task-specific training is to be prescribed to older adults, it must be efficacious and feasible, even in patients with cognitive decline due to advancing age. This cross-sectional study tested the efficacy and feasibility of upper extremity task-specific training in older adults, including those with lower cognitive scores. Fifty older adults (age 65-89 years) without any confounding neuromuscular impairment were randomly assigned to a training group or no-training group. The training group completed 3 days (dosage = 2250 repetitions) of a functional upper extremity motor task (simulated feeding) with their nondominant hand; the no-training group completed no form of training at all. Both groups' task performance (measured as trial time) was tested at pre- and posttest, and the training group was retested 1 month later. Efficacy was determined by rate, amount, and retention of training-related improvement, and compared across levels of cognitive status. Feasibility was determined by participants' tolerance of the prescribed training dose. The training group was able to complete the training dose without adverse responses and showed a significant rate, amount, and retention of improvement compared with the no-training group. Cognitive status did not alter results, although participants with lower scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment were slower overall. Task-specific training may be appropriate for improving upper extremity function in older adults, yet future work in older patients with specific neurological conditions is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training : A randomized pre-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkema, Sietske; Bongers, Raoul M.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2017-01-01

    Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used

  3. A training approach to improve stepping automaticity while dual-tasking in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V.; Hu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). M...

  4. Memory bias training by means of the emotional short-term memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulewicz Borysław

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to major cognitive theories of emotional disorders cognitive biases are partly responsible for their onset and maintenance. The direct test of this assumption is possible only if experimental method capable of altering a given form of cognitive bias is available. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel implicit memory bias training procedure based on the emotional version of the classical Sternberg’s short-term memory task with negative, neutral and positive words. 108 participants, who completed the PANAS and the CES-D questionnaires, were randomly assigned to the control group (n = 33, the No-Negative group (n = 36, in which the target words in the Sternberg’s task were either positive or neutral but never negative or the Negative-New group (n = 39 in which the negative target words in the modified Sternberg’s task were always new. This training was followed by the recollection stage. Only one of the training protocols resulted in significant effects at the recall stage - individuals in the No-Negative group recalled more positive words and fewer negative words than those in the control group. These results show that it may be possible to experimentally induce memory bias characteristic of non-depressed individuals.

  5. Effect of Tai Chi Training on Dual-Tasking Performance That Involves Stepping Down among Stroke Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Nga Chan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Descending stairs demands attention and neuromuscular control, especially with dual-tasking. Studies have demonstrated that stroke often degrades a survivor’s ability to descend stairs. Tai Chi has been shown to improve dual-tasking performance of healthy older adults, but no such study has been conducted in stroke survivors. This study investigated the effect of Tai Chi training on dual-tasking performance that involved stepping down and compared it with that of conventional exercise among stroke survivors. Subjects were randomized into Tai Chi (n=9, conventional exercise (n=8, and control (n=9 groups. Those in the former two groups received 12-week training. Assessments included auditory Stroop test, stepping down test, and dual-tasking test involving both simultaneously. They were evaluated before training (time-1, after training (time-2, and one month after training (time-3. Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in the auditory Stroop test from time-1 to time-3 and the performance was significantly better than that of the conventional exercise group in time-3. No significant effect was found in the stepping down task or dual-tasking in the control group. These results suggest a beneficial effect of Tai Chi training on cognition among stroke survivors without compromising physical task performance in dual-tasking. The effect was better than the conventional exercise group. Nevertheless, further research with a larger sample is warranted.

  6. Design Guidelines for the Development of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Training Systems for Maintenance and Assembly Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tecchia Franco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work describes design guidelines for the development of Virtual Reality (VR and Augmented Reality (AR platforms to train technicians on maintenance and assembly tasks of industrial machineries. The main skill involved in this kind of tasks is the procedural skill. Based on past literature and studies conducted within the SKILLS project, several main design guidelines were formulated. First, observational learning integrated properly within the training protocol increases training efficiency. Second, training protocols combining physical and cognitive fidelity enhances procedural skills acquisition. Third, guidance aids should be provided in a proper and controlled way. And last, enriched information about the task helps trainees to develop a useful mental model of the task. These recommendations were implemented in both VR and AR training platforms.

  7. Effects of Hand Dominance and Postural Selection on Muscle Activities of Virtual Laparoscopic Surgical Training Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Boman, Ashley; White, Anthony; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Siu, Ka-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the ergonomic factors, such as hand dominance and postural selection, influenced on surgical performance regarding the changes of muscle activity. Twenty novices performed two virtual laparoscopic surgical training tasks and five target muscle activities were measured. Compared with using dominant hand, surgical skills performance using non-dominant hand increased muscle activities. Muscle fatigue is more likely induced in standing position than sitting position during practice. This study suggests an emerging need to focus on hand dominance during laparoscopic surgical training to address the impact of hand discrepancy on bimanual coordination. It is also important to pay attention on postural selection during training to reduce muscle fatigue, which possibly leads to injuries.

  8. Influence of the type of training task on intermanual transfer effects in upper-limb prosthesis training: A randomized pre-posttest study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Romkema

    Full Text Available Intermanual transfer, the transfer of motor skills from the trained hand to the untrained hand, can be used to train upper limb prosthesis skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between the magnitude of the intermanual transfer effect and the type of training task. The used tasks were based on different aspects of prosthetic handling: reaching, grasping, grip-force production and functional tasks. A single-blinded clinical trial, with a pre-posttest design was executed. Seventy-one able-bodied, right-handed participants were randomly assigned to four training and two control groups. The training groups performed a training program with an upper-limb prosthesis simulator. One control group performed a sham training (a dummy training without the prosthesis simulator and another control group received no training at all. The training groups and sham group trained on five consecutive days. To determine the improvement in skills, a test was administered before, immediately after, and one week after the training. Training was performed with the 'unaffected' arm; tests were performed with the 'affected' arm, with the latter resembling the amputated limb. In this study half of the participants trained with the dominant hand, while the other half trained with the non-dominant hand. Participants executed four tests that corresponded to the different training tasks. The tests measured the reaching (movement time and symmetry ratio, grasping (opening time, duration of maximum hand opening, and closing time, grip-force production (deviation of asked grip-force and functional (movement time performance. Half of the participants were tested with their dominant arm and half of the participants with their non-dominant arm. Intermanual transfer effects were not found for reaching, grasping or functional tasks. However, we did find intermanual transfer effects for grip-force production tasks. Possibly, the study design contributed to the

  9. Dual-task training effects on motor and cognitive functional abilities in individuals with stroke: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Yao, Liqing; Pang, Marco Yiu Chung

    2018-02-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the effects of dual-task balance and mobility training in people with stroke. An extensive electronic databases literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Wiley Online Library. Randomized controlled studies that assessed the effects of dual-task training in stroke patients were included for the review (last search in December 2017). The methodological quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration recommendation, and level of evidence was determined according to the criteria described by the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. About 13 articles involving 457 participants were included in this systematic review. All had substantial risk of bias and thus provided level IIb evidence only. Dual-task mobility training was found to induce more improvement in single-task walking function (standardized effect size = 0.14-2.24), when compared with single-task mobility training. Its effect on dual-task walking function was not consistent. Cognitive-motor balance training was effective in improving single-task balance function (standardized effect size = 0.27-1.82), but its effect on dual-task balance ability was not studied. The beneficial effect of dual-task training on cognitive function was provided by one study only and thus inconclusive. There is some evidence that dual-task training can improve single-task walking and balance function in individuals with stroke. However, any firm recommendation cannot be made due to the weak methodology of the studies reviewed.

  10. Muscles within muscles: the neuromotor control of intra-muscular segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, J B; Brown, J M

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to anatomically identify, and then determine the function of, individual segments within the human deltoid muscle. The anatomical structure of the deltoid was determined through dissection and/or observation of the shoulder girdles of 11 male cadavers (aged 65-84 years). These results indicate that the deltoid consists of seven anatomical segments (D1-D7) based upon the distinctive arrangement of each segment's origin and insertion. Radiographic analysis of a cadaveric shoulder joint suggested that only the postero-medial segment D7 has a line of action directed below the shoulder joint's axis of rotation. The functional role of each individual segment was then determined utilising an electromyographic (EMG) technique. Seven miniature (1 mm active plate; 7 mm interelectrode distance) bipolar surface electrodes were positioned over the proximal portion of each segment's muscle belly in 18 male and female subjects (18-30 years). EMG waveforms were then recorded during the production of rapid isometric shoulder abduction and adduction force impulses with the shoulder joint in 40 degrees of abduction in the plane of the scapula. Each subject randomly performed 15 abduction and 15 adduction isometric force impulses following a short familiarisation period. All subjects received visual feed back on the duration and amplitude of each isometric force impulse produced via a visual force-time display which compared subject performance to a criterion force-time curve. Movement time was 400 ms (time-to-peak isometric force) at an intensity level of 50% maximal voluntary contraction. Temporal and intensity analyses of the EMG waveforms, as well as temporal analysis of the isometric force impulses, revealed the neuromotor control strategies utilised by the CNS to control the activity of each muscle segment. The results showed that segmental neuromotor control strategies differ across the breadth of the muscle and that individual segments of the

  11. Mechanisms for Extracting a Signal from Noise as Revealed through the Specificity and Generality of Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dorita H. F.; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2013-01-01

    Visual judgments critically depend on (1) the detection of meaningful items from cluttered backgrounds and (2) the discrimination of an item from highly similar alternatives. Learning and experience are known to facilitate these processes, but the specificity with which these processes operate is poorly understood. Here we use psychophysical measures of human participants to test learning in two types of commonly used tasks that target segmentation (signal-in-noise, or “coarse” tasks) versus the discrimination of highly similar items (feature difference, or “fine” tasks). First, we consider the processing of binocular disparity signals, examining performance on signal-in-noise and feature difference tasks after a period of training on one of these tasks. Second, we consider the generality of learning between different visual features, testing performance on both task types for displays defined by disparity, motion, or orientation. We show that training on a feature difference task also improves performance on signal-in-noise tasks, but only for the same visual feature. By contrast, training on a signal-in-noise task has limited benefits for fine judgments of the same feature but supports learning that generalizes to signal-in-noise tasks for other features. These findings indicate that commonly used signal-in-noise tasks require at least three distinct components: feature representations, signal-specific selection, and a generalized process that enhances segmentation. As such, there is clear potential to harness areas of commonality (both within and between cues) to improve impaired perceptual functions. PMID:23825402

  12. Training wrist extensor function and detecting unwanted movement strategies in an EMG-controlled visuomotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mingxing; Lambelet, Charles; Woolley, Daniel; Zhang, Xue; Chen, Weihai; Ding, Xilun; Gassert, Roger; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    Stroke patients often suffer from severe upper limb paresis. Rehabilitation treatment typically targets motor impairments as early as possible, however, muscular contractions, particularly in the wrist and fingers, are often too weak to produce overt movements, making the initial phase of rehabilitation training difficult. Here we propose a new training tool whereby electromyographic (EMG) activity is measured in the wrist extensors and serves as a proxy of voluntary corticomotor drive. We used the Myo armband to develop a proportional EMG controller which allowed volunteers to perform a simple visuomotor task by modulating wrist extensor activity. In this preliminary study six healthy participants practiced the task for one session (144 trials), which resulted in a significant reduction of the average trial time required to move and hold a cursor in different target zones (p classifier to distinguish between the desired movement strategy and unwanted alternatives. Validation of the classifier indicated that accuracy for detecting rest, wrist extension and unwanted strategies was 92.5 + 6.9% (M + SD) across all participants. When performing the motor task the classification algorithm flagged 4.3 + 3.5% of the trials as 'unwanted strategies', even in healthy subjects. We also report initial feedback from a survey submitted to two chronic stroke patients to inquire about feasibility and acceptance of the general setup by patients.

  13. Functional connectivity among spike trains in neural assemblies during rat working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiacun; Bai, Wenwen; Liu, Tiaotiao; Tian, Xin

    2014-11-01

    Working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage to manipulate information for complex cognitive tasks. As the brain is a more complex, dynamic and interwoven network of connections and interactions, the questions raised here: how to investigate the mechanism of working memory from the view of functional connectivity in brain network? How to present most characteristic features of functional connectivity in a low-dimensional network? To address these questions, we recorded the spike trains in prefrontal cortex with multi-electrodes when rats performed a working memory task in Y-maze. The functional connectivity matrix among spike trains was calculated via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The average connectivity value Cc, mean of the matrix, was calculated and used to describe connectivity strength quantitatively. The spike network was constructed by the functional connectivity matrix. The information transfer efficiency Eglob was calculated and used to present the features of the network. In order to establish a low-dimensional spike network, the active neurons with higher firing rates than average rate were selected based on sparse coding. The results show that the connectivity Cc and the network transfer efficiency Eglob vaired with time during the task. The maximum values of Cc and Eglob were prior to the working memory behavior reference point. Comparing with the results in the original network, the feature network could present more characteristic features of functional connectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Process evaluation of a task-shifting strategy in hormonal contraception: does training translate into practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith R; Rousseau, Mélanie; Guilbert, Alexis C; Robitaille, Jean; Gagnon, Hélène; Morin, Diane

    2013-12-01

    Since 2000, the Province of Quebec has experienced a shortage of physicians and a decrease in access to prescription contraceptives. A task-shifting strategy was launched in 2007 to allow trained nurses, in collaboration with community pharmacists, to start healthy women on hormonal contraception for a six-month period without a medical consultation. This study examined the proportion of trained nurses effectively involved in this innovative practice to determine which factors are associated with it. We performed a cross-sectional study in which all nurses who had been trained in hormonal contraception since 2007, who were registered with the College of Nurses of Quebec, and who were employed as nurses in the Quebec Health System were asked to respond to a postal or electronic survey. A total of 3043 nurses were invited to participate in the study. Fifty-seven percent (57.3%) of 745 respondents were involved in this new practice. The major determinant was the adoption of the Collaborative Agreement in Hormonal Contraception by health organizations. The other influential factors were having been trained before 2011, being a permanent employee, working in a youth clinic of a centre for health and social services, and working in a rural or remote area. Despite a modest response rate, this study provides support for formalizing the training of nurses in hormonal contraception by integrating it into nursing education at all levels, and for implementing it in other health organizations such as family medicine groups, which are widespread in Quebec.

  15. Agility and search and rescue training differently affects pet dogs' behaviour in socio-cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Passalacqua, Chiara; Barnard, Shanis; Valsecchi, Paola; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2009-07-01

    Both genetic factors and life experiences appear to be important in shaping dogs' responses in a test situation. One potentially highly relevant life experience may be the dog's training history, however few studies have investigated this aspect so far. This paper briefly reviews studies focusing on the effects of training on dogs' performance in cognitive tasks, and presents new, preliminary evidence on trained and untrained pet dogs' performance in an 'unsolvable task'. Thirty-nine adult dogs: 13 trained for search and rescue activities (S&R group), 13 for agility competition (Agility group) and 13 untrained pets (Pet group) were tested. Three 'solvable' trials in which dogs could obtain the food by manipulating a plastic container were followed by an 'unsolvable' trial in which obtaining the food became impossible. The dogs' behaviours towards the apparatus and the people present (owner and researcher) were analysed. Both in the first 'solvable' and in the 'unsolvable' trial the groups were comparable on actions towards the apparatus, however differences emerged in their human-directed gazing behaviour. In fact, results in the 'solvable' trial, showed fewer S&R dogs looking back at a person compared to agility dogs, and the latter alternating their gaze between person and apparatus more frequently than pet dogs. In the unsolvable trial no difference between groups emerged in the latency to look at the person however agility dogs looked longer at the owner than both pet and S&R dogs; whereas S&R dogs exhibited significantly more barking (always occurring concurrently to looking at the person or the apparatus) than both other groups. Furthermore, S&R dogs alternated their gaze between person and apparatus more than untrained pet dogs, with agility dogs falling in between these two groups. Thus overall, it seems that the dogs' human-directed communicative behaviours are significantly influenced by their individual training experiences.

  16. End-Task Versus In-Task Feedback to Increase Procedural Learning Retention during Spinal Anaesthesia Training of Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Lyn Li; Hong, Ryan Yee Shiun; Ti, Lian Kah

    2017-01-01

    Communication of feedback during teaching of practical procedures is a fine balance of structure and timing. We investigate if continuous in-task (IT) or end-task feedback (ET) is more effective in teaching spinal anaesthesia to medical students. End-task feedback was hypothesized to improve both short-term and long-term procedural learning…

  17. Learning better by repetition or variation? Is transfer at odds with task specific training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Emmanuel; Jelsma, Lemke Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of motor skills is the ultimate goal of motor training in rehabilitation practice. In children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), very little is known about how skills are transferred from training situations to real life contexts. In this study we examined the influence of two types of practice on transfer of motor skills acquired in a virtual reality (VR) environment. One hundred and eleven children with DCD and their typically developing (TD) peers, aged 6-10 years (M = 8.0 SD = 1.0) were randomly assigned to either variable (n = 56) or repetitive practice (n = 55). Participants in the repetitive practice played the same exergame (ski slalom) twice weekly for 20 minutes, over a period of 5 weeks, while those in the variable group played 10 different games. Motor skills such as balance tasks (hopping), running and agility tasks, ball skills and functional activities were evaluated before and after 5 weeks of training. ANOVA repeated measures indicated that both DCD and TD children demonstrated transfer effects to real life skills with identical and non-identical elements at exactly the same rate, irrespective of the type of practice they were assigned to. Based on these findings, we conclude that motor skills acquired in the VR environment, transfers to real world contexts in similar proportions for both TD and DCD children. The type of practice adopted does not seem to influence children's ability to transfer skills acquired in an exergame to life situations but the number of identical elements does.

  18. A competency framework for colonoscopy training derived from cognitive task analysis techniques and expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Christine M; Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Hill, Andrew; Riek, Stephan; Wallis, Guy M; Plooy, Annaliese M; Horswill, Mark S; Watson, Marcus O; Hewett, David G

    2015-12-01

    Colonoscopy is a difficult cognitive-perceptual-motor task. Designing an appropriate instructional program for such a task requires an understanding of the knowledge, skills and attitudes underpinning the competency required to perform the task. Cognitive task analysis techniques provide an empirical means of deriving this information. Video recording and a think-aloud protocol were conducted while 20 experienced endoscopists performed colonoscopy procedures. "Cued-recall" interviews were also carried out post-procedure with nine of the endoscopists. Analysis of the resulting transcripts employed the constant comparative coding method within a grounded theory framework. The resulting draft competency framework was modified after review during semi-structured interviews conducted with six expert endoscopists. The proposed colonoscopy competency framework consists of twenty-seven skill, knowledge and attitude components, grouped into six categories (clinical knowledge; colonoscope handling; situation awareness; heuristics and strategies; clinical reasoning; and intra- and inter-personal). The colonoscopy competency framework provides a principled basis for the design of a training program, and for the design of formative assessment to gauge progress towards attaining the knowledge, skills and attitudes underpinning the achievement of colonoscopy competence.

  19. Cortical correlates of neuromotor development in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, M A; Ziemann, U; Bartko, J J; Denckla, M B; Barker, C A; Wassermann, E M

    2003-09-01

    To examine the relationship between acquisition of fine motor skills in childhood and development of the motor cortex. We measured finger tapping speed and mirror movements in 43 healthy right-handed subjects (6-26 years of age). While recording surface electromyographic activity from right and left first dorsal interosseus, we delivered focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand areas of each motor cortex. We measured motor evoked potential (MEP) threshold, and ipsilateral (iSP) and contralateral (CSP) silent periods. As children got older, finger speeds got faster, MEP threshold decreased, iSP duration increased and latency decreased. Finger tapping speed got faster as motor thresholds and iSP latency decreased, but was unrelated to CSP duration. In all subjects right hemisphere MEP thresholds were higher than those on the left and duration of right hemisphere CSP was longer than that on the left. Children under 10 years of age had higher left hand mirror movement scores, and fewer left hemisphere iSPs which were of longer duration. Maturation of finger tapping skills is closely related to developmental changes in the motor threshold and iSP latency. Studies are warranted to explore the relationship between these measures and other neuromotor skills in children with motor disorders. TMS can provide important insights into certain functional aspects of neurodevelopment in children.

  20. The Transfer of Perceptual and/or Motor Training to the Performance of a Coincidence-Anticipation Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Chantal; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Tested children's transfer of training in performance of coincidence-anticipation task. At an experimental apparatus, children attempted to intercept a fixed or moving target by pressing a button or by sliding a disk (the criterion task). Found that improved accuracy in intercepting the moving target by sliding the disk occurred only when children…

  1. Psychophysiological correlates of emotion regulation training in adolescent anxiety: Evidence from the novel PIER task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Nele A J; Sütterlin, Stefan; Braet, Caroline; Mueller, Sven C

    2017-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are the leading cause of mental illness in adolescence. While anxious adolescents show impairments in emotion processing and deficits in emotion regulation, few studies have attempted to improve emotion regulation within these populations. This study used a multi-method design to test a newly developed emotion regulation training aimed at improving insight into emotions and instructing cognitive reappraisal. The efficacy of cognitive reappraisal was investigated in 27 clinically anxious youth (Age: M=12.36, SD=2.59) and 43 healthy controls (Age: M=13.07, SD=2.19) using psychophysiological measures. Specifically, heart rate variability, pupil dilation, and visual fixations were recorded while youth had to up- or downregulate their emotions in response to affective pictures in the Psychophysiological Indicators of Emotion Regulation (PIER) task. The novel training effectively improved self-reported emotion regulation and momentary anxiety in both groups. Moreover, initial group differences in emotional reactivity mostly disappeared when participants were instructed to apply emotion regulation in the task. However, pupil dilation data suggested that participants with anxiety disorders required more cognitive resources for the upregulation of negative affect to counteract this effect. The relatively small sample size and large age range could hamper detection of additional group differences that may exist. The current study provides evidence that anxious youth can apply cognitive reappraisal to a similar extent as healthy adolescents after emotion regulation training but may need to exert more effort to do so. This training could be a valuable addition to current treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerobic exercise prior to task-specific training to improve poststroke motor function: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkenborghs, S R; Visser, M M; Nilsson, M; Callister, R; van Vliet, P

    2018-02-13

    Aerobic exercise can improve upper limb motor function in both healthy and stroke populations. Research in animals after stroke has shown that aerobic exercise combined with forelimb motor training improved forelimb motor function more than aerobic exercise or motor training alone. There is a lack of knowledge about this combined intervention in humans after stroke. These 2 case reports describe the exploratory implementation of a combined aerobic exercise and task-specific training intervention to improve upper limb motor function in one person in subacute stroke recovery and one person in chronic stroke recovery. Case descriptions Subacute participant: 45-year-old female, 3 months after ischemic stroke resulting in left-sided hemiparesis affecting her non-dominant upper limb, with a baseline Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) score of 10/57 and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) score of 39/75. Chronic participant: 69-year-old female, 14 years after ischemic stroke resulting in right-sided hemiparesis affecting her non-dominant upper limb, with a baseline ARAT score of 13/57 and WMFT score of 34/75. Intervention Participants performed 30 min of lower limb cycling immediately prior to 30 min of upper limb task-specific training. Sessions were undertaken 3 times a week for 8 weeks in a university rehabilitation laboratory. Results The combined intervention was feasible and perceived as acceptable and beneficial. Participants improved their upper limb motor function on the ARAT (subacute participant = 4 points; chronic participant = 2 points) and WMFT (subacute participant = 5 points; chronic participant = 3 points). Participants improved their aerobic fitness (subacute participant = +4.66 ml O 2 /kg/min; chronic participant = +7.34 ml O 2 /kg/min) and 6-minute walking distance (subacute participant = +50 m; chronic participant = +37 m). Discussion Combining aerobic exercise with task-specific training may be a worthwhile therapeutic approach to

  3. Muscular co-contraction covaries with task load to control the flow of motion in fine motor tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Galen, G.P. van; Hulstijn, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Bloemsaat, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between movement-time fluctuations in fine motor tasks and changing levels of muscular co-contraction. Based on a recent neuromotor noise theory, we expected that increased task stress would increase muscular co-contraction and prolong movement times. Ten

  4. Will working memory training generalize to improve off-task behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chloe T; Long, Debra L; Green, David; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Dixon, J Faye; Miller, Meghan R; Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2012-07-01

    Computerized working memory and executive function training programs designed to target specific impairments in executive functioning are becoming increasingly available, yet how well these programs generalize to improve functional deficits in disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), beyond the training context is not well-established. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which working memory (WM) training in children with ADHD would diminish a core dysfunctional behavior associated with the disorder, "off-task" behavior during academic task performance. The effect of computerized WM training (adaptive) was compared to a placebo condition (nonadaptive) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in 26 children (18 males; age, 7 to 14 years old) diagnosed with ADHD. Participants completed the training in approximately 25 sessions. The Restricted Academic Situations Task (RAST) observational system was used to assess aspects of off-task behavior during the completion of an academic task. Traditional measures of ADHD symptoms (Conners' Parent Rating Scale) and WM ability (standardized WM tests) were also collected. WM training led to significant reductions in off-task ADHD-associated behavior on the RAST system and improvement on WM tests. There were no significant differences between groups in improvement on parent rating scales. Findings lend insight into the generalizability of the effects of WM training and the relation between deficits in WM and off-task behavioral components of ADHD. These preliminary data suggest WM training may provide a mechanism for indirectly altering academic performance in children with ADHD.

  5. Designing simulator-based training: An approach integrating cognitive task analysis and four-component instructional design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjiam, I.M.; Schout, B.M.; Hendrikx, A.J.M.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Witjes, J.A.; Van Merrienboer, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of simulator-based surgical skills training have focused on the acquisition of psychomotor skills, but surgical procedures are complex tasks requiring both psychomotor and cognitive skills. As skills training is modelled on expert performance consisting partly of unconscious automatic

  6. Effects of training peer tutors in content knowledge versus tutoring skills on giving feedback to help tutees’ complex tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsiao, Amy; Brouns, Francis; Van Bruggen, Jan; Sloep, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of training tutors in content knowledge of a particular domain versus training them in tutoring skills of pedagogical knowledge when tutoring on a complex tutee task. Forty-seven tutor-tutee pairs of fourth year secondary school students were created

  7. Self-Control of Task Difficulty during Training Enhances Motor Learning of a Complex Coincidence-Anticipation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Mathieu; Danna, Jeremy; Thon, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to analyze the influence of self-controlled task difficulty on motor learning. Participants had to intercept three targets falling at different velocities by displacing a stylus above a digitizer. Task difficulty corresponded to racquet width. Half the participants (self-control condition) could choose the racquet…

  8. Improvement in arm and hand function after a stroke with task-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israely, Sharon; Leisman, Gerry; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-03-17

    A man aged 77 years sustained a left-hemisphere stroke with right hemiparesis. After spending 10 days in the hospital, he was referred to an area rehabilitation centre. There he carried out daily physical, occupational and speech therapy, with an emphasis on task-oriented treatment. The patient's upper-extremity motor performance was evaluated at admission to the rehabilitation centre and before leaving the hospital by 3 different measurement tools: the upper-extremity motor part of the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale, electromyography in hand-reach and grasp and object manipulation and handwriting tasks. Significant improvement in hand function was observed in proximal as well as in distal skills. Significant improvement in handwriting skills and decreased impairment level of the upper extremity had considerable effects on the quality of life of the patient. The case report emphasises the importance of intensive task-oriented training during the first 3 months after stroke to support the natural recovery of the lesioned area. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Cognitive Task Analysis: Bringing Olympic Athlete Style Training to Surgical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Laura R; Kulendran, Myutan; Chow, Andre; Nehme, Jean; Purkayastha, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Surgical training is changing and evolving as time, pressure, and legislative demands continue to mount on trainee surgeons. A paradigm change in the focus of training has resulted in experts examining the cognitive steps needed to perform complex and often highly pressurized surgical procedures. To provide an overview of the collective evidence on cognitive task analysis (CTA) as a surgical training method, and determine if CTA improves a surgeon's performance as measured by technical and nontechnical skills assessment, including precision, accuracy, and operative errors. A systematic literature review was performed. PubMed, Cochrane, and reference lists were analyzed for appropriate inclusion. A total of 595 surgical participants were identified through the literature review and a total of 13 articles were included. Of these articles, 6 studies focused on general surgery, 2 focused on practical procedures relevant to surgery (central venous catheterization placement), 2 studies focused on head and neck surgical procedures (cricothyroidotomy and percutaneous tracheostomy placement), 2 studies highlighted vascular procedures (endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and carotid artery stenting), and 1 detailed endovascular repair (abdominal aorta and thoracic aorta). Overall, 92.3% of studies showed that CTA improves surgical outcome parameters, including time, precision, accuracy, and error reduction in both simulated and real-world environments. CTA has been shown to be a more effective training tool when compared with traditional methods of surgical training. There is a need for the introduction of CTA into surgical curriculums as this can improve surgical skill and ultimately create better patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A training approach to improve stepping automaticity while dual-tasking in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V.; Hu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). Methods: This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study. The intervention uses a sensor system and algorithm that runs off the iPod Touch which calculates step height (SH) in real-time. These measurements were then used to trigger auditory (treatment group, music; control group, radio podcast) playback in real-time through wireless headphones upon maintenance of repeated large amplitude stepping. With small steps or shuffling, auditory playback stops, thus allowing participants to use anticipatory motor control to regain positive feedback. Eleven participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (Trial Number: ISRCTN06023392). Fear of falling (FES-I), general cognitive functioning (MoCA), self-reported freezing of gait (FOG-Q), and DT step automaticity were evaluated. Results: While we found no significant effect of training on FES-I, MoCA, or FOG-Q, we did observe a significant group (music vs podcast) by training interaction in DT step automaticity (Pmusically-contingent SIP training to increase motor automaticity for people living with PD. The training approach described here can be implemented at home to meet the growing demand for self-management of symptoms by patients. PMID:28151878

  11. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Francis Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, "trained" networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale's principle, which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural

  12. Learning better by repetition or variation? Is transfer at odds with task specific training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bonney

    Full Text Available Transfer of motor skills is the ultimate goal of motor training in rehabilitation practice. In children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD, very little is known about how skills are transferred from training situations to real life contexts. In this study we examined the influence of two types of practice on transfer of motor skills acquired in a virtual reality (VR environment.One hundred and eleven children with DCD and their typically developing (TD peers, aged 6-10 years (M = 8.0 SD = 1.0 were randomly assigned to either variable (n = 56 or repetitive practice (n = 55. Participants in the repetitive practice played the same exergame (ski slalom twice weekly for 20 minutes, over a period of 5 weeks, while those in the variable group played 10 different games. Motor skills such as balance tasks (hopping, running and agility tasks, ball skills and functional activities were evaluated before and after 5 weeks of training.ANOVA repeated measures indicated that both DCD and TD children demonstrated transfer effects to real life skills with identical and non-identical elements at exactly the same rate, irrespective of the type of practice they were assigned to.Based on these findings, we conclude that motor skills acquired in the VR environment, transfers to real world contexts in similar proportions for both TD and DCD children. The type of practice adopted does not seem to influence children's ability to transfer skills acquired in an exergame to life situations but the number of identical elements does.

  13. Reward-based training of recurrent neural networks for cognitive and value-based tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H Francis; Yang, Guangyu R; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Trained neural network models, which exhibit features of neural activity recorded from behaving animals, may provide insights into the circuit mechanisms of cognitive functions through systematic analysis of network activity and connectivity. However, in contrast to the graded error signals commonly used to train networks through supervised learning, animals learn from reward feedback on definite actions through reinforcement learning. Reward maximization is particularly relevant when optimal behavior depends on an animal’s internal judgment of confidence or subjective preferences. Here, we implement reward-based training of recurrent neural networks in which a value network guides learning by using the activity of the decision network to predict future reward. We show that such models capture behavioral and electrophysiological findings from well-known experimental paradigms. Our work provides a unified framework for investigating diverse cognitive and value-based computations, and predicts a role for value representation that is essential for learning, but not executing, a task. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21492.001 PMID:28084991

  14. Post-training scopolamine treatment induced maladaptive behavior in open field habituation task in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Popović

    Full Text Available The effects of scopolamine on memory consolidation are controversial and depend on several factors (i.e. site of administration, time of administration and testing, dose, cognitive task, experimental protocol, specie, strain, etc.. Generally, the range dose of systemic administered scopolamine, used in memory consolidation studies, has varied from 0.05 to 50 mg/kg. However, according to the literature, the most frequently used doses of scopolamine efficient on memory consolidation, are 1 and 30 mg/kg, low and high doses, respectively. In open field habituation studies only lower doses of scopolamine were used to test memory consolidation. Therefore, in the present study we compared the effects of low (1 mg/kg and high (30 mg/kg scopolamine dose, on the open field habituation task, in male Wistar rats. Scopolamine was administered immediately after the acquisition task and animals were retested 48 h later on. On the retested day, the ambulation and rearing in the open field decreased in the same manner in all tested groups. In saline- and 1 mg/kg scopolamine-treated animals, the time spent in grooming significantly decreased in the habituation task, while the same parameter significantly increased in animals treated with 30 mg/kg of scopolamine. The defecation rate significantly decreased (control group, maintained (1 mg/kg of scopolamine treated animals or significantly increased (30 mg/kg of scopolamine treated group on retention test. In conclusion, the present data suggest that post-training scopolamine administration does not affect locomotion neither exploration in the habituation to a novel environment, but increases defecation and grooming, two behaviours associated with fearful and stressful situations.

  15. Training-related changes in dual-task walking performance of elderly persons with balance impairment: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silsupadol, Patima; Lugade, Vipul; Shumway-Cook, Anne; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan; Mayr, Ulrich; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of three different balance training strategies in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying training-related changes in dual-task balance performance of older adults with balance impairment. Elderly individuals with balance impairment, age 65 and older, were randomly assigned to one of three individualized training programs: single-task (ST) balance training; dual-task training with fixed-priority (FP) instruction; and dual-task training with variable-priority (VP) instruction. Balance control during gait, under practiced and novel conditions, was assessed by calculating the center of mass and ankle joint center inclination angles in the frontal plane. A smaller angle indicated better balance performance. Other outcomes included gait velocity, stride length, verbal reaction time, and rate of response. All measures were collected at baseline and the end of the 4-week training. Results indicated that all training strategies were equally effective (P > .05) at improving balance performance (smaller inclination angle) under single-task contexts. However, the VP training strategy was more effective (P = .04) in improving both balance and cognitive performance under dual-task conditions than either the ST or the FP training strategies. Improved dual-task processing skills did not transfer to a novel dual-task condition. Results support Kramer et al.’s proposal that VP training improves both single-task automatization and the development of task-coordination skills. PMID:19201610

  16. Designing simulator-based training: an approach integrating cognitive task analysis and four-component instructional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiam, Irene M; Schout, Barbara M A; Hendrikx, Ad J M; Scherpbier, Albert J J M; Witjes, J Alfred; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J G

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of simulator-based surgical skills training have focused on the acquisition of psychomotor skills, but surgical procedures are complex tasks requiring both psychomotor and cognitive skills. As skills training is modelled on expert performance consisting partly of unconscious automatic processes that experts are not always able to explicate, simulator developers should collaborate with educational experts and physicians in developing efficient and effective training programmes. This article presents an approach to designing simulator-based skill training comprising cognitive task analysis integrated with instructional design according to the four-component/instructional design model. This theory-driven approach is illustrated by a description of how it was used in the development of simulator-based training for the nephrostomy procedure.

  17. Training Excitatory-Inhibitory Recurrent Neural Networks for Cognitive Tasks: A Simple and Flexible Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously record from large numbers of neurons in behaving animals has ushered in a new era for the study of the neural circuit mechanisms underlying cognitive functions. One promising approach to uncovering the dynamical and computational principles governing population responses is to analyze model recurrent neural networks (RNNs) that have been optimized to perform the same tasks as behaving animals. Because the optimization of network parameters specifies the desired output but not the manner in which to achieve this output, “trained” networks serve as a source of mechanistic hypotheses and a testing ground for data analyses that link neural computation to behavior. Complete access to the activity and connectivity of the circuit, and the ability to manipulate them arbitrarily, make trained networks a convenient proxy for biological circuits and a valuable platform for theoretical investigation. However, existing RNNs lack basic biological features such as the distinction between excitatory and inhibitory units (Dale’s principle), which are essential if RNNs are to provide insights into the operation of biological circuits. Moreover, trained networks can achieve the same behavioral performance but differ substantially in their structure and dynamics, highlighting the need for a simple and flexible framework for the exploratory training of RNNs. Here, we describe a framework for gradient descent-based training of excitatory-inhibitory RNNs that can incorporate a variety of biological knowledge. We provide an implementation based on the machine learning library Theano, whose automatic differentiation capabilities facilitate modifications and extensions. We validate this framework by applying it to well-known experimental paradigms such as perceptual decision-making, context-dependent integration, multisensory integration, parametric working memory, and motor sequence generation. Our results demonstrate the wide range of neural activity

  18. Effects of Field of View and Visual Complexity on Virtual Reality Training Effectiveness for a Visual Scanning Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Eric D; Bowman, Doug A; Kopper, Regis; Stinson, Cheryl; Scerbo, Siroberto; McMahan, Ryan P

    2015-07-01

    Virtual reality training systems are commonly used in a variety of domains, and it is important to understand how the realism of a training simulation influences training effectiveness. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of display and scenario properties on training effectiveness for a visual scanning task in a simulated urban environment. The experiment varied the levels of field of view and visual complexity during a training phase and then evaluated scanning performance with the simulator's highest levels of fidelity and scene complexity. To assess scanning performance, we measured target detection and adherence to a prescribed strategy. The results show that both field of view and visual complexity significantly affected target detection during training; higher field of view led to better performance and higher visual complexity worsened performance. Additionally, adherence to the prescribed visual scanning strategy during assessment was best when the level of visual complexity during training matched that of the assessment conditions, providing evidence that similar visual complexity was important for learning the technique. The results also demonstrate that task performance during training was not always a sufficient measure of mastery of an instructed technique. That is, if learning a prescribed strategy or skill is the goal of a training exercise, performance in a simulation may not be an appropriate indicator of effectiveness outside of training-evaluation in a more realistic setting may be necessary.

  19. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Hoyo Moisés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.

  20. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Lorenzo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data Sources PubMed (1950-2009, EMBASE (1988-2009, Web of Science (1945-2009, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2009, CINAHL (1982-2009 and PsycINFO (1840-2009. The search strategy was composed of terms referring to biofeedback, balance or mobility, and older adults. Additional studies were identified by scanning reference lists. Study Selection For evaluating effectiveness, 2 reviewers independently screened papers and included controlled studies in older adults (i.e. mean age equal to or greater than 60 years if they applied biofeedback during repeated practice sessions, and if they used at least one objective outcome measure of a balance or mobility task. Data Extraction Rating of study quality, with use of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database rating scale (PEDro scale, was performed independently by the 2 reviewers. Indications for (noneffectiveness were identified if 2 or more similar studies reported a (nonsignificant effect for the same type of outcome. Effect sizes were calculated. Results and Conclusions Although most available studies did not systematically evaluate feasibility aspects, reports of high participation rates, low drop-out rates, absence of adverse events and positive training experiences suggest that biofeedback methods can be applied in older adults. Effectiveness was evaluated based on 21 studies, mostly of moderate quality. An indication for effectiveness of visual feedback-based training of balance in (frail older adults was identified for postural sway, weight-shifting and reaction time in standing, and for the Berg Balance Scale. Indications for added effectiveness of applying biofeedback during training of

  1. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  2. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JuHyung; Yoo, Chanuk

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects that task-oriented training has on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Task-oriented training was applied to two chronic hemiplegic patients in this research. The training was provided to each patient for 30 minutes a day, five times a week for two weeks. The treatment program included six different types of training that could be performed by the patients themselves. Evaluation was performed four times, that is, once a week for three weeks before the intervention and once after the intervention. The change in upper extremity function was measured with the Manual Function Test, and the change in performance of daily activity was measured with the Functional Independence Measure. [Results] The upper extremity function of both subjects was improved after application of task-oriented training. However, in the performance of daily activities, subject one showed improvement compared to with before the intervention, whereas subject two showed the same results. [Conclusion] This research confirmed that two weeks of task-oriented training for chronic stroke patients is effective for improvement of upper extremity function and performance of daily activities by chronic stroke patients.

  3. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sachs

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  4. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: effects of musical training, vividness, and mental control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelding, Rebecca W; Thompson, William Forde; Johnson, Blake W

    2015-01-01

    Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT), which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery.

  5. The Pitch Imagery Arrow Task: effects of musical training, vividness, and mental control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W Gelding

    Full Text Available Musical imagery is a relatively unexplored area, partly because of deficiencies in existing experimental paradigms, which are often difficult, unreliable, or do not provide objective measures of performance. Here we describe a novel protocol, the Pitch Imagery Arrow Task (PIAT, which induces and trains pitch imagery in both musicians and non-musicians. Given a tonal context and an initial pitch sequence, arrows are displayed to elicit a scale-step sequence of imagined pitches, and participants indicate whether the final imagined tone matches an audible probe. It is a staircase design that accommodates individual differences in musical experience and imagery ability. This new protocol was used to investigate the roles that musical expertise, self-reported auditory vividness and mental control play in imagery performance. Performance on the task was significantly better for participants who employed a musical imagery strategy compared to participants who used an alternative cognitive strategy and positively correlated with scores on the Control subscale from the Bucknell Auditory Imagery Scale (BAIS. Multiple regression analysis revealed that Imagery performance accuracy was best predicted by a combination of strategy use and scores on the Vividness subscale of BAIS. These results confirm that competent performance on the PIAT requires active musical imagery and is very difficult to achieve using alternative cognitive strategies. Auditory vividness and mental control were more important than musical experience in the ability to perform manipulation of pitch imagery.

  6. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  7. A motorized pellet dispenser to deliver high intensity training of the single pellet reaching and grasping task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Espín, Abel; Forero, Juan; Schmidt, Emma K A; Fouad, Karim; Fenrich, Keith K

    2018-01-15

    The single pellet reaching and grasping (SPG) task is widely used to study forelimb motor performance in rodents and to provide rehabilitation after neurological disorders. Nonetheless, the time necessary to train animals precludes its use in settings where high-intensity training is required. In the current study, we developed a novel high-intensity training protocol for the SPG task based on a motorized pellet dispenser and a dual-window enclosure. We tested the protocol in naive adult rats and found 1) an increase in the intensity of training without increasing the task time and without affecting the overall performance of the animals, 2) a reduction in the variability within and between experiments in comparison to manual SPG training, and 3) a reduction in the time required to conduct experiments. In summary, we developed and tested a novel protocol for SPG training that provides higher-intensity training while reducing the variability of results observed with other protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed Intervention with Intermittent Hypoxia and Task Training Improves Forelimb Function in a Rat Model of Cervical Spinal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Hassan, Atiq; Mitchell, Gordon S; Muir, Gillian D

    2015-09-15

    The reduction of motor, sensory and autonomic function below the level of an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences. One approach to restore function is to induce neural plasticity as a means of augmenting spontaneous functional recovery. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH-brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) elicits plasticity in respiratory and nonrespiratory somatic spinal systems, including improvements in ladder walking performance in rats with incomplete SCI. Here, we determined whether delayed treatment with AIH, with or without concomitant motor training, could improve motor recovery in a rat model of incomplete cervical SCI. In a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled study, rats were exposed to AIH for 7 days beginning at 4 weeks post-SCI, after much spontaneous recovery on a horizontal ladder-crossing task had already occurred. For up to 2 months post-treatment, AIH-treated rats made fewer footslips on the ladder task compared with sham-treated rats. Importantly, concomitant ladder-specific motor training was needed to elicit AIH-induced improvements, such that AIH-treated SCI rats receiving no motor training or nontask-specific treadmill training during the treatment week did not show improvements over sham-treated rats with SCI. AIH treatment combined with task-specific training did not improve recovery on two different reach-to-grasp tasks, however, nor on tasks involving unskilled forepaw use. In brief, our results indicate that task-specific training is needed for AIH to improve ladder performance in a rat model of incomplete cervical SCI.

  9. Meaningful task-specific training (MTST) for stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Verma, Rajesh; Garg, R K; Sharma, V P; Agarwal, Monika; Aggarwal, G G

    2012-01-01

    The upper extremity motor deficit is one of the functional challenges in post stroke patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the meaningful task-specific training (MTST) on the upper extremity motor recovery during the subacute phase after a stroke. This was a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial in the neurology department of a university hospital and occupational therapy unit of a rehabilitation institute. A convenience sample of 103 people, 4 to 24 weeks (mean, 12.15 weeks) after the stroke, was randomized into 2 groups (MTST, 51; standard training group, 52). Subjects in the Brunnstrom stage of arm recovery of 2 to 5 were included in the study. Ninety-five participants completed the 8-week follow-up. Participants were assigned to receive either the MTST or dose-matched standard training program based on the Brunnstrom stage and Bobath neurodevelopmental technique, 4 to 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Graded Wolf Motor Function Test (GWMFT), and Motor Activity Log (MAL) were outcome measures The MTST group showed a positive improvement in the mean scores on the outcome measures at post and follow-up assessments in comparison to the control group. Further, statistically significant differences were observed in changes between the groups at post and follow-up assessment for FMA, ARAT, GWMFT, and MAL. The MTST produced statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in the upper extremity motor recovery of the patients who had a subacute stroke.

  10. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; Pmotor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication…

  12. Enhancing dual-task performance with verbal and spatial working memory training: continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics with NIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Ayaz, Hasan; Olmstead, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-01-15

    To better understand the mechanisms by which working memory training can augment human performance we continuously monitored trainees with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while they performed a dual verbal-spatial working memory task. Linear mixed effects models were used to model the changes in cerebral hemodynamic response as a result of time spent training working memory. Nonlinear increases in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were observed with increased exposure to working memory training. Adaptive and yoked training groups also showed differential effects in rostral prefrontal cortex with increased exposure to working memory training. There was also a significant negative relationship between verbal working memory performance and bilateral VLPFC activation. These results are interpreted in terms of decreased proactive interference, increased neural efficiency, reduced mental workload for stimulus processing, and increased working memory capacity with training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...... duration after vs. 1.56 s before; Poral fine motor...

  14. Evaluation of neuromotor function in infancy - A systematic review of available methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Objective: Neuromotor function in infancy can be evaluated in various ways. Assessment instruments are used for early detection of children with a high risk for developmental disorders. Early detection enables clinicians to provide intervention at a young age when plasticity of the nervous system is

  15. The neuromotor examination of the preschool child and its prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power,

  16. The Neuromotor Examination of the Preschool Child and Its Prognostic Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2005-01-01

    The present paper reviews the methods available for neurological or neuromotor evaluation at preschool age. General textbooks on pediatric neurology describe the neurological examination at preschool age in terms of the assessment of the evaluation of cranial nerves, muscle tone, muscle power, reflexes, and the presence of abnormal movements. They…

  17. Mercury and neuromotor function among children in a rural town in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlander, Johan; Huber, Stella Maria; Schomaker, Michael; Heumann, Christian; Schierl, Rudolf; Michalke, Bernhard; Jenni, Oskar G; Caflisch, Jon; Muñoz, Daniel Moraga; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Radon, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from artisanal gold mining has adverse effects on the neuromotor function in adults. However, few studies have examined this relationship in children. To investigate the impact of Hg exposure on children's neuromotor function. Cross-sectional data on Hg risk factors and demographics were collected from n = 288 children (response = 68.9%). Based on complete cases (CCs) (n = 130) and multiple imputations (n = 288), associations between fingernail Hg and four different neuromotor function components were calculated using multiple logistic regression adjusted for confounders. Of the children, 11.1, 14.9, 63.9, and 10.4% had pathologic pure motor skills, adaptive fine motor skills, adaptive gross motor skills, and static balance, respectively. No significant association between fingernail Hg and any neuromotor component was found. However, Hg burning in the household was significantly associated with children's pathologic pure motor skills (OR 3.07 95% CI 1.03-9.18). Elemental Hg exposure in the household might have adverse long-term effects on children's pure motor skills.

  18. Mechanisms of neural reorganization in chronic stroke subjects after virtual reality training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, S; Bagce, H; Qiu, Q; Fluet, G; Merians, A; Adamovich, S; Tunik, E

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of brain reorganization in chronic stroke subjects after two weeks of robot-assisted arm and hand training in virtual reality (VR). Four subjects were studied with event-related fMRI while doing simple paretic hand finger movements before (double baseline) and after training. Bilateral hand movements were recorded and used to provide real-time feedback to subjects during scanning to eliminate performance confounds on fMRI results. The kinematic parameters of each movement were also used in the general linear model with the BOLD signal to investigate training-induced changes in neuromotor coupling. Univariate analysis showed an increase in BOLD signal in the ipsilesional hemisphere in two subjects and a decrease in activity in the other two subjects. Seed voxel based functional connectivity analysis revealed an increase in connectivity between ipsilesional motor cortex and bilateral sensorimotor cortex during finger movements in all four subjects. Hemispheric laterality index values showed a tendency to decrease reflecting a reduction in the over-dominance of the contralesional hemisphere. The study is novel in terms of 1) tracking finger movement during a motor task in the scanner, 2) monitoring motor performance during the experiment and 3) giving online visual feedback of subjects' movement. This pilot study introduces a novel approach to study neural plasticity by combining measures of regional intensity, interregional interactions (using functional connectivity analysis and hemispheric laterality index), and modulation in the strength of neuromotor coupling.

  19. Neurocognitive enhancement in older adults: comparison of three cognitive training tasks to test a hypothesis of training transfer in brain connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenziok, Maren; Parasuraman, Raja; Clarke, Ellen; Cisler, Dean S; Thompson, James C; Greenwood, Pamela M

    2014-01-15

    The ultimate goal of cognitive enhancement as an intervention for age-related cognitive decline is transfer to everyday cognitive functioning. Development of training methods that transfer broadly to untrained cognitive tasks (far transfer) requires understanding of the neural bases of training and far transfer effects. We used cognitive training to test the hypothesis that far transfer is associated with altered attentional control demands mediated by the dorsal attention network and trained sensory cortex. In an exploratory study, we randomly assigned 42 healthy older adults to six weeks of training on Brain Fitness (BF-auditory perception), Space Fortress (SF-visuomotor/working memory), or Rise of Nations (RON-strategic reasoning). Before and after training, cognitive performance, diffusion-derived white matter integrity, and functional connectivity of the superior parietal cortex (SPC) were assessed. We found the strongest effects from BF training, which transferred to everyday problem solving and reasoning and selectively changed integrity of occipito-temporal white matter associated with improvement on untrained everyday problem solving. These results show that cognitive gain from auditory perception training depends on heightened white matter integrity in the ventral attention network. In BF and SF (which also transferred positively), a decrease in functional connectivity between SPC and inferior temporal lobe (ITL) was observed compared to RON-which did not transfer to untrained cognitive function. These findings highlight the importance for cognitive training of top-down control of sensory processing by the dorsal attention network. Altered brain connectivity - observed in the two training tasks that showed far transfer effects - may be a marker for training success. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Training-induced improvement of response selection and error detection in aging assessed by task switching: Effects of cognitive, physical and relaxation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Darius Gajewski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. One of them is response selection that forms the link between the goals and the motor system and is therefore crucial for performance outcomes in cognitive tasks. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in electrophysiological brain activity, as measured in event-related potentials (ERPs. 141 healthy participants aged 65 years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength-training, cognitive training (paper-pencil and computer-aided, relaxation and wellness (social control group and a no-contact control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 90 minutes for a period of 4 months.The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task-sets in working memory and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials (ERP which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2, allocation of cognitive resources (P3b and error detection (Ne.Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods.

  1. The effects of task-oriented versus repetitive bilateral arm training on upper limb function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Gui Bin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task-oriented bilateral arm training and repetitive bilateral arm training on upper limb function and activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects...

  2. Effects of strength training, detraining and retraining in muscle strength, hypertrophy and functional tasks in older female adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton S; Cunha, Giovani; Marques, Nise; Oliveira-Reischak, Ãlvaro; Pinto, Ronei

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies presented different results regarding the maintenance time of muscular adaptations after strength training and the ability to resume the gains on muscular performance after resumption of the training programme. This study aimed to verify the effect of strength training on knee extensors and elbow flexor muscle strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional performance in older female adults after 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and followed by 12 weeks of retraining. Twelve sedentary older women performed 12 weeks of strength training, 1 year of detraining and 12 weeks of retraining. The strength training was performed twice a week, and the assessment was made four times: at the baseline, after the strength training, after the detraining and after the retraining. The knee extensor and elbow flexor strength, rectus femoris muscle volume and functional task were assessed. Strength of knee extensor and elbow flexor muscles, rectus femoris muscle volume and 30-s sit-to-stand increased from baseline to post-training (respectively, 40%, 70%, 38% and 46%), decreased after detraining (respectively, -36%, -64%, -35% and -43%) and increased again these parameters after retraining (35%, 68%, 36% and 42%). Strength training induces gains on strength and hypertrophy, also increased the performance on functional tasks after the strength training. The stoppage of the strength caused strength loss and reduction of functional performance. The resumption of the strength training promoted the same gains of muscular performance in older female adults. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Training symmetry of weight distribution after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study comparing task-related reach, Bobath and feedback training approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudie, M H; Winzeler-Mercay, U; Radwan, S; Lee, L

    2002-09-01

    To determine (1) the most effective of three treatment approaches to retrain seated weight distribution long-term after stroke and (2) whether improvements could be generalized to weight distribution in standing. Inpatient rehabilitation unit. Forty asymmetrical acute stroke subjects were randomly allocated to one of four groups in this pilot study. Changes in weight distribution were compared between the 10 subjects of each of three treatment groups (task-specific reach, Bobath, or Balance Performance Monitor [BPM] feedback training) and a no specific treatment control group. One week of measurement only was followed by two weeks of daily training sessions with the treatment to which the subject was randomly allocated. Measurements were performed using the BPM daily before treatment sessions, two weeks after cessation of treatment and 12 weeks post study. Weight distribution was calculated in terms of mean balance (percentage of total body weight) or the mean of 300 balance points over a 30-s data run. In the short term, the Bobath approach was the most effective treatment for retraining sitting symmetry after stroke (p = 0.004). Training with the BPM and no training were also significant (p = 0.038 and p = 0.035 respectively) and task-specific reach training failed to reach significance (p = 0.26). At 12 weeks post study 83% of the BPM training group, 38% of the task-specific reach group, 29% of the Bobath group and 0% of the untrained group were found to be distributing their weight to both sides. Some generalization of symmetry training in sitting to standing was noted in the BPM training group which appeared to persist long term. Results should be treated with caution due to the small group sizes. However, these preliminary findings suggest that it might be possible to restore postural symmetry in sitting in the early stages of rehabilitation with therapy that focuses on creating an awareness of body position.

  4. A person-task-context model for designing curriculum and in-training assessment in postgraduate education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Anne Marie; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke; Henriksen, Ann-Helen

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trial a person-task-context model in designing a curriculum and in-training assessment programme that embraces trainee level of professional development and the work-based context of postgraduate medical education. The model was applied to the design of a programme...

  5. Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostons, Danny; Van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Kostons, D., Van Gog, T., & Paas, F. (2012). Training self-assessment and task-selection skills: A cognitive approach to improving self-regulated learning. Learning and Instruction, 22(2), 121-132. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.08.004

  6. Effect of position feedback during task-oriented upper-limb training after stroke: Five-case pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molier, B.I.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Stienen, Arno; van der Kooij, Herman; Buurke, Jaap; Jannink, M.J.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is an important element in motor learning during rehabilitation therapy following stroke. The objective of this pilot study was to better understand the effect of position feedback during task-oriented reach training of the upper limb in people with chronic stroke. Five subjects

  7. Effects of a high-intensity task-oriented training on gait performance early after stroke: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outermans, J.C.; van Peppen, R.P.; Wittink, H.; Takken, T.; Kwakkel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and the effects on gait of a high intensity task-oriented training, incorporating a high cardiovascular workload and large number of repetitions, in patients with subacute stroke, when compared to a low intensity physiotherapy-programme. Design and subjects:

  8. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette K; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16 he...

  9. Time of Day Does Not Modulate Improvements in Motor Performance following a Repetitive Ballistic Motor Training Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V. Sale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM and once in the evening (8 PM on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions.

  10. Training the cervical muscles with prescribed motor tasks does not change muscle activation during a functional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Jull, Gwendolen; Hodges, Paul

    2008-12-01

    Both low-load and high-load training of the cervical muscles have been shown to reduce neck pain and change parameters of muscle function directly related to the exercise performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether either training regime changes muscle activation during a functional task which is known to be affected in people with neck pain and is not directly related to either exercise protocol. Fifty-eight female patients with chronic neck pain were randomised into one of two 6-week exercise intervention groups: an endurance-strength training regime for the cervical flexor muscles or low-load training of the cranio-cervical flexor muscles. The primary outcome was a change in electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during a functional, repetitive upper limb task. At the 7th week follow-up assessment both intervention groups demonstrated a reduction in their average intensity of pain (P0.05). The results demonstrate that training the cervical muscles with a prescribed motor task may not automatically result in improved muscle activation during a functional activity, despite a reduction in neck pain.

  11. Effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients with impaired cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of task-oriented training on upper extremity function and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients with impaired cognition. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients underwent task-oriented training. The training was conducted once a day for 30 minutes, 5 times/week, for 2 weeks. The patients were evaluated 3 times before and after the task-oriented training. Changes in upper extremity function were assessed using the manual function test, and changes in the ability to carry out daily activities were assessed using the functional independence measure. [Results] The patients showed improvement in both the upper extremity function and ability to perform daily activities after task-oriented training. [Conclusion] Task-oriented training was proven effective in improving upper extremity function and ability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients with impaired cognition.

  12. Wearable Sensors for eLearning of Manual Tasks: Using Forearm EMG in Hand Hygiene Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutafina, Ekaterina; Laukamp, David; Bettermann, Ralf; Schroeder, Ulrik; Jonas, Stephan M

    2016-08-03

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to eLearning that makes use of smart wearable sensors. Traditional eLearning supports the remote and mobile learning of mostly theoretical knowledge. Here we discuss the possibilities of eLearning to support the training of manual skills. We employ forearm armbands with inertial measurement units and surface electromyography sensors to detect and analyse the user's hand motions and evaluate their performance. Hand hygiene is chosen as the example activity, as it is a highly standardized manual task that is often not properly executed. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene are taken as a model of the optimal hygiene procedure, due to their algorithmic structure. Gesture recognition procedures based on artificial neural networks and hidden Markov modeling were developed, achieving recognition rates of 98 . 30 % ( ± 1 . 26 % ) for individual gestures. Our approach is shown to be promising for further research and application in the mobile eLearning of manual skills.

  13. Wearable Sensors for eLearning of Manual Tasks: Using Forearm EMG in Hand Hygiene Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Kutafina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel approach to eLearning that makes use of smart wearable sensors. Traditional eLearning supports the remote and mobile learning of mostly theoretical knowledge. Here we discuss the possibilities of eLearning to support the training of manual skills. We employ forearm armbands with inertial measurement units and surface electromyography sensors to detect and analyse the user’s hand motions and evaluate their performance. Hand hygiene is chosen as the example activity, as it is a highly standardized manual task that is often not properly executed. The World Health Organization guidelines on hand hygiene are taken as a model of the optimal hygiene procedure, due to their algorithmic structure. Gesture recognition procedures based on artificial neural networks and hidden Markov modeling were developed, achieving recognition rates of 98 . 30 % ( ± 1 . 26 % for individual gestures. Our approach is shown to be promising for further research and application in the mobile eLearning of manual skills.

  14. Task-Oriented Training with Computer Games for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis or Hand Osteoarthritis: A Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikesavan, Cynthia Swarnalatha; Shay, Barbara; Szturm, Tony

    2016-09-13

    To examine the feasibility of a clinical trial on a novel, home-based task-oriented training with conventional hand exercises in people with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis. To explore the experiences of participants who completed their respective home exercise programmes. Thirty volunteer participants aged between 30 and 60 years and diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis were proposed for a single-center, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial ( ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01635582). Participants received task-oriented training with interactive computer games and objects of daily life or finger mobility and strengthening exercises. Both programmes were home based and were done four sessions per week with 20 minutes each session for 6 weeks. Major feasibility outcomes were number of volunteers screened, randomized, and retained; completion of blinded assessments, exercise training, and home exercise sessions; equipment and data management; and clinical outcomes of hand function. Reaching the recruitment target in 18 months and achieving exercise compliance >80% were set as success criteria. Concurrent with the trial, focus group interviews explored experiences of those participants who completed their respective programmes. After trial initiation, revisions in inclusion criteria were required to promote recruitment. A total of 17 participants were randomized and 15 were retained. Completion of assessments, exercise training, and home exercise sessions; equipment and data collection and management demonstrated excellent feasibility. Both groups improved in hand function outcomes and exercise compliance was above 85%. Participants perceived both programmes as appropriate and acceptable. Participants who completed task-oriented training also agreed that playing different computer games was enjoyable, engaging, and motivating. Findings demonstrate initial evidence on recruitment, feasibility of trial procedures, and acceptability of

  15. Muscular Power during a Lifting Task Increases after Three Months of Resistance Training in Overweight and Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zemková

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluates the effect on power produced during a modified lifting task in the overweight and obese after three months of either resistance or aerobic training. Methods: Seventeen male subjects divided randomly into two groups performed deadlift and deadlift high pull, both with increasing weights up to maximal power, prior to and after the training programs (three sessions per week. Results: Their mean power increased significantly during the deadlift at 20 kg (14.3%, p = 0.026, 30 kg (17.7%, p = 0.008, 40 kg (16.5%, p = 0.011, 50 kg (14.5%, p = 0.020, and 60 kg (14.3%, p = 0.021 and during the deadlift high pull at 30 kg (9.9%, p = 0.037, 40 kg (10.1%, p = 0.035, and 50 kg (8.2%, p = 0.044 after the resistance training. However, the group that participated in the aerobic training failed to show any significant changes in power performance during either the deadlift or deadlift high pull. Conclusion: Three months of resistance training enhances power outputs during a lifting task with weights from 30 to 50 kg (~40%–60% of 1-repetition maximum in the overweight and obese. Because this test was sensitive in revealing pre-post training changes in lifting performance, it should be implemented in the functional diagnostics for overweight and obese individuals and also complement existing testing methods.

  16. Mild hemolytic anemia, progressive neuromotor retardation and fatal outcome: a disorder of glycolysis, triose- phosphate isomerase deficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarper, Nazan; Zengin, Emine; Jakobs, Cornelis; Salomons, Gajja S; Mc Wamelink, Mirjam; Ralser, Markus; Kurt, Koray; Kara, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    A two-month-old male infant presented with jaundice, pallor, and hepatomegaly. The first child of non-consanguineous parents had also suffered from hemolytic anemia and neuromotor retardation and died at the age of 21 months...

  17. Treinamento neuromotor no padrão de marcha e na mobilidade de tornozelos em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Caroline de Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar o efeito do treinamento neuromotor no padrão de marcha e a mobilidade de tornozelos em idosos. Métodos: Ensaio controlado não aleatorizado, de corte transversal, realizado em Rio Negrinho, Santa Catarina, no período de maio a setembro de 2015, com amostra de 26 idosas divididas em grupo controle (GC=15 e grupo treinamento neuromotor (GTN=11. A avaliação do padrão de marcha ocorreu através do Protocolo de Cerny e a mobilidade de tornozelos, através da goniometria. O GC realizou atividade física regular composta por aquecimento, exercícios de alongamento e fortalecimento muscular de grandes grupos musculares de membros e desaquecimento. O GTN recebeu treinamento neuromotor em forma de circuito composto por 10 estações, com aquecimento, treinamento neuromotor, desaquecimento e repetição do circuito em 3 vezes, com permanência de 1 minuto em cada estação e 30 segundos de intervalo entre elas, com progressão de dificuldade dos exercícios após a sexta semana. Ambos os grupos realizaram a atividade por 12 semanas (2 vezes semanais, com duração de 45 minutos. Análise ocorreu pelo teste t, adotando um nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados: Houve melhora significativa em dorsiflexão de ambos os tornozelos (direito p=0,00 e esquerdo=0,02 e em ambos os grupos; já no padrão de marcha, não houve melhora significativa após treinamento neuromotor (velocidade p=0,55; tempo de deambulação p=0,6. Conclusão: O treinamento neuromotor beneficiou a manutenção do padrão de marcha (velocidade e tempo de deambulação e a mobilidade articular de tornozelos em idosas avaliadas.

  18. Second Language Learning with the Story Maze Task: Examining the Training Effect of Weaving through Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The maze task is a psycholinguistic experimental procedure that measures real-time incremental sentence processing. The task has recently been tested as a language learning tool with promising results. Therefore, the present study examines the merits of a contextualized version of this task: the story maze. The findings are consistent with…

  19. Notes From the Field: Secondary Task Precision for Cognitive Load Estimation During Virtual Reality Surgical Simulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sebastian R; Konge, Lars; Mikkelsen, Peter T; Sørensen, Mads S; Andersen, Steven A W

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive load (CL) theory suggests that working memory can be overloaded in complex learning tasks such as surgical technical skills training, which can impair learning. Valid and feasible methods for estimating the CL in specific learning contexts are necessary before the efficacy of CL-lowering instructional interventions can be established. This study aims to explore secondary task precision for the estimation of CL in virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation and also investigate the effects of CL-modifying factors such as simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice. Twenty-four participants were randomized for visual assistance by a simulator-integrated tutor function during the first 5 of 12 repeated mastoidectomy procedures on a VR temporal bone simulator. Secondary task precision was found to be significantly lower during simulation compared with nonsimulation baseline, p < .001. Contrary to expectations, simulator-integrated tutoring and repeated practice did not have an impact on secondary task precision. This finding suggests that even though considerable changes in CL are reflected in secondary task precision, it lacks sensitivity. In contrast, secondary task reaction time could be more sensitive, but requires substantial postprocessing of data. Therefore, future studies on the effect of CL modifying interventions should weigh the pros and cons of the various secondary task measurements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A study on the effectiveness of task manager board game as a training tool in managing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd; Radzi, Shanizan Herman Md; Din, Sharifah Nadera Syed; Khalid, Nurhafizah

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, games have become one of the useful tools in training. Many instructors choose to use games to enhance the way of delivering the subject. Failure to apply the suitable tool in training will lead to discouragement in learning and causing waste to the resources. An effective game will help the student understand the concept quickly. It can also help students to get involve in experiential learning where the student can manage and solve the problem as in the actual situation. This study will focus on the effectiveness of board game as a training tool for managing projects. This game has 4 tasks to be completed by students. They will be divided into a group of 4 or 5. Two methods are used in this study, pilot test, and post-test. These methods are chosen to analyze the effectiveness of using Task Manager Board Game as a teaching tool and the improvement of student's knowledge in project management. Three sub-components assessed were motivation, user experience and learning using case studies on Kirkpatrick's level one base on the perception of the students. The result indicated that the use of Task Manager board game as a training tool for managing project has a positive impact on students. It helps students to experience the situation of managing projects. It is one of the easiest ways for improving time management, human resources and communication skill.

  1. A unique form of light-load training improves steadiness and performance on some functional tasks in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H; Koyama, Y; Enoka, R M; Suzuki, S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning Movement Load (BML) training is a unique form of light-load training that comprises a lengthening-shortening sequence of muscle actions about multiple degrees of freedom. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of BML training at improving the performance of old adults on four functional tasks and to identify some of the neuromuscular adaptations that contributed to these gains. Healthy old adults (67.5 ± 5.23 years) were randomly assigned to either a BML training group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 7). The training group exercised with a 30% of the one repetition-maximum (1-RM) load and performed five to seven sets of 15 repetitions, three times per week for 8 weeks. BML training increased maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force significantly for the knee extensors (31.6%), but not the elbow flexors (9.8%), and improved the steadiness of isometric contractions (10%, 30%, and 65% MVC forces). Training-associated changes in times for ascending and descending stairs and one-legged balance, but not the chair rise, were predicted by changes in selected combinations of MVC force and steadiness. The attributes of BML training that enabled it to elicit functionally meaningful adaptations in the neuromuscular system of older adults should be explored with more mechanistic studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Active versus passive training of a complex bimanual task: is prescriptive proprioceptive information sufficient for inducing motor learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseult A M Beets

    Full Text Available Perceptual processes play an important role in motor learning. While it is evident that visual information greatly contributes to learning new movements, much less is known about provision of prescriptive proprioceptive information. Here, we investigated whether passive (proprioceptively-based movement training was comparable to active training for learning a new bimanual task. Three groups practiced a bimanual coordination pattern with a 1:2 frequency ratio and a 90° phase offset between both wrists with Lissajous feedback over the course of four days: 1 passive training; 2 active training; 3 no training (control. Retention findings revealed that passive as compared to active training resulted in equally successful acquisition of the frequency ratio but active training was more effective for acquisition of the new relative phasing between the limbs in the presence of augmented visual feedback. However, when this feedback was removed, performance of the new relative phase deteriorated in both groups whereas the frequency ratio was better preserved. The superiority of active over passive training in the presence of augmented feedback is hypothesized to result from active involvement in processes of error detection/correction and planning.

  3. The Effects of EnhanceFitness (EF) training on dual-task walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Maayan; Kelly, Valerie E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; Nguyen, Huong; Belza, Basia

    2015-04-01

    Decline in dual-task walking performance is associated with increased risk of falls among older adults. The objective of this study is to determine whether 18 hr of participation in EnhanceFitness (EF), an evidence-based group exercise program, improves dual-task walking performance among community-dwelling older adults. Twenty-eight healthy, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated before participating in EF and after 18 hr of participation. Gait speed was evaluated under single task and dual tasks using the TUG (Timed Up and Go) and 1-min walk tests. Dual-task costs (DTC), the relative cost of dual-task performance compared to single-task performance, were calculated for both cognitive and motor tasks. Postural control and executive functions were evaluated as well. After 18 hr of EF, dual-task walking performance improved. Single-task performance improved as well as postural control and executive function. There was no significant change in DTC across all measurements, except for the cognitive task of the TUG. © The Author(s) 2012.

  4. A computer-based interactive game to train persons with cognitive impairments to perform recycling tasks independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Kang, Ya-Shu; Liu, Fang-Lin

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the possibility of training three people with cognitive impairments using a computer-based interactive game. A game was designed to provide task prompts in recycling scenarios, identify incorrect task steps on the fly, and help users learn to make corrections. Based on a multiple baseline design, the data showed that the three participants considerably increased their target response, which improved their vocational job skills during the intervention phases and enabled them to maintain the acquired job skills after intervention. The practical and developmental implications of the results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parietal plasticity after training with a complex video game is associated with individual differences in improvements in an untrained working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Aki; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vo, Loan T K; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have devoted considerable attention and resources to cognitive training, yet there have been few examinations of the relationship between individual differences in patterns of brain activity during the training task and training benefits on untrained tasks (i.e., transfer). While a predominant hypothesis suggests that training will transfer if there is training-induced plasticity in brain regions important for the untrained task, this theory lacks sufficient empirical support. To address this issue we investigated the relationship between individual differences in training-induced changes in brain activity during a cognitive training videogame, and whether those changes explained individual differences in the resulting changes in performance in untrained tasks. Forty-five young adults trained with a videogame that challenges working memory, attention, and motor control for 15 2-h sessions. Before and after training, all subjects received neuropsychological assessments targeting working memory, attention, and procedural learning to assess transfer. Subjects also underwent pre- and post-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans while they played the training videogame to assess how these patterns of brain activity change in response to training. For regions implicated in working memory, such as the superior parietal lobe (SPL), individual differences in the post-minus-pre changes in activation predicted performance changes in an untrained working memory task. These findings suggest that training-induced plasticity in the functional representation of a training task may play a role in individual differences in transfer. Our data support and extend previous literature that has examined the association between training related cognitive changes and associated changes in underlying neural networks. We discuss the role of individual differences in brain function in training generalizability and make suggestions for future cognitive training research.

  6. Effects of dual-task balance training on postural performance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, Saeideh; Negahban, Hossein; Tajali, Shirin; Yadollahpour, Nava; Majdinasab, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of dual-task balance training on postural performance in patients with multiple sclerosis as compared with single-task balance training. Double-blind, pretest-posttest, randomized controlled pilot trial. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 47 patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups labeled as single-task training and dual-task training groups. All patients received supervised balance training sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The patients in the single-task group performed balance activities, alone. However, patients in dual-task group practiced balance activities while simultaneously performing cognitive tasks. The 10-Meter Walk Test and Timed Up-and-Go under single-task and dual-task conditions, in addition to Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Gait Assessment were assessed pre-, and post intervention and also 6-weeks after the end of intervention. Only 38 patients completed the treatment plan. There was no difference in the amount of improvement seen between the two study groups. In both groups there was a significant effect of time for dual-10 Meter Walk Test (F1, 36=11.33, p=0.002) and dual-Timed Up-and-Go (F1, 36=14.27, p=0.001) but not for their single-tasks. Moreover, there was a significant effect of time for Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Gait Assessment ( P<0.01). This pilot study did not show more benefits from undertaking dual-task training than single-task training. A power analysis showed 71 patients per group would be needed to determine whether there was a clinically relevant difference for dual-task gait speed between the groups.

  7. Reducing the number of animals used for microsurgery training programs by using a task-trainer simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreschi, P; Qassemyar, A; Thevenet, J; Hubert, T; Fontaine, C; Duquennoy-Martinot, V

    2014-01-01

    To master the skills needed for microsurgery techniques, residents must enrol in a long and complex training program that includes manipulations on simulators, on ex vivo tissues and finally in vivo training. This final step consists of performing vascular anastomoses on murine models. We propose here a simulation program designed to decrease the number of rats used during the final in vivo training. Our study presents the materials used, the various exercises proposed and their evaluations. Two identical student groups were compared in the framework of the University Diploma of Microsurgery. Group A (seven students) followed a classic training program, all of whom achieved permeable vascular anastomoses. A total of 149 rats were needed for this group. Group B (seven students) first validated their manipulations on the task-trainer simulation program. A mean of 6 h was necessary to obtain this validation. All these students achieved the required permeable vascular anastomoses but only 77 rats were used for this group. This simulation program spared 72 rats, abiding by the Russell and Burch concept of a humane experimental technique, namely the 3R principles. This home-made, cost-efficient and easy-to-use task trainer included various exercises with increasing difficulty levels and a progressive scoring system. We believe that microsurgery training needs to include both simple and sophisticated tools in order to reduce the number of animals used to master these surgical skills.

  8. Childhood videotaped social and neuromotor precursors of schizophrenia: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Walker, Elaine; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined videotaped behaviors of children who developed schizophrenia as adults and of comparison subjects to disclose possible social and neuromotor deficits foreshadowing later development of schizophrenia. METHOD: In 1972, a sample of 265 11-13-year-old Danish children...... disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242). This study systematically analyzed the videotapes to determine whether the children who developed schizophrenia as adults evidenced greater social and/or neuromotor deficits than children who did not develop a psychiatric...... disorder and children who developed other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The findings from this study suggest that the brief videotaped footage of children eating lunch was able to discriminate between the individuals who later developed schizophrenia and those who did not. Specifically...

  9. The Effect of Load Uncertainty and Foreperiod Regularity on Anticipatory and Compensatory Neuromotor Control in Catching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, William P; Hughes, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Muscle activation was measured using EMG in 28 males (n = 28) while participants caught visually identical balls of known and unknown weights (50, 1.32, 2.18, and 2.99 kg) under variable (1-10s) and constant (3s) foreperiods. EMG integrals were computed for three time intervals before the catch (anticipatory), and one after (compensatory). Load uncertainty caused the CNS to use an anticipatory strategy characterized by preparation to catch balls of an unknown weight by utilizing about 92% of the muscle activation used to catch the heaviest possible ball under the known weight condition. The CNS appeared to scale anticipatory muscle activation to afford an opportunity to catch a ball of an unknown weight between .50 and 2.99 kg. The constant 3s foreperiod, which permitted temporal anticipation, did not influence the anticipatory neuromotor strategy adopted by the CNS to cope with load uncertainty. Load uncertainty also altered compensatory neuromotor control in catching.

  10. A case study of product usability of a pelvic device used by children with neuromotor impairments

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana R.; Arezes, Pedro M.; Silva, Cláudia; Santos, Rubim

    2015-01-01

    On assistive technology targeted for people with activity limitations and participation, usability issues becomes an essential tool to ensure that the product has the appropriate ergonomics characteristics, in other words, ensure that it fits the specific user´s needs. The aim of this study was to analyze the usability of an adaptive seating device for children with neuromotor impairments, by using kinematic indicators of the reaching movement. The study sample consisted of 13 childr...

  11. Associação de retardo neuromotor e cromossomo 1qh +: registro de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salin Moyses Jorge

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram um caso de retardo neuromotor em paciente com cromossomo 1qh+. A análise cromossômica do paciente e três familiares revelou igualmente em todos, aumento do braço longo do cromossomo n.° 1. Entretanto, é considerada a possibilidade de que o quadro clínico do paciente seja subordinado também a outros fatores, não genéticos.

  12. [The efficacy of music and music therapy in the neuromotor rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    This article review includes the controlled and randomized controlled trials about the use of music and music therapy techniques in the neuromotor rehabilitation. The paper defines the music therapy and delineates the neuroscientific bases and rehabilitative potential of music and music therapy interventions. Significant results are present in the stroke and Parkinson's disease rehabilitation. The Author's conclusions suggest the need of more rigorous studies based on clear procedures and strong methodological research criteria.

  13. Effects of Self-Instructional Methods and Above Real Time Training (ARTT) for Maneuvering Tasks on a Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, Javed Khan; Rossi, Marcia J.; Crane, Peter; Heath, Bruce E.; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2003-01-01

    Personal computer based flight simulators are expanding opportunities for providing low-cost pilot training. One advantage of these devices is the opportunity to incorporate instructional features into training scenarios that might not be cost effective with earlier systems. Research was conducted to evaluate the utility of different instructional features using a coordinated level turn as an aircraft maneuvering task. In study I, a comparison was made between automated computer grades of performance with certified flight instructors grades. Every one of the six student volunteers conducted a flight with level turns at two different bank angles. The automated computer grades were based on prescribed tolerances on bank angle, airspeed and altitude. Two certified flight instructors independently examined the video tapes of heads up and instrument displays of the flights and graded them. The comparison of automated grades with the instructors grades was based on correlations between them. In study II, a 2x2 between subjects factorial design was used to devise and conduct an experiment. Comparison was made between real time training and above real time training and between feedback and no feedback in training. The performance measure to monitor progress in training was based on deviations in bank angle and altitude. The performance measure was developed after completion of the experiment including the training and test flights. It was not envisaged before the experiment. The experiment did not include self- instructions as it was originally planned, although feedback by experimenter to the trainee was included in the study.

  14. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pa...... training influences behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning....

  15. Training and long-term memory of a novel food acquisition task in a turtle (Pseudemys nelsoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Karen M; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2007-06-01

    We developed a shaping procedure for training Florida red-bellied cooters, Pseudemys nelsoni, to dislodge clear plastic bottles to obtain food pellets. The animals were then trained in a 2-choice problem to choose only the bottle containing pellets. All nine turtles learned the task of knocking over bottles for food. For the discrimination task, turtles chose the correct bottle 71% on average. After 2 months (82-84 days), and again after another 7.5 months (228 days) of no interaction with the bottles, turtles were retested and many retained both the response and the discrimination (mean success rates 77-81%), with significant savings in retraining all turtles. The turtles showed two basic response strategies, which changed across time for some individuals. This study demonstrates that turtles can learn and retain a novel skill in a laboratory context.

  16. Bed Rest and Intermittent Centrifugation Effects on Human Balance and Neuromotor Reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H; Reschke, Millard F; Feiveson, Alan H

    2017-09-01

    The effects of repeated centrifugation in association with head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR) on the mediation of basic reflexes associated with the major postural muscles was investigated as a potential countermeasure for maintaining balance control and neuromotor reflex function. There were 15 male volunteers who were exposed to 21 d of 6° HDT-BR. Eight were treated with daily 1-h artificial gravity (AG) exposures aboard a short radius centrifuge that provided 1-g footward loading at heart level. The other seven served as HDT-BR control subjects. Balance control was assessed using a standard computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) protocol that was modified by adding low-frequency pitch-plane head movements. Neuromotor reflex function was assessed using tendon stretch reflexes (MSR) and functional stretch reflex (FSR) data collected from the triceps surae muscle group. CDP performance was degraded by HDT-BR in both groups (ranging from 24 to 26%), but was unaffected by AG. BR also degraded MSR and FSR functions in both groups, with increased peak reflex latencies between 1.5 and 1.95 ms, but AG maintained pre-BR latencies for the MSR subjects. AG exposure did not modify balance control from pre-BR responses, but did help prevent decrements in FSR latencies post-BR.Paloski WH, Reschke MF, Feiveson AH. Bed rest and intermittent centrifugation effects on human balance and neuromotor reflexes. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):812-818.

  17. ACL Injury Prevention Training Results in Modification of Hip and Knee Mechanics During a Drop-Landing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christine D; Sigward, Susan M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-09-01

    Injury prevention training has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury; however, the underlying reason for the success of these training programs is unclear. To investigate whether an ACL injury prevention program that has been shown to reduce the incidence of ACL injury alters sagittal plane hip and knee biomechanics during a drop-landing task. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty female club soccer players (age range, 11-17 years) with no history of knee injury participated in this study. Kinematics and ground-reaction forces were collected while each participant performed a drop-landing task prior to and immediately after participation in a 12-week ACL injury prevention training program. After ACL injury prevention training, participants demonstrated decreased knee extensor moments (P = .03), increased energy absorption at the hip (P = .04), decreased knee-to-hip extensor moment ratios (P = .05), and decreased knee-to-hip energy absorption ratios (P = .03). Participation in an ACL injury prevention training program decreased reliance on the knee extensor muscles and improved use of the hip extensor muscles, which may explain the protective effect of this type of training program on ACL injury. Based on these findings, clinicians can better understand how ACL injury prevention training, such as the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance (PEP) Program, may change movement behavior at both the hip and knee. Furthermore, the study findings may support the implementation of the PEP Program, or a similar program, for clinicians aiming to improve use of the hip in an effort to reduce knee loading and consequent injuries.

  18. A haptic floor for interaction and diagnostics with goal based tasks during virtual reality supported balance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Krpič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance training of patients after stroke is one of the primary tasks of physiotherapy after the hospitalization. It is based on the intensive training, which consists of simple, repetitive, goal-based tasks. The tasks are carried out by physiotherapists, who follow predefined protocols. Introduction of a standing frame and a virtual reality decrease the physical load and number of required physiotherapists. The patients benefit in terms of safety and increased motivation. Additional feedback – haptic floor can enhance the virtual reality experience, add additional level of difficulty and could be also used for generating postural perturbations. The purpose of this article is to examine whether haptic information can be used to identify specific anomalies in dynamic posturography.Methods: The performance and stability of closed-loop system of the haptic floor were tested using frequency analysis. A postural response normative was set up from data assessed in four healthy individuals who were exposed to unexpected movements of the haptic floor in eight directions. Postural responses of a patient after stroke participating in virtual reality supported balance training, where collisions resulted in floor movements, were assessed and contrasted to the normative.Results: Haptic floor system was stable and controllable up to the frequency of 1.1 Hz, sufficient for the generation of postural perturbations. Responses obtained after perturbations in two major directions for a patient after stroke demonstrated noticeable deviations from the normative.Conclusions: Haptic floor design, together with a standing frame and a virtual reality used for balance training, enables an assessment of directionally specific postural responses. The system was designed to identify postural disorders during balance training and rehabilitation progress outside specialized clinics, e.g. at patient’s home.

  19. Association of a Surgical Task During Training With Team Skill Acquisition Among Surgical Residents: The Missing Piece in Multidisciplinary Team Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jessica L; Crouch, Dustin L; Sobba, Kathryn; Evans, Douglas; Zhang, Jing; Johnson, James E; Saunders, Ian; Thomas, John; Bodin, Sarah; Tonidandel, Ashley; Carter, Jeff; Westcott, Carl; Martin, R Shayn; Hildreth, Amy

    2017-09-01

    The human patient simulators that are currently used in multidisciplinary operating room team training scenarios cannot simulate surgical tasks because they lack a realistic surgical anatomy. Thus, they eliminate the surgeon's primary task in the operating room. The surgical trainee is presented with a significant barrier when he or she attempts to suspend disbelief and engage in the scenario. To develop and test a simulation-based operating room team training strategy that challenges the communication abilities and teamwork competencies of surgeons while they are engaged in realistic operative maneuvers. This pre-post educational intervention pilot study compared the gains in teamwork skills for midlevel surgical residents at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center after they participated in a standardized multidisciplinary team training scenario with 3 possible levels of surgical realism: (1) SimMan (Laerdal) (control group, no surgical anatomy); (2) "synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks" mannequin (medium-fidelity anatomy), and (3) a patient simulated by a deceased donor (high-fidelity anatomy). Participation in the simulation scenario and the subsequent debriefing. Teamwork competency was assessed using several instruments with extensive validity evidence, including the Nontechnical Skills assessment, the Trauma Management Skills scoring system, the Crisis Resource Management checklist, and a self-efficacy survey instrument. Participant satisfaction was assessed with a Likert-scale questionnaire. Scenario participants included midlevel surgical residents, anesthesia providers, scrub nurses, and circulating nurses. Statistical models showed that surgical residents exposed to medium-fidelity simulation (synthetic anatomy for surgical tasks) team training scenarios demonstrated greater gains in teamwork skills compared with control groups (SimMan) (Nontechnical Skills video score: 95% CI, 1.06-16.41; Trauma Management Skills video score: 95% CI, 0.61-2.90) and

  20. The Importance of Team Sex Composition in Team-Training Research Employing Complex Psychomotor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.

  1. Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Annick A A; Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Monfrance, Maurice; Geers, Richard P J; Bakx, Wilbert; Smeets, Rob J E M; Seelen, Henk A M

    2014-03-31

    Over fifty percent of stroke patients experience chronic arm hand performance problems, compromising independence in daily life activities and quality of life. Task-oriented training may improve arm hand performance after stroke, whereby augmented therapy may lead to a better treatment outcome. Technology-supported training holds opportunities for increasing training intensity. However, the effects of robot-supported task-oriented training with real life objects in stroke patients are not known to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and added value of the Haptic Master robot combined with task-oriented arm hand training in chronic stroke patients. In a single-blind randomized controlled trial, 22 chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to receive either task-oriented robot-assisted arm-hand training (experimental group) or task-oriented non-robotic arm-hand training (control group). For training, the T-TOAT (Technology-supported Task-Oriented Arm Training) method was applied. Training was provided during 8 weeks, 4 times/week, 2 × 30 min/day. A significant improvement after training on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was demonstrated in the experimental group (p = 0.008). Results were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. On the perceived performance measure (Motor Activity Log (MAL)), both, the experimental and control group improved significantly after training (control group p = 0.008; experimental group p = 0.013). The improvements on MAL in both groups were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. With regard to quality of life, only in the control group a significant improvement after training was found (EuroQol-5D p = 0.015, SF-36 physical p = 0.01). However, the improvement on SF-36 in the control group was not maintained (p = 0.012). No between-group differences could be demonstrated on any of the outcome measures. Arm hand performance improved in chronic stroke

  2. Does load uncertainty affect adaptation to catch training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, William P; Richards, Brian J; Hannigan, Aaron M; Biller, Kelsey L; Hughes, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Catching relies on anticipatory and compensatory control processes. Load uncertainty increases anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. This experiment tested the effect of load uncertainty in plyometric catch/throw training on elbow flexion reaction time (RT), movement time (MT) and peak torque, as well as the distribution of anticipatory and compensatory neuromotor effort in catching. We expected load uncertainty training to be superior to traditional training for improving elbow flexion MT and peak torque, as well as for reallocating neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. Three groups of men (mean age = 21), load knowledge training (K) (n = 14), load uncertainty training (U) (n = 13) and control (C) (n = 14), participated. Groups K and U trained three times/week for 6 weeks using single-arm catch/throw exercises with 0.45-4.08 kg balls. Sets involved 16 repetitions of four different ball masses presented randomly. Group K had knowledge of ball mass on every repetition, whereas group U never did. Change scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis tests and follow-up Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Group K improved both RT and MT (by 6.2 and 12 %, respectively), whereas group U did not. Both groups K and U improved peak eccentric elbow flexion torque. Group K reallocated neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory processes in the biceps, triceps and the all muscle average, whereas group U did so in the triceps only. In sum, plyometric catch/throw training caused a reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control in catching. However, load uncertainty training did not amplify this effect and in fact appeared to inhibit the reallocation of neuromotor effort from compensatory to anticipatory control.

  3. Time to task failure of the contralateral untrained limb after high load-low repetition eccentric and low load-high repetition resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Cross-training is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb and may be dependent on type of muscle contractions performed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unilateral resistance training using eccentric contraction is more effective than concentric resistance training to improve time to task failure in the contralateral untrained limb. Methods:Subjects completed 12 weeks of resistance training consisting of 36 sessions, using unilateral leg exercise. Sustained isometric knee extension performed at 50% of maxmal force until task failure for the contralateral untrained leg. Surface electromyography (EMG signals were simultaneously recorded from contralateral untrained quadriceps (vastusmedialis, rectus femoris, and vastuslateralis. Results: Time to task failure of the contralateraluntrained leg and associated EMG activitiessignificantly increased after 12 weeks ofunilateral resistance training(p<0.05. However, percent increase in time to task failure and EMG amplitude after eccentric resistance training was significantly higher than concentric resistance training (p<0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that unilateral eccentric resistancetraining is superior to concentric resistance training to increase time to task failure in the contralateral untrained limb.

  4. Guiding task-oriented gait training after stroke or spinal cord injury by means of a biomechanical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Sylvie; Duclos, Cyril; Bouyer, Laurent; Richards, Carol L

    2011-01-01

    To recover the ability to walk is one of the most important goals of persons recovering from a stroke or spinal cord injury (SCI). While a task-oriented approach to gait training is recommended, randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses comparing different methods of delivering training have failed in general to demonstrate the superiority of one approach over the other. The large variations in the mean outcome gait measures reported in these studies reflect, at least in part, the heterogeneity of the sensorimotor impairments underlying the gait disability as well as variations in the therapeutic response. The purpose of this chapter is to demonstrate that biomechanical gait analysis can reveal information pertinent to the selection of a task-oriented approach to enhance gait training as well as the therapeutic response that clinical evaluations alone cannot provide. We first briefly review locomotor impairments underlying the gait disability after stroke and SCI as well as the effects of selected technological task-oriented gait training interventions. We then give examples that demonstrate the use of gait analysis to pinpoint underlying impairments that can guide the choice of sensorimotor therapy and then immediately identify responders to the intervention. Such an individualized approach should promote therapeutic efficacy while leading over time to the identification of clinical indices to guide therapy when gait analysis is not feasible. Given the requirements of a gait analysis laboratory and the qualified personnel to capture and interpret the data, future studies will need to demonstrate the feasibility of the technological proposed approach and assess the costs and benefits for the health care system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kessel, M. E.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Brouwer, W. H.; Fasotti, L.

    2013-01-01

    Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might

  6. Professional Development: A Six-Year Data Evaluation of HIDTA Law Enforcement Task Force Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    This is a nationwide six-year data study of law enforcement training and professional development in relationship to workplace productivity. Why do we care about law enforcement training and professional development? Because the law enforcement environment is not standing still. Unlawful activity, and in particular drug trafficking strategies,…

  7. Exercise Training and Work Task Induced Metabolic and Stress-Related mRNA and Protein Responses in Myalgic Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Sjøgaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16 healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed ~7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism. In contrast, prolonged general fitness as well as specific strength training decreased mRNA content of heat shock protein while the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was increased only after specific strength training.

  8. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malling, Anne Sofie B; Jensen, Bente R

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore, the aim was to study the effect of motor intensive training performed in a safe anti-gravity environment using lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) technology on performance during dynamic balance related tasks. Thirteen male PDP went through an 8-week control period followed by 8 weeks of motor intensive antigravity training. Seventeen healthy males constituted a control group (CON). Performance during a five repetition sit-to-stand test (STS; sagittal plane) and a dynamic postural balance test (DPB; transversal plane) was evaluated. Effect measures were completion time, functional rates of force development, directional changes and force variance. STS completion time improved by 24% to the level of CON which was explained by shorter sitting-time and standing-time and larger numeric rate of force change during lowering to the chair, indicating faster vertical directional change and improved relaxation. DPB completion time tended to improve and was accompanied by improvements of functional medial and lateral rates of force development and higher vertical force variance during DPB. Our results suggest that the performance improvements may relate to improved inter-limb coordination. It is concluded that 8 weeks of motor intensive training in a safe LBPP environment improved performance during dynamic balance related tasks in PDP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Discriminative Training of Deep Fully Connected Continuous CRFs With Task-Specific Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fayao; Lin, Guosheng; Shen, Chunhua

    2017-05-01

    Recent works on deep conditional random fields (CRFs) have set new records on many vision tasks involving structured predictions. Here, we propose a fully connected deep continuous CRF model with task-specific losses for both discrete and continuous labeling problems. We exemplify the usefulness of the proposed model on multi-class semantic labeling (discrete) and the robust depth estimation (continuous) problems. In our framework, we model both the unary and the pairwise potential functions as deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which are jointly learned in an end-to-end fashion. The proposed method possesses the main advantage of continuously valued CRFs, which is a closed-form solution for the maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference. To better take into account the quality of the predicted estimates during the cause of learning, instead of using the commonly employed maximum likelihood CRF parameter learning protocol, we propose task-specific loss functions for learning the CRF parameters. It enables direct optimization of the quality of the MAP estimates during the learning process. Specifically, we optimize the multi-class classification loss for the semantic labeling task and the Tukey's biweight loss for the robust depth estimation problem. Experimental results on the semantic labeling and robust depth estimation tasks demonstrate that the proposed method compare favorably against both baseline and state-of-the-art methods. In particular, we show that although the proposed deep CRF model is continuously valued, with the equipment of task-specific loss, it achieves impressive results even on discrete labeling tasks.

  10. Checklist usage decreases critical task omissions when training residents to separate from simulated cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrik, Edward W; Ho, Dennis; Elahi, Maqsood; Ball, Timothy R; Hofkamp, Michael P; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Culp, William C; Villamaria, Frank J

    2014-12-01

    Separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) requires multiple preparatory steps, during which mistakes, omissions, and human errors may occur. Checklists have been used extensively in aviation to improve performance of complex, multistep tasks. The aim of this study was to (1) develop a checklist using a modified Delphi process to identify essential steps necessary to prepare for separation from CPB, and (2) compare the frequency of completed items with and without the use of a checklist in simulation. It was hypothesized that the use of a checklist would reduce the number of omissions. High-fidelity simulation study. University-affiliated tertiary care facility. Seven cardiac anesthesiologists created a checklist using a modified Delphi process. Ten residents participated in 4 scenarios separating from CPB in simulation. Each scenario was performed first without a checklist and then again with a checklist. An observer graded participants' performance. A pre-separation checklist containing 9 tasks was created using the Delphi process. Without using this checklist, 4 tasks were completed in at least 75% of scenarios, and 8 tasks were completed at least 75% of the time when using the checklist. There was a significant improvement in completion of 5 of the 9 items (pchecklist of steps in preparing to separate from CPB. Using this checklist during simulation resulted in increased frequency of completing designated tasks in comparison to relying on memory alone. Checklists may reduce omission errors during complex periods of anesthesiologists' perioperative workflow. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Sarah M.; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudi...

  12. Better decision making in complex, dynamic tasks training with human-facilitated interactive learning environments

    CERN Document Server

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes interactive learning environments (ILEs) and their underlying concepts. It explains how ILEs can be used to improve the decision-making process and how these improvements can be empirically verified. The objective of this book is to enhance our understanding of and to gain insights into the process by which human facilitated ILEs are effectively designed and used in improving users’ decision making in complex, dynamic tasks. This book is divided into four major parts. Part I serves as an introduction to the importance and complexity of decision making in dynamic tasks. Part II provides background material, drawing upon relevant literature, for the development of an integrated process model on the effectiveness of human facilitated ILEs in improving decision making in dynamic tasks. Part III focuses on the design, development, and application of FishBankILE in laboratory experiments to gather empirical evidence for the validity of the process model. Finally, part IV presents a comprehensi...

  13. Training dual-task walking in community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke: a protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plummer-D’Amato Prudence

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community ambulation is a highly complex skill requiring the ability to adapt to increased environmental complexity and perform multiple tasks simultaneously. After stroke, individuals demonstrate a diminished ability to perform dual-tasks. Current evidence suggests that conventional rehabilitation does not adequately address gait-related dual-task impairments after stroke, which may be contributing to low levels of participation and physical inactivity in community-dwelling stroke survivors. The objective of this study is to investigate the efficacy of dual-task gait training in community-dwelling adults within 1 year of stroke. Specifically, we will compare the effects of dual-task gait training and single-task gait training on cognitive-motor interference during walking at preferred speed and at fastest comfortable speed (Aim 1, locomotor control during obstacle negotiation (Aim 2, and spontaneous physical activity (Aim 3. Methods/Design This single-blind randomized controlled trial will involve 44 individuals within 12 months of stroke. Following baseline evaluation, participants will be randomly allocated to single- or dual-task gait training. Both groups will receive 12, 30-minute sessions provided one-on-one over 4–6 weeks in an outpatient therapy setting. Single-task gait training involves practice of gait activities incorporating motor relearning principles. Dual-task gait training involves an identical gait training protocol; the critical difference being that the dual-task gait training group will practice the gait activities while simultaneously performing a cognitive task for 75% of the repetitions. Blinded assessors will measure outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months after completion of the intervention. The primary outcome measure will be dual-task effects on gait speed and cognition during unobstructed walking. Secondary outcomes include spatiotemporal and kinetic gait parameters during

  14. Interdisciplinary cognitive task analysis: a strategy to develop a comprehensive endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography protocol for use in fellowship training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy, Erin; Evans, Matt; Boehler, Margaret; Roberts, Nicole; Sanfey, Hilary; Mellinger, John

    2015-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a challenging procedure performed by surgeons and gastroenterologists. We employed cognitive task analysis to identify steps and decision points for this procedure. Standardized interviews were conducted with expert gastroenterologists (7) and surgeons (4) from 4 institutions. A procedural step and cognitive decision point protocol was created from audio-taped transcriptions and was refined by 5 additional surgeons. Conceptual elements, sequential actions, and decision points were iterated for 5 tasks: patient preparation, duodenal intubation, selective cannulation, imaging interpretation with related therapeutic intervention, and complication management. A total of 180 steps were identified. Gastroenterologists identified 34 steps not identified by surgeons, and surgeons identified 20 steps not identified by gastroenterologists. The findings suggest that for complex procedures performed by diverse practitioners, more experts may help delineate distinctive emphases differentiated by training background and type of practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, S; Condello, G; Capranica, L; Forte, R; Pesce, C

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST) training (n = 16) and physical-cognitive dual task (DT) training (n = 20), respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory) through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles) under both single and dual task (ST, DT) conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling). The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  16. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Falbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST training (n=16 and physical-cognitive dual task (DT training (n=20, respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles under both single and dual task (ST, DT conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling. The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  17. AExaCTT – Aerobic Exercise and Consecutive Task-specific Training for the upper limb after stroke: Protocol for a randomised controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Valkenborghs

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Motor function may be enhanced if aerobic exercise is paired with motor training. One potential mechanism is that aerobic exercise increases levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which is important in neuroplasticity and involved in motor learning and motor memory consolidation. This study will examine the feasibility of a parallel-group assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial investigating whether task-specific training preceded by aerobic exercise improves upper limb function more than task-specific training alone, and determine the effect size of changes in primary outcome measures. People with upper limb motor dysfunction after stroke will be allocated to either task-specific training or aerobic exercise and consecutive task-specific training. Both groups will perform 60 hours of task-specific training over 10 weeks, comprised of 3 × 1 hour sessions per week with a therapist and 3 × 1 hours of home-based self-practice per week. The combined intervention group will also perform 30 minutes of aerobic exercise (70–85%HRmax immediately prior to the 1 hour of task-specific training with the therapist. Recruitment, adherence, retention, participant acceptability, and adverse events will be recorded. Clinical outcome measures will be performed pre-randomisation at baseline, at completion of the training program, and at 1 and 6 months follow-up. Primary clinical outcome measures will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT. If aerobic exercise prior to task-specific training is acceptable, and a future phase 3 randomised controlled trial seems feasible, it should be pursued to determine the efficacy of this combined intervention for people after stroke.

  18. A teaching strategy for solving tasks integrating physics and artistic components in senior high school teacher’s training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito, Raúl Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is aimed at describing the results of a study intended to find a solution to shortcomings in the training of teacher of Physics, particularly in relation to the acquisition of an artistic cultural insight as a result of the process of learning Physics, which naturally hinders the fulfillment of junior high school general goal. A teaching strategy, centered in solving tasks of physics and artistic integrating nature, is suggested to contribute to enlarge cultural understanding and illustrating science and art relationship.

  19. Disruption of basal lamina components in neuromotor synapses of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn G Robinson

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR, synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2 appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups

  20. Weight-based nutritional diagnosis of Mexican children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vega-Sanchez Rodrigo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition related problems are increasing worldwide but they have scarcely been evaluated in people with neuromotor disabilities, particularly in developing countries. In this study our aim was to describe the weight-based nutritional diagnoses of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities who attended a private rehabilitation center in Mexico City. Methods Data from the first visit’s clinical records of 410 patients who attended the Nutrition department at the Teleton Center for Children Rehabilitation, between 1999 and 2008, were analyzed. Sex, age, weight and height, length or segmental length data were collected and used to obtain the nutritional diagnosis based on international growth charts, as well as disability-specific charts. Weight for height was considered the main indicator. Results Cerebral palsy was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, and Down’s syndrome. Children with cerebral palsy showed a higher risk of presenting low weight/undernutrition (LW/UN than children with other disabilities, which was three times higher in females. In contrast, children with spina bifida, particularly males, were more likely to be overweight/obese (OW/OB, especially after the age of 6 and even more after 11. Patients with muscular dystrophy showed a significantly lower risk of LW/UN than patients with other disabilities. In patients with Down’s syndrome neither LW/UN nor OW/OB were different between age and sex. Conclusions This is the first study that provides evidence of the nutritional situation of children and adolescents with neuromotor disabilities in Mexico, based on their weight status. Low weight and obesity affect a large number of these patients due to their disability, age and sex. Early nutritional diagnosis must be considered an essential component in the treatment of these patients to prevent obesity and malnutrition, and improve their quality of life.

  1. Extending Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals (IETMs) with Real and Virtual Animated Content for Maintenance Task Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    simulations were extremely limited, requiring trainees to carry out a set of tasks in a carefully predefined fashion ( Tennyson & Buttrey 1980). This was as...1977). Review of student control in computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 3(3), 84-90. 10. Tennyson , R.D. & Buttrey, T

  2. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  3. Improvements in bladder, bowel and sexual outcomes following task-specific locomotor training in human spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Hubscher

    Full Text Available Locomotor training (LT as a therapeutic intervention following spinal cord injury (SCI is an effective rehabilitation strategy for improving motor outcomes, but its impact on non-locomotor functions is unknown. Given recent results of our labs' pre-clinical animal SCI LT studies and existing overlap of lumbosacral spinal circuitries controlling pelvic-visceral and locomotor functions, we addressed whether LT can improve bladder, bowel and sexual function in humans at chronic SCI time-points (> two years post-injury.Prospective cohort study; pilot trial with small sample size.Eight SCI research participants who were undergoing 80 daily one-hour sessions of LT on a treadmill using body-weight support, or one-hour of LT and stand training on alternate days, as part of another research study conducted at the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, were enrolled in this pilot trial. Urodynamic assessments were performed and International Data Set questionnaire forms completed for bladder, bowel and sexual functions at pre-and post-training time points. Four usual care (non-trained; regular at-home routine research participants were also enrolled in this study and had the same assessments collected twice, at least 3 months apart.Filling cystometry documented significant increases in bladder capacity, voiding efficiency and detrusor contraction time as well as significant decreases in voiding pressure post-training relative to baseline. Questionnaires revealed a decrease in the frequency of nocturia and urinary incontinence for several research participants as well as a significant decrease in time required for defecation and a significant increase in sexual desire post-training. No significant differences were found for usual care research participants.These results suggest that an appropriate level of sensory information provided to the spinal cord, generated through task-specific stepping and/or loading, can positively

  4. Effects of Neurofeekback Training on EEG, Continuous Performance Task (CPT), and ADHD Symptoms in ADHD-prone College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Manhee; Son, Chongnak

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the effects of neurofeedback training on Electroencephalogram (EEG), Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and ADHD symptoms in ADHD prone college students. Two hundred forty seven college students completed Korean Version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS-K) and Korean Version of Beck Depression Inventory (K-BDI). The 16 participants who ranked in the top 25% of CAARS-K score and had 16 less of K-BDI score participated in this study. Among them, 8 participants who are fit for the research schedule were assigned to neurofeedback training group and 8 not fit for the research schedule to the control group. All participants completed Adult Attention Deficiency Questionnaire, CPT and EEG measurement at pretest. The neurofeedback group received 15 neurofeedback training sessions (5 weeks, 3 sessions per week). The control group did not receive any treatment. Four weeks after completion of the program, all participants completed CAARS-K, Adult Attention Deficiency Questionnaire, CPT and EEG measurement for post-test. The neurofeedback group showed more significant improvement in EEG, CPT performance and ADHD symptoms than the control group. The improvements were maintained at follow up. Neurofeedback training adjusted abnormal EEG and was effective in improving objective and subjective ADHD symptoms in ADHD prone college students.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke : The protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Wevers, Lotte; Roelse, Hanneke; van Kats, Lenneke; Lindeman, Eline; Kwakkel, Gert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a

  6. Effects of Serial and Concurrent Training on Receptive Identification Tasks: A Systematic Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Kara L.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    The current study compared the use of serial and concurrent methods to train multiple exemplars when teaching receptive language skills, providing a systematic replication of Wunderlich, Vollmer, Donaldson, and Phillips (2014). Five preschoolers diagnosed with developmental delays or autism spectrum disorders were taught to receptively identify…

  7. Leadership for the 1970s. Organizational Leadership Tasks for Army Leadership Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    a monumental undertaking by any standards. This monograph represents an attempt to clarify leadership / management activities within reasonable limits ...nine skill components (dimensions) of the leadership role: Communication, Human Relations, Counseling, Super- vision, Technical Expertise, Management ...environment, training and development efforts in the leadership / management field become extremely complicated. It is a most difficult--perhaps fruitless

  8. Biofeedback for training balance and mobility tasks in older populations : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; Mancini, Martina; Chiari, Lorenzo; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2010-01-01

    Context: An effective application of biofeedback for interventions in older adults with balance and mobility disorders may be compromised due to co-morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of biofeedback-based training of balance and/or mobility in older adults. Data

  9. How to Explain Receptivity to Conjunction-Fallacy Inhibition Training: Evidence from the Iowa Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive predictions and judgments under conditions of uncertainty are often mediated by judgment heuristics that sometimes lead to biases. Using the classical conjunction bias example, the present study examines the relationship between receptivity to metacognitive executive training and emotion-based learning ability indexed by Iowa Gambling…

  10. Using Cognitive Task Analysis to Develop Scenario-Based Training for House-Clearing Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-22

    approach. Paper presented at the 1998 Interservice/ Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference, Orlando, FL. Ross, K. G., Lussier, J. W...en prise de décision nécessaires aux opérations de nettoyage (ratissage) de maisons dans différents contextes. Le projet avait pour but d’énoncer les

  11. Learner-Controlled Practice Difficulty in the Training of a Complex Task: Cognitive and Motivational Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael G.; Day, Eric Anthony; Wang, Xiaoqian; Schuelke, Matthew J.; Arsenault, Matthew L.; Harkrider, Lauren N.; Cooper, Olivia D.

    2013-01-01

    An inherent aspect of learner-controlled instructional environments is the ability of learners to affect the degree of difficulty faced during training. However, research has yet to examine how learner-controlled practice difficulty affects learning. Based on the notion of "desirable difficulties" (Bjork, 1994), this study examined the…

  12. The Effect of Music Training on Preschoolers' Spatial-Temporal Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromko, Joyce Eastlund; Poorman, Allison Smith

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of music training on 34 preschoolers' (n=175) Performance IQs based on commonalties among spatial and musical developmental progressions. Finds significantly less gain in IQ for older children in the control group; the relationship of Performance IQ to age was not significant for the treatment group. (CMK)

  13. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  14. Testing during Training: Why Does It Enhance Long-Term Motor Task Retention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    improvements associated with t-trial repetition been reported. Research- ers have shown that with verbal tasks t-trials not only contribute to acquisition...test trials on long-term recognition and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1971, 10, 562-567. Jones, B. Role of central...ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1970, 83, 304-308. ,,d-.. ," 13 -l - - -" W~ll .Wi.~ Roy, E. A. Toward a typology of apraxia . Mouvement

  15. Task sharing in rural Haiti: Qualitative assessment of a brief, structured training with and without apprenticeship supervision for community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kristen E; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Hagaman, Ashley K; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Therosme, Tatiana P; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-07-01

    Despite growing support for supervision after task sharing trainings in humanitarian settings, there is limited research on the experience of trainees in apprenticeship and other supervision approaches. Studying apprenticeships from trainees' perspectives is crucial to refine supervision and enhance motivation for service implementation. The authors implemented a multi-stage, transcultural adaptation for a pilot task sharing training in Haiti entailing three phases: 1) literature review and qualitative research to adapt a mental health and psychosocial support training; 2) implementation and qualitative process evaluation of a brief, structured group training; and 3) implementation and qualitative evaluation of an apprenticeship training, including a two year follow-up of trainees. Structured group training revealed limited knowledge acquisition, low motivation, time and resource constraints on mastery, and limited incorporation of skills into practice. Adding an apprenticeship component was associated with subjective clinical competency, increased confidence regarding utilising skills, and career advancement. Qualitative findings support the added value of apprenticeship according to trainees.

  16. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Steinberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.

  17. Organizational factors and mental health in community volunteers. The role of exposure, preparation, training, tasks assigned, and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Sigridur Bjork; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    During disasters, aid organizations often respond using the resources of local volunteer members from the affected population who are not only inexperienced, but who additionally take on some of the more psychologically and physically difficult tasks in order to provide support for their community. Although not much empirical evidence exists to justify the claim, it is thought that preparation, training, and organizational support limit (or reduce) a volunteer's risk of developing later psychopathology. In this study, we examined the effects of preparation, training, and organizational support and assigned tasks on the mental health of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers who participated in the response to a massive earthquake in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2006. Controlling for exposure level, the volunteers were assessed for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and subjective health complaints (SHCs) 6, 12, and 18 months post-disaster. Results showed high levels of PTSD and SHCs up to 18 months post-disaster, while anxiety and depression levels remained in the normal range. Higher levels of exposure as well as certain tasks (e.g., provision of psychosocial support to beneficiaries, handling administration, or handing out food aid) made the volunteers more vulnerable. Sense of safety, expressed general need for support at 6 months, and a lack of perceived support from team leaders and the organization were also related to greater psychopathology at 18 months. The results highlight the importance of studying organizational factors. By incorporating these results into future volunteer management programs the negative effects of disaster work on volunteers can be ameliorated.

  18. A training approach to improve stepping automaticity while dual-tasking in Parkinson's disease: A prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, Taylor; Watts, Alexander; Meyer, Nicole; Pereira, Fernando V; Hu, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Deficits in motor movement automaticity in Parkinson's disease (PD), especially during multitasking, are early and consistent hallmarks of cognitive function decline, which increases fall risk and reduces quality of life. This study aimed to test the feasibility and potential efficacy of a wearable sensor-enabled technological platform designed for an in-home music-contingent stepping-in-place (SIP) training program to improve step automaticity during dual-tasking (DT). This was a 4-week prospective intervention pilot study. The intervention uses a sensor system and algorithm that runs off the iPod Touch which calculates step height (SH) in real-time. These measurements were then used to trigger auditory (treatment group, music; control group, radio podcast) playback in real-time through wireless headphones upon maintenance of repeated large amplitude stepping. With small steps or shuffling, auditory playback stops, thus allowing participants to use anticipatory motor control to regain positive feedback. Eleven participants were recruited from an ongoing trial (Trial Number: ISRCTN06023392). Fear of falling (FES-I), general cognitive functioning (MoCA), self-reported freezing of gait (FOG-Q), and DT step automaticity were evaluated. While we found no significant effect of training on FES-I, MoCA, or FOG-Q, we did observe a significant group (music vs podcast) by training interaction in DT step automaticity (Pmusically-contingent SIP training to increase motor automaticity for people living with PD. The training approach described here can be implemented at home to meet the growing demand for self-management of symptoms by patients.

  19. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  20. Effects of aquatic interventions in children with neuromotor impairments: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Miriam; Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Vermeer, Adri

    2006-11-01

    To determine the effectiveness of aquatic interventions in children with neuromotor impairments. A search of electronic databases that included MEDLINE, PubMed, ERIC, PsychLit, PEDro, Sport Discus, CINAHL and Cochrane between 1966 and January 2005 was conducted using the following keywords: 'hydrotherapy', 'aquatic therapy', 'water exercise', 'aquatics', 'adapted aquatics', 'aquatic exercise' and 'swimming'. An additional resource, the Aquatic Therapy Research Bibliography until 1999, was explored manually. Titles and abstracts were assessed manually according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) population (children with neuromotor or neuromuscular impairments), (2) intervention (aquatic programme). Articles were reviewed according to merit of design, population participants and outcome measures with respect to International Classification of Function and Disability terminology (changes in body function, activity level and participation). Eleven of the 173 articles that were retrieved met the inclusion criteria: one randomized control trial, two quasi-experimental studies, one cohort study, two case control studies and five case reports. Seven articles reported improvement in body functions, and seven articles reported improvement in activity level. Two of the four articles that investigated outcome measures regarding participation described positive effects while the findings of the other two revealed no change. None of the articles reported negative effects due to aquatic interventions. According to this review, there is a substantial lack of evidence-based research evaluating the specific effects of aquatic interventions in this population.

  1. Intensive neuromotor therapy with suit improves motor gross function in cerebral palsy: a Brazilian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common disability in children caused by central nervous system lesion. The aim of the present study was to verify the intensive neuromotor therapy effects in children with CP, in a reference Brazilian centre. In this study, three years of medical records from a Brazilian reference Centre of Intensive Neuromotor Therapy (INMT which use the INMT protocol were analysed. The motor evaluation for each child was done by the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and GMFM-88 by an experienced professional, before and after each INMT module. A total of 53 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years (age at treatment initiation, initial evaluation, with a mean age of 5.94±3.38 years, participated in the study. Participants performed between 1 and 10 INMT modules. There was no strong correlation between age and overall performance on the GMFM scale, but it was observed a strong negative correlation between the percentage of GMFM gains and the number of modules (r=-0.709; R2 = 0.50; p = 0.022, CI95%[0.014 - 0.026], suggesting that patients tend to present higher percentage gains in the first modules. Through an intra-module comparison, it was observed statistical difference in the total score in each of the modules.

  2. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study.

  3. Effects of memory strategy training on performance and event-related brain potentials of children with ADHD in an episodic memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups.

  4. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Chandramouli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week. The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training. Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs. Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

  5. Balance training enhances motor coordination during a perturbed sidestep cutting task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Silva, Priscila de Brito; Lund, Morten Enemark

    2017-01-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Balance training (BTR) may improve motor coordination, however little is known about the changes in motor coordination during unexpected perturbations to postural control following BTR. Objectives To study the effects of BTR on motor coordination...... of a moveable platform). The TG subjects participated in a 6-week BTR program while CG participants followed their regular activity schedule. Both groups were re-tested after a 6-week period. Surface electromyography was recorded from 16 muscles of the supporting limb and trunk, as well as kinematics...

  6. Quality of reaching and postural control in young preterm infants is related to neuromotor outcome at 6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fallang, B; Oien, [No Value; Hellem, E; Saugstad, OD; Hadders-Algra, M

    A substantial proportion of the "apparently normal" preterm infants exhibit minor and moderate dysfunctions in neuromotor outcome as they grow older. Birth characteristics, minor abnormalities on the neonatal ultrasound scan of the brain, and motor milestones have only limited value in the early

  7. Identification of potential neuromotor mechanisms of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal disablement: rationale and description of a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulig Kornelia

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health care practitioners use a variety of hands-on treatments to improve symptoms and disablement in patients with musculoskeletal pathology. Research to date indirectly suggests a potentially broad effect of manual therapy on the neuromotor processing of functional behavior within the supraspinal central nervous system (CNS in a manner that may be independent of modification at the level of local spinal circuits. However, the effect of treatment speed, as well as the specific mechanism and locus of CNS changes, remain unclear. Methods/Design We developed a placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the hypothesis that manual therapy procedures directed to the talocrural joint in individuals with post-acute ankle sprain induce a change in corticospinal excitability that is relevant to improve the performance of lower extremity functional behavior. Discussion This study is designed to identify potential neuromotor changes associated with manual therapy procedures directed to the appendicular skeleton, compare the relative effect of treatment speed on potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures, and determine the behavioral relevance of potential neuromotor effects of manual therapy procedures. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00847769.

  8. Learning strategy preference of 5XFAD transgenic mice depends on the sequence of place/spatial and cued training in the water maze task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jung-Cheol; Chung, ChiHye; Jeon, Won Kyung; Han, Jung-Soo

    2014-10-15

    Learning strategy preference was assessed in 5XFAD mice, which carry 5 familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. Mice were sequentially trained in cued and place/spatial versions of the water maze task. After training, a strategy preference test was conducted in which mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had previously been during the place/spatial training, and a visible platform in a new location. 5XFAD and non-transgenic control mice showed equivalent escape performance in both training tasks. However, in the strategy preference test, 5XFAD mice preferred a cued strategy relative to control mice. When the training sequence was presented in the reverse order (i.e., place/spatial training before cued training), 5XFAD mice showed impairments in place/spatial training, but no differences in cued training or in the strategy preference test comparing to control. Analysis of regional Aβ42 deposition in brains of 5XFAD mice showed that the hippocampus, which is involved in the place/spatial learning strategy, had the highest levels of Aβ42 and the dorsal striatum, which is involved in cued learning strategy, showed a small increase in Aβ42 levels. The effect of training protocol order on performance, and regional differences in Aβ42 deposition observed in 5XFAD mice, suggest differential functional recruitment of brain structures related to learning in healthy and AD individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Topological Changes in the Brain Network Induced by the Training on a Piloting Task: An EEG-Based Functional Connectome Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Fumihiko; Sun, Yu; Babiloni, Fabio; Thakor, Nitish V; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2018-02-01

    Training is a process to improve one's capacity or performance through the acquisition of knowledge or skills specific for the trained task. Although behavioral performance would be improved monotonically and reach a plateau as the learning progresses, neurophysiological signal shows different patterns like a U-shaped curve. One possible account for the phenomenon is that the brain first works hard to learn how to use task-relevant areas, followed by improvement in the efficiency derived from disuse of irrelevant brain areas for good task performance. Here, we hypothesize that topology of the brain network would show U-shaped changes during the training on a piloting task. To test this hypothesis, graph theoretical metrics quantifying global and local characteristics of the network were investigated. Our results demonstrated that global information transfer efficiency of the functional network in a high frequency band first decreased and then increased during the training while other measures such as local information transfer efficiency and small-worldness showed opposite patterns. Additionally, the centrality of nodes changed due to the training at frontal and temporal sites. Our results suggest network metrics can be used as biomarkers for quantifying the training progress, which can be differed depending on network efficiency of the brain.

  10. Training and qualification of the auxiliaries of operation using the methodology On the Job Training (OJT) and Task Performance Evaluation (TPE); Formacion y culificacion de los auxiliares de operacion mediante la metodologia On the Job Training (OJT) y Task Performance Evaluation (TPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Casado, J.

    2015-07-01

    On the Job Training (OJT) and Task Performance Evaluation (TPE). This plan has been developed and put in practice entirely, by a group of experienced auxiliary operation that have distinguished themselves by their professionalism, knowledge of the work, technical expertise and commitment to nuclear safety. (Author)

  11. Development and Assessment of a Novel Training Package for Basic Maneuvering Tasks on a Flight Simulator Using Self Instruction Methods and Above Real Time Training (ARTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Firasat; Khan, M. Javed; Rossi, Marcia J.; Heath, Bruce e.; Crane, Peter; Ward, Marcus; Crier, Tomyka; Knighten, Tremaine; Culpepper, Christi

    2007-01-01

    One result of the relatively recent advances in computing technology has been the decreasing cost of computers and increasing computational power. This has allowed high fidelity airplane simulations to be run on personal computers (PC). Thus, simulators are now used routinely by pilots to substitute real flight hours for simulated flight hours for training for an aircraft type rating thereby reducing the cost of flight training. However, FAA regulations require that such substitution training must be supervised by Certified Flight Instructors (CFI). If the CFI presence could be reduced or eliminated for certain tasks this would mean a further cost savings to the pilot. This would require that the flight simulator have a certain level of 'intelligence' in order to provide feedback on pilot performance similar to that of a CFI. The 'intelligent' flight simulator would have at least the capability to use data gathered from the flight to create a measure for the performance of the student pilot. Also, to fully utilize the advances in computational power, the simulator would be capable of interacting with the student pilot using the best possible training interventions. This thesis reports on the two studies conducted at Tuskegee University investigating the effects of interventions on the learning of two flight maneuvers on a flight simulator and the robustness and accuracy of calculated performance indices as compared to CFI evaluations of performance. The intent of these studies is to take a step in the direction of creating an 'intelligent' flight simulator. The first study deals with the comparisons of novice pilot performance trained at different levels of above real-time to execute a level S-turn. The second study examined the effect of out-of-the-window (OTW) visual cues in the form of hoops on the performance of novice pilots learning to fly a landing approach on the flight simulator. The reliability/robustness of the computed performance metrics was assessed

  12. No transfer between conditions in balance training regimes relying on tasks with different postural demands: Specificity effects of two different serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Joch, Michael; Munzert, Jörn; Reiser, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of video games involving whole body movements to enhance postural control in health prevention and rehabilitation, there is no consistent proof that training effects actually transfer to other balance tasks. The present study aimed to determine whether training effects on two different video-game-based training devices were task-specific or could be transferred to either postural control in quiet stance or to performance on the other device. 37 young healthy adults were split into three groups: two intervention groups that trained for 30min on either the Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Balance Board or the MFT Challenge Disc(®) three times per week for 4 weeks and a control group that received no training. All games require participants to control virtual avatars by shifting the center of mass in different directions. Both devices differ in their physical properties. The Balance Board provides a stable surface, whereas the Challenge Disc can be tilted in all directions. Dependent variables were the game scores on both devices and the center of pressure (COP) displacements measured via force plate. At posttest, both intervention groups showed significant increases in performance on the trained games compared to controls. However, there were no relevant transfer effects to performance on the untrained device and no changes in COP path length in quiet stance. These results suggest that training effects on both devices are highly specific and do not transfer to tasks with different postural demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Recall initiation strategies must be controlled in training studies that use immediate free recall tasks to measure the components of working memory capacity across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bradley S; Gondoli, Dawn M; Johnson, Ann C; Robison, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in using working memory (WM) training regimens as an alternative treatment for ADHD, but it has recently been concluded that existing training regimens may not be optimally designed because they target the primary memory component but not the secondary component of WM capacity. This conclusion requires the ability to accurately measure changes in primary and secondary memory abilities over time. The immediate free recall task has been used in previous studies to measure these changes; however, one concern with these tasks is that the recall order required on training exercises may influence the recall strategy used during free recall, which may in turn influence the relative number of items recalled from primary and secondary memory. To address this issue, previous training studies have explicitly controlled recall strategy before and after training. However, the necessity of controlling for recall strategies has not been explicitly tested. The present study investigated the effects of forward-serial-order training on free recall performance under conditions in which recall strategy was not controlled using a sample of adolescents with ADHD. Unlike when recall order was controlled, the main findings showed selective improvement of the secondary memory component (as opposed to the primary memory component) when recall order was uncontrolled. This finding advances our understanding of WM training by highlighting the importance of controlling for recall strategies when free recall tasks are used to measure changes in the primary and secondary components of WM across time.

  14. Virtual reality environment for simulating tasks with a myoelectric prosthesis: an assessment and training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, Joris M; Pulliam, Christopher L; Kirsch, Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Intuitively and efficiently controlling multiple degrees of freedom is a major hurdle in the field of upper limb prosthetics. A virtual reality myoelectric transhumeral prosthesis simulator has been developed for cost-effectively testing novel control algorithms and devices. The system acquires EMG commands and residual limb kinematics, simulates the prosthesis dynamics, and displays the combined residual limb and prosthesis movements in a virtual reality environment that includes force-based interactions with virtual objects. A virtual Box and Block Test is demonstrated. Three normally-limbed subjects performed the simulated test using a sequential and a synchronous control method. With the sequential method, subjects moved on average 6.7±1.9 blocks in 120 seconds, similar to the number of blocks transhumeral amputees are able to move with their physical prostheses during clinical evaluation. With the synchronous method, subjects moved 6.7±2.2 blocks. The virtual reality prosthesis simulator is thus a promising tool for developing and evaluating control methods, prototyping novel prostheses, and training amputees.

  15. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Acevedo-Triana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis, causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12 was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9 stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding, or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level.

  16. Running wheel training does not change neurogenesis levels or alter working memory tasks in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel J.; Cardenas P., Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Exercise can change cellular structure and connectivity (neurogenesis or synaptogenesis), causing alterations in both behavior and working memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on working memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male Wistar rats using a T-maze test. Methods An experimental design with two groups was developed: the experimental group (n = 12) was subject to a forced exercise program for five days, whereas the control group (n = 9) stayed in the home cage. Six to eight weeks after training, the rats’ working memory was evaluated in a T-maze test and four choice days were analyzed, taking into account alternation as a working memory indicator. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry of BrdU positive cells. Results No differences between groups were found in the behavioral variables (alternation, preference index, time of response, time of trial or feeding), or in the levels of BrdU positive cells. Discussion Results suggest that although exercise may have effects on brain structure, a construct such as working memory may require more complex changes in networks or connections to demonstrate a change at behavioral level. PMID:28503368

  17. Cognitive task analysis-based design and authoring software for simulation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Allen; Clark, Richard E

    2013-10-01

    The development of more effective medical simulators requires a collaborative team effort where three kinds of expertise are carefully coordinated: (1) exceptional medical expertise focused on providing complete and accurate information about the medical challenges (i.e., critical skills and knowledge) to be simulated; (2) instructional expertise focused on the design of simulation-based training and assessment methods that produce maximum learning and transfer to patient care; and (3) software development expertise that permits the efficient design and development of the software required to capture expertise, present it in an engaging way, and assess student interactions with the simulator. In this discussion, we describe a method of capturing more complete and accurate medical information for simulators and combine it with new instructional design strategies that emphasize the learning of complex knowledge. Finally, we describe three different types of software support (Development/Authoring, Run Time, and Post Run Time) required at different stages in the development of medical simulations and the instructional design elements of the software required at each stage. We describe the contributions expected of each kind of software and the different instructional control authoring support required. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. O enfermeiro e a avaliaÃÃo do desenvolvimento neuromotor do lactente.

    OpenAIRE

    Polyana Candeia Maia

    2013-01-01

    A avaliaÃÃo do desenvolvimento infantil à necessÃria para que haja o monitoramento e o acompanhamento das mudanÃas ocorrentes na vida da crianÃa, buscando identificar as caracterÃsticas prÃprias e relacionÃ-las com os respectivos perÃodos de desenvolvimento do ser humano. O estudo objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento neuromotor de crianÃas com idade de 2m15d a 12m15d. Estudo descritivo-exploratÃrio, transversal, com enfoque analÃtico, realizado em Centro de SaÃde da FamÃlia nos municÃpios de F...

  20. Identification of feeding and nutrition problems in young children with neuromotor involvement: a self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, A H; Deubler, D C

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information needed to identify feeding and nutrition problems in children from birth to twenty-four months. Oral-motor and self-feeding skill development should be viewed within the framework of overall development and changing nutrition needs. Neuromotor dysfunction affects feeding and nutrition through changes in muscle tone, reflexes and the response to sensory stimulation. Nutrient compromises, including delays in texture progression, decreased fluid intake, and problems associated with self-feeding and food selection must be considered when assessing the nutrition/feeding needs of children. Successful completion of the self-assessment can be used to check the reader's basic understanding of the subject.

  1. Reduced Mid1 expression and delayed neuromotor development in daDREAM transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eDierssen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Previous work has shown a role for DREAM in cerebellar function regulating the expression of the sodium/calcium exchanger 3 (NCX3 in cerebellar granular neurons to control Ca2+ homeostasis and survival of these neurons. To achieve a global view of the genes regulated by DREAM in the cerebellum, we performed a genome-wide analysis in transgenic cerebellum expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM. Here we show that DREAM regulates the expression of the midline 1 (Mid1 gene early after birth. As a consequence, daDREAM mice exhibit a significant shortening of the rostro-caudal axis of the cerebellum and a severe delay in neuromotor development early after birth. Our results indicate a role for DREAM in cerebellar function.

  2. Childhood videotaped social and neuromotor precursors of schizophrenia: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Walker, Elaine; Ekstrøm, Morten

    2004-01-01

    were filmed under standardized conditions while they were eating lunch. The examination was part of a larger study investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum...... disorder and children who developed other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The findings from this study suggest that the brief videotaped footage of children eating lunch was able to discriminate between the individuals who later developed schizophrenia and those who did not. Specifically...... disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242). This study systematically analyzed the videotapes to determine whether the children who developed schizophrenia as adults evidenced greater social and/or neuromotor deficits than children who did not develop a psychiatric...

  3. Understanding the importance of natural neuromotor strategy in upper extremity neuroprosthetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Dominic E; Prost, Robert W; Guastello, Stephen J; Jeutter, Dean C

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in upper extremity neuroprosthetics is variable levels of skill and inconsistent functional recovery. We examine the feasibility and benefits of using natural neuromotor strategies through the design and development of a proof-of-concept model for a feed-forward upper extremity neuroprosthetic controller. Developed using Artificial Neural Networks, the model is able to extract and classify neural correlates of movement intention from multiple brain regions that correspond to functional movements. This is unique compared to contemporary controllers that record from limited physiological sources or require learning of new strategies. Functional MRI (fMRI) data from healthy subjects (N = 13) were used to develop the model, and a separate group (N = 4) of subjects were used for validation. Results indicate that the model is able to accurately (81%) predict hand movement strictly from the neural correlates of movement intention. Information from this study is applicable to the development of upper extremity technology aided interventions.

  4. Does absolute brain size really predict self-control? Hand-tracking training improves performance on the A-not-B task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelbert, S A; Taylor, A H; Gray, R D

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale, comparative cognition studies are set to revolutionize the way we investigate and understand the evolution of intelligence. However, the conclusions reached by such work have a key limitation: the cognitive tests themselves. If factors other than cognition can systematically affect the performance of a subset of animals on these tests, we risk drawing the wrong conclusions about how intelligence evolves. Here, we examined whether this is the case for the A-not-B task, recently used by MacLean and co-workers to study self-control among 36 different species. Non-primates performed poorly on this task; possibly because they have difficulty tracking the movements of a human demonstrator, and not because they lack self-control. To test this, we assessed the performance of New Caledonian crows on the A-not-B task before and after two types of training. New Caledonian crows trained to track rewards moved by a human demonstrator were more likely to pass the A-not-B test than birds trained on an unrelated choice task involving inhibitory control. Our findings demonstrate that overlooked task demands can affect performance on a cognitive task, and so bring into question MacLean's conclusion that absolute brain size best predicts self-control. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. [Correlation between growth rate of corpus callosum and neuromotor development in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Ke; Sun, Jie; Hu, Li-Yan; Liu, Fang

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the growth rate of corpus callosum by cranial ultrasound in very low birth weight preterm infants and to provide a reference for early evaluation and improvement of brain development. A total of 120 preterm infants under 33 weeks' gestation were recruited and divided into 26-29(+6) weeks group (n=64) and 30-32(+6) weeks group (n=56) according to the gestational age. The growth rate of corpus callosum was compared between the two groups. The correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length and the relationship of the growth rate of corpus callosum with clinical factors and the neuromotor development were analyzed. The growth rate of corpus callosum in preterm infants declined since 2 weeks after birth. Compared with the 30-32(+6) weeks group, the 26-29(+6) weeks group had a significantly lower growth rate of corpus callosum at 3-4 weeks after birth, at 5-6 weeks after birth, and from 7 weeks after birth to 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. There was a positive linear correlation between the corpus callosum length and the cerebellar vermis length. Small-for-gestational age infants had a low growth rate of corpus callosum at 2 weeks after birth. The 12 preterm infants with severe abnormal intellectual development had a lower growth rate of corpus callosum compared with the 108 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal intellectual development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The 5 preterm infants with severe abnormal motor development had a significantly lower growth rate of corpus callosum compared with the 115 preterm infants with non-severe abnormal motor development at 3-6 weeks after birth. The decline of growth rate of corpus callosum in preterm infants at 2-6 weeks after birth can increase the risk of severe abnormal neuromotor development.

  6. Quantitative assessment of neuromotor function in workers with current low exposure to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Lamoureux, Daniel; Sällsten, Gerd; Beuter, Anne; Barregård, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Evaluation of neuromotor function has been used in several epidemiological studies of workers with long-term exposure to mercury vapor (Hg 0). Some recent studies indicate adverse effects at relatively low exposure levels. In the present study, we used sensitive quantitative methods, developed specifically to detect subtle effects of exposure to toxins on motor function. After exclusion of individuals with neurological diseases or other conditions that may affect performance, 43 chloralkali workers with current low exposure to Hg 0, and 22 age-matched referents remained for further analysis. The median urinary mercury concentration in exposed workers was 5.9 microg/g (range 1.3-25) creatinine (microg/gC), while that in referents was 0.7 microg/gC (range 0.2-4.1). The mean exposure time was 15 years, and the median cumulative mercury index was 161 years x microg/gC in exposed workers. A eurythmokinesimeter (EKM) was used to quantify eye-hand coordination, and a diadochokinesimeter, to measure rapid alternating rotation of the forearms. In general, the differences in performance between the exposed workers and the referents were small. Age was associated with a decrease in speed, more tremor, and longer contact duration between the stylus and the metal targets in performance of rapid pointing movements. Smokers had significantly more tremor, and more contacts per event in the EKM test, than nonsmokers. Taking age, shift work, and smoking habits into account, no significant associations with current or cumulative mercury exposure were found for the majority of the outcome variables from the quantitative tests. In general, this study indicates no significant adverse effects of Hg 0 on neuromotor function at the exposure levels studied.

  7. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The Influence of Tactual Seat-motion Cues on Training and Performance in a Roll-axis Compensatory Tracking Task Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    objectives of this experiment, as stated in Chapter 1, were to (1) determine whether a human operator could learn to use broad-area tactual motion...AFRL-RH-WP-SR-2009-0002 The Influence of Tactual Seat-motion Cues on Training and Performance in a Roll-axis Compensatory Tracking Task...From - To) September 1980 – June 1985 4.TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House The Influence of Tactual Seat-motion Cues on Training

  9. Can cerebellar and brainstem apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values predict neuromotor outcome in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypothermia?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gemma Arca-Díaz; Thomas J Re; Marie Drottar; Carmen Rosa Fortuno; Katyucia De Macedo-Rodrigues; Kiho Im; Josep Figueras-Aloy; Patricia Ellen Grant

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose To determine the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in specific infratentorial brain structures during the first week of life and its relation with neuromotor outcome for Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE...

  10. Assessment of the relationship between level of neuromotor, body somatotype, physical fitness level and game skills at football players in U12 category.

    OpenAIRE

    Vytlačil, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Title: Assessment of the relationship between level of neuromotor, body somatotype, physical fitness level and game skills at football players in U12 category. Objectives: The aim is to determinate the relationships between levels of neuromotoric, body somatotype, overal physical fitness level and the individual playing skills at football players in the U12 age category. Methods: The main research method of our work was the observation method. The research were included soccer player (n = 40;...

  11. Associação de retardo neuromotor e cromossomo 1qh +: registro de um caso Significance of neuromotor retardation in association with chromosome 1qh+: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salin Moyses Jorge

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram um caso de retardo neuromotor em paciente com cromossomo 1qh+. A análise cromossômica do paciente e três familiares revelou igualmente em todos, aumento do braço longo do cromossomo n.° 1. Entretanto, é considerada a possibilidade de que o quadro clínico do paciente seja subordinado também a outros fatores, não genéticos.A case of neuromotor retardation in association with chromosome 1qh+ is reported. Chromosomes analysis of the patient and three relatives showed increased long arm of the n.° 1 chromosome, in all of them. However it is emphasized that the clinical feature could be secondary to various non genetics factors, also.

  12. The influence of different intermittent myofeedback training schedules on learning relaxation of the trapezius muscle while performing a gross-motor task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, G. E.; Sandsjö, L.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M. M R; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C. G.; Hermens, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different intermittent myofeedback training schedules, as provided by a Cinderella-based myofeedback system, on learning relaxation and resistance to extinction of the trapezius muscle, in subjects performing a unilateral gross-motor task.

  13. Group-based exercise combined with dual-task training improves gait but not vascular health in active older adults without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael A; Gill, Dawn P; Zou, Guangyong; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Fitzgerald, Clara; Hachinski, Vladimir; Shoemaker, Kevin; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Gait abnormalities and vascular disease risk factors are associated with cognitive impairment in aging. To determine the impact of group-based exercise and dual-task training on gait and vascular health, in active community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants [n=44, mean (SD) age: 73.5 (7.2) years, 68% female] were randomized to either intervention (exercise+dual-task; EDT) or control (exercise only; EO). Each week, for 26 weeks, both groups accumulated 50 or 75 min of aerobic exercise from group-based classes and 45 min of beginner-level square stepping exercise (SSE). Participants accumulating only 50 min of aerobic exercise were instructed to participate in an additional 25 min each week outside of class. The EDT group also answered cognitively challenging questions while performing SSE (i.e., dual-task training). The effect of the interventions on gait and vascular health was compared between groups using linear mixed effects models. At 26 weeks, the EDT group demonstrated increased dual-task (DT) gait velocity [difference between groups in mean change from baseline (95% CI): 0.29 m/s (0.16-0.43), pexercise combined with dual-task training can improve DT gait characteristics in active older adults without dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF ADMINISTERING OXYTOCIN DURING BIRTH ON THE NEUROMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE 0-5 YEAR-OLD-CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Elena DIACONU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify new scientific data that will make possible a concrete assessment of the effects of oxytocin on the neuromotor development of newborns. Given the range of the proposed study, namely 0-5 years, one can identify research axioms dedicated to the prophylaxis sof retardation of neuromotor development. The research methods that will be used are: retrospective cohort study method - where patients (and newborns that will be administered syntheticoxytocin during labor induction, will be considered the exposed cohort, while the patients (and, therefore, the newborns that will not be administered oxytocin will represent the non-exposed cohort -, stratified and multiple variable analysis and the Batelle Developmental Inventory.

  15. Automatic Information Processing and High-Performance Skills: Principles of Consistency, Part-Task Training, Context, Retention, and Complex Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    operators) was provided to assist subjects in selecting the operators. The help menu was accessed by pressing the ’H’ key and selecting the desired help...were trained to read that unfamiliar typography . Kolers found that subjects retained some of the previously trained ability to read the inverted text...8217 key. This brings up the help Main Menu . From this menu you can choose help on any of six topics: 1) distance, 2) cargo, 3) weight, 4) vehicle, 5

  16. Task-specific, patient-driven neuroprosthesis training in chronic stroke: results of a 3-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Hermann, Valerie; Strasser, Ashley; Albers, Bethany; Schofield, Kelly; Dunning, Kari; Levine, Peter; Page, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of a clinically based regimen in which a woman 16 months' poststroke participated in daily practice sessions of valued activities of daily living (ADLs). A unique aspect of this intervention was that it was largely patient driven, with the patient practicing ADLs while wearing an electrical stimulation neuroprosthesis. The Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FM), Action Research Arm Test (ARA), Arm Motor Activity Test (AMAT), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were administered before intervention. Therapy consisted of 3-hr ADL training sessions every weekday during a 3-week period using a neuroprosthesis featuring functional electrical stimulation during treatment sessions. One week after the end of the treatment phase, the FM, ARA, AMAT, and COPM were again administered. The patient exhibited reduced impairment (FM score change from 31 to 35), decreased time needed to complete AMAT tasks (from 998 s to 558 s), and increased ARA score (from 27 to 31). Clinically meaningful changes were realized with distant or minimal therapist supervision, making this regimen a practical and efficacious alternative.

  17. Walk Ratio (Step Length/Cadence) as a Summary Index of Neuromotor Control of Gait: Application to Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Viviana; Perucca, Laura; Simone, Anna; Tesio, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    In healthy adults, the step length/cadence ratio [walk ratio (WR) in mm/(steps/min) and normalized for height] is known to be constant around 6.5 mm/(step/min). It is a speed-independent index of the overall neuromotor gait control, in as much as it reflects energy expenditure, balance, between-step variability, and attentional demand. The speed…

  18. The effect of progressive task-oriented training on a supplementary tilt table on lower extremity muscle strength and gait recovery in patients with hemiplegic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Kim, June-Sun

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of progressive task-oriented training on a supplementary tilt table on the lower extremity (LE) muscle strength and spatiotemporal parameters of gait in subjects with hemiplegic stroke. Thirty subjects between three and nine months post stroke were included in this study. Thirty subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (CG, n1=10), experimental group I (EG1, n2=10), and experimental group II (EG2, n3=10). All of the subjects received routine therapy for half an hour, five times a week for three weeks and additionally received training on the following three different tilt table applications for 20min a day: (1) both knee belts of the tilt table were fastened (CG), (2) only the affected side knee belt of the tilt table was fastened and one-leg standing training was performed using the less-affected LE (EG1), and (3) only the affected side knee belt of the tilt table was fastened and progressive task-oriented training was performed using the less-affected LE (EG2). The effect of tilt table applications was assessed using a hand-held dynamometer for LE muscle strength and GAITRite for spatiotemporal gait data. Our results showed that there was a significantly greater increase in the strength of all LE muscle groups, gait velocity, cadence, and stride length, a decrease in the double limb support period, and an improvement in gait asymmetry in subjects who underwent progressive task-oriented training on a supplementary tilt table compared to those in the other groups. These findings suggest that progressive task-oriented training on a supplementary tilt table can improve the LE muscle strength and spatiotemporal parameters of gait at an early stage of rehabilitation of subjects with hemiplegic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  20. Reducing eating disorder risk factors: a controlled investigation of a blended task-shifting/train-the-trainer approach to dissemination and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Hill, Kaitlin; Kelly, Mackenzie C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ottoson, Paige; Keith, Demetra; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Becker, Carolyn Black

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in psychological intervention research have led to an increase in evidence-based interventions (EBIs), yet there remains a lag in dissemination and implementation of EBIs. Task-shifting and the train-the-trainer (TTT) model offer two potential strategies for enhancing reach of EBIs. The Body Project, an EBI found to prevent onset of eating disorders, served as the vehicle for this dissemination/implementation study. The primary aim of this study was to determine if training of peer-leaders for the Body Project could be task-shifted to undergraduate students using a hybrid task-shifting/TTT model. Our secondary aim was to determine if subgroups of participants evidenced different trajectories of change through 14-month follow-up. Regarding the first aim, we found almost no evidence to suggest that a presence of a doctoral-level trainer yielded superior participant outcomes compared to training by undergraduates alone. Regarding Aim 2, almost all classes for all variables evidenced improvement or a benign response. Additionally, for three key risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and ED symptoms) virtually all trajectories showed improvement. This study provides initial support for the use of a blended task-shifting/TTT approach to dissemination and implementation within prevention generally, and further support for broad dissemination of the Body Project specifically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Training on motor and visual spatial learning tasks in early adulthood produces large changes in dendritic organization of prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in rats given nicotine prenatally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A; Mychasiuk, R; Hosain, S; Nakahashi, A; Carroll, C; Gibb, R; Kolb, B

    2013-11-12

    Experience-dependent plasticity is an ongoing process that can be observed and measured at multiple levels. The first goal of this study was to examine the effects of prenatal nicotine on the performance of rats in three behavioral tasks (elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water task (MWT), and Whishaw tray reaching). The second goal of this experiment sought to examine changes in dendritic organization following exposure to the behavioral training paradigm and/or low doses of prenatal nicotine. Female Long-Evans rats were administered daily injections of nicotine for the duration of pregnancy and their pups underwent a regimen of behavioral training in early adulthood (EPM, MWT, and Whishaw tray reaching). All offspring exposed to nicotine prenatally exhibited substantial increases in anxiety. Male offspring also showed increased efficiency in the Whishaw tray-reaching task and performed differently than the other groups in the probe trial of the MWT. Using Golgi-Cox staining we examined the dendritic organization of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex as well as the nucleus accumbens. Participation in the behavioral training paradigm was associated with dramatic reorganization of dendritic morphology and spine density in all brain regions examined. Although both treatments (behavior training and prenatal nicotine exposure) markedly altered dendritic organization, the effects of the behavioral experience were much larger than those of the prenatal drug exposure, and in some cases interacted with the drug effects. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Feasibility of task-specific brain-machine interface training for upper-extremity paralysis in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Atsuko; Kawakami, Michiyuki; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Hiramoto, Miho; Honaga, Kaoru; Abe, Kaoru; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Ushiba, Junichi; Liu, Meigen

    2018-01-10

    Brain-machine interface training was developed for upper-extremity rehabilitation for patients with severe hemiparesis. Its clinical application, however, has been limited because of its lack of feasibility in real-world rehabilitation settings. We developed a new compact task-specific brain-machine interface system that enables task-specific training, including reach-and-grasp tasks, and studied its clinical feasibility and effectiveness for upper-extremity motor paralysis in patients with stroke. Prospective beforeâ€"after study. Twenty-six patients with severe chronic hemiparetic stroke. Participants were trained with the brain-machine interface system to pick up and release pegs during 40-min sessions and 40 min of standard occupational therapy per day for 10 days. Fugl-Meyer upper-extremity motor (FMA) and Motor Activity Log-14 amount of use (MAL-AOU) scores were assessed before and after the intervention. To test its feasibility, 4 occupational therapists who operated the system for the first time assessed it with the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with assistive Technology (QUEST) 2.0. FMA and MAL-AOU scores improved significantly after brain-machine interface training, with the effect sizes being medium and large, respectively (pbrain-machine interface system is feasible for use in real-world clinical settings.

  3. The relation of critical care nurses' information-seeking behaviour with perception of personal control, training, and non-routineness of the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kristine; Doran, Diane; Nagle, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between (1) critical care nurses' information-seeking behaviour and the non-routineness of tasks; and (2) the extent to which nurses' perception of their problem-solving abilities when completing patient care tasks, moderate the relationship between information-seeking behaviour and non-routineness of tasks. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A random sample (n = 177) of critical care nurses working in hospital settings was selected from the College of Nurses of Ontario (CNO) database. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used to analyze the data. Previous information-seeking training (p = 0.008), non-routineness of the task (p = 0.018), and the perception of the problem-solving ability domain of personal control (p = 0.040) had positive relationships with information-seeking behaviour. The development of problem-solving skills such as personal control, in addition to information-seeking training is essential so critical care nurses will have the skills to aid their information needs when faced with the completion of non-routine tasks.

  4. Varied overground walking-task practice versus body-weight-supported treadmill training in ambulatory adults within one year of stroke: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePaul Vincent G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although task-oriented training has been shown to improve walking outcomes after stroke, it is not yet clear whether one task-oriented approach is superior to another. The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of the Motor Learning Walking Program (MLWP, a varied overground walking task program consistent with key motor learning principles, to body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT in community-dwelling, ambulatory, adults within 1 year of stroke. Methods/Design A parallel, randomized controlled trial with stratification by baseline gait speed will be conducted. Allocation will be controlled by a central randomization service and participants will be allocated to the two active intervention groups (1:1 using a permuted block randomization process. Seventy participants will be assigned to one of two 15-session training programs. In MLWP, one physiotherapist will supervise practice of various overground walking tasks. Instructions, feedback, and guidance will be provided in a manner that facilitates self-evaluation and problem solving. In BWSTT, training will emphasize repetition of the normal gait cycle while supported over a treadmill, assisted by up to three physiotherapists. Outcomes will be assessed by a blinded assessor at baseline, post-intervention and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome will be post-intervention comfortable gait speed. Secondary outcomes include fast gait speed, walking endurance, balance self-efficacy, participation in community mobility, health-related quality of life, and goal attainment. Groups will be compared using analysis of covariance with baseline gait speed strata as the single covariate. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used. Discussion In order to direct clinicians, patients, and other health decision-makers, there is a need for a head-to-head comparison of different approaches to active, task-related walking training after stroke. We hypothesize that

  5. A comparison of treatment effects after sensor- and robot-based task-oriented arm training in highly functional stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Annick A A; Lemmens, Ryanne J M; Geers, Richard P J; Smeets, Rob J E M; Seelen, Henk A M

    2011-01-01

    A large number of rehabilitation technologies for stroke patients has been developed in the last decade. To date it is insufficiently clear what the strengths of these different technologies are in relation to certain patient characteristics, such as the level of muscle strength and/or functional ability. One of the reasons is that research protocols differ so much that comparison of treatment results is impossible. This paper compares, while using the same patient inclusion criteria and training protocol, the effectivity of a sensor-supported versus robot-supported task-oriented arm training for highly functional chronic stroke patients. It appeared that individual improvements over time and Hedges's g effect sizes were twice as large for the sensor-based training compared to the robot-supported training in stroke patients with high functional levels. New research is planned to compare both therapy approaches for stroke patients with low and average functional levels.

  6. Assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Cairney, John; Hsairi, Ines; Triki, Chahinez; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-12-01

    The decreased participation in physical activity by children with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD) has raised concerns about their aerobic fitness and lung function levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness, using laboratory-based tests during an incremental treadmill protocol in healthy children with and without pDCD. Twenty sex children ages 6-9 years took part in this study. Motor coordination was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). All participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometric measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1) and walking distance (6MWD) was assessed using the 6-min walking test. The children with pDCD had lower VO2max than children without pDCD (p children without pDCD than in children with the disorder (p children with pDCD had poorer performance on the 6MWD than children without pDCD (p children. Moreover, a significant correlation between VO2max and FEV1 (r = 0.668, p children with pDCD. Overall, the reduced aerobic capacity of DCD was associated with decreased of lung function, as well as an alteration of peripheral muscle responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neonatal Diagnostics: Towards Dynamic Growth Charts of Neuro-motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth B Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Current rise of neurodevelopmental disorders, poses a critical need to detect risk early in order to rapidly intervene. One of the tools Pediatricians use to track development is the standard Growth Chart. The Growth Charts are somewhat limited in predicting possible neurodevelopmental issues. They rely on linear models and assumptions of normality for physical growth data —obscuring key statistical information about possible neurodevelopmental risk in growth data that actually has accelerated, non-linear rates-of-change and variability encompassing skewed distributions. Here we use new analytics to profile growth data from 36 newborn babies that were tracked longitudinally for 5 months. By switching to incremental (velocity-based growth charts and combining these dynamic changes with underlying fluctuations in motor performance—as they transition from spontaneous random noise to a systematic signal— we demonstrate a method to detect very early stunting in the development of voluntary neuro-motor control and to flag risk of neurodevelopmental derail.

  8. Early physiotherapy ad modum Vojta or Bobath in infants with suspected neuromotor disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avignon, M; Norén, L; Arman, T

    1981-08-01

    Thirty children with early signs of cerebral neuromotor disturbances according to "Vojta criteria" were followed until the age of thirty-three months to six years. Twelve children were treated with early physiotherapy according to Bobath, ten children were treated according to Vojta and eight constituted a control group. The infants tended for early physical therapy were divided by random into two different groups. The neonatal risk factors, however, proved to be unevenly distributed among the infants in the Vojta- and the Bobath-treated groups - the latter being more heavily burdened in this respect. Vojta has claimed that his method of early physiotherapy is able to prevent the development of cerebral palsy (cp) of "uncomplicated" (but not of "complicated") type. At follow-up we found one child out of nine with "uncomplicated" cp in the Vojta group against three out of six in the Bobath- and two out of six in the control group. These differences, however, are not statistically significant. Further detailed studies with greater groups of children seem necessary to help us to clarify these problems. The psychological aspects of early physiotherapy should be thoroughly considered and this is particularly important in connection with the Vojta method.

  9. Treadmill interventions with partial body weight support in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentin-Gudiol, Marta; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Girabent-Farres, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Maria Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Background Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or children born preterm, which in turn may limit the child's opportunities to explore the environment. Neurophysiologic and early intervention literature suggests that task-specific training facilitates

  10. Closed-Loop Task Difficulty Adaptation during Virtual Reality Reach-to-Grasp Training Assisted with an Exoskeleton for Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Naros, Georgios; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing “assistance-as-needed” during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge. We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment. During this 4-week pilot study, five severely affected chronic stroke patients performed reach-to-grasp exercises resembling activities of daily living. The subjects received virtual reality feedback from their three-dimensional movements. The level of difficulty for the exercise was adjusted by a performance-dependent real-time adaptation algorithm. The goal of this algorithm was the automated improvement of the range of motion. In the course of 20 training and feedback sessions, this unsupervised adaptive training concept led to a progressive increase of the virtual training space (p virtual reality provides customized rehabilitation environments for severely affected stroke patients. This approach may facilitate motor learning by progressively challenging the subject in accordance with the individual capacity for functional restoration. It might be necessary to apply concurrent restorative interventions to translate these improvements into relevant functional gains of severely motor impaired patients in activities of daily living. PMID:27895550

  11. Construct, content and face validity of the camera handling trainer (CHT): a new E-BLUS training task for 30° laparoscope navigation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Domenico; Minervini, Andrea; Beatty, John; Fornara, Paolo; Gozen, Ali; Greco, Francesco; Langenhuijsen, J F; Lunelli, Luca; Overgaauw, Deirdre; Rassweiler, Jens; Rocco, Bernardo; Salas, Rafael Sanchez; Shariat, Shahrokh; Sweet, Robert M; Simone, Giuseppe; Springer, Christopher; Tuccio, Agostino; Van Cleynenbreugel, Ben; Weibl, Peter; Cozzupoli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Assessing construct, face and content validity of the camera handling trainer (CHT), a novel low-fidelity training device for 30° laparoscope navigation skills. We developed a custom-designed box trainer with clinically based graphic targets. A total of 117 participants, stratified according to their previous experience (novice, competent, expert), took part to a CHT session and subsequently were asked to fill out a survey to assess the impact of the CHT on their 30° laparoscope navigation skills. Sixty of them were also studied for task performance during a 1-h session, with multiple time measurements. All participants, regardless of the previous experience, significantly improved their performance after the CHT session. Regarding construct validity, the mean task performance on the last measurement for novice group was found to be comparable to the mean first attempt of both competent (p = 0.12) and expert (p = 0.24) participants. All participants agreed that "the CHT is a valid training tool" and that "the CHT should be part of the regular dry laboratory training sessions", assessing both face and content validity. Limitations include the need for assessment of predictive validity. The CHT is a valid training tool for 30° laparoscope navigation and thus should be considered as one of the fundamental exercises during basic laparoscopic hands-on training sessions for urologists.

  12. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Ring, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a structured progressive task-oriented circuit class training programme to enhance walking competency after stroke: The protocol of the FIT-Stroke trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelse Hanneke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients who suffer a stroke experience reduced walking competency and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. A key factor in effective stroke rehabilitation is intensive, task-specific training. Recent studies suggest that intensive, patient-tailored training can be organized as a circuit with a series of task-oriented workstations. Primary aim of the FIT-Stroke trial is to evaluate the effects and cost-effectiveness of a structured, progressive task-oriented circuit class training (CCT programme, compared to usual physiotherapeutic care during outpatient rehabilitation in a rehabilitation centre. The task-oriented CCT will be applied in groups of 4 to 6 patients. Outcome will be defined in terms of gait and gait-related ADLs after stroke. The trial will also investigate the generalizability of treatment effects of task-oriented CCT in terms of perceived fatigue, anxiety, depression and perceived HRQoL. Methods/design The multicentre single-blinded randomized trial will include 220 stroke patients discharged to the community from inpatient rehabilitation, who are able to communicate and walk at least 10 m without physical, hands-on assistance. After discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, patients in the experimental group will receive task-oriented CCT two times a week for 12 weeks at the physiotherapy department of the rehabilitation centre. Control group patients will receive usual individual, face-to-face, physiotherapy. Costs will be evaluated by having each patient keep a cost diary for the first 24 weeks after randomisation. Primary outcomes are the mobility part of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0 and the EuroQol. Secondary outcomes are the other domains of SIS-3.0, lower limb muscle strength, walking endurance, gait speed, balance, confidence not to fall, instrumental ADL, fatigue, anxiety, depression and HRQoL. Discussion Based on assumptions about the effect of intensity of practice and specificity of

  14. The Effects of Combination of Robot-Assisted Therapy With Task-Specific or Impairment-Oriented Training on Motor Function and Quality of Life in Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chung-Shan; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Robot-assisted therapy (RT) is a promising intervention for stroke rehabilitation. RT hybridized with therapist-mediated therapy (eg, RT plus task-specific or impairment-oriented training) may possibly yield functionally relevant improvements. A comparative study of the different combination regimens is needed. To investigate the efficacy of RT combined with task-specific training or impairment-oriented training on motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke. A single-blind, randomized comparative efficacy study. Two medical centers in Taiwan. Twenty-one subjects with chronic stroke. Participants were recruited and randomized into 1 of 2 groups: (1) RT combined with task-specific (RTT) training (enrolled, n = 11; completed, n = 11) or (2) RT combined with impairment-oriented (RTI) training (enrolled, n = 10; completed, n = 9). Participants received 20 intervention sessions (90-100 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks). The Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Upper Extremity subscale, Stroke Impact Scale, Action Research Arm Test, and Medical Research Council Scale were administered at baseline, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to investigate the treatment effects. The improvements of the RTT group in motor function measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Upper Extremity subscale and quality of life assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale were significantly superior to the RTI group after the interventions. The improvements of the RTT group were maintained for 3 months. Both groups demonstrated significant within-group improvements in motor function, muscle power, and quality of life. RTT may be a more compelling approach to enhance motor function and quality of life for a long-term period than RTI. The combination of RT with task-specific training and with impairment-oriented training had similar benefits on upper limb motor function and muscle strength immediately after the interventions

  15. Acquisition of a Psychomotor Skill Using Simulated-Task, Augmented Feedback (Evaluation of a Welding Training Simulator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    The research was conducted to determine if a physically complex, continuous, three-dimensional psychomotor skill could be acquired more efficiently with simulated-task, augmented feedback than with the feedback normally provided by performing the task itself. The specific skill selected for the study was shielded metal arc welding because it is…

  16. Task 9. Deployment of photovoltaic technologies: co-operation with developing countries. The role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, M. C. [Institute for Sustainable Power, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States); Oldach, R.; Bates, J. [IT Power Ltd, The Manor house, Chineham (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the role of quality management, hardware certification and accredited training in PV programmes in developing countries. The objective of this document is to provide assistance to those project developers that are interested in implementing or improving support programmes for the deployment of PV systems for rural electrification. It is to enable them to address and implement quality assurance measures, with an emphasis on management, technical and training issues and other factors that should be considered for the sustainable implementation of rural electrification programmes. It is considered important that quality also addresses the socio-economic and the socio-technical aspects of a programme concept. The authors summarise that, for a PV programme, there are three important areas of quality control to be implemented: quality management, technical standards and quality of training.

  17. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew Sachs; Jonas Kaplan; Alissa Der Sarkissian; Assal Habibi

    2017-01-01

    .... However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive...

  18. Motor intensive anti-gravity training improves performance in dynamic balance related tasks in persons with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Anne Sofie Bøgh; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the effect of training on motor performance in persons with Parkinson's disease (PDP) is dependent on motor intensity. However, training of high motor intensity can be hard to apply in PDP due to e.g. bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. Therefore...

  19. Measuring cognitive load during simulation-based psychomotor skills training: sensitivity of secondary-task performance and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance (signal detection rate, SDR and recognition reaction time, RRT) as measures of CL. In phase 1 of the study, novice learners and expert surgeons attempted a visual-monitoring task under two conditions: single-task (monitoring a virtual patient's heart-rate) and dual-task (tying surgical knots on a bench-top simulator while monitoring the virtual patient's heart-rate). Novices demonstrated higher mental effort and inferior secondary-task performance on the dual-task compared to experts (RRT 1.76 vs. 0.73, p = 0.012; SDR 0.27 vs. 0.97, p instructional design research are discussed.

  20. Influência do tempo de hospitalização sobre o desenvolvimento neuromotor de recém-nascidos pré-termo Influence of length of hospitalization on neuromotor development in premature newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Giachetta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do tempo de hospitalização sobre o desenvolvimento neuromotor de recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. Foi feito um estudo prospectivo com 67 RNPT de idade gestacional 34 dias. Na análise estatística considerou-se o nível de significância pThe purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the length of hospital stay on the neuromotor development of preterm newborns (PTNB. This prospective study was carried out with 67 PTNB (gestational age 34 days. In statistical analysis significance level was set at p<0.05. Median AIMS scores (possible range 0-21 were 7 in group A, 5 in group B; weak, significant correlations were found at both groups (r=0.32; r=0.34 between AIMS scores and HP. Results show that PTNB who stayed in hospital for more than 34 days showed developmental delay, suggesting that, without excluding other factors, the longer PTNB length of stay, the greater the motor impairment.

  1. Effect of task specific training and wrist-fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Mohamed E; Ameer, Mariam A; Fayed, Eman E

    2017-01-01

    Most stroke patients experience hand impairments that can result in persistent limitations in daily activities. This study aimed at estimating the immediate and retention effects of task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint on hand joints range of motion and function after stroke. Twenty-four right handed patients with first ever stroke represented the sample of the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The study group received task specific exercises five times a week for an hour concurrently with wrist/fingers extension splint which was used two hours for each three hours (day and night) excluding exercises and sleeping hours for 16 weeks. The control group received traditional passive stretch and range of motion exercises. Manual dexterity and upper limb function were assessed by nine holes peg test and Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand. Goniometry was used for measuring wrist, metacarpophalangeal, thumb carpometacarpal joints active range of motion. Significant improvements were observed in nine holes peg test, Fugl-Meyer upper extremity and hand scores and ranges of motion at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention at P≤0.05. The results of this study provide an evidence that task specific training and wrist/fingers extension splint are effective in improving fingers dexterity, upper extremity function and wrist/hand range of motion.

  2. Twelve weeks of BodyBalance® training improved balance and functional task performance in middle-aged and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson, Mark R McKean, Brendan J Burkett School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of BodyBalance® training on balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and health-related quality of life in adults aged over 55 years.Participants and methods: A total of 28 healthy, active adults aged 66±5 years completed the randomized controlled trial. Balance, functional task performance, fear of falling, and self-reported quality of life were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Participants either undertook two sessions of BodyBalance per week for 12 weeks (n=15 or continued with their normal activities (n=13.Results: Significant group-by-time interactions were found for the timed up and go (P=0.038, 30-second chair stand (P=0.037, and mediolateral center-of-pressure range in narrow stance with eyes closed (P=0.017. There were no significant effects on fear of falling or self-reported quality of life.Conclusion: Twelve weeks of BodyBalance training is effective at improving certain balance and functional based tasks in healthy older adults. Keywords: postural control, yoga, tai chi, center of pressure, exercise

  3. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Nicholas F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry, muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days will be assessed at baseline (Week 0, following the intervention (Week 11, and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24 by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the

  4. Task-switching, inhibition and the processing of unattended auditory stimuli in music trained and non-trained adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mannermaa, Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has linked music training to enhanced processing of unattended auditory stimuli as indexed by such auditory event-related potential (ERP) responses as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a. Music training has also been linked with enhanced cognitive abilities more generally, and executive functions have been proposed to mediate this link. The current study concentrates on the processing of unattended auditory stimuli and how this relates to two aspects of executive functions: ta...

  5. A train the trainer program for healthcare professionals tasked with providing psychosocial support to breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunyoung; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Im Ryung; Kang, Danbee; Lee, Se-Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Visser, Adriaan; Cho, Juhee

    2018-01-06

    The objective of this study is to develop, implement, and evaluate a training program for healthcare providers to improve ability to provide psychosocial support to breast cancer survivors in Korea. Based on a needs assessment survey and in-depth interviews with breast cancer survivors, a multidisciplinary team developed two-day intensive training program as well as education materials and counseling notes. Participants' overall satisfaction was evaluated after the training. The training program included a total of 16 lectures held over the course of seven sessions. Forty-one nurses and 3 social workers participated in the training program. Mean age was 37.5(± 6.4) years, and on average, they had 11.1 (± 5.6) years of experience. Participants' overall satisfaction was good as following: program contents (4.04), trainee guidebook (3.82), location and environment (4.10), and program organization (4.19). Among the participants, 31 (70.4%) received certification after submitting real consultation cases after the training. Two day intensive training can provide a comprehensive and coordinated education to healthcare professionals for implementing survivorship care with an emphasis on psychosocial support. Furthermore, the program should resume as a periodic continuing education course for healthcare providers. Similar education for graduate students in oncology nursing would be beneficial.

  6. Spectral Entropy Can Predict Changes of Working Memory Performance Reduced by Short-Time Training in the Delayed-Match-to-Sample Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yin; Zhang, Huiling; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Haiyong; Yang, Li; Zheng, Shuxing; Shi, Yupan

    2017-01-01

    Spectral entropy, which was generated by applying the Shannon entropy concept to the power distribution of the Fourier-transformed electroencephalograph (EEG), was utilized to measure the uniformity of power spectral density underlying EEG when subjects performed the working memory tasks twice, i.e., before and after training. According to Signed Residual Time (SRT) scores based on response speed and accuracy trade-off, 20 subjects were divided into two groups, namely high-performance and low-performance groups, to undertake working memory (WM) tasks. We found that spectral entropy derived from the retention period of WM on channel FC4 exhibited a high correlation with SRT scores. To this end, spectral entropy was used in support vector machine classifier with linear kernel to differentiate these two groups. Receiver operating characteristics analysis and leave-one out cross-validation (LOOCV) demonstrated that the averaged classification accuracy (CA) was 90.0 and 92.5% for intra-session and inter-session, respectively, indicating that spectral entropy could be used to distinguish these two different WM performance groups successfully. Furthermore, the support vector regression prediction model with radial basis function kernel and the root-mean-square error of prediction revealed that spectral entropy could be utilized to predict SRT scores on individual WM performance. After testing the changes in SRT scores and spectral entropy for each subject by short-time training, we found that 16 in 20 subjects' SRT scores were clearly promoted after training and 15 in 20 subjects' SRT scores showed consistent changes with spectral entropy before and after training. The findings revealed that spectral entropy could be a promising indicator to predict individual's WM changes by training and further provide a novel application about WM for brain-computer interfaces.

  7. Spectral Entropy Can Predict Changes of Working Memory Performance Reduced by Short-Time Training in the Delayed-Match-to-Sample Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectral entropy, which was generated by applying the Shannon entropy concept to the power distribution of the Fourier-transformed electroencephalograph (EEG, was utilized to measure the uniformity of power spectral density underlying EEG when subjects performed the working memory tasks twice, i.e., before and after training. According to Signed Residual Time (SRT scores based on response speed and accuracy trade-off, 20 subjects were divided into two groups, namely high-performance and low-performance groups, to undertake working memory (WM tasks. We found that spectral entropy derived from the retention period of WM on channel FC4 exhibited a high correlation with SRT scores. To this end, spectral entropy was used in support vector machine classifier with linear kernel to differentiate these two groups. Receiver operating characteristics analysis and leave-one out cross-validation (LOOCV demonstrated that the averaged classification accuracy (CA was 90.0 and 92.5% for intra-session and inter-session, respectively, indicating that spectral entropy could be used to distinguish these two different WM performance groups successfully. Furthermore, the support vector regression prediction model with radial basis function kernel and the root-mean-square error of prediction revealed that spectral entropy could be utilized to predict SRT scores on individual WM performance. After testing the changes in SRT scores and spectral entropy for each subject by short-time training, we found that 16 in 20 subjects’ SRT scores were clearly promoted after training and 15 in 20 subjects’ SRT scores showed consistent changes with spectral entropy before and after training. The findings revealed that spectral entropy could be a promising indicator to predict individual’s WM changes by training and further provide a novel application about WM for brain–computer interfaces.

  8. Adequacy of pathology resident training for employment: a survey report from the Future of Pathology Task Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Mary E; Crawford, James M; Bennett, Betsy; Cox, Teresa M; Grimes, Margaret M; LiVolsi, Virginia; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Wilkinson, David S

    2007-04-01

    The recent change in accreditation requirements for anatomic pathology and clinical pathology residency training from 5 to 4 years and the rapid advances in technologies for pathology services have sparked a renewed debate over the adequacy of pathology residency training. In particular, perceived deficiencies in training have been declared from a variety of sources, both in the form of recent editorial opinions and from surveys of community hospital pathologist employers in 1998, 2003, and 2005 by Dr Richard Horowitz. To obtain more comprehensive data on the perceptions of strengths and weaknesses in pathology residency training. The College of American Pathologists conducted a survey of potential pathology employers (senior College of American Pathologists members, members designated as head of group, and members of the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology). Also surveyed were recent graduates of pathology residency programs, who were identified as being junior members of the College of American Pathologists, were recent recipients of certification from the American Board of Pathology, or were contacted through their directors of pathology residency programs. There were 559 employer respondents, of whom 384 were responsible for hiring and/or supervising new pathologists. There were 247 recent graduates of pathology residency training programs who responded. From the employers' standpoint, the majority expressed overall satisfaction with recent graduates, but almost one third of employers indicated that new hires had a major deficiency in a critical area. Specific areas of deficiency were clinical laboratory management and judgment in ordering special stains and studies. In addition, one half of employers agreed that more guidance and support for newly trained pathologists is needed now than was required 10 years ago. Academic employers generally were more satisfied than private sector employers. Newly trained pathologists did not appear to

  9. A technique to train new oculomotor behavior in patients with central macular scotomas during reading related tasks using scanning laser ophthalmoscopy: immediate functional benefits and gains retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorincz Erika N

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reading with a central scotoma involves the use of preferred retinal loci (PRLs that enable both letter resolution and global viewing of word. Spontaneously developed PRLs however often privilege spatial resolution and, as a result, visual span is commonly limited by the position of the scotoma. In this study we designed and performed the pilot trial of a training procedure aimed at modifying oculomotor behavior in subjects with central field loss. We use an additional fixation point which, when combined with the initial PRL, allows the fulfillment of both letter resolution and global viewing of words. Methods The training procedure comprises ten training sessions conducted with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO. Subjects have to read single letters and isolated words varying in length, by combining the use of their initial PRL with the one of an examiner's selected trained retinal locus (TRL. We enrolled five subjects to test for the feasibility of the training technique. They showed stable maculopathy and persisting major reading difficulties despite previous orthoptic rehabilitation. We evaluated ETDRS visual acuity, threshold character size for single letters and isolated words, accuracy for paragraphed text reading and reading strategies before, immediately after SLO training, and three months later. Results Training the use of multiple PRLs in patients with central field loss is feasible and contributes to adapt oculomotor strategies during reading related tasks. Immediately after SLO training subjects used in combination with their initial PRL the examiner's selected TRL and other newly self-selected PRLs. Training gains were also reflected in ETDRS acuity, threshold character size for words of different lengths and in paragraphed text reading. Interestingly, subjects benefited variously from the training procedure and gains were retained differently as a function of word length. Conclusion We designed a new

  10. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steinberg, Fabian; Pixa, Nils Henrik; Doppelmayr, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual...

  11. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function u...

  12. Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and flapping in swimming turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W

    2013-10-23

    Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation-the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns-has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions.

  13. Neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Alexandre Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be consensus that intrauterine influences during human development have long-term implications. The hypothesis has been raised that alterations in an individual’s life cycle provoke lesions, some of them irreversible. The objectives of this study were: (1 to call attention to the problem of distance effects of neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight in children and youngsters; (2 to present relevant aspects of the conceptual framework of fetal programming and its interpretive relevance for deficits in motor performance and coordination. A Pubmed database search was performed using different key words and their possible combinations. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and case-control studies evaluating motor performance and fetal programming were selected. Motor deficit levels ranged from 4% to 51% in the European population and from 4% to 56% in the North American population. A study involving the Australian population reported a motor coordination deficit of 9.5%. There is no absolute agreement regarding the extent, reversibility and significance of motor deficits in view of the wide variability in deficit levels. The mechanisms that will induce problems in the neuromotor development of children, youngsters and adults under adverse conditions of fetal development are unknown and cannot be compensated for by sensorimotor stimulation.

  14. Neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Alexandre Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be consensus that intrauterine influences during human development have long-term implications. The hypothesis has been raised that alterations in an individual’s life cycle provoke lesions, some of them irreversible. The objectives of this study were: (1 to call attention to the problem of distance effects of neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight in children and youngsters; (2 to present relevant aspects of the conceptual framework of fetal programming and its interpretive relevance for deficits in motor performance and coordination. A Pubmed database search was performed using different key words and their possible combinations. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and case-control studies evaluating motor performance and fetal programming were selected. Motor deficit levels ranged from 4% to 51% in the European population and from 4% to 56% in the North American population. A study involving the Australian population reported a motor coordination deficit of 9.5%. There is no absolute agreement regarding the extent, reversibility and significance of motor deficits in view of the wide variability in deficit levels. The mechanisms that will induce problems in the neuromotor development of children, youngsters and adults under adverse conditions of fetal development are unknown and cannot be compensated for by sensorimotor stimulation.

  15. Cognitive Therapy and Task Concentration Training Applied as Intensified Group Therapies for Social Anxiety Disorder with Fear of Blushing-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtling, Samia; Klotsche, Jens; Heinrich, Anke; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2016-11-01

    The current study examines the efficacy of intensified group therapy for social anxiety disorder with fear of blushing. Task concentration training (TCT) and cognitive therapy (CT) were applied during one weekend and compared with a waiting list condition in a randomized controlled trial including 82 patients. On a second weekend, another intervention was added (resulting in TCT-CT and CT-TCT sequences) to examine order effects. Task concentration training and CT were both superior to the waiting list and equally effective after the first therapy weekend. Also, no differences were found between the sequences TCT-CT and CT-TCT at post-assessment. At 6- and 12-month follow-up, effects remained stable or further improved. At the 6-month follow-up, remission rates in completers, established by diagnostic status, were between 69% and 73%. Intensified group therapy is highly effective in treating social anxiety disorder with fear of blushing. Group formats for patients sharing a common primary concern may contribute to the dissemination of cognitive-behavioural therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: This study focuses on blushing from fearful individuals within the SAD spectrum to improve evidence for treatment efficacy in those whose social fears are centred around observable bodily sensations. This study integrates task concentration training into the SAD model of Clark and Wells to combine two evidence-based treatments for SAD under one treatment model. This study uses an innovative format of brief, intensified group therapy, conducted on two full-day weekend group sessions delivered over two weekends, with strong observed effect sizes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, Peter M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Matthew eLough; Gow, Brian J.; Lewis eLipsitz; Vera eNovak; Macklin, Eric A.; Chung-Kang ePeng; Brad eManor

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown.PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectiona...

  17. Tai Chi Training may Reduce Dual Task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk, in Healthy Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, Peter M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Lough, Matthew; Gow, Brian J.; Lipsitz, Lewis; Novak, Vera; Macklin, Eric A.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Manor, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Background Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown. Purpose To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. Methods ...

  18. Measuring Cognitive Load during Simulation-Based Psychomotor Skills Training: Sensitivity of Secondary-Task Performance and Subjective Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A.; Khan, Rabia; Regehr, Glenn; Drake, James; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    As interest in applying cognitive load theory (CLT) to the study and design of pedagogic and technological approaches in healthcare simulation grows, suitable measures of cognitive load (CL) are needed. Here, we report a two-phased study investigating the sensitivity of subjective ratings of mental effort (SRME) and secondary-task performance…

  19. The Effects of Task Structures, Dynamics of Difficulty Changes, and Strategic Resource Allocation Training on Time-Sharing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Dafoe , and Gaskill (1982) that two tasks sharing the same stage, but distinctly different codes (defined hemispherioally) failed to show any graded...London: Kendall, 1973. Friedman, A., Polson, H. C., Dafoe , C. G., & Gaskill, S. J., Dividing attention within and between heqispheres: Testing a

  20. Validation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index as a tool to evaluate the learning curve for endoscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rachid; Raman, Maitreyi; Anderson, John; McLaughlin, Kevin; Rostom, Alaa; Coderre, Sylvain

    2014-03-01

    Although workplace workload assessments exist in different fields, an endoscopy-specific workload assessment tool is lacking. To validate such a workload tool and use it to map the progression of novice trainees in gastroenterology in performing their first endoscopies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) workload assessment tool was completed by eight novice trainees in gastroenterology and 10 practicing gastroenterologists⁄surgeons. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to construct a streamlined endoscopy-specific task load index, which was subsequently validated. The 'Endoscopy Task Load Index' was used to monitor progression of trainee exertion and self-assessed performance over their first 40 procedures. From the factor analysis of the NASA-TLX, two principal components emerged: a measure of exertion and a measure of self-efficacy. These items became the components of the newly validated Endoscopy Task Load Index. There was a steady decline in self-perceived exertion over the training period, which was more rapid for gastroscopy than colonoscopy. The self-efficacy scores for gastroscopy rapidly increased over the first few procedures, reaching a plateau after this period of time. For colonoscopy, there was a progressive increase in reported self-efficacy over the first three quartiles of procedures, followed by a drop in self-efficacy scores over the final quartile. The present study validated an Endoscopy Task Load Index that can be completed in <1 min. Practical implications of such a tool in endoscopy education include identifying periods of higher perceived exertion among novice endoscopists, facilitating appropriate levels of guidance from trainers.

  1. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collard, D.C.M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bakker, I.; Mechelen, W. van

    2010-01-01

    Background: To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness.Methods: In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an

  2. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  3. Evidence for the Utility of a Photovoice Task as an Empathic Skill Acquisition Strategy among Counselors-in-Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2013-01-01

    An instructional technique derived from photovoice was compared with a didactic approach for empathic skill acquisition among 38 master's-level counselors-in-training. Participants in the photovoice condition demonstrated marked improvements in quality of empathic statements compared with those receiving didactic lecture. Considerations for…

  4. Effects of Fluency versus Accuracy Training on Endurance and Retention of Assembly Tasks by Four Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gabrielle T.; Singer-Dudek, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly being encouraged to teach vocational skills to middle and high school students. Although extensive research exists demonstrating the benefits of fluency instruction when teaching academic skills to this population of students, few studies have examined the importance of fluency training when teaching vocational skills.…

  5. Broadly Trained but Narrowly Used? Factors That Predict the Performance of Environmental versus Individual Tasks by School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupper, David R.; Rocha, Cynthia; Jackson, Rebecca F.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    National and state surveys over the past several decades have concluded that school social workers, despite an awareness of and training in macro level practice strategies, are highly individualistic in their practice focus. Although clinical skills are necessary, they are insufficient for effective school social work practice in the 21st century.…

  6. On-The-Job Training: Development and Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Assessment of a Methodology for Generating Task Proficiency Evaluation Instruments 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Warm, R.; Roth, J.T. Fitz artick! J.A. ,. 13a...procedures, and their support and ideas throughout the project; Ms. Lisa I. Thocher for her assistance in the data collection and analysis; and the Project...performance are identified. This detailed information allows the evaluator and the trainee to see what types of errors were made (in terms of

  7. Correlations between the same motor cortex cells and arm muscles during a trained task, free behavior, and natural sleep in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; Mavoori, Jaideep; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the neural control of movement has been studied by recording cell activity in restrained animals performing repetitive, highly trained tasks within a restricted workspace. However, the degree to which results obtained under these conditions are valid during natural, unconstrained behavior remains unknown. Using an autonomous, implantable recording system, we examined the relationships between the firing of motor cortex cells and forearm muscle activity in primates under three behavioral conditions: performance of a conventional torque-tracking task, unrestrained behavior, and natural sleep. We found strong correlations over long periods of daytime activity, suggesting a consistent relationship between cortex and muscles across the repertoire of awake behavior. The range of correlation values was comparable during task performance, but many individual cells exhibited significant differences across conditions. During the night, phases of sleep were associated with a cyclical pattern of cell and muscle activity. Across the population, the strength of cell-muscle correlations was related to preferred direction for daytime but not nighttime activity. The relationship of cells to behavior remained consistent over periods of several weeks. These findings extend the interpretation of results obtained under constrained conditions and are relevant to the development of neural prostheses for restoring natural movements to patients with motor deficits.

  8. Strength-balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training to improve dual task gait and divided attention in older adults: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van het Reve, Eva; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-12-15

    Exercise interventions often do not combine physical and cognitive training. However, this combination is assumed to be more beneficial in improving walking and cognitive functioning compared to isolated cognitive or physical training. A multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare a motor to a cognitive-motor exercise program. A total of 182 eligible residents of homes-for-the-aged (n = 159) or elderly living in the vicinity of the homes (n = 23) were randomly assigned to either strength-balance (SB) or strength-balance-cognitive (SBC) training. Both groups conducted similar strength-balance training during 12 weeks. SBC additionally absolved computerized cognitive training. Outcomes were dual task costs of walking, physical performance, simple reaction time, executive functions, divided attention, fear of falling and fall rate. Participants were analysed with an intention to treat approach. The 182 participants (mean age ± SD: 81.5 ± 7.3 years) were allocated to either SB (n = 98) or SBC (n = 84). The attrition rate was 14.3%. Interaction effects were observed for dual task costs of step length (preferred walking speed: F(1,174) = 4.94, p = 0.028, η2 = 0.027, fast walking speed: F(1,166) = 6.14, p = 0.009, η2 = 0.040) and dual task costs of the standard deviation of step length (F(1,166) = 6.14, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.036), in favor of SBC. Significant interactions in favor of SBC revealed for in gait initiation (F(1,166) = 9.16, p = 0.003, η2 = 0.052), 'reaction time' (F(1,180) = 5.243, p = 0.023, η² = 0.028) & 'missed answers' (F(1,180) = 11.839, p = 0.001, η² = 0.062) as part of the test for divided attention. Within-group comparison revealed significant improvements in dual task costs of walking (preferred speed; velocity (p = 0.002), step time (p = 0.018), step length (p = 0.028), fast speed; velocity (p

  9. Problems and Tasks of TRAINING at Courses for Enhancement of Qualification in the Radioactive Waste Management Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Batyukhnova, O. G.; Shcherbatova, T. D.; Ojovan, M. I.; Arustamov, A. E.

    2002-02-25

    Requirements to the professional competence of the personnel engaged in the area of the radioactive waste management are increased. Higher school cannot supply the branch with the qualified personnel; therefore special attention should be given to the system of staff retraining and to the increase of their qualification. In that paper the analysis of SIA ''Radon'' experience on the organization and carrying out training at courses of qualification improvement is represented. The main criterion of the analysis is the research of an education efficiency. Also here the basic directions of the training process improving are submitted as well as the requirements that should be considered when forming the teaching staff and trainees groups.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Self-Management and Task-Oriented Approach to Rehabilitation Training (START) in the Home: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Julie; DePaul, Vincent; Officer, Alexis; Wilkins, Seanne; Letts, Lori; Bosch, Jackie; Wishart, Laurie

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of stroke and subsequent level of disability will increase, as age is the greatest risk factor for stroke and the world's population is aging. Hospital admissions are too brief for patients to regain necessary function. Research to examine therapy delivered within the home environment has the potential to expedite relearning of function and reduce health care expenditures. This case report describes the use of the knowledge-to-action cycle (KTA) to develop and evaluate an evidence-based approach for rehabilitation in the home that incorporates self-management and task-oriented functional training (TOFT) for people with stroke. The KTA cycle was used to guide adaptation of evidence from self-management and TOFT into an approach titled START (Self-Management and Task-Oriented Approach to Rehabilitation Training). Three stakeholder symposiums identified barriers and supports to implementation. Clinical practice leaders were engaged as partners in the development of the intervention. An online learning management system housed the resources to support therapist training. Therapist focus groups were conducted and stroke outcomes were used to assess patient response. Eight therapists completed 4 workshops and applied the home intervention in 12 people with stroke. A mentoring process for therapists included feedback from peers and experts after viewing treatment videos. Therapist response was determined from the focus groups; patient response was measured by standardized assessments. The therapists noted that the intervention was easier to implement with patients who were motivated and had minimal cognitive impairment. The KTA cycle provided a structure for the development of this evidence-based rehabilitation intervention, which was feasible to implement in the home. Further evaluation needs to be undertaken to assess the effectiveness of START. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  11. Task demands, tDCS intensity, and the COMT val158met polymorphism impact tDCS-linked working memory training gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jaclyn A; Jones, Kevin T; Berryhill, Marian E

    2017-10-18

    Working memory (WM) training paired with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve executive function in older adults. The unclear mechanism of tDCS likely depends on tDCS intensity, and task relevant genetic factors (e.g., for WM: COMT val158met, DAT, BDNF val66met). Higher tDCS intensity does not always lead to greater cognitive gains, and genetic polymorphisms may modulate tDCS-linked WM improvements. To evaluate these factors, 137 healthy older adults provided DNA samples and received Visual and Spatial WM training paired with tDCS (sham, 1, 1.5, 2 mA). After one session of tDCS, significant group differences in WM performance were predicted by COMT val158met status. One month after training, there was a significant interaction of tDCS intensity, COMT genotype, and WM task. Specifically, val/val homozygotes benefited most from 1.5 mA tDCS on Visual WM and from 1 mA tDCS on Spatial WM. For met/met homozygotes, 2 mA resulted in significantly poorer performance compared to 1.5 mA on Spatial WM. While this pattern was observed with relatively small sample sizes, these data indicate that variations in COMT val158met may predict the nature of WM improvement after initial and longitudinal tDCS. This contributes to our understanding of the underlying mechanism by which tDCS affects behaviour.

  12. USAWC (United States Army War College) Military Studies Program. Training, Motivation and Intrinsic Task Value. Essential Elements of Excellence (Readiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-04

    Foresman and Co., 1982. Hersey , Paul and Kenneth H. Blanchard. Management of S Organizational Behavior Utilizing Human Resourcesa. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice...of Management (Glenview: Scott, Forsman and Co., 1982), p. 155. 5. Steers, p. 88. 6. Hersey . Paul and Kenneth H. Blanchard. Manaqement of 0ranxzatxonal...learning/motivation behavior theory, (2) the latest books on " manage - ment for excellence" in Industry, and (3) army training regulations and leader

  13. Pattern of improvement in upper limb pointing task kinematics after a 3-month training program with robotic assistance in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Ophélie; Duret, Christophe; Laborne, François-Xavier; Gracies, Jean-Michel; Bayle, Nicolas; Hutin, Emilie

    2017-10-13

    When exploring changes in upper limb kinematics and motor impairment associated with motor recovery in subacute post stroke during intensive therapies involving robot-assisted training, it is not known whether trained joints improve before non-trained joints and whether target reaching capacity improves before movement accuracy. Twenty-two subacute stroke patients (mean delay post-stroke at program onset 63 ± 29 days, M2) underwent 50 ± 17 (mean ± SD) 45-min sessions of robot-assisted (InMotion™) shoulder/elbow training over 3 months, in addition to conventional occupational therapy. Monthly evaluations (M2 to M5) included Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FM), with subscores per joint, and four robot-based kinematic measures: mean target distance covered, mean velocity, direction accuracy (inverse of root mean square error from straight line) and movement smoothness (inverse of mean number of zero-crossings in the velocity profile). We assessed delays to reach statistically significant improvement for each outcome measure. At M5, all clinical and kinematic parameters had markedly improved: Fugl-Meyer, +65% (median); distance covered, +87%; mean velocity, +101%; accuracy, +134%; and smoothness, +96%. Delays to reach statistical significance were M3 for the shoulder/elbow Fugl-Meyer subscore (+43%), M4 for the hand (+80%) and M5 for the wrist (+133%) subscores. For kinematic parameters, delays to significant improvements were M3 for distance (+68%), velocity (+65%) and smoothness (+50%), and M5 for accuracy (+134%). An intensive rehabilitation program combining robot-assisted shoulder/elbow training and conventional occupational therapy was associated with improvement in shoulder and elbow movements first, which suggests focal behavior-related brain plasticity. Findings also suggested that recovery of movement quantity related parameters (range of motion, velocity and smoothness) might precede that of movement quality (accuracy). EudraCT 2016-005121-36 . Date of

  14. Closed-Loop Task Difficulty Adaptation during Virtual Reality Reach-to-Grasp Training Assisted with an Exoskeleton for Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Florian; Naros, Georgios; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing "assistance-as-needed" during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge. We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment. During this 4-week pilot study, five severely affected chronic stroke patients performed reach-to-grasp exercises resembling activities of daily living. The subjects received virtual reality feedback from their three-dimensional movements. The level of difficulty for the exercise was adjusted by a performance-dependent real-time adaptation algorithm. The goal of this algorithm was the automated improvement of the range of motion. In the course of 20 training and feedback sessions, this unsupervised adaptive training concept led to a progressive increase of the virtual training space ( p < 0.001) in accordance with the subjects' abilities. This learning curve was paralleled by a concurrent improvement of real world kinematic parameters, i.e., range of motion ( p = 0.008), accuracy of movement ( p = 0.01), and movement velocity ( p < 0.001). Notably, these kinematic gains were paralleled by motor improvements such as increased elbow movement ( p = 0.001), grip force ( p < 0.001), and upper extremity Fugl-Meyer-Assessment score from 14.3 ± 5 to 16.9 ± 6.1 ( p = 0.026). Combining gravity-compensating assistance with adaptive closed-loop feedback in virtual reality provides customized rehabilitation environments for severely affected stroke patients. This approach may facilitate motor learning by progressively challenging the subject in accordance with the individual capacity

  15. Closed-loop task difficulty adaptation during virtual reality reach-to-grasp training assisted with an exoskeleton for stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Grimm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke patients with severe motor deficits of the upper extremity may practice rehabilitation exercises with the assistance of a multi-joint exoskeleton. Although this technology enables intensive task-oriented training, it may also lead to slacking when the assistance is too supportive. Preserving the engagement of the patients while providing assistance-as-needed during the exercises, therefore remains an ongoing challenge.We applied a commercially available seven degree-of-freedom arm exoskeleton to provide passive gravity compensation during task-oriented training in a virtual environment. During this four-week pilot study, five severely affected chronic stroke patients performed reach-to-grasp exercises resembling activities of daily living. The subjects received virtual reality feedback from their three-dimensional movements. The level of difficulty for the exercise was adjusted by a performance-dependent real-time adaptation algorithm. The goal of this algorithm was the automated improvement of the range of motion. In the course of 20 training and feedback sessions, this unsupervised adaptive training concept led to a progressive increase of the virtual training space (p<0.001 in accordance with the subjects’ abilities. This learning curve was paralleled by a concurrent improvement of real world kinematic parameters, i.e., range of motion (p=0.008, accuracy of movement (p=0.01, and movement velocity (p<0.001. Notably, these kinematic gains were paralleled by motor improvements such as increased elbow movement (p=0.001, grip force (p<0.001, and upper extremity Fugl-Meyer-Assessment score from 14.3 ± 5 to 16.9 ± 6.1 (p=0.026.Combining gravity-compensating assistance with adaptive closed-loop feedback in virtual reality provides customized rehabilitation environments for severely affected stroke patients. This approach may facilitate motor learning by progressively challenging the subject in accordance with the individual capacity for

  16. Reliability and Responsiveness of Upper Limb Motor Assessments for Children With Central Neuromotor Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Corinna N; Labruyère, Rob; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of upper limb rehabilitation, sound measures of upper limb function, capacity, and performance are paramount. This systematic review investigates reliability and responsiveness of upper limb measurement tools used in pediatric neurorehabilitation. A 2-tiered search was conducted up to July 2014. The first search identified upper limb motor assessments for 1- to 18-year-old children with neuromotor disorders. The second search examined the psychometric properties of the tools. Methodological quality was rated according to COSMIN guidelines, and results for each tool were assembled in a "best evidence synthesis." Furthermore, we delineated whether tools were unimanual or bimanual tests and if they measured recovery or did not distinguish between physiological and compensatory movements. The first search delivered 2546 hits. Of these, 110 articles on 51 upper limb assessment tools were included. The second search resulted in 58 studies on reliability, 11 on measurement error, and 10 on responsiveness. Best evidence synthesis revealed only 2 assessments with moderate positive evidence for reliability, whereas no evidence on measurement error and responsiveness was found. The Melbourne Assessment showed moderate positive evidence for interrater and a fair positive level of evidence for intrarater reliability. The Pediatric Motor Activity Log Revised revealed moderate positive evidence for test-retest reliability. There is a lack of high-quality studies about psychometric properties of upper limb measurement tools in children with neuromotor disorders. To date, upper limb rehabilitation trials in children and adolescents risk being biased by insensitive measurement tools lacking reliability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Improving arm function in chronic stroke: a pilot study of sensory amplitude electrical stimulation via glove electrode during task-specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jane; Girardi, Madeline; Hensley, Melissa; Rohaus, Jordan; Schewe, Clay; Whittey, Colby; Hansen, Piper; Muir, Kimberly

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of sensory amplitude electrical stimulation (SES) delivered by glove electrode during task-specific exercise on arm movement, function, and sensation in chronic stroke. The design was an intervention pilot study, pre-test, post-test, follow-up design. The settings used were a university research laboratory and home-based intervention. Participants comprised of 11 individuals with chronic stroke (7.2 ± 4.1 years post onset) and moderate arm paresis, 10.82/20 ± 2.27 on the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) - Arm Subscale. Participants were seven males and four females (mean age: 59 years). Participants were recruited from university-based database. Intervention- Participants engaged in task-specific training at home for 30 min, twice daily, for 5 weeks, while receiving SES via glove electrode. Participants received supervised task practice at least twice during intervention period for 1 hour. Main outcome measures- Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT), STREAM - Arm Subscale, Motor Activity Log-14 (MAL-14) - Amount and Quality Subscales, and Nottingham Stereognosis Assessment (NSA). Significant changes were found in group mean pre- and post-test comparisons on the NSA (P = 0.042), MAL amount subscale (P = 0.047), and JTHFT (with writing item 29 excluded) (P = 0.003) and in pre-test to follow-up comparisons on NSA (P = 0.027) and JTHFT (writing item excluded) (P = 0.009). There was no significant change on the STREAM (P = 1.0). Individuals with a greater baseline motor capacity determined by STREAM scores (P = 0.048) and more recent stroke (P = 0.014) had significantly greater improvements. Combining task-specific training with glove-based SES in chronic stroke resulted in changes in arm sensation and function that were maintained at 3-month follow-up.

  18. Effectiveness of Information Processing Strategy Training on Academic Task Performance in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntorn, Sutinun; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Munkhetvit, Peeraya

    2017-01-01

    Learning disabilities (LD) can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child's ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP) System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM) of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group (n = 10) and the control group (n = 10). Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants' ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.

  19. Effectiveness of Information Processing Strategy Training on Academic Task Performance in Children with Learning Disabilities: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutinun Juntorn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning disabilities (LD can be associated with problems in the four stages of information processing used in learning: input, throughput, output, and feedback. These problems affect the child’s ability to learn and perform activities in daily life, especially during academic activities. This study is a pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of information processing strategy training using a combination of two approaches that address the ability to apply processing strategies during academic activities in children with LD. The two approaches are the Perceive, Recall, Plan, and Perform (PRPP System of Intervention, which is a strategy training intervention, and the Four-Quadrant Model (4QM of Facilitated Learning approach, which is a systematic facilitator technique. Twenty children with LD were assigned to two groups: the experimental group (n=10 and the control group (n=10. Children in the experimental group received the intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. Each treatment session took approximately 50 minutes. Children in the control group received traditional intervention twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The results indicated that the combination of the PRPP System of Intervention and the 4QM may improve the participants’ ability to apply information processing strategies during academic activities.

  20. Evolução do perfil neuromotor e capacidade funcional de mulheres fisicamente ativas de acordo com a idade cronológica Evolución del perfil neuromotor y la capacidad funcional de mujeres fisicamente activas de acuerdo con la edad cronológica Evolution of neuromotor profile and functional capacity of physically active women according to chronological age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mahecha Matsudo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS E OBJETIVO: Poucos estudos longitudinais têm sido feitos em mulheres fisicamente ativas para determinar o impacto do envelhecimento na aptidão física e capacidade funcional. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a evolução do perfil neuromotor e capacidade funcional de mulheres ativas no período de um ano, de acordo com a idade cronológica. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 117 mulheres de 50 a 79 anos de idade (: 65 ± 6,6 anos participantes de um programa de exercícios aeróbicos, duas vezes por semana, 50 minutos por sessão durante 5,4 ± 3,0 anos e divididas pela idade em: 50-59 (n: 23; 60-69 (n: 60; 70-79 (n: 34. Os testes neuromotores e de mobilidade incluíram: força muscular dos membros inferiores e superiores, agilidade, flexibilidade do tronco, velocidade de levantar-se da cadeira, equilíbrio estático, velocidade normal de andar e velocidade máxima de andar. Os resultados iniciais e nas duas avaliações seguintes, feitas a intervalos de seis meses, foram comparados usando ANOVA two way, com post-hoc Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: Em um ano não houve nenhuma alteração no desempenho neuromotor; já a velocidade de levantar da cadeira e a velocidade de andar evidenciaram diferenças significativas nos grupos de 50-59 e 60-69 anos, apresentando resultados 10-20% melhores; quanto à velocidade máxima de andar, houve melhora (8% nos grupos de 60 a 79 anos. CONCLUSÃO: A evolução da aptidão física e capacidade funcional teve comportamento similar, em mulheres fisicamente ativas, independentemente da idade cronológica. Essa evolução fortalece a hipótese de um efeito favorável da atividade física regular na promoção da saúde, estratégia fundamental do envelhecimento saudável.FUNDAMENTOS Y OBJETIVO: Pocos estudios longitudinales han sido realizados en mujeres físicamente activas para determinar el impacto del envejecimiento de la aptitud física y la capacidad funcional. El objetivo de este estudio fu

  1. Muscle power development during the first year of life predicts neuromotor behaviour at 7 years in preterm born high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsom, Janny F; de Groot, Laila; Bezemer, P Dick; Lafeber, Harry N; Fetter, Willem P F

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the study was to find if neurological function during the first year of life could predict neuromotor behaviour at 7 years of age in children born preterm with a high risk. A follow-up study of neuromotor behaviour in 52 children at a mean age of 3, 6, 12 months (corrected age) and 7 years was performed. All children were born with a gestational age less than 32 weeks and/or a birthweight under 1500 g and the infants were categorised according to their medical history in the three highest categories of the 'Neonatal Medical Index' (NMI, from category I to V, from few to serious complications). In addition, neonatal cerebral ultrasound abnormalities were used to divide the infants further into the different NMI categories. At 3 and 6 months, the relationship between active and passive muscle power was measured in shoulders, trunk and legs and (a)symmetry between right and left was noted. The results at 3 and 6 months were ranged from 1 for optimal to 5 for poor muscle power regulation. At 12 months of age, a neurological examination was done with special emphasis on the assessment of postural control, spontaneous motility, hand function and elicited infantile reactions with special attention to (a)symmetry. Outcome at 12 months was expressed as percentage of the optimal score on each subcategory. At 7 years, the motor behaviour study based on Touwen's examination for minor neurological dysfunction was performed. This investigation focuses on different functions, such as hand function, quality of walking, posture, passive muscle tone, coordination and diadochokinesis. The outcome was expressed as percentage of the optimal score on the combined subcategories. The best prediction of neuromotor behaviour at 7 years was assessed with stepwise linear multiple regression, using as potential predictors perinatal factors and outcome of motor behaviour at the corrected age of 3, 6 and 12 months. At 7 years none of the children scored 100% on the combined

  2. The effect of cognitive-motor dual-task training on cognitive function and plasma amyloid β peptide 42/40 ratio in healthy elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hisayo; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Imai, Daiki; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Ryosuke; Naghavi, Nooshin; Ota, Akemi; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Miyagawa, Toshiaki

    2015-05-28

    Physical activity reduces the incidence and progression of cognitive impairment. Cognitive-motor dual-task training, which requires dividing attention between cognitive tasks and exercise, may improve various cognitive domains; therefore, we examined the effect of dual-task training on the executive functions and on plasma amyloid β peptide (Aβ) 42/40 ratio, a potent biomarker of Alzheimer's disease, in healthy elderly people. Twenty-seven sedentary elderly people participated in a 12-week randomized, controlled trial. The subjects assigned to the dual-task training (DT) group underwent a specific cognitive-motor dual-task training, and then the clinical outcomes, including cognitive functions by the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) examination and the Trail-Making Test (TMT), and the plasma Aβ 42/40 ratio following the intervention were compared with those of the control single-task training (ST) group by unpaired t-test. Among 27 participants, 25 completed the study. The total scores in the 3MS examination as well as the muscular strength of quadriceps were equally improved in both groups after the training. The specific cognitive domains, "registration & recall", "attention", "verbal fluency & understanding", and "visuospatial skills" were significantly improved only in the DT group. Higher scores in "attention", "verbal fluency & understanding", and "similarities" were found in the DT group than in the ST group at post-intervention. The absolute changes in the total (8.5 ± 1.6 vs 2.4 ± 0.9, p = 0.004, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.75-3.39) and in the scores of "attention" (1.9 ± 0.5 vs -0.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.004, 95 % CI 2.25-9.98) were greater in the DT group than in the ST group. We found no changes in the TMT results in either group. Plasma Aβ 42/40 ratio decreased in both groups following the training (ST group: 0.63 ± 0.13 to 0.16 ± 0.03, p = 0.001; DT group: 0.60 ± 0.12 to 0.25 ± 0.06, p = 0.044), although the pre- and post-intervention values

  3. Tai Chi Training may Reduce Dual Task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk, in Healthy Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Peter M; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Lough, Matthew; Gow, Brian J; Lipsitz, Lewis; Novak, Vera; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Manor, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC's impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown. To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5 ± 12 years experience) older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (Coefficient of Variation %) were assessed during 90 s trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial subtractions) conditions. During DT, gait speed decreased (p sensitive metric for monitoring TC's impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  4. Combined functional task practice and dynamic high intensity resistance training promotes recovery of upper-extremity motor function in post-stroke hemiparesis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Carolynn; Dozono, Jody; Schmidt, Stephen; Jue, Mary; Lum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Weakness is a significant impairment in persons with post-stroke hemiparesis, yet traditional clinical perspectives caution against strengthening in neurological populations. Significant correlations between weakness and functional movement have been demonstrated, however, a clear relationship between increased strength and functional improvement has been elusive. This case study describes a combined program of dynamic, high-intensity resistance training and functional task practice for the upper-extremity in adult hemiparesis. The patient was a 65-year-old, right hand dominant woman who presented to the Neural Control of Movement Laboratory at the Palo Alto VA Rehabilitation Research and Development Center 16 weeks following clipping of an unruptured aneurysm with consequent dense right hemiparesis. She received 7 weeks of acute rehabilitation according to CARF guidelines (ie, at least 3 hours of two or more disciplines, 6 days per week). Her baseline research evaluation revealed significant upperextremity deficits at the ICF body structure/function level including: weakness, shoulder pain, mild resistance to passive movement, and need for moderate to maximal assistance in many activities of daily living including bathing and dressing. The Stroke Impact Scale score reporting her perspective indicated she had recovered from her stroke only 50%. The hybrid resistance training-functional task practice intervention, detailed in this report, was delivered 3 times per week for 6 weeks with each session lasting 75:00. The subject revealed marked improvements in isometric and dynamic force production in 5 key upper-extremity actions: elbow flexion, elbow extension, shoulder flexion, shoulder abduction, and shoulder external rotation. Strength gains were accompanied by increased EMG activation immediately postintervention and by a combination of increased activation and apparent hypertrophic effects at 6 month follow up. Marked improvements were noted in all clinical and

  5. An Evaluation of Training Interventions and Computed Scoring Techniques for Grading a Level Turn Task and a Straight In Landing Approach on a PC-Based Flight Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Bruce E.

    2007-01-01

    One result of the relatively recent advances in computing technology has been the decreasing cost of computers and increasing computational power. This has allowed high fidelity airplane simulations to be run on personal computers (PC). Thus, simulators are now used routinely by pilots to substitute real flight hours for simulated flight hours for training for an aircraft type rating thereby reducing the cost of flight training. However, FAA regulations require that such substitution training must be supervised by Certified Flight Instructors (CFI). If the CFI presence could be reduced or eliminated for certain tasks this would mean a further cost savings to the pilot. This would require that the flight simulator have a certain level of 'intelligence' in order to provide feedback on pilot perfolmance similar to that of a CFI. The 'intelligent' flight sinlulator would have at least the capability to use data gathered from the flight to create a measure for the performance of the student pilot. Also, to fully utilize the advances in computational power, the sinlulator would be capable of interacting with the student pilot using the best possible training interventions. This thesis reposts on the two studies conducted at Tuskegee University investigating the effects of interventions on the learning of two flight maneuvers on a flight sinlulator and the robustness and accuracy of calculated perfornlance indices as compared to CFI evaluations of performance. The intent of these studies is to take a step in the direction of creating an 'intelligent' flight simulator. The first study deals with the comparisons of novice pilot performance trained at different levels of above real-time to execute a level S-turn. The second study examined the effect of out-of-the-window (OTW) visual cues in the form of hoops on the performance of novice pilots learning to fly a landing approach on the flight simulator. The reliability/robustness of the computed performance metrics was

  6. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Wayne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown.PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (% was assessed during 90 sec trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial-subtractions conditions. RESULTS: During DT, gait speed decreased (p<0.003 and stride time variability increased (p<0.004 in all groups. Cross-sectional comparisons indicated that stride time variability was lower in the TC-expert vs. TC-naïve group, significantly so during DT (2.11% vs. 2.55%; p=0.027; in contrast, gait speed during both undisturbed and DT conditions did not differ between groups. Longitudinal analyses of TC-naïve adults randomized to 6 months of TC training or usual care identified improvement in DT gait speed in both groups. A small improvement in DT stride time variability (effect size = 0.2 was estimated with TC training, but no significant differences between groups were observed. Potentially important improvements after TC training could not be excluded in this small study. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy active older adults, positive effects of short- and long-term TC were observed only under cognitively challenging DT conditions and only for stride time variability. DT stride variability offers a potentially sensitive metric for monitoring TC’s impact on fall risk with healthy older adults.

  7. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker Ingrid; Verhagen Evert ALM; Jm, Chinapaw Mai; Collard Dorine CM; van Mechelen Willem

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. Methods In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years. The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative new...

  8. Treadmill interventions in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentín-Gudiol, Marta; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, general developmental delay or children born preterm. It limits the child's exploration of the environment and can hinder cognitive and social-emotional development. Literature suggests that task-specific

  9. Treadmill interventions in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentin-Gudiol, Marta; Mattern-Baxter, Katrin; Girabent-Farres, Montserrat; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Maria Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, general developmental delay or children born preterm. It limits the child's exploration of the environment and can hinder cognitive and social-emotional development. Literature suggests that task-specific

  10. Task-oriented rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Choi, Younggeun; Winstein, Carolee; Gordon, James

    2012-11-01

    Task-oriented training is emerging as the dominant and most effective approach to motor rehabilitation of upper extremity function after stroke. Here, the authors propose that the task-oriented training framework provides an evidence-based blueprint for the design of task-oriented robots for the rehabilitation of upper extremity function in the form of three design principles: skill acquisition of functional tasks, active participation training, and individualized adaptive training. The previous robotic systems that incorporate elements of task-oriented trainings are then reviewed. Finally, the authors critically analyze their own attempt to design and test the feasibility of a TOR robot, ADAPT (Adaptive and Automatic Presentation of Tasks), which incorporates the three design principles. Because of its task-oriented training-based design, ADAPT departs from most other current rehabilitation robotic systems: it presents realistic functional tasks in which the task goal is constantly adapted, so that the individual actively performs doable but challenging tasks without physical assistance. To maximize efficacy for a large clinical population, the authors propose that future task-oriented robots need to incorporate yet-to-be developed adaptive task presentation algorithms that emphasize acquisition of fine motor coordination skills while minimizing compensatory movements.

  11. Effects of basic developmental care on neonatal morbidity, neuromotor development, and growth at term age of infants who were born at <32 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Celeste M; Veen, Sylvia; Sprij, Arwen J; Le Cessie, Saskia; Wit, Jan M; Walther, Frans J

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of basic elements of developmental care (incubator covers and positioning aids) on days of respiratory support and intensive care, growth, and neuromotor development at term age in infants who were born at Neuromotor development was defined as definitely abnormal (presence of a neonatal neurologic syndrome, such as apathy or hyperexcitability, hypotonia or hypertonia, hyporeflexia or hyperreflexia, hypokinesia or hyperkinesia, or a hemisyndrome), mildly abnormal (presence of only part of such a syndrome), or normal. A total of 192 infants were included (developmental care: 98; control: 94). Thirteen infants (developmental care: 7; control: 6) were excluded according to protocol (admitted for less than or died within the first 5 days: n = 12; taken out at parents' request: n = 1), which left a total of 179 infants who met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 12 (13.2%) of 91 in the developmental care group and 8 (9.1%) of 88 in the control group. There was no significant difference in the number of days of respiratory support, number of intensive care days, short-term growth, or neuromotor developmental outcome at term age between the developmental care and control groups. Duration of the intervention, whether only during the intensive care period or until hospital discharge, had no significant effect on outcome. Providing basic developmental care in the NICU had no effect on short-term physical and neurologic outcomes in infants who were born at <32 weeks' gestation.

  12. Predictive factors for neuromotor abnormalities at the corrected age of 12 months in very low birth weight premature infants Fatores preditivos para anormalidades neuromotoras aos 12 meses de idade corrigida em prematuros de muito baixo peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Reis de Mello

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increase in survival of premature newborns has sparked growing interest in the prediction of their long-term neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of neuromotor abnormalities at the corrected age of 12 months and to identify the predictive factors associated with altered neuromotor development in very low birth weight premature infants. METHOD: Cohort study. The sample included 100 premature infants. The outcome was neuromotor development at 12 months classified by Bayley Scale (PDI and neurological assessment (tonus, reflexes, posture. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. Neonatal variables and neuromotor abnormalities up to 6 months of corrected age were selected by bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Mean birth weight was 1126g (SD: 240. Abnormal neuromotor development was presented in 60 children at 12 months corrected age. CONCLUSION: According to the model, patients with a diagnosis including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, hypertonia of lower extremities, truncal hypotonia showed a 94.0% probability of neuromotor involvement at 12 months.INTRODUÇÃO: O aumento na sobrevida de recém-nascidos prematuros tem suscitado interesse crescente na predição do seu neurodesenvolvimento a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Estimar a incidência de anormalidades neuromotoras aos 12 meses de idade corrigida e identificar os fatores associados ao desenvolvimento neuromotor alterado em prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte. A amostra incluiu 100 crianças prematuras.O desfecho foi o desenvolvimento neuromotor aos 12 meses. Modelo de regressão logística multivariado foi construído. Variáveis neonatais e anormalidades neuromotoras até os 6 meses de idade corrigida foram selecionadas por análise bivariada. RESULTADOS: O peso de nascimento médio foi 1126g (DP:240. Aos 12 meses 60% das crianças apresentaram desenvolvimento neuromotor alterado. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com o modelo, pacientes com diagn

  13. Technology to help persons with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech with their leisure occupation and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; D'Amico, Fiora; Addante, Luigi M; Ferlisi, Gabriele; Zullo, Valeria; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    These two studies were aimed at extending the assessment of technology-aided programs to enhance leisure occupation or communication with persons with extensive neuro-motor impairment and lack of speech. Specifically, Study I implemented the program for leisure occupation with two post-stroke patients. Study II implemented the program for communication with two persons affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In Study I, a computer system presented the participants with a variety of stimuli. The participants could select/access those stimuli by microswitch activation or could bypass them by abstaining from microswitch responses. In Study II, the participants used a computer-aided telephone system that allowed them to choose via microswitch activation the persons to call. On the computer screen, they also had words and phrases that they could activate during the calls to influence the conversation with the persons called. Data from both studies were largely positive. The post-stroke patients showed high levels of stimulus selection (access) and extended engagement. The patients with ALS were able to make phone calls and to select the words/phrases to influence the conversations. The relevance of technology-aided programs for leisure occupation and communication of persons with extensive multiple disabilities was discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Tool for Balance Control Training Using Muscle Synergies and Multimodal Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Galeano, D.; Brunetti, F.; Torricelli, D.; Piazza, S.; Pons, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform wh...

  15. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold...

  16. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Carol Ewing; Blissmer, Bryan; Deschenes, Michael R; Franklin, Barry A; Lamonte, Michael J; Lee, I-Min; Nieman, David C; Swain, David P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit

  17. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Dorine Cm; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; Verhagen, Evert Alm; Bakker, Ingrid; van Mechelen, Willem

    2010-01-28

    To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years.The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and simple exercises to be carried out during physical education classes.Outcomes measures were self-reported injury preventing behavior, self-reported behavioral determinants (knowledge, attitude, social-influence, self-efficacy, and intention), and neuromotor fitness. The iPlay-program was not able to significantly improve injury-preventing behavior. The program did significantly improve knowledge and attitude, two determinants of behavior. The effect of the intervention-program on behavior appeared to be significantly mediated by knowledge and attitude. Improved scores on attitude, social norm, self-efficacy and intention were significantly related to changes in injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, iPlay resulted in small non-significant improvements in neuromotor fitness in favor of the intervention group. This cluster randomized controlled trial showed that the iPlay-program did significantly improved behavioral determinants. However, this effect on knowledge and attitude was not strong enough to improve injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, the results confirm the hypothetical model that injury preventing behavior is determined by intention, attitude, social norm and self-efficacy. ISRCTN78846684.

  18. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakker Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. Methods In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20 or control group (n = 20. The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years. The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and simple exercises to be carried out during physical education classes. Outcomes measures were self-reported injury preventing behavior, self-reported behavioral determinants (knowledge, attitude, social-influence, self-efficacy, and intention, and neuromotor fitness. Results The iPlay-program was not able to significantly improve injury-preventing behavior. The program did significantly improve knowledge and attitude, two determinants of behavior. The effect of the intervention-program on behavior appeared to be significantly mediated by knowledge and attitude. Improved scores on attitude, social norm, self-efficacy and intention were significantly related to changes in injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, iPlay resulted in small non-significant improvements in neuromotor fitness in favor of the intervention group. Conclusion This cluster randomized controlled trial showed that the iPlay-program did significantly improved behavioral determinants. However, this effect on knowledge and attitude was not strong enough to improve injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, the results confirm the hypothetical model that injury preventing behavior is determined by intention, attitude, social norm and self-efficacy. Trial number ISRCTN78846684

  19. Repercussões de fatores de risco biológicos no desenvolvimento neuromotor de lactentes do nascimento aos 2 meses de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Joyce

    2009-01-01

    Os avanços tecnológicos têm permitido uma maior sobrevivência de recém nascidos de risco. No entanto, os fatores de risco biológicos aos quais essas crianças foram expostas fazem com que tenham maior chance de apresentar atraso no seu crescimento e desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as repercussões de fatores de risco biológicos no desenvolvimento neuromotor de lactentes do nascimento aos dois meses de vida. A população deste estudo foi representada por todas as crianças com...

  20. Sistema robótico multimodal para análisis y estudios en biomecánica, movimiento humano y control neuromotor

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Olaya, Andrés Felipe

    2008-01-01

    Actualmente existe una emergente necesidad en disponer de sistemas y plataformas que potencien estudios en diferentes ámbitos de investigación, que permitan establecer y configurar una serie de experimentos para explorar en aspectos relativos al movimiento humano, de control neuromotor o al análisis biomecánico, entre otros. La presente tesis doctoral abarca tres vertientes: científica, tecnológica y experimental. La componente tecnológica se refiere a la implementación física ...

  1. Combined Dual-Task Gait Training and Aerobic Exercise to Improve Cognition, Mobility, and Vascular Health in Community-Dwelling Older Adults at Risk for Future Cognitive Decline1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Michael A; Boa Sorte Silva, Narlon C; Gill, Dawn P; McGowan, Cheri L; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Hachinski, Vladimir; Holmes, Jeff; Petrella, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    This 6-month experimental case series study investigated the effects of a dual-task gait training and aerobic exercise intervention on cognition, mobility, and cardiovascular health in community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants exercised 40 min/day, 3 days/week for 26 weeks on a Biodex GaitTrainer2 treadmill. Participants were assessed at baseline (V0), interim (V1: 12-weeks), intervention endpoint (V2: 26-weeks), and study endpoint (V3: 52-weeks). The study outcomes included: cognition [executive function (EF), processing speed, verbal fluency, and memory]; mobility: usual & dual-task gait (speed, step length, and stride time variability); and vascular health: ambulatory blood pressure, carotid arterial compliance, and intima-media thickness (cIMT). Fifty-six participants [age: 70(6) years; 61% female] were included in this study. Significant improvements following the exercise program (V2) were observed in cognition: EF (p = 0.002), processing speed (p health: cIMT (p = 0.002). No changes were seen in the remaining outcomes. In conclusion, 26 weeks of dual-task gait training and aerobic exercise improved performance on a number of cognitive outcomes, while increasing usual & dual-task gait speed and step length in a sample of older adults without dementia.

  2. Are teaching principles associated with improved motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder? A pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A.S.; Schoemaker, M.M.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physical therapists' teaching skills often are disregarded in research studies. We examined whether the use of different teaching principles during neuromotor task training was associated with treatment effects. SUBJECTS: Nineteen children (mean age=7 years 5 months,

  3. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Theill, Nathan; Holenstein, Stefan; Schumacher, Vera; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT) gait compared to exclusive physical training. Methods Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk), and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a significant advantage compared to PHYS in DT costs of step time variability at fast walking (P=0.044). Training-specific gait adaptations were found on comparing DANCE and MEMORY: DANCE reduced step time at fast walking (P=0.007) and MEMORY reduced gait variability in DT and DT costs at preferred walking speed (both trend P=0.062). Global linear time effects showed improved gait (Pmulticomponent cognitive–physical and exclusive physical training programs demonstrated similar potential to counteract age-related decline in physical functioning. PMID:26604719

  4. Training as We Will Fight: Institutionalizing Permanent Joint Task Forces Within the Unified Commands and Abolishing the "Just in Time" Approach to Crisis Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fenzel, Michael

    2001-01-01

    ...: first, to restructure the geographic unified commands from the existing Service Component framework into a series of standing, task organized JTFs that would each be assigned distinct geographic sectors to manage...

  5. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Theill, Nathan; Holenstein, Stefan; Schumacher, Vera; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive-physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT) gait compared to exclusive physical training. Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk), and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out. Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a significant advantage compared to PHYS in DT costs of step time variability at fast walking (P=0.044). Training-specific gait adaptations were found on comparing DANCE and MEMORY: DANCE reduced step time at fast walking (P=0.007) and MEMORY reduced gait variability in DT and DT costs at preferred walking speed (both trend P=0.062). Global linear time effects showed improved gait (P<0.05), functional fitness (P<0.05), and reduced fall frequency (-77%, P<0.001). Only single-task fast walking, gait variability at preferred walking speed, and Short Physical Performance Battery were reduced at follow-up (all P<0.05 or trend). Long-term multicomponent

  6. Comparison of haptic guidance and error amplification robotic trainings for the learning of a timing-based motor task by healthy seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Bouchard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With age, a decline in the temporal aspect of movement is observed such as a longer movement execution time and a decreased timing accuracy. Robotic training can represent an interesting approach to help improve movement timing among the elderly. Two types of robotic training—haptic guidance (HG; demonstrating the correct movement for a better movement planning and improved execution of movement and error amplification (EA; exaggerating movement errors to have a more rapid and complete learning have been positively used in young healthy subjects to boost timing accuracy. For healthy seniors, only HG training has been used so far where significant and positive timing gains have been obtained. The goal of the study was to evaluate and compare the impact of both HG and EA robotic trainings on the improvement of seniors’ movement timing. Thirty-two healthy seniors (mean age 68+/-4 years learned to play a pinball-like game by triggering a one-degree-of-freedom hand robot at the proper time to make a flipper move and direct a falling ball towards a randomly positioned target. During HG and EA robotic trainings, the subjects’ timing errors were decreased and increased, respectively, based on the subjects’ timing errors in initiating a movement. Results showed that only HG training benefited learning, but the improvement did not generalize to untrained targets. Also, age had no influence on the efficacy of HG robotic training, meaning that the oldest subjects did not benefit more from HG training than the younger senior subjects. Using haptic guidance to teach the correct timing of movement seems to be a good strategy to improve motor learning for the elderly as for younger people. However, more studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of HG robotic training on improvement in movement timing.

  7. Task force report to the Steering Committee of the FAO/ECE/ILO Joint Committee on Forest Technology, Management and Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The first part of this document sets out the Task Force`s composition, terms of reference and methodology. The document looks briefly at the establishment of the Joint Committee, its mandate, structure and methods of work, how it has evolved over the past 30-odd years, and the changes that must be taken into account in the 1990s; describes the Joint Committee`s organization and work methods; identifies and describes other bodies and committees that deal with forestry and the forest industry and cites any coordination or duplication they may have with the Joint Committee; reports on and analyzes responses to the Task Force questionnaire; deals with communications and information exchanges among the Joint Committee and member countries, as well as among the member countries themselves; contains the Task Force`s recommendations to the Steering Committee; and, draws conclusions, based for the most part on the responses to the questionnaire.

  8. Can psychological well-being scales and hormone levels be used to predict acute performance of anaerobic training tasks in elite female volleyball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Zourdos, Michael C; Clemente-Suárez, Vicente J; Calleja-González, Julio; Shipherd, Amber M

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between pre-training psychological well-being assessment scales (General Health Questionnaire-28-GHQ-28, Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2-CSAI-2, Sport Competition Anxiety Test-SCAT, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-S-STAI-S, Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire-OSQ and Psychological Characteristics Related to Sport Performance-PCSP), and pre-training stress hormone concentrations (cortisol-C, total testosterone-TT, free testosterone-FT, adrenocorticotropic hormone-ACTH and testosterone/cortisol-T/C ratios), on acute neuromuscular performance (ANP) in female volleyballers. Forty elite female volleyballers (27±4yrs.; 178.3±8.5cm; 67.9±7.2kg) participated. Bivariate correlations were performed between psychological assessments and hormone levels with ANP. All psychological scales presented at least one significant (pvolleyballers than pre-training stress hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of simulation in healthcare: from systems issues, to team building, to task training, to education and high stakes examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orledge, Jeffrey; Phillips, William J; Murray, W Bosseau; Lerant, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Simulation in healthcare is becoming increasingly used. This review will spotlight some of the uses of simulation in healthcare training. Previously, evaluation of simulation training was typically from evaluations from trainees. Recent articles, however, have linked simulation training to actual patient outcomes and demonstrated skill retention up to 1 year. Objective measurements have demonstrated positive effects on healthcare education, have been successfully used in high stakes examinations, and have uncovered systems and patient safety issues. This article will review some recent studies showing how simulation can have a positive effect on patient outcomes and skill retention, uncover systems issues related to patient safety, and how simulation can be used in credentialing, and other high stakes examinations.

  10. STS payloads mission control study. Volume 2-A, Task 1: Joint products and functions for preflight planning of flight operations, training and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Specific products and functions, and associated facility availability, applicable to preflight planning of flight operations were studied. Training and simulation activities involving joint participation of STS and payload operations organizations, are defined. The prelaunch activities required to prepare for the payload flight operations are emphasized.

  11. Assessing Memory Decay Rate: What Factors are the Best Predictors of Decrements in Training Proficiency in a Threat Vehicle Identification Task?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    assessment for vehicle identification recommended that no more than six vehicles should be presented in a training set (Dyer & Salter , 2001). Six...Wagner, U., & Born, J. (2005). Sleep enhances explicit recollection in recognition memory. Learning & Memory, 12(1), 44–51. Dyer, J.L., & Salter

  12. Behavioral Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    methods included task analysis as a critical phase in developing instruction and training. Mon- temerlo and Tennyson (1976) noted that from 1951 to 1976...designed. The trend in the U.S . Department of Defense toward extensive procedural documentation noted by Montemerlo and Tennyson (1976) has not...M. Gagne’ (Ed.), Psychological principles in system development (pp. 187-228). New York: Holt. Montemerlo, M. D., & Tennyson , M. E. (1975

  13. Task Inventory Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Orientation , Training and Team Performance Research Area 7, Peace Time Task Analysis and Its Relation to War Time Conditions Research Area 8. Worker...January jar jaw jay jelly jellyfish jerk jig job jockey join joke joking jolly journey joy(ful) joyous judge jug juice juicy July...straight swept soil squash strange(r) swift sold squeak strap swim soldier squeeze straw swimming sole squirrel strawberry swing some stable

  14. Differences in static- and dynamic-balance task performance after 4 weeks of intrinsic-foot-muscle training: the short-foot exercise versus the towel-curl exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Scott K; Padilla, Ricardo A; Tsang, Kavin K W

    2012-11-01

    Proper functioning of the intrinsic foot musculature (IFM) is essential in maintaining the integrity of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA). Improper functioning of the IFM leads to excessive pronation of the foot, which has been linked to various pathologies. Therefore, training the IFM to avoid excessive pronation may help prevent some of these pathologies; however, it is not clear how to train these muscles optimally. To investigate the effects of 2 different types of IFM training on the height of the MLA and static- and dynamic-balance task performance. Randomized controlled trial, repeated-measures mixed-model design. University biomechanics laboratory for testing and a home-based training program. 24 healthy, university-age volunteers (3 groups of 8) with no history of major lower limb pathology or balance impairment. One experimental group performed 4 wk of the short-foot exercise (SFE) and the other performed 4 wk of the towel-curl exercise (TCE). Participants were asked to perform 100 repetitions of their exercise per day. Navicular height during weight bearing, the total range of movement of the center of pressure (COP) in the mediolateral (ML) direction for a static-balance test and a dynamic-balance test. There were no differences in the navicular height or static-balance tests. For the dynamic-balance test, all groups decreased the ML COP movement on the dominant limb by a small amount (~5 mm); however, the SFE group was able to decrease COP movement much more than the TCE group in the nondominant limb. The SFE appeared to train the IFM more effectively than the TCE; however, there were differing results between the dominant and nondominant legs. These imbalances need to be taken into consideration by clinicians.

  15. Computerized training and proficiency testing. International Academy of Cytology Task Force summary. Diagnostic Cytology Towards the 21st Century: An International Expert Conference and Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, G P; Davey, D D; Somrak, T M; Goodell, R M; Grohs, D H; Knesel, E A; Mango, L J; Mui, K K; Nielsen, M L; Wilbur, D C

    1998-01-01

    Computerized technologies probably will revolutionize the field of gynecologic cytology in the next century. Such technologies will be useful in both training and evaluating proficiency. However, manual screening/review of gynecologic cytology preparations is the current "gold standard" for both training and assessment of proficiency. Training programs for cytotechnologists and pathologists should provide instruction and experience in new technologies, but their introduction may depend on the availability of equipment and staff. Advantages of digital images for training include standardization of teaching sets and interactive capabilities, allowing educational feedback. Computerized support/assistance devices aid in complete screening of the slide during training and provide feedback to cytologists on screening techniques. Liquid-based cytopreparatory instruments facilitate multiple glass slides for teaching or testing. Proficiency testing (PT) in cytology has similar quality assurance goals as in other areas of the laboratory, but the subjective nature of cytologic analysis poses many challenges for implementation. There is consensus that all cytology practitioners would like to know the proficiency of the laboratory. However, the majority question the value and validity of any large-scale formal testing programs. Locator and diagnostic skills are both critical in cytology, but assessment of each skill may occur in different ways using computerized technologies. Any type of assessment should provide educational feedback to participants. Psychometric issues in PT include the consideration of different types of validity, including face, content, construct and criterion related. The reliability or consistency of the testing event is also critical. A valid and reliable correlation between work performance and performance on a PT needs to be established. The goal is to ensure that PT will identify submarginal practitioners and that persons successful on PT are in fact

  16. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, Lorenzo; Casadio, Maura; Giannoni, Psiche; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2009-12-07

    In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life). Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion) of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom). The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE), Abduction/Adduction (AA) and Pronation/Supination (PS). Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the beginning and at the end of the test therapy

  17. Performance adaptive training control strategy for recovering wrist movements in stroke patients: a preliminary, feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandini Giulio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last two decades robot training in neuromotor rehabilitation was mainly focused on shoulder-elbow movements. Few devices were designed and clinically tested for training coordinated movements of the wrist, which are crucial for achieving even the basic level of motor competence that is necessary for carrying out ADLs (activities of daily life. Moreover, most systems of robot therapy use point-to-point reaching movements which tend to emphasize the pathological tendency of stroke patients to break down goal-directed movements into a number of jerky sub-movements. For this reason we designed a wrist robot with a range of motion comparable to that of normal subjects and implemented a self-adapting training protocol for tracking smoothly moving targets in order to facilitate the emergence of smoothness in the motor control patterns and maximize the recovery of the normal RoM (range of motion of the different DoFs (degrees of Freedom. Methods The IIT-wrist robot is a 3 DoFs light exoskeleton device, with direct-drive of each DoF and a human-like range of motion for Flexion/Extension (FE, Abduction/Adduction (AA and Pronation/Supination (PS. Subjects were asked to track a variable-frequency oscillating target using only one wrist DoF at time, in such a way to carry out a progressive splinting therapy. The RoM of each DoF was angularly scanned in a staircase-like fashion, from the "easier" to the "more difficult" angular position. An Adaptive Controller evaluated online performance parameters and modulated both the assistance and the difficulty of the task in order to facilitate smoother and more precise motor command patterns. Results Three stroke subjects volunteered to participate in a preliminary test session aimed at verify the acceptability of the device and the feasibility of the designed protocol. All of them were able to perform the required task. The wrist active RoM of motion was evaluated for each patient at the

  18. Cortical vs. afferent stimulation as an adjunct to functional task practice training: a randomized, comparative pilot study in people with cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Field-Fote, Edelle C

    2015-08-01

    To assess single-session effects of three different types of stimuli known to increase cortical excitability when combined with functional task practice. Randomized cross-over trial. A total of 24 participants with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. One 30-minute session of each, applied concurrently with functional task practice: transcranial direct current stimulation, vibration, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Nine-hole Peg Test, pinch force, visuomotor tracking, and cortical excitability were collected at pretest, posttest and late posttest (30 minutes after). Early effects (posttest minus pretest) and short-term persistence (late posttest minus pretest) were assessed using a general linear mixed model. Magnitude of effect size was assessed using the Cohen's d. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was associated with moderate, significant early effects and short-term persistence on Nine-hole Peg Test performance (1.8 ±1.8, p = 0.003, d = 0.59; 2.0 ±2.5, p stimulation (1.8 ±2.5, p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.52) was also associated with significant short-term persistence of moderate size on Nine-hole Peg Test performance (1.8 ±2.5, p = 0.003, Cohen's d = 0.52) and visuomotor tracking performance (p = 0.05, d = 0.51). Early effects on corticomotor excitability were significant for transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (p = 0.003), approached significance for transcranial direct current stimulation (p = 0.07), and only vibration was associated with significant short-term persistence (p = 0.006). Meaningful improvements in aspects of hand-related function that persisted at least 30 minutes after intervention were observed with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, when combined with functional task practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Preventing Suicide through Improved Training in Suicide Risk Assessment and Care: An American Association of Suicidology Task Force Report Addressing Serious Gaps in U.S. Mental Health Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, William M., Jr.; Allen, Michael H.; Feldman, Barry N.; Gutin, Nina J.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Kleespies, Phillip M.; Quinnett, Paul; Simpson, Skip

    2012-01-01

    There are twice as many suicides as homicides in the United States, and the suicide rate is rising. Suicides increased 12% between 1999 and 2009. Mental health professionals often treat suicidal patients, and suicide occurs even among patients who are seeking treatment or are currently in treatment. Despite these facts, training of most mental…

  20. Multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training to enhance dual-task walking of older adults: a secondary analysis of a 6-month randomized controlled trial with 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggenberger P

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Eggenberger,1 Nathan Theill,2,3 Stefan Holenstein,1 Vera Schumacher,4,5 Eling D de Bruin1,6,7 1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, ETH Zurich, 2Division of Psychiatry Research, 3Center for Gerontology, 4Department of Gerontopsychology and Gerontology, 5University Research Priority Program “Dynamics of Healthy Aging”, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 6Department of Epidemiology, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, 7Centre for Evidence Based Physiotherapy, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: About one-third of people older than 65 years fall at least once a year. Physical exercise has been previously demonstrated to improve gait, enhance physical fitness, and prevent falls. Nonetheless, the addition of cognitive training components may potentially increase these effects, since cognitive impairment is related to gait irregularities and fall risk. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical training would lead to greater improvements in dual-task (DT gait compared to exclusive physical training.Methods: Elderly persons older than 70 years and without cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1 virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE, 2 treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY, or 3 treadmill walking (PHYS. Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Gait variables, functional fitness (Short Physical Performance Battery, 6-minute walk, and fall frequencies were assessed at baseline, after 3 months and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were carried out.Results: Eighty-nine participants were randomized to three groups initially; 71 completed the training and 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. DANCE/MEMORY showed a

  1. Combined Cognitive-Strategy and Task-Specific Training Improve Transfer to Untrained Activities in Subacute Stroke: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara; Polatajko, Helene; Baum, Carolyn; Rios, Jorge; Cirone, Dianne; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach compared with usual outpatient rehabilitation on activity and participation in people Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), the Stroke Impact Scale Participation Domain, the Community Participation Index, and the Self-Efficacy Gauge. A total of 35 eligible participants were randomized; 26 completed the intervention. Post intervention, PQRS change scores demonstrated that CO-OP had a medium effect over usual care on trained self-selected activities (d = 0.5) and a large effect on untrained activities (d = 1.2). At a 3-month follow-up, PQRS change scores indicated a large effect of CO-OP on both trained (d = 1.6) and untrained activities (d = 1.1). CO-OP had a small effect on COPM and a medium effect on the Community Participation Index perceived control and on the Self-Efficacy Gauge. CO-OP was associated with a large treatment effect on follow-up performances of self-selected activities and demonstrated transfer to untrained activities. A larger trial is warranted. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance

    OpenAIRE

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organization of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. \\ud \\ud Our study compared...

  3. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance - United States Pacific Command (PACOM) Guam, Task 3.3: Building Retuning Training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatley, Darrel D.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2010-09-30

    Document describes an onsite workshop and building retuning training conducted in Guam in August 2010. Document reports on issues identified during an audit of several buildings and recommendations to save energy throughout the site. During the workshop, it became apparent that as site personnel maintain the facilities at Guam, the following retuning efforts and strategies should be prioritized: (1) Controlling the mechanical systems operational hours and zone temperature set points appeared to present the best opportunities for savings; (2) Zone temperature set points in some buildings are excessively low, especially at night, when the zone temperatures are so cold that they approached the dewpoint; and (3) Manually-set outside air dampers are providing excessive outside air, especially for spaces that are unoccupied. Two of the larger schools, one on the Naval Base and one on Anderson AFB, are in need of a significant recommissioning effort. These facilities are relatively new, with direct digital controls (DDC) but are significantly out of balance. The pressure in one school is extremely negative, which is pulling humid air through the facility each time a door is opened. The draft can be felt several feet down the halls. The pressure in the other school is extremely positive relative to the outside, and you can stand 20-feet outside and still feel cool drafts of air exiting the building. It is recommended that humidity sensors be installed in all new projects and retrofitted into exist facilities. In this humid climate, control of humidity is very important. There are significant periods of time when the mechanical systems in many buildings can be unloaded and dehumidification is not required. The use of CO{sub 2} sensors should also be considered in representative areas. CO{sub 2} sensors determine whether spaces are occupied so that fresh air is only brought into the space when needed. By reducing the amount of outside air brought into the space, the humidity

  4. Treadmill interventions with partial body weight support in children under six years of age at risk of neuromotor delay : a report of a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentin-Gudiol, M.; Bagur-Calafat, C.; Girabent-Farres, M.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Mattern-Baxter, K.; Angulo-Barroso, R.

    Delayed motor development may occur in children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or children born preterm, which in turn may limit the child's opportunities to explore the environment. Neurophysiologic and early intervention literature suggests that task-specific training facilitates motor

  5. Attention theory and training research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  6. Spaced cognitive training promotes training transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuowei eWang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training studies yield wildly inconsistent results. One dimension on which studies vary is the scheduling of training sessions (Morrison & Chein, 2011. In this study, we systematically address whether or not spacing of practice influences training and transfer. We randomly assigned 115 fifth grade children to an active control group or one of four training groups who received working memory training based on a running span task (Zhao et al., 2011. All groups received the same total amount of training: 20 sessions of training with 60 trials for an average of 20 minutes per session. The training was spread across 2 days, 5 days, 10 days, or 20 days. The active control group received 20-minute sessions of math instruction for 20 sessions. Before and after training participants in all five groups performed a single transfer test that assessed fluid intelligence, the Raven's Progressive Matrices Test. Overall, participants in all four training groups improved significantly on the training task (at least partially, as reflected by increased speed. More importantly, the only training group to show significant improvement on the Raven's was the group who had the greatest amount of spacing (20 days group during training and improvement in this group was significantly higher than that of the control group.

  7. Training attentional control in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay-Brandt, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older adults and to test for transfer of training in a subset (n = 21). Training gains after 5 days and extent of transfer was compared to another subset (n = 20) that served as a control group. Baseline performance on the training task was characterized by a two-factor model of working memory and processing speed. Processing speed correlated with the training task. Training gains in speed and accuracy were reliable and robust (ps <.001, η2 = .57 to .90). Transfer to an analogous task was observed (ps <.05, η2 = .10 to .17). The beneficial effect of training did not translate to improved performance on related measures of processing speed. This study highlights the robust effect of training and transfer to a similar context using a variable priority training task. Although processing speed is an important aspect of the training task, training benefit is either related to an untested aspect of the training task or transfer of training is limited to the training context. PMID:21728889

  8. Um estudo da mediação pedagógica em contexto domiciliar na afasia motora: o desenvolvimento da autonomia intelectual do deficiente neuromotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carvalho Polonio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, which covers language development in people with Ontogenetic Cerebral Dysmetria, aimed to identify educational activities which promote language development in people under such a condition who present motor aphasia. On the one hand, it is necessary to understand how language difficulties can harm the subject with physical neuromotor disabilities in their emotional, social and intellectual development. On the other hand, it is imperative to unveil alternative paths and special features which promote the development of people under the condition in focus. The analyses presented in this study have as theoretical basis the assumptions of historical-cultural psychology, particularly the understanding that language is an essential tool for intellectual development. In its methodology, the research included, in addition to a theoretical investigation, a case study on the conditions of language and development of an adult woman with ontogenetic cerebral dysmetria, a condition known as cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegia and lack of speech. The case study intended to determine the impact of a stimulation program of expressive language, with augmentative and alternative high technology communication resources which were systematized to meet the needs of the research subject. The Augmentative and Alternative Communication resources are seen as an effective way to minimize the difficulties experienced by individuals with motor aphasia. As a result of the proposed interventions, it was possible to identify a more autonomous behavior of the subject in question regarding the use of written language, which is the communication channel used by her. Furthermore, the study revealed that the expansion of communication possibilities through the virtual writing system resized the social relations of the participant in this research.

  9. Delayed neuromotor recovery and increased memory acquisition dysfunction following experimental brain trauma in mice lacking the DNA repair gene XPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasevic, Gregor; Laurer, Helmut L; Mattiasson, Gustav; van Steeg, Harry; Wieloch, Tadeusz; McIntosh, Tracy K

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice lacking the essential DNA repair gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). As damage to DNA has been implicated in neuronal cell death in various models, the authors sought to elucidate whether the absence of an essential DNA repair factor would affect the outcome of TBI in an experimental setting. Thirty-seven adult mice of either wild-type (n = 18) or XPA-deficient ("knock-out" [n = 19]) genotype were subjected to controlled cortical impact experimental brain trauma, which produced a focal brain injury. Sham-injured mice of both genotypes were used as controls (9 in each group). The mice were subjected to neurobehavoral tests evaluating learning/acquisition (Morris water maze) and motor dysfunction (Rotarod and composite neuroscore test), pre- and postinjury up to 4 weeks. The mice were killed after 1 or 4 weeks, and cortical lesion volume, as well as hippocampal and thalamic cell loss, was evaluated. Hippocampal staining with doublecortin antibody was used to evaluate neurogenesis after the insult. Brain-injured XPA(-/-) mice exhibited delayed recovery from impairment in neurological motor function, as well as pronounced cognitive dysfunction in a spatial learning task (Morris water maze), compared with injured XPA(+/+) mice (p recovery after TBI, although they do not support the notion that this DNA repair deficiency results in increased cell or tissue death in the posttraumatic brain.

  10. Effects of caffeine on visual evoked potencial (P300 and neuromotor performance Efeitos da ingestão de cafeína no potencial evocado visual (p300 e no desempenho neuromotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Camaz Deslandes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The stimulant effects of caffeine on cognitive performance have been widely investigated. The visual evoked potential, specially the P300 component, has been used in studies that explain the stimulant mechanisms of caffeine through neurophysiological methods. In this context, the present study aimed to investigate electrophysiological changes (P300 latency and modification of cognitive and motor performance produced by caffeine. Fifteen healthy volunteers, 9 women and 6 men (26 ± 5 years, 67 ± 12.5kg were submitted three times to the following procedure: electroencefalographic recording, Word Color Stroop Test, and visual discrimination task. Subjects took a gelatin caffeine capsule (400 mg or a placebo (P1 and P2, in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. A one-factor ANOVA and Tukey’ post hoc test were used to compare dependent variables on the C, P1 and P2 moments. The statistical analyses indicated a non-significant decrease in reaction time, Stroop execution time and latency at Cz on the caffeine moment when compared to the others. Moreover, a non-significant increase in Stroop raw score and latency at Pz could be observed. The only significant result was found at Fz. These findings suggest that the positive tendency of caffeine to improve cognitive performance is probably associated with changes in the frontal cortex, a widely recognized attention area.Os efeitos estimulantes da cafeína no desempenho cognitivo vêm sendo amplamente investigados. O potencial evocado visual (P300 tem sido empregado em estudos recentes que buscam elucidar os mecanismos excitatórios da cafeína através de métodos neurofisiológicos. Neste contexto, o presente estudo objetivou examinar as variações geradas pela cafeína em respostas eletrofisiológicas (latência do P300 e determinar modificações no desempenho cognitivo e motor. Para tanto, 15 indivíduos hígidos, sendo 9 mulheres e 6 homens (26 ± 5 anos, 67 ± 12,5 kg foram submetidos por

  11. Training Capability Data for Dismounted Soldier Training System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Soldier Training System, Simulation Training Capabilities, Immersive Training, Squad Tactical Tasks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Simulation, VSTS – Virtual Squad Training System 4 and microphone. The VSMM utilizes radio frequency identification ( RFID ) tags and hand sensors to...are available when programmed into the RFID tags. Soldiers can be issued a lensatic compass or GPS based on leadership discretion. These items

  12. Dual-Task Training Strategies and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Ishihara (1989) color blindness test. All subjects reported being in good health and free of any medication that may potentially cause deficits in...Intelligence Test (K-Bit), tests of visual acuity and color blindness (Ishihara’s Test for Colour-Blindness, 1989), a health questionnaire, and the

  13. Effect of dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of training using dual tasks on balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty stroke patients were divided into a dual-task training group (N = 20) and a single task training group (N = 20) randomly. [Methods] The subjects in the single-task traing group stood in a comfortable position, faced a therapist, then threw a Swiss ball back and forth. They then performed balance training in which they raised and lowered their ankles while facing forward or moved objects from one table to another. The DTG performed dual tasks, which involved performing a task on an unstable surface using a balance pad. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] The DTG showed significant increases in weight distribution rate, anterior limit of stability, posterior limit of stability, and BBS scores compared with the STG. [Conclusion] According to the results of this study, dual-task training and single-task training were effective in improving balance in stroke patients, dual task training is more effective for increasing balance ability.

  14. Technical Training: Technical Training Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    TECHNICAL TRAINING Monique Duval tel. 74924 technical.training@cern.ch Monday 9 February 2004 From 10:00 to 12:00 - IT Auditorium - bldg. 31, 3rd floor ANSOFT High-Frequency Seminar David Prestaux, Application Engineer, ANSOFT F-78535 BUC, France This Technical Training seminar will present two Ansoft application products: Ansoft HFSS and Ansoft Designer. Ansoft HFSS makes use of the Finite Element Method (FEM) to calculate field solutions from first principles. It can accurately predict all high-frequency behaviours such as dispersion, mode conversion, and losses due to materials and radiation. Ansoft Designer is a suite of design tools to fully integrate high-frequency, physics-based electromagnetic simulations into a seamless system-level simulation environment. Ansoft Designer uses a simple interface to give complete control over every design task, by a method allowing multiple solvers, Solver on Demand. • Introduction • Overview of the Ansoft Total solution • Ansoft HFSS 9...

  15. MULTITASK FEATURE SELECTION WITH TASK DESCRIPTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellón, Víctor; Stoven, Véronique; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning applications in precision medicine are severely limited by the scarcity of data to learn from. Indeed, training data often contains many more features than samples. To alleviate the resulting statistical issues, the multitask learning framework proposes to learn different but related tasks jointly, rather than independently, by sharing information between these tasks. Within this framework, the joint regularization of model parameters results in models with few non-zero coefficients and that share similar sparsity patterns. We propose a new regularized multitask approach that incorporates task descriptors, hence modulating the amount of information shared between tasks according to their similarity. We show on simulated data that this method outperforms other multitask feature selection approaches, particularly in the case of scarce data. In addition, we demonstrate on peptide MHC-I binding data the ability of the proposed approach to make predictions for new tasks for which no training data is available.

  16. Brain training: Hype or hope?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Ponds, R.W.H.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Brain training is topical yet controversial. Effects are often limited to trained tasks; and near and far effects to untrained tasks or everyday life measures are often small or lacking altogether. More recent approaches use evidence from cognitive neuroscience on neuroplasticity, resulting in novel

  17. Chunking in task sequences modulates task inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Iring; Philipp, Andrea M; Gade, Miriam

    2006-04-01

    In a study of the formation of representations of task sequences and its influence on task inhibition, participants first performed tasks in a predictable sequence (e.g., ABACBC) and then performed the tasks in a random sequence. Half of the participants were explicitly instructed about the predictable sequence, whereas the other participants did not receive these instructions. Task-sequence learning was inferred from shorter reaction times (RTs) in predictable relative to random sequences. Persisting inhibition of competing tasks was indicated by increased RTs in n- 2 task repetitions (e.g., ABA) compared with n- 2 nonrepetitions (e.g., CBA). The results show task-sequence learning for both groups. However, task inhibition was reduced in predictable relative to random sequences among instructed-learning participants who formed an explicit representation of the task sequence, whereas sequence learning and task inhibition were independent in the noninstructed group. We hypothesize that the explicit instructions led to chunking of the task sequence, and that n- 2 repetitions served as chunk points (ABA-CBC), so that within-chunk facilitation modulated the inhibition effect.

  18. Toward a Learning Science for Complex Crowdsourcing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroudi, Shayan; Kamar, Ece; Brunskill, Emma; Horvitz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We explore how crowdworkers can be trained to tackle complex crowdsourcing tasks. We are particularly interested in training novice workers to perform well on solving tasks in situations where the space of strategies is large and workers need to discover and try different strategies to be successful. In a first experiment, we perform a comparison…

  19. Training Recurrent Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With

    1997-01-01

    Training recurrent networks is generally believed to be a difficult task. Excessive training times and lack of convergence to an acceptable solution are frequently reported. In this paper we seek to explain the reason for this from a numerical point of view and show how to avoid problems when...

  20. Human Factors in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  1. Simulation-based training in flexible fibreoptic intubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Philip M; Russell, Lene; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    : Twenty-three anaesthesia residents in their first year of training in anaesthesiology with no experience in FOI, and 10 anaesthesia consultants experienced in FOI. INTERVENTIONS: The novices to FOI were allocated randomly to receive either part-task or whole-task training of FOI on virtual reality......BACKGROUND: Flexible fibreoptic intubation (FOI) is a key element in difficult airway management. Training of FOI skills is an important part of the anaesthesiology curriculum. Simulation-based training has been shown to be effective when learning FOI, but the optimal structure of the training...... is debated. The aspect of dividing the training into segments (part-task training) or assembling into one piece (whole-task training) has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the effect of training the motor skills of FOI as part-task training or as whole-task training...

  2. Self-explaining agents in virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual training systems are increasingly used for the training of complex, dynamic tasks. To give trainees the opportunity to train autonomously, intelligent agents are used to generate the behavior of the virtual players in the training scenario. For effective training however, trainees should be

  3. Manpower, Personnel, and Training Assessment (MPTA) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    developmental technologies and products and services determined through market analysis. For most systems, the analysis shall consider and baseline...2. Time required 3. Resources (ranges, test equipment) – TRADOC i. Is there a Training Effectiveness Analysis ( TEA ) or formal training...failed tasks of training gaps) from New Equipment Training for any User or Operational Testing. - Training Effectiveness Analysis ( TEA ) a. Is

  4. Cue Representation and Situational Awareness in Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Diana R.

    2009-01-01

    Task analysis in human performance technology is used to determine how human performance can be well supported with training, job aids, environmental changes, and other interventions. Early work by Miller (1953) and Gilbert (1969, 1974) addressed cue processing in task execution and recommended cue descriptions in task analysis. Modern task…

  5. Growth retardation, general hypotonia, and loss of acquired neuromotor skills in the infants of mothers with cobalamin deficiency and the possible role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) deficiency can cause metabolic, hematological, and neurological abnormalities. Adequate levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) cannot be synthesized from methylmalonyl-CoA because of the decreased activity of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzyme that uses Cbl as the cofactor. Succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency leads to decreased heme synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The reason of growth retardation can be gluconeogenesis deficiency together with heme synthesis deficiency whereas the reason of the neurological abnormalities can be glycine increase in the tissue due to decreased heme synthesis. We present 7 infants diagnosed with severe nutritional Cbl deficiency and discuss the role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the possible pathogenesis in this article. Patients brought to our clinic with a complaint of growth retardation and diagnosed with nutritional Cbl deficiency were included in the study. There were 5 females and 2 males. The mean age was 11 ± 2.30 (range 6-13) months. All patients had general muscular hypotonia and 4 had growth retardation. Neuromotor growth retardation was found in 4 of the children who had previously shown normal neuromotor development for age. The mean Cbl level was 83.8 ± 27.6 (45.6-114) pg/mL. The mean Cbl level of the mothers was 155 ± 56.6 (88-258) pg/mL. Six of the patients had anemia and 1 had thrombocytopenia. Mean corpuscular volume value was 91.5 ± 12.2 fL. Following treatment, the muscle tonus of the patients improved, the anemia and growth retardation decreased, and the lost neuromotor abilities were recovered. Severe nutritional Cbl deficiency is an important nutritional disease where complications can be prevented with early treatment. When evaluating the pathogenesis, it should be noted that nutritional Cbl deficiency is a succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency.

  6. Musical expertise has minimal impact on dual task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Filardi, Maria Serena; Crhonkova, Marcela; Halpern, Andrea R

    2017-05-01

    Studies investigating effect of practice on dual task performance have yielded conflicting findings, thus supporting different theoretical accounts about the organisation of attentional resources when tasks are performed simultaneously. Because practice has been proven to reduce the demand of attention for the trained task, the impact of long-lasting training on one task is an ideal way to better understand the mechanisms underlying dual task decline in performance. Our study compared performance during dual task execution in expert musicians compared to controls with little if any musical experience. Participants performed a music recognition task and a visuo-spatial task separately (single task) or simultaneously (dual task). Both groups showed a significant but similar performance decline during dual tasks. In addition, the two groups showed a similar decline of dual task performance during encoding and retrieval of the musical information, mainly attributed to a decline in sensitivity. Our results suggest that attention during dual tasks is similarly distributed by expert and non-experts. These findings are in line with previous studies showing a lack of sensitivity to difficulty and lack of practice effect during dual tasks, supporting the idea that different tasks may rely on different and not-sharable attentional resources.

  7. ISD Designed Medical Specialist Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Samuel K., Jr.; Chagalis, George P.

    The Basic Medical Specialist course has one of the largest enrollments of the U.S. Army's Academy of Health Sciences; 11,000 soldiers were trained in this course in 1977 and 1978. Training encompasses both emergency first aid (for field medics) and basic nursing skills. A task force working to improve Army training developed this course, in…

  8. A relação entre posicionamento do prematuro no Método Mãe-Canguru e desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor precoce Relationship between positioning of premature infants in Kangaroo Mother Care and early neuromotor development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barradas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as posturas adotadas pelos prematuros em decúbito ventral (DV e lateral (DL no Método Mãe-Canguru, relacionando-as com o desenvolvimento neuromotor precoce da criança. MÉTODOS: Uma amostra de 80 bebês prematuros, nascidos no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco e que permaneceram na Unidade Mãe-Canguru no período de julho a outubro de 2004, foi dividida em dois grupos. Um grupo de 40 bebês foi posicionado em DV, e o outro, também de 40 bebês, em DL. Ambas as amostras foram homogêneas entre si. Os bebês foram avaliados no dia da admissão na Unidade Mãe-Canguru e no dia da alta, através de uma avaliação biomecânica do posicionamento no canguru e do exame neurocomportamental de Dubowitz. A análise estatística dos resultados foi realizada pelo programa Epi-Info versão 6.04; o intervalo de confiança foi de 95%, sendo p significante quando apresentava valor inferior a 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da pesquisa demonstram que as amostram foram homogêneas entre si e que os bebês em DL assumiram uma postura de maior flexão, associada a um maior enrolamento do tronco. Além disso, esses bebês apresentaram evolução em 13 dos 16 itens avaliados no exame de Dubowitz, enquanto o grupo DV apresentou evolução em 5 dos 16 itens avaliados. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que a posição em DL trouxe maiores benefícios com relação ao desenvolvimento neuromotor precoce dos bebês que compuseram a amostra. Porém, a realização de novos estudos de acompanhamento a longo prazo é importante.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between prone and lateral positioning of preterm infants in Kangaroo Mother Care and early neuromotor development. METHODS: Eighty preterm infants born at Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, Brazil, admitted to the Kangaroo Mother Care Unit between July and October 2004 were divided into two groups. Forty infants was placed in prone position (PP, while the remaining 40 children were

  9. On the impacts of working memory training on executive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina eSalminen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported improvements in a variety of cognitive functions following sole working memory (WM training. In spite of the emergence of several successful training paradigms, the scope of transfer effects has remained mixed. This is most likely due to the heterogeneity of cognitive functions that have been measured and tasks that have been applied. In the present study, we approached this issue systematically by investigating transfer effects from WM training to different aspects of executive functioning. Our training task was a demanding WM task that requires simultaneous performance of a visual and an auditory n-back task, while the transfer tasks tapped WM updating, coordination of the performance of multiple simultaneous tasks (i.e., dual-tasks and sequential tasks (i.e., task switching, and the temporal distribution of attentional processing. Additionally, we examined whether WM training improves reasoning abilities; a hypothesis that has so far gained mixed support. Following training, participants showed improvements in the trained task as well as in the transfer WM updating task. As for the other executive functions, trained participants improved in a task switching situation and in attentional processing. There was no transfer to the dual-task situation or to reasoning skills. These results therefore confirm previous findings that WM can be trained, and additionally, they show that the training effects can generalize to various other tasks tapping on executive functions.

  10. A tool for balance control training using muscle synergies and multimodal interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, D; Brunetti, F; Torricelli, D; Piazza, S; Pons, J L

    2014-01-01

    Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform which combines a CDP device made from low-cost interfaces, such as the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and the Microsoft Kinect. In addition, it integrates a custom electrical stimulator that uses the concept of muscle synergies to promote natural interaction. The aim of the platform is to support the exploration of innovative multimodal therapies. Results include the technical validation of the platform using mediolateral and anteroposterior sways as basic balance training therapies.

  11. A Tool for Balance Control Training Using Muscle Synergies and Multimodal Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Galeano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control plays a key role in neuromotor rehabilitation after stroke or spinal cord injuries. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP is a classic technological tool to assess the status of balance control and to identify potential disorders. Despite the more accurate diagnosis generated by these tools, the current strategies to promote rehabilitation are still limited and do not take full advantage of the technologies available. This paper presents a novel balance training platform which combines a CDP device made from low-cost interfaces, such as the Nintendo Wii Balance Board and the Microsoft Kinect. In addition, it integrates a custom electrical stimulator that uses the concept of muscle synergies to promote natural interaction. The aim of the platform is to support the exploration of innovative multimodal therapies. Results include the technical validation of the platform using mediolateral and anteroposterior sways as basic balance training therapies.

  12. Designing training programs for perceptual-motor skills: practical implications from the serial reaction time task = Concevoir des programmes d’entraînement pour l’acquisition d’habiletés...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, E.L.; Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert

    2011-01-01

    Within various contexts, such as sports and the military, training programs are being designed to effectively and efficiently guide perceptual-motor skill acquisition. Even though this notion is often underestimated, the design of such training programs may greatly benefit from findings and theories

  13. How does practice reduce dual-task interference: integration, automatization, or just stage-shortening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthruff, Eric; Van Selst, Mark; Johnston, James C; Remington, Roger

    2006-03-01

    The present study assessed three hypotheses of how practice reduces dual-task interference: Practice teaches participants to efficiently integrate performance of a task pair; practice promotes automatization of individual tasks, allowing the central bottleneck to be bypassed; practice leaves the bottleneck intact but shorter in duration. These hypotheses were tested in two transfer-of-training experiments. Participants received one of three training types (Task 1 only, or Task 2 only, or dual-task), followed by dual-task test sessions. Practice effects in Experiment 1 (Task 1: auditory-vocal; Task 2: visual-manual) were fully explained by the intact bottleneck hypothesis, without task integration or automatization. This hypothesis also accounted well for the majority of participants when the task order was reversed (Experiment 2). In this case, however, there were multiple indicators that several participants had succeeded in eliminating the bottleneck by automatizing one or both tasks. Neither experiment provided any evidence that practice promotes efficient task integration.

  14. Automated performance assessment and adaptive training for training simulators with SimSCORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, H.L.H. de; Kappé, B.; Boot, E.W.

    2009-01-01

    Performance assessment in training simulators for learning complex tasks is a complex task in itself. It requires monitoring and interpreting the student’s behavior in the simulator using knowledge of the training task, the environment, and a lot of experience. Assessment in simulators is therefore

  15. Error Sonification of a Complex Motor Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riener Robert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual information is mainly used to master complex motor tasks. Thus, additional information providing augmented feedback should be displayed in other modalities than vision, e.g. hearing. The present work evaluated the potential of error sonification to enhance learning of a rowing-type motor task. In contrast to a control group receiving self-controlled terminal feedback, the experimental group could not significantly reduce spatial errors. Thus, motor learning was not enhanced by error sonification, although during the training the participant could benefit from it. It seems that the motor task was too slow, resulting in immediate corrections of the movement rather than in an internal representation of the general characteristics of the motor task. Therefore, further studies should elaborate the impact of error sonification when general characteristics of the motor tasks are already known.

  16. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  17. Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drucker, Peter Ferdinand

    1974-01-01

    Drucker looks at management from a task orientated point of view. In Part I he looks at management first from the outside and studies the dimensions of the tasks and the requirements to each of them...

  18. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  19. Task Shifting in Dermatology: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Danielle N; Langan, Sinéad M; Freeman, Esther E

    2017-11-01

    Can task shifting be used to improve the delivery of dermatologic care in resource-poor settings worldwide? Task shifting is a means of redistributing available resources, whereby highly trained individuals train an available workforce to provide necessary care in low-resource settings. Limited evidence exists for task shifting in dermatology; however, studies from psychiatry demonstrate its efficacy. In the field of dermatology there is a need for high-quality evidence including randomized clinical trials to validate the implementation of task shifting in low-resource settings globally.

  20. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  1. Flight deck task management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    This report documents the work undertaken in support of Volpe Task Order No. T0026, Flight Deck Task Management. The objectives of this work effort were to: : 1) Develop a specific and standard definition of task management (TM) : 2) Conduct a ...

  2. Training for Skill in Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The Knitting, Lace and Net Industry Training Board has developed a training innovation called fault diagnosis training. The entire training process concentrates on teaching based on the experiences of troubleshooters or any other employees whose main tasks involve fault diagnosis and rectification. (Author/DS)

  3. Improvement of the training process of taekwondists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkaniya Rusudan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the concept of scientific research of modeling technical and tactical training in taekwondo. The peculiarities of taekwondists’ technical and tactical training are identified. The expediency of introducing special training equipment into taekwondo sports practice is proved. The main tasks of taekwondo training management with regard to the stages of formation of sports skills are defined

  4. Comparative analysis of cognitive tasks for modeling mental workload with electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taeho; Kim, Miyoung; Hwangbo, Minsu; Oh, Eunmi

    2014-01-01

    Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have shown that cognitive workload can be estimated by using several types of cognitive tasks. In this study, we attempted to characterize cognitive tasks that have been used to manipulate workload for generating classification models. We carried out a comparative analysis between two representative types of working memory tasks: the n-back task and the mental arithmetic task. Based on experiments with 7 healthy subjects using Emotiv EPOC, we compared the consistency, robustness, and efficiency of each task in determining cognitive workload in a short training session. The mental arithmetic task seems consistent and robust in manipulating clearly separable high and low levels of cognitive workload with less training. In addition, the mental arithmetic task shows consistency despite repeated usage over time and without notable task adaptation in users. The current study successfully quantifies the quality and efficiency of cognitive workload modeling depending on the type and configuration of training tasks.

  5. A Task Focused Management Development Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Describes a management-development program aimed at developing managerial skills and responsibilities across the whole staff of a Welsh secondary school. Explains the reasons for possible antipathy to this inservice training topic. The project used teachers' current managerial tasks so that teachers, in conjunction with self-study materials, could…

  6. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 4. Clinic QPCB Task Sort for Clinical Physician Assistants--Dermatology, ENT, Opththalmology, Orthopedics, and Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 4 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties for clinical physician assistants. (BT)

  7. CONDUCTING FEEDBACK ON EXERCISES AND TASKS AT FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Лілія Штохман

    2016-01-01

    .... In this context, a range of techniques employed by the teacher to facilitate responses from the students to an exercise or task during a foreigh language class described by foreign training coordinators is presented...

  8. The neural basis of task switching changes with skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimura, Koji; Cazalis, Fabienne; Stover, Elena R S; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Learning novel skills involves reorganization and optimization of cognitive processing involving a broad network of brain regions. Previous work has shown asymmetric costs of switching to a well-trained task vs. a poorly-trained task, but the neural basis of these differential switch costs is unclear. The current study examined the neural signature of task switching in the context of acquisition of new skill. Human participants alternated randomly between a novel visual task (mirror-reversed word reading) and a highly practiced one (plain word reading), allowing the isolation of task switching and skill set maintenance. Two scan sessions were separated by 2 weeks, with behavioral training on the mirror reading task in between the two sessions. Broad cortical regions, including bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and extrastriate cortices, showed decreased activity associated with learning of the mirror reading skill. In contrast, learning to switch to the novel skill was associated with decreased activity in a focal subcortical region in the dorsal striatum. Switching to the highly practiced task was associated with a non-overlapping set of regions, suggesting substantial differences in the neural substrates of switching as a function of task skill. Searchlight multivariate pattern analysis also revealed that learning was associated with decreased pattern information for mirror vs. plain reading tasks in fronto-parietal regions. Inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal cortex showed a joint effect of univariate activation and pattern information. These results suggest distinct learning mechanisms task performance and executive control as a function of learning.

  9. The neural basis of task switching changes with skill acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji eJimura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning novel skills involves reorganization and optimization of cognitive processing involving a broad network of brain regions. Previous work has shown asymmetric costs of switching to a well-trained task versus a poorly-trained task, but the neural basis of these differential switch costs is unclear. The current study examined the neural signature of task switching in the context of acquisition of new skill. Human participants alternated randomly between a novel visual task (mirror-reversed word reading and a highly practiced one (plain word reading, allowing the isolation of task switching and skill set maintenance. Two scan sessions were separated by two weeks, with behavioral training on the mirror reading task in between the two sessions. Broad cortical regions, including bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and extrastriate cortices, showed decreased activity associated with learning of the mirror reading skill. In contrast, learning to switch to the novel skill was associated with decreased activity in a focal subcortical region in the dorsal striatum. Switching to the highly practiced task was associated with a non-overlapping set of regions, suggesting substantial differences in the neural substrates of switching as a function of task skill. Searchlight multivariate pattern analysis also revealed that learning was associated with decreased pattern information for mirror versus plain reading tasks in fronto-parietal regions. Inferior frontal junction and posterior parietal cortex showed a joint effect of univariate activation and pattern information. These results suggest distinct learning mechanisms task performance and executive control as a function of learning.

  10. Computer aided training system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midkiff, G.N. (Advanced Technology Engineering Systems, Inc., Savannah, GA (US))

    1987-01-01

    The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software.

  11. Emergent leadership on collaborative tasks in distributed virtual environments

    OpenAIRE

    Norlander, Krist D.

    2001-01-01

    Several Department of Defense agencies are currently investigating the use of distributed collaborative virtual environments (CVE) for the training of small dismounted infantry teams. If these systems are to be successful, they will have to do more than simply allow the team members to execute a task. In addition to assuring that training in the CVE transfers to the real task, we will also have to ensure that aspects of team organization also transfer. In particular, we are investigating whet...

  12. Review of staff training plans Licensed Benchmarking on task analysis and selection of learning environments; Revision de los planes de entrenamiento del personal con Licencia. Benchmarking sobre el analisis de tareas y seleccion de los entornos formativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias Moran, J.

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the findings and possible improvement actions taken after a work of technical exchange with U.S. Surry nuclear power plant. The visit focused on the study of the methodology for the analysis and design of training programs according to the standards of INPO.

  13. Development of the TARGET Training Effectiveness Tool and Underlying Algorithms Specifying Training Method - Performance Outcome Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    task/skill type (e.g., cognitive- quantitative reasoning skills, perceptual skills, psychomotor skills ) in order to identify which training methods...Moreover, if a user was interested in only examining part-task training for training psychomotor skills , with far transfer being the focus outcome of...studies examining methods in which to train psychomotor skills ). In sum, this capability enables users to view and examine summary information for only

  14. Otologic Skills Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiet, Gregory J; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the current simulation training for otologic skills. There is a wide variety of educational approaches, assessment tools, and simulators in use, including simple low-cost task trainers to complex computer-based virtual reality systems. A systematic approach...... to otologic skills training using adult learning theory concepts, such as repeated and distributed practice, self-directed learning, and mastery learning, is necessary for these educational interventions to be effective. Future directions include development of measures of performance to assess efficacy...... of simulation training interventions and, for complex procedures, improvement in fidelity based on educational goals....

  15. [Dichoptic training for amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, M

    2016-04-01

    Dichoptic training is a promising new therapeutic approach to amblyopia, which employs simultaneous and separate stimulation of both eyes (thus dichoptic). The contrast for the good eye is reduced thus aiming at a balance with the amblyopic eye. In contrast to monocular patching, binocular vision is trained by video game tasks that can only be solved binocularly. To date the average gain in visual acuity achieved in currently available studies is only 0.20 ± 0.07 logMAR and is not significantly better than competing treatment options. This article explains the basic approach of dichoptic training, summarizes pertinent studies, names unsolved problems and closes with a personal critical assessment.

  16. Effect of a Body Model on Performance in a Virtual Environment Search Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...) in training dismounted soldiers. This experiment investigated full body representation (generic) versus a hand linked pointer on movement performance in an office building interior during a search task...

  17. Remediation of communication problems through facilitated communication training: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, R

    1997-01-01

    Facilitated communication training (FCT) is an educational technique intended to allow people who cannot speak or sign fluently to develop the hand skills necessary to use other non-speech communication strategies. It involves support to the arm, wrist or hand of the student, who is thus enabled to control his pointing, and has recently been the subject of considerable debate. Critics of the technique have cast doubt on the existence of any language problem remediable by touch. This study discusses the case of a person who had a language problem that did not appear to be connected with overt neuromotor impairment, was not accompanied by behavioural disturbance, and was remediable by touch alone. The case raises some interesting questions about the relation of physical prompts to language use.

  18. Training for Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    ATSH-OT, Fort Benning, Georgia 31905-5593. Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. E...tacical engagement system TEWT tactical exercise without troops TF task force TG trainer’s guide tm team tng training TNT A flammable toxic compound

  19. Army Training Study: Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-08

    focus on study objectives and Army of the 80’s. b. Ensure training programs are compatible with new equipment. c. Visualize our strategy as designing for...tasks that the unit is expected to be able to perform ("playbook"). Annual requirements (EDRE, IG, TPI, FTX, MOBA , etc.) form the basis for the

  20. Limited Effects of Set Shifting Training in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Grönholm-Nyman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to flexibly shift between tasks or task sets declines in older age. As this decline may have adverse effects on everyday life of elderly people, it is of interest to study whether set shifting ability can be trained, and if training effects generalize to other cognitive tasks. Here, we report a randomized controlled trial where healthy older adults trained set shifting with three different set shifting tasks. The training group (n = 17 performed adaptive set shifting training for 5 weeks with three training sessions a week (45 min/session, while the active control group (n = 16 played three different computer games for the same period. Both groups underwent extensive pre- and post-testing and a 1-year follow-up. Compared to the controls, the training group showed significant improvements on the trained tasks. Evidence for near transfer in the training group was very limited, as it was seen only on overall accuracy on an untrained computerized set shifting task. No far transfer to other cognitive functions was observed. One year later, the training group was still better on the trained tasks but the single near transfer effect had vanished. The results suggest that computerized set shifting training in the elderly shows long-lasting effects on the trained tasks but very little benefit in terms of generalization.

  1. India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India's Unfinished Telecom Tasks · India's Telecom Story is now well known · Indian Operators become an enviable force · At the same time · India Amongst the Leaders · Unfinished Tasks as Operators · LightGSM ON: Innovation for Rural Area from Midas ... The Consortium Approach … What more will it take to obtain Tech ...

  2. Shifting tasks in telecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2017-01-01

    with focus on shifting tasks was undertaken. Furthermore, the method of ‘Interview to double’ was used the analytical ambition being to explore the becoming of tasks and relations. Analytically the study draws predominantly on Stars notion of ‘infrastructure’. Infrastructure is seen as human and non...

  3. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    the light source as far from the bottom edge as possible. The main results of the project show opportunities for energy savings in an office environment by reducing the installed power for the general lighting by applying a task light with a wide light distribution across the desk area , providing high...... illuminance uniformity . There is still work to be done on the prototype to optimize the energy consumption of the task light and measures need to be taken to minimize glare from the task light as well as reflected glare . The lamp head adjustment possibilities regarding tilting and turning result in problems...... to all objects on the desk than the two traditional reference task lights with LED retrofit light bulbs . By utilising this new type of task light, the energy consumption by general lighting can be reduced by approximately 40 % by fully exploiting the lower illuminance levels required by lighting...

  4. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  5. Task Description Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Reid; Apfelbaum, David

    2005-01-01

    Task Description Language (TDL) is an extension of the C++ programming language that enables programmers to quickly and easily write complex, concurrent computer programs for controlling real-time autonomous systems, including robots and spacecraft. TDL is based on earlier work (circa 1984 through 1989) on the Task Control Architecture (TCA). TDL provides syntactic support for hierarchical task-level control functions, including task decomposition, synchronization, execution monitoring, and exception handling. A Java-language-based compiler transforms TDL programs into pure C++ code that includes calls to a platform-independent task-control-management (TCM) library. TDL has been used to control and coordinate multiple heterogeneous robots in projects sponsored by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). It has also been used in Brazil to control an autonomous airship and in Canada to control a robotic manipulator.

  6. Children With and Without Dystonia Share Common Muscle Synergies While Performing Writing Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardini, Francesca; Casellato, Claudia; Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by muscle overflow and variability. This is the first study that investigates upper limb muscle synergies in childhood dystonia with the twofold aim of deepening the understanding of neuromotor dysfunctions and paving the way to possible synergy-based myocontrol interfaces suitable for this neurological population. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied to the activity of upper-limb muscles recorded during the execution of writing tasks in children with dystonia and age-matched controls. Despite children with dystonia presented compromised kinematics of the writing outcome, a strikingly similarity emerged in the number and structure of the synergy vectors extracted from children in the two groups. The analysis also revealed that the timing of activation of the synergy coefficients did not significantly differ, while the amplitude of the peaks presented a slight reduction. These results suggest that the synergy analysis has the ability of capturing the uncorrupted part of the electromyographic signal in dystonia. Such an ability supports a possible future use of muscle synergies in the design of myocontrol interfaces for children with dystonia.

  7. Innovative Approaches to Task Shifting in Mental Health | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The psychiatrist-to-population ratio stands at 1: 500 000; clinical officers trained in managing psychiatric problems are non-existent; and the few trained psychiatric nurses have been deployed in other duties. With this situation likely to continue for some time, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends task shifting, ...

  8. Working memory training using mental calculation impacts regional gray matter of the frontal and parietal regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC...

  9. Verbal actions of physiotherapists to enhance motor learning in children with DCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A.S.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Reynders, K.; Schoemaker, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the motor teaching principles taxonomy (MTPT) was developed to investigate which teaching principles physiotherapists use to treat children with developmental coordination disorder during Neuromotor Task Training (NTT). In NTT, special attention is paid to the best ways to instruct

  10. Language training: French training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 30 January to 07 April 2006. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  11. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 11 October to 17 December 2004. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: Tel. 72844. Writing Professional Documents in French This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Fontbonne: tel. 72844. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  12. Language Training: French Training

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    General and Professional French Courses The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. These courses are open to all persons working on the CERN site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. Writing Professional Documents in French The next session will take place from 18 April to 30 June 2005. This course is designed for people with a good level of spoken French. Duration: 30 hours Price: 660 CHF (for 8 students) For further information and registration, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mrs. Benz : Tel. 73127. FORMATION EN LANGUES LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 language.training@cern.ch

  13. Recurrent Neural Network for Text Classification with Multi-Task Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xipeng; Huang, Xuanjing

    2016-01-01

    Neural network based methods have obtained great progress on a variety of natural language processing tasks. However, in most previous works, the models are learned based on single-task supervised objectives, which often suffer from insufficient training data. In this paper, we use the multi-task learning framework to jointly learn across multiple related tasks. Based on recurrent neural network, we propose three different mechanisms of sharing information to model text with task-specific and...

  14. Speech versus nonspeech: different tasks, different neural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, Kate

    2008-11-01

    This article reviews the extant studies of the relation of oromotor nonspeech activities to speech production. The relevancy of nonspeech oral motor behaviors to speech motor performance in assessment and treatment is challenged on several grounds. First, contemporary motor theory suggests that movement control is task specific. In other words, it is tied to the unique goals, sources of information, and characteristics of varying motor acts. Documented differences in movement characteristics for speech production versus nonspeech oral motor tasks support this claim. Second, advantages of training nonspeech oral motor tasks versus training speech production are not supported by current principles of motor learning and neural plasticity. Empirical data supports experience-specific training. Finally, functional imaging studies document differences in activation patterns for speech compared with nonspeech oral motor tasks in neurologically healthy individuals.

  15. Speech versus Nonspeech: Different Tasks, Different Neural Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the extant studies of the relation of oromotor nonspeech activities to speech production. The relevancy of nonspeech oral motor behaviors to speech motor performance in assessment and treatment is challenged on several grounds. First, contemporary motor theory suggests that movement control is task-specific; in other words, tied to the unique goals, sources of information and characteristics of varying motor acts. Documented differences in movement characteristics for speech production versus nonspeech oral motor tasks support this claim. Second, advantages of training nonspeech oral motor tasks versus training speech production are not supported by current principles of motor learning and neural plasticity. Empirical data supports experience-specific training. Finally, functional imaging studies document differences in activation patterns for speech compared to nonspeech oral motor tasks in neurologically healthy individuals. PMID:19058113

  16. Task Specific versus Generalized Mnemonic Representations in Parietal and Prefrontal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Arup; Masse, Nicolas Y.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Freedman, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to learn a wide range of behavioral tasks is essential for responding appropriately to sensory stimuli according to behavioral demands, but the underlying neural mechanism has been rarely examined by neurophysiological recordings in the same subjects across learning. To understand how learning new behavioral tasks impacts underlying neuronal representations, we recorded from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) before and after training on a visual motion categorization task. Here we show that categorization training influenced cognitive encoding in PPC, with a marked enhancement of memory-related delay-period encoding during the categorization task which was absent during a motion discrimination task prior to categorization training. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited strong delay-period encoding during both discrimination and categorization tasks. This reveals a dissociation between PFC’s and PPC’s roles in working memory, with general engagement of PFC across multiple tasks, in contrast with more task-specific mnemonic encoding in PPC. PMID:26595652

  17. Task-specific versus generalized mnemonic representations in parietal and prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Arup; Masse, Nicolas Y; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Freedman, David J

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to learn a wide range of behavioral tasks is essential for responding appropriately to sensory stimuli according to behavioral demands, but the underlying neural mechanism has been rarely examined by neurophysiological recordings in the same subjects across learning. To understand how learning new behavioral tasks affects neuronal representations, we recorded from posterior parietal cortex (PPC) before and after training on a visual motion categorization task. We found that categorization training influenced cognitive encoding in PPC, with a marked enhancement of memory-related delay-period encoding during the categorization task that was absent during a motion discrimination task before categorization training. In contrast, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited strong delay-period encoding during both discrimination and categorization tasks. This reveals a dissociation between PFC's and PPC's roles in working memory, with general engagement of PFC across multiple tasks, in contrast with more task-specific mnemonic encoding in PPC.

  18. Task-Driven Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2000-01-01

    .... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...

  19. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  20. Quantitative physics tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Snětinová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Title: Quantitative Physics Tasks Author: Mgr. Marie Snětinová Department: Department of Physics Education Supervisor of the doctoral thesis: doc. RNDr. Leoš Dvořák, CSc., Department of Physics Education Abstract: The doctoral thesis concerns with problem solving in physics, especially on students' attitudes to solving of quantitative physics tasks, and various methods how to develop students' problem solving skills in physics. It contains brief overview of the theoretical framework of proble...