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Sample records for neurologically impaired children

  1. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  2. [neurologic Semiology In A Population Of Hearing Impaired Children].

    OpenAIRE

    V. M. Gonçalves; Piovesana, A M; Moura-Ribeiro, M V

    2015-01-01

    A random sample of 42 sensorineural hearing impaired children (severe and bilateral) was studied, from special classes in Campinas, with chronological ages varying between 4 and 7 years old. The children of this sample were compared with two control groups of 42 children of the same chronological age, from regular classes of private and public schools. All of them were submitted to the traditional neurological examination. Hearing impaired children showed differences as to head circumference ...

  3. [Neurologic semiology in a population of hearing impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, V M; Piovesana, A M; de Moura-Ribeiro, M V

    1993-09-01

    A random sample of 42 sensorineural hearing impaired children (severe and bilateral) was studied, from special classes in Campinas, with chronological ages varying between 4 and 7 years old. The children of this sample were compared with two control groups of 42 children of the same chronological age, from regular classes of private and public schools. All of them were submitted to the traditional neurological examination. Hearing impaired children showed differences as to head circumference and muscle tonus. In the other examined items we found motor hyperactivity, cerebellar and ocular syndromes although there were no significant differences between the groups.

  4. Dietary Intakes and Nutritional Issues in Neurologically Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Penagini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.

  5. Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study

    OpenAIRE

    Porro, G.L.; Dekker, E.M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Schilder, M.B.H.; Wittebol - Post, D.; Schenk-Rootlieb, A.J.F; Treffers, W.F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Visual functions of neurologically impaired children with permanent cerebral visual impairment (CVI) can be difficult to determine. This study investigated the behavioural profile of CVI children by means of ethological observations in order to gain a better understanding of their visual functions.
METHODS—Video registrations of nine subjects who were unable to undergo more orthodox methods of visual function testing were observed and analysed by an ethologist.
RESULTS—A serie...

  6. Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T; Dodrill, Pamela; Ward, Elizabeth C

    2012-10-17

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia encompasses problems with the oral preparatory phase of swallowing (chewing and preparing the food), oral phase (moving the food or fluid posteriorly through the oral cavity with the tongue into the back of the throat) and pharyngeal phase (swallowing the food or fluid and moving it through the pharynx to the oesophagus). Populations of children with neurological impairment who commonly experience dysphagia include, but are not limited to, those with acquired brain impairment (for example, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke), genetic syndromes (for example, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome) and degenerative conditions (for example, myotonic dystrophy). To examine the effectiveness of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2011: CENTRAL 2011(3), MEDLINE (1948 to September Week 4 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 40)
, CINAHL (1937 to current)
, ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to October Week 1 2011), Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(3), DARE 2011(3), Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN Register) (15 October 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov (15 October 2011) and WHO ICTRP (15 October 2011). We searched for dissertations and theses using Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Australasian Digital Theses Program and DART-Europe E-theses Portal (11 October 2011). Finally, additional references were also obtained from reference lists from articles. The review included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials for children with oropharyngeal dysphagia and neurological impairment. All three review authors (AM, PD and EW) independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion and discussed results. In cases of uncertainty over whether an abstract met inclusion criterion, review

  7. Fundoplication in neurologically impaired children: Nissen or Thal?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: fundoplication, gastroesophageal reflux disease, neurological impairment. aDepartment of Surgery, Pediatric Surgery Unit .... recordings were downloaded into the computer. Results were compared with the preset normal values ... A subjective assessment of the severity as mild, moderate, or severe was made in.

  8. Assessing body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rieken (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are at increased risk of developing malnutrition. While in recent years increased use of gastrostomy feeding has turned this trend, children receiving tube feeding run the opposite risk of

  9. Visual Scanning Strategies of Neurologically Impaired, Perceptually Impaired, And Normal Children Viewing the Bender-Gestalt Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Paul J.; Worms, Peter F.

    1977-01-01

    This study describes and compares visual encoding processes and copying performance of normal children and children with perceptual and neurological disabilities viewing the Bender-Gestalt designs. Designs of the neurologically impaired children were significantly different from those of either of the other two diagnostic groups. (Author)

  10. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  11. Perimetry in young and neurologically impaired children : The Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraads, Yvonne; Braun, Kees P J; Van Der Linden, Denise C P; Imhof, Saskia M.; Porro, Giorgio L.

    IMPORTANCE: Visual field examination in young or neurologically impaired children is a challenge. As a result, the Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test was developed in 1995. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of the BEFIE test in a large population of young or neurologically

  12. Clinimetric properties of lower limb neurological impairment tests for children and young people with a neurological condition: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramona Clark; Melissa Locke; Bridget Hill; Cherie Wells; Andrea Bialocerkowski

    2017-01-01

    .... Objective To determine the clinimetric evidence underpinning neurological impairment tests currently used in paediatric rehabilitation to evaluate muscle strength, tactile sensitivity, and deep...

  13. Dumping syndrome: an unusual cause of severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in neurologically impaired children with gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, C; Cervoni, M; Crea, F; Cutrera, R; Schiavino, A; Schiaffini, R; Cappa, M

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during bolus enteral feeding in two neurologically impaired children. Both children were affected by dysphagia with swallowing difficulties; caloric intake was inadequate. For these reasons, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy had been positioned during the first months of life. In one patient due to persisting vomiting, after a few months, a gastrojejunal tube (PEG-J) was inserted. Hypoglycemia was revealed by routine blood tests, without evidence of specific symptoms. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring showed wide glucose excursions, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. Extremely high levels of insulin were detected at the time of hypoglycemia. A diagnosis of dumping syndrome (DS) was suspected in both children. In the child with PEG, the tip of the gastrostomy catheter was found to be lying in the bulbus duodeni. Once this had been pulled back, hypoglycemic episodes disappeared. The child with PEG-J needed continuous enteral feeding to reach a normal glucose balance. DS is a relatively common complication in children with gastrostomy, but extremely irregular glucose levels, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia, and increased insulin secretion had not been previously demonstrated. The incidence of DS is probably underestimated in children receiving enteral feeding for neurological impairment. In these patients intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels should be performed to calibrate meals. Repeated underestimated hypoglycemic episodes could worsen neurological damage and cause a deterioration in clinical conditions.

  14. Candidate's Thesis: Laryngotracheal separation in neurologically impaired children: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven P

    2009-02-01

    Fifty-six consecutive neurologically impaired pediatric children underwent laryngotracheal separation (LTS) for acute recurrent and chronic aspiration in the last 18 years. The population demographics, indications for surgery, and comorbidities are reviewed. This study reports early and late complications and survivorship including admissions for pneumonia/aspiration. Diagnosis related group (DRGs) and work relative value units (wRVUs) were measured to document the potential benefits before and after LTS. Retrospective review of patient charts and records in an electronic medical record during an 18 year period. Information was obtained by a chart review and utilization of the electronic medical record. Patient specific DRG and wRVU data on their hospitalizations and outpatient encounters at the Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children of the Nemours Foundation and survival data were recorded. Data was analyzed using chi-square analysis, a two-tailed t test, and a Fisher's Exact test. Laryngotracheal separation achieved complete control of aspiration in all the children. A significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions for pneumonias after surgery was noted. After LTS there was a reduced average number of DRGs per month (p < .001) as well as wRVUs. Transient fistula formation (11%) was the most common complication. No patient had his or her procedure reversed to date. Laryngotracheal separation is 100% effective in controlling aspiration in all of neurologically impaired children in this study, It is a valuable procedure to prolong the life of children who have intractable aspiration. After LTS, a decrease in DRGs and wRVUs reduces health care costs for these patients. Prior to LTS, all medical and surgical treatment options for aspiration should be discussed and considered, based on the extent of the child's underlying neurologic status, ability to verbally communicate, degree of upper airway obstruction, and hope of recovery of neurologic function.

  15. Perimetry in young and neurologically impaired children: the Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenraads, Yvonne; Braun, Kees P J; van der Linden, Denise C P; Imhof, Saskia M; Porro, Giorgio L

    2015-03-01

    Visual field examination in young or neurologically impaired children is a challenge. As a result, the Behavioral Visual Field (BEFIE) Screening Test was developed in 1995. To evaluate the applicability of the BEFIE test in a large population of young or neurologically impaired children, its reliability and consistency of findings across time, and its potential diagnostic value compared with standard conventional perimetry. The BEFIE tests were performed at an academic tertiary center and measured the peripheral visual field extension in degrees by observing an individual's response to a stimulus on a graded arc that moved from the periphery to the center of the visual field along different meridians. Patient files from all children who underwent this test were retrospectively analyzed. In total, 1788 BEFIE tests were performed in 835 children (median age, 3.4 years). Reliability and results of all tests were longitudinally evaluated. The diagnostic value of the BEFIE test was assessed by comparing monocular BEFIE test results with those of standard conventional perimetry in children who underwent both. Of 1788 tests, 74% (95% CI, 72%-76%) were considered reliable from the age of 4 months and older, with increasing success with higher ages; 56% reliable in children younger than 1 year; 71% reliable in children between 1 and 2 years; and more than 75% reliable in children 2 years and older (Spearman r = 0.506; P = .11). Peripheral visual field defects were found in 28% (95% CI, 25%-31%) of all first reliable tests. In 75% of children who underwent serial testing, results were consistent and there were good explanations in the case of discrepancies. Comparison of monocular BEFIE tests with standard conventional perimetry results in 147 eyes yielded a positive predictive value of 98% (95% CI, 94%-100%), negative predictive value of 66% (95% CI, 56%-75%), specificity of 98% (95% CI, 95%-100%), sensitivity of 60% (95% CI, 50%-71%), and superior sensitivity of 80

  16. Hippotherapy effects on trunk, pelvic, and hip motion during ambulation in children with neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheff, Jenna L; Armstrong, Charles; Masterson, Michelle; Fox, Christine; Gribble, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 10-week hippotherapy program on trunk, pelvis, and hip joint positioning during the stance phase of gait. Eleven children (6 boys and 5 girls; 7.9 ± 2.7 years) with neurological disorders and impaired ambulation participated. Joint range of motion data were collected via 3-dimensional computerized gait analysis before and after the program. Paired t tests were performed on kinematic data for each joint. Significant improvements (P ≤ .008) and large effect sizes (ESs) for sagittal plane hip positions at initial contact and toe-off were found. No differences in pelvic or trunk positioning were determined, although sagittal plane pelvic positioning displayed a trend toward improvement with large ESs. Several trunk variables displayed moderate ESs with a trend toward more upright positioning. Improvements in pelvic and hip joint positioning and more normalized vertical trunk position may indicate increased postural control during gait after 10 sessions of hippotherapy.

  17. Enteral feeding in neurologically impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux: Nissen fundoplication and gastrostomy tube placement versus percutaneous gastrojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenker, Erin

    2008-10-01

    Parents or caregivers of neurologically impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux who require enteral nutrition are often faced with the option of having their child undergo an antireflux surgery and placement of a gastrostomy tube or have a percutaneous gastrojejunostomy tube placed under fluoroscopic guidance. It is important that nurses have an understanding of these procedures and their associated risks and benefits as well as knowledge of the impact each might have on the daily life and care of these children to help support families during this decision-making process.

  18. Neurologic Semiology In A Population Of Hearing Impaired Children [semiologia Neurológica Numa População De Crianças Deficientes Auditivas.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves V.M.; Piovesana A.M.; De Moura-Ribeiro M.V.

    1993-01-01

    A random sample of 42 sensorineural hearing impaired children (severe and bilateral) was studied, from special classes in Campinas, with chronological ages varying between 4 and 7 years old. The children of this sample were compared with two control groups of 42 children of the same chronological age, from regular classes of private and public schools. All of them were submitted to the traditional neurological examination. Hearing impaired children showed differences as to head circumference ...

  19. Prediction of the academic success of children with suspected neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P; Berk, R A

    1979-07-01

    Explored a multivariate approach to the prediction of 8-year academic achievement. Ss were black, of low socioeconomic status, and had been diagnosed as suspect neurologically impaired at age 7. A serial array of early predictors that included maternal education, sex, birth weight, 8-month and 4-year intelligence, and 3-year speech, hearing, and language were entered into multiple regression analyses to determine their value in predicting 8-year academic achievement in word recognition, arithmetic, spelling, and oral reading. The 4-year intelligence measure was the best overall predictor, although maternal education, sex, and birth weight contributed slightly to the predictions. The resulting equations, however, could not be used to predict accurately 8-year academic achievement.

  20. Brain magnetic resonance imaging pattern and outcome in children with haemolytic-uraemic syndrome and neurological impairment treated with eculizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitiaux, Cyril; Krug, Pauline; Grevent, David; Kossorotoff, Manoelle; Poncet, Sarah; Eisermann, Monika; Oualha, Mehdi; Boddaert, Nathalie; Salomon, Remi; Desguerre, Isabelle

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the neurological and neuropsychological outcomes in paediatric, diarrhoea-associated haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (D+HUS) with central nervous system impairment treated with eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody. The 14-month single-centre prospective study included seven children (three males, four females; age range 16 mo-7 y 8 mo; median age 3 y 7 mo) with typical D+HUS and acute neurological impairment. In the acute phase of the disease, neurological assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including measurement of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), were performed, and neuropsychological evaluation and brain MRI were also carried out 6 months after disease onset. In the acute phase, basal ganglia and white matter abnormalities with ADC restriction were a common and reversible MRI finding. In all the surviving patients (5/7), follow-up MRI after 6 months was normal, indicating reversible lesions. Clinical and neuropsychological evaluations after 6 months were also normal. This specific brain MRI pattern consisting of an ADC decrease in basal ganglia and white matter without major T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) injury may be a key finding in the acute phase of the disease in favour of a vasculitis hypothesis. These reversible lesions were associated with a good neurological outcome. These results call for further evaluation of the potential role of eculizumab in the choice of treatment for severe D+HUS, particularly in the case of early neurological signs. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Preputial calculus in a neurologically-impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataru, R I; Iozsa, D A; Ivanov, M

    2015-02-01

    Preputial calculi are rarely encountered in childhood. A 5-year-old boy with symptoms of chronic balanoposthitis. A preputial stone was documented and removed at circumcision. Uneventful postoperative recovery. In children, association between phimosis and neurologic impairment represent predisposing condition for preputial stone formation.

  2. The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

  3. Impairment of intellectual functions after surgery and posterior fossa irradiation in children with ependymoma is related to age and neurologic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalifa Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the neuropsychological outcome of children treated with surgery and posterior fossa irradiation for localized infratentorial ependymoma. Methods 23 patients (age 0.3 – 14 years at diagnosis who were treated with local posterior fossa irradiation (54 Gy underwent one (4 patients or sequential (19 patients neuropsychologic evaluation. The last evaluation was performed at a median of 4.5 (1 to 15.5 years after RT. Results Mean last full scale IQ (FSIQ, verbal IQ (VIQ and PIQ were 89.1, 94.0, and 86.2 respectively. All patients had difficulties with reading, and individual patients showed deficits in visuospatial, memory and attentional tasks. There was no trend for deterioration of intellectual outcome over time. All 5 children with IQ scores ≤ 75 were under the age of four at diagnosis. There was a significant association between the presence of cerebellar deficits and impaired IQ (72.0 vs 95.2, p Conclusion Within the evaluated cohort, intellectual functions were moderately impaired. Markedly reduced IQ scores were only seen with early disease manifestation and treatment, and postoperative neurological deficits had a strong impact on intellectual outcome.

  4. International consensus statement for the use of botulinum toxin treatment in adults and children with neurological impairments--introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquenazi, A; Novak, I; Sheean, G; Singer, B J; Ward, A B

    2010-08-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is most commonly used to reduce focal over-activity in skeletal muscle, although newer indications such as management of drooling, pain and tremor are emerging. Treatment of spasticity incorporating BoNT is usually part of an integrated multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Prior to initiating this therapy, specific functional limitations, goals and expected outcomes of treatment should be discussed with the patient/carers. Muscle selection and the order/priority of treatment should be agreed. Treatment goals may involve increasing active or passive function or the avoidance of secondary complications or impairment progression. This paper describes the basic science mechanisms of the action of BoNT and subsequent nerve recovery and introduces a supplement comprising the best available evidence and expert opinion from international panels on questions of assessment, indications, BoNT regimen, adjunctive therapy, expected outcomes and recommended monitoring. Speciality areas reviewed include Paediatric Lower Limb Hypertonicity, Paediatric Upper Limb Hypertonicity, Adult Lower Limb Hypertonicity, Adult Upper Limb Hypertonicity, Cervical Dystonia, Drooling and Pain and Niche Indications. There is good quality scientific evidence to support the efficacy of BoNT to reduce muscle over-activity in the limbs secondary to central nervous system disorders in adults and children, to address primary or secondary cervical dystonia, to reduce saliva flow and to treat some pain syndromes. There is emergent evidence for the efficacy of BoNT to reduce focal tremor, to treat other types of pain including neuropathic pain and also to improve function following treatment of focal muscle over-activity.

  5. Speech and neurology-chemical impairment correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayre, Harb S.

    2002-05-01

    Speech correlates of alcohol/drug impairment and its neurological basis is presented with suggestion for further research in impairment from poly drug/medicine/inhalent/chew use/abuse, and prediagnosis of many neuro- and endocrin-related disorders. Nerve cells all over the body detect chemical entry by smoking, injection, drinking, chewing, or skin absorption, and transmit neurosignals to their corresponding cerebral subsystems, which in turn affect speech centers-Broca's and Wernick's area, and motor cortex. For instance, gustatory cells in the mouth, cranial and spinal nerve cells in the skin, and cilia/olfactory neurons in the nose are the intake sensing nerve cells. Alcohol depression, and brain cell damage were detected from telephone speech using IMPAIRLYZER-TM, and the results of these studies were presented at 1996 ASA meeting in Indianapolis, and 2001 German Acoustical Society-DEGA conference in Hamburg, Germany respectively. Speech based chemical Impairment measure results were presented at the 2001 meeting of ASA in Chicago. New data on neurotolerance based chemical impairment for alcohol, drugs, and medicine shall be presented, and shown not to fully support NIDA-SAMSHA drug and alcohol threshold used in drug testing domain.

  6. [Airway obstruction after tracheostomy in a neurologically impaired child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Mizuho; Arakura, Kumiko; Kawase, Soichiro; Shiozawa, Riyo; Inoue, Yasuro

    2008-03-01

    A 14-year-old boy neurologically impaired was scheduled for tracheostomy under general anesthesia because of the prolonged tracheal intubation. He had twice received artificial respiration under tracheal intubation for aspiration pneumonia. During emergence from anesthesia, bucking occurred and suddenly the patient's lungs could not be ventilated. Neither anesthetic circuit nor tracheostomy tube were not functioning well, and airway obstruction was not relieved by manual and positive pressure ventilation within 40 mmHg. SpO2 gradually decreased to 48%, resulting in bradicardia. However, it became possible to inflate the lungs immediately because of the respiratory effort decreased. SpO2 rapidly increased to normal range and heart rate recovered. The patient was suspected of having tracheomalacia as a result of flexible bronchoscopy performed through tracheostomy tube, revealing slight collapse of the trachea. Tracheomalacia can be a cause of sudden difficult ventilation in neurologically impaired children.

  7. Neurological disorders in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During a clinical examination of children with autistic spectrum disorders, attention should be drawn to both their major clinical manifestations and neurological comorbidities. The paper considers the mechanisms of autism-induced neurological disorders, the spectrum of which may include manifestations, such as retarded and disharmonic early psychomotor development; the specific features of sensory perception/processing; rigidity and monotony of motor and psychic reactions; motor disinhibition and hyperexcitability; motor stereotypies; uncoordinated movements; developmental coordination disorders (dyspraxia; impaired expressive motor skills; speech and articulation disorders; tics; epilepsy. It describes the specific features of neurological symptoms in Asperger’s syndrome, particularly in semantic-pragmatic language disorders, higher incidence rates of hyperlexia, motor and vocal tics. The incidence rate of epilepsy in autistic spectrum disorders is emphasized to be greater than the average population one. At the same time, the risk of epilepsy is higher in mentally retarded patients with autism. Identification of neurological disorders is of great importance in determining the tactics of complex care for patients with autistic spectrum disorders. 

  8. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Evenhuis, H.M.; Penning, C. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, PO Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tibboel, D. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility of DXA and the accuracy of DXA outcome in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. Based on literature and expert opinion, a list of disrupting factors was developed. Occurrence of these factors was assessed in 27 children who underwent DXA measurement. Disrupting factors that occurred most frequently were movement during measurement (82%), aberrant body composition (67%), small length for age (56%) and scoliosis (37%). The number of disrupting factors per child was mean 5.3 (range 1-8). No correlation was found between DXA outcomes and the number of disrupting factors. Factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of DXA outcome are frequently present in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. No systematic deviation of DXA outcome in coherence with the amount of disrupting factors was found, but physicians should be aware of the possible influence of disrupting factors on the accuracy of DXA. (orig.)

  9. Supraglotoplastia endoscópica em crianças com laringomalacia grave com e sem doença neurológica associada Endoscopic supraglottoplasty in children with severe laryngomalacia with and without neurological impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Fraga

    2001-10-01

    children with or without neurological impairment. METHODS: Eight children with severe laryngomalacia submitted to endoscopic supraglottoplasty were retrospectively studied. Four had neurological impairment (male, mean age 6 years, and 4 did not present neurological problems (3 female, mean age 11.5 months. Surgery indications were respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, and low oxygen saturation. Polysomnographic evaluation was carried out on the last 2 children, showing abnormal oxygen saturation, obstructive apnea, and hypoventilation. All children received preoperative antibiotics and corticosteroids. RESULTS: all children without neurological impairment had significant relief of symptoms. Children with neurological impairment had different outcome: one needed tracheotomy immediately after surgery due to edema and supraglottic granulation tissue. The other three children presented initial relief of symptoms, but subsequent follow-up showed progressive airway obstruction: one needed another endoscopic surgery 6 months later; other needed tracheotomy 7 months later. The children who were not submitted to tracheostomy presented persistent severe airway obstruction. No endoscopic surgery complication was observed. CONCLUSIONS: 1 Endoscopic supraglottoplasty is well tolerated and does not present complications when used in children; 2 Endoscopic supraglottoplasty was efficient in the treatment of children with severe laryngomalacia and in without neurological impairment; however, supraglottoplasty did not resolve airway obstruction in children with neurological impairment.

  10. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus in a neurologically impaired teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Chun, Peter; Shin, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-11-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) accompanied by Barrett esophagus (BE) is rare in patients younger than 20 years old. EAC in the upper esophagus is also rare. We report a rare case of EAC with BE that developed in the upper esophagus after chronic, untreated gastroesophageal reflux disease in a neurologically impaired teenager. A 19-year-old neurologically impaired man underwent endoscopy for evaluation of dysphagia and vomiting, and was diagnosed with EAC with BE. He underwent transthoracic esophagectomy, extensive lymph node dissection, and cervical esophagogastric anastomosis, but the prognosis was poor. Pathology indicated poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with BE. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. Participatory design of therapeutic video games for young people with neurological vision impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Waddington, Jonathan; Linehan, Conor; Gerling, Kathrin,; Hicks, Kieran; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Neurological Vision Impairment (NVI) detrimentally impacts upon quality of life, as daily activities such as reading and crossing the road often become significantly impaired. Therapy strategies for NVI based on visual scanning of on-screen stimuli have recently been demonstrated as effective at improving functional vision. However, these strategies are repetitive, monotonous and unsuitable for use with children and young adults. This project explores the design of a g...

  12. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, Marja; De Jong, Marianne; De Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    AIM To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). METHOD One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of

  13. Disregard of neurological impairments associated with neglected tropical diseases in Africa

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    Emmanuel Quansah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect people in the bottom billion poorest in the world. These diseases are concentrated in rural areas, conflict zones and urban slums in Africa and other tropical areas. While the World Health Organization recognizes seventeen priority NTDs, the list of conditions present in Africa and elsewhere that are eligible to be classified as NTDs is much longer. Although NTDs are generally marginalized, their associated neurological burden has been almost completely disregarded. However, reports indicate that trichuriasis, schistosomiasis and hookworm infection, among others, cause impairments in memory and cognition, negatively affecting school attendance rates and educational performance particularly among children, as well as agricultural productivity among adults. Consequently, the neurological impairments have substantial influence on education and economic productivity, thus aggravating and perpetuating poverty in affected societies. However, inadequate research, policy and public health attention has been paid to the neurological burdens associated with NTDs. In order to appropriately address these burdens, we recommend the development of policy interventions that focus on the following areas: (i the introduction of training programs to develop the capacity of scientists and clinicians in research, diagnostic and treatment approaches (ii the establishment of competitive research grant schemes to fund cutting-edge research into these neurological impairments, and (iii the development of public health interventions to improve community awareness of the NTD-associated neurological problems, possibly enhancing disease prevention and expediting treatment.

  14. Sleep disorders in children with neurologic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, M; Bruni, O

    2001-12-01

    Pediatric neurologic diseases are often associated with different kinds of sleep disruption (mainly insomnia, less frequently hypersomnia or parasomnias). Due to the key-role of sleep for development, the effort to ameliorate sleep patterns in these children could have important prognostic benefits. Study of sleep architecture and organization in neurologic disorders could lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis and a better treatment of the disorders. This article focuses on the following specific neurologic diseases: nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and abnormal motor behaviors of epileptic origin, evaluating differential diagnosis with parasomnias; achondroplasia, confirming the crucial role of craniofacial deformity in determining sleep-disordered breathing; neuromuscular diseases, mainly Duchenne's muscular dystrophy and myotonic dystrophy; cerebral palsy, evaluating either the features of sleep architecture and the importance of the respiratory problems associated; headaches, confirming the strict relationships with sleep in terms of neurochemical and neurobehavioral substrates; and finally a review on the effectiveness of melatonin for sleep problems in children with neurologic syndromes and mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy.

  15. HYPONATREMIA IN CHILDREN. FOCUS — NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS

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    R.F. Tepaev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in patients at the hospital stage of treatment. Symptomatic hyponatremia is associated with severe neurological disorders. The degree of dysfunction varies from mild behavioral disturbances to convulsions, coma, or death, depending on the duration and depth of hyponatremia. Neurological disorders are caused, on one hand by edema and swelling of the brain on the background of hyponatremia, on the other — by the development of the osmotic demyelination syndrome in its rapid correction. Symptomatic hyponatremia is a threatening complication and is associated with a significant increase in mortality in children with a wide range of diseases. The article deals with the modern approaches to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of hyponatremia.Key words: hyponatremia, osmotic demyelination syndrome, children.

  16. [Neurological symptoms in children with intussusception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Carral, J; Puertas-Martín, V; Carreras-Sáez, I; Maraña-Pérez, A I; Escobar-Delgado, T; García-Peñas, J J

    2014-05-01

    Intussusception is a potentially severe obstructive disease that occurs when a more proximal portion of bowel invaginates into a more distal part of the bowel. Patients with intussusception often present with a wide range of non-specific systemic symptoms, with less than one quarter presenting with the classic triad of vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stools. An acute change in level of consciousness could be the only clinical symptom of this disorder. To ascertain the frequency and nature of the neurological symptoms in children with intussusception, and to describe the characteristics of the patients presenting in this atypical way. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 351 children presenting with intussusception from 2000 to 2012. General epidemiological data, abdominal and neurological signs and symptoms, duration of symptoms and effectiveness of treatment, were analysed in all patients. Of the 351 patients studied, 15 (4.27%) had one or more neurological symptoms recorded at presentation, with lethargy being the most frequent (66.66%), followed by hypotonia, generalized weakness, paroxysmal events, and fluctuating consciousness. Sixty per cent of these fifteen patients showed isolated neurological symptomatology, and eleven of them (73.3%) needed a laparotomy to reduce the intussusception. Intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis in infants and young children presenting as a pediatric emergency with lethargy, hypotonia, generalized weakness, paroxysmal events and/or sudden changes in consciousness, even in the absence of the classical symptoms of intussusception. An early recognition of intussusception may improve the global prognosis and avoid ischaemic intestinal sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Upper limb impairments associated with spasticity in neurological disorders

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    Mirbagheri Mehdi M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While upper-extremity movement in individuals with neurological disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injury (SCI has been studied for many years, the effects of spasticity on arm movement have been poorly quantified. The present study is designed to characterize the nature of impaired arm movements associated with spasticity in these two clinical populations. By comparing impaired voluntary movements between these two groups, we will gain a greater understanding of the effects of the type of spasticity on these movements and, potentially a better understanding of the underlying impairment mechanisms. Methods We characterized the kinematics and kinetics of rapid arm movement in SCI and neurologically intact subjects and in both the paretic and non-paretic limbs in stroke subjects. The kinematics of rapid elbow extension over the entire range of motion were quantified by measuring movement trajectory and its derivatives; i.e. movement velocity and acceleration. The kinetics were quantified by measuring maximum isometric voluntary contractions of elbow flexors and extensors. The movement smoothness was estimated using two different computational techniques. Results Most kinematic and kinetic and movement smoothness parameters changed significantly in paretic as compared to normal arms in stroke subjects (p Conclusion The findings suggest that although the cause and location of injury are different in spastic stroke and SCI subjects, the impairments in arm voluntary movement were similar in the two spastic groups. Our results also suggest that the non-paretic arm in stroke subjects was not distinguishable from the normal, and might therefore be used as an appropriate control for studying movement of the paretic arm.

  18. Pain reporting and analgesia management in 270 children with a progressive neurologic, metabolic or chromosomally based condition with impairment of the central nervous system: cross-sectional, baseline results from an observational, longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrichsdorf SJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan J Friedrichsdorf,1,2 Andrea C Postier,1 Gail S Andrews,3 Karen ES Hamre,4 Rose Steele,5 Harold Siden6,7 1Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, MN, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Department of Research and Sponsored Programs, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 5School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 6BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 7Canuck Place Children’s Hospice, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: Little is known about the prevalence, characterization and treatment of pain in children with progressive neurologic, metabolic or chromosomal conditions with impairment of the central nervous system. The primary aims of this study were to explore the differences between parental and clinical pain reporting in children with life-limiting conditions at the time of enrollment into an observational, longitudinal study and to determine if differences in pain experiences were associated with patient- or treatment-related factors. Pain was common, under-recognized and undertreated among the 270 children who enrolled into the “Charting the Territory” study. Children identified by their parents as experiencing pain (n=149, 55% were older, had more comorbidities such as dyspnea/feeding difficulties, were less mobile with lower functional skills and used analgesic medications more often, compared to pain-free children. Forty-one percent of children with parent-reported pain (21.8% of all patients experienced pain most of the time. The majority of clinicians (60% did not document pain assessment or analgesic treatment in the medical records of patients who were experiencing pain. Documentation of pain in the medical

  19. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

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    L Manolescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies

  20. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  1. Impaired movement timing in neurological disorders: rehabilitation and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J; Keller, Peter E

    2015-03-01

    Timing abnormalities have been reported in many neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, motor-timing impairments are especially debilitating in gait. Despite impaired audiomotor synchronization, PD patients' gait improves when they walk with an auditory metronome or with music. Building on that research, we make recommendations for optimizing sensory cues to improve the efficacy of rhythmic cuing in gait rehabilitation. Adaptive rhythmic metronomes (that synchronize with the patient's walking) might be especially effective. In a recent study we showed that adaptive metronomes synchronized consistently with PD patients' footsteps without requiring attention; this improved stability and reinstated healthy gait dynamics. Other strategies could help optimize sensory cues for gait rehabilitation. Groove music strongly engages the motor system and induces movement; bass-frequency tones are associated with movement and provide strong timing cues. Thus, groove and bass-frequency pulses could deliver potent rhythmic cues. These strategies capitalize on the close neural connections between auditory and motor networks; and auditory cues are typically preferred. However, moving visual cues greatly improve visuomotor synchronization and could warrant examination in gait rehabilitation. Together, a treatment approach that employs groove, auditory, bass-frequency, and adaptive (GABA) cues could help optimize rhythmic sensory cues for treating motor and timing deficits. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

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    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  3. Burn injury in patients with early-onset neurological impairments: 2002 ABA paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, N E; Rabbitts, A; Rolls, J A; Bessey, P Q; Yurt, R W

    2004-01-01

    Many patients suffer from sensorimotor deficits that may contribute to burn injury. This retrospective study examines burn injuries in the subgroup of patients that suffer from the early onset neurological impairments of mental retardation, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, autism, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Fifty-one patients who suffered from the above-mentioned early-onset neurological impairments were admitted to our burn center during a 4-year period. The average TBSA burned was 8.9% yet resulted in prolonged hospitalizations. This study describes our burn center's experience in treating patients admitted with early-onset neurological impairments.

  4. Uroflowmetry in neurologically normal children with voiding disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K M; Nielsen, K.K.; Kristensen, E S

    1985-01-01

    of neurological deficits underwent a complete diagnostic program including intravenous urography, voiding cystography and cystoscopy as well as spontaneous uroflowmetry, cystometry-emg and pressure-flow-emg study. The incidence of dyssynergia was 22%. However, neither the flow curve pattern nor single flow...... variables were able to identify children with dyssynergia. Consequently uroflowmetry seems inefficient in the screening for dyssynergia in neurological normal children with voiding disorders in the absence of anatomical bladder outlet obstruction....

  5. Fears of Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, S. A.; Kratochwill, T. R.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of the number, content, and intensity of fears of 42 visually impaired children, aged 5-18, found more fears of potentially physically dangerous situations than of psychologically harmful ones and little difference between the number of mild and severe fears. Counselors' estimations of children's fears generally disagreed with the…

  6. Minor neurological dysfunction in children with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; De Groot, Erik; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of brain function in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in relation to minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method We studied MNDs in 122 children (93 males, 29 females; mean age 8y 1mo, SD 2y 6mo) who, among a total cohort of

  7. Neurologic long term outcome after drowning in children

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    Suominen Pertti K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drowning is a major source of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Neurocognitive outcome of children after drowning incidents cannot be accurately predicted in the early course of treatment. Therefore, aggressive out-of-hospital and in-hospital treatment is emphasized. There are "miracle" cases after long submersion times that have been reported in the medical literature, which mostly concern small children. However, many of the survivors will remain severely neurologically compromised after remarkably shorter submersion times and will consequently be a great burden to their family and society for the rest of their lives. The duration of submersion, the need of advanced life support at the site of the accident, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, whether spontaneous breathing and circulation are present on arrival at the emergency room are important factors related to survival with mild neurological deficits or intact function in drowned children. Data on long-term outcome are scarce. The used outcome measurement methods and the duration of follow-up have not been optimal in most of the existing studies. Proper neurological and neurophysiological examinations for drowned children are superior to outcome scales based chart reviews. There is evidence that gross neurological examination at the time of discharge from the hospital in young children does not reveal all the possible sequelae related to hypoxic brain injury and thus long-term follow-up of drowned resuscitated children is strongly recommended.

  8. Study on subsequent neurologic complications in children with acute leukemia

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    Kobayashi, Naoaki; Shimazaki, Haruyo; Hoshi, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Jun-ichi (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Twenty-seven children with acute leukemia were studied in order to detect the subsequent neurologic complications due to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Twenty-four patients with ALL received central nervous system prophylaxis including cranial irradiation. The methods of evaluation consisted of electroencephalogram (EEG), computed tomography of the head (CT scan), soft neurological sign, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Bender Gestalt test. The patients with relapse showed severe abnormalities in various kinds of examinations. Younger children at diagnosis were associated with a higher abnormality rate of soft neurological signs and Bender Gestalt test. Factors which were found to be closely associated with a lower IQ score included younger children at diagnosis and longer duration of remission time. These results indicate the need for caution for the dosage of cranial irradiation for younger patients in CNS prophylaxis, and improvement of a lower IQ score in long-term survivors requires further investigation as to the appropriate intellectual environment for their development after remission. (author).

  9. Neurological manifestations of children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, W F; Hussain, I M; Soffiah, A; Lim, Y N

    2000-12-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 21 children with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, 15 (71%) were found to have neuropsychiatric manifestations. The most common finding was generalised seizures (42.8%) followed by encephalopathy (19%) and hallucinations (19%). One child (4.76%) had hemichorea. In 3 children neurological manifestations were the first symptom of SLE. Computerised Axial Tomograms (CAT scans) showed cerebral atrophy in 7 of 12 scans available for review. Ten children had abnormal EEGs. Although none of the children had clinical evidence of a peripheral neuropathy, 8 had neurophysiological evidence of a neuropathy. One child died of intracranial haemorrhage. Six children had residual neuropsychiatric sequalae.

  10. Inferential Functioning in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millan, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children…

  11. Neurologic and Functional Morbidity in Critically Ill Children With Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Steven L; Slain, Katherine N; Clayton, Jason A; McKee, Bryan; Rotta, Alexandre T; Wilson-Costello, Deanne

    2017-09-19

    Neurologic and functional morbidity occurs in ~30% of PICU survivors, and young children may be at particular risk. Bronchiolitis is a common indication for PICU admission among children less than 2 years old. Two single-center studies suggest that greater than 10-25% of critical bronchiolitis survivors have neurologic and functional morbidity but those estimates are 20 years old. We aimed to estimate the burden of neurologic and functional morbidity among more recent bronchiolitis patients using two large, multicenter databases. Analysis of the Pediatric Health Information System and the Virtual Pediatric databases. Forty-eight U.S. children's hospitals (Pediatric Health Information System) and 40 international (mostly United States) children's hospitals (Virtual Pediatric Systems). Previously healthy PICU patients less than 2 years old admitted with bronchiolitis between 2009 and 2015 who survived and did not require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. None. Neurologic and functional morbidity was defined as a Pediatric Overall Performance Category greater than 1 at PICU discharge (Virtual Pediatric Systems subjects), or a subsequent hospital encounter involving developmental delay, feeding tubes, MRI of the brain, neurologist evaluation, or rehabilitation services (Pediatric Health Information System subjects). Among 3,751 Virtual Pediatric Systems subjects and 9,516 Pediatric Health Information System subjects, ~20% of patients received mechanical ventilation. Evidence of neurologic and functional morbidity was present at PICU discharge in 707 Virtual Pediatric Systems subjects (18.6%) and more chronically in 1,104 Pediatric Health Information System subjects (11.6%). In both cohorts, neurologic and functional morbidity was more common in subjects receiving mechanical ventilation (27.5% vs 16.5% in Virtual Pediatric Systems; 14.5% vs 11.1% in Pediatric Health Information System; both p < 0.001). In multivariate models also

  12. Pattern of neurological diseases as seen in outpatient children: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    childhood are speech and communication disorders often associated with C/P and post febrile illness in our study. Despite an apparent large number of children with disabilities in developing countries especially in Africa, the majority of studies highlight the preponderance of neurological diseases among adults. As a result ...

  13. Visual impairment in children with congenital Zika syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liana O; Ventura, Camila V; Lawrence, Linda; van der Linden, Vanessa; van der Linden, Ana; Gois, Adriana L; Cavalcanti, Milena M; Barros, Eveline A; Dias, Natalia C; Berrocal, Audina M; Miller, Marilyn T

    2017-08-01

    To describe the visual impairment associated with ocular and neurological abnormalities in a cohort of children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). This cross-sectional study included infants with microcephaly born in Pernambuco, Brazil, from May to December 2015. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the Zika virus on the cerebrospinal fluid samples was positive for all infants. Clinical evaluation consisted of comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity, visual function assessment, visual developmental milestone, neurologic examination, and neuroimaging. A total of 32 infants (18 males [56%]) were included. Mean age at examination was 5.7 ± 0.9 months (range, 4-7 months). Visual function and visual developmental milestone could not be tested in 1 child (3%). Visual impairment was detected in 32 infants (100%). Retinal and/or optic nerve findings were observed in 14 patients (44%). There was no statistical difference between the patients with ocular findings and those without (P = 0.180). All patients (100%) demonstrated neurological and neuroimaging abnormalities; 3 (9%) presented with late-onset of microcephaly. Children with CZS demonstrated visual impairment regardless of retina and/or optic nerve abnormalities. This finding suggests that cortical/cerebral visual impairment may be the most common cause of blindness identified in children with CZS. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Neurological Hand Deformity Classification for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Melissa; Elliott, Catherine; Wilton, Judith; Blair, Eve; Blackmore, Marie; Garbellini, Simon

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Neurological Hand Deformity Classification and use it to describe changes in hand deformity over time in children with cerebral palsy. We identified 114 video clips of 26 children with cerebral palsy, aged 1-18 years (mean = 8.4, SD = 4.2), performing upper-limb tasks at multiple time points (n = 3-8) at least 6 months apart. Using the Neurological Hand Deformity Classification, three observers classified hand deformity in the video clips. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were estimated using Fleiss and Cohen's kappa (κ) and the temporal changes in classification of hand deformity were investigated. Inter- and intra-observer reliability respectively were κ = 0.87 and κ = 0.91. Hand deformity was identified in all children at all time points, even before the age of 2 years. Ten children did not change hand classification, wrist flexion increased in eight, and eight showed changes from wrist flexion to extension or vice versa. The Neurological Hand Deformity Classification is a reliable tool to classify hand deformity in children with cerebral palsy. For more than one-third of children hand deformity classification did not change. For the remaining children, two patterns of change in hand deformity over time were identified. It is recommended that children with cerebral palsy involving their upper limbs be monitored regularly. This is the first study to document longitudinal changes in hand deformity in children with cerebral palsy. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Severe neurological sequelae and behaviour problems after cerebral malaria in Ugandan children

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    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of falciparum malaria and a leading cause of death and neuro-disability in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe functional deficits and behaviour problems in children who survived cerebral malaria with severe neurological sequelae and identify patterns of brain injury. Findings Records of children attending a specialist child neurology clinic in Uganda with severe neurological sequelae following cerebral malaria between January 2007 and December 2008 were examined to describe deficits in gross motor function, speech, vision and hearing, behaviour problems or epilepsy. Deficits were classified according to the time of development and whether their distribution suggested a focal or generalized injury. Any resolution during the observation period was also documented. Thirty children with probable exposure to cerebral malaria attended the clinic. Referral information was inadequate to exclude other diagnoses in 7 children and these were excluded. In the remaining 23 patients, the commonest severe deficits were spastic motor weakness (14, loss of speech (14, hearing deficit (9, behaviour problems (11, epilepsy (12, blindness (12 and severe cognitive impairment (9. Behaviour problems included hyperactivity, impulsiveness and inattentiveness as in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and conduct disorders with aggressive, self injurious or destructive behaviour. Two patterns were observed; a immediate onset deficits present on discharge and b late onset deficits. Some deficits e.g. blindness, resolved within 6 months while others e.g. speech, showed little improvement over the 6-months follow-up. Conclusions In addition to previously described neurological and cognitive sequelae, severe behaviour problems may follow cerebral malaria in children. The observed differences in patterns of sequelae may be due to different pathogenic mechanisms, brain

  16. Safety and feasibility of countering neurological impairment by intravenous administration of autologous cord blood in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Young-Ho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds We conducted a pilot study of the infusion of intravenous autologous cord blood (CB in children with cerebral palsy (CP to assess the safety and feasibility of the procedure as well as its potential efficacy in countering neurological impairment. Methods Patients diagnosed with CP were enrolled in this study if their parents had elected to bank their CB at birth. Cryopreserved CB units were thawed and infused intravenously over 10~20 minutes. We assessed potential efficacy over 6 months by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and various evaluation tools for motor and cognitive functions. Results Twenty patients received autologous CB infusion and were evaluated. The types of CP were as follows: 11 quadriplegics, 6 hemiplegics, and 3 diplegics. Infusion was generally well-tolerated, although 5 patients experienced temporary nausea, hemoglobinuria, or urticaria during intravenous infusion. Diverse neurological domains improved in 5 patients (25% as assessed with developmental evaluation tools as well as by fractional anisotropy values in brain MRI-DTI. The neurologic improvement occurred significantly in patients with diplegia or hemiplegia rather than quadriplegia. Conclusions Autologous CB infusion is safe and feasible, and has yielded potential benefits in children with CP.

  17. Affective Education for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)

  18. Eye problems in children with hearing impairment

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    Hadi Ostadimoghaddam

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: In a comparison of children of the same ages, hearing-impaired children have significantly more eye problems; therefore, a possible relation between deafness and eye problems must exist. Paying attention to eye health assessment in hearing-impaired children may help prevent adding eye problems to hearing difficulties.

  19. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

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    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  20. Influenza vaccination in children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Peacock, Georgina; Uyeki, Timothy M; Moore, Cynthia

    2015-05-11

    Children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders (NNDDs) are at increased risk of complications from influenza. Although the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recognized NNDDs as high-risk conditions for influenza complications since 2005, little is known about influenza vaccination practices in this population. CDC collaborated with Family Voices, a national advocacy group for children with special healthcare needs, to recruit parents of children with chronic medical conditions. Parents were surveyed about their knowledge, attitudes, and practices surrounding influenza vaccination. The primary outcome of interest was parental report of vaccination, or intent to vaccinate, at the time of survey participation. CDC also collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics to recruit primary care and specialty physicians who provide care for high-risk children, specifically those with neurologic conditions. The primary outcome was physician recognition of ACIP high-risk influenza conditions. 2138 surveys were completed by parents of children with high-risk conditions, including 1143 with at least one NNDD. Overall, 50% of children with an NNDD were vaccinated, or their parents planned to have them vaccinated against influenza. Among all 2138 children, in multivariable analysis, the presence of a respiratory condition and prior seasonal influenza vaccination was significantly associated with receipt or planned current season influenza vaccination, but the presence of an NNDD was not. 412 pediatricians completed the provider survey. Cerebral palsy was recognized as a high-risk influenza condition by 74% of physician respondents, but epilepsy (51%) and intellectual disability (46%) were less commonly identified. Our estimates of influenza vaccination in children with NNDDs are comparable to published reports of vaccination in healthy children, which continue to be suboptimal. Education of parents of children with NNDDs and healthcare

  1. Hearing Impairment in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Toshiko; MAEJIMA, Takako

    1995-01-01

    This paper surveys the speech therapy methods used with hearing-impaired children.Several problems in the development of hearing-impaired children are explained, including speech therapy by auditory training to alleviate the problems. The validity of Mon's check-list and Mori's language ability test were demonstrated using four sample cases. Finally, the important points of speech therapy in hearing-impaired children are discussed.

  2. Eye problems in children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Mirhajian, Hanieh; Yekta, AbbasAli; Sobhani Rad, Davood; Heravian, Javad; Malekifar, Azam; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of refractive errors, amblyopia, and strabismus between hearing-impaired and normal children (7-22 years old) in Mashhad. In this cross-sectional study, cases were selected from hearing-impaired children in Mashhad. The control group consisted of children with no hearing problem. The sampling was done utilizing the cluster sampling method. All of the samples underwent refraction, cover test, and visual examinations. 254 children in the hearing-impaired group (case) and 506 children in the control group were assessed. The mean spherical equivalent was 1.7 ± 1.9 D in the case group, which was significantly different from the control group (0.2 ± 1.5) (P hearing-impaired children have significantly more eye problems; therefore, a possible relation between deafness and eye problems must exist. Paying attention to eye health assessment in hearing-impaired children may help prevent adding eye problems to hearing difficulties.

  3. Neurological comorbidity in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabaru, Keiko; Matsuo, Muneaki

    2017-08-10

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of central nervous system comorbidities in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). We performed a nationwide survey to investigate neurological comorbidities in 3-15-year-old children with NF1 in Japan by sending questionnaires to pediatricians and pediatric neurologists. A secondary questionnaire was sent to the parents of identified NF1 patients to assess neurological comorbidities including headache, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale (RS), and the Social Responsiveness Scale 2. The primary survey identified 760 NF1 patients, and the parents of 565 patients were sent the secondary questionnaire. The parental response rate was 25.7% (145; 63 girls, 81 boys, one unspecified). Among the patients, 42.9% (55/128; 35 girls, 20 boys) were reported to exhibit intellectual problems. On the ADHD-RS, 40.2% (47/117) of NF1 patients aged 6-15 had ADHD (RS score >93rd percentile), with a rate of 47.7% in boys and 30.8% in girls. Furthermore, 20.2% of patients had suspected autism spectrum disorder (29/143; 10 girls, 19 boys), with Social Responsiveness Scale score ≥76. Headache was reported by 49.6% (61/123) of children over 5 years old, and 25.2% (31/123; 10 girls, 21 boys) reported migraine. Other neurological comorbidities included 20 cases of epilepsy (13.8%), 11 cases of optic nerve glioma (7.6%), five cases of brain tumor (3.4%), six cases of cerebrovascular disease (4.1%), and two cases of hydrocephalus (1.4%). Intellectual problems, ADHD, autism spectrum disorder, and migraine are major neurological comorbidities in NF1. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Indícios de desenvolvimento em crianças com deficiência visual e problemas neurológicos Indications of development in children with visual impairment and neurological problems

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    Michelli Alessandra Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura aponta que crianças com diagnóstico de deficiência visual e outras deficiências associadas estão em risco de desenvolvimento. No presente estudo, foram observadas três crianças com esse perfil (quatro a 10 anos, no contexto de grupos de convivência, com o intuito de identificar indícios de desenvolvimento e exemplos de apropriação de práticas sociais. Deu-se destaque aos diferentes usos de objetos, à participação em atividades e à linguagem como lugares para se observar esses processos. Foi realizado estudo de caso e análise microgenética. As sessões semanais foram filmadas e transcritas. Recortou-se o material documentado em episódios que fossem significativos para o propósito do estudo. A análise evidenciou a importância dos processos de significação na constituição dos sujeitos. Os resultados foram discutidos em termos de suas implicações para programas de intervenção.Studies on the development of children with visual impairment associated with other disabilities indicate risks for development. In the present study, three children with this profile (aged four to 10 years were observed in social group contexts. The aim was to identify indications of development and examples of appropriation of social practices. In order to visualize those processes, the study focused on different uses of objects, participation in activities and language. A case study and microgenetic analysis were carried out. Weekly sessions were filmed and transcribed; episodes were selected from the material that had been registered according to relevance related to the purpose of the study. The analysis showed the importance of signification processes for the constitution of subjects. The results were discussed in terms of implications for intervention programs.

  5. HYPERNATREMIA IN CHILDREN. FOCUS ON THE NEUROLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS

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    R. F. Tepaev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypernatremia is an electrolyte disorder in patients at the hospital stage of the treatment. The symptomatic hypernatremia is associated with severe neurological disorders. The degree of dysfunction varies from mild behavioral disturbances to convulsions, coma, and depends on the duration and depth of hypernatremia. Neurological disorders are caused, on the one hand, by the shrinkage of neurocytes in the background of a high concentration of sodium in the blood, on the other — by the development of brain edema related to the rapid correction of hypernatremia. Symptomatic hypernatremia is the threatening complication and is associated with a significant mortality increase in children with a wide range of diseases. The paper describes current approaches to the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of hypernatremia. 

  6. Manneristic behaviors of visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Alysha; Rowe, Fiona J

    2011-09-01

    To review the literature on visual impairment in children in order to determine which manneristic behaviors are associated with visual impairment, and to establish why these behaviors occur and whether severity of visual impairment influences these behaviors. A literature search utilizing PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge databases was performed. The University of Liverpool ( www.liv.ac.uk/orthoptics/research ) and local library facilities were also searched. The main manneristic or stereotypic behaviors associated with visual impairment are eye-manipulatory behaviors, such as eye poking and rocking. The degree of visual impairment influences the type of behavior exhibited by visually impaired children. Totally blind children are more likely to adopt body and head movements whereas sight-impaired children tend to adopt eye-manipulatory behaviors and rocking. The mannerisms exhibited most frequently are those that provide a specific stimulation to the child. Theories to explain these behaviors include behavioral, developmental, functional, and neurobiological approaches. Although the precise etiology of these behaviors is unknown, it is recognized that each of the theories is useful in providing some explanation of why certain behaviors may occur. The age at which the frequency of these behaviors decreases is associated with the child's increasing development, thus those visually impaired children with additional disabilities, whose development is impaired, are at an increased risk of developing and maintaining these behaviors. Certain manneristic behaviors of the visually impaired child may also help indicate the cause of visual impairment. There is a wide range of manneristic behaviors exhibited by visually impaired children. Some of these behaviors appear to be particularly associated with certain causes of visual impairment or severity of visual impairment, thus they may supply the practitioner with useful information. Further research into the

  7. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

  8. Play Environments for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneekloth, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The study compared the motor activities and environmental interactions of sighted and visually impaired children (N=36), ages 7-13. Analysis suggested that some developmental delays in visually impaired children may result from lack of gross motor interactions with the environment. Implications for the design of play environments and personnel…

  9. Neurorehabilitation with FORAMENRehab for attention impairment in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saard, Marianne; Kaldoja, Mari-Liis; Bachmann, Madis; Pertens, Lisanna; Kolk, Anneli

    2017-02-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent neurological disorder in children and often accompanied with attention impairment. Still, few systematically controlled rehabilitation techniques for children exist. The aim of this study was to design and measure the impact of the FORAMENRehab computer-based intervention method for attention impairment rehabilitation in children with epilepsy. We chose the FORAMENRehab program because it allows separate training for different attention components based on individual needs. Forty-eight children participated in the study. At baseline, all patients underwent neuropsychological examination of attention with the NEPSY test battery. The study group consisted of 17 8- to 12-year-old children with partial epilepsy and attention impairment who received neurorehabilitation over 5weeks (10 sessions) with FORAMENRehab Attention module accompanied by a therapist. Two control groups were included: the first control group of 12 children with partial epilepsy and attention impairment (waiting-list) participated in assessments with baseline tasks before and after the five-week period and received no active training. Additionally, all patients participated in the follow-up assessment 1.31years later. The second control group consisted of 19 typically developing children who only participated in the first assessment. After the intervention, study group patients showed significant improvement in complex attention and tracking (Pattention components - sustained, complex, and tracking - need selective and longer training for more effective remediation. Follow-up assessment revealed a long-term positive effect of intervention. After 1.31years, the study group had significantly improved in three out of the four attention components (Pattention component. In conclusion, attention impairment rehabilitation with FORAMENRehab is effective for children with epilepsy. Rehabilitation should focus on training specific components of attention and follow an individual

  10. Dysphagia and cerebrovascular accident: relationship between severity degree and level of neurological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaquy, Roberta Baldino; Favero, Samara Regina; Ribeiro, Marlise de Castro; Barea, Liselotte Menke; Almeida, Sheila Tamanini de; Mancopes, Renata

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this case study was to verify the occurrence of dysphagia in acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in order to establish a possible relationship between the level of neurologic impairment and the severity degree of dysphagia. After emergency hospital admission, three patients underwent neurological clinical evaluation (general physical examination, neurological examination, and application of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale - NIHSS), and clinical assessment of swallowing using the Protocolo Fonoaudiológico de Avaliação do Risco para Disfagia (PARD--Speech-Language Pathology Protocol for Risk Evaluation for Dysphagia). One of the patients presented functional swallowing (NIHSS score 11), while the other two had mild and moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia (NIHSS scores 15 and 19, respectively). The service flow and the delay on the patients' search for medical care determined the small sample. The findings corroborate literature data regarding the severity of the neurological condition and the manifestation of dysphagia.

  11. Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

  12. Self-imagining enhances recognition memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2010-11-01

    The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on several cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, we investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as self-imagining-the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Fourteen individuals with neurologically based memory deficits and 14 healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Findings revealed a robust "self-imagination effect (SIE)," as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F(1, 13) = 32.11, p visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. The findings suggest that the SIE may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment.

  13. Self-Imagining Enhances Recognition Memory in Memory-Impaired Individuals with Neurological Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The ability to imagine an elaborative event from a personal perspective relies on a number of cognitive processes that may potentially enhance subsequent memory for the event, including visual imagery, semantic elaboration, emotional processing, and self-referential processing. In an effort to find a novel strategy for enhancing memory in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage, the present study investigated the mnemonic benefit of a method we refer to as “self-imagining” – or the imagining of an event from a realistic, personal perspective. Method Fourteen individuals with neurologically-based memory deficits and fourteen healthy control participants intentionally encoded neutral and emotional sentences under three instructions: structural-baseline processing, semantic processing, and self-imagining. Results Findings revealed a robust “self-imagination effect” as self-imagination enhanced recognition memory relative to deep semantic elaboration in both memory-impaired individuals, F (1, 13) = 32.11, p imagination were not limited by severity of the memory disorder nor were they related to self-reported vividness of visual imagery, semantic processing, or emotional content of the materials. Conclusions The findings suggest that the self-imagination effect may depend on unique mnemonic mechanisms possibly related to self-referential processing, and that imagining an event from a personal perspective makes that event particularly memorable even for those individuals with severe memory deficits. Self-imagining may thus provide an effective rehabilitation strategy for individuals with memory impairment. PMID:20873930

  14. Melatonin prevents blood vessel loss and neurological impairment induced by spinal cord injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yingli; Bai, Fan; Chen, Hui; Dong, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Melatonin can be neuroprotective in models of neurological injury, but its effects on blood vessel loss and neurological impairment following spinal cord injury (SCI) are unclear. Our goal herein was to evaluate the possible protective action of melatonin on the above SCI-induced damage in rats. Sixty-three female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equal groups: sham, SCI and melatonin groups. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally and further administered twice a day at indicated time after a moderate injury at T10 in melatonin group. Blood vessel was assessed by CD31staining and FITC-LEA, the permeability of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) was detected by Evan's Blue. Neuron was assessed by NeuN staining and the expression of Nissl bodies in the neurons was assessed by Nissl staining. The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin I, or growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the spinal cord and hippocampus were evaluated by Western blotting. At 7 days post-injury, melatonin treatment rescued blood vessels, increased CD31 levels, ameliorated BSCB permeability. Additionally, melatonin significantly increased the number of neurons and the expression of Nissl bodies in neurons at the injury epicenter. Furthermore, our data showed that SCI reduced levels of the molecular substrates of neurological plasticity, including BDNF, synapsin I, or GAP-43 in the spinal cord and hippocampus. Melatonin treatment partially prevented these reductions. The neuroprotective effect of melatonin was associated with melioration of the microcirculation in the spinal cord and reduction of neurological impairment in the spinal cord and brain.

  15. Alcohol Exposure after Mild Focal Traumatic Brain Injury Impairs Neurological Recovery and Exacerbates Localized Neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Sophie X; Katz, Paige S; Maxi, John K; Mayeux, Jacques P; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Molina, Patricia E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor associated with increased TBI incidence. In addition, up to 26% of TBI patients engage in alcohol consumption after TBI. Limited preclinical studies have examined the impact of post-injury alcohol exposure on TBI recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the isolated and combined effects of TBI and alcohol on cognitive, behavioral, and physical recovery, as well as on associated neuroinflammatory changes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (~300 g) were subjected to a mild focal TBI by lateral fluid percussion (~30 PSI, ~25 ms) under isoflurane anesthesia. On day 4 after TBI, animals were exposed to either sub-chronic intermittent alcohol vapor (95% ethanol 14h on /10h off; BAL~200 mg/dL) or room air for 10 days. TBI induced neurological dysfunction reflected by an increased neurological severity score (NSS) showed progressive improvement in injured animals exposed to room air (TBI/air). In contrast, TBI animals exposed to alcohol vapor (TBI/alcohol) showed impaired NSS recovery throughout the 10-day period of alcohol exposure. Open-field exploration test revealed an increased anxiety-like behavior in TBI/alcohol group compared to TBI/air group. Additionally, alcohol-exposed animals showed decreased locomotion and impaired novel object recognition. Immunofluorescence showed enhanced reactive astrocytes, microglial activation, and HMGB1 expression localized to the injured cortex of TBI/alcohol as compared to TBI/air animals. The expression of neuroinflammatory markers showed significant positive correlation with NSS. These findings indicated a close relationship between accentuated neuroinflammation and impaired neurological recovery from post-TBI alcohol exposure. The clinical implications of long-term consequences in TBI patients exposed to alcohol during recovery warrant further investigation. PMID:25489880

  16. Clinical and Neurological Status in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment due to Chronic Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokudhon N. Madjidova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work was to study the neurological status and cognitive function in patients with stage I and II CCI, depending on its nature. Material and Methods: The study included 302 patients (mean age - 61.3±0.3 years; 165/54.6% men and 137/45.4% women with stage I and II CCI. Clinical and neurological examination, study of cognitive function, and MRI were performed in all patients. The degree of cognitive defect was determined by the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Exam test and the Bourdon test (visual perception and vigilance. All the subjects were categorized into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 133 patients with the amnestic type of MCI (AT-MCI; Group 2 consisted of 169 patients with the multifunction type of MCI (MT-MCI. Results: The highest frequency of complaints of a cerebral nature was observed in Group 2 patients with MT-MCI compared to Group 1 patients with AT-MCI. It should be noted that memory impairment occurred in all patients in Group 1. The clinical-neurological examination revealed that the subjective complaints of a cerebral nature occurred significantly more frequently in Group 2 patients compared with Group 1 patients, except for the memory disorders, which prevailed in Group 1 patients with AT-MCI. With regard to the objective symptoms, the focal neurological symptoms occurred with equal frequency in both groups. It should be noted that the symptoms of the carotid region were more frequent in Group 2 patients and the symptoms of the vertebrobasilar region in Group 1 patients. The parameters of the cognitive function related to the concentration and stability of attention were less disturbed in patients with AT-MCI compared with the patients having the MT-MCI, and those parameters correlated with the parameters of the neurological focal symptoms.

  17. Prevention of cerebrovascular diseases and cognitive impairment in psychiatric and neurological practice: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Merkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased life expectancy and related demographic changes, as well as lifestyle modification in the population enhance a steady rise in the incidence of disorders in middle and later life. It increases the burden of diseases and overloads healthcare systems. Therefore prevention strategies are currently on the cutting edge and becoming more and more essential. The article discusses approaches to preventing the most common mental and neurological disorders in middle and old age. It also describes cerebrovascular disease, dementia, cognitive impairment, and stroke and outlines some state-of-the-art prevention strategies.

  18. Meeting the occupational needs of a neurologically impaired client for driving: a case review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Beth; Dickerson, Anne E; Brooks, Johnell

    2013-10-01

    Driving as a means of community mobility is an activity highly valued by individuals. When a medical condition impacts a person's ability to drive, occupational therapy practitioners should address this instrumental task of daily living with the client in order for the client to know if and when return to driving might be possible. This case review illustrates how the task of driving motivated a neurologically impaired client in therapy as well as how driving evaluation and driving rehabilitation intervention should not be done in isolation, but with the communication that will optimally assist the client to return to functional performance.

  19. [Neurological consequences following perinatal asphyxia in preschool age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabieva, T N

    2009-01-01

    Various groups have been addressing the question of whether perinatal asphyxia (PA) affects on newborn health and nervous system. It is widely accepted that severe PA causes motor and cognitive alterations and leads to a variety of brain disorders: cerebral palsy, epilepsy, mental retardation as well as psychiatric deficits. At the same time it was established, that large percentage of children, surviving PA didn't demonstrate apparent sequelae, but mild physical and mental delay in future. With the purpose of disclose further consequences of PA on child development, we examine 20 children (6 years old) surviving mild or moderate PA without severe neurological pathology. In most cases we revealed muscle tone disturbances, physical development and growth retardation, speech pathology in the form of dyslaliya and speech delay. Intact cognitive capacities in these children combine with limited information content. Our investigation discovered, that the presence of certain psychoneurological characteristics such as hyperexcitability, irritability, timidity, aggressiveness; reduced activity, concentration and motivation -- are the consequences of survived birth trauma. These characteristics producing undue fatiguability, inattention, restlessness and diminished working-capacity, can pose additional problems in education process. In the absence of individual approach without taking into account emotional and motivational peculiarities, this category of children could not completely realize their intact cognitive capacities and represent risk group for further mild retardation.

  20. Neurological and cardiac complications in a cohort of children with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumana H Albaramki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult patients with chronic kidney disease are at risk of major neurologic and cardiac complications. The purpose of this study is to review the neurological and cardiac complications in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. A retrospective review of medical records of children with ESRD at Jordan University Hospital was performed. All neurological and cardiac events were recorded and analyzed. Data of a total of 68 children with ESRD presenting between 2002 and 2013 were reviewed. Neurological complications occurred in 32.4%; seizures were the most common event. Uncontrolled hypertension was the leading cause of neurological events. Cardiac complications occurred in 39.7%, the most common being pericardial effusion. Mortality from neurological complications was 45%. Neurological and cardiac complications occurred in around a third of children with ESRD with a high mortality rate. More effective control of hypertension, anemia, and intensive and gentle dialysis are needed.

  1. Adaptive behavior of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.

  2. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Musisi, Seggane; Boivin, Michael J; Ehnvall, Anna; John, Chandy C; Bergemann, Tracy L; Allebeck, Peter

    2011-11-03

    Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention), behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems) and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading) three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI), = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007). There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09). However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic achievement scores. Malaria with neurological

  3. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  4. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  5. Effectiveness of Music Therapy as an aid to Neurorestoration of children with severe neurological disorders

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    Maria L Bringas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was a two-armed parallel group design aimed at testing real world effectiveness of a music therapy (MT intervention for children with severe neurological disorders. The control group received only the standard neurorestoration program and the experimental group received an additional MT Auditory Attention plus Communication (ACC protocol just before the usual occupational and speech therapy. Multivariate Item Response Theory (MIRT identified a neuropsychological status-latent variable manifested in all children and which exhibited highly significant changes only in the experimental group. Changes in brain plasticity also occurred in the experimental group, as evidenced using a Mismatch Event Related paradigm which revealed significant post intervention positive responses in the latency range between 308 and 400 ms in frontal regions. LORETA EEG source analysis identified prefrontal and midcingulate regions as differentially activated by the MT in the experimental group. Taken together, our results showing improved attention and communication as well as changes in brain plasticity in children with severe neurological impairments, highlight/comfort the importance of MT for the rehabilitation of patients across a wide range of dysfunctions.

  6. Orientating Children in Regular Schools towards Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, P. P.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses audio-visual material and other education techniques which eventually may facilitate the integration of children with mental, physical, and sensory impairments in the regular classroom. Films, radio texts, theater plays, and books are considered. Emphasis is on the introduction of impairments to the nonhandicapped population.…

  7. Impaired exploratory eye movements in children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Takashi; Morita, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Ishii, Youhei; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2014-03-01

    Previous eye-tracking studies using an eye mark recorder have reported that disturbances in exploratory eye movements in adult schizophrenic patients are associated with social functioning. The current study sought to determine whether exploratory eye-movement disturbances are present in children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. MATERIALS/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 23 children with AS and 23 age-matched TD children. We measured exploratory eye movements using an EMR-8B eye mark recorder and an exploratory eye movement-measuring device. Eye movements were recorded while participants freely observed a geometric figure (free viewing task), and while they complied with the instructions of an experimenter (repeat-comparison task). We assessed eye fixation points (EFPs) and total eye scanning length (TESL) in all tasks, and measured the responsive search score (RSS) in the repeat-comparison task. In the free viewing task, children with AS exhibited significantly shorter TESL compared with TD children. In the repeat-comparison task, children with AS exhibited significantly lower RSS. Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with both EFP and TESL, but not RSS. The current results revealed that children with AS exhibited dysfunction in exploratory eye movements. Thus, assessing exploratory eye movements in a repeat-comparison task may be useful for detecting social impairment among children with AS. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  9. Psychopathology in hearing-impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Stephanie Carla Petra Maria

    2013-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to objectify levels of psychopathology in hearing-impaired children, and to investigate the influence of

  10. Neurological sequelae in survivors of cerebral malaria | Oluwayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This is a prospective study describing persisting neurological impairments post discharge among children treated for cerebral malaria. ... The persisting neurologic deficits among survivors at follow up were: memory impairment (1.5%), seizure disorders (0.8%), visual impairment (0.8%), speech impairment (0.8%), ...

  11. Optimization of nutritional correction treatment for neurological disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Tekebaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study project at the Infant Neurology Department, which has shown the urgency of nutritional rehabilitation in children aged 3 months to 5 years with infantile cerebral paralysis. Thirty patients were followed up to study the causes of malnutrition, to assess and correct their nutritional status, and to show the efficiency of the measures implemented. A diet corrected by a nutritionist was combined with nonsurgical interventions, such as positioning, a decision on the transition to nasogastric tube feeding, and maternal work. The complementary foods were FrutoNyanya products as the latter are low-immunogenic, cause no allergic reactions, and may be used both in the feeding of high-risk group children and as ingredients of a therapeutic diet for patients with different diseases. This resulted in 305-g weight gain within 7-10 day of hospital stay in those whose underweight averaged 28%. The emotional status of the patients and their caregivers was improved by 2-3 scores on 5-point rating scale. There were improvements in their emotional tone (in 75%, chewing (in 28%, and swallowing (in 35% and reductions in reflux episodes (in 19% and stress in the caregivers (in 86%.

  12. Auditory-verbal therapy for children with hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S Y C; Simser, J

    2005-05-01

    The new millennium has brought about great innovation and advancement in hearing technology, early detection and intervention. This in turn has altered expectations of what children with hearing impairment are really capable of in terms of listening, developing spoken language, and academic and social performance. In Singapore, with Universal Newborn Hearing Screening in place, babies with hearing impairment can be detected early and early intervention implemented by 6 months of age. To benefit from the "critical periods" of acoustic neurological and linguistic development, early identification of hearing impairment, medical intervention, use of appropriate amplification technology and effective habilitation are vital. Auditory-Verbal practice emphasises listening to access auditory information, so that these children have the opportunity to develop intelligible speech and spoken language. Auditory-Verbal practice supports ongoing individualised diagnostic therapy with parent participation, guidance, education and support by an Auditory-Verbal specialist. The goal of Auditory-Verbal therapy is to enable children with hearing loss to grow up in regular learning and living environments so that they can become independent, participating and contributing citizens in mainstream society.

  13. CURRENT PROBLEMS OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Karkashadze

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical pediatrics specialists paid wrongly little attention to identification and treatment of cognitive disorders in children. At the same time it is difficult to overestimate the influence of cognitive functions on the formation of human personality and social maladjustment in this part of population. The paper is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairments. In addition, the classification of this pathology, highlighting aetiopathogenetic factors, prognosis are showed. One of the important problems of early revealing of cognitive impairments and appropriate management of children with this pathology according to the authors opinion are the following: the deficiency of educational programs for training specialists in neurology, lack of knowledge concerning the possibilities of psychological-pedagogical correction, inefficient system of neurological techniques for primary care. Key words: cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, classification, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, social maladjustment, psychopedagogical support, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 37–41.

  14. [Ophthalmological rehabilitation of visually impaired children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, E K; Nguyen, N X

    2017-07-01

    There are very few studies on visually impaired children in Germany; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the current spectrum of diseases of visually impaired children and the care of these children in schools and kindergartens with aids and integrative support. In a retrospective study all children (n =303) who attended the outpatient department for the visually impaired of the University Eye Hospital Tübingen in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated. The target values were ophthalmological diagnosis, best corrected visual acuity, needs for magnification, prescribed aids, measures for early support and integrative care and inclusion during schooltime. The most frequent diagnosis in this collective which led to visual impairment in children was optic atrophy (22.4%) followed by hereditary retinal dystrophy (18.5%), congenital nystagmus (9.9%), albinism (8.6%), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP, 7.9%), aniridia (4.6%), cerebral visual impairment (CVI, 4.3%) and severe myopia (3%). Of the children 21% suffered from multiple disabilities, 66% were visually impaired (visual acuity ≤0.3 and >0.05), 9% were severely visually impaired (visual acuity ≤0.05) and 6% were legally defined as blind (visual acuity ≤0.02). Of the schoolchildren 52% (n = 241) were able to visit a mainstream school within the framework of integrative care. For 77% of these schoolchildren integrative care was already provided by a special pedagogic institution at the time of presentation for school entry and 73% of all the schoolchildren needed magnifying aids at school: 20% used optical magnifying aids (e.g. reading stones) and 53% needed electronic magnifying aids, such as screen magnifiers or camera reading systems. Particularly for children, the use of magnifying aids for reading is essential for education in schools and 73% of the children used optical or electronic devices for reading. Of the children 52% attended a mainstream school and were additionally supported by special

  15. Fundoplication in neurologically impaired children: Nissen or Thal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Studying some elicited verbal prosodic patterns in Egyptian specific language impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Safinaz Nagib; Ashour, Heba

    2015-01-01

    Prosody is the aspect of language that conveys emotion by changes in tone, rhythm, and emphasis during speech and the term specific language impairment (SLI) refers to children whose language development is substantially below their chronological age, despite a normal nonverbal intelligence and no obvious neurological or physiological impairments, or emotional and/or social difficulties that could impact language use. To assess prosodic skills in Arabic speaking children with specific language impairment, in order to answer the question "Are SLI children dysprosodic?" And to be put in consideration while choosing and applying the training procedure hence, qualifies the rehabilitation program. Thirty Egyptian normal children and 30 Egyptian children with specific language impairment (SLI) aged between 4 and 6 years were included in this study and were subjected to psychometric evaluation, audio logical assessment, Arabic language test, articulation test, and assessment protocol of prosody. Egyptian specific language impaired children have lower prosodic skills scores than control group with positive significant correlation between total language ages of specific language impaired children and total prosodic scores. Egyptian specific language impaired children have dysprosodic skills and the intervention program must include prosodic rehabilitation program in order to achieve higher improvement level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Theory of Mind Ability in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillott, A.; Furniss, F.; Walter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst evidence of theory of mind impairments in children with autism is well established, possible impairments in children with language disorder have only recently been investigated. Children with specific language impairment aged between eight and 12 years were matched by age and gender to high functioning children with autism and normally…

  18. The neurology of learning and behavioural problems in pre-adolescent children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, L; Neeleman, J; Hadders-Algra, M

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether in pre-adolescent children specific types of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) are related to specific types of learning and behavioural problems, and whether it is the type or the severity of neurological dysfunction that matters most.

  19. Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanderPaauw, CG; Tuinstra, LGMT; Fidler, [No Value; WeisglasKuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1995-01-01

    The neurological optimality of 418 Dutch children was evaluated at the age of 18 months, in order to determine whether prenatal and breast milk mediated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins affected neurological development, Half of the infants were breast-fed, the other half

  20. Specificity of Cognitive Impairment in Neurological Disease: A Methodological Critique of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Sagar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cognitive deficits have been recognized in many neurological disorders but the specificity of the findings and the relationship to the underlying neuropathology remain obscure. Definitions of dementia have been proposed based on symptom profiles of the cognitive disorder and qualitative differences have been claimed between dementias of different aetiology. Some conditions have been claimed to show patterns of cognitive deficit that are distinguished from dementia and related to specific neuropathology or psychological processes, e.g. frontal lobe deficits in Parkinson's disease. Sometimes, a relationship has been established between certain cognitive deficits and particular neurochemical deficits which has led to the notion of specific drug treatment, e.g. cholinergic deficits and memory failure in Alzheimer's disease. However, these conclusions are often potentially flawed by methodological inadequacies. This critique presents some methodological issues relevant to the study of brain-behaviour and drug-behaviour relationships in syndromes of multiple cognitive deficit, using Parkinson's disease as the model. The following recommendations are made: rigid diagnostic criteria; representative patient groups; avoidance of arbitrary quantitative criteria to limit definitions of dementia; matching of groups for overall level of cognitive impairment in the search for qualitative cognitive differences related to neuropathology or effects of particular drugs; the use of suitable controls in patient groups, neuropsychological tests and treatment regimes; the use of specific quantitative tests of cognition, affect and motor disability; and longitudinal, compared with cross-sectional, study design.

  1. Psychological findings in preterm children related to neurologic status and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, P; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Korkman, M; Pyhtinen, J; Järvelin, M R

    1998-08-01

    Preterm children experience learning disabilities more often than full-term children, but detailed information on their neuropsychological and neurologic determinants is lacking. We therefore examined these problems more closely and also studied if clinical neurologic examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as tools to screen the preterm children at risk for these problems. In a population-based study, the psychological performance of 42 preterm children with a birth weight <1750 g and of their matched controls was assessed at 8 years of age and the findings were then related to clinical neurologic examination and MRI. Learning disabilities of these children, reported by the teachers, were also studied. The cognitive ability of the preterm children, although in the normal range, was significantly lower than that of the control children. They performed particularly poorly in tasks requiring spatial and visuoperceptual abilities, which were associated with the finding of periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, especially with posterior ventricular enlargement. The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunction (MND) had the most problems in neuropsychological tests, whereas the clinically healthy preterm children and those with cerebral palsy had fewer problems. The problems of MND children emerged in the domain of attention. They also experienced the most problems at school. Visuospatial problems were associated with periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, but learning disabilities were most frequent among the preterm children with minor neurologic abnormalities. We recommend closer follow-up of preterm children with MND.

  2. Quantitative Evaluation System of Soft Neurological Signs for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Soft neurological signs (SNS are minor neurological abnormalities in motor performance, and are used as one evaluation method for neurodevelopmental delays in children with ADHD. Our aim is to establish a quantitative evaluation system for children with ADHD. We focused on the arm movement called pronation and supination, which is one such soft neurological sign. Thirty three children with ADHD aged 7–11 years (27 males, six females and twenty five adults participants aged 21–29 years old (19 males, six females participated in our experiments. Our results suggested that the pronation and supination function in children with ADHD has a tendency to lag behind that of typically developing children by several years. From these results, our system has a possibility to objectively evaluate the neurodevelopmental delay of children with ADHD.

  3. Views of Children with Visual Impairment on the Challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to examine the views of children with visual impairment on the challenges of inclusion. A questionnaire was administered on 20 children with visual impairment. These had been randomly selected from three schools that were including children with visual impairment in their teaching and learning ...

  4. Pro/con clinical debate: Tracheostomy is ideal for withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in severe neurological impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Luciana; Corno, Eleomore; Terragni, Pier Paok; Stather, David; Ferguson, Niall D

    2004-01-01

    Most clinical trials on the topic of extubation have involved patients outside the neurological intensive care unit. As a result, in this area clinicians are left with little evidence on which to base their decision making. Although tracheostomies are increasingly common procedures, they are not without complications and costs, and hence a decision to perform them should not be taken lightly. In this issue of Critical Care two groups debate the merits of tracheostomy before extubation in a patient with neurological impairment. What becomes very clear is the need for more high quality data for this common clinical problem. PMID:15469593

  5. Neurological impairment in a surviving twin following intrauterine fetal demise of the co-twin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, K R; Keegan, K M; Schmidt, J W

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that twin pregnancies are at an increased risk for complications, including the risk of morbidity or mortality for one or both of the infants. Cerebral palsy and other associated neurological deficits also occur at higher rates in twin pregnancies. This report examines two cases of intrauterine demise of one twin with subsequent survival of the co-twin. In both cases, the surviving infant suffered significant neurological sequelae. Impairments observed in these two cases include multicystic encephalomalacia and periventricular leukomalacia as well as the subsequent development of cerebral palsy. This case study explores the predisposing factors, incidence, pathophysiology, consequences, and future research implications of these findings.

  6. Defective motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment due to periventricular white matter damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Joel M; Gilmore, Rick O; Shaikh, Sumera M; Kunselman, Allen R; Trescher, William V; Tashima, Lauren M; Boltz, Marianne E; McAuliffe, Matthew B; Cheung, Albert; Fesi, Jeremy D

    2012-07-01

    We sought to characterize visual motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) due to periventricular white matter damage caused by either hydrocephalus (eight individuals) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) associated with prematurity (11 individuals). Using steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEP), we measured cortical activity related to motion processing for two distinct types of visual stimuli: 'local' motion patterns thought to activate mainly primary visual cortex (V1), and 'global' or coherent patterns thought to activate higher cortical visual association areas (V3, V5, etc.). We studied three groups of children: (1) 19 children with CVI (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 8mo]; 9 male; 10 female); (2) 40 neurologically and visually normal comparison children (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 1mo]; 18 male; 22 female); and (3) because strabismus and amblyopia are common in children with CVI, a group of 41 children without neurological problems who had visual deficits due to amblyopia and/or strabismus (mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 8mo]; 28 male; 13 female). We found that the processing of global as opposed to local motion was preferentially impaired in individuals with CVI, especially for slower target velocities (p=0.028). Motion processing is impaired in children with CVI. ssVEP may provide useful and objective information about the development of higher visual function in children at risk for CVI. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.

  7. Soft Robotic Haptic Interface with Variable Stiffness for Rehabilitation of Neurologically Impaired Hand Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The human hand comprises complex sensorimotor functions that can be impaired by neurological diseases and traumatic injuries. Effective rehabilitation can bring the impaired hand back to a functional state because of the plasticity of the central nervous system to relearn and remodel the lost synapses in the brain. Current rehabilitation therapies focus on strengthening motor skills, such as grasping, employ multiple objects of varying stiffness so that affected persons can experience a wide range of strength training. These devices have limited range of stiffness due to the rigid mechanisms employed in their variable stiffness actuators. This paper presents a novel soft robotic haptic device for neuromuscular rehabilitation of the hand, which is designed to offer adjustable stiffness and can be utilized in both clinical and home settings. The device eliminates the need for multiple objects by employing a pneumatic soft structure made with highly compliant materials that act as the actuator of the haptic interface. It is made with interchangeable sleeves that can be customized to include materials of varying stiffness to increase the upper limit of the stiffness range. The device is fabricated using existing 3D printing technologies, and polymer molding and casting techniques, thus keeping the cost low and throughput high. The haptic interface is linked to either an open-loop system that allows for an increased pressure during usage or closed-loop system that provides pressure regulation in accordance to the stiffness the user specifies. Preliminary evaluation is performed to characterize the effective controllable region of variance in stiffness. It was found that the region of controllable stiffness was between points 3 and 7, where the stiffness appeared to plateau with each increase in pressure. The two control systems are tested to derive relationships between internal pressure, grasping force exertion on the surface, and displacement using

  8. Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Usadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Short or damaged telomeres have been implicated in degenerative conditions. We hypothesized that analysis of telomere length (TL in human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection and HTLV-associated neuropathy might provide clues to the etiology of HTLV-associated disease and viral dynamics. A subset of 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, 45 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2, and 45 seronegative subjects was selected from the larger HTLV Outcomes Study (HOST cohort, matched on age, sex and race/ethnicity. Telomere-to-single-copy gene (T/S ratio (a measure of TL and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral loads were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs using quantitative PCR (qPCR. Vibration sensation measured by tuning fork during neurologic examinations performed as part of the HOST study allowed for an assessment of peripheral neuropathy. TL was compared between groups using t-tests, linear and logistic regression. Mean T/S ratio was 1.02 ± 0.16 in HTLV-1, 1.03 ± 0.17 in HTLV-2 and 0.99 ± 0.18 in HTLV seronegative subjects (p = 0.322. TL was not associated with HTLV-1 or -2 proviral load. Shorter TL was significantly associated with impaired vibration sense in the HTLV-2 positive group only. Overall, we found no evidence that telomere length was affected by chronic HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection. That TL was only associated with peripheral neuropathy in the HTLV-2-positive group is intriguing, but should be interpreted cautiously. Studies with larger sample size and telomere length measurement in lymphocyte subsets may clarify the relationship between TL and HTLV-infection.

  9. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marjolein J; Brouwer, Matthijs C; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-07-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Adults with pneumococcal meningitis have the highest risk of developing focal neurological deficits, which are most commonly caused by cerebral infarction, but can also be due to cerebritis, subdural empyema, cerebral abscess or intracerebral bleeding. Focal deficits may improve during clinical course and even after discharge, but a proportion of patients will have persisting focal neurological deficits that often interfere in patient's daily life. Hearing loss occurs in a high proportion of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and has been associated with co-existing otitis. Children and adults recovering from bacterial meningitis without apparent neurological deficits are at risk for long-term cognitive deficits. Early identification of neurological sequelae is important for children to prevent additional developmental delay, and for adults to achieve successful return in society after the disease. Neurological sequelae occur in a substantial amount of patients following bacterial meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral and neurological effects of symptomatic and asymptomatic lead exposure in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummo, J.H.; Routh, D.K.; Rummo, N.J.; Brown, J.F.

    1979-03-01

    Forty-five children 4 to 8 y of age who had been exposed to environmental lead were studied, consisting of an acute encephalopathy group and groups with short- and long-term exposure but without encephalopathy. Control children were matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status with lead-exposed subjects, but lived in post-1945 housing and had negative neurological history and blood tests. The encephalopathy group had a significantly higher incidence of neurological deficits, retarded mental development, and higher hyperactivity than control subjects. Children with short- and long-term exposure short of encephalopathy were somewhat inferior to matched control subjects, but not to a statistically significant extent.

  11. Neurological outcome in school-age children after in utero exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Smrkovsky, M; Van der Veer, E; Geven-Boere, LM; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL

    The effect of prenatal exposure to coumarins (acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon) on neurological outcome was assessed in a cohort of 306 children aged 7-15 years. Findings were compared with those in a non-exposed cohort of 267 children, matched for sex, age, and demographic region. We used a

  12. Behaviour of the alpha rhythm in electroencephalograms of visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, J E; Wong, P K

    1988-08-01

    One hundred and thirty-eight electroencephalograms (EEGs) of 104 children with ocular visual loss were studied and the findings correlated with clinical information. Records of blind children without other neurological deficits did not contain posterior slowing or occipital spikes. The frequency, reactivity and regulation of alpha rhythm were affected only when vision was at the level of finger-counting. Therefore the EEGs of the majority of 'normal' visually impaired children showed normal alpha behaviour. Although most totally blind children's records lacked alpha, five had spontaneously appearing and disappearing alpha rhythm. The EEG is a valuable tool in the evaluation of visually impaired children, provided the findings are interpreted appropriately. The earlier theory that visual deprivation can cause electrical abnormalities over the visual cortex was not supported by these data.

  13. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    OpenAIRE

    YARAR, Coskun

    2009-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Rec...

  14. Cerebral Visual Impairment and Dysgenesis of Corpus Callosum in Multidisabled Children Aged 1 to 9 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CZIKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To emphasize the functional vision characteristics in visually impaired multiple disabled children (MDVI aged 2 to 9 years old related to brain damages on magnetic resonance imaging in different cortical and subcortical areas and in the corpus callosum region. Material and Method: 12 MDVI children with severe and mild neurological disorders were medically and neuropsychological assessed. The clinical - psychological, neurological and ophthalmological – and paraclinical methods – visual evoked potential (VEP and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were carried out in order to outline the complete profile of each child. The assessment was completed by morphometric measurement of corpus callosum and brain. Results: 10 of infants with severe neurological disorders showed ocular disorders such as ocular motility and visual function abnormalities. Severe cognitive and psychomotor retardation were associated in visual disorders in MDVI children. Significant correlation between neurological disorders, neuropsychological [τ(12 = 0.783, p = 0.001] evaluation and visual acuity [τ(12 = 0.783, p = 0.001] were found in multiple disabled children. The significant difference of diameter [t(22 = -4.858, p = 0.000] and surface of corpus callosum [t(22 = -6.254, p = 0.000] in multiple disabled children compared with control group was found. Conclusion: The structured assessment of visually impaired children due to neurological disorders, as early as possible, is the remarkably key which reveals the functionality of child and outlines the appropriate developmental and educational rehabilitation.

  15. Pattern of neurological diseases as seen in outpatient children: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discussion and Conclusion: Epilepsy is a common disease in children. The prevailing enigma that epilepsy is rare in children is an unfounded myth making it imperative for appropriate index of clinical suspicion whenever a paediatric patient presents with unusual clinical pattern. The increased number of epileptic cases at ...

  16. THE NEUROLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF HEARING AND SPEECH IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAYLOR, IAN G.

    A 5-YEAR LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF 78 CHILDREN (MINIMUM AGE 11 MONTHS) WHO WERE REFERRED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF DEAF EDUCATION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER, ENGLAND, IS DESCRIBED. THE CHILDREN ALL PRESENTED PROBLEMS RELATED TO SOUND OR LINGUISTICS DEVELOPMENT OR BOTH. AFTER A DESCRIPTION OF THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARING AND THE PATHOLOGY OF DEAFNESS, THE…

  17. Maternal experiences of caring for an infant with neurological impairment after neonatal encephalopathy in Uganda: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamanya, Sarah; Siu, Godfrey E; Lassman, Rachel; Seeley, Janet; Tann, Cally J

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated maternal experiences of caring for a child affected by neurological impairment after neonatal encephalopathy (NE) ("birth asphyxia") in Uganda. Between September 2011 and October 2012 small group and one-on-one in-depths interviews were conducted with mothers recruited to the ABAaNA study examining outcomes from NE in Mulago hospital, Kampala. Data were analysed thematically with the aid of Nvivo 8 software. Mothers reported caring for an infant with impairment was often complicated by substantial social, emotional and financial difficulties and stigma. High levels of emotional distress, feelings of social isolation and fearfulness about the future were described. Maternal health-seeking ability was exacerbated by high transport costs, lack of paternal support and poor availability of rehabilitation and counselling services. Meeting and sharing experiences with similarly affected mothers was associated with more positive maternal caring experiences. Mothering a child with neurological impairment after NE is emotionally, physically and financially challenging but this may be partly mitigated by good social support and opportunities to share caring experiences with similarly affected mothers. A facilitated, participatory, community-based approach to rehabilitation training may have important impacts on maximising participation and improving the quality of life of affected mothers and infants. Implications for Rehabilitation Caring for an infant with neurological impairment after NE in Uganda has substantial emotional, social and financial impacts on families and is associated with high levels of emotional stress, feelings of isolation and stigma amongst mothers. Improved social support and the opportunity to share experiences with other similarly affected mothers are associated with a more positive maternal caring experience. High transport costs, lack of paternal support and poor availability of counselling and support services were barriers

  18. SUCCES AT SCHOOL IN VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanika DIKIC

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.

  19. Development of educational PC software for visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Holá, Klára

    2010-01-01

    The diploma work is focused on development of educational PC software dedicated to visually impaired children. It is intended for junior school-aged children with visual abilities in category of middle and high level of low vision and also for children with disorders of binocular vision. The intention of this sotware is education of visually impaired children especially in domain of knowledge about the world of animals. It also helps children to reeducate their vision abilities.

  20. Use of Specialized Formulas in the Enteral Nutrition of Children with Severe Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Koreniuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of nutrition of disabled children with neurological diseases — cerebral palsy and congenital anomalies of the brain were examined in the article. The features and difficulties of feeding of these patients were identified. The experience in the use of nutritive formula of full hydrolysate in the enteral feeding of the children with secondary dystrophy against the background of severe neurological pathology is presented. The efficiency of this feeding technique, a positive dynamics of nutritional status of patients were shown.

  1. Children with behavioral problems and motor problems have a worse neurological condition than children with behavioral problems only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that children with specific behavioral problems are at risk for motor problems. It is unclear whether neurological condition plays a role in the propensity of children with behavioral problems to develop Motor problems. Aims: To examine the relation between

  2. Visual impairment and traits of autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Kapias, Joanna; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Kocur, Józef

    2017-04-30

    Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed. Psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of children with visual impairment has some difficulties in differentiating between "blindism" and traits typical for autism resulting from a lack of standardized diagnostic tools used to diagnosing children with visual impairment. Another difficulty in diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment is the coexistence of other disabilities in case of most children with vision impairment. Additionally, apart from difficulties in diagnosing autistic disorders in children with eye dysfunctions there is also a question of what tools should be used in therapy and rehabilitation of patients.

  3. Visually impaired children and haptic intelligence test scores: intelligence test for visually impaired children (ITVIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports the results of verbal and haptic intelligence tests for the whole population of the visually impaired, braille-educated Dutch children and Dutch-speaking children in Belgium. The scores of children with and without usable vision generally confirmed expectations. Children with usable vision had higher spatial test scores. Those without usable vision did better on verbal memory tests and school-achievement tests for writing accuracy and technical reading. Children in regular or integrated education scored higher on verbal, reasoning and school-achievement tests. Evaluation of the effect of systematically varied task factors in four spatial tests indicated that, for two of the tests, having usable vision interacted with the task factors.

  4. Neurologic Damage and Behavior Disorder in Rubella Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Stella; Fernandez, Paulina

    1980-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 214 rubella deaf children (13 to 14 years old) revealed a low incidence (10%) of neurologica damage among those with normal intelligence, but a high incidence (51% to 70%) among those who were mentally retarded or blind. (Author)

  5. Neurological and neurocognitive function of HIV-infected children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in older children cryptococcal meningitis.10-14 HIV-infected patients are at risk for thromboembolic strokes caused by disturbances in blood coagulation via antiphospholipid antibodies or reduced protein S concentration, and ischaemic strokes due to infections, coagulopathies or HIV-associated vasculopathy.15 ...

  6. Attentional and executive impairments in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function....

  7. Attentional and executive impairments in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function.......Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function....

  8. Neurological, Metabolic, and Psychiatric Adverse Events in Children and Adolescents Treated With Aripiprazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study...... is to discuss adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports concerning aripiprazole-associated neurological and psychiatric events in children and adolescents. The ADR report database at Danish Medicines Agency was searched for all ADRs involving children and adolescents (... insomnia, Parkinsonism, behavioral changes psychoses, and weight gain, whereas the adverse effects in the PS group was predominantly anxiety, convulsions, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although aripiprazole is considered safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents, severe adverse events...

  9. Working memory and novel word learning in children with hearing impairment and children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K; Forsberg, J; Löfqvist, A; Mäki-Torkko, E; Sahlén, B

    2004-01-01

    Working memory is considered to influence a range of linguistic skills, i.e. vocabulary acquisition, sentence comprehension and reading. Several studies have pointed to limitations of working memory in children with specific language impairment. Few studies, however, have explored the role of working memory for language deficits in children with hearing impairment. The first aim was to compare children with mild-to-moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment and children with normal language development, aged 9-12 years, for language and working memory. The special focus was on the role of working memory in learning new words for primary school age children. The assessment of working memory included tests of phonological short-term memory and complex working memory. Novel word learning was assessed according to the methods of. In addition, a range of language tests was used to assess language comprehension, output phonology and reading. Children with hearing impairment performed significantly better than children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment on tasks assessing novel word learning, complex working memory, sentence comprehension and reading accuracy. No significant correlation was found between phonological short-term memory and novel word learning in any group. The best predictor of novel word learning in children with specific language impairment and in children with hearing impairment was complex working memory. Furthermore, there was a close relationship between complex working memory and language in children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment but not in children with hearing impairment. Complex working memory seems to play a significant role in vocabulary acquisition in primary school age children. The interpretation is that the results support theories suggesting a weakened influence of phonological short-term memory on novel word

  10. Self-Concept of Children with Cerebral Palsy Compared with that of Children without Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora; Loy, Yijun; Murdoch, Alison; Taylor, Nicholas F.; Dodd, Karen J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the self-concept of children with cerebral palsy (CP) differed from that of children without impairment. Forty-seven children (24 males, 23 females; mean age 11y 8mo [SD 2y 6mo]) with spastic diplegia or hemiplegia were matched with children without impairment. The level of disability of the children with CP was…

  11. Brain Connectivity in Non-Reading Impaired Children and Children Diagnosed with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Farris, Emily A.; Ring, Jeremiah; McColl, Roderick; Black, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between white matter and reading abilities in reading impaired and non-reading impaired children. Seventeen children (7 non-reading impaired, 10 reading impaired) participated in this study. DTI was performed with 2 mm isotropic resolution to cover the entire brain along 30…

  12. Annual research review: conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bögels, S.M.; van der Sluis, C.M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  13. Annual research review : conceptualising functional impairment in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapee, R.M.; Bogels, S.M.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the

  14. Investigation of language and motor skills in Serbian speaking children with specific language impairment and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vukovic, Irena; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is usually defined as a developmental language disorder which does not result from a hearing loss, autism, neurological and emotional difficulties, severe social deprivation, low non-verbal abilities. Children affected with SLI typically have difficulties with the acquisition of different aspects of language and by definition, their impairment is specific to language and no other skills are affected. However, there has been a growing body of literature to suggest that children with SLI also have non-linguistic deficits, including impaired motor abilities. The aim of the current study is to investigate language and motor abilities of a group of thirty children with SLI (aged between 4 and 7) in comparison to a group of 30 typically developing children matched for chronological age. The results showed that the group of children with SLI had significantly more difficulties on the language and motor assessments compared to the control group. The SLI group also showed delayed onset in the development of all motor skills under investigation in comparison to the typically developing group. More interestingly, the two groups differed with respect to which language abilities were correlated with motor abilities, however Imitation of Complex Movements was the unique skill which reliably predicted expressive vocabulary in both typically developing children and in children with SLI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-Esteem in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Annette C.; Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; James, Shane L.

    2002-01-01

    A study probed the self-perceptions of 46 children (ages 6-9) and 34 children (ages 10-13) with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers. In the older group, children with SLI perceived themselves more negatively in scholastic competence, social acceptance, and behavioral conduct than typical children. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  16. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilay Açıl, MSN

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children.

  17. Epidemiology, aetiology and management of visual impairment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Rahi, Jugnoo

    2014-04-01

    An estimated 19 million of the world's children are visually impaired, while 1.4 million are blind. Using the UK as a model for high income countries, from a population-based incidence study, the annual cumulative incidence of severe visual impairment/blindness (SVL/BL) is estimated to be 6/10 000 by age 15 years, with the incidence being highest in the first year of life. The population of visually impaired children within high, middle and lower income countries differ considerably between and within countries. The numerous and mainly uncommon disorders which can cause impaired vision result in heterogeneous population which includes a substantial proportion (for SVI/BL, the majority) of children with additional systemic disorders or impairments whose needs differ substantially from those with isolated vision impairment. Paediatricians and other paediatric professionals have a key role in early detection and multidisciplinary management to minimise the impact of visual impairment (VI) in childhood.

  18. A preliminary investigation of sleep quality in functional neurological disorders: Poor sleep appears common, and is associated with functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Christopher D; Kyle, Simon D

    2017-07-15

    Functional neurological disorders (FND) are disabling conditions for which there are few empirically-supported treatments. Disturbed sleep appears to be part of the FND context; however, the clinical importance of sleep disturbance (extent, characteristics and impact) remains largely unknown. We described sleep quality in two samples, and investigated the relationship between sleep and FND-related functional impairment. We included a sample recruited online via patient charities (N=205) and a consecutive clinical sample (N=20). Participants completed validated measures of sleep quality and sleep characteristics (e.g. total sleep time, sleep efficiency), mood, and FND-related functional impairment. Poor sleep was common in both samples (89% in the clinical range), which was characterised by low sleep efficiency (M=65.40%) and low total sleep time (M=6.05h). In regression analysis, sleep quality was negatively associated with FND-related functional impairment, accounting for 16% of the variance and remaining significant after the introduction of mood variables. These preliminary analyses suggest that subjective sleep disturbance (low efficiency, short sleep) is common in FND. Sleep quality was negatively associated with the functional impairment attributed to FND, independent of depression. Therefore, sleep disturbance may be a clinically important feature of FND. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioelements in hair of children with selected neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefczuk, Jan; Kasprzycka, Wiktoria; Czarnecki, Rafał; Graczyk, Alfreda; Józefczuk, Paweł; Krzysztof, Magda; Lampart, Urszula; Mrozowska-Ząbek, Ewa; Surdy, Weronika; Kwiatkowska-Graczyk, Róża

    2017-01-01

    We have analyzed concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) in hair of a group of 82 children with mental retardation, in which 9 patients suffered from epilepsy, 18 from the Down's syndrome and 55 from cerebral palsy. Girls comprised little over 50% of the patients. In the group of boys with epilepsy, we found Mg, Ca, Cu and Fe deficiency, and normal level of Zn. In the group of girls with epilepsy, apart from low Fe concentration, a high level of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu was noted. For girls with the Down's syndrome, a high or normal level of Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu was found, whereas the Fe concentration varied and presented itself in a non-characteristic way. Both groups of children with cerebral palsy, i.e. boys and girls, displayed low Fe concentration in their hair; low Cu level was found in older patients as well. In this group of patients, we also noted high concentrations of Ca, Mg and Zn in girls and normal in boys. A high concentration of Ca in girls with cerebral palsy requires separate analysis. The obtained results could be useful as guidance in the direction and determination of the amount of possible patient nutritional supplementation.

  20. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    additional evidence that postnatal arsenic exposure impairs neurological function in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Attitudes of typically developing children's parents toward inclusive education of visually impaired preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of pilot research on attitudes of parents who have typically developing children toward integrating children with visual impairments into regular preschool education system. The research is the result of a study on the advantages of adapted questionnaire which assesses attitudes of typically developing children's parents on inclusion of children with visual impairments. The sample consists of 34 parents who have typically developing children. We analyzed their attitudes toward inclusion of children with visual impairments and the relation of those attitudes with gender and education. The results contribute to better understanding of the position of visually impaired children in the inclusive education system.

  2. Screening of Visually Impaired Children for Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıl, Dilay; Ayaz, Sultan

    2015-12-01

    Disability is a significant problem and is accepted globally as a health priority in childhood. Like nonvisually impaired children, visually impaired children also need to use health services during childhood. The purpose of this study was to determine the health problems of visually impaired children. A descriptive design was used. The subjects were 74 children with visual impairment attending primary school (aged 5-14 years), who agreed to participate and whose parents gave permission. Data were collected via physical examination including questionnaires and a physical assessment form. The health screening included physical measurements for height, weight, blood pressure, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis. The mean age of children was 10.43 ± 2.9 years. When the health screening results of children were examined, it was found that 25.7% of the children were overweight or obese, 35.1% of them had dental problems, 27.0% had hearing problems, and 39.2% had scoliosis risk. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were normal in 91.8% and 93.2% of the children, respectively. These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Children with motor impairment related to cerebral palsy: Prevalence, severity and concurrent impairments in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Chen, Gong; Wang, Zhenjie; Guo, Chao; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2017-05-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of motor impairment in childhood. This study aimed to examine the prevalence, severity and concurrent impairments of CP-related motor impairment among Chinese children. Children with CP-related motor impairment aged 0-17 years were identified through a national population-based survey based on World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Logistic regression models allowing for weights were used to examine individual and family factors in relation to CP-related motor impairment. The weighted prevalence of CP-related motor impairment was 1.25 per 1000 children (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.35) in China. Male children, children in multiples and in families where adults suffered from CP, were more likely to be affected by CP-related motor impairment. For mild, moderate, severe and extremely severe groups of motor impairment, weighted proportions of CP were 14.12% (95%CI: 11.70, 16.95), 20.35% (95%CI: 17.48, 23.56), 27.44% (95%CI: 24.25, 30.87) and 38.09% (95%CI: 34.55, 41.76), respectively; and weighted proportions of concurrent visual, hearing and cognitive impairment were 5.00% (95%CI: 3.59, 6.91), 6.98% (95%CI: 5.34, 9.08) and 71.06% (95%CI: 67.57, 74.31), respectively. Gender, multiple births and family adults with CP were significantly associated with CP-related motor impairment in Chinese children. Proportions of CP and concurrent impairments that increased with severity of motor impairment were observed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç; Aysun İdil; Hüban Atilla; Ayşen Topalkara; Cem Alay

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination inc...

  5. Oral characteristics of children with visual or auditory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimstein, Enrique; Jerrell, Roy G; Weaver, James P; Dailey, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the demographics and oral characteristics of deaf or blind children and adolescents receiving dental treatment at an institution for the deaf and blind (DBC); (2) compare this information to children and adolescents with no systemic disease or impairments attending a dental university clinic (UC); and (3) compare the oral characteristics between visually or auditorily impaired children and adolescents. The demographics and oral characteristics of 120 DBC patients and 119 UC patients and between 35 visually impaired and 85 auditorily impaired were compared using analysis of variance, chi-square, Fisher's exact, and multiple regression analyses. When controlling for age, there was no statistically significant difference between the UC and the DBC patients regarding caries prevalence. A significantly higher proportion of DBC children had gingival inflammation. Visually impaired patients had a statistically higher level of dependence on caretakers and higher gingivitis and plaque scores than the auditorily impaired. Under oral health supervision, children and adolescents with or without hearing or visual impairment develop similar dental caries prevalence. Oral hygiene and resulting gingival inflammation are a challenge for the visually impaired and, to a lesser degree, the auditorily impaired.

  6. Performance on the Test of Memory Malingering in children with neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Danielle M; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; Kirkwood, Michael W; Sherman, Elisabeth M S; Brooks, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the use of performance validity tests with youth, relatively little is known about how children and adolescents with neurological diagnoses perform on these measures. The purpose of this study was to examine performance on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a general pediatric neurologic sample. Data were obtained from 266 consecutive patients (mean age = 13.0, SD = 3.7, range = 5-18) referred for a neuropsychological assessment in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. As part of a broader neuropsychological battery, patients were administered the TOMM. In this sample, 94% of children passed the TOMM. Pass rate was 87% for 5-7 year-olds but was ≥ 90% for all other ages. Children with a history of stroke had the lowest pass rate (86%), with other diagnostic groups scoring ≥ 90%, including epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and hydrocephalus. Lower TOMM performance was related to slower processing speed and weaker memory performance. The results support using the TOMM with children and adolescents who have neurological diagnoses. Caution may still be warranted when interpreting scores in those who are younger and/or who have more significant cognitive difficulty.

  7. Severe influenza among children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions - Ohio, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    Children with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are at increased risk for severe outcomes from influenza, including death. In April 2011, the Ohio Department of Health and CDC investigated an influenza outbreak that began in February 2011 in a residential facility for 130 children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. This report summarizes the characteristics and clinical courses of 13 severely ill residents with suspected or confirmed influenza; 10 were hospitalized, and seven died. Diagnosis is challenging in this population, and clinicians should consider influenza in patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions who have respiratory illness or a decline in baseline medical status when influenza is circulating in the community. Prompt testing, early and aggressive antiviral treatment, and antiviral chemoprophylaxis are important for these patients. When influenza is suspected, antiviral treatment should be given as soon as possible after symptom onset, ideally within 48 hours. Treatment should not wait for laboratory confirmation of influenza. During outbreaks, antiviral chemoprophylaxis should be provided to all residents of institutional facilities (e.g., nursing homes and long-term- care facilities), regardless of vaccination status. Residential facilities for patients with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions are encouraged to vaccinate all eligible residents and staff members against influenza.

  8. Coping with chronic neurological impairment: a contrastive analysis of Parkinson's disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, M; Freyholdt, U; Fuchs, G; Wallesch, C W

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed at a contrastive analysis of coping strategies and psychosocial alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke (CVA) and their relatives. Fifty-four PD and 50 CVA patients were investigated with a standardized semistructured interview to assess the severity of psychosocial changes following illness, the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness, the Cornell Depression Scale and instruments to assess motor impairment. Psychosocial alterations were most prominent in the professional and emotional-cognitive domains. Degree of depression correlated with familial and emotional-cognitive alterations in both patient groups. Active problem-oriented coping and distraction predominated as coping styles. Religious relief and quest for sense were significantly more important for the PD patients. Coping styles did not correlate with degrees of depression, motor impairment or psychosocial alterations.

  9. Visual-perceptual impairment in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego, Anne; Lidzba, Karen; Brovedani, Paola; Belmonti, Vittorio; Gonzalez-Monge, Sibylle; Boudia, Baya; Ritz, Annie; Cans, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception is one of the cognitive functions often impaired in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the frequency of visual-perceptual impairment (VPI) and its relationship with patient characteristics. Eligible studies were relevant papers assessing visual perception with five common standardized assessment instruments in children with CP published from January 1990 to August 2011. Of the 84 studies selected, 15 were retained. In children with CP, the proportion of VPI ranged from 40% to 50% and the mean visual perception quotient from 70 to 90. None of the studies reported a significant influence of CP subtype, IQ level, side of motor impairment, neuro-ophthalmological outcomes, or seizures. The severity of neuroradiological lesions seemed associated with VPI. The influence of prematurity was controversial, but a lower gestational age was more often associated with lower visual motor skills than with decreased visual-perceptual abilities. The impairment of visual perception in children with CP should be considered a core disorder within the CP syndrome. Further research, including a more systematic approach to neuropsychological testing, is needed to explore the specific impact of CP subgroups and of neuroradiological features on visual-perceptual development. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  10. Attentional and Executive Impairments in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function. Method: We examined attention and executive function with standardized neuropsychological measures in a group of children with unilateral…

  11. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  12. Early Childhood Education of Children with Specific Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emma; Hammond, Lorraine

    2008-01-01

    Early intervention for children with specific language impairment by teachers with experience in supporting their needs is critical to language acquisition. In Western Australia this small number of children are catered for in designated settings with specialised teachers. The length of time that these children are able to access intensive…

  13. Visual Speech Perception in Children with Language Learning Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Evans, Sam; Snell, Caroline; Rosen, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the ability of children with developmental language learning impairments (LLIs) to use visual speech cues from the talking face. Method: In this cross-sectional study, 41 typically developing children (mean age: 8 years 0 months, range: 4 years 5 months to 11 years 10 months) and 27 children with…

  14. Motor impairment in children with Neurofibromatosis type 1: Effect of the comorbidity with language disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Stéphanie; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Chignac, Céline; Faure-Marie, Nathalie; Barry, Isabelle; Karsenty, Caroline; Chaix, Yves

    2016-02-01

    There is a body of evidence demonstrating comorbidity of motor and cognitive deficit in «idiopathic» developmental disorders. These associations are also found in developmental disorders secondary to monogenic disorders as in Neurofibromatosis type 1 for which the principal complication during childhood is learning disabilities. The comparison of motor impairment between developmental disorders either idiopathic or secondary as in NF1 could help us to better understand the cause of the combined language/motor deficit in these populations. The aim of this current study was to investigate motor impairment in children with NF1 for which oral language had been specified and then to compare the motors skills of the NF1 group to motor performance of children with Specific Language Disorder (SLD). Two groups of 49 children between 5 and 12years old were included and compared, the NF1 group and the SLD (Specific Language Disorder) group. Each child completed evaluation involving cognitive, language and motor assessment. In NF1 group, motor impairment was more frequent and more severe and concerned specifically balance rather than manual dexterity or ball skills, compared to a group of children with SLD. This motor impairment was independent of language status in the NF1 group. These results as well as other studies on the same topic could suggest that in NF1 children, fine motor skills impairment would be dependent on the existence of comorbidity with language disorders. Also, that gross motor skills impairment, and more precisely the balance deficit would be characteristic of NF1. This issue encourages studies of procedural learning that can involve the fronto-striatal or the fronto-cerebellar loops according to the type of motor tasks and the stage of learning. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of a Novel, Short-Term Therapeutic Psychoeducational Program for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Neurological Illness and Their Parents; Feasibility and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonglim Joo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this intervention was to develop a therapeutic psycho-educational program that improves quality of life in children and adolescents who are experiencing chronic neurological illness, including epilepsy, and their parents, and to analyze the intervention's feasibility and efficacy and participants' satisfaction. Participants were eight children (n = 8 and adolescents and their parents; participating children were experiencing chronic neurological illness with psychological comorbidity; children with intellectual impairment were excluded (IQ < 80. The program was carried out weekly for four sessions. In each of the 4 weeks, children's session content addressed self, emotion, coping skills, and finishing up, respectively; and parents' session content targeted family dynamic and emotional intervention, coping skills, childcare and education, and finishing up, respectively. Clinical psychologists administered psychological assessments (viz., Child Behavior Checklist, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Parenting Stress Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale at pre- and post-intervention, and administered satisfaction surveys following the intervention. Participants' opinions about the program's necessity, contents, and process, and participants' overall program satisfaction were analyzed. Parents and children reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. Externalizing behavioral problems, anxiety/depression, and emotional functioning from quality of life showed improvement after the intervention. Although not statistically significant, total child stress trended downward from pre- to post-intervention. A four-session structured therapeutic psycho-educational program for children and adolescents with chronic neurological illness and their parents was successfully implemented, showing good compliance and high satisfaction and efficacy.

  16. Assessment of phonological representations in children with speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dean; Gillon, Gail T

    2005-10-01

    This study explored the use of assessment tasks to examine underlying phonological representations in preschool children with speech impairment. The study also investigated the association between performance on phonological representation tasks and phonological awareness development. The performance of 9 children (aged 3;09 [years; months] to 5;03) with moderate or severe speech impairment and 17 children of the same age with typical speech development was investigated on a range of novel receptive-based assessment tasks designed to tap underlying phonological representations. Preschool children with speech impairment experienced more difficulty judging correct and incorrect speech productions of familiar multisyllable words and showed inferior performance in the ability to learn nonwords as compared to children without speech impairment. Performance on these tasks was moderately correlated with phonological awareness ability. Factors such as the precision and accessibility of underlying phonological representations of spoken words may contribute to problems in phonological awareness and subsequent reading development for young children with speech impairment. Receptive-based assessments that examine underlying phonological representations provide clinically relevant information for children with speech impairment.

  17. The Effects of Chiropractic Treatment on Students With Learning and Behavioral Impairments Due to Neurological Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E. V.; Brzozowski, Walter T.

    The effects of chiropractic treatment on children with learning and behavioral problems was investigated with 24 elementary and secondary level students, 12 receiving regular chiropractic treatment and 12 receiving medication. Results indicated that chiropractic treatment was more effective for the wide range symptoms common in the neurological…

  18. Visual impairment in children and adolescents in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.

  19. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term : evidence for sex dimorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K.; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. MethodThis was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically

  20. Prenatal DHA Status and Neurological Outcome in Children at Age 5.5 Years Are Positively Associated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Victoria Escolano-Margarit, M.; Ramos, Rosa; Beyer, Jeannette; Csabi, Gyoergyi; Parrilla-Roure, Montserrat; Cruz, Francisco; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tamas; Koletzko, Berthold V.; Campoy, Cristina

    Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. We assessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary

  1. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling,

  2. Burden, etiology and predictors of visual impairment among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago ...

  3. Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. C Chidziva, J Matsekete, T Bandason, S Shamu, T Dzongodza, N Matinhira, HA Mujuru, C Kunzekwenyika, M Wellington, R Luthy, C Prescott, RA Ferrand ...

  4. Performance on neurological development tests by riverine children with moderate mercury exposure in Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Lydia Maria Bocayuva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system can be damaged when the population is exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg by ingesting fish, and children deserve special attention due to their increased susceptibility as compared to adults. A comparative cross-sectional study was performed in order to investigate the use of a battery of neurological development tests in two groups of 209 riverine children from 3 to 7 years old: a group exposed to moderate levels of MeHg (n = 75 and a control group (n = 134. The study included a questionnaire, the collection of scalp hair samples for determination of total mercury concentration, and performance on a test for evaluating neurological function in children. Riverine children presented higher exposure to MeHg (mean hair Hg = 5.37 ? 3.35mg.g-1 in comparison to the control group (mean Hg = 2.08 ? 1.37mg.g-1. Both groups showed a high proportion of children with what was considered "non-normal" performance, suggesting that the results could not be related to mercury exposure and that this type of test presented limitations for use with river-dwelling Amazon communities.

  5. Performance on neurological development tests by riverine children with moderate mercury exposure in Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lydia Maria Bocayuva; Câmara, Volney Magalhães; Malm, Olaf; Santos, Elisabeth C de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    The nervous system can be damaged when the population is exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) by ingesting fish, and children deserve special attention due to their increased susceptibility as compared to adults. A comparative cross-sectional study was performed in order to investigate the use of a battery of neurological development tests in two groups of 209 riverine children from 3 to 7 years old: a group exposed to moderate levels of MeHg (n = 75) and a control group (n = 134). The study included a questionnaire, the collection of scalp hair samples for determination of total mercury concentration, and performance on a test for evaluating neurological function in children. Riverine children presented higher exposure to MeHg (mean hair Hg = 5.37 +/- 3.35 microg x g(-1)) in comparison to the control group (mean Hg = 2.08 +/- 1.37 microg x g(-1)). Both groups showed a high proportion of children with what was considered "non-normal" performance, suggesting that the results could not be related to mercury exposure and that this type of test presented limitations for use with river-dwelling Amazon communities.

  6. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F Nienke; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Cox, Ralf F A

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with visual impairment (n = 56) compared to a group of children with normal sight (n = 66). Children with visual impairment and children with normal sight aged 4-8 years executed two types of movements (cyclic and discrete) in two orientations (vertical or horizontal) over two distances (10 cm and 20 cm) with two objects resembling the size and shape of regularly prescribed stand and dome magnifiers. The visually impaired children performed slower movements than the normally sighted children. In both groups, the accuracy and speed of the reciprocal aiming movements improved significantly with age. Surprisingly, in both groups, the performance with the dome-shaped object was significantly faster (in the 10 cm condition and 20 cm condition with discrete movements) and more accurate (in the 20 cm condition) than with the stand-shaped object. From a controllability perspective, this study suggests that it is better to prescribe dome-shaped than cylinder-shaped magnifiers to young children with visual impairment. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Concurrent Speech Segregation Problems in Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Talebi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was a basic investigation of the ability of concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. Concurrent segregation is one of the fundamental components of auditory scene analysis and plays an important role in speech perception. In the present study, we compared auditory late responses or ALRs between hearing impaired and normal children. Materials & Methods: Auditory late potentials in response to 12 double vowels were recorded in 10 children with moderate to severe sensory neural hearing loss and 10 normal children. Double vowels (pairs of synthetic vowels were presented concurrently and binaurally. Fundamental frequency (F0 of these vowels and the size of the difference in F0 between vowels was 100 Hz and 0.5 semitones respectively. Results: Comparing N1-P2 amplitude showed statistically significant difference in some stimuli between hearing impaired and normal children (P<0.05. This complex indexing the vowel change detection and reflecting central auditory speech representation without active client participation was decreased in hearing impaired children. Conclusion: This study showed problems in concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children evidenced by ALRs. This information indicated deficiencies in bottom-up processing of speech characteristics based on F0 and its differences in these children.

  8. Working with Hispanic Parents of Visually Impaired Children: Cultural Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, V. I.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the critical issues involved in working with Hispanic families who have visually-impaired children (such as difficulty in accepting the impairment and cultural and linguistic differences) and the ways in which teachers can plan appropriate educational interventions. A demographic profile of Hispanic Americans is provided.…

  9. Burden, etiology and predictors of visual impairment among children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Abstract. Background: Childhood visual impairment (CVI) has not been given due attention. Knowledge of CVI is important in plan- ning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with child- hood visual impairment among the children ...

  10. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to…

  11. Assessing multilingual children: disentangling bilingualism from language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armon-Lotem, S.; de Jong, J.; Meir, N.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of tools for assessing the linguistic abilities of bilingual children. It aims to disentangle effects of bilingualism from those of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), making use of both models of bilingualism and models of language impairment.

  12. Automatically Adapting Home Lighting to Assist Visually Impaired Children

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Euan; Wilson, Graham; Brewster, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    For visually impaired children, activities like finding everyday items, locating favourite toys and moving around the home can be challenging. Assisting them during these activities is important because it promotes independence and encourages them to use and develop their remaining visual function. We describe our work towards a system that adapts the lighting conditions at home to help visually impaired children with everyday tasks. We discuss scenarios that show how they may benefit from ad...

  13. Development of parenting skills of parents with visual impaired children.

    OpenAIRE

    GOŠOVÁ, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor´s thesis is the development of parenting skills of parents with visual impaired children. The thesis puts a target in presenting parenting skills of parents with visual impaired children and subsequently finds out real possibilities of development of parenting skills in educational consultancy devices in the capital of the Czech Republic. In compliance with the goals mentioned above were formulated two partial goals: to make a discovery of real possibilities of deve...

  14. Comparison of micronutrient levels in children with cerebral palsy and neurologically normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Swati; Aggarwal, Anju; Chillar, Neelam; Faridi, M M A

    2015-02-01

    To measure levels of micronutrients in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with neurologically normal children of similar nutritional status. Fifty children with cerebral palsy (2-12 y) and 50 age and sex matched controls of similar nutritional status were enrolled. Detailed dietary history was recorded and nutritional status assessed. Venous blood (3 ml) was drawn for analysis. Micronutrient levels were measured as per standard technique. Serum iron was 12.6 ± 5.9 and 20.9 ± 3.3 μmol/L in CP and controls respectively (P  0.05). There was no difference in micronutrient levels with respect to gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS) grades and limb involvement (P > 0.05). The serum levels of iron, copper and magnesium are significantly less in children with cerebral palsy, hence the need for supplementation.

  15. Clinical Features and Neurologic Complications of Children Hospitalized With Chikungunya Virus in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, José A; Hagood, Nancy L; Summer, Andrea; Medina, Marco T; Holden, Kenton R

    2017-07-01

    The first case of Chikungunya virus in Honduras was identified in 2014. The virus has spread widely across Honduras via the Aedes aegypti mosquito, leading to an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2015 that significantly impacted children. A retrospective chart review of 235 children diagnosed with CHIKV and admitted to the National Autonomous University of Honduras Hospital Escuela (Hospital Escuela) in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, was accomplished with patients who were assessed for clinical features and neurologic complications. Of 235 children admitted to Hospital Escuela with CHIKV, the majority had symptoms of fever, generalized erythematous rash, and irritability. Fourteen percent had clinical arthritis. Ten percent of patients had seizures. Six percent had meningoencephalitis. There were 2 childhood deaths during the course of this study, one from meningoencephalitis and another from myocarditis. Chikungunya virus can cause severe complications in children, the majority of which impact the central nervous system.

  16. A procedure for testing prospective remembering in persons with neurological impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, N; Knight, R G

    2000-10-01

    A video-based procedure for assessing prospective remembering (PR) in brain-injured clients is described. In this task, a list of instructions is given, each comprising an action (buy a hamburger) and a cue (at McDonalds), which are to be recalled while watching a videotape segment showing the view of a person walking through a shopping area. A group of 12 clients with varying degrees of memory impairment undergoing rehabilitation completed both a video test and a comparable task in real-life. Significant correlations were found between the two measures, indicating that a video-based analogue can be used to estimate prospective remembering in real life. Scores on the PR task were associated with accuracy of recall on a word-list task, but not with the Working Memory Index of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, suggesting that the task is sensitive to levels of amnesic deficit.

  17. Quantitative Postural Analysis of Children With Congenital Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Sylvain; Planchou, Clément; Béland, Renée; Motte, Jacques; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012). The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Corriveau et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2012). In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al., under revision). Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in eight children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD) matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions) or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition). The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents). In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  19. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  20. Comprehensive visual impairment evaluation for cerebral palsy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual impairment in cerebral palsy children with series objective indicators, and conclude their clinical features of visual function.METHODS: Objective tests including following pursuing test, optokinetic nystagmus(OKNdrum test, refractive error examination, fundus examination, ocular deviation examination, pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPtests and brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRIwere carried out in 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith ocular visual dysfunction; The visual impairment data of the cerebral palsy children were collected, and the clinical features and possible mechanism were analyzed.RESULTS: 1. Of the 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith the visual impairment presented diversified, 25(50 eyes, 58.1%of refractive error, 24(48 eyes, 55.8%of strabismus, 12(24 eyes, 27.9%with nystagmus, 19(38 eyes, 44.2%of optical nerve atrophy or hyperplasia, 35(70 eyes, 81.4%of VEP abnormality. Among children with spastic cerebral palsy, the incidence of visual impairment was statistically significant difference compared with other groups(PP>0.05, no nystagmus in patients with severe occipital cortex damage.CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy children were usually with visual impairment, and presented with special clinical features; Comprehensive objective visual tests are accurate and reliable for evaluation of the visual function in cerebral palsy children.

  1. Omega-3 LC-PUFA supply and neurological outcomes in children with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beblo, Skadi; Demmelmair, Hans; Hanebutt, Fabienne L

    2009-03-01

    Children with phenylketonuria (PKU) follow a diet with very low intakes of natural protein, which is devoid of food sources of the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A resulting DHA depletion has been demonstrated in PKU children and may account for detectable subtle neurological deficits that are not explained by variation in plasma phenylalanine concentrations. We supplemented 36 children with PKU ages 1 to 11 years for 3 months with encapsulated fish oil providing a daily dose of 15 mg DHA/kg body weight. DHA supplementation resulted in significantly faster visual evoked potential latencies, indicating more rapid central nervous system information processing. In addition, DHA significantly improved outcomes in a test of motor function and coordination. No changes over time were seen in age-matched healthy controls. Because the PKU children had a good supply of the omega-3 precursor alpha-linolenic acid, these observations lead us to conclude that endogenous conversion of alpha-linolenic acid is not sufficient to provide adequate amounts of DHA that support optimal function, and hence DHA appears to be a conditional essential substrate for children with PKU. Because early treated PKU children are healthy, with normal fatty acid turnover, these data may indicate a need to supply some DHA to children in general. Further studies are ongoing aiming at establishing quantitative DHA requirements in children.

  2. Update on the key developments of the neurologic complications in children infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Jo M; Donald, Kirsten A; Eley, Brian

    2014-11-01

    To discuss recent research findings of neurologic complications in HIV-infected children, specifically addressing neuroinfections, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive complications. The range of neurologic childhood onset complications is diverse and often overlaps diseases previously considered only to manifest in adults. In the pediatric population, these complications frequently have their own unique disease identity, which may be related to maturational patterns evident in the developing brain. Developments regarding the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS, treatment of tuberculous meningitis and prevention of bacterial meningitis are described. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is greater insight into silent cerebrovascular events and the progression of vasculopathy in HIV-infected children. The role of surgical intervention for affected cases is a novel area that could alter the otherwise poor prognosis. Epilepsy, although common as a burden of disease, carries its own additional complications with regard to cross reactivity with various antiretroviral therapies. Increased risk of low bone mineral density supports a role for supplementation with vitamin D in people receiving antiretroviral therapy and antiepileptic drugs. Recognition of the early neurobiological, as well as spectrum of neurocognitive effects of the HIV on the developing brain, is evolving, as greater numbers of children are treated early. Developments in these critical areas are described. Recent research reflects the need for improved strategies to prevent neuroinfections, more effective screening and interventions for vasculopathy and better antiepileptic drugs for HIV-infected children. Furthermore, our understanding of the timing and spectrum of neurocognitive complications is evolving.

  3. Implicit Spoken Words and Motor Sequences Learning Are Impaired in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to compare verbal and motor implicit sequence learning abilities in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Forty-eight children (24 control and 24 SLI) were administered the Serial Search Task (SST), which enables the simultaneous assessment of implicit spoken words and visuomotor sequences learning. Results showed that control children implicitly learned both the spoken words as well as the motor sequences. In contrast, children with SLI showed deficits in both types of learning. Moreover, correlational analyses revealed that SST performance was linked with grammatical abilities in control children but with lexical abilities in children with SLI. Overall, this pattern of results supports the procedural deficit hypothesis and suggests that domain general implicit sequence learning is impaired in SLI.

  4. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Visual Impairment, Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimovic, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method: We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on "Child Behavior Check…

  5. Vegetative status characteristics in children with neurological pathology on the background of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyazka O.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system are the most common pathological conditions detected in 20% - 85% of children and adolescents according to different authors' data. Assessment of the vegetative status in the period of intensive growth and differentiation of organs and tissues that is characteristic of childhood is of great practical importance. Identification of vegetative dysregulation is an important diagnostic measure in children's health status evaluation especially in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia (UNDCT taking into account its genetic determinism and debut in childhood. Genetically determined biochemical disorders in the connective tissue followed by formation of characteristic pathological substrates cause dysregulation of sympathoadrenal system and correlate with UNDCT severity degree. Material and methods. There were 100 children aged from 5 to 16 years engaged in the investigation. All of them were treated in the neurological department of the City clinical hospital №4. All patients were divided into two groups: basic group, which included 50 children with neurological disorders and UNDC, and control one, which consisted of 50 children with neurological disorders without UNDCT. The survey included obstetric history analysis, anthropometry to determine the ratio of longitudinal and transverse dimensions (the index of Vervica; clinical and neurological examination (study of reflex&motor areas, sensory function, coordination; laboratory methods (clinical blood count and biochemical blood tests to determine the level of potassium and calcium ions, instrumental methods (electroencephalography, rheoencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Osokina's table was used for baseline autonomic tone assessment. The evaluation was conducted by counting the number of signs. Subsequently was performed the summation of the scores with the determination of the percentage of predominant

  6. Neurological profile and neurodevelopment of 88 children infected with HIV and 84 seroreverter children followed from 1995 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tannous Tahan

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of neurological compromise in HIV-infected children accompanied by the outpatient clinic of infectious diseases and pediatric neurology of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR starting in 1995. Long-term progressive prospective and cross sectional study of 88 children infected by HIV and 84 seroreverter children, using data from general neurological examinations, neuroimaging procedures (brain CT scan and neurodevelopmental tests (CAT/CLAMS and DENVER I and II. Neurological and neurodevelopmental alterations were found in 82% of the HIV-infected patients and in 36% of the HIV-seroreverter group (P <0.01. In the CAT/CLAMS test, the development quotient (DQ of the HIV-infected group was significantly lower than that of the HIV-seroreverter group. CAT/CLAMS scores lower than 70 (mental deficiency were found in 31% of the HIV-infected patients during the first year of life and in only 1% of the patients of the HIV-seroreverter group, demonstrating the validity of this screening test for precocious detection of alterations in the neurodevelopment of infected patients. The same occurred with the Denver I and II tests, as the HIV-infected group failed more frequently than the HIV-seroreverter group. Nine HIV-infected children presented altered brain CT scans; calcification of basal ganglia was the main finding (five cases. Encephalopathy due to HIV causes early arrest of neurodevelopment, which can be detected with screening tests during the first year of life.

  7. [Adaptation and validation of the neurological soft sign's scale of Krebs et al. to children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halayem, S; Hammami, M; Fakhfakh, R; Gaddour, N; Tabbane, K; Amado, I; Krebs, M-O; Bouden, A

    2017-04-01

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) include anomalies in motor integration, coordination, sensory integration and lateralization and could be endophenotypic markers in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Their characterization provides a more precise phenotype of ASD and more homogeneous subtypes to facilitate clinical and genetic research. Few scales for NSS have been adapted and validated in children including children with ASD. Our objective was to perform an adaptation to the child of a scale assessing neurological soft signs and a validation study in both general and clinical populations. We have selected the NSS scale of Krebs et al. (2000) already validated in adults. It encompasses 5 dimensions: motor coordination, motor integration, sensory integration, involuntary movement, laterality. After a preliminary study that examined 42 children, several changes have been made to the original version to adapt it to the child and to increase its feasibility, particularly in children with ASD. Then we conducted a validation study by assessing the psychometric properties of this scale in a population of 86 children including 26 children with ASD (DSM 5 Criteria) and 60 typically developing children. Children's ages ranged between 6 and 12 years, and patients and controls were matched for gender, age and intelligence. Patients were assessed using the Autism diagnostic Interview-revised and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to confirm diagnosis. Typically developing children were assessed using the semi-structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to eliminate any psychiatric disorder. All children with neurological pathologies (history of cerebral palsy, congenital anomaly of the central nervous system, epilepsy, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, antecedent of severe head trauma) and obvious physical deformities or sensory deficits that could interfere with neurological assessment were excluded from the study. Both patients

  8. Inflectional morphology in German hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penke, Martina; Wimmer, Eva; Hennies, Johannes; Hess, Markus; Rothweiler, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Despite modern hearing aids, children with hearing impairment often have only restricted access to spoken language input during the 'critical' years for language acquisition. Specifically, a sensorineural hearing impairment affects the perception of voiceless coronal consonants which realize verbal affixes in German. The aim of this study is to explore if German hearing-impaired children have problems in producing and/or acquiring inflectional suffixes expressed by such phonemes. The findings of two experiments (an elicitation task and a picture-naming task) conducted with a group of hearing-impaired monolingual German children (age 3-4 years) demonstrate that difficulties in perceiving specific phonemes relate to the avoidance of these same sounds in speech production independent of the grammatical function these phonemes have.

  9. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  11. Music Identification Skills of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. Aims:…

  12. Written Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J.; Larkin, Rebecca F.; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. Aims: To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with…

  13. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  14. Causative Alternations of Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Pye, Clifton; Richardson, Lori Zobel; Redmond, Sean

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of 21 children (ages 5 and 6) with specific language impairment (SLI) to use verbs which can alternate between transitive and intransitive contexts to indicate or relinquish cause. SLI children were proficient in lexically alternating verbs, yet provided fewer passive and periphrastic constructions and more…

  15. Shape of magnifiers affects controllability in children with visual impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, J.; Boonstra, F.N.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Cox, R.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. Methods: This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with

  16. Referential Communication Skills of Learning Disabled/Language Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meline, Timothy J.

    1986-01-01

    Compares the communicative behaviors of 18 learning disabled/language impaired (LD/LI) children with two matched groups of normally developing children. LD and normal groups were matched up by age and language mates, and observed for evidence of communicative effectiveness and verbal output. Findings of the study are discussed and related to the…

  17. Functional impairment and mental health functioning among Vietnamese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942

  18. Neurological assessment of 38 late-diagnosed children with classic phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Haytoglu

    2016-03-01

    Material and Methods: Thirty-eight late-diagnosed classic phenylketonuria patients were enrolled in the study. Plasma phenylalanine levels were measured by spectrofluorometric method. MRI was evaluated by a pediatric neuroradiologist. Ankara developmental screening inventory (ADSI and Wechsler intelligence scale for Turkish children (WISC-R test were performed to detect IQ scores. Porteus Mazo test adapted for Turkish children intelligence test were performed to all children. The EEG of all patients were recorded. VEP was used to measure the electrical activity in the brain to visual stimulus. Results: The high plasma phenylalanine levels and late-diagnosis were associated with low IQ scores, pathological EEG, and pathological VEP patterns. High PA levels were also associated with more serious white matter signal abnormalities. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the impact of early diagnosis and low levels of phenylalanine at diagnosis on the intellectual, neurological development and visual outcomes. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 21-27

  19. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

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    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  20. Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alison Presmanes; van Santen, Jan; Gorman, Kyle; Langhorst, Beth Hoover; Fombonne, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A subgroup of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have significant language impairments (phonology, grammar, vocabulary), although such impairments are not considered to be core symptoms of and are not unique to ASD. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) display similar impairments in language. Given evidence for phenotypic and possibly etiologic overlap between SLI and ASD, it has been suggested that language-impaired children with ASD (ASD + language impairment, ALI) may be characterized as having both ASD and SLI. However, the extent to which the language phenotypes in SLI and ALI can be viewed as similar or different depends in part upon the age of the individuals studied. The purpose of the current study is to examine differences in memory abilities, specifically those that are key "markers" of heritable SLI, among young school-age children with SLI, ALI, and ALN (ASD + language normal). In this cross-sectional study, three groups of children between ages 5 and 8 years participated: SLI (n = 18), ALI (n = 22), and ALN (n = 20). A battery of cognitive, language, and ASD assessments was administered as well as a nonword repetition (NWR) test and measures of verbal memory, visual memory, and processing speed. NWR difficulties were more severe in SLI than in ALI, with the largest effect sizes in response to nonwords with the shortest syllable lengths. Among children with ASD, NWR difficulties were not associated with the presence of impairments in multiple ASD domains, as reported previously. Verbal memory difficulties were present in both SLI and ALI groups relative to children with ALN. Performance on measures related to verbal but not visual memory or processing speed were significantly associated with the relative degree of language impairment in children with ASD, supporting the role of verbal memory difficulties in language impairments among early school-age children with ASD. The primary difference between

  1. Assessing Functional Impairment in Siblings Living With Children With Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. METHODS: This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. RESULTS: On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment is a key indicator for the need of mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability. PMID:23897909

  2. Intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders in Benin City, Nigeria: intensity and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneri, Damia Uchechukwu; Ibadin, Michael Okoeguale; Ofovwe, Gabriel Egberue; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral aberrations such as nail biting, finger sucking, and pica have been postulated as risk factors that enhance helminths ova transmission. These aberrations may present commonly in children with chronic neurological disorders and predispose them to heavy intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. This comparative cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and behavioral risk factors for intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders and apparently healthy controls. Fresh stool samples from 155 children (2-17 years) with chronic neurological disorders seen at the child neurology clinic and 155 age and sex matched controls from nursery and primary schools in Benin City were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique for detection of ova of helminths from November 2008 to April 2009. The prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis (31.0%) was significantly higher in children with chronic neurological disorders compared with the controls (19.4%) (P=0.03). The intensity of infections in both groups was light ranging 24-144 eggs per gram. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were the intestinal helminths isolated in both groups. Behavioral aberrations were significantly more represented in the subjects than in the controls (Pworming exercise were practices significantly associated with decreased prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in the subjects and controls. Behavioral modification in children with chronic neurological disorders should be an integral part of the control program for intestinal helminthiasis.

  3. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangirana, Paul; Menk, Jeremiah; John, Chandy C; Boivin, Michael J; Hodges, James S

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement. 62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention) and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic) three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation models (SEM) were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance. In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, pWorking memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance. Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific cognitive outcome measures. Working memory, visual spatial skills, and learning together stood out as the best combination to predict academic performance.

  4. Acute flaccid paralysis in South African children: Causes, respiratory complications and neurological outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pijl, Jolanda; Wilmshurst, Jo M; van Dijk, Monique; Argent, Andrew; Booth, Jane; Zampoli, Marco

    2017-09-28

    To describe the causes, clinical presentation and neurological outcome of acute flaccid paralysis in children. A retrospective study in a tertiary paediatric hospital in South Africa. Data on clinical presentation, respiratory complications and long-term neurological outcomes of children presenting with acute flaccid paralysis were collected. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine predictors for the need of mechanical ventilation. The study included 119 patients, 99 of whom had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); 47 patients (39.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Backward logistic regression analysis revealed that bulbar dysfunction (P < 0.001), autonomic dysfunction (P = 0.003) and upper limb paralysis (P = 0.038) significantly predicted the need for mechanical ventilation. EuroQol-5D scores of self-care problems and usual activities after discharge significantly declined over time. In this large series from Africa, GBS was the main cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children and was associated with significant morbidity. Other causes of acute flaccid paralysis mimicking GBS were not uncommon and should be excluded in this setting. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Impaired odor identification in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Emily; Szajer, Jacquelyn; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P; Murphy, Claire

    2013-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to behavioral and cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Many of the brain regions impacted by prenatal alcohol exposure are also linked with olfactory processing, and odor identification deficits have been documented in certain neurological disorders associated with these brain regions. As odor identification following prenatal alcohol exposure is not well studied, we compared odor identification in children with prenatal exposure to alcohol (AE) to typically developing controls (CON) (N = 16/group). It was hypothesized that children in the AE group would perform more poorly than children in the CON group on the San Diego Odor Identification Test, an identification test of 8 common household odorants. Children exposed to alcohol during prenatal development were significantly impaired in olfactory identification (M = 5.95, SE = 0.37) compared to typically developing controls (M = 7.24, SE = 0.37). These findings confirmed the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with odor identification deficits, and suggest that further research is warranted to identify the mechanisms underlying these deficits, the integrity of brain areas that are involved, and to determine whether olfactory performance might contribute to better identification of children at risk for behavioral and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Causes of visual impairment in children with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mufarriq; Khan, Mirzaman; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Mohammad Younas; Saeed, Nasir

    2011-02-01

    To determine the main causes of visual impairment in children with low vision. To assess the need of spectacles and low vision devices (LVDs) in children and to evaluate visual outcome after using their LVDs for far and near distance. Observational study. Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, from June 2006 to December 2007. The clinical record of 270 children with low vision age 4-16 years attending the Low Vision Clinic were included. All those children, aged 4-16 years, who had corrected visual acuity (VA) less than 6/18 in the better eye after medical or surgical treatment, were included in the study. WHO low vision criteria were used to classify into visually impaired, severe visually impaired and blind. Results were described as percentage frequencies. One hundred and eighty nine (70%) were males and 81 (30%) were females. The male to female ratio was 2.3:1. The main causes of visual impairment included nystagmus (15%), Stargardt's disease (14%), maculopathies (13%), myopic macular degeneration (11%) and oculocutaneous albinism (7%). The percentages of visually impaired, severe visually impaired and blind were 33.8%, 27.2% and 39.0% respectively. Spectacles were prescribed to 146 patients and telescopes were prescribed to 75 patients. Spectacles and telescope both were prescribed to 179 patients while Ocutech telescope was prescribed to 4 patients. Retinal diseases nystagmus and macular conditions were mainly responsible for low vision in children. Visually impaired children especially with hereditary/congenital ocular anomalies benefit from refraction and low vision services which facilitate vision enhancement and inclusive education.

  7. Syntactic development in Japanese hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Akie; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Taguchi, Tomoko; Omori, Kana; Kasai, Norio; Nishio, Shinya; Sugaya, Akiko; Nagayasu, Rie; Konishi, Takayuki; Sugishita, Syuuhei; Fujita, Jyunpei; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Shiroma, Masae

    2012-04-01

    This study examined syntactic development of auditory comprehension of sentences in Japanese-speaking school-age children with and without hearing impairment. In total, 592 preschool and school-age children (421 normal-hearing and 171 hearing-impaired) were included in this cross-sectional observation study conducted using the Syntactic Processing Test for Aphasia for Japanese language users. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the estimated age at which each syntactic structure was acquired. Acquisition of syntactic structures was observed in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children. Basic word order sentences of agent-object-verb and the goal benefactive construction were acquired at preschool age (earlier group), whereas reverse word order sentences of object-agent-verb, source benefactive construction, passive voice, and relative clauses were acquired at school age (later group). The results showed that many hearing-impaired children may not acquire Japanese grammatical structures until the age of 12 years. Adequate screening for language development for school-age hearing-impaired children is required for an effective intervention.

  8. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Boonstra, Frouke N

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired children seem to choose a standard but less

  9. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched children with normal vision. After seeing a first symbol (an Lea Hyvärinen [LH] symbol), children were instructed to (1) move the stand magnifier as quickly as possible toward a small target symbol (another LH symbol that could only be seen by using the magnifier), (2) compare the two symbols, and (3) move the magnifier to one of two response areas to indicate whether the two symbols were identical. Performance was measured in terms of accuracy, response time, identification time, and movement time. Viewing distance, as well as hand and eye dominance while using the magnifier was assessed. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in accuracy, reaction time, and movement time. Contrary to the prediction, children with visual impairment required less time to identify small symbols than children with normal vision. Both within-subject and between-subject variability in viewing distance were smaller in the visually impaired group than in the normally sighted group. In the visually impaired group, a larger viewing distance was associated with shorter identification time, which in turn was associated with higher accuracy. In the normally sighted group, a faster movement with the magnifier and a faster identification were associated with increasing age. Conclusion: The findings indicate that children with visual impairment can use the stand magnifier adequately and efficiently. The normally sighted children show an age-related development in movement time and identification time and show more variability in viewing distance, which is not found in visually impaired children. Visually impaired

  10. Impaired Visual Attention in Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiervang, Einar; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    A cue-target visual attention task was administered to 25 children (ages 10-12) with dyslexia. Results showed a general pattern of slower responses in the children with dyslexia compared to controls. Subjects also had longer reaction times in the short and long cue-target interval conditions (covert and overt shift of attention). (Contains…

  11. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl Kızıltunç, Pınar; İdil, Aysun; Atilla, Hüban; Topalkara, Ayşen; Alay, Cem

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children's medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement. The causes of visual impairment were grouped as avoidable and unavoidable. Children with residual visual acuity better than 20/1250 were included in the low vision rehabilitation programme. A total of 120 patients were evaluated and 79.2% were legally blind (visual acuity less than 0.05), 18.4% had low vision (visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.3), and 0.8% had normal vision (>0.3). The main causes of visual impairment were retinal dystrophies (24.2%) and retinopathy of prematurity (17.5%). Of all diseases related to visual impairment, 27.6% were avoidable. Improvement in visual acuity was achieved with low vision aids in 57.5% of all patients. The incidence of visual impairment due to avoidable causes can be decreased by ophthalmic screening. Treatment of these children in the early stages of visual development can improve visual acuity. Even in cases with delayed diagnosis, low vision aids are important for visual and neurobehavioral development, and these programmes may improve quality of life and education in these children.

  12. Impaired serial visual search in children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireteanu, Ruxandra; Goebel, Claudia; Goertz, Ralf; Werner, Ingeborg; Nalewajko, Magdalena; Thiel, Aylin

    2008-12-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of attentional deficits in dyslexia, we investigated the performance of children with developmental dyslexia on a number of visual search tasks. When tested with conjunction tasks for orientation and form using complex, letter-like material, dyslexic children showed an increased number of errors accompanied by faster reaction times in comparison to control children matched to the dyslexics on age, gender, and intelligence. On conjunction tasks for orientation and color, dyslexic children were also less accurate, but showed slower reaction times than the age-matched control children. These differences between the two groups decreased with increasing age. In contrast to these differences, the performance of dyslexic children in feature search tasks was similar to that of control children. These results suggest that children with developmental dyslexia present selective deficits in complex serial visual search tasks, implying impairment in goal-directed, sustained visual attention.

  13. Motor development in visually impaired children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallemans, Ann

    2016-01-01

    ..., a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life. Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development in infants. W...

  14. The epidemiology of epilepsy in children: a report from a Turkish pediatric neurology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Olcay; Keskin, Sabiha Paktuna; Uysal, Serap; Ünver, Afşin

    2015-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study aims to assess the distribution of seizure types and epileptic syndromes in children with epilepsy who were followed up in a tertiary outpatient pediatric neurology clinic between January 2004 and December 2009. The findings of 533 children aged between 2 months and 16 years were evaluated. The International League Against Epilepsy criteria (of 1981 and 1989) were used for diagnosis and classification. The rate of partial seizures (56.5%) was higher than that of generalized seizures (43.5%). Partial seizures were more common during late childhood (P epilepsies (53.3%) were more frequent than generalized epilepsies (37.1%). Generalized epilepsies were more frequent during the first year of life, whereas localization-related epilepsies were more common at later ages (P epilepsies during childhood represent an important health issue for developing countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Factors associated with the severity of motor impairment in children with cerebral palsy seen in Enugu, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Iloeje

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral palsy (CP is a heterogeneous condition that is well known to cause impairments with varying degrees of severity. The gross motor function classification system (GMFCS is widely used to assess ambulatory function in CP, but little is known about the factors that account for the variations in gross motor function in children. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the severity of gross motor dysfunction (GMD and certain factors such as the type of CP, aetiology of CP, nutrition, socioeconomic class (SEC, and the frequency of these accompanying impairments like visual, auditory, cognitive and speech impairments. Methods. This was a cross-sectional observational study of 100 consecutively recruited CP patients aged 9 - 96 months, who attended the paediatric neurology clinics (PNCs in Enugu between April and October 2010. Each patient’s clinical history was recorded, a neurological examination conducted and GMFCS level ascertained. Statistical analyses were done to determine the association between the categorical variables. Results. The type of CP (p=0.000, aetiological factors (p=0.016, the presence of malnutrition (p=0.004 and the frequency of accompanying impairments (p=0.001 were significantly associated with the severity of GMD, while SEC (p=0.649 had no significant association. Conclusion. The type of CP, aetiological factors, the presence of malnutrition and the number of accompanying physical, mental or physiological impairments, were positively associated with the severity of GMD and walking ability in children with CP.

  16. Later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24h and one week after practice. Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation between language, audio-vocal psycholinguistic abilities and P300 in children having specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Elham Ahmed; Shohdy, Sahar Saad; Abd Al Raouf, Mahmoud; Mohamed El Abd, Shereen; Abd Elhamid, Asmss

    2011-09-01

    Specific language impairment is a relatively common developmental condition in which a child fails to develop language at the typical rate despite normal general intellectual abilities, adequate exposure to language, and in the absence of hearing impairments, or neurological or psychiatric disorders. There is much controversy about the extent to which the auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis specific language impairment. The objective of this paper is to assess the higher cortical functions in children with specific language impairment, through assessing neurophysiological changes in order to correlate the results with the clinical picture of the patients to choose the proper rehabilitation training program. This study was carried out on 40 children diagnosed to have specific language impairment and 20 normal children as a control group. All children were subjected to the assessment protocol applied in Kasr El-Aini hospital. They were also subjected to a language test (receptive, expressive and total language items), the audio-vocal items of Illinois test of psycholinguistic (auditory reception, auditory association, verbal expression, grammatical closure, auditory sequential memory and sound blending) as well as audiological assessment that included peripheral audiological and P300 amplitude and latency assessment. The results revealed a highly significant difference in P300 amplitude and latency between specific language impairment group and control group. There is also strong correlations between P300 latency and the grammatical closure, auditory sequential memory and sound blending, while significant correlation between the P300 amplitude and auditory association and verbal expression. Children with specific language impairment, in spite of the normal peripheral hearing, have evidence of cognitive and central auditory processing defects as evidenced by P300 auditory event related potential in the form of prolonged latency which indicate a

  18. Devices for Ambulatory Monitoring of Sleep-Associated Disorders in Children with Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ulate-Campos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Good sleep quality is essential for a child’s wellbeing. Early sleep problems have been linked to the later development of emotional and behavioral disorders and can negatively impact the quality of life of the child and his or her family. Sleep-associated conditions are frequent in the pediatric population, and even more so in children with neurological problems. Monitoring devices can help to better characterize sleep efficiency and sleep quality. They can also be helpful to better characterize paroxysmal nocturnal events and differentiate between nocturnal seizures, parasomnias, and obstructive sleep apnea, each of which has a different management. Overnight ambulatory detection devices allow for a tolerable, low cost, objective assessment of sleep quality in the patient’s natural environment. They can also be used as a notification system to allow for rapid recognition and prompt intervention of events like seizures. Optimal monitoring devices will be patient- and diagnosis-specific, but may include a combination of modalities such as ambulatory electroencephalograms, actigraphy, and pulse oximetry. We will summarize the current literature on ambulatory sleep devices for detecting sleep disorders in children with neurological diseases.

  19. Severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Jugnoo S; Cable, Noriko

    2003-10-25

    Prevention of visual impairment and blindness in childhood is an international priority. However, many countries do not have contemporary information about incidence and causes, from which the scope and priorities for prevention and treatment can be identified. In the UK, children aged younger than 16 years newly diagnosed with severe visual impairment or blindness (SVI/BL, WHO criteria) during 2000 were identified through national active surveillance schemes in ophthalmology and paediatrics. From these data, we calculated yearly age-group specific incidence and cumulative incidence. Causes were classified by the anatomical site or sites affected and by timing of the insult or insults and causal factors, where known. Of 439 newly diagnosed children, 336 (77%) had additional non-ophthalmic disorders or impairments (SVI/BL plus). Total yearly incidence was highest in the first year of life, being 4.0 (95% CI 3.6-4.5) per 10000, with a cumulative incidence by 16 years of age of 5.9 (5.3-6.5) per 10000. 10% (44) of all children died within 1 year of diagnosis of blindness. Prenatal causal factors affected 61% (268) of children, with perinatal or neonatal and childhood factors each affecting 18% (77). Incidence and causes varied with presence of non-ophthalmic impairments or disorders, birthweight, and ethnic origin. At least 75% (331) of children had disorders that were neither potentially preventable nor treatable, with current knowledge. Severe visual impairment and blindness in childhood in the UK is more common, occurs more frequently in the context of complex non-ophthalmic impairments, and has greater associated mortality, than previously assumed. An increased rate in children of low birthweight and from ethnic minority groups, together with the observed diversity and complexity of the causes, reflect recent secular changes in the population at risk, specific risk factors, and strategies available for treatment.

  20. Results of Screening in Schools for Visually Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the causes of visual impairment in children attending schools for students with visual impairment and to identify children suitable for treatment and rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: All students were examined in our department by a pediatric ophthalmologist and an ophthalmologist experienced in low vision and visual rehabilitation. The children’s medical histories were recorded. All children underwent ophthalmological examination including visual acuity measurement, anterior segment and dilated fundus evaluation, retinoscopy with cycloplegia, and intraocular pressure measurement. The causes of visual impairment were grouped as avoidable and unavoidable. Children with residual visual acuity better than 20/1250 were included in the low vision rehabilitation programme. Results: A total of 120 patients were evaluated and 79.2% were legally blind (visual acuity less than 0.05, 18.4% had low vision (visual acuity between 0.05 and 0.3, and 0.8% had normal vision (>0.3. The main causes of visual impairment were retinal dystrophies (24.2% and retinopathy of prematurity (17.5%. Of all diseases related to visual impairment, 27.6% were avoidable. Improvement in visual acuity was achieved with low vision aids in 57.5% of all patients. Conclusion: The incidence of visual impairment due to avoidable causes can be decreased by ophthalmic screening. Treatment of these children in the early stages of visual development can improve visual acuity. Even in cases with delayed diagnosis, low vision aids are important for visual and neurobehavioral development, and these programmes may improve quality of life and education in these children.

  1. Story retelling skills in Persian speaking hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarollahi, Farnoush; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Modarresi, Yahya; Agharasouli, Zahra; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Keyhani, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-05-01

    Since the pragmatic skills of hearing-impaired Persian-speaking children have not yet been investigated particularly through story retelling, this study aimed to evaluate some pragmatic abilities of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children using a story retelling test. 15 normal-hearing and 15 profound hearing-impaired 7-year-old children were evaluated using the story retelling test with the content validity of 89%, construct validity of 85%, and reliability of 83%. Three macro structure criteria including topic maintenance, event sequencing, explicitness, and four macro structure criteria including referencing, conjunctive cohesion, syntax complexity, and utterance length were assessed. The test was performed with live voice in a quiet room where children were then asked to retell the story. The tasks of the children were recorded on a tape, transcribed, scored and analyzed. In the macro structure criteria, utterances of hearing-impaired students were less consistent, enough information was not given to listeners to have a full understanding of the subject, and the story events were less frequently expressed in a rational order than those of normal-hearing group (P < 0.0001). Regarding the macro structure criteria of the test, unlike the normal-hearing students who obtained high scores, hearing-impaired students failed to gain any scores on the items of this section. These results suggest that Hearing-impaired children were not able to use language as effectively as their hearing peers, and they utilized quite different pragmatic functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Care of visual impairment in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C Y

    1994-03-01

    Visual impairment refers to a loss of visual acuity or one or more functions of the eye and visual system. It is not necessarily a disability or a handicap for the individual. The majority of visually impaired children are multihandicapped. Diagnostic and treatment centers have been introduced in an attempt to resolve present difficulties in providing health care to the multihandicapped. Pseudoretardation can occur in blind children if adequate opportunities are not provided for learning. Early diagnosis of visual impairment is important for obvious medical reasons. Early referral of blind children and their families to agencies for help is crucial. Almost invariably, mothers are the first to suspect that something is wrong with their infants' eyes. An ophthalmological examination, rather than simple reassurance, is needed. How an ophthalmologist leads parents through the period after diagnosis and the following next few weeks will affect the child's life much more than is generally realized. There is a need for a multidisciplinary team approach to evaluation and treatment of blind children. Cerebral palsy and profound visual impairment are a bad combination. Visual impairment alone does not predispose to a specific learning disability. Partially sighted students can be helped in various ways to function in their class.

  3. Executive functions and language in children with different subtypes of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Rodríguez, V; Ramírez Santana, G M; Hernández Expósito, S

    The marked heterogeneity among children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI) highlights the importance of studying and describing cases based on the distinction between the expressive and receptive-expressive SLI subtypes. The main objective of this study was to examine neuropsychological, linguistic, and narrative behaviours in children with different SLI subtypes. A comprehensive battery of language and neuropsychological tests was administered to a total of 58 children (29 with SLI and 29 normal controls) between 5.60 and 11.20 years old. Both SLI subtypes performed more poorly than the control group in language skills, narrative, and executive function. Furthermore, the expressive SLI group demonstrated substantial ungrammaticality, as well as problems with verbal fluency and both verbal and spatial working memory, while the receptive-expressive SLI subtype displayed poorer neuropsychological performance in general. Our findings showed that children with either SLI subtype displayed executive dysfunctions that were not limited to verbal tasks but rather extended to nonverbal measures. This could reflect a global cognitive difficulty which, along with declining linguistic and narrative skills, illustrates the complex profile of this impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Prospective Memory Impairment in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine E; Thomas, Kevin G F; Molteno, Christopher D; Kliegel, Matthias; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is linked to impaired performance on tests of retrospective memory, but prospective memory (PM; the ability to remember and act on delayed intentions) has not been examined in alcohol-exposed children. We investigated event-based PM in children with heavy PAE and the degree to which associations between PAE and PM are influenced by IQ, executive functioning (EF), retrospective memory, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We administered a computerized PM task to 89 children (Mage = 11.1 years) whose mothers were recruited prenatally: 29 with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 32 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 28 Controls. We examined effects of diagnostic group, cue focality, and task difficulty on PM performance. The association between a continuous measure of alcohol exposure and PM performance was also examined after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. Mediation of alcohol effects on PM by IQ, EF, and retrospective memory scores was assessed as was the effect of ADHD on PM performance. Children with FAS/PFAS made more PM errors than either HE or Control children. PAE was negatively related to PM performance even after adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, EF, and retrospective memory. This relation was only partially mediated by IQ. PAE was related to ADHD, but ADHD was not related to PM performance. Fetal alcohol-related impairment in event-based PM was seen in children with FAS/PFAS. The effect of PAE on PM was not attributable to impaired EF and retrospective memory and was not solely attributable to lower IQ. Consistent with previous studies, we found no effect of ADHD on event-based PM performance at this age. This is the first study documenting PM impairment in children with heavy PAE and identifies a new domain of impairment warranting attention in diagnosis and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All...... fathers the proportion was 5.7% vs 9.7%. No single neurological disease was significantly more frequent among parents of persons with IA. Our study lent support to the notion that epilepsy and other neurological diseases are not part of the broader IA phenotype Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  6. Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All...... fathers the proportion was 5.7% vs 9.7%. No single neurological disease was significantly more frequent among parents of persons with IA. Our study lent support to the notion that epilepsy and other neurological diseases are not part of the broader IA phenotype....

  7. Improvement of Fine Motor Skills in Children with Visual Impairment: An Explorative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…

  8. DAMPAK DEFISIENSI IODIUM MATERNAL PADA PERSISTENSI DISFUNGSI NEUROPSIKOLOGIS ANAK USIA 12 TAHUN (EFFECT OF MATERNAL IODINE DEFICIENCY ON THE PERSISTENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTIONS IN CHILDREN AGED 12 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Study on the last effect of neuropsychologic dysfunction due to iodine deficiency during gestation is still scarce. This study is to confirm the persistence of neuropsychological dysfunctions at 12-year-old of children born from pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency in endemic iodine deficient area. The study is 13-year-cohort design. Iodine status (Total T4, TSH and UIE of pregnant mothers at initial study, neonatal (TSH and 12 year-old iodine status (fT4, TSH are performed. Neurological dysfunction of infants is examined every 6 weeks until the child age is 24 months. Neuropsychological dysfunction of children 12 years of age such as minimal brain dysfunction and psychological battery of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC are also administered. A screening to determine case and reference using is done using mini mental status examination (MMSE. Score MMSE of 28 or less are implemented as cases while others as reference. The relationship of neurological and cognitive dysfunction with both maternal iodine status and neurological dysfunction at 2 months of neonates age are elaborated. The persistency risk of neurological dysfunction at 12 years of age is 8% (95%ci: 1-15%. Maternal and neonatal iodine status (as indicated by TSH, T4 are the risk factors for the persistency at 12-years. However, delays of neurological development in two-month old infants are found as directly risk factors. Median Total IQ score for all participants are far lower than the lowest limit of normal range. A very significant difference (p=0.000 are found in Total IQ score between cases and references. Discrepancy analysis of IQV-IQP indicates brain lesions in subtle form, such as diadokhokinesis, praxis, memory, distractibility and lowered IQ score. Neuropsychological dysfunctions due maternal iodine deficiency are still persistence at 12 years. Maternal T4 during gestation is not only influences on the persistency but also impaires directly on the

  9. Neurological impairment correlated to abnormal cerebral non-dominant transverse sinus drainage: a report of 12 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-min LI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Dominant venous sinus drainage of the brain is a common anatomic characteristic. Cortical venous partial retention that is due to slow non-dominant venous sinus drainage can increase local cerebral vein pressure, and cause related neurological impairment. This article is to investigate the diagnosis of local intracranial hypertension caused by abnormal non-dominant transverse sinus drainage and the effect of anticoagulation treatment. Methods From February 2008 to February 2016, there were 12 patients diagnosed as abnormal cerebral non-dominant transverse sinus drainage. Among these patients, 8 patients presented as dizziness and brain swelling; 2 presented as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; one presented as cerebral cortex bleeding; 2 presented as blurred vision; 2 presented as ipsilateral pulsatile tinnitus; one presented as narcolepsy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure of 2 patients were > 280 mm H2O. Nine patients were confirmed no abnormal characteristics by MRI. In DSA examination, 10 patients were confirmed non-dominant transverse sinus drainage and contrast agent retention on the left side, and 2 patients were confirmed on the right side. All patients were treated by anticoagulation, and 2 underwent stent implantation, 5 underwent thrombolysis through carotid artery. Results All patients were greatly improved after 7-day treatment. They were discharged within 2 weeks and were continuously treated by anticoagulation after discharge for one year. There was no recurrence or aggravation in all patients during the follow-up period ranging from 6 to 34 months. Two patients were confirmed less contrast agent retention by DSA after 6 months.  Conclusions Abnormal non-dominant transverse sinus drainage can increase local cerebral vein pressure, and presents non-specific clinical features such as dizziness, headache or tinnitus. Anticoagulation, thrombolysis or stent implantation can promote local cerebral venous drainage, relieve

  10. Impaired neural discrimination of emotional speech prosody in children with autism spectrum disorder and language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, R; Lepistö-Paisley, T; Vanhala, R; Alén, R; Kujala, T

    2016-08-15

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficient social and communication skills, including difficulties in perceiving speech prosody. The present study addressed processing of emotional prosodic changes (sad, scornful and commanding) in natural word stimuli in typically developed school-aged children and in children with ASD and language impairment. We found that the responses to a repetitive word were diminished in amplitude in the children with ASD, reflecting impaired speech encoding. Furthermore, the amplitude of the MMN/LDN component, reflecting cortical discrimination of sound changes, was diminished in the children with ASD for the scornful deviant. In addition, the amplitude of the P3a, reflecting involuntary orienting to attention-catching changes, was diminished in the children with ASD for the scornful deviant and tended to be smaller for the sad deviant. These results suggest that prosody processing in ASD is impaired at various levels of neural processing, including deficient pre-attentive discrimination and involuntary orientation to speech prosody. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurological soft signs in aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease – the impact of cognitive decline and cognitive reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja eUrbanowitsch; Christina eDegen; Pablo eToro; Johannes eSchröder

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neurological soft signs (NSS), i.e. minor motor and sensory changes, are a common feature in severe psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish the frequency of NSS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on basis of a large population based sample and to identify their neuropsychological correlates including cognitive reserve.Methods: NSS were examined using an abbreviated version of the Heidelberg NSS Scale in 221 old participants born bet...

  12. Survey of Japanese pediatricians on vaccination of children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Takuya; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Arai, Hiroshi; Imaishi, Hidenori; Uno, Risa; Tanaka, Junko; Nagai, Toshisaburou; Nishida, Masaru; Awaya, Yutaka; Maekawa, Kihei

    2011-10-01

    Primary care physicians in Japan are often unwilling to vaccinate children with neurological disorders. The aim of the present study was to determine the state of vaccination in children who are severely handicapped and/or have convulsive disorders, in order to increase the vaccination rate in this patient population. Six hundred and eighty pediatricians belonging to Osaka Shonika Ikai were asked to answer a questionnaire, and 359 doctors responded. Two hundred and thirty-four doctors consulted for febrile seizures (Fs), 190 for epilepsy and 145 for conditions affecting severely handicapped children, responded that they refused to vaccinate. The reasons for reluctance to vaccinate these children were short interval since the last seizure, including febrile (226 doctors) and epileptic (121 doctors) seizures. It was especially likely that a child with a past history of status epilepticus would be refused vaccination. Primary care doctors are very cautious about the indications for vaccination, especially the inoculation of live vaccines, because they often induce post-vaccination fever-associated convulsions. Intractable daily epileptic seizures was the most common reason for refusal to vaccinate severely handicapped children. Examples of inadequate decision-making as regards the indications for vaccination were: "need more than 6 months observation since last seizure whether Fs or epileptic", "need EEG examination for Fs", "contraindication because of low bodyweight and/or chronic wheezing in severely handicapped children". There is a need to provide correct information about the adverse effects of vaccination and for greater cooperation between primary care doctors and pediatric neurologists. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, Girdhar G

    2013-04-01

    To study prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders--epilepsy, global developmental delay, and motor, vision, and hearing defects--in children aged 6 months to 2 years in northern India. A two-stage community survey for neurological disorders was conducted in rural and urban areas of Lucknow. After initial screening with a new instrument, the Lucknow Neurodevelopment Screen, screen positives and a random proportion of screen negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence was calculated by weighted estimates. Demographic, socio-economic, and medical risk factors were compared between validated children who were positive and negative for neurological disorders by univariate and logistic regression analysis. Of 4801 children screened (mean age [SD] 15.32mo [5.96]; 2542 males, 2259 females), 196 were positive; 190 screen positives and 269 screen negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 27.92 per 1000 (weighted 95% confidence interval 12.24-43.60). Significant risk factors (p≤0.01) for neurological disorders were higher age in months (p=0.010), lower mean number of appliances in the household (p=0.001), consanguineous marriage of parents (p=0.010), family history of neurological disorder (p=0.001), and infants born exceptionally small (parental description; p=0.009). On logistic regression, the final model included age (p=0.0193), number of appliances (p=0.0161), delayed cry at birth (p=0.0270), postneonatal meningoencephalitis (p=0.0549), and consanguinity (p=0.0801). Perinatal factors, lower socio-economic status, and consanguinity emerged as predictors of neurological disorders. These factors are largely modifiable. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were…

  15. Multisensory Speech Perception by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight profoundly hearing-impaired children, aged 5-11, received tactual word recognition training with tactual speech perception aids. Following training, subjects were tested on trained words and new words. Performance was significantly better on both sets of words when words were presented with a combined condition of tactual aid and aided…

  16. Communicating Intentions: How Well Do Language-Impaired Children Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Sima Gerber

    1983-01-01

    Research on pragmatics and its significance for children with language impairments is reviewed. Topics addressed include the development of speech acts (communicative intentions) and the linguistic orientation of speech acts. The value of a pragmatic orientation in clinical intervention is considered. (CL)

  17. Characteristics of Early Spelling of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). "Speed", "nature", and "knowledge transfer" of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, "Type of Grapheme", "Grapheme…

  18. Effective and efficient stand magnifier use in visually impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, J.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  19. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  20. Effective and Efficient Stand Magnifier Use in Visually Impaired Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand-Schurink, J.; Cox, R.F.; Rens, G.H. van; Cillessen, A.H.; Meulenbroek, R.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. METHODS: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old

  1. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…

  2. Syntactic Movement in Orally Trained Children with Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Naama; Szterman, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the comprehension and production of sentences derived by syntactic movement, in orally trained school-age Hebrew-speaking children with moderate to profound hearing impairment, aged 7;8?9;9 years. Experiments 1 and 2 tested the comprehension of relative clauses and topicalization sentences (with word orders of OVS [object,…

  3. New Developments in Captioned Television for Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Jill; Decker, Nan

    Television is of limited value to hearing-impaired children, who cannot benefit from the soundtrack. Traditional caption writing techniques, which involve editing of the audio track, have been based primarily on the captioner's empirical knowledge and intuition and aim the captions at a presumed average language and reading ability of the target…

  4. Relative Clause Constructions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that children with specific language impairment (SLI) experience significant grammatical deficits. While much of the focus in the past has been on morphosyntactic difficulties, less is known about their acquisition of multi-clausal constructions such as those containing relative clauses. Aims: To investigate…

  5. Control of Auditory Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino, Kristen R.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a…

  6. Negative Sentences in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Rosalind; Rombough, Kelly; Martin, Jasmine; Orton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study used elicited production methodology to investigate the negative sentences that are produced by English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Negative sentences were elicited in contexts in which adults use the negative auxiliary verb doesn't (e.g., "It doesn't fit"). This form was targeted to see how…

  7. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: 3 Months after Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims: To investigate change in select language and cognitive…

  8. Teaching the Meaning of Words to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Loijens, Nancy E. A.; Waller, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    In the report presented here, the authors describe a pilot intervention study that was intended to teach children with visual impairments the meaning of far-away words, and that used their mothers as mediators. The aim was to teach both labels and deep word knowledge, which is the comprehension of the full meaning of words, illustrated through…

  9. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  10. Balance assessment in hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka-Cupryś, Katarzyna; Przygoda, Łukasz; Czenczek, Ewelina; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Drzał-Grabiec, Justyna; Zbigniew, Trzaskoma; Tarnowski, Adam

    2014-11-01

    According to the scientific reports the postural stability is inseparably associated with hearing organ's correct functioning. The aim of the study was to evaluate the degree of disorders occurring in balance reactions in this group of children with profound hearing loss compared to their healthy peers. The study worked with a total of 228 children, including 65 who are deaf (DCH) and 163 subjects without any hearing deficits (CON) in the control group. Stabilometric measurements were performed with the use of a force distribution platform. The results indicate statistically significant differences in terms of one parameter (the total path length) recorded in the test with the eyes open and a whole range of parameters recorded when the subjects had their eyes closed (the width, height, and area of the ellipse, the total path length, and the horizontal and vertical sway). The study results showed better values of the static balance parameters in deaf children as compared to their peers without hearing disorders and the differences were particularly evident in the test with the subject's eyes closed. The results suggest significantly better processing of sensory stimuli in postural reactions particularly from propioception, and to a lesser extent, from the vision system observed in the subjects as compared to their peers in the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Literacy skills in primary school-aged children with pragmatic language impairment: a comparison with children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) are characterized by difficulties with the interpersonal use of language in social contexts and they possess a range of language difficulties that affect their educational attainment. Since literacy skills are central to this attainment, one way of identifying appropriate support needs for CwPLI would be to profile their reading and writing skills as a group. To investigate the word reading, non-word reading, reading comprehension, and written expression skills of CwPLI and a comparison group of children with specific language impairment (CwSLI). CwSLI were recruited in order to examine any overlaps in literacy impairments for the two groups. Primary school-aged CwPLI (n= 59) and CwSLI (n= 12) were recruited from speech and language therapists. Children completed standardized assessments of literacy skills. The level of impairment for each component literacy skill was examined for CwPLI and CwSLI. For the CwPLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were at the lower end of the normal range compared with population norms. The range of individual scores was large, with some children scoring near floor level and others scoring up to 2 SDs (standard deviations) above the mean, illustrating the heterogeneity of literacy skills within the group. For the CwSLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were between 1 SD and 2 SDs below the population mean. CwSLI were significantly more impaired on all of the literacy measures compared with CwPLI. This difference remained even when receptive language ability and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for. The results demonstrate that there is a high level of literacy impairment within CwPLI and CwSLI, providing evidence that individualized literacy skill intervention is important for the long-term academic outcome of these children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  12. Nature of phonological delay in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, M; Sechi, E; Maronato, C; Bonvino, E; Corcelli, A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of phonological delay in a group of children with specific language impairment. It was asked whether phonological errors in this group of children were generated by a slow but normal language learning process or whether they reflected a selective impairment in some representations that enhance normal acquisition and use of a language phonology. A group of 10 children with SLI (mean age = 5.1) was compared with three groups of normal children who were matched in age (age control group, mean age = 5.1), in sentence comprehension and recalling (grammar control group, mean age = 3.7), or who exhibited a phonological performance lower than the age average (group with low phonological performance, mean age = 4.4). The four groups of children were assessed in terms of: (1) responses to a mispronunciation detection task; and (2) error profiles with complex and simple syllabic structures. Performance on the mispronunciation detection task showed that the group with SLI could distinguish a target lexical item from acoustic non-word stimuli that were highly similar to it in terms of phonetic characteristics. An analysis of overall error rate at this task showed, however, that four children with SLI had a much lower performance than normal children of the same age, even when the auditory stimuli were tokens of the target word, or non-words that were phonetically different from the target. A difficulty in coordinating vocal actions in an articulatory plan accounted for error profiles with simple syllabic structures both for some children with SLI and normal children with phonological performance lower than the age average. A severe difficulty with representing complex syllabic structures was a homogeneous characteristic of the group with SLI and worked as the main indicator of impaired, rather than simply slow, phonological development.

  13. Lipreading Ability and Its Cognitive Correlates in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…

  14. Mental States and Activities in Danish Narratives: Children with Autism and Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age (10;6-14;0) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the…

  15. Observing Iconic Gestures Enhances Word Learning in Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Susanne; Kauschke, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that observing iconic gestures helps typically developing children (TD) and children with specific language impairment (SLI) learn new words. So far, studies mostly compared word learning with and without gestures. The present study investigated word learning under two gesture conditions in children with and without language…

  16. Zika Virus, Congenital Infection, and Neurologic Manifestations in Children: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Zika virus (ZIKV is an arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae. This virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, usually affects children and causes self-limited diseases, associated with fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, and myalgia. There is a significant relationship between ZIKV infection and central nervous system disorders in infants. In this study, we aimed to review neurologic manifestations of ZIKV infection in infants. Evidence Acquisition We searched the following Mesh terms in scientific databases: “Zika virus”, “infants”, “children”, “neurologic manifestations”, and “congenital infection”. Electronic databases including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus were searched from 2000 to 2016. Results The literature review showed a probable relationship between ZIKV infection and prevalence of microcephaly in newborns. Besides microcephaly, other central nervous system abnormalities included abnormal gyral arrangement, decreased brain parenchymal volume, cortical atrophy and malformation, cerebellar hypoplasia, and delayed myelination of the brain stem. Conclusions Vertical transmission of ZIKV in pregnant women is associated with intrauterine infection and brain malformations in the developing fetus, including microcephaly, calcification, cortical displacement, ventriculomegaly, and white-matter abnormalities.

  17. IDENTIFYING AUTISM IN CHILDREN WITH BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VELJANOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Often in working with children with blindness or visual impairments we are enchanting children with some specific stereotype behaviors, identified as "blindizms”. Parents and professionals noted that many of these behaviors are the same as or similar to those behaviors seen in students with autism. These similarities led professionals to pursue more information about autism and its relationship to blindness. To assist in this process the professionals from Oregon School for the blind developed some guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with blindness and autism alone, across four domains: language and communication, relating to people, discrepancies in developmental rates and responses to sensory stimuli.

  18. Pragmatic difficulties in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Dalia Mostafa; Shohdi, Sahar; Aziz, Azza Adel

    2011-02-01

    Most of the children having Specific Language Impairment (SLI) exhibit pragmatic difficulties that are often overlooked while their communication skills are being evaluated. Identifying pragmatic needs in such children can be lengthy and indeterminate as many of such children don't quite "fit" into a definite diagnostic category. This study aimed at identifying and clarifying the nature of pragmatic difficulties in a group of children with Specific Language Impairment by comparing their pragmatic skills with those of a group of normally developing children using a simple Pragmatic Screening protocol hoping that this would aid in reaching a better understanding of the nature of pragmatic difficulties in such children. The present study examined the pragmatic profiles of 60 age and gender matched native Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children (with age range 4-6 years old). The children were divided into two groups; Group A and Group B. Group A included 30 children with normal language development whereas Group B included 30 children who had been previously diagnosed as having Specific Language Impairment. For each subject, history taking followed by audiological and psychometric evaluation to rule out the existence of any hearing difficulties or mental deficiency was performed. Afterwards, each child under study was subjected to the Arabic Pragmatic Screening tool [1]. For each child, the screening was scored by three readers; average scores were obtained and statistically analyzed. All the values obtained by the control group were found to be significantly higher than those obtained by the SLI group except for some non-verbal paralinguistic skills where non-significant differences were found between the two groups. Through the ROC curve, cut off level for Total Pragmatic Score (TPS) was found to be less than or equal to 78.16, i.e. 4-6 year old children with a TPS equal to or less than 78.16 were considered to have pragmatic difficulties. Thorough screening of

  19. Motor impairment and its relationship to fitness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martyn; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Janssen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the physiological and perceptual limits to exercise in children with varying degrees of motor impairment, and the relationships to measures of health. In a group comparison design, 35 boys aged 12-15 years completed the Movement ABC test for the assessment of motor impairment, followed by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten participants classified as having either high or no motor impairment also performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the assessment of lower limb extensor strength. 18 boys were classified as having high motor impairment. There was a significant difference in peak (34.9 vs 48.5 mL kg/min), workload (12.5 vs 10.0 mL W), maximal HR (176 vs 188 bpm), maximal oxygen pulse (12.1 vs 15.9 mL beat) and MVIC (5.7 vs 9.1 Nm kg) between the high and non-motor impaired participants, respectively, (pmotor impairment. The lower maximal HR, coupled with reduced movement efficiency and muscle strength reported in this group, suggests that exercise is limited by impairment at the muscular level. This finding was supported by high RER values despite low maximal HR values attained at exercise cessation and reduced maximal strength. Perception of effort is not heightened in children with high motor impairment and future-exercise interventions should be focused on improving muscular condition in these participants to enable them to be better prepared to engage in physical activity for health.

  20. Clinical NMR imaging of the brain in children: normal and neurologic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.A, (Hammersmith Hospital, London, England); Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.; Steiner, R.E.; Thomas, D.J.; Hayward, R.; Bryant, D.R.T.; Payne, J.A.; Levene, M.I.; Whitelaw, A.; Dubowitz, L.M.S.; Dubowitz, V.

    1983-11-01

    The results of initial clinical nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in eight normal and 52 children with a wide variety of neurologic diseases were reviewed. The high level of gray-white matter contrast available with inversion-recovery sequences provided a basis for visualizing normal myelination as well as delays or deficits in this process. The appearances seen in cases of parenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and proencephalic cysts are described. Ventricular enlargement was readily identified and marginal edema was demonstrated with spin-echo sequences. Abnormalities were seen in cerebral palsy, congenital malformations, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, aminoaciduria, and meningitis. Space-occupying lesions were identified by virtue of their increased relaxation times and mass effects. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has considerable potential in pediatric neuroradiologic practice, in some conditions supplying information not available by computed tomography or sonography.

  1. Prenatal DHA status and neurological outcome in children at age 5.5 years are positively associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano-Margarit, M Victoria; Ramos, Rosa; Beyer, Jeannette; Csábi, Györgyi; Parrilla-Roure, Montserrat; Cruz, Francisco; Perez-Garcia, Miguel; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Gil, Angel; Decsi, Tamás; Koletzko, Berthold V; Campoy, Cristina

    2011-06-01

    Beneficial effects of perinatal DHA supply on later neurological development have been reported. We assessed the effects of maternal DHA supplementation on the neurological development of their children. Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary supplement consisting of either fish oil (FO) (500 mg/d DHA + 150 mg/d EPA), 400 μg/d 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both, or placebo from wk 20 of gestation until delivery. Fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) were determined in maternal blood at gestational wk 20 and 30 and in cord and maternal blood at delivery. Neurological development was assessed with the Hempel examination at the age of 4 y and the Touwen examination at 5.5 y. Minor neurological dysfunction, neurological optimality score (NOS), and fluency score did not differ between groups at either age, but the odds of children with the maximal NOS score increased with every unit increment in cord blood DHA level at delivery in plasma PL (95% CI: 1.094-2.262), erythrocyte phosphatidylethanolamine (95% CI: 1.091-2.417), and erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine (95% CI: 1.003-2.643). We conclude that higher DHA levels in cord blood may be related to a better neurological outcome at 5.5 y of age.

  2. Conflict resolution abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Erica Macêdo de; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the conflict resolution abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment, and to verify whether the time of speech-language therapy correlates to the performance on the conflict resolution task. Participants included 20 children with Specific Language Impairment (Research Group) and 40 children with normal language development (Control Group), with ages ranging from 7 years to 8 years and 11 months. To assess the conflict resolution abilities, five hypothetical contexts of conflict were presented. The strategies used by the children were classified and scored by the following levels: level 0 (solutions that do not match the other levels), level 1 (physical solutions), level 2 (unilateral solutions), level 3 (cooperative solutions), and level 4 (mutual solutions). Statistical analysis showed group effect for the variable total score. There was a difference between the groups for modal development level, with higher level of modal development observed in the Control Group. There was no correlation between the period of speech-language therapy attendance and the total score. Children with Specific Language Impairment present difficulties in solving problems, in view of the fact that they mainly use physical and unilateral strategies. There was no correlation between the time of speech-language therapy and performance in the task.

  3. Alliteration and rhyme skills in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedott, Paula Renata; Cáceres-Assenço, Ana Manhani; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria

    2017-03-30

    this study investigated and compared the performance of school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers typically developing language in alliteration and rhyme tests. The study also aimed to evaluate the influence of semantic and phonological distractors on both tests. twelve school-aged children with SLI (study group - SG) and 48 peers typically developing language (control group - CG) aged 7 to 9 years. All of them were on 2nd or 3rd grade and presented hearing thresholds within normal limits and appropriate nonverbal intellectual performance. The experimental assessment consisted in alliteration and rhyme tests with semantic and/or phonological distractors. intragroup analysis showed that both groups presented lower performance in rhyme than alliteration activities (CG planguage impairment. School-aged children with SLI attested that they analyze phonological awareness stimuli in a more general way, leading them to overlook relevant segmental aspects. These data reinforce the need for early intervention of these abilities in this population.

  4. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic role of MRI in spinal trauma, its comparison and correlation with clinical profile and neurological outcome, according to ASIA impairment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C Parashari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in patients with acute and chronic spinal trauma and to compare and correlate the MRI findings with those of patients′ clinical profile and neurological outcome according to ASIA impairment scale to assess prognostic and clinical value of MRI. Materials and Methods: Sixty two patients of spinal trauma formed the study group in a prospective fashion. The patients undergoing MR imaging and magnetic resonance images were analyzed and correlated with findings on neurological examination according to American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA impairment scale (AIS at the time of MRI examination and subsequently at sub-acute interval to assess neurological outcome. Statistical Analysis : Sample profile was described in terms of 95% confidence limit and proportion. To describe strength of association between extent of spinal cord injury and outcome, odd′s ratio, bivariate and multi variant analysis, was used. Pearson′s chi square (χ 2 statistics was applied to test the association between two categorical variables. Data were analyzed using statistical software package, STATA 9.2 and the difference was considered to be significant if ′P′ value was <0.05. Observation and Results: The cord edema without hemorrhage was the most common MR finding (41.5%. The others were sizable focus of hemorrhage within the cord (33%, epidural hematoma (5.0%, and normal cord (26%. Majority of MR findings correlated well with clinical profile of the patient according to ASIA impairment scale. This study demonstrated that patients with presence of sizable focus of haemorrhage had larger cord edema and more severe grade of initial ASIA impairment scale( AIS with poor recovery at follow up (P=0.032.Improvement in upper extremity was more than lower extremity. Severe cord compression was also associated with poor neurological outcome; however it was not

  6. Delayed motor skill acquisition in kindergarten children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Strulovich-Schwartz, Orli; Julius, Mona

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition and consolidation of a new grapho-motor symbol into long-term memory was studied in 5-year-old children with language impairment (LI) and peers matched for age and visual-motor integration skills. The children practiced the production of a new symbol and were tested 24h and two weeks post-practice day. Differences in performance speed emerged between the groups: children with LI showed a later onset of rapid learning in the practice phase, and only the comparison group exhibited delayed, consolidation, gains 24h post-training. At two weeks post-training, children with LI improved, closing the gap in performance speed. Speed-accuracy trade-off was characteristic of speed improvements in LI. These results indicate atypical and delayed acquisition in children with LI, and support the view that deficient skill acquisition in LI goes beyond the language system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ATTITUDE PARENTS TO EARLY INTERVENTION OF VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira CVETKOVA

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries Visually Impaired children have been educated within the high walls of special schools (Loots ET al., 1992. It is only during the last decades that more and more Visually Impaired children were brought up in their own environment:· the integrated education is not a trend anymore, but an educational policy;· The Early Intervention has transferred into approach to young Visually Impaired children.Early Intervention is crucial because the Visually Impairment affects the early development of a child in several ways:· motor functioning;· concept development;· social skills;· range of experience;· ability to move independently;· play etc.All these obstacles in early development create the necessity of Early Intervention programs which should start immediately after child’s is diagnosed.As it was said above the best approach to involve parents in early Intervention programs is to develop strategies, which fit individual family needs. This means to take into account many factors important for each family. Some of them are:· future believes and expectations;· educational background and culture;· religion;· financial situation.

  8. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mualla Hamurcu; Koray Kara; Mehmet Ayhan Congologlu; Ufuk Hamurcu; Mahmoud Almbaidheen; Ayse Turan; Dursun Karaman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those w...

  9. Communicative competence in a group of visually impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, M; Shapiro, G

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of verbal and non-verbal communicative competence of five visually-impaired six and seven year old children were investigated. The Profile of Communicative Appropriateness (Penn, 1983) was used to assess communicative competence in one discourse interaction with a known interlocutor (mother). The results indicated that the subjects were predominantly appropriate in terms of verbal communication, and predominantly inappropriate in terms of non-verbal communication. Severity of visual impairment influenced performance in terms of non-verbal communication. Research and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  10. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  11. Improvement of fine motor skills in children with visual impairment: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis)

  12. Gross motor skills and sports participation of children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from

  13. Gross Motor Skills and Sports Participation of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…

  14. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long-term memory. We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. The reader will understand how different components of phonological working memory contribute to the word learning problems of children with specific language impairment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hearing Impairment, Social Networks, and Coping: The Need for Families with Hearing-Impaired Children To Relate to Other Parents and to Hearing-Impaired Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermair, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 317 German parents of children with hearing impairments found parents who frequently met with other parents had warm, accepting, trusting relationships with their children. Parents who had many contacts with adults with hearing impairments had a strong sense of competence in regard to their child's upbringing. (Contains extensive…

  16. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G

    2017-04-01

    To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.

  17. Gesture–speech integration in children with specific language impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W.; Hostetter, Autumn B.; Evans, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that speakers are especially likely to produce manual communicative gestures when they have relative ease in thinking about the spatial elements of what they are describing, paired with relative difficulty organizing those elements into appropriate spoken language. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit poor expressive language abilities together with within-normal-range nonverbal IQs. Aims This study investigated whether weak spoken language abilities in children with SLI influence their reliance on gestures to express information. We hypothesized that these children would rely on communicative gestures to express information more often than their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers, and that they would sometimes express information in gestures that they do not express in the accompanying speech. Methods & Procedures Participants were 15 children with SLI (aged 5;6–10;0) and 18 age-matched TD controls. Children viewed a wordless cartoon and retold the story to a listener unfamiliar with the story. Children's gestures were identified and coded for meaning using a previously established system. Speech–gesture combinations were coded as redundant if the information conveyed in speech and gesture was the same, and non-redundant if the information conveyed in speech was different from the information conveyed in gesture. Outcomes & Results Children with SLI produced more gestures than children in the TD group; however, the likelihood that speech–gesture combinations were non-redundant did not differ significantly across the SLI and TD groups. In both groups, younger children were significantly more likely to produce non-redundant speech–gesture combinations than older children. Conclusions & Implications The gesture–speech integration system functions similarly in children with SLI and TD, but children with SLI rely more on gesture to help formulate, conceptualize or express the messages they

  18. Gesture-speech integration in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W; Hostetter, Autumn B; Evans, Julia L

    2014-11-01

    Previous research suggests that speakers are especially likely to produce manual communicative gestures when they have relative ease in thinking about the spatial elements of what they are describing, paired with relative difficulty organizing those elements into appropriate spoken language. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit poor expressive language abilities together with within-normal-range nonverbal IQs. This study investigated whether weak spoken language abilities in children with SLI influence their reliance on gestures to express information. We hypothesized that these children would rely on communicative gestures to express information more often than their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers, and that they would sometimes express information in gestures that they do not express in the accompanying speech. Participants were 15 children with SLI (aged 5;6-10;0) and 18 age-matched TD controls. Children viewed a wordless cartoon and retold the story to a listener unfamiliar with the story. Children's gestures were identified and coded for meaning using a previously established system. Speech-gesture combinations were coded as redundant if the information conveyed in speech and gesture was the same, and non-redundant if the information conveyed in speech was different from the information conveyed in gesture. Children with SLI produced more gestures than children in the TD group; however, the likelihood that speech-gesture combinations were non-redundant did not differ significantly across the SLI and TD groups. In both groups, younger children were significantly more likely to produce non-redundant speech-gesture combinations than older children. The gesture-speech integration system functions similarly in children with SLI and TD, but children with SLI rely more on gesture to help formulate, conceptualize or express the messages they want to convey. This provides motivation for future research examining whether interventions

  19. Epilepsy and Other Neurological Diseases in the Parents of Children with Infantile Autism. A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish…

  20. The association between cognition and academic performance in Ugandan children surviving malaria with neurological involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bangirana

    Full Text Available The contribution of different cognitive abilities to academic performance in children surviving cerebral insult can guide the choice of interventions to improve cognitive and academic outcomes. This study's objective was to identify which cognitive abilities are associated with academic performance in children after malaria with neurological involvement.62 Ugandan children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were assessed for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills, attention and academic performance (reading, spelling, arithmetic three months after the illness. Linear regressions were fit for each academic score with the five cognitive outcomes entered as predictors. Adjusters in the analysis were age, sex, education, nutrition, and home environment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA and structural equation models (SEM were used to determine the nature of the association between cognition and academic performance. Predictive residual sum of squares was used to determine which combination of cognitive scores was needed to predict academic performance.In regressions of a single academic score on all five cognitive outcomes and adjusters, only Working Memory was associated with Reading (coefficient estimate = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.10 to 0.63, p<0.01 and Spelling (0.46, 0.13 to 0.78, p<0.01, Visual Spatial Skills was associated with Arithmetic (0.15, 0.03 to 0.26, p<0.05, and Learning was associated with Reading (0.06, 0.00 to 0.11, p<0.05. One latent cognitive factor was identified using EFA. The SEM found a strong association between this latent cognitive ability and each academic performance measure (P<0.0001. Working memory, visual spatial ability and learning were the best predictors of academic performance.Academic performance is strongly associated with the latent variable labelled "cognitive ability" which captures most of the variation in the individual specific

  1. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, H P; Fantozzi, G

    1998-01-01

    To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. Retrospective analysis. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5% by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 +/- 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38). None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p < 0.01). The nitrogen balance increased from--7.05 to 2.2 g (p < 0.01). Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be increased by more aggressive feeding regimes than the usual ones. Early tube feeding was

  2. Metabolic assessment and enteral tube feeding usage in children with acute neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Pons Leite

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on acquired experience of metabolic support for children with acute neurological diseases, emphasizing enteral tube feeding usage and metabolic assessment, and also to recommend policies aimed towards improving its implementation. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 44 patients consecutively admitted to the Pediatric ICU over a period of 3 years who were given nutrition and metabolic support for at least 72 hours. Head trauma, CNS infections and craniotomy post-operative period following tumor exeresis were the main diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS: Records of protein-energy intake, nutrient supply route, nitrogen balance and length of therapy. RESULTS: From a total of 527 days of therapy, single parenteral nutrition was utilized for 34.3% and single enteral tube feeding for 79.1% of that period. 61.4% of the children were fed exclusively via enteral tube feeding, 9.1% via parenteral and 39.5 % by both routes. The enteral tube feeding was introduced upon admission and transpyloric placement was successful in 90% of the cases. Feeding was started 48 hours after ICU admission. The caloric goal was achieved on the 7th day after admission, and thereafter parenteral nutrition was interrupted. The maximum energy supply was 104.2 ± 23.15 kcal/kg. The median length of therapy was 11 days (range 4-38. None of the patients on tube feeding developed GI tract bleeding, pneumonia or bronchoaspiration episodes and, of the 4 patients who were given exclusive TPN, 2 developed peptic ulcer. The initial urinary urea nitrogen was 7.11 g/m2 and at discharge 6.44 g/m2. The protein supply increased from 1.49 g/kg to 3.65 g/kg (p< 0.01. The nitrogen balance increased from -7.05 to 2.2 g (p< 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Children with acute neurological diseases are hypercatabolic and have high urinary nitrogen losses. The initial negative nitrogen balance can be

  3. NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT DURING TODDLING AGE IN NORMAL-CHILDREN AND CHILDREN AT RISK OF DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEMPEL, MS

    Toddling age (1.5-4 years) is a period in which the quality rather than the quantity of motor functions changes. We examined 305 normal and 43 so called 'risk' children with an examination technique which concentrates on observations of motor functions (grasping, sitting, crawling, standing and

  4. Music identification skills of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. To compare melody and song identification skills in a group of children with SLI and in a control group of children with typical language development (TD); and to study possible correlations between music identification skills and language abilities in the SLI group. This is a prospective case control study. Two groups of children were enrolled: one meeting DSM-IV-TR(®) diagnostic criteria for SLI and the other comprising an age-matched group of children with TD. All children received a melody and a song identification test, together with a test battery assessing receptive and productive language abilities. 30 children with SLI (mean age = 56 ± 9 months) and 23 with TD (mean age = 60 ± 10 months) were included. Melody and song identification scores among SLI children were significantly lower than those of TD children, and in both groups song identification scores were significantly higher than melody identification scores. Song identification skills bore a significant correlation to chronological age in both groups (TD: r = 0.529, p = 0.009; SLI: r = 0.506, p = 0.004). Whereas no other variables were found explaining the variability of melody or song identification scores in either group, the correlation between language comprehension and song identification in the SLI group approached significance (r = 0.166, p = 0.076). The poorer music perception skills of SLI children as compared with TD ones suggests that SLI may also affect music perception. Therefore, training programmes that simultaneously stimulate via language and music may prove useful in the rehabilitation of children affected by SLI. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and

  5. Impairment of quality of life in parents of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Arrigo Valentina

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub

  6. Grammatical sensitivity and working memory in children with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Farkas, Lajos

    2011-12-01

    Children with primary language impairment (LI) show a deficit in processing different grammatical structures, verb inflections, and syntactically complex sentences among other things (Clahsen-Hansen 1997; Leonard et al. 1997). Cross-linguistic research has shown that the pattern of performance is language-specific. We examined grammatical sensitivity to word order and agreement violations in 50 Hungarian-speaking children with and without LI. The findings suggest a strong association between sensitivity to grammatical violations and working memory capacity. Variations in working memory performance predicted grammatical sensitivity. Hungarian participants with LI exhibited a weakness in detecting both agreement and word order violations.

  7. Low Cost Science Teaching Equipment for Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal

    1998-05-01

    A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.

  8. Congenitally Impaired Disparity Vergence in Children With Infantile Esotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Felius, Joost; Ramachandran, Santoshi; John, Blesson A; Jost, Reed M; Birch, Eileen E

    2016-05-01

    We examined whether congenital impairment of disparity vergence in infantile esotropia (ET) exists in children with short duration ET (≤3 months) compared with long-duration ET and healthy controls. A short duration of misalignment would allow for a substantial amount of balanced binocular input during the critical period of binocular disparity development. A total of 19 children aged 5 to 12 years and treated for infantile ET with a short (≤3 months; n = 10) or long (≥5 months; n = 9) duration of constant misalignment before alignment were enrolled. A total of 22 healthy control children were enrolled as a comparison group. Eye movements during disparity vergence and accommodative vergence were recorded using an EyeLink 1000 binocular eye tracker. Mean response gain was compared between and within groups to determine the effect of duration of misalignment and viewing condition. Compared with controls, children with short (P = 0.002) and long (P vergence, but not for accommodative vergence (P = 0.19). Regardless of duration of misalignment, children with infantile ET had reduced disparity vergence, consistent with a congenital impairment of disparity vergence in infantile ET. Although early correction of misalignment increases the likelihood that some level of binocular disparity sensitivity will be present, normal levels may never be achieved.

  9. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children With Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A; Justice, Laura M; O'Connell, Ann A; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms. On the basis of performance on a word recognition task given in kindergarten, children were classified as either good or poor readers. Comparisons were made across these 2 groups on a number of language and early literacy measures administered in preschool, and logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of kindergarten reading status. Twenty-seven percent of the sample met criterion for poor reading in kindergarten. These children differed from good readers on most of the skills measured in preschool. The best predictors of kindergarten reading status were oral language, alphabet knowledge, and print concept knowledge. Presence of comorbid disabilities was not a significant predictor. Classification accuracy was good overall. Results suggest that risk of reading difficulty for children with language impairment can be reliably estimated in preschool, prior to the onset of formal reading instruction. Measures of both language and early literacy skills are important for identifying which children are likely to develop later reading difficulties.

  10. Mental states and activities in Danish narratives: children with autism and children with language impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...

  11. Full outline of unresponsiveness score versus Glasgow Coma Scale in children with nontraumatic impairment of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Gurpreet Singh; Gulati, Sheffali; Lodha, Rakesh; Pandey, Rm

    2014-10-01

    The study was designed to compare the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score with Glasgow Coma Scale as a predictor of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge in children with nontraumatic impairment of consciousness. Seventy children aged 5 to 18 years admitted with impaired consciousness were enrolled. The scores were applied by the Pediatric Neurology fellow within 2 hours of admission. The primary outcome studied was in-hospital mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the 2 scores. The area under the curves for Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness scores were 0.916 and 0.940, respectively. However, the difference between the areas under curve for the 2 scores was not statistically significant (0.023; 95% confidence interval: -0.0115 to 0.058). Our data indicate that both the scores are good predictors for in-hospital mortality and functional outcome. However, no significant difference was observed between the ability of the 2 scores to predict the outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Postural control, motor skills, and health-related quality of life in children with hearing impairment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Venkadesan; Roy, Finita Glory; Jeevanantham, Deepa

    2012-04-01

    Children with hearing impairment have balance and motor deficits primarily due to concomitant damage to the vestibular structures. Psycho-intellectual and social developmental disorders, as well as elimination of social activities and participation may diminish health-related quality of life in these children. Despite the documentation, assessment of balance, motor deficits, and health-related quality of life of these children are not included in the educational program, unless obvious neurological or orthopedic disorders are diagnosed. The objective of this review was to systematically analyze the available information in the literatures regarding the postural control, motor skills, and health-related quality of life in children with hearing impairment. Searches of data sources PubMed, MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ISI of web science, Cochrane Library, and AMED database were performed from the earliest to 7 February 2011. Study eligibility criteria included non-interventional studies that addressed postural control, motor skills, and health-related quality of life in children with hearing impairment. For each eligible article, data were extracted using custom-designed forms by a single investigator. Collected data included study demographics, study design, study population, sample size, outcome measures, and results. A total of 11,872 articles were retrieved, and 17 articles were found to be eligible for inclusion. Of the 17 articles included, five articles analyzed health-related quality of life alone, two articles analyzed balance alone, two articles analyzed motor performance alone, two articles analyzed vestibular dysfunction alone, two articles included both vestibular dysfunction and balance, two articles included both motor performance and balance, and two articles investigated vestibular, balance as well as motor impairments. Heterogeneity of the studies prevented us from performing methodological quality assessment and meta-analysis. The results of

  13. Characterising Developmental Language Impairment in Serbian-Speaking Children: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Stojanovik, Vesna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide preliminary data on the use of auxiliaries and clitics in Serbian-speaking children with developmental language impairment. Two groups of children (a group of 30 children with developmental language impairment and a group of 30 typically developing children) aged between 48 and 83 months and matched on IQ took…

  14. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  15. Perceptual learning in children with visual impairment improves near visual acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.; Rens, G. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS: Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  16. Perceptual Learning in Children With Visual Impairment Improves Near Visual Acuity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children

  17. Free Recall Behaviour in Children with and without Spelling Impairment: The Impact of Working Memory Subcapacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malstadt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with…

  18. Codeswitching in Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Clellen, Vera F; Cereijido, Gabriela Simon; Leone, Angela Erickson

    2009-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit limited grammatical skills compared to their peers with typical language. These difficulties may be revealed when alternating their two languages (i.e., codeswitching) within sentences. Fifty-eight Spanish-English speaking children with and without SLI produced narratives using wordless picture books and conversational samples. The results indicated no significant differences in the proportion of utterances with codeswitching (CS) across age groups or contexts of elicitation. There were significant effects for language dominance, language of testing, and a significant dominance by language of testing interaction. The English-dominant children demonstrated more CS when tested in their nondominant language (Spanish) compared to the Spanish-dominant children tested in their weaker English. The children with SLI did not display more CS or more instances of atypical CS patterns compared to their typical peers. The findings indicate that children with SLI are capable of using grammatical CS, in spite of their language difficulties. In addition, the analyses suggest that CS is sensitive to sociolinguistic variables such as when the home language is not socially supported in the larger sociocultural context. In these cases, children may refrain from switching to the home language, even if that is their dominant language.

  19. Language profiles and mental health problems in children with specific language impairment and children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Wenche Andersen; Helland, Turid; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to explore whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with ADHD can be differentiated from each other in terms of their language profiles, and also to investigate whether these two clinical groups differ regarding mental health problems. A total of 59 children in the age range 6 to 12 years participated in the study. The parents completed the Children's Communication Checklist-Second Edition and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Communication impairments were as prominent in the ADHD group as in the SLI group; however, the groups were separable from each other in terms of their language profiles. Furthermore, the ADHD group experienced significantly more mental health problems compared with the SLI group. Language should be assessed in children with ADHD and instruments sensitive to ADHD should be included when assessing children with SLI. Mental health should be an area of concern to be addressed in both groups.

  20. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  1. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings.

  2. Cognitive functions in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Katrin; Bastian, Laura; Rohrbach, Saskia; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of research has focused on executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, results show limited convergence, particularly in preschool age. The current neuropsychological study compared performance of cognitive functions focused on executive components and working memory in preschool children with SLI to typically developing controls. Performance on the measures cognitive flexibility, inhibition, processing speed and phonological short-term memory was assessed. The monolingual, Caucasian study sample consisted of 30 children with SLI (Mage = 63.3 months, SD = 4.3 months) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 62.2 months, SD = 3.7 months). Groups were matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Socioeconomic status of the participating families was included. Children with SLI had significantly poorer abilities of phonological short-term memory than matched controls. A tendency of poorer abilities in the SLI group was found for inhibition and processing speed. We confirmed phonological short-term memory to be a reliable marker of SLI in preschoolers. Our results do not give definite support for impaired executive function in SLI, possibly owing to limited sensitivity of test instruments in this age group. We argue for a standardization of executive function tests for research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nocturnal enuresis impaired children's quality of life and friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönson Ring, Ingrid; Nevéus, Tryggve; Markström, Agneta; Arnrup, Kristina; Bazargani, Farhan

    2017-05-01

    There have not been any continence-specific measurement tools in Swedish that have allowed clinicians to investigate the quality of life (QoL) in children with bladder dysfunction. This study evaluated the QoL in Swedish children with nocturnal enuresis and tested the reliability of a Swedish translation of the Paediatric Incontinence Questionnaire (PinQ). This prospective study comprised 46 children aged six to 18 years with nocturnal enuresis, who completed the PinQ after it was translated into Swedish. It was completed twice by 33 patients, and these responses were included in the test-retest evaluation. The self-reported mean sum score for the whole group was 26.3 ± 13.37 (range: 5-58), and the most affected domains were social relations with peers and self-esteem. The highest individual scores were four, three or two for 71.7%, 17.4% and 10.9% of the study population, respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 for the whole questionnaire, indicating good internal consistency. The test-retest stability was excellent, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.76. Children with nocturnal enuresis had impaired self-esteem, and their impaired QoL affected their relationships with friends. The Swedish version of the PinQ proved to be a reliable tool that will be used in further studies. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Causes of severe visual impairment in children and their prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-30

    Concerning the fact that regarding causes of congenital visual impairment or visual impairment occurring during the first years of life, especially on the aetiology many problems have never been resolved, on instigation of The Netherlands a "Committee for the special study of severe visual impairment in children" has been founded by the International Association for Prevention of Blindness. The intention was that provisionally in this committee only 5 small West European countries should be represented, having more or less the same social and hygienic conditions, so that one could expect that comparison of the gained information in these countries should give some results concerning the aetiology. The contributing countries were: Belgium, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and The Netherlands. For this purpose criteria for definition of severe visual impairment, a questionnaire and a codinglist were drawn up. The classification scheme of causes of blindness and partial sightedness of the I.A.P.B. was utilized for answering the questions "by site and type and by aetiology" of the eye affections. The total number of children who were involved in the investigation was 4306. The investigation confirmed that heredity still occupies the first place in the aetiology of the congenital severe visual impairment. Moreover, the investigation could prove that besides the already known role of rubella, toxoplasmosis and dysoxygenation, probably also other affections occuring during pregnancy, prematurity, and too low birth weight (dysmaturity) and birth injuries, like asphyxia of the new-born child, are of great importance. Probably there is a correlation with certain eye affections (cataracta congenita and optic nerve atrophy). Attention is paid to the possibilities of prevention. From the results it appears that a renewed investigation is necessary where one should have to dispose of more and especially more reliable information concerning pregnancy and delivery. Suggestions in this

  5. Nutritional assessment and diet quality of visually impaired Spanish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The visually impaired represents a fairly numerous group in Spain although no data on their nutritional status has previously been published. This work aims to assess the nutritional state of a sample of visually impaired children and the quality of their diet. The sample comprised 229 boys and girls aged between 8 and 18 years (mean = 14, SD = 2.6), all of whom had a visual discapacity and were students of the Centros de Recursos Educativos (CREs; Educational Resources Centres) of the Organización Nacional de Ciegos de España (ONCE; Spanish National Organization for the Blind). This sample featured a high prevalence of overweight (25.8%) and obesity (11.8%) according to the international standard. The mean daily energy consumption and the quantity of carbohydrates, fats, proteins and fibre were greater in boys (2604 kcal day(-1); 290 g of carbohydrates, 126 g of fats and 90 g of proteins) than in girls (2159 kcal day(-1), 232 g of carbohydrates, 107 g of fats and 80 g of proteins). No differences in diet intake according to degree of visual impairment were found. Their diet was unbalanced in comparison with the nutritional objectives for the Spanish population, since consumption of carbohydrates was low and that of fats was very high. The results relating to the quality of the diet reveal quite large deviations from the Mediterranean model. Only 11.9% of the whole sample had a value corresponding to a good quality diet. The pattern of dietary consumption was the same as that observed in non visually impaired children in Spain in quantity and quality, nevertheless the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher than in children without visual handicaps.

  6. Perception of Filtered Speech by Children with Developmental Dyslexia and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha eGoswami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we use two filtered speech tasks to investigate children’s processing of slow (<4 Hz versus faster (~33 Hz temporal modulations in speech. We compare groups of children with either developmental dyslexia (Experiment 1 or speech and language impairments (SLIs, Experiment 2 to groups of typically-developing (TD children age-matched to each disorder group. Ten nursery rhymes were filtered so that their modulation frequencies were either low-pass filtered (< 4 Hz or band-pass filtered (22 – 40 Hz. Recognition of the filtered nursery rhymes was tested in a picture recognition multiple choice paradigm. Children with dyslexia aged 10 years showed equivalent recognition overall to TD controls for both the low-pass and band-pass filtered stimuli, but showed significantly impaired acoustic learning during the experiment from low-pass filtered targets. Children with oral speech and language impairments (SLIs aged 9 years showed significantly poorer recognition of band pass filtered targets compared to their TD controls, and showed comparable acoustic learning effects to TD children during the experiment. The SLI sample were also divided into children with and without phonological difficulties. The children with both SLI and phonological difficulties were impaired in recognising both kinds of filtered speech. These data are suggestive of impaired temporal sampling of the speech signal at different modulation rates by children with different kinds of developmental language disorder. Both SLI and dyslexic samples showed impaired discrimination of amplitude rise times. Implications of these findings for a temporal sampling framework for understanding developmental language disorders are discussed.

  7. Cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptoms during the auditory oddball task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasia Kozlowska, MBBS., PhD. FRANZCP

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings add to a growing literature indicating that a baseline state of high arousal may be a precondition for generating functional neurological symptoms, a finding that helps explain why a range of psychological and physiological stressors can trigger functional neurological symptoms in some patients. Interventions that target cortical arousal may be central to the treatment of paediatric patients with functional neurological symptom disorder.

  8. Physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Otávio Luis; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Lieberman, Lauren Joy; Gutierrez, Gustavo Luis

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review on physical activity interventions for children and youth with visual impairment (VI). Five databases were searched to identify studies involving the population of interest and physical activity practices. After evaluating 2,495 records, the authors found 18 original full-text studies published in English they considered eligible. They identified 8 structured exercise-training studies that yielded overall positive effect on physical-fitness and motor-skill outcomes. Five leisure-time-physical-activity and 5 instructional-strategy interventions were also found with promising proposals to engage and instruct children and youth with VI to lead an active lifestyle. However, the current research on physical activity interventions for children and youth with VI is still limited by an absence of high-quality research designs, low sample sizes, use of nonvalidated outcome measures, and lack of generalizability, which need to be addressed in future studies.

  9. Is learning by observation impaired in children with dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghini, Deny; Vicari, Stefano; Mandolesi, Laura; Petrosini, Laura

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that imitating observed actions belongs to the same category of processes involved in planning and executing actions. New competencies may be acquired by actually executing a task or by executing a task after having seen how to do it. The performance of thirty dyslexic children was compared with that of an age- and gender-matched group of thirty normally reading children on tasks of learning a visuo-motor sequence by observation or by trial and error. The children observed an actor detecting a visuo-motor sequence and then performed the task reproducing either the previously observed sequence or a new one (Learning by Observation), or detected a sequence by trial and error (Learning by Doing), or first performed the task by trial and error and then performed it after an observational training (Learning by Observation after Doing). Results demonstrate that the dyslexic children were severely impaired in learning a sequence by observation, were able to detect a sequence by trial and error, and became as efficient as normal readers in reproducing an observed sequence after a task of learning by doing. Thus, the impaired ability to learn by observation could be reversed by agentive experience that supplied dyslexic children with a powerful learning mechanism, which enabled them to efficiently transfer action information across modalities. The beneficial effect of practice on the ability to learn by observation could provide dyslexic children a useful chance to acquire new cognitive abilities through more tuned teaching approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Visuospatial impairment in children and adolescents after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavisto, Anu; Korkman, Marit; Törmänen, Jussi; Holmberg, Christer; Jalanko, Hannu; Qvist, Erik

    2011-03-01

    A minority of children with liver transplants exhibit significant delay in global intelligence; others have specific learning disabilities. More specific data on neurocognitive strengths and weaknesses are lacking. Eighteen children aged 7-16 yr, who had undergone LTx in Finland participated in the study. They were assessed on an average 7.6 (s.d. 4.5, range 1.0-15.0) years post-operatively at a mean age of 11.8 (s.d. 3.1, range 7.2-16.1). A standardized test of intelligence (WISC-III), a neuropsychological test battery (NEPSY-II), and a parental questionnaire on the child's development (FTF) were administered. The neuropsychological test profile of the LTx group was compared with that of a matched control group of healthy children. The LTx children achieved on an average normal FSIQ 94.0 and VIQ 99.6. Their Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ 88.9, p=0.043) was, however, significantly lower than the population mean. On neuropsychological assessment, the LTx children scored generally lower than the control group (p=0.004), a difference significant in sub-tests assessing visuospatial and visuoconstructive functions and social perception. No differences emerged in sub-tests of attention and executive functions, memory and learning, or language functions. LTx children are at increased risk for impairment in the visuospatial domain. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Auditory processing in children : a study of the effects of age, hearing impairment and language impairment on auditory abilities in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stollman, Martin Hubertus Petrus

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we tested the hypotheses that the auditory system of children continues to mature until at least the age of 12 years and that the development of auditory processing in hearing-impaired and language-impaired children is often delayed or even genuinely disturbed. Data from a

  12. Effects of blood lead level on biochemical and hematological parameters in children with neurological diseases of Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratinidhi, Shilpa A; Patil, Arun J; Behera, Manaskumar; Patil, Maya; Ghadage, Dnyaneshwari P; Pratinidhi, Asha K

    2014-05-01

    Lead is found in small but appreciable quantities in air, soil, drinking water, and food. Exposure to such amounts of lead does not lead to acute lead toxicity but produces subtle effects particularly in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of blood lead level on biochemical and hematological parameters in children with neurological diseases in Western Maharashtra, India, and to estimate the blood lead level by liver and kidney function tests and hematological parameters in children with neurological disorders admitted to the pediatric ward and compare them with healthy controls. In this study, 30 children with various neurological disorders admitted to the pediatric ward of Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College and General Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India, were compared with 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Four milliliters of venous blood was collected for estimation of blood lead level, and biochemical and hematological parameters were determined using standard methods. Blood lead level was significantly increased in the study group (pfood habits and limit hand-to-mouth activities to prevent lead intoxication.

  13. Children with specific language impairment: linguistic impairment or short-term memory deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lely, H K; Howard, D

    1993-12-01

    This study is concerned with characteristics of short-term memory (STM) in children with specific language impairment (SLI). The linguistic requirements of the test procedure, the characteristics of the test materials, and the development of linguistic representations were considered. Two experimental tasks were used: a verbal-repetition and a picture-pointing procedure. The tasks used auditory presentation and were designed to explore different underlying processes during immediate recall. The linguistic characteristics of the test materials were designed to explore the influence of semantic, lexical, and phonological factors on STM. Six SLI children (aged 6:1 to 9:6) (years:months) were individually matched on comprehension and expression of language to 17 younger children (age 3:4 to 6:5). Both groups were differentially influenced by the materials as a function of the test procedure. In general, both group and individual analyses found no significant difference between the performance of the SLI children and language-age (LA) controls. The implications of the results in relation to previous findings from investigations of STM and the underlying cause of SLI in children are discussed.

  14. An Analysis of a Novel, Short-Term Therapeutic Psychoeducational Program for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Neurological Illness and Their Parents; Feasibility and Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonglim Joo; Young-Mock Lee; Heung Dong Kim; Soyong Eom

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this intervention was to develop a therapeutic psycho-educational program that improves quality of life in children and adolescents who are experiencing chronic neurological illness, including epilepsy, and their parents, and to analyze the intervention's feasibility and efficacy and participants' satisfaction. Participants were eight children (n = 8) and adolescents and their parents; participating children were experiencing chronic neurological illness with psychological como...

  15. [Subtypes of specific language impairment in Spanish-speaking children: a cluster analysis of linguistic features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Narbona, J

    2006-10-10

    Specific language impairment (SLI) can be viewed as a continuum with different subtypes depending on the combination of deficits and strengths in each of the components of linguistic behavior. AIM. To analyze the phenomenological profiles in a correlative series of Spanish children in order to facilitate their endophenotypic differentiation and the choice of strategies of intervention. 86 referred children, aged 4 to 9 years, with a mean non-verbal intelligence quotient of 93 (range 72-114) and accomplishing clinical criteria of SLI. Apart from clinical interview and neurological examination, a protocol of questionnaires and tests was used in all subjects in order to measure their formal (phonological, syntactic, lexical) and functional (semantic and pragmatic) linguistic abilities. A cluster analysis of variables was used in order to investigate SLI subtypes. In the total sample, a 24% of whole series have a pure phonological expressive disorder. 55% of subjects have mixed receptive/expressive disorders; from these, the most pervasive subtype is due to verbal agnosia (11%), but more frequently observed subtypes affect syntax reception and expression combined to difficulties in phonological programming (36%) or in lexical retrieval (8%). Furthermore, 21% of the total sample present with difficulties in pragmatic use of language even if their formal linguistic abilities and non-verbal behavior are normal. Our empirical approach confirms that the admitted SLI subtypes in international literature applies to Spanish-speaking children for endophenotyping and intervention-planning purposes.

  16. Effect of Gaze Direction on Evaluation of Visually Impaired Children by Informed Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raver-Lampman, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    Concerned adults (N=50) in continual interaction with visually impaired individuals were randomly assigned to view videotapes of visually impaired children either with or without gaze direction. Results indicated that the visually impaired children were judged more intelligent and socially competent when utilizing gaze direction toward the…

  17. The Reliability of the CVI Range: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Children who are identified as visually impaired frequently have a functional vision assessment as one way to determine how their visual impairment affects their educational performance. The CVI Range is a functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine the…

  18. Procedural and declarative memory in children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young children with and without specific language impairment. A total of 15 children with specific language impairment and 15 non-impaired children of comparable age, gender and handedness were presented with measures of procedural and declarative memory. Procedural memory was assessed using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) Task in which children implicitly learnt a ten-item sequence pattern. Declarative memory for verbal and visual information was assessed using paired associative learning tasks. The results from the SRT Task showed the children with specific language impairment did not learn the sequence at levels comparable with the non-impaired children. On the measures of declarative memory, differences between the groups were observed on the verbal but not the visual task. The differences on the verbal declarative memory task were found after statistically controlling for differences in vocabulary and phonological short-term memory. The results were interpreted to suggest an uneven profile of memory functioning in specific language impairment. On measures of declarative memory, specific language impairment appears to be associated with difficulties learning verbal information. At the same time, procedural memory is also appears to be impaired. Collectively, this study indicates multiple memory impairments in specific language impairment.

  19. Crowded visual search in children with normal vision and children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  1. Linguistic profiles of children with CI as compared with children with hearing or specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Brigitte E; Langereis, Margreet C; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Knoors, Harry E T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-09-01

    The spoken language difficulties of children with moderate or severe to profound hearing loss are mainly related to limited auditory speech perception. However, degraded or filtered auditory input as evidenced in children with cochlear implants (CIs) may result in less efficient or slower language processing as well. To provide insight into the underlying nature of the spoken language difficulties in children with CIs, linguistic profiles of children with CIs are compared with those of hard-of-hearing (HoH) children with conventional hearing aids and children with specific language impairment (SLI). To examine differences in linguistic abilities and profiles of children with CIs as compared with HoH children and children with SLI, and whether the spoken language difficulties of children with CIs mainly lie in limited auditory perception or in language processing problems. Differences in linguistic abilities and differential linguistic profiles of 47 children with CI, 66 HoH children with moderate to severe hearing loss, and 127 children with SLI are compared, divided into two age cohorts. Standardized Dutch tests were administered. Factor analyses and cluster analyses were conducted to find homogeneous linguistic profiles of the children. The children with CIs were outperformed by their HoH peers and peers with SLI on most linguistic abilities. Concerning the linguistic profiles, the largest group of children with CIs and HoH children shared similar profiles. The profiles observed for most of the children with SLI were different from those of their peers with hearing loss in both age cohorts. Results suggest that the underlying nature of spoken language problems in most children with CIs manifests in limited auditory perception instead of language processing difficulties. However, there appears to be a subgroup of children with CIs whose linguistic profiles resemble those of children with SLI. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Stress in Mothers of Hearing Impaired Children Compared to Mothers of Normal and Other Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.

  3. Pro/con clinical debate: Tracheostomy is ideal for withdrawal of mechanical ventilation in severe neurological impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Mascia, Luciana; Corno, Eleomore; Terragni, Pier Paok; Stather, David; Ferguson, Niall D

    2004-01-01

    Most clinical trials on the topic of extubation have involved patients outside the neurological intensive care unit. As a result, in this area clinicians are left with little evidence on which to base their decision making. Although tracheostomies are increasingly common procedures, they are not without complications and costs, and hence a decision to perform them should not be taken lightly. In this issue of Critical Care two groups debate the merits of tracheostomy before extubation in a pa...

  4. Measuring functional status in children with genetic impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msall, M E; Tremont, M R

    1999-06-25

    One of the consequences of genetic impairments in early childhood is their long-term effect on children's developmental skills in communication, learning, and adaptive behaviors. Functional assessment provides families and clinicians with a common language for describing a child's strengths and limitations in self-care (feeding, dressing, grooming, bathing, continence), mobility, and communication/social cognition. The National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research described a model of disablement that includes five dimensions: pathophysiology, impairment, functional limitations, disability, and societal limitations. Using this framework, along with the Functional Independence Measure for children, the WeeFIM(R), we describe functional strengths and challenges in children with Down syndrome, spina bifida, congenital limb anomalies, congenital heart disease, urea cycle disorders, severe multiple developmental disabilities, and DiGeorge malformation sequence. We also briefly describe several pediatric functional/adaptive assessment instruments used by developmental professionals (Battelle Developmental Inventory, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Amount of Assistance Questionnaire). By tracking functional status, health professionals can prioritize secondary and tertiary prevention strategies that optimize self-care, mobility, communication, and learning. When functional limitations interfere with the acquisition of these essential skills, family and community support programs can be maximized. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Impaired picture sequencing ability in children with premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuthapisith, Jariya; Jantarapagdee, Kakanang; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Nunnarumit, Pracha

    2014-07-01

    Children born preterm are at increased risk for executive dysfunction, which affects learning outcomes. Picture sequencing ability is considered as executive function (EF) that requires skills in working memory and organizing the pictures. Children born preterm might have difficulties in these skills. The present study aimed to develop practical Picture Sequencing test (PS test) and examine the sequencing ability in preterm children comparing with term children. The PS test was developed to assess the child's ability to arrange pictures into a sequence. It consisted of three conditions, which were daily activities, social interaction routines, and feeling expressions. Each story had four cartoon styles cards. The child had to rearrange picture cards into the correct sequence positions. Thirty preterm children aged five to six years with gestational ages of 32 weeks and birth weights of < 1,500 grams, and thirty-five term children matched age, gender child 's education, parental education, and socioeconomic status were performed the PS test. The total scores were compared between the preterm group and the term group. The PS test scores on the daily activities domain of the preterm and term group were 18 and 25 (p = 0.03), respectively. The scores on the social interaction routines domain ofthe preterm and term group were 20 and 28 (p = 0.01) and the scores on the feeling expression domain were 18.5 and25 (p = 0.03), respectively. There was no significant correlation between perinatal complications and the PS test scores. The preterm children with IQs in the average range showed impairment in sequencing ability compared with the term children. The results underline the need for follow-up care with more comprehensive assessment of EF.

  6. Characteristics of early spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, 'Type of Grapheme', 'Grapheme Position', 'Number of Graphemes', and 'Word Structure' were examined at the middle and at the end of first grade. At the beginning of first grade when children were between 71 and 97 months, they performed well below national norms on assessment of active grapheme knowledge. The delay in word spelling persisted, but decreased between the middle and the end of first grade. Despite this delay, the findings suggest that characteristics of early spelling for children with SLI are rather similar to those of children with typical language development. For example, children with SLI represented more graphemes at the end of first grade than at the middle of first grade, found it easier to represent the initial grapheme in words than the final or medial grapheme (Grapheme Position), were more successful spelling shorter than longer words (Number of Graphemes), and spelled words with simple structures (CVC) more accurately than those with complex structures (CVCC and CCVC; Word Structure). Finally, participants demonstrated that they can use known graphemes to spell words, but the transfer between active grapheme knowledge and word spelling was not always stable. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain the speed and the nature of spelling acquisition of children with SLI. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain what skills are most important for teachers to practice with children with SLI to improve the spelling skills of these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Alterations in the brain adenosine metabolism cause behavioral and neurological impairment in ADA-deficient mice and patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Hernandez, Raisa Jofra; Fumagalli, Francesca; Bianchi, Veronica; Poliani, Pietro L.; Dallatomasina, Chiara; Riboni, Elisa; Politi, Letterio S.; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Casiraghi, Miriam; Carriglio, Nicola; Cominelli, Manuela; Forcellini, Carlo Alberto; Barzaghi, Federica; Ferrua, Francesca; Minicucci, Fabio; Medaglini, Stefania; Leocani, Letizia; la Marca, Giancarlo; Notarangelo, Lucia D.; Azzari, Chiara; Comi, Giancarlo; Baldoli, Cristina; Canale, Sabrina; Sessa, Maria; D’Adamo, Patrizia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an autosomal recessive variant of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by systemic accumulation of ADA substrates. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities observed in ADA-SCID patients surviving after stem cell transplantation or gene therapy represent an unresolved enigma in the field. We found significant neurological and cognitive alterations in untreated ADA-SCID patients as well as in two groups of patients after short- and long-term enzyme replacement therapy with PEG-ADA. These included motor dysfunction, EEG alterations, sensorineural hypoacusia, white matter and ventricular alterations in MRI as well as a low mental development index or IQ. Ada-deficient mice were significantly less active and showed anxiety-like behavior. Molecular and metabolic analyses showed that this phenotype coincides with metabolic alterations and aberrant adenosine receptor signaling. PEG-ADA treatment corrected metabolic adenosine-based alterations, but not cellular and signaling defects, indicating an intrinsic nature of the neurological and behavioral phenotype in ADA deficiency. PMID:28074903

  8. The self-imagination effect: benefits of a self-referential encoding strategy on cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Matthew D; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2011-09-01

    Knowledge of oneself is preserved in many memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Therefore, cognitive strategies that capitalize on mechanisms related to the self may be particularly effective at enhancing memory in this population. The present study investigated the effect of "self-imagining," imagining an event from a personal perspective, on short and long delayed cued recall in memory-impaired individuals with neurological damage. Sixteen patients intentionally encoded word pairs under four separate conditions: visual imagery, semantic elaboration, other person imagining, and self-imagining. The results revealed that self-imagining led to better performance than other-imagining, semantic elaboration, and visual imagery. Furthermore, the "self-imagination effect" (SIE) was preserved after a 30-min delay and was independent of memory functioning. These findings indicate that self-imagining provides a mnemonic advantage in brain-injured individuals, even those with relatively poor memory functioning, and suggest that self-imagining may tap into mnemonic mechanisms related to the self.

  9. Artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in young children: a field study regarding neurological and neuropsychiatric safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatz Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria is one of the treatments used in African children. Data concerning neurological safety in adults and children treated with mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy is well documented in Asia. Safety data for neurological and neuropsychiatric side effects of mefloquine and artesunate combination therapy in African children are scarce, although WHO recommends this therapy in Africa. Methods A phase IV, open label, single arm study was conducted among African children between 10 and 20 kg with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria. They were treated over three consecutive days with a paediatric fixed-dose combination of artesunate (50 mg/d and mefloquine (125 mg/d. Parasitological, clinical and neurological examinations and standardized questions about neuropsychiatric symptoms were carried out on days 0, 4, 7, 28 and 63. The primary objective was to assess the neurological and neuropsychiatric safety of artesunate-mefloquine combination therapy in young children. Results From December 2007 to March 2009, 220 children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with artesunate and mefloquine. 213 children were analysed according to study protocol. 50 neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in 28 patients. Eleven drug-related neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in eight patients. Sleeping disorders were present in 2.3%, neurological disorders in 1.4%, neuropsychiatric disorders in 1% and eating disorders in 0.5% of the patients. Adverse events were of mild to moderate intensity and resolved spontaneously. Conclusion African children showed a low percentage of self-limited neurological and neuropsychiatric adverse events, confirming studies on neurological safety in Asian children treated with artesunate and mefloquine. Sleeping disorders were most frequently observed.

  10. Elaboration of a clinical and paraclinical score to estimate the probability of herpes simplex virus encephalitis in patients with febrile, acute neurologic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennai, S; Rallo, A; Keil, D; Seigneurin, A; Germi, R; Epaulard, O

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is associated with a high risk of mortality and sequelae, and early diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department are necessary. However, most patients present with non-specific febrile, acute neurologic impairment; this may lead clinicians to overlook the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. We aimed to identify which data collected in the first hours in a medical setting were associated with the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective case-control study in four French public hospitals from 2007 to 2013. The cases were the adult patients who received a confirmed diagnosis of HSV encephalitis. The controls were all the patients who attended the emergency department of Grenoble hospital with a febrile acute neurologic impairment, without HSV detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in 2012 and 2013. A multivariable logistic model was elaborated to estimate factors significantly associated with HSV encephalitis. Finally, an HSV probability score was derived from the logistic model. We identified 36 cases and 103 controls. Factors independently associated with HSV encephalitis were the absence of past neurological history (odds ratio [OR] 6.25 [95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.22-16.7]), the occurrence of seizure (OR 8.09 [95 % CI: 2.73-23.94]), a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (OR 5.11 [95 % CI: 1.77-14.77]), and a C-reactive protein <10 mg/L (OR 9.27 [95 % CI: 2.98-28.88]). An HSV probability score was calculated summing the value attributed to each independent factor. HSV encephalitis diagnosis may benefit from the use of this score based upon some easily accessible data. However, diagnostic evocation and probabilistic treatment must remain the rule.

  11. Written language skills in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J; Larkin, Rebecca F; Blaggan, Samarita

    2013-01-01

    Young children are often required to carry out writing tasks in an educational context. However, little is known about the patterns of writing skills that children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) have relative to their typically developing peers. To assess the written language skills of CwSLI and compare these with typically developing peers. It also aimed to assess the relative contributions of reading and spelling skills to written language skills. Forty-five children took part in the study: 15 were CwSLI, 15 were a chronological age match and 15 were a spelling age match. The children took part in a range of tasks that assessed writing, reading and spelling abilities. In their written language and compared with typical age-matched peers, CwSLI used a significantly less diverse range of words, had lower quality written compositions overall, and lower levels of organization, unity and coherence. They also had a higher proportion of spelling errors. Overall, writing skills were strongly associated with reading skills. The findings demonstrate the challenges CwSLI have in producing good-quality written text and that these challenges are likely to be related to the linguistic skills profile shown by these children. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  12. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vitor Felix; de Coelho, Daniella Moura; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Pereira, Fernanda dos Santos; Matte, Ursula; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2014-01-13

    Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p<0.05). Both JOA (r=-0.68) and SSPROM (r=-0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p=0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r=-0.47, p=0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p=0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies.

  13. Linguistic transfer in bilingual children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the issue of linguistic transfer. To examine the first and second language proficiency of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children with SLI in the age range between 7 and 11 years living in the Netherlands. A multidimensional perspective on language proficiency was taken in order to assess children's Turkish and Dutch proficiency levels, whereas equivalent tests were used in order to determine language dominance. A second aim was to find out to what extent the children's proficiency in L2 can be predicted from their L1 proficiency, while taking into account their general cognitive abilities. The children's performance on a battery of equivalent language ability tests in Turkish and Dutch was compared at three age levels. By means of analyses of variance, it was explored to what extent the factors of language and grade level as well as their interactions were significant. Bivariate correlations and partial correlations with age level partialled out were computed to examine the relationships between L1 and L2 proficiency levels. Moreover, regression analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the variance in general L2 proficiency levels could be explained by children's L1 proficiency, short-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Repeated measures analyses showed that the children had generally higher scores on L1 as compared with L2 and that with progression of age the children's scores in L1 and L2 improved. Medium to high correlations were found between phonological memory, phonological awareness, grammatical skills and story comprehension in the two languages. Regression analysis revealed that children's L2 proficiency levels could be explained by their proficiency levels in L1

  14. Conceptual Scoring of Lexical Organization in Bilingual Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Ketty; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Dahlgren-Sandberg, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate conceptual scoring of lexical organization in bilingual children with language impairment (BLI) and to compare BLI performance with monolingual children with language impairment (MLI). Word associations were assessed in 15 BLI and 9 MLI children. BLI were assessed in Arabic and Swedish, MLI in Swedish only. A number of…

  15. Reading Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Two Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Katrina; Fletcher, Janet; Lee, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Background: In reading research, children with specific language impairment (SLI) have tended to be included in groups of children expected to have difficulties with both decoding and reading comprehension (generally poor readers). This is because generally children with specific language impairment display difficulties with phonology as well as…

  16. Profiling relative clause constructions in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This study highlights the importance of error analysis in providing a comprehensive profile of an individual's grammatical ability with regard to relative clause (RC) constructions. The aim was to identify error patterns in the production of RCs by English-speaking, school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and to relate them to their level of competence with these structures. Children with SLI (mean age = 6;10, n = 32) and two control groups - a typically developing group matched for age (mean age = 6;11, n = 32) and a younger typically developing group (mean age = 4;9, n = 20), repeated sentences containing RCs that represented a range of syntactic roles. Data are presented on three distinct error patterns - the provision of simple sentences, obligatory relativizer omission and RC conversions. Each is related to the level of competence on RCs that each child has achieved.

  17. Long-term employment outcomes following rehabilitation for significant neurological impairment in UK military personnel: a 3-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Sardar; McRann, J; McGilloway, E

    2017-08-09

    Returning to employment is a major modifiable factor affecting long-term health in brain injury which neurological and vocational rehabilitation attempts to address. In military patients, little is known about long-term employability, whether employment is sustained and how they fare in civilian roles. A telephone review was undertaken of every military patient having undergone inpatient neurorehabilitation between 2012 and 2014. This was compared to their employment outcomes one to three years post discharge. We further evaluated whether this employment was sustained over successive years in the same patients. Finally, we identify those rehabilitation interventions deemed most influential in improving employment outcomes in brain injury. During this period, an average of 57 (51-61) such patients were discharged each year. A review conducted by telephone successfully contacted 46% (43%-49% across cohorts) of all possible patients; 71.4% (64-81) returned to work increasing to 80.7% (76-85) including those training/actively seeking-work. Overall, 31.7% (24-40) returned to full-time military-in those leaving, 89.6% (85.4-90.9) were discharged for medical reasons. Severity of brain injury was unrelated to successful employment; 63.6%/78.6% had the same vocational outcome over two consecutive years while 36.3%/21.4% showed improved outcomes. Despite significant brain/neurological injury (graded by severity/Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory 4), 80.7% (76-85) were working/training 2/3 years postdischarge from neurorehabilitation with 31.7% returning to full-time military role. Inability to continue within the military was not synonymous with inability to work. Return to work was independent of severity of brain/neurological injury and follow-up over consecutive years demonstrated sustained employment. The argument against inpatient neurorehabilitation has always been cost> This 3-year analysis reinforces that patients can and most likely will return to employment with

  18. Simulated astigmatism impairs academic-related performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p  0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have

  19. Disruption of rolandic gamma-band functional connectivity by seizures is associated with motor impairments in children with epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Although children with epilepsy exhibit numerous neurological and cognitive deficits, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain unclear. Synchronization of oscillatory neural activity in the gamma frequency range (>30 Hz is purported to be a mechanism mediating functional integration within neuronal networks supporting cognition, perception and action. Here, we tested the hypothesis that seizure-induced alterations in gamma synchronization are associated with functional deficits. By calculating synchrony among electrodes and performing graph theoretical analysis, we assessed functional connectivity and local network structure of the hand motor area of children with focal epilepsy from intracranial electroencephalographic recordings. A local decrease in inter-electrode phase synchrony in the gamma bands during ictal periods, relative to interictal periods, within the motor cortex was strongly associated with clinical motor weakness. Gamma-band ictal desychronization was a stronger predictor of deficits than the presence of the seizure-onset zone or lesion within the motor cortex. There was a positive correlation between the magnitude of ictal desychronization and impairment of motor dexterity in the contralateral, but not ipsilateral hand. There was no association between ictal desynchronization within the hand motor area and non-motor deficits. This study uniquely demonstrates that seizure-induced disturbances in cortical functional connectivity are associated with network-specific neurological deficits.

  20. The neurological effects of prenatal and postnatal mercury/methylmercury exposure on three-year-old children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Yang, Tzu-Hsuan; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2014-04-01

    This study attempts to elucidate the relationship between neurological effects and mercury/methylmercury concentrations in various biomarkers, including meconium, hair, fingernail, and toenail. Eight-three mother-infant pairs were recruited between August 2008 and December 2009, and follow-up examinations on these children were completed after three years. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) for evaluating the cognitive, language, and motor development of three-year-old children were calculated and validated. The geometric mean of the total mercury concentration in meconium was 89.6 ng g(-1). The methylmercury concentrations in hair, fingernail, and toenail samples were 1.96, 0.64, and 0.55 μg g(-1), respectively. Seventy percent of children had hair methylmercury concentrations exceeding the U.S. environmental protection agency (EPA) reference of 1 μg g(-1). A significantly positive correlation was obtained between methylmercury levels in hair, fingernail, and toenail. These methylmercury levels were also significantly positively correlated with the children's fish intake and negatively correlated with a Bayley-III scale score of expressive language. The prenatal mercury exposure, however, did not show significant influence on neurological development. High fish consumption appears to be a critical risk factor for methylmercury levels in children and may cause a lower expressive language score. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-03-31

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface.

  2. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mualla Hamurcu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.

  3. Developmental abilities in children with mild visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyzing the relation between visual acuity and developmental abilities (perceptive functions, verbal and non-verbal abilities in younger school children. The sample consists of 1165 children from urban, suburban, and rural parts of Belgrade, of both genders, aged between 7.5 and 11. American 'Lighthouse' Optotype was used for screening assessment of visual acuity. Mild visual impairment, i.e. near visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, was detected in 7.9% of the pupils. ACADIA test of developmental abilities was used for the assessment of developmental abilities. When compared to the examinees with visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 (mild amblyopia, the examinees with normal visual acuity achieved better results in visuomotor coordination, non-verbal reasoning (Visual Association subtest, and concept formation in non-verbal domain (Sequence and Coding subtest. No significant differences were determined in constructive praxis (Drawing Shapes subtest and representational dimension of a drawing (Drawing subtest. According to the criterion of age standard deviation, a statistically significant difference was determined between the examinees with mild visual impairment and the examinees with normal vision (χ2=13,425, df=2, p=0,001; ρ=0,103, p≤0,000. The results of 24.8% of the examinees with mild visual impairment deviate from age norms in one or two SD (14.9% in one SD, and 9.9% in two SD. In the group of examinees with normal vision 12.5% of the results deviate from age norms in one or two SD (8.7% in one SD, and 3.8% in two SD.

  4. Genetics of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Mottagui-Tabar, Salim; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2004-05-01

    Neurological diseases are defined as an inappropriate function of the peripheral or central nervous system due to impaired electrical impulses throughout the brain and/or nervous system that may present with heterogeneous symptoms according to the parts of the system involved in these pathologic processes. Growing evidence on genetic components of neurological disease have been collected during recent years. Genetic studies have opened the way for understanding the underlying pathology of many neurological disorders. The outcome of current intense research into the genetics of neurological disorders will hopefully be the introduction of new diagnostic tools and the discovery of potential targets for new and more effective medications and preventive measures.

  5. Language profiles in children with Down syndrome and children with language impairment: implications for early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Kapalková, Svetlana

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated early language profiles in two groups of children with developmental disability: children with Down Syndrome (DS, n=13) and children with Language Impairment (LI, n=16). Vocabulary and grammatical skills in the two groups were assessed and compared to language skills of typically developing (TD) children matched on size of either their receptive or expressive vocabulary (n=58). The study aimed to establish if language development in these groups is delayed or fundamentally different than the TD groups, and if the group with DS showed a similar language profile to the group with LI. There is a clinical motivation to identify possible key risk characteristics that may distinguish children who are likely to have LI from the variation observed in TD children. Three clear findings emerged from the data. Firstly, both receptive and expressive vocabulary compositions did not significantly differ in the clinical groups (DS and LI) after being matched to the vocabulary size of TD children. This provides further support for the idea that word learning for the children in the clinical groups is delayed rather than deviant. Secondly, children with LI showed a significantly larger gap between expressive and receptive word knowledge, but children with DS showed a pattern comparable to TD children. Thirdly, children with LI who understood a similar number of words as the TD children still had significantly poorer grammatical skills, further underlining the dissociation between lexical and grammatical skills in children with LI. Grammatical skills of children with DS were commensurate with their lexical skills. The findings suggest that language intervention should be specifically tailored to etiology rather than focused on general communication strategies, particularly in children with LI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of a new neurological score (FOUR Score) in the assessment of neurosurgical patients with severely impaired consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bixia; Grothe, Christoph; Schaller, Karl

    2013-11-01

    The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was introduced as a scoring system for patients with impaired consciousness after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since, it has become the worldwide standard in TBI assessment. The GCS has repeatedly been criticized for its several failures to reflect verbal reaction in intubated patients, and to test brain stem reflexes. Recently, the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score was introduced, which is composed of four clinically distinct categories of evaluation: eye reaction, motor function, brainstem reflexes and respiratory pattern. This study aims to validate the FOUR score in neurosurgical patients. FOUR score and GCS were assessed in a consecutive series of neurosurgical patients with severely impaired consciousness (GCS consciousness. There was no relevant difference in predicting poor and good outcome.

  7. Association of blood lead level with neurological features in 972 children affected by an acute severe lead poisoning outbreak in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Jane; Thurtle, Natalie; Cooney, Lauren; Ariti, Cono; Ahmed, Abdulkadir Ola; Ashagre, Teshome; Ayela, Anthony; Chukwumalu, Kingsley; Criado-Perez, Alison; Gómez-Restrepo, Camilo; Meredith, Caitlin; Neri, Antonio; Stellmach, Darryl; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) investigated reports of high mortality in young children in Zamfara State, Nigeria, leading to confirmation of villages with widespread acute severe lead poisoning. In a retrospective analysis, we aimed to determine venous blood lead level (VBLL) thresholds and risk factors for encephalopathy using MSF programmatic data from the first year of the outbreak response. We included children aged ≤5 years with VBLL ≥45 µg/dL before any chelation and recorded neurological status. Odds ratios (OR) for neurological features were estimated; the final model was adjusted for age and baseline VBLL, using random effects for village of residence. 972 children met inclusion criteria: 885 (91%) had no neurological features; 34 (4%) had severe features; 47 (5%) had reported recent seizures; and six (1%) had other neurological abnormalities. The geometric mean VBLLs for all groups with neurological features were >100 µg/dL vs 65.9 µg/dL for those without neurological features. The adjusted OR for neurological features increased with increasing VBLL: from 2.75, 95%CI 1.27-5.98 (80-99.9 µg/dL) to 22.95, 95%CI 10.54-49.96 (≥120 µg/dL). Neurological features were associated with younger age (OR 4.77 [95% CI 2.50-9.11] for 1-lead poisoning in prioritising therapy and developing chelation protocols.

  8. Bilingual children with primary language impairment: 3 months after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. To investigate change in select language and cognitive skills in Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI 3 months after children have completed one of three experimental treatment conditions. There are two main study aims. First, to determine if skills in Spanish, English and cognitive processing decline, improve or are maintained after treatment has been completed. Second, to determine if differential rates of change are a function of the type of treatment children received. Participants were 48 children, aged 5:6-11:3, who spoke Spanish and English and were diagnosed with moderate to severe PLI. Participants received 6 weeks of treatment focused on English only (EO), bilingual skills in Spanish and English (BI) or nonlinguistic cognitive processing (NCP). Treatment effects reported in a previous study were determined by comparing pre- and post-treatment performance on a variety of language and cognitive measures. Here we re-administered each measure 3 months after completion of the experimental treatments. Hierarchical linear models were calculated for each measure using pre-, post- and follow-up testing scores to estimate change trajectories and compare outcomes between treatment conditions. Participants in all three treatment conditions either maintained skills or showed improvement even after treatment was discontinued for 3 months. Main findings included (1) comparable, positive rates of change on all English language outcomes for EO and BI conditions; (2) maintenance of Spanish language skills, and (3) modest improvements in NCP following the discontinuation of treatment. This study is the first to examine longer-term treatment effects for bilingual school-age children with PLI

  9. Specific language impairment in children with velocardiofacial syndrome : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Dikkers, FG; Robinson, PH; Kerstjens-Frederikse, WS

    Objective: To describe specific language impairment in four children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Design: A descriptive, retrospective study of four cases. Setting: University Hospital Groningen, tertiary clinical care. Patients: Of 350 patients with cleft plate, 18 children were diagnosed

  10. Epidural steroid following discectomy for herniated lumbar disc reduces neurological impairment and enhances recovery: a randomized study with two-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.; Krum-Moller, D.S.; Lauridsen, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: We randomized 200 patients after lumbar discectomy to receive epidural steroid or none with a 2-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome, neurologic impairment and safety of epidural steroid following lumbar discectomy for herniated disc disease. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA...... of epidural steroid following lumbar discectomy. METHODS: Through 2001 and 2003 200 patients undergoing discectomy for herniated disc disease were randomly allocated to receive epidural methylprednisolone 40 mg or none. In the control group (62 males and 38 females, median age 41 years, 18-66) 48 L5, 50 L4......: Convalescence after discectomy for herniated disc disease is dependent on pain and the inflammatory response. Previous studies in arthroscopic and abdominal surgery demonstrate steroids, which reduce the inflammatory response and enhance recovery. Here we report a 2-year follow-up of a randomized trial...

  11. Developmental Coordination Disorder, an umbrella term for motor impairments in children: nature and co-morbid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eVaivre-Douret

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD defines a heterogeneous class of children exhibiting marked impairment in motor coordination as a general group of deficits in fine and gross motricity (subtype mixed group common to all research studies, and with a variety of other motor disorders that have been little investigated. No consensus about symptoms and aetiology has been established. Methods: Data from 58 children aged 6 to 13 years with DCD were collected on DSM-IV criteria, similar to DSM- 5 criteria. They had no other medical condition and inclusion criteria were strict (born full-term, no medication, no occupational /physical therapy. Multivariate statistical methods were used to evidence relevant interactions between discriminant features in a general DCD subtype group and to highlight specific co-morbidities. The study examined age-calibrated standardized scores from completed assessments of psychological, neuropsychological and neuropsychomotor functions, and more specifically the presence of minor neurological dysfunctions (MND including neurological soft signs (NSS, without evidence of focal neurological brain involvement. These were not considered in most previous studies. Results: Findings show the salient DCD markers for the mixed subtype (imitation of gestures, digital perception, digital praxia, manual dexterity, upper and lower limb coordination, versus surprising co-morbidities, with 33% of MND with mild spasticity from phasic stretch reflex (PSR, not associated with the above impairments but rather with sitting tone (p= .004 and dysdiadochokinesia (p= .011. PSR was not specific to a DCD subtype but was related to increased impairment of coordination between upper and lower limbs and manual dexterity. Our results highlight the major contribution of an extensive neuro-developmental assessment (mental and physical. Discussion: The present study provides important new evidence in favour of a complete physical

  12. Neurological effects of inorganic arsenic exposure: altered cysteine/glutamate transport, NMDA expression and spatial memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio A Ramos-Chávez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs is an important natural pollutant. Millions of individuals worldwide drink water with high levels of iAs. Chronic exposure to iAs has been associated with lower IQ and learning disabilities as well as memory impairment. iAs is methylated in tissues such as the brain generating mono and dimethylated species. iAs methylation requires cellular glutathione (GSH, which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system. In humans, As species cross the placenta and are found in cord blood. A CD1 mouse model was used to investigate effects of gestational iAs exposure which can lead to oxidative damage, disrupted cysteine/glutamate transport and its putative impact in learning and memory. On postnatal days (PNDs 1, 15 and 90, the expression of membrane transporters related to GSH synthesis and glutamate transport and toxicity, such as xCT, EAAC1, GLAST and GLT1, as well as LAT1, were analyzed. Also, the expression of the glutamate receptor N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR subunits NR2A and B as well as the presence of As species in cortex and hippocampus were investigated. On PND 90, an object location task was performed to associate exposure with memory impairment. Gestational exposure to iAs affected the expression of cysteine/glutamate transporters in cortex and hippocampus and induced a negative modulation of NMDAR NR2B subunit in the hippocampus. Behavioral tasks showed significant spatial memory impairment in males while the effect was marginal in females.

  13. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  14. Emotional and behavioural problems in children with language impairments and children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. To compare levels of emotional and behavioural problems in children with LI and children with ASD recruited from the same mainstream schools. We measured teacher-reported emotional and behavioural problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a sample of 5-13-year-old children with LI (N = 62) and children with ASD (N = 42) attending mainstream school but with identified special educational needs. Both groups showed similarly elevated levels of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems. The only differences between the LI and ASD groups were on subscales assessing peer problems (which were higher in the ASD group) and prosocial behaviours (which were higher in the LI group). Overall, there were few associations between emotional and behavioural problems and child characteristics, reflecting the pervasive nature of these difficulties in children with LI and children with ASD, although levels of problems were higher in children with ASD with lower language ability. However, in the ASD group only, a measure of family social economic status was associated with language ability and attenuated the association between language ability and emotional and behavioural problems. Children with LI and children with ASD in mainstream school show similarly elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, which require monitoring and may benefit from intervention. Further work is required to identify the child, family and situational factors that place children with LI and children with ASD at risk of emotional and behavioural problems, and whether these differ between the two groups. This work can then guide the application of evidence-based interventions to

  15. Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M

    2015-09-01

    Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical therapies as an adjunct to Botulinum toxin-A injection of the upper or lower limb in adults following neurological impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnear Bianca Z

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spasticity of muscles is a common consequence of central nervous system impairment. Traditionally, neurological rehabilitation for spasticity has involved occupational and physical therapy; however, increasingly Botulinum toxin–A injections may be provided. Injection effects are temporary. Consequently, understanding the effect of adjunct physical therapies will help inform multimodal rehabilitation decisions. Presently, these effects are not known. This systematic review will identify and summarize evidence on physical therapies used after Botulinum toxin-A injection to improve motor function in adults with neurological impairments. Method Systematic searching of seven electronic databases will occur to identify relevant randomized trials. Available trial data will be extracted into a list of pre-defined primary outcomes, including range of movement, spasticity and functional limb use. Pre-defined secondary outcomes will also be reviewed where trials have these data available for reporting. Effects will be expressed as mean differences or standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Where possible, comparable results will be meta-analyzed, and a summary of the available pool of evidence produced. All randomized controlled trials will be rated using the PEDro methodological quality scale. Where possible, study data will be meta-analyzed using RevMan 5 Software. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO international prosepective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO 2011:CRD42011001491. Discussion Review results will be the most comprehensive answer available to the following question: Are physical therapies clinically effective after Botulinum toxin-A injections in adults with neurological spasticity? Results will inform healthcare providers and managers who determine who gets access to and provision of Botulinum toxin-A injection and whether this is done with or without physical therapies. Results

  17. Assessment and management of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Taha A; El Sada, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Boshra; Sabra, Neveen M; Abdel Aleem, Hanan M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of low vision aids in improving visual performance and response in children with low vision. Prospective clinical case series. This study was conducted on 50 patients that met the international criteria for a diagnosis of low vision. Their ages ranged from 5 to 15 years. Assessment of low vision included distance and near visual acuity assessment, color vision and contrast sensitivity function. Low vision aids were prescribed based on initial evaluation and the patient's visual needs. Patients were followed up for 1 year using the tests done at the initial examination and a visual function assessment questionnaire. The duration of visual impairment ranged from 1 to 10 years, with mean duration +/- SD being 4.6+/- 2.3299. The near visual acuities ranged from A10 to A20, with mean near acuity +/- SD being A13.632 +/- 3.17171. Far visual acuities ranged from 6/60 (0.06) to 6/24 (0.25), with mean far visual acuity +/- SD being 0.122 +/- 0.1191. All patients had impaired contrast sensitivity function as tested using the vision contrast testing system (VCTS) chart for all spatial frequencies. Distance and near vision aids were prescribed according to the visual acuity and the visual needs of every patient. All patients in the age group 5-7 years could be integrated in mainstream schools. The remaining patients that were already integrated in schools demonstrated greater independency regarding reading books and copying from blackboards. Our study confirmed that low vision aids could play an effective role in minimizing the impact of low vision and improving the visual performance of children with low vision, leading to maximizing their social and educational integration.

  18. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Results Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = −0.68) and SSPROM (r = −0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = −0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Conclusion Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies. PMID:24410807

  19. Decline of Neurologic Varicella Complications in Children During the First Seven Years After Introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination in Germany, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Andrea; Grote, Veit; Rack-Hoch, Anita; Liese, Johannes G

    2017-01-01

    Universal varicella vaccination for 1-year-old children was introduced in Germany in 2004. We investigated changes in the incidence and type of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children during the first 7 years after universal vaccination recommendation. A surveillance study was conducted based on patients children (18.1%) had neurologic complications (median age 4 years, interquartile range 2-7; 56% male). The most frequent neurologic complications were febrile convulsion (32.0% of 228 children, median age 3.0 years), varicella encephalitis or meningitis (28.9%; median age 4.5 years), syncope (13.2%; median age 7.0 years) and cerebral convulsion (11.0%; median age 4.0 years). Other complications included ataxia (3.1%), facial nerve palsy (2.6%) and cerebral vasculitis/infarction (1.8%). Neurologic complications showed a continuous decrease between 2005 and 2011, from an incidence of 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.1-3.6) per 100,000 children children up to 7 years of age, mainly because of a decrease in the number of febrile convulsions and encephalitis or meningitis. The incidence of varicella-associated neurologic complications in children decreased approximately by 60% during the first 7 years following the recommendation for universal vaccination.

  20. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD detected in neurologic disorders Iraqi children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Kareem

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion In the absence of newborn screening, MSUD is not uncommon in neurologically disorder patients where MSUD was still diagnosed clinically, but delayed. The importance of clinical awareness and accurate biochemical analysis were the key tools for diagnosis and the necessity for a comprehensive national newborn screening program.

  1. Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment: Differences and Similarities in Pragmatic Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Nettelbladt, Ulrika; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    Pragmatically related abilities were studied in three clinical groups of children from 5 to 11 years of age; children with cerebral palsy (CP; n = 10), children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH; n = 10) and children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI; n = 10), in order to explore pragmatic abilities within each group. A range of…

  2. Inferential Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida and Pragmatic Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Pernille; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Nettelbladt, Ulrika

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the ability to make inferences in three groups of children ranging from 5;2 to 10;9 years: 10 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 10 children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH) and 10 children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI). The relationship between inferential and literal…

  3. Perception of Complete Visually Impaired Children to Three Different Oral Health Education Methods: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudunuri, S; Sharma, A; Subramaniam, P

    To evaluate the perception of visually impaired children to three different methods of oral health education. Sixty total visually impaired children were divided into three groups of 20 children each. Children in group-I received oral health education through a lecture. Children in group II received Demonstration on a Model by Tell and Touch method (DMTT) and children in group III were self trained on oral hygiene skills. All children received written instructions in Braille. Their knowledge and practice of oral hygiene methods were recorded by a questionnaire and their method of brushing and rinsing was assessed during a personal interview. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Children in group II were able to brush and rinse significantly better (p education. Oral health education given through DMTT method was perceived well by the visually impaired children.

  4. Oral Morphosyntactic Competence as a Predictor of Reading Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) present impaired oral comprehension. According to the simple view of reading, general amodal linguistic capacity accounts for both oral and reading comprehension. Considering this, we should expect SLI children to display a reading comprehension deficit. However, previous…

  5. A Literacy Based Intervention to Increase the Pretend Play of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley-Bennett, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a literacy-based intervention on the conventional pretend play skills of preschool children who are visually impaired. The intervention involved experience books, real objects, story-reading, and role-play, which are common strategies used to teach children with visual impairments. A…

  6. Early Childhood Special Education for Children with Visual Impairments: Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, A. Dolunay

    2009-01-01

    Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain…

  7. Use of the HOME Inventory with Families of Young Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, S. L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of the Infant-Toddler and the Early Childhood forms of the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of Environment) Inventory as applied to children who are visually impaired. Results indicated that families of children (n=31) with visual impairments scored about the same as did families in the norm groups.…

  8. A Preliminary Comparison of Reading Subtypes in a Clinical Sample of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Krimm, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary study was to (a) compare the pattern of reading subtypes among a clinical sample of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typical language and (b) evaluate phonological and nonphonological language deficits within each reading impairment subtype. Method: Participants were 32…

  9. Screening for Specific Language Impairment in Preschool Children: Evaluating a Screening Procedure Including the Token Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…

  10. Use of Noun Morphology by Children with Language Impairment: The Case of Hungarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, Agnes; Leonard, Laurence B.; Kas, Bence

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment often exhibit significant difficulty in the use of grammatical morphology. Although English-speaking children with language impairment have special difficulties with verb morphology, noun morphology can also be problematic in languages of a different typology. Aims: Hungarian is an agglutinating…

  11. Comparison of Severity Ratings on Norm-Referenced Tests for Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the consistency in severity classifications for children with language impairment on tests of child language. Methods: The TELD-3 and the UTLD-4 were administered to 16 preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 typical controls. The boundaries described in the test manuals were used to assign…

  12. Procedural and Declarative Memory in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…

  13. Narrative competence in children with pragmatic language impairment: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Jansonius, K.; Cuperus, J.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems.

  14. Epistemic Uncertainty: Turkish Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Comprehension of Tense and Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbay Duman, Tuba; Topbas, Seyhun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impairments in tense morphology are characteristic of English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Recent studies have investigated the role that aspect plays in the difficulties found in tense morphology. It has been suggested that children with SLI are less sensitive to aspect and its interaction with tense than…

  15. Parents' Perceptions of Physical Activity for Their Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…

  16. Psychological Characteristics of Children with Visual Impairments: Learning, Memory and Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The performance of children (and sometimes adults) with visual impairments (VI) on a range of tasks that reflect learning, memory and mental imagery is considered in this article. Sometimes the evidence suggests that there are impairments in performance in comparison with typically developing children with vision, and sometimes some advantages…

  17. Visual Fast Mapping in School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…

  18. Can Connective Use Differentiate between Children with and without Specific Language Impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribushinina, Elena; Dubinkina, Elena; Sanders, Ted

    2015-01-01

    The ability of language-impaired children to maintain coherence by using discourse connectives has so far been assessed by quantitative measures. This study is a first attempt to scrutinize the "quality" of connective use in specific language impairment (SLI). The authors investigate whether Russian-speaking children reveal sensitivity…

  19. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further

  20. Plural Noun Inflection in Kuwaiti Arabic-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fauzia; Aljenaie, Khawla; Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the production of three types of noun plural inflections, feminine sound plural (FSP), masculine sound plural (MSP), and broken plural (BP) in Kuwaiti Arabic-speaking children with and without language impairment. A total of thirty-six Kuwaiti participants-twelve adults, twelve children with specific language impairment (SLI),…

  1. Distinct Patterns of Brain Function in Children with Isolated Spelling Impairment: New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Kronbichler, Martin; Schurz, Matthias; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Fink, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating reading and spelling difficulties heavily focused on the neural correlates of reading impairments, whereas spelling impairments have been largely neglected so far. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate brain structure and function of children with isolated spelling difficulties. Therefore, 31 children, aged…

  2. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = -2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = -1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  3. A new visual stimulation program for improving visual acuity in children with visual impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting eTsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation for improving the visual acuity (VA of visually impaired (VI children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (3 females, 3 males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week of at least 8 sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards, visual evoked potential (VEP, and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training (VA=1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z=-2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed =0.028. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment (92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ± SD=15.4, Z=-1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed = 0.144. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders.

  4. A New Visual Stimulation Program for Improving Visual Acuity in Children with Visual Impairment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Ting; Hsu, Jung-Lung; Wu, Chien-Te; Chen, Chia-Ching; Su, Yu-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of visual rehabilitation of a computer-based visual stimulation (VS) program combining checkerboard pattern reversal (passive stimulation) with oddball stimuli (attentional modulation) for improving the visual acuity (VA) of visually impaired (VI) children and children with amblyopia and additional developmental problems. Six children (three females, three males; mean age = 3.9 ± 2.3 years) with impaired VA caused by deficits along the anterior and/or posterior visual pathways were recruited. Participants received eight rounds of VS training (two rounds per week) of at least eight sessions per round. Each session consisted of stimulation with 200 or 300 pattern reversals. Assessments of VA (assessed with the Lea symbol VA test or Teller VA cards), visual evoked potential (VEP), and functional vision (assessed with the Chinese-version Functional Vision Questionnaire, FVQ) were carried out before and after the VS program. Significant gains in VA were found after the VS training [VA = 1.05 logMAR ± 0.80 to 0.61 logMAR ± 0.53, Z = –2.20, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.028]. No significant changes were observed in the FVQ assessment [92.8 ± 12.6 to 100.8 ±SD = 15.4, Z = –1.46, asymptotic significance (2-tailed) = 0.144]. VEP measurement showed improvement in P100 latency and amplitude or integration of the waveform in two participants. Our results indicate that a computer-based VS program with passive checkerboard stimulation, oddball stimulus design, and interesting auditory feedback could be considered as a potential intervention option to improve the VA of a wide age range of VI children and children with impaired VA combined with other neurological disorders. PMID:27148014

  5. Essential elements for assessment of persons with severe neurological impairments for computer access utilizing assistive technology devices: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppestad, Brian Scott

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine prospective elements that should comprise a comprehensive and valid assessment of persons with severe disabilities for access to computers utilizing assistive technology (AT). Currently, there is a lack of guidelines regarding areas that permit a satisfactory measure of a person's need for AT devices to enable computer access, resulting in substandard services. A list of criteria for elements that should be incorporated into an instrument for determining AT for computer access was compiled from a literature review in the areas of neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education; and a Delphi study using an electronic survey form that was e-mailed to a panel of experts in the field of AT. Only those areas rated as essential to the assessment process ('very important' or 'important' by 80% of the respondents) were chosen as important criteria for an assessment instrument. The initial Delphi survey contained 22 categories (54 subcategories or elements) for incorporation into an assessment for computer access. The second round of the survey completed the Delphi process resulting in a consensus for inclusion of 39 of the elements in an assessment instrument. There are inherent obstacles to prescribing the proper AT device to assist disabled persons with computer access due to the complexity of his/her condition, and the multitude of technological devices available to aid persons in accomplishing diverse tasks. This study reveals the intricacy of the assessment process, especially in persons with severe disabilities associated with neurological conditions. An assessment instrument should be broad ranging, integrating both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, considering the multidimensional nature of AT prescription for computer access.

  6. Self-reported gait unsteadiness in mildly impaired neurological patients: an objective assessment through statistical gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported gait unsteadiness is often a problem in neurological patients without any clinical evidence of ataxia, because it leads to reduced activity and limitations in function. However, in the literature there are only a few papers that address this disorder. The aim of this study is to identify objectively subclinical abnormal gait strategies in these patients. Methods Eleven patients affected by self-reported unsteadiness during gait (4 TBI and 7 MS and ten healthy subjects underwent gait analysis while walking back and forth on a 15-m long corridor. Time-distance parameters, ankle sagittal motion, and muscular activity during gait were acquired by a wearable gait analysis system (Step32, DemItalia, Italy on a high number of successive strides in the same walk and statistically processed. Both self-selected gait speed and high speed were tested under relatively unconstrained conditions. Non-parametric statistical analysis (Mann–Whitney, Wilcoxon tests was carried out on the means of the data of the two examined groups. Results The main findings, with data adjusted for velocity of progression, show that increased double support and reduced velocity of progression are the main parameters to discriminate patients with self-reported unsteadiness from healthy controls. Muscular intervals of activation showed a significant increase in the activity duration of the Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior in patients with respect to the control group at high speed. Conclusions Patients with a subjective sensation of instability, not clinically documented, walk with altered strategies, especially at high gait speed. This is thought to depend on the mechanisms of postural control and coordination. The gait anomalies detected might explain the symptoms reported by the patients and allow for a more focused treatment design. The wearable gait analysis system used for long distance statistical walking assessment was able to detect

  7. Memory outcomes following cognitive interventions in children with neurological deficits: A review with a focus on under-studied populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Yael; Geva, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Given the primary role of memory in children's learning and well-being, the aim of this review was to examine the outcomes of memory remediation interventions in children with neurological deficits as a function of the affected memory system and intervention method. Fifty-seven studies that evaluated the outcome of memory interventions in children were identified. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria, and were included in a systematic review. Diverse rehabilitation methods for improving explicit and implicit memory in children were reviewed. The analysis indicates that teaching restoration strategies may improve, and result in the generalisation of, semantic memory and working memory performance in children older than 7 years with mild to moderate memory deficits. Factors such as longer protocols, emotional support, and personal feedback contribute to intervention efficacy. In addition, the use of compensation aids seems to be highly effective in prospective memory tasks. Finally, the review unveiled a lack of studies with young children and the absence of group interventions. These findings point to the importance of future evidence-based intervention protocols in these areas.

  8. Neurological outcomes in children with and without amalgam-related mercury exposure: seven years of longitudinal observations in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Martin; Martins, Isabel P; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre; Bernardo, Mario; Luis, Henrique; Amaral, Helena; Leitão, Jorge; Martin, Michael D; Townes, Brenda; Rosenbaum, Gail; Woods, James S; Derouen, Timothy

    2008-02-01

    Although large-scale, randomized trials involving children have been completed and their results demonstrate an absence of neurobehavioral effects from clinical exposure to mercury amalgam, neurological findings from such studies have not been reported. The authors conducted a randomized, prospective trial examining the safety of dental amalgam in which 507 children aged 8 through 12 years were assigned to treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite. During seven years of follow-up, the authors performed annual clinical neurological examinations, including an evaluation of neurological hard signs (NHSs), presence of tremor and neurological soft signs (NSSs). The authors found no significant differences between treatment groups in any of the neurological measures. Groups did not differ with respect to the presence or absence of NHSs or tremor, nor the presence or absence or severity of NSSs at any point. As expected, NSS severity scores diminished with increasing age. Even at the levels of amalgam exposure in this study (a mean of 7.7-10.7 amalgam surfaces per subject across the seven years of follow-up), the authors conclude that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological status. The current evidence is that potential neurobehavioral or neurological effects from dental amalgam mercury exposure in children are inconsequential.

  9. Neuropredictors of oromotor feeding impairment in 12month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Katherine; Morgan, Angela T; Slattery, Justine M; Olsen, Joy E; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J; Thompson, Deanne K; Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-08-01

    Feeding impairment is prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental issues. Neuroimaging and neurobehavioural outcomes at term are predictive of later neuromotor impairment, but it is unknown whether they predict feeding impairment. To determine whether neurobehavior and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term predict oromotor feeding at 12months in preterm and term-born children. Prospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An overview of motor skill performance and balance in hearing impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Finita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood hearing impairment is a common chronic condition that may have a major impact on acquisition of speech, social and physical development. Numerous literature states that injury to the vestibular organs may result in accompanying balance and motor development disorders. But still postural control and motor assessments are not a routine procedure in hearing impaired children. Hence, we aim to provide an overview on motor skill performance and balance in hearing impaired children.

  11. Utility of Emergency Department Observation Units for Neurologically Intact Children With Head CT Abnormalities Secondary to Acute Closed Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Roxanna; Hunter, Jill V; Cruz, Andrea T; Caviness, A Chantal; Luerssen, Thomas G; Adekunle-Ojo, Aderonke

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the utility of the emergency department observation unit (EDOU) for neurologically intact children with closed head injuries (CHIs) and computed tomography (CT) abnormalities. A retrospective cohort study of children aged 0 to 18 years with acute CHI, abnormal head CT, and a Glasgow Coma Scales score of 14 or higher admitted to the EDOU of a tertiary care children's hospital from 2007 to 2010. Children with multisystem trauma, nonaccidental trauma, and previous neurosurgical or coagulopathic conditions were excluded. Medical records were abstracted for demographic, clinical, and radiographic findings. Poor outcome was defined as death, intensive care unit admission, or medically/surgically treated increased intracranial pressure. Two hundred two children were included. Median (range) age was 14 (4 days-16 years) months; 51% were male. The most common CT findings were nondisplaced (136, 67%) or displaced (46, 23%) as well as skull fractures and subdural hematomas (38, 19%); 54 (27%) had less than 1 CT finding. The most common interventions included repeat CT (42, 21%), antiemetics (26, 13%), and pain medication (29, 14%). Eighty-nine percent were discharged in less than 24 hours. Inpatient admission from the EDOU occurred in 6 (3%); all were discharged in less than 3 days. One patient required additional intervention (corticosteroid therapy). She had a subdural hematoma, persistent vomiting, intractable headache, and a nonevolving CT. Neurologically intact patients on initial ED evaluation had a very low likelihood of requiring further interventions, irrespective of CT findings. Although prospective evidence is necessary, this supports reliance on clinical findings when evaluating a well-appearing child with an acute CHI.

  12. [Simple and useful evaluation of motor difficulty in childhood (9-12 years old children ) by interview score on motor skills and soft neurological signs--aim for the diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2009-09-01

    Many children with developmental disorders are known to have motor impairment such as clumsiness and poor physical ability;however, the objective evaluation of such difficulties is not easy in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple method for evaluating motor difficulty of childhood. This method employs a scored interview and examination for detecting soft neurological signs (SNSs). After a preliminary survey with 22 normal children, we set the items and the cutoffs for the interview and SNSs. The interview consisted of questions pertaining to 12 items related to a child's motor skills in his/her past and current life, such as skipping, jumping a rope, ball sports, origami, and using chopsticks. The SNS evaluation included 5 tests, namely, standing on one leg with eyes closed, diadochokinesia, associated movements during diadochokinesia, finger opposition test, and laterally fixed gaze. We applied this method to 43 children, including 25 cases of developmental disorders. Children showing significantly high scores in both the interview and SNS were assigned to the "with motor difficulty" group, while those with low scores in both the tests were assigned to the "without motor difficulty" group. The remaining children were assigned to the "with suspicious motor difficulty" group. More than 90% of the children in the "with motor difficulty" group had high impairment scores in Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), a standardized motor test, whereas 82% of the children in the "without motor difficulty" group revealed no motor impairment. Thus, we conclude that our simple method and criteria would be useful for the evaluation of motor difficulty of childhood. Further, we have discussed the diagnostic process for developmental coordination disorder using our evaluation method.

  13. Oral motor deficits in speech-impaired children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Matthew K; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha

    2013-01-01

    Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  14. Oral Motor Deficits in Speech-Impaired Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K Belmonte

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF HABILITATION IN THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF PREPOSITIONS IN THE CHILDREN WITH HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera KOVACHEVIKJ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the importance of children habilitation with different hearing impair degree, is the time when it develop and adopt particular grammar shapes of words in process of speech developing.Our investigation had to make possible better realize of preschool year old children (4-6 years speech developing with normal hearing and children with different hearing impaired degree. The sample of investigation accepted 30 children, experimental group (E, N=15 children with different hearing impaired degree (Kostic classification I, II and III group and control group (K N=16 children with normal speech and language developed.Children are testing by Test for estimate of prepositions developing. Thanks to KSAFA-m apparatus (Kostics Selective Auditory Filter Amplification and Kostics method of the speech building in develop of auditive perception no statistical importance exist between groups (E and K in the adoption degree all tested prepositions.In the both groups E and K exist statistical importance of differences in the acceptance degree of single prepositions with are condition with growth.By KSAFA system there are no differences between hearing impaired children (different hearing impairment and children with normal hearing, but adoption degree of prepositions in hearing impaired children depends from the length of habilitation.

  16. A Novel Method of Notification to Profile Childhood Visual Impairment in Scotland to Meet the Needs of Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, John; Blaikie, Andrew; Macewen, Caroline; O'Hare, Anne; Creswell, Lyn; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to pilot a new notification system for children with visual impairment (VI) and describe the initial summary findings. A system of notification of children in Scotland with VI was established. Information concerning this system was distributed to professionals working with visually impaired children to forward to…

  17. Prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among school children in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children.

  18. NEUROLOGICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 9-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN FED BREAST-MILK OR FORMULA-MILK AS BABIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LANTING, CI; FIDLER, [No Value; HUISMAN, M; TOUWEN, BCL; BOERSMA, ER

    1994-01-01

    The presence of minor neurological dysfunction is associated with behavioural and cognitive development at school age. We have previously shown a relation between minor neurological dysfunction and perinatal disorders, especially abnormal neonatal neurological condition. We have now investigated the

  19. Long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children is not associated with decreased survival or with worse neurological outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Brasme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The long time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma, one of the most frequent brain tumors in children, is the source of painful remorse and sometimes lawsuits. We analyzed its consequences for tumor stage, survival, and sequelae. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective population-based cohort study included all cases of pediatric medulloblastoma from a region of France between 1990 and 2005. We collected the demographic, clinical, and tumor data and analyzed the relations between the interval from symptom onset until diagnosis, initial disease stage, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. RESULTS: The median interval from symptom onset until diagnosis for the 166 cases was 65 days (interquartile range 31-121, range 3-457. A long interval (defined as longer than the median was associated with a lower frequency of metastasis in the univariate and multivariate analyses and with a larger tumor volume, desmoplastic histology, and longer survival in the univariate analysis, but not after adjustment for confounding factors. The time to diagnosis was significantly associated with IQ score among survivors. No significant relation was found between the time to diagnosis and neurological disability. In the 62 patients with metastases, a long prediagnosis interval was associated with a higher T stage, infiltration of the fourth ventricle floor, and incomplete surgical resection; it nonetheless did not influence survival significantly in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: We found complex and often inverse relations between time to diagnosis of medulloblastoma in children and initial severity factors, survival, and neuropsychological and neurological outcome. This interval appears due more to the nature of the tumor and its progression than to parental or medical factors. These conclusions should be taken into account in the information provided to parents and in expert assessments produced for malpractice claims.

  20. Minor neurological dysfunction and behaviour in 9-year-old children born at term: evidence for sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K; de Jong, Corina; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess associations between minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and behaviour, with specific attention to sex differences. This was an observational cohort study in which 341 9-year-old children (177 male, 164 female) without perinatal risk were neurologically assessed, with attention to severity and type of MND. Eight domains of dysfunction were distinguished, including posture and muscle tone, fine manipulative ability and coordination. Severity of MND was based on the number of dysfunctional domains. Behaviour was assessed by parents and teachers using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher's Report Form (TRF); outcomes were internalizing and externalizing behaviour and total score of behavioural problems. Females with complex MND or dysfunctional posture and muscle tone had increased risk for externalizing behavioural problems (OR 4.52, 95% CI 1.01-20.2, and OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.06-15.5, respectively). In males, these associations were absent. However, males with simple MND had an increased risk for behavioural problems indicated by the total TRF-score (OR 7.52, 95% CI 1.36-41.4). In children without perinatal risk, associations between MND and behaviour are sex-specific. In females, dysfunction of complex neural networks, including the cerebellum, is associated with externalizing behaviour. In males, neurobehavioural relationships are limited, suggesting a larger role of psychosocial factors in the genesis of behavioural problems. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Declarative and Sequential learning in Spanish-speaking children with Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Roa-Rojas, Paloma; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; Villa-Rodríguez, Miguel M. A.; Gillon-Dowens, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Language Impairment (LI) is a developmental disorder that mainly manifests impaired language learning and processing. Evidence, largely from English-speaking population studies, has shown that children with LI compared to typically developing (TD) children have low scores in sequential learning tasks but similar performance in declarative learning tasks. According to the declarative/procedural model, LI children compensate for their deficiency in syntactic skills (i.e., deficits in the proced...

  2. Interactions between Bilingual Effects and Language Impairment: Exploring Grammatical Markers in Spanish-Speaking Bilingual Children

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla-Earls, Anny P.; Restrepo, María Adelaida; Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Gray, Shelley; Holmes, Paul; Gail, Daniel; Chen, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the interaction between language impairment and different levels of bilingual proficiency. Specifically, we explore the potential of articles and direct object pronouns as clinical markers of primary language impairment (PLI) in bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The study compared children with PLI and typically developing children (TD) matched on age, English language proficiency, and mother’s education level. Two types of bilinguals were targeted: Spanish-dominant chi...

  3. Association between specific language impairment and behavioral disorders among preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Yudianita Kesuma; Rismarini; Theodorus; Mutiara Budi Azhar

    2014-01-01

    Background Specific language impairment (SLI) is the most common developmental disorder in preschool children, causing serious impairments on behavioral development. To date, there have been few studies on SLlI and behavioral disorders in Palembang. Objective To assess for an association between SLI and behavioral disorders in preschool children in Palembang. Methods Subjects in this cross-sectional study were children who attended kindergarten. Their general characteristics, developm...

  4. Epidural steroid following discectomy for herniated lumbar disc reduces neurological impairment and enhances recovery: a randomized study with two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sten; Krum-Møller, David Stonor; Lauridsen, Lene Risbro; Jensen, Søren Erik Holst; Mandøe, Hans; Gerlif, Christian; Kehlet, Henrik

    2008-09-01

    We randomized 200 patients after lumbar discectomy to receive epidural steroid or none with a 2-year follow-up. To evaluate the outcome, neurologic impairment and safety of epidural steroid following lumbar discectomy for herniated disc disease. Convalescence after discectomy for herniated disc disease is dependent on pain and the inflammatory response. Previous studies in arthroscopic and abdominal surgery demonstrate steroids, which reduce the inflammatory response and enhance recovery. Here we report a 2-year follow-up of a randomized trial of epidural steroid following lumbar discectomy. Through 2001 and 2003 200 patients undergoing discectomy for herniated disc disease were randomly allocated to receive epidural methylprednisolone 40 mg or none. In the control group (62 males and 38 females, median age 41 years, 18-66) 48 L5, 50 L4, and 6 L3 discectomies were performed and in the intervention group (60 males and 40 females, median age 45 years, 15-53) 56 L5, 46 L4, and 3 L3 discectomies. Contemporary with randomization to epidural steroid or none both groups received preoperative prophylactic antibiotics and the same multimodal pain treatment. Hospital stay was reduced from 8 to 6 days (P = 0.0001) and the number of patients with neurologic signs were reduced more (70% vs. 44%, P = 0.0004) by epidural steroid. Incidence of reoperation at 1 year was 6% in both groups and 8% in the control group and 7% in the intervention group after 2 years. No infections were registered. Epidural methylprednisolone enhances recovery after discectomy for herniated disc disease without apparent side effects.

  5. Health related quality of life in parents of children with speech and hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, Ivana; Stevanović, Ranko; Vlahović, Sanja; Stevanović, Siniša; Kolarić, Branko; Kondić, Ljiljana

    2014-02-01

    Hearing impairment and specific language disorder are two entities that seriously affect language acquisition in children and reduce their communication skills. These children require specific treatment and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder). Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child's impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers' scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children, who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role. The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL

  6. Linguistic and other cognitive abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment as compared to children with High-Functioning Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27

  7. The needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y

    2014-10-01

    This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners

  8. Randomized controlled trial demonstrates that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, J Rodway

    2010-03-01

    The study subjects were 507 children (228 females and 279 males) from the Casa Pia school system in Lisbon, Portugal; the same cohort of children used in a previous study. The children were 8 to 12 years old at the time of enrollment in the study, which began in January of 1997. To be included in the study, a child must have had at baseline at least one carious lesion in a permanent tooth, no previous exposure to amalgam treatments, urinary mercury level less than 10 mg/L, blood lead level less than 15 mg/dL, IQ greater than or equal to 67 as obtained with the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, and no interfering health condition. Study subjects were randomly assigned to receive dental treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite for posterior restorations (and composite for all anterior restorations). By the end of year 1, the participants had a mean of 8.3 surfaces restored with amalgam, and the mean number of surfaces restored varied between 7.7 and 10.7 during the 7 years of follow-up. The primary outcome measures for the study were the presence of neurological hard signs (NHSs), such as tremor, and the presence and severity of neurological soft signs (NSSs), such as synkinesias. NHSs were scored as present or absent. Tremor was reported separately from other NHSs because of its relationship to mercury toxicity. Observation of NSSs did not begin until follow-up year 2, so there were no baseline data for NSSs. NSSs were evaluated using the examination described by Peters et al, and each item was scored from 0 (absent) to 3 (maximum deviation). Over the 7-year duration of the study, there were slight differences in the percentages of subjects exhibiting any NHSs (including tremor, which was reported separately) between the 2 treatment groups, but the directions of the differences were not consistent from year to year, and the differences were not statistically significant in any year. No statistically significant difference in NSSs

  9. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  10. The Effect of Gender and Level of Vision on the Physical Activity Level of Children and Adolescents with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…

  11. Development of an Age Band on the ManuVis for 3-Year-Old Children with Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, A.M.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Overvelde, A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. METHOD: 26 children with visual impairment (mean

  12. Reading comprehension in children with specific language impairment: an examination of two subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Katrina; Fletcher, Janet; Lee, Penny

    2007-01-01

    In reading research, children with specific language impairment (SLI) have tended to be included in groups of children expected to have difficulties with both decoding and reading comprehension (generally poor readers). This is because generally children with specific language impairment display difficulties with phonology as well as syntax and/or semantics. However, children with specific language impairment are a heterogeneous group. Many children with specific language impairment have oral comprehension difficulties that are likely to limit reading comprehension. A subgroup of these children may exhibit intact phonological and decoding skills. If so, they would resemble the children with specific reading comprehension difficulties (poor comprehenders) reported in the literature. This study sought to identify a group of children with a poor comprehender reading profile amongst children with specific language impairment. It then compared the phonological and oral comprehension skills of the group of 15 poor comprehenders with a group of 15 generally poor readers with specific language impairment, to identify any differences in language skills. Secondarily, the study wanted to determine which of the language tasks best predicted group membership. The study was carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, children with specific language impairment were assessed on the Woodcock Word Attack to identify a group with adequate decoding skills. These children had poor reading comprehension on the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability. From the poor decoders on the Word Attack, a second group of children, matched for age and gender, was selected to form the generally poor reader group. In Phase 2, the participants were assessed on a battery of phonological and oral comprehension tasks. A group of children exhibiting a poor comprehender reading profile was found to exist amongst children with specific language impairment. As expected, the poor comprehenders performed significantly

  13. Test-retest reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness items for children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual

  14. The relationship between medical impairments and arithmetic development in children with cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenks, K.M.; Lieshout, E.C. van; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2009-01-01

    Arithmetic ability was tested in children with cerebral palsy without severe intellectual impairment (verbal IQ >or= 70) attending special (n = 41) or mainstream education (n = 16) as well as control children in mainstream education (n = 16) throughout first and second grade. Children with

  15. Examining the Language Phenotype in Children with Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…

  16. Using electronic storybooks to support word learning in children with severe language impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Daisy J. H.; van Dijken, Marianne J.; Bus, Adriana G

    2012-01-01

    Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two

  17. Academic and Social Impairments of Elementary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaughy, Stephanie H.; Volpe, Robert J.; Antshel, Kevin M.; Gordon, Michael; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined academic and social impairments of 6- to 11-year-old children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 101) versus other referred children without ADHD (n = 53) and controls (n = 24). Parent and teacher ratings showed significantly lower academic performance and lower social functioning for children with ADHD…

  18. Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Laura J.; Archibald, Lisa M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Mounting evidence demonstrates deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI) beyond the linguistic domain. Using meta-analysis, this study examined differences in children with and without SLI on tasks measuring inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Method: Databases were searched for articles comparing children (4-14…

  19. Language Development and Impairment in Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including…

  20. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  1. Assessment of Language Impairment in Bilingual Children Using Semantic Tasks: Two Languages Classify Better than One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Kester, Ellen S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Significant progress has been made in the identification of language impairment in children are bilingual. Bilingual children's vocabulary knowledge may be distributed across languages. Thus, when testing bilingual children it is difficult to know how to weigh each language for diagnostic purposes. Even when conceptual scoring is used…

  2. Development of Phonological Representations and Phonological Awareness in Children with Speech Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Dean; Gillon, Gail T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Children with speech impairment are more likely to have difficulty learning to read compared with children with typical speech development. Researchers have hypothesized that a difficulty in accessing good-quality phonological representations of words stored in the memory may constrain these children's performance on phonological…

  3. Semantic abilities in children with pragmatic language impairment: the case of picture naming skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  4. Semantic Abilities in Children With Pragmatic Language Impairment: The Case of Picture Naming Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.M.; Jansonius-Schultheiss, K.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically

  5. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the Republic of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijthuijsen, Astrid Anna Maria; Beunders, Victoria Apollonia Annemarie; Jiawan, Dinesh; de Mesquita-Voigt, Anne-Marie Bueno; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel; Mourits, Maarten; Tanck, Michael; Verhoeff, Joost; Saeed, Peerooz

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) in children in Suriname (Dutch Guyana) and to identify preventable and treatable causes. 4643 children under 16 years of age were recruited from two locations: 33 children attending the only school for the blind were examined

  6. Using Pupillometry to Investigate Sentence Comprehension in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

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    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Youssef, George J.; Clark, Gillian M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study pupillometry was used to investigate the allocation of attentional resources associated with sentence comprehension in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (age: M = 6.4 years) and 18 typically developing (TD) children (age: M = 6.3 years) participated in the study.…

  7. Sequence-Specific Procedural Learning Deficits in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) by comparing children's performance in two motor procedural learning tasks and an implicit verbal sequence learning task. Participants were 7- to 11-year-old children with SLI (n = 48), typically developing age-matched children (n = 20) and younger…

  8. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  9. Dynamic Assessment of Word Learning Skills: Identifying Language Impairment in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Bilingual children are often diagnosed with language impairment, although they may simply have fewer opportunities to learn English than English-speaking monolingual children. This study examined whether dynamic assessment (DA) of word learning skills is an effective method for identifying bilingual children with primary language…

  10. Current State of the Curriculum in Jordanian Kindergartens for Children with Hearing Impairments

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    Al-Zboon, Eman K.

    2017-01-01

    An appropriate curriculum for children with hearing impairments (HIs) is vital in establishing effective educational programmes for such children. This study aimed to describe the current status of the kindergarten (KG) curriculum for children with HIs in Jordan. Content analysis was applied to the curriculum plans and weekly schedules and…

  11. School-Readiness Profiles of Children with Language Impairment: Linkages to Home and Classroom Experiences

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    Pentimonti, Jill M.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study represents an effort to advance our understanding of the nature of school readiness among children with language impairment (LI), a population of children acknowledged to be at risk of poor academic achievement. The academic, social-emotional, and behavioural competencies with which children arrive at kindergarten affect the…

  12. Temperament and Young Children with Visual Impairments: Perceptions of Anglo and Latino Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…

  13. Utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score to Analyze Spellings of Children with Specific Language Impairment

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    Werfel, Krystal L.; Krimm, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS) beyond percentage correct scoring in analyzing the spellings of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 31 children with SLI and 28 children with typical language in grades 2-4. Spellings of individual words were scored using…

  14. Assessment of Bilingual Children for Identification of Language Impairment: Current Findings and Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Children from bilingual backgrounds are sometimes overidentified with language impairment (LI) because educators do not have appropriate developmental expectations. At other times bilingual children are underidentified because educators wait to identify difficulties while children learn the second language. In this review we discuss data on…

  15. Mother's Perspective toward Al-Quran Education for Hearing Impaired Children in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadim, Nafiseh Alaghehband; Jomhari, Nazean; Alias, Norlidah; Rashid, Syar Meeze Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd

    2013-01-01

    An interview with parents of children with hearing impairment was carried out in the initial study since the coordinated effort of parents and children is essential in the education of children. Considering that this interview was appropriate for collecting qualitative-oriented data, it has been chosen as the knowledge elicitation method. In most…

  16. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children With Visual Impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal

  17. Reliability and Validity of the TGMD-2 in Primary-School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…

  18. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY DEVELOPMENT IN SEVERE TO PROFOUND HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN ESTABLISHMENT OF A DATA COLLECTION FOR EARLY INTERVENTION IN HEARING-IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daneshman P. Borghei

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of early detection of hearing impairment in children is early intervention. There is growing interest in early detection of hearing impairment in developing countries. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the spoken language development in severe to profound hearing impaired children and compared their speech intelligibility with normal hearing children at the same age. Nine severe to profound hearing impaired children below 2 years old out of the primer 42 cases were selected for this survey. They receive aural habilitation and also speech therapy after beginning the speech production. Speech intelligibility test of these children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read five questions which can be answered with one word only, at the age of 4, 5 and 6 in comparison with 27 normal hearing children at the same age. At the age of 4 the mean speech intelligibility score of the studied group was 31.77% (SD 12.17 and the control was %96 (SD 2.23. At the age of 5, this score was %51.22 (SD 14.42, the control one 97.85% (SD 1.93. Finally at age 6 it was 72% (SD 18.97 for hearing–impaired group and 99.22% (SD 1.18 in control one. Severe to profound hearing impaired children acquired spoken language but not at the same level. In general, their speech development showed about 2 to 3 years delay. Their speech intelligibility was acceptable for severe group around the age 6 but almost semi–intelligible for profound group at the same age.

  19. Perceptual learning in children with visual impairment improves near visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-09-17

    This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children with visual impairment were divided into three groups: a magnifier group (n = 12), a crowded perceptual learning group (n = 18), and an uncrowded perceptual learning group (n = 15). Children with normal vision also were divided in three groups, but were measured only at baseline. Dependent variables were single near visual acuity (NVA), crowded NVA, LH line 50% crowding NVA, number of trials, accuracy, performance time, amount of small errors, and amount of large errors. Children with visual impairment trained during six weeks, two times per week, for 30 minutes (12 training sessions). After training, children showed significant improvement of NVA in addition to specific improvements on the training task. The crowded perceptual learning group showed the largest acuity improvements (1.7 logMAR lines on the crowded chart, P visual impairment benefit from perceptual training. While task-specific improvements were observed in all training groups, transfer to crowded NVA was largest in the crowded perceptual learning group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the improvement of NVA by perceptual learning in children with visual impairment. (http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR2537.).

  20. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran; Steinhart, Erin; Holbrook, Hannah; Katz, Eliot S; Kapur, Kush; Stickgold, Robert

    2017-01-01

    consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  1. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Maski

    .03, P = 0.04]. NREM slow oscillation power did not correlate with memory consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.

  2. Pragmatic language development in language impaired and typically developing children: incorrect answers in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Nuala; Leinonen, Eeva

    2014-02-01

    This study focussed on young children's incorrect answers to pragmatically demanding questions. Children with specific language impairment (SLI), including a subgroup with pragmatic language difficulties (PLD) and typically developing children answered questions targeting implicatures, based on a storybook and short verbal scenarios. Ninety-seven children participated in this study: 30 children with SLI of whom 12 had PLD, 32 typically developing children aged 5-6 years and 35 aged 7-11 years. The incorrect answers produced by the children with SLI were similar in their use of context to those of the 5-6 year old, suggesting developmental delay. The children with PLD produced significantly more irrelevant answers than both the language impaired children without PLD and the typically developing groups and had most difficulty when the context was presented solely verbally. Results are discussed in relation to a cognitive theory of communication and the clinical implications.

  3. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging correlates of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network vascular cognitive impairment neuropsychology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Adrian; Wang, Defeng; Black, Sandra E; Nyenhuis, David L; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie C W; Xiong, Yun-yun; Au, Lisa; Lau, Alexander; Chan, Anne Y Y; Wong, Lawrence K S; Mok, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) refers to the entire spectrum of cognitive dysfunction attributable to vascular changes in the brain. The objective of this study is to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of performance on the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) VCI neuropsychology protocols. Fifty ischemic stroke patients and 50 normal elderly persons completed the VCI protocols and MRI. Relationships between the four cognitive domains (executive/activation, language, visuospatial, and memory) and three protocol (60-, 30-, and 5-min) summary scores with MRI measures of volumes of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and global brain and hippocampal atrophy were assessed using linear regression. All cognitive domain scores were associated with WMH volume and, with the exception of language domain, with global atrophy. Additional relationships were found between executive/activation and language domains with left hippocampal volume, visuospatial domain with right hippocampal volume, and memory domain with bilateral hippocampal volumes. All protocol summary scores showed comparable relationships with WMH and hippocampal volumes, with additional relationships found between the 60- and 30-min protocols with global brain volume. Performance on the NINDS-CSN VCI protocols reflects underlying volumetric brain changes implicated in cognitive dysfunctions in VCI.

  4. Causes of certifications for severe sight impairment (blind) and sight impairment (partial sight) in children in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, D; Bunce, C; Wormald, R; Leamon, S; Simkiss, P; Cumberland, P; Rahi, J; Bowman, R

    2013-11-01

    To explore and describe trends in the principal disorders/conditions ('cause') for severe sight impairment (SSI) (blind) and sight impairment (SI) (partial sight) certification in children in England and Wales since 1999. We obtained certification data for SI and SSI from a national database for all individuals aged 16 years or less at the time of certification in England and Wales for the years 1999/2000 and for the years 2007/2008-2009/2010. In total, there were 861 certifications in the year 1999/2000, rising to 1040 certifications in 2009/2010. The commonest single causes of SSI certification in 1999/2000 were cerebral visual impairment (23.2%) and optic nerve disorders (23.2%). The commonest single causes of SI certification in the same year comprised nystagmus (16.7%) and optic nerve disorders (15.5%). Cerebral visual impairment was the commonest single cause of SSI in children in England and Wales annually between 2007/2008 and 2009/2010 accounting for 21%-31% of certifications. The commonest causes of SI certification in 2009/2010 were congenital globe anomalies (18.4%) and retinal dystrophy (16.6%). The proportion of SI and SSI due to optic nerve disorders has decreased since 1999/2000. Our findings suggest that in England and Wales, cerebral visual impairment is now the commonest cause of paediatric SSI certification and hereditary retinal dystrophy and congenital globe anomalies are the commonest causes of SI certification.

  5. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Study of Language Performances of Persian Children With Specific Language Impairment

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    Zahra Soleymani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI is one of the most prevalent developmental language disorders which is less considered in Persian researches. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in some morpho-syntactic features of speech and other language skills between Persian children with specific language impairment and their normal age-matched peers. Moreover, the usefulness of the test of language development-3 (TOLD-3, Persian version, as a tool in identifing Persian-speaking children with this impairment, was investigated.Methods: In a case-control study, the results of the test of language development and speech samples analysis of 13 Persian-speaking children (5 to 7 years old with specific language impairment were compared with 13 age-matched normal children.Results: The results of this study showed that there were significant differences between the scores of specific language impairment group and control group in all measured aspects of the TOLD-3 (p<0.001; the children with specific language impairment had a shorter mean length of utterance (p<0.001 and made less use of functional words in their speech (p=0.002 compared with their peers.Conclusion: Such as specific language impairment children in other languages, all language abilities of Persian-speaking children with specific language impairment are less than expected stage for their age. Furthermore, the Persian version of TOLD-3 is a useful assessment instrument in identifying children with specific language impairment which is comparable to the other languages.

  7. Analgesia by cooling vibration during venipuncture in children with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Silvana; Cozzi, Giorgio; Rutigliano, Rosaria; Assandro, Paola; Tubaro, Martina; Cortellazzo Wiel, Luisa; Ronfani, Luca; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    Children with cognitive impairment experience pain more frequently than healthy children and are more likely to require venipuncture or intravenous cannulation for various procedures. They are frequently unable to report pain and often receive poor pain assessment and management. This study assessed the effectiveness of physical analgesia during vascular access in children with cognitive impairments. We conducted a prospective randomised controlled study at a tertiary-level children's hospital in Italy from April to May 2015 to assess whether a cooling vibration device called Buzzy decreased pain during venipuncture and intravenous cannulation in children with cognitive impairment. None of the children had verbal skills and the main cognitive impairments were cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy and genetic syndromes. We tested 70 children with a median age of nine years: 34 in the Buzzy group and 36 in the no-intervention group. Parents were trained in the use of the Noncommunicating Children's Pain Checklist--postoperative version scale, and they reported no or mild procedural pain in 32 cases (91.4%) in the Buzzy group and in 22 cases (61.1%) in the no-intervention group (p = 0.003). Cooling vibration analgesia during vascular access reduced pain in children with cognitive impairment. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders.

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    Keilmann, Annerose; Kluesener, Patrick; Freude, Christina; Schramm, Bianka

    2011-04-01

    Children with hearing impairment (HI) often suffer from speech and language disorders. We wondered if the manifestation of these disorders resembled the ones in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Using matched pairs, we compared the manifestation of a speech and language disorder in 5- and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI. We looked at receptive language skills using the Reynell scales, the lexicon, syntax and morphology, output phonology, and phonological short-term memory. Receptive language skills were more impaired in HI children. No significant differences were recorded for all other domains. We conclude that language deficits that are at least partially caused by the hearing impairment affect receptive language skills to a greater extent than expressive language skills.

  9. A Child-centered Method of Interviewing Children with Movement Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Hale, Leigh A; Mulligan, Hilda

    2017-09-22

    Children are increasingly included in qualitative research and new methods for interviewing children are emerging. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the strategies of a child-centered method of data collection for interviewing children with movement impairments to explore their leisure participation experiences. A study was conducted using an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA) to explore leisure participation experiences of children with movement impairments aged 6 to 12 years. Various strategies, guided by children, were used to facilitate children's active involvement in the interview process. Twenty-two children (mean age 8.7 years) participated in the interview study, most of them in the presence of their parents or guardian (18 children) and some of them (9 children) with their siblings present. Children enjoyed and were actively engaged in the interview process. Along with talking, 19 children did drawings, 5 children used stickers, 4 children played quiet games, six children shared pictures of their leisure activities, and 16 children physically demonstrated some of their leisure activities, environment, and equipment. A wide range of data collection strategies facilitated children to communicate their leisure participation experiences and to represent children's views without being overly influenced by parental views.

  10. Communicative competence in parents of children with autism and parents of children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruser, Tilla F; Arin, Deborah; Dowd, Michael; Putnam, Sara; Winklosky, Brian; Rosen-Sheidley, Beth; Piven, Joseph; Tomblin, Bruce; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Folstein, Susan

    2007-08-01

    While the primary language deficit in autism has been thought to be pragmatic, and in specific language impairment (SLI) structural, recent research suggests phenomenological and possibly genetic overlap between the two syndromes. To compare communicative competence in parents of children with autism, SLI, and down syndrome (DS), we used a modified pragmatic rating scale (PRS-M). Videotapes of conversational interviews with 47 autism, 47 SLI, and 21 DS parents were scored blind to group membership. Autism and SLI parents had significantly lower communication abilities than DS parents. Fifteen percent of the autism and SLI parents showed severe deficits. Our results suggest that impaired communication is part of the broader autism phenotype and a broader SLI phenotype, especially among male family members.

  11. Impact of Dispatcher‐Assisted Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Neurological Outcomes in Children With Out‐of‐Hospital Cardiac Arrests: A Prospective, Nationwide, Population‐Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Tetsuo; Goto, Yumiko

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of dispatcher‐assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on neurological outcomes in children is unclear. We investigated whether dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR shows favorable neurological outcomes (Cerebral Performance Category scale 1 or 2) in children with out‐of‐hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods and Results Children (n=5009, ageCPR (n=2287); bystander CPR with dispatcher instruction (n=2019); and bystander CPR without dispatcher instruction (n=703) groups. The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome at 1 month post‐OHCA. Dispatcher CPR instruction was offered to 53.9% of patients, significantly increasing bystander CPR provision rate (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 7.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.60 to 8.57). Bystander CPR with and without dispatcher instruction were significantly associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 1.81 and 1.68; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.67 and 1.07 to 2.62, respectively), compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional CPR was associated with increased odds of 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes irrespective of etiology of cardiac arrest (aOR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.56 to 3.41). However, chest‐compression‐only CPR was not associated with 1‐month meaningful outcomes (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.64). Conclusions In children with OHCA, dispatcher‐assisted bystander CPR increased bystander CPR provision rate and was associated with improved 1‐month favorable neurological outcomes, compared to no bystander CPR. Conventional bystander CPR was associated with greater likelihood of neurologically intact survival, compared to chest‐compression‐only CPR, irrespective of cardiac arrest etiology. PMID:24785780

  12. Distinct patterns of brain function in children with isolated spelling impairment: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Kronbichler, Martin; Schurz, Matthias; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Fink, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Studies investigating reading and spelling difficulties heavily focused on the neural correlates of reading impairments, whereas spelling impairments have been largely neglected so far. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate brain structure and function of children with isolated spelling difficulties. Therefore, 31 children, aged ten to 15 years, were investigated by means of functional MRI and DTI. This study revealed that children with isolated spelling impairment exhibit a stronger right hemispheric activation compared to children with reading and spelling difficulties and controls, when engaged in an orthographic decision task, presumably reflecting a highly efficient serial grapheme-phoneme decoding compensation strategy. In addition, children with spelling impairment activated bilateral inferior and middle frontal gyri during processing correctly spelled words and misspelled words, whereas the other two groups showed bilateral activation only in the misspelled condition, suggesting that additional right frontal engagement could be related to generally higher task demand and effort. DTI analyses revealed stronger frontal white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy) in controls (compared to spelling and reading impaired children), whereas no structural differences between controls and spelling impaired children were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hearing screenings on children under three years at risk of hearing impairment.

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    Marcelino Lizano Rabelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of newborn hearing screenings on infants under three years at risk of hearing impairment at Paediatric Hospital of Sancti Spíritus¸on from 2008 to 2010. All children at risk of hearing impairment were tested by an auditory brainstem response (ABR for the positive diagnosis of hearing impairment. Results: Over the period, 398 infants were screened, among whom 36 (8,98% were diagnosed as deaf or hard of hearing. twenty seven children (6,8% had a sensorineural hearing impairment, The most important risk factors for sensorineural hearing loss were: severe birth asphyxia; mechanic ventilation, and antibiotics.Conclusion: Our hearing screening on infants at risk allowed 36 children diagnosed as hearing impairment, all of then received early management.

  14. Designing and implementing a longitudinal study of children with neurological, genetic or metabolic conditions: charting the territory

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    Davies Betty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with progressive metabolic, neurological, or chromosomal conditions and their families anticipate an unknown lifespan, endure unstable and often painful symptoms, and cope with erratic emotional and spiritual crises as the condition progresses along an uncertain trajectory towards death. Much is known about the genetics and pathophysiology of these diseases, but very little has been documented about the trajectory of symptoms for children with these conditions or the associated experience of their families. A longitudinal study design will help to close this gap in knowledge. Methods/Design Charting the Territory is a longitudinal descriptive, correlational study currently underway with children 0-19 years who are diagnosed with progressive neurological, metabolic, or chromosomal conditions and their families. The purpose of the study is to determine and document the clinical progression of the condition and the associated bio-psychosocial-spiritual experiences of the parents and siblings age 7-18 years. Approximately 300 families, both newly diagnosed children and those with established conditions, are being recruited in six Canadian cities. Children and their families are being followed for a minimum of 18 months, depending on when they enroll in the study. Family data collection will continue after the child's death if the child dies during the study period. Data collection includes monthly parental assessment of the child's symptoms; an annual functional assessment of the child; and completion of established instruments every 6 months by parents to assess family functioning, marital satisfaction, health status, anxiety, depression, stress, burden, grief, spirituality, and growth, and by siblings to assess coping and health. Impact of participation on parents is assessed after 1 year and at the end of the study. Chart reviews are conducted at enrollment and at the conclusion of the study or at the time of the

  15. Hope for children and families: targeting abusive parenting and the associated impairment of children.

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    Bentovim, Arnon; Elliott, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to distill the "effective practice elements" from randomised controlled interventions (RCTs) to prevent the recurrence of abusive and neglectful parenting and the associated health and developmental impairment of children. The resulting elements would be used then to develop a step-by-step modular-systemic approach to intervention that is suitable to the needs of a variety of frontline practitioners in social care, health, and education. A series of 22 randomised RCTs were analysed using the distillation and matching approach to establish the presence of effective practice elements. The focus was physical and sexual abuse, victims and children, and young people as perpetrators; neglect including failure to thrive, emotional abuse (exposure to violence and mental health issues). The studies were analysed for effective practice elements, across different approaches matched to interventions focused on parenting, on children and young people, and on family/professional relationships. The proportion of practice elements utilised in each form of maltreatment was defined. The distillation process resulted in a total of 47 practice elements present across all forms of maltreatment studied. An experienced group of practitioners from statutory and voluntary agencies ordered and integrated the most frequently utilised emerging elements into a series of step-by-step modules, which could fit the complex needs of families when maltreatment had occurred. The resulting manual, Hope for Children and Families, provides a "menu" of evidence-based, step-by-step modular interventions targeting the profile of abusive and neglectful parenting and associated impairments of children. To be effective for frontline practitioners, the manual will need to be delivered in a user-friendly format, training developed, and supervision and support provided.

  16. Assessing Psychosocial Impairment in Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Barkley Functional Impairment Scale (BFIS)

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    McGill, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Appraising psychosocial impairment is an essential enterprise of diagnostic decision-making in the field of school psychology. Despite its importance, few practitioners utilize systematic procedures when engaging in this process, despite the fact that a number of impairment measures and scales have been developed specifically for this purpose. The…

  17. Predicting word decoding and word spelling development in children with Specific Language Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation on Dutch children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aimed at determining the predictive value of statistically uncorrelated language proficiencies on later reading and spelling skills in Dutch. Language abilities, tested with an extensive test battery at the

  18. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mualla Hamurcu; Koray Kara; Mehmet Ayhan Congologlu; Ufuk Hamurcu; Mahmoud Almbaidheen; Ayse Turan; Dursun Karaman

    Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health...

  19. The Use of Vibrotactile Aids with Preschool Hearing-Impaired Children: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Patti; Hansen, Susan Aaberg

    1983-01-01

    Case studies of three hearing-impaired four-year-old children revealed that vibrotactile stimulation aids were effective in teaching speech skills. The aid helped the students become more aware of sounds. (CL)

  20. Quality of life in visual impaired children treated for Early Visual Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Messa, Alcione Aparecida; Nakanami, Célia Regina; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life in visually impaired children followed in the Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp in two moments, before and after rehabilitational intervention of multiprofessional team...

  1. Impairment of a Motor Skill in Children with Spina Bifida Cystica and Hydrocephalus: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth M.; Plewis, Ian

    1977-01-01

    Twenty 7-10 year old children with spina bifida cystica and hydrocephalus and 20 normals matched for age, sex and IQ were compared on a 12-trial target task, first used by Connolly, Brown & Bassett (1968). Findings are discussed in relation to neurological abnormalities in the spina bifida group. (Editor/RK)

  2. Semantic deficits in children with language impairments: issues for clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbury, Tim; Pye, Clifton

    2005-01-01

    Children with language impairments demonstrate a broad range of semantic difficulties, including problems with new word acquisition, storage and organization of known words, and lexical access/ retrieval. Unfortunately, assessments of children's semantic skills are often limited to measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary size. As a result, the semantic deficits of these children may not receive the attention they need. This article explores the word-learning, lexical storage, and lexical access skills of children with language impairments and the theories that account for their performance. Our review culminates with specific recommendations for speech-language pathologists to improve the breadth of their semantic assessments.

  3. Understanding, identifying gifted blind and visually impaired children and development of their giftedness

    OpenAIRE

    Lokošek, Janja

    2012-01-01

    In my thesis, I focus on a group of children with special needs - the gifted children, who are blind or visually impaired. I was interested in what characteristics they have, how to help them develop their talent and whether our educational system is adequate for them. The goal of my thesis is mainly to point out that talent can occur in different groups of children, including children with visual impairment. Furthermore, I would also like to point out that it is harder to identify gifted vis...

  4. Role of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) on anxiety and behavior in children with hearing and speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Raghavendra M; Pashine, Aditi; Jose, Nijo A; Mantha, Somasundar

    2018-01-04

    To assess and compare the role of IQ on anxiety and behavior of children with and without hearing and speech impairment. A total of 120 children of age group 7-14 years were included in the study, of which control group comprised of 60 normal healthy children and 60 hearing and speech impaired children formed the study group. The study was done in two consecutive sessions. First appointment for Culture Fair Intelligence Test and second appointment for RMS pictorial anxiety score (RMS-PS) and Frankl behavior rating which were assessed during oral prophylaxis. IQ of children with hearing and speech impairment was lower as compared to normal healthy children. There was a positive correlation between IQ and anxiety in children with hearing and speech impairment while no correlation was found with behavior. Children with hearing and speech impairment are less anxious and more cooperative compared to normal healthy child in the dental setting and are, therefore, easier to manage. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of reading comprehension and working memory in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.

  6. Neuropsychological Impairments and Age-Related Differences in Children and Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamana, Sukhpreet; Pei, Jacqueline; Massey, Donald; Massey, Valerie; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundChildren and adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) exhibit a range of physical, cognitive, behavioral, and/or learning deficits, as wells as poor executive functioning (EF). Children and adolescents with FASD often show greater impairments on complex neuropsychological tasks. However, little is known about age-related differences among children and adolescents with FASD.ObjectivesThe goals of this cross-sectional study were to explore the overall profile of neuropsychological impairments and extended previous reports on age-related differences among children and adolescents with FASD. MethodWe compared 117 children and adolescents diagnosed with an FASD (aged 5-17 years), clinically assessed on a broad range of tests covering 6 neurobehavioral domains. Data from a clinical database was used to generate profiles of neuropsychological impairments for clinically referred children and adolescents evaluated for FASD between 2001 and 2005. ResultsChildren and adolescents were impaired (relative to the norm) on a number of domains that include academic achievement, language, verbal memory, EF, visual-motor integration, and motor abilities. Older participants with FASD (relative to the norm) showed greater difficulty in areas involving EF or processing of complex information than younger participants. ConclusionsThese results suggest that for children and adolescents with FASD impairments in those areas important for independent functioning may become more pronounced with increasing age. However, further longitudinal research is needed to ascertain age changes over time.

  7. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment - issues for speech-language pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as language impairment. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including nonlinguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinica...

  8. The Nature of Auditory Discrimination Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: An MMN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Nina; Segers, Eliane; van den Brink, Danielle; Mitterer, Holger; van Balkom, Hans; Hagoort, Peter; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) show impairments in discriminating auditorily presented stimuli. The present study investigates whether these discrimination problems are speech specific or of a general auditory nature. This was studied using a linguistic and nonlinguistic contrast that were matched for acoustic complexity in…

  9. Teachers' Screening Estimations of Speech-Language Impairments in Primary School Children in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Krishna Bahadur; Okalidou, Areti; Anastasiadou, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of speech-language impairments in children have been estimated for several languages, primarily in developed countries. However, prevalence data is lacking for developing countries, such as Nepal. Aims: (1) To obtain teacher estimates of incidence and overall prevalence of speech-language impairments and its subtypes as…

  10. Understanding Pervasive Language Impairment in Young Children: Exploring Patterns in Narrative Language and Functional Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Anna Jeddeloh

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified language impairment as a pervasive disability (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987; Greenhalgh & Strong, 2001). Classroom communication behaviors have a role in the maintenance of special education eligibility and functional communication difficulties for young children with language impairment. This paper reviews the…

  11. Elevated cystatin C: is it a reflection for kidney or liver impairment in hepatic children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Behairy; El-Araby, Hanaa; Adawy, Nermin; Hassona, Mona; El-Nady, Naglaa; Zakaria, Haidy; Khedr, Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    To assess if elevated serum cystatin C (Cyst-C) is an indicator for renal or hepatic dysfunction in presence of liver fibrosis. Data of 50 children with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), out of which 25 were without renal impairment, and 25 with renal impairment were analyzed. Twenty healthy children served as a healthy control group. Routine investigations, creatinine clearance, hepatitis viral markers, abdominal ultrasonography, and liver biopsy were performed for patients with CLDs. Measurement of serum Cyst-C concentration by particle induced immunonephelometry were completed for both patients and control group. Results showed that serum Cyst-C is not correlated with the degree of hepatic impairment ( p > 0.05). Cyst-C levels were significantly higher in patients with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.71 ± 0.12), and healthy control group (0.63 ± 0.85). Cystatin-C showed significant elevation in patients with severe fibrosis with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.76 ± 0.04) ( p impairment. Cyst-C > 2.34 mg/l predicting GFR 2.73 mg/l predicting GFR impairment in children with CLDs. Further studies are needed to estimate the accuracy of serum Cyst-C for early detection of renal impairment and close monitoring of the hepatic children.

  12. Picture Naming in Typically Developing and Language-Impaired Children: The Role of Sustained Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Suzanne R.; Roelofs, Ardi; Scheper, Annette R.; Meyer, Antje S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems not only with language performance but also with sustained attention, which is the ability to maintain alertness over an extended period of time. Although there is consensus that this ability is impaired with respect to processing stimuli in the auditory perceptual…

  13. Phonological Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is heterogeneous and identifying subgroups within it may help explain the aetiology of the condition. Phonological processing abilities distinguish between children with SLI who do and do not have reading decoding impairments (RDIs). Aims: To probe different levels of phonological processing in…

  14. Working Memory and Learning in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…

  15. Picture naming in typically developing and language-impaired children: The role of sustained attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, S.R.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Scheper, A.R.; Meyer, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems not only with language performance but also with sustained attention, which is the ability to maintain alertness over an extended period of time. Although there is consensus that this ability is impaired with respect to

  16. Factors Related to Impaired Visual Orienting Behavior in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, F. H.; Pel, J .J. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; van der Steen, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased risk of impaired visual information processing due to brain damage or brain development disorder. So far little evidence has been presented to support this assumption. Abnormal visual orienting behavior is a sensitive tool to evaluate impaired visual…

  17. Psychosocial Outcomes at 15 Years of Children with a Preschool History of Speech-Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Bishop, D. V. M.; Stothard, Susan E.; Chipchase, Barry; Kaplan, Carole

    2006-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests there is a heightened risk of psychiatric disorder in children with speech-language impairments. However, not all forms of language impairment are strongly associated with psychosocial difficulty, and some psychiatric disorders (e.g., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)) are more prevalent than others in…

  18. Influence of trunk control and lower extremity impairments on gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Balzer, Julia; Marsico, Petra; Mitteregger, Elena; van der Linden, Marietta; Mercer, Tom; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the combined impact of trunk control and lower extremities impairments on predicting gait capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and evaluated relationships between trunk control and lower extremities impairments. Methods: Data of 52 children with CP [29 boys, mean age 11 years 9 months (±4 years 6 months)] were included in this observational study. Gait capacity was measured by the “modified Time Up and Go test”. Experienced therapists performed the “Modified ...

  19. Pioneering Strategies for Relieving Dental Anxiety in Hearing Impaired Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shalini Chandrasekhar; Ghanashyam Prasad Madu; Naga Radhakrishna Ambati; Pavani Reddy Suravarapu; Kalyani Uppu; Deepthi Bolla

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Hearing impaired children have a problem in understanding and comprehending with dental treatments. Visual language is the sensible answer of how to improve communication with them. Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of dental sign language in Hearing impaired children in relieving anxiety during stressful dental treatment by improving their means of communication. Materials and Method: This randomized clinical trial was carried out in the Department of Ped...

  20. Evaluating rehabilitation goals of visually impaired children in multidisciplinary care according to ICF-CY guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Linda; van Nispen, Ruth; van Rens, Ger

    2014-11-01

    To gain qualitative insight into the rehabilitation goals of visually impaired children and how these goals relate to the structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and patient characteristics. A patient record study was conducted, analysing rehabilitation goals and characteristics of children with a suspected visual impairment in the Netherlands (evaluate progress and potential new or other important goals. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Impaired gas exchange: accuracy of defining characteristics in children with acute respiratory infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoal, Lívia Maia; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Chaves, Daniel Bruno Resende; Beltrão, Beatriz Amorim; Silva, Viviane Martins da; Monteiro, Flávia Paula Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the Impaired gas exchange nursing diagnosis in children with acute respiratory infection.METHOD: open prospective cohort study conducted with 136 children monitored for a consecutive period of at least six days and not more than ten days. An instrument based on the defining characteristics of the Impaired gas exchange diagnosis and on literature addressing pulmonary assessment was used to collect data. The accuracy means of...

  2. Guided self-help interventions for mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Heyman, Isobel; Coughtrey, Anna; Simmonds, Jess; Varadkar, Sophia; Stephenson, Terence; DeJong, Margaret; Shafran, Roz

    2016-11-04

    Rates of mental health disorders are significantly greater in children with physical illnesses than in physically well children. Children with neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, are known to have particularly high rates of mental health disorders. Despite this, mental health problems in children with neurological conditions have remained under-recognised and under-treated in clinical settings. Evidence-based guided self-help interventions are efficacious in reducing symptoms of mental health disorders in children, but their efficacy in reducing symptoms of common mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions has not been investigated. We aim to pilot a guided self-help intervention for the treatment of mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions. A pilot randomised controlled trial with 18 patients with neurological conditions and mental health disorders will be conducted. Participants attending specialist neurology clinics at a National UK Children's Hospital will be randomised to receive guided self-help for common mental health disorders or to a 12-week waiting list control. Participants in the treatment group will receive 10 sessions of guided self-help delivered over the telephone. The waiting list control group will receive the intervention after a waiting period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is reduction in symptoms of mental health disorders. Exclusion criteria are limited to those at significant risk of harm to self or others, the presence of primary mental health disorder other than anxiety, depression or disruptive behaviour (e.g. psychosis, eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) or intellectual disability at a level meaning potential participants would be unable to access the intervention. The study has ethical approval from the Camden and Islington NHS Research Ethics Committee, registration number 14.LO.1353. Results will be disseminated to patients, the wider public, clinicians and

  3. Visual-motor integration performance in children with severe specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, K; Watter, P

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated (1) the visual-motor integration (VMI) performance of children with severe specific language impairment (SLI), and any effect of age, gender, socio-economic status and concomitant speech impairment; and (2) the relationship between language and VMI performance. It is hypothesized that children with severe SLI would present with VMI problems irrespective of gender and socio-economic status; however, VMI deficits will be more pronounced in younger children and those with concomitant speech impairment. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that there will be a relationship between VMI and language performance, particularly in receptive scores. Children enrolled between 2000 and 2008 in a school dedicated to children with severe speech-language impairments were included, if they met the criteria for severe SLI with or without concomitant speech impairment which was verified by a government organization. Results from all initial standardized language and VMI assessments found during a retrospective review of chart files were included. The final study group included 100 children (males = 76), from 4 to 14 years of age with mean language scores at least 2SD below the mean. For VMI performance, 52% of the children scored below -1SD, with 25% of the total group scoring more than 1.5SD below the mean. Age, gender and the addition of a speech impairment did not impact on VMI performance; however, children living in disadvantaged suburbs scored significantly better than children residing in advantaged suburbs. Receptive language scores of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals was the only score associated with and able to predict VMI performance. A small subgroup of children with severe SLI will also have poor VMI skills. The best predictor of poor VMI is receptive language scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Children with poor receptive language performance may benefit from VMI assessment and multidisciplinary

  4. Early preschool processing abilities predict subsequent reading outcomes in bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Pérez-Castelló, Josep A; Rigo-Carratalà, Eduard; Adrover-Roig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have severe language difficulties without showing hearing impairments, cognitive deficits, neurological damage or socio-emotional deprivation. However, previous studies have shown that children with SLI show some cognitive and literacy problems. Our study analyses the relationship between preschool cognitive and linguistic abilities and the later development of reading abilities in Spanish-Catalan bilingual children with SLI. The sample consisted of 17 bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI and 17 age-matched controls. We tested eight distinct processes related to phonological, attention, and language processing at the age of 6 years and reading at 8 years of age. Results show that bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI show significantly lower scores, as compared to typically developing peers, in phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming (RAN), together with a lower outcome in tasks measuring sentence repetition and verbal fluency. Regarding attentional processes, bilingual Spanish-Catalan children with SLI obtained lower scores in auditory attention, but not in visual attention. At the age of 8 years Spanish-Catalan children with SLI had lower scores than their age-matched controls in total reading score, letter identification (decoding), and in semantic task (comprehension). Regression analyses identified both phonological awareness and verbal fluency at the age of 6 years to be the best predictors of subsequent reading performance at the age of 8 years. Our data suggest that language acquisition problems and difficulties in reading acquisition in bilingual children with SLI might be related to the close interdependence between a limitation in cognitive processing and a deficit at the linguistic level. After reading this article, readers will be able to: identify their understanding of the relation between language difficulties and reading outcomes; explain how processing

  5. [Issues in psychiatric evaluation of children and adolescents with visual impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisky, Yaniv; Hasid, Soli; Ebert, Tanya; Kosov, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Approximately 8% from those who are defined as blind in Israel are children and adolescents. Visual impairment is correlated with a high rate of psychopathology. However, some of these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Often, the clinicians and those who treat the children/adolescents lack the proper professional knowledge related to the unique diagnosis and treatment of children/ adolescents who are visually impaired. Visual impairment might influence different aspects of the psychiatric diagnosis. These aspects include the influence of the impairment on different developmental axes; the reciprocal relationship between the child and his/her environment; the clinical presentation of different psychopathologies; and the different treatment modalities. In this review we discuss these issues. Moreover, we raise the question as to whether there is a need to adapt the psychiatric evaluation and the treatment specifically to the visually impaired child. The review is based on the existing literature in addition to our clinical experience, which stems from our work with children and adolescents who are at the "Jewish Institute for the Blind", an institute for children and adolescents with visual impairment in Israel.

  6. Phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haresabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.

  7. Procedural Motor Learning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevan, Teenu; Mainela-Arnold, Elina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental disorder that affects language and motor development in the absence of a clear cause. An explanation for these impairments is offered by the procedural deficit hypothesis (PDH), which argues that motor difficulties in SLI are due to deficits in procedural memory. The aim of this study…

  8. The Production of Pronouns in Dutch Children with Developmental Language Disorders: A Comparison between Children with SLI, Hearing Impairment, and Down's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Gerard W.; Kasparian, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The production of pronouns in spontaneous language was investigated in three groups of children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD): children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), children with hearing impairment (HI), and children with Down's syndrome (DS). The results were compared to the production of pronouns in typically developing…

  9. The production of pronouns in Dutch children with developmental language disorders : A comparison between children with SLI, hearing impairment, and Down's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Gerard W.; Kasparian, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The production of pronouns in spontaneous language was investigated in three groups of children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD): children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), children with hearing impairment (HI), and children with Down's syndrome (DS). The results were compared to

  10. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  11. Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh HajiHeydari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.

  12. Features of vertical stability of junior school children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko A. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of vertical stability in the formation of the spatial organization of the body and correct posture for junior school children with visual impairments was determined. In a pilot study involved 23 children with low vision and 60 healthy children, aged 7-10 years old. To obtain the results was used the test of E.Y. Bondarevskogo. The features of orthograde posture of children with low vision and their healthy peers. Distinctive features in terms of retention of vertical posture and goniometric characteristics have been revealed. Found that junior school children with low vision by about 60-65% yield in the reported figures from their healthy peers. The visually impaired junior school children have significantly less ability to retain the static vertical posture than children with normal vision have been proved and verified.

  13. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Nunes Rocha-Muniz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing.OBJECTIVE: To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory processing disorders and typical development through the mismatch negativity paradigm.METHODS: It was a prospective study. 75 children (6-12 years participated in this study: 25 children with specific language impairment, 25 with auditory processing disorders, and 25 with typical development. Mismatch negativity was obtained by subtracting from the waves obtained by the stimuli /ga/ (frequent and /da/ (rare. Measures of mismatch negativity latency and two amplitude measures were analyzed.RESULTS: It was possible to verify an absence of mismatch negativity in 16% children with specific language impairment and 24% children with auditory processing disorders. In the comparative analysis, auditory processing disorders and specific language impairment showed higher latency values and lower amplitude values compared to typical development.CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate changes in the automatic discrimination of crucial acoustic components of speech sounds in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorders. It could indicate problems in physiological processes responsible for ensuring the discrimination of acoustic contrasts in pre-attentional and pre-conscious levels, contributing to poor perception.

  14. Dentists' attitudes and practices toward provision of orthodontic treatment for children with visual and hearing impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSarheed, Maha; Bedi, Raman; Alkhatib, M Nour; Hunt, Nigel P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in behavior and attitudes of dentists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in providing orthodontic care for children who are sensory impaired. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all dentists working in Riyadh to assess the following domains: personal characteristics of the dentists and their practices, provision of dental care for children who are visually-impaired (Vl) and/or hearing-impaired (HI), and their attitude toward providing orthodontic care for these children. Attitudes were measured on two scales and the overall score of these two scales represented each respondent's attitude. Thirty percent of the dentists provided dental care for children with VI and 45.3 percent did for children with HI. The provision of orthodontic care was significantly affected by the country in which the dentists had received their dental training, both for children with VI and HI (p attitude score. There were also significant variations in attitudes toward the provision of orthodontic treatment for children with sensory impairment (SI), influenced by dental training and experience. In practical terms, this means that improvement in attitudes needs to be initiated at the dental undergraduate level. Establishing global guidelines for the provision of orthodontic treatment for patients with sensory impairment is likely to assist both professionals and patients.

  15. Mismatch negativity in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Befi-Lopes, Débora Maria; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity, an electrophysiological measure, evaluates the brain's capacity to discriminate sounds, regardless of attentional and behavioral capacity. Thus, this auditory event-related potential is promising in the study of the neurophysiological basis underlying auditory processing. To investigate complex acoustic signals (speech) encoded in the auditory nervous system of children with specific language impairment and compare with children with auditory processing disorders and typical development through the mismatch negativity paradigm. It was a prospective study. 75 children (6-12 years) participated in this study: 25 children with specific language impairment, 25 with auditory processing disorders, and 25 with typical development. Mismatch negativity was obtained by subtracting from the waves obtained by the stimuli /ga/ (frequent) and /da/ (rare). Measures of mismatch negativity latency and two amplitude measures were analyzed. It was possible to verify an absence of mismatch negativity in 16% children with specific language impairment and 24% children with auditory processing disorders. In the comparative analysis, auditory processing disorders and specific language impairment showed higher latency values and lower amplitude values compared to typical development. These data demonstrate changes in the automatic discrimination of crucial acoustic components of speech sounds in children with specific language impairment and auditory processing disorders. It could indicate problems in physiological processes responsible for ensuring the discrimination of acoustic contrasts in pre-attentional and pre-conscious levels, contributing to poor perception. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical word learning in children with autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-11-01

    Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of

  17. Neurological soft signs in aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer´s disease – the impact of cognitive decline and cognitive reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eUrbanowitsch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Neurological soft signs (NSS, i.e. minor motor and sensory changes, are a common feature in severe psychiatric disorders. We sought to establish the frequency of NSS in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD on basis of a large population based sample and to identify their neuropsychological correlates including cognitive reserve.Methods: NSS were examined using an abbreviated version of the Heidelberg NSS Scale in 221 old participants born between 1930 and 1932 (63 with MCI, 15 with AD, 143 healthy old controls and 256 healthy young participants (born between 1950 and 1952 of the population-based Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ILSE. Subjects received thorough neuropsychological testing; years of school education were used as a proxy for cognitive reserve.Results: NSS scores were significantly (p<0.001 higher in the AD patients (5.6±3.11 than in the healthy old controls (2.8±1.90 and in the MCI patients (3.0±1.96. This result was confirmed after years of school education which were inversely correlated (r = - 0.25; p<0.001 with NSS were entered as a covariate. In the patients but not in the controls, NSS were significantly correlated with deficits in executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. Comparison of NSS scores between old (2.84 ± 1.9 and young (2.46 ± 1.97 controls yielded only minor, non-significant differences after education (13.86 ± 3.0 vs. 14.61 ± 2.48 years, respectively was controlled for.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NSS are frequently found in mild AD but not in MCI. NSS refer to frontal-executive deficits and visuospatial dysfunction rather than age per se and can be partly compensated for by cognitive reserve.

  18. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Soraya; Hashemi, Hassan; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Mirzajani, Ali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-11-22

    To report the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children in Iran and its relationship with socio-economic conditions. In a cross-sectional population-based study, first-grade students in the primary schools of eight cities in the country were randomly selected from different geographic locations using multistage cluster sampling. The examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, and cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction. Using the definitions of the World Health Organization (presenting visual acuity less than or equal to 6/18 in the better eye) to estimate the prevalence of vision impairment, the present study reported presenting visual impairment in seven-year-old children. Of 4,614 selected students, 4,106 students participated in the study (response rate 89 per cent), of whom 2,127 (51.8 per cent) were male. The prevalence of visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/18 was 0.341 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 0.187-0.571); 1.34 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 1.011-1.74) of children had visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/18 in at least one eye. Sixty-six (1.6 per cent) and 23 (0.24 per cent) children had visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/12 in the worse and better eye, respectively. The most common causes of visual impairment were refractive errors (81.8 per cent) and amblyopia (14.5 per cent). Among different types of refractive errors, astigmatism was the main refractive error leading to visual impairment. According to the concentration index, the distribution of visual impairment in children from low-income families was higher. This study revealed a high prevalence of visual impairment in a representative sample of seven-year-old Iranian children. Astigmatism and amblyopia were the most common causes of visual impairment. The distribution of visual impairment was higher in children from low-income families. Cost

  19. [Hearing impairment and psychopathological disorders in children and adolescents. Review of the recent literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, D; Dechoulydelenclave, M-B; Lauwerier, L

    2003-01-01

    Hearing impairment is a multifaceted condition with medical and social aspects. If the neuropsychiatric impact of deafness on children has been investigated by researchers from a variety of fields and backgrounds, their conclusion is that children with hearing impairment follow many different developmental pathways. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships between hearing impairment and mental health and the effect of impaired communication on family development. From a review of the literature, the authors examine the relationships between hearing impairment and mental disorders in children and adolescents in terms of prevalence, clinical features and etiological factors. The fami-ly dynamics and the parents-child interactions were also explored. The assessment of psychiatric disorders in hearing-impaired children sets some methodological pro-blems. Accurate evaluation is hampered by the immature language exhi-bited by many hearing-impaired children and by the difficulties that may be encountered in establishing rapport if the child does not understand the examiner's verbal exchanges. Several authors point out the lack of communication skills and experiences with hearing-impaired children on the part of many examiners. In addition, delays have been observed for the development of social maturity in hearing-impaired children and the parents' descriptions may reflect their own worries, rather than the emotional-behavioral functioning of the child. The measurement of psychiatric symptoms is then compromised insofar as many of the assessment procedures are highly verbal and were standardized for normal-hearing children. These difficulties may explain that the pre-valence rates of mental disorders in hearing-impaired children and adolescents found in the literature vary from 15% to 60%. If autism and deafness may both confound each others' dia-gnosis, several studies also point out the high comorbidity observed between these 2 conditions. The significance

  20. Methods of development of fine and gross motor skills of visually impaired children.

    OpenAIRE

    Brožová, Pavla

    2009-01-01

    The theme of the bachelor's paper is ``Methods of development of fine and gross motor skills of visually impaired children{\\crqq}. The theoretical part is aimed at clarification of the terms ``vision{\\crqq}, ``development of visual perception{\\crqq}, and also ``visually impaired child{\\crqq}. I have further introduced there the terms ``gross and fine motor skills{\\crqq}, which I defined in relation to children with visual impairment in pre-school age. The practical part of the paper is dedica...