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Sample records for neurologically healthy controls

  1. Neurological soft signs in juvenile patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis, and healthy controls.

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    Mayoral, María; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Rapado, Marta; Leiva, Marta; Moreno, Carmen; Giráldez, Marisa; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2010-11-01

    The study of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with Asperger syndrome may help us to elucidate the neurological basis of this disorder and to clarify its relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of NSS in a sample of patients with Asperger syndrome, early-onset psychosis and healthy controls. NSS were assessed by means of the Neurological Evaluation Scale in a sample of 29 patients with Asperger syndrome (mean age = 12.86 ± 2.58 years), 30 patients with first-episode early-onset psychoses (mean age 14.17 ± 1.02 years) and 30 healthy controls (mean age 12.33 ± 2.69 years). Significant group differences were found between Asperger syndrome patients and healthy controls both in all the Neurological Evaluation Scale subscales and in the Neurological Evaluation Scale total score. There were no significant differences between both groups of patients in any of the Neurological Evaluation Scale scores. NSS are more prevalent in Asperger syndrome than in healthy controls. The NSS profile was not disorder-specific in our samples of patients with Asperger syndrome and early-onset psychoses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 in myasthenia gravis compared to other neurological disorders and healthy controls.

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    Luckman, Steven P; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Romi, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    MMP-3 is capable of degrading a variety of proteins, including agrin, which plays a critical role in neuromuscular signaling by controlling acetylcholine receptor clustering. High MMP-3 levels in a proportion of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients have been reported. A pathogenic role of MMP-3 in other neurological disorders has been suggested but not proven. We have therefore examined the levels of MMP-3 in 124 MG patients and compared them to 59 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 74 epilepsy patients, 33 acute stroke patients, and 90 healthy controls. 15.3% of the patients in the MG group were MMP-3-positive (defined as higher than cutoff value 48 ng/mL) with very high mean MMP-3 concentration (79.9 ng/mL), whereas the proportion of MMP-3 positive patients in the MS (3.4%), epilepsy (6.7%), stroke (0%), and the control group (4.4%) was significantly lower. Mean MMP-3 concentration in the total MG group (25.5 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in the MS (16.6 ng/mL) and stroke (11.7 ng/mL) groups, but did not differ significantly from the epilepsy (19.4 ng/mL) and the control group (23.4 ng/mL). MMP-3 may have a specific pathogenic effect in MG in addition to being associated with autoimmune diseases in general.

  3. Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 in Myasthenia Gravis Compared to Other Neurological Disorders and Healthy Controls

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    Steven P. Luckman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available MMP-3 is capable of degrading a variety of proteins, including agrin, which plays a critical role in neuromuscular signaling by controlling acetylcholine receptor clustering. High MMP-3 levels in a proportion of myasthenia gravis (MG patients have been reported. A pathogenic role of MMP-3 in other neurological disorders has been suggested but not proven. We have therefore examined the levels of MMP-3 in 124 MG patients and compared them to 59 multiple sclerosis (MS patients, 74 epilepsy patients, 33 acute stroke patients, and 90 healthy controls. 15.3% of the patients in the MG group were MMP-3-positive (defined as higher than cutoff value 48 ng/mL with very high mean MMP-3 concentration (79.9 ng/mL, whereas the proportion of MMP-3 positive patients in the MS (3.4%, epilepsy (6.7%, stroke (0%, and the control group (4.4% was significantly lower. Mean MMP-3 concentration in the total MG group (25.5 ng/mL was significantly higher than in the MS (16.6 ng/mL and stroke (11.7 ng/mL groups, but did not differ significantly from the epilepsy (19.4 ng/mL and the control group (23.4 ng/mL. MMP-3 may have a specific pathogenic effect in MG in addition to being associated with autoimmune diseases in general.

  4. Comparative Study of Neurological Soft Signs in Patients with Schizophrenia or Obsessive-compulsive Disorder, and Healthy Controls.

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    Tripathi, R; Soni, A; Tyagi, A; Mehta, S; Gupta, S

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with patients with schizophrenia and a control group in the Indian setting. The secondary objective was to find any correlation between age at onset and neurological soft signs scores, as well as that between severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (total Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score) and neurological soft signs scores. This was a cross-sectional hospital-based study of 135 individuals (45 patients with schizophrenia, 45 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder who were attending the psychiatric outpatient department of Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, India, and 45 matched healthy controls) from 20 June 2013 to 22 December 2014. After applying strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the participants completed the study instruments (Cambridge Neurological Inventory [Part 2] and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale). Their socio-demographic data were also recorded. The neurological soft signs total score and domain scores (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition) were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia (p disorder group or the control group. The obsessive-compulsive disorder group did not significantly differ from the control group in terms of neurological soft signs scores. No correlation was found between neurological soft signs scores and age at onset as well as that between neurological soft signs scores and total Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score. Neurological soft signs assessed by the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, which discriminate patients with schizophrenia from controls, appear to be relatively specific to schizophrenia. Further studies are required to explore neurological soft signs in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  5. Abnormal neurological exam findings in individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) versus psychiatric and healthy controls.

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    Silva, Marc A; Donnell, Alison J; Kim, Michelle S; Vanderploeg, Rodney D

    2012-01-01

    In those with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), cognitive and emotional disturbances are often misattributed to that preexisting injury. However, causal determinations of current symptoms cannot be conclusively determined because symptoms are often nonspecific to etiology and offer virtually no differential diagnostic value in postacute or chronic phases. This population-based study examined whether the presence of abnormalities during neurological examination would distinguish between mTBI (in the chronic phase), healthy controls, and selected psychiatric conditions. Retrospective analysis of data from 4462 community-dwelling Army veterans was conducted. Diagnostically unique groups were compared on examination of cranial nerve function and other neurological signs. Results demonstrated that individuals with mTBI were no more likely than those with a major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or somatoform disorder to show any abnormality. Thus, like self-reported cognitive and emotional symptoms, the presence of cranial nerve or other neurological abnormalities offers no differential diagnostic value. Clinical implications and study limitations are presented.

  6. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on neurological function in healthy older people: the Older People and Enhanced Neurological function (OPEN study protocol [ISRCTN54195799

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    Whyte Ken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older people and the prevalence increases with age. Vitamin B12 deficiency may present as macrocytic anaemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. The diagnosis and indications for treatment are clear for individuals with low plasma levels of vitamin B12 in the setting of megaloblastic anaemia and neuropathy, but the relevance of treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency in the absence of such clinical signs is uncertain. Methods The aim of the present study is to assess whether dietary supplementation with crystalline vitamin B12 will improve electrophysiological indices of neurological function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of anaemia. To test this hypothesis we designed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving 200 older people aged 75 years or greater who were randomly allocated to receive either a daily oral tablet containing 1 mg vitamin B12 or a matching placebo tablet. The primary outcome assessed at 12 months is change in electrophysiological indices of peripheral and central neurosensory responses required for mobility and sensory function. We here report the detailed study protocol. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present trial could have considerable significance for public health.

  7. Kidney dysfunction and cerebral microbleeds in neurologically healthy adults.

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    Sang Hyuck Kim

    Full Text Available Cerebral microbleed (CMB is a potent risk factor for overt cerebrovascular disease. Although some studies indicated the possible role of renal dysfunction as a risk factor of CMB, the findings could not be generalized. This study aimed to investigate the association between renal dysfunction and cerebral microbleed (CMB in neurologically healthy adults.A total of 2,518 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were involved in the study. CMBs were defined as well-demarcated focal areas of low signal intensity with associated blooming on the T2-weighted MRI measuring less than 5mm in diameter. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Kidney function was classified as normal (≥90, mild (60 to 89.9, moderate (30 to 59.9, and severe (<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 renal dysfunction according to the GFR.The mean age of the participants was 57.5 ± 8.3 years (ranged 40 to 79, and 1,367 subjects (54.3% were male. The mean GFR level was 81.5 ± 15.5, and the prevalence of CMB was 4.1% (n = 103. Subjects with CMB demonstrated a higher proportion of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction than those without CMB (15.5% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction showed a significant association with CMB (adjusted odd ratio = 2.63; p = 0.008. Furthermore, a decrease in the GFR level was associated with an increasing trend of the presence of CMB (p for trend = 0.031 and number of CMB lesions (p for trend = 0.003.Renal dysfunction was significantly associated with the presence of CMB in neurologically healthy adults. More studies are needed to evaluate if treatment of kidney disease and risk factor modification may prevent further progress of CMB.

  8. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

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    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: a structural equation modeling analysis.

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    Chan, Raymond C K; Xu, Ting; Li, Hui-jie; Zhao, Qing; Liu, Han-hui; Wang, Yi; Yan, Chao; Cao, Xiao-yan; Wang, Yu-na; Shi, Yan-fang; Dazzan, Paola

    2011-08-10

    Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Dysarthria and Quality of Life in neurologically healthy elderly and patients with Parkinson's disease.

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    Lirani-Silva, Camila; Mourão, Lúcia Figueiredo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-01-01

    To compare the speech and voice of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and neurologically healthy elderly adults (control group, CG), to find out whether these features are related to the disease or the normal aging process, and investigate the impact that dysarthria has on the Quality of Life (QoL) of these individuals. This is a cross-sectional study involving 25 individuals, 13 patients with PD and 12 CG. All the participants underwent vocal assessment, perceptual and acoustic analysis, based on "Dysarthria Assessment Protocol" and analysis of QoL using a questionnaire, "Living with Dysarthria". The data underwent statistical analysis to compare the groups in each parameter. In the assessment of dysarthria, patients with PD showed differences in prosody parameter (p=0.012), at the habitual frequency for females (p=0.025) and males (p=0.028), and the extent of intensity (p=0.039) when compared to CG. In QoL questionnaire, it was observed that patients with PD showed more negative impact on the QoL compared to CG, as indicated by the total score (p=0.005) with various aspects influencing this result. The degree of modification of speech and voice of patients with PD resembles those seen in normal aging process, with the exception of prosody and the habitual frequency, which are related to the greatest negative impact on the QoL of patients with PD.

  11. Neurological soft signs, dissociation and alexithymia in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and healthy subjects.

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    Tapancı, Zafer; Yıldırım, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat

    2017-11-21

    A body of evidence has supported that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have increased rates of various neurological soft signs (NSS) compared to controls. Various lines of research has documented robust relationships between OCD and dissociative symptomatology. The study aimed to examine the associations between obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociative experiences alexithymia, and NSS. The study included thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls, matched for age, marital status, education, and income. The Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES), Padua Inventory-Revised (PI-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were administered. In comparison to healthy controls, patients with OCD had difficulty sequencing for complex motor acts and greater absorption/ imaginative involvement. Using latent class analysis, the study sample was classified into two homogenous subsets as mild NSS (n = 45) and severe NSS (n = 15). Majority of the participants who were grouped into severe NSS latent class were OCD patient (n = 14, 93.3%). Furthermore, those with severe NSS reported greater levels of alexithymia and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms, particularly precision. We concluded that relationships between OCD severity and NSS appear to be of crucial importance. Our data along with accumulated evidence suggest that OCD associated with pronounced NSS may represent a specific subtype of the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and neurological developmental outcome at 18 months in healthy term infants

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    Bouwstra, H; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; Boehm, G; Boersma, ER; Muskiet, FAJ; Hadders-Algra, M

    Aim: Previously, we found a beneficial effect of 2 mo supplementation of infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) on neurological condition at 3 mo in healthy term infants. The aim of the present follow-up study was to evaluate whether the effect on neurological condition

  13. Visceral Fat Is an Independent Predictor of Cerebral Microbleeds in Neurologically Healthy People.

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    Kwon, Hyung-Min; Park, Jong-Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Jeong, Han-Yeong; Lim, Jae-Sung; Jeong, Han-Gil; Shin, Dong Wook; Yun, Jae Moon; Lee, Hyejin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a significant contribution to the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, little is known about the association between central obesity and the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a precursor of ICH. We sought to assess whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are associated with the presence of CMB. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,737 neurologically healthy people (mean age 55.9 ± 9.1; 790 men), who underwent brain MRI and abdominal CT. Risk factors, anthropometric parameters and clinical information were obtained. CMBs were evaluated through T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MRI. The cross-sectional surface areas of the abdominal fat compartments were calculated. Study subjects were stratified into quartiles according to the distribution of VAT/SAT ratio. A total of 75 (4.3%) subjects were found to have CMBs. Subjects with a greater quartile of VAT/SAT ratio were more likely to have higher numbers of CMBs (0 to ≥2; p = 0.001). In multivariable analysis, age and history of hypertension were associated with the presence of CMB (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.13, p VAT/SAT quartile and CMB: compared to the lowest VAT/SAT quartile, OR 2.14 (95% CI 0.86-5.35) for second VAT/SAT quartile; OR 2.26 (95% CI 0.86-5.92) for third VAT/SAT quartile; and OR 2.91 (95% CI 1.04-8.12) for the highest VAT/SAT quartile (p for trend 0.03). In our study, higher VAT/SAT ratios were found to be independent predictors of CMBs in neurologically healthy people. This finding strengthens previous data, suggesting that visceral fat distribution is an important contributor to cerebral small vessel disease. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Neurological and robot-controlled induction of an apparition.

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    Blanke, Olaf; Pozeg, Polona; Hara, Masayuki; Heydrich, Lukas; Serino, Andrea; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Salomon, Roy; Seeck, Margitta; Landis, Theodor; Arzy, Shahar; Herbelin, Bruno; Bleuler, Hannes; Rognini, Giulio

    2014-11-17

    Tales of ghosts, wraiths, and other apparitions have been reported in virtually all cultures. The strange sensation that somebody is nearby when no one is actually present and cannot be seen (feeling of a presence, FoP) is a fascinating feat of the human mind, and this apparition is often covered in the literature of divinity, occultism, and fiction. Although it is described by neurological and psychiatric patients and healthy individuals in different situations, it is not yet understood how the phenomenon is triggered by the brain. Here, we performed lesion analysis in neurological FoP patients, supported by an analysis of associated neurological deficits. Our data show that the FoP is an illusory own-body perception with well-defined characteristics that is associated with sensorimotor loss and caused by lesions in three distinct brain regions: temporoparietal, insular, and especially frontoparietal cortex. Based on these data and recent experimental advances of multisensory own-body illusions, we designed a master-slave robotic system that generated specific sensorimotor conflicts and enabled us to induce the FoP and related illusory own-body perceptions experimentally in normal participants. These data show that the illusion of feeling another person nearby is caused by misperceiving the source and identity of sensorimotor (tactile, proprioceptive, and motor) signals of one's own body. Our findings reveal the neural mechanisms of the FoP, highlight the subtle balance of brain mechanisms that generate the experience of "self" and "other," and advance the understanding of the brain mechanisms responsible for hallucinations in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rett syndrome: disruption of epigenetic control of postnatal neurological functions.

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    Pohodich, Amy E; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2015-10-15

    Loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) cause a devastating pediatric neurological disorder called Rett syndrome. In males, these mutations typically result in severe neonatal encephalopathy and early lethality. On the other hand, owing to expression of the normal allele in ∼50% of cells, females do not suffer encephalopathy but instead develop Rett syndrome. Typically females with Rett syndrome exhibit a delayed onset of neurologic dysfunction that manifests around the child's first birthday and progresses over the next few years. Features of this disorder include loss of acquired language and motor skills, intellectual impairment and hand stereotypies. The developmental regression observed in patients with Rett syndrome arises from altered neuronal function and is not the result of neurodegeneration. Maintenance of an appropriate level of MeCP2 appears integral to the function of healthy neurons as patients with increased levels of MeCP2, owing to duplication of the Xq28 region encompassing the MECP2 locus, also present with intellectual disability and progressive neurologic symptoms. Despite major efforts over the past two decades to elucidate the molecular functions of MeCP2, the mechanisms underlying the delayed appearance of symptoms remain unclear. In this review, we will highlight recent findings that have expanded our knowledge of MeCP2's functions, and we will discuss how epigenetic regulation, chromatin organization and circuit dynamics may contribute to the postnatal onset of Rett syndrome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Global gene expression profiling of healthy human brain and its application in studying neurological disorders.

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    Negi, Simarjeet K; Guda, Chittibabu

    2017-04-18

    Brain function is governed by precise regulation of gene expression across its anatomically distinct structures; however, the expression patterns of genes across hundreds of brain structures are not clearly understood. Here, we describe a gene expression model, which is representative of the healthy human brain transcriptome by using data from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our in-depth gene expression profiling revealed that 84% of genes are expressed in at least one of the 190 brain structures studied. Hierarchical clustering based on gene expression profiles delineated brain regions into structurally tiered spatial groups and we observed striking enrichment for region-specific processes. Further, weighted co-expression network analysis identified 19 robust modules of highly correlated genes enriched with functional associations for neurogenesis, dopamine signaling, immune regulation and behavior. Also, structural distribution maps of major neurotransmission systems in the brain were generated. Finally, we developed a supervised classification model, which achieved 84% and 81% accuracies for predicting autism- and Parkinson's-implicated genes, respectively, using our expression model as a baseline. This study represents the first use of global gene expression profiling from healthy human brain to develop a disease gene prediction model and this generic methodology can be applied to study any neurological disorder.

  17. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology

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    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. FES for the immediate generation of lower limb movement along with current rehabilitative techniques is reviewed. The potential of SCS for controlling spinal spasticity and enhancing lower limb function in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury is discussed. The necessity for precise electrode placement and appropriate stimulation parameter settings to achieve therapeutic specificity is elaborated. This will lead to our human work of epidural and transcutaneous stimulation targeting the lumbar spinal cord for enhancing motor functions in spinal cord injured people, supplemented by pertinent human research of other investigators. We conclude that the concept of restorative neurology recently received new appreciation by accumulated evidence for locomotor circuits residing in the human spinal cord. Technological and clinical advancements need to follow for a major impact on the functional recovery in individuals with severe damage to their motor system. PMID:22464657

  18. Non neurologic burst thoracolumbar fractures fixation: Case-control study.

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    Amelot, Aymeric; Cristini, Joseph; Moles, Alexis; Salaud, Celine; Hamel, Olivier; Bord, Eric; Buffenoir, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Burst fractures not associated with any neurological deficits are frequent but not therapeutic agreement on their management is available to date. This case-control study was conducted to try to help guide therapeutic decision in the treatment of such fractures. This case-control study includes consecutive retrospective evaluation of 25 case-patients treated by posterior short-segment fixation associated with kyphoplasty (SFK) in the treatment of A3 thoracolumbar unstable fractures, as compared to a control-group composed of 82 patients treated by long-segment (LF) pedicle screws. SFK patients bled significantly less than the LF patients (p=0.04). Assessment of deformation progression, vertebral height restoration and reduction of the regional kyphotic angle in the SFK and LF groups revealed no statistically significant superiority of one approach on another. In contrast, the height of endplates was significantly increased in the SFK group (p=0.006). The patients' pain levels were significantly improved in the SFK group (p=0.002). However, patients from the SFK group stood earlier postoperatively (1.7 vs 3.7days, p=0.001). We believe that SFK in vertebral fractures is as efficient as LF for bone consolidation and spine stabilization. In addition, SFK patients may use fewer analgesics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An eye-tracking controlled neuropsychological battery for cognitive assessment in neurological diseases.

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    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Solca, Federica; Lafronza, Annalisa; Pedroli, Elisa; Faini, Andrea; Zago, Stefano; Ticozzi, Nicola; Ciammola, Andrea; Morelli, Claudia; Meriggi, Paolo; Cipresso, Pietro; Lulé, Dorothée; Ludolph, Albert C; Riva, Giuseppe; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Traditional cognitive assessment in neurological conditions involving physical disability is often prevented by the presence of verbal-motor impairment; to date, an extensive motor-verbal-free neuropsychological battery is not available for such purposes. We adapted a set of neuropsychological tests, assessing language, attentional abilities, executive functions and social cognition, for eye-tracking (ET) control, and explored its feasibility in a sample of healthy participants. Thirty healthy subjects performed a neuropsychological assessment, using an ET-based neuropsychological battery, together with standard "paper and pencil" cognitive measures for frontal (Frontal Assessment Battery-FAB) and working memory abilities (Digit Sequencing Task) and for global cognitive efficiency (Montreal Cognitive Assessment-MoCA). Psychological measures of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y-STAI-Y) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-BDI) were also collected, and a usability questionnaire was administered. Significant correlations were observed between the "paper and pencil" screening of working memory abilities and the ET-based neuropsychological measures. The ET-based battery also correlated with the MoCA, while poor correlations were observed with the FAB. Usability aspects were found to be influenced by both working memory abilities and psychological components. The ET-based neuropsychological battery developed could provide an extensive assessment of cognitive functions, allowing participants to perform tasks independently from the integrity of motor or verbal channels. Further studies will be aimed at investigating validity and usability components in neurological populations with motor-verbal impairments.

  20. Correlation properties of spontaneous motor activity in healthy infants: a new computer-assisted method to evaluate neurological maturation.

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    Waldmeier, Sandra; Grunt, Sebastian; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Steinlin, Maja; Fuhrer, Katharina; Frey, Urs

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative assessment of spontaneous motor activity in early infancy is widely used in clinical practice. It enables the description of maturational changes of motor behavior in both healthy infants and infants who are at risk for later neurological impairment. These assessments are, however, time-consuming and are dependent upon professional experience. Therefore, a simple physiological method that describes the complex behavior of spontaneous movements (SMs) in infants would be helpful. In this methodological study, we aimed to determine whether time series of motor acceleration measurements at 40-44 weeks and 50-55 weeks gestational age in healthy infants exhibit fractal-like properties and if this self-affinity of the acceleration signal is sensitive to maturation. Healthy motor state was ensured by General Movement assessment. We assessed statistical persistence in the acceleration time series by calculating the scaling exponent α via detrended fluctuation analysis of the time series. In hand trajectories of SMs in infants we found a mean α value of 1.198 (95 % CI 1.167-1.230) at 40-44 weeks. Alpha changed significantly (p = 0.001) at 50-55 weeks to a mean of 1.102 (1.055-1.149). Complementary multilevel regression analysis confirmed a decreasing trend of α with increasing age. Statistical persistence of fluctuation in hand trajectories of SMs is sensitive to neurological maturation and can be characterized by a simple parameter α in an automated and observer-independent fashion. Future studies including children at risk for neurological impairment should evaluate whether this method could be used as an early clinical screening tool for later neurological compromise.

  1. Postural control deficits identify lingering post-concussion neurological deficits

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    Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, incidence rates have reached epidemic levels and impaired postural control is a cardinal symptom. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the linear and non-linear assessments of post-concussion postural control. The current acute evaluation for concussion utilizes the subjective balance error scoring system (BESS to assess postural control. While the sensitivity of the overall test battery is high, the sensitivity of the BESS is unacceptably low and, with repeat administration, is unable to accurately identify recovery. Sophisticated measures of postural control, utilizing traditional linear assessments, have identified impairments in postural control well beyond BESS recovery. Both assessments of quiet stance and gait have identified lingering impairments for at least 1 month post-concussion. Recently, the application of non-linear metrics to concussion recovery have begun to receive limited attention with the most commonly utilized metric being approximate entropy (ApEn. ApEn, most commonly in the medial-lateral plane, has successfully identified impaired postural control in the acute post-concussion timeframe even when linear assessments of instrumented measures are equivalent to healthy pre-injury values; unfortunately these studies have not gone beyond the acute phase of recovery. One study has identified lingering deficits in postural control, utilizing Shannon and Renyi entropy metrics, which persist at least through clinical recovery and return to participation. Finally, limited evidence from two studies suggest that individuals with a previous history of a single concussion, even months or years prior, may display altered ApEn metrics. Overall, non-linear metrics provide a fertile area for future study to further the understanding of postural control impairments acutely post-concussion and address the current challenge of sensitive identification of recovery.

  2. Kinect V2 Performance Assessment in Daily-Life Gestures: Cohort Study on Healthy Subjects for a Reference Database for Automated Instrumental Evaluations on Neurological Patients

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    Alessandro Scano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increase of sanitary costs related to poststroke rehabilitation requires new sustainable and cost-effective strategies for promoting autonomous and dehospitalized motor training. In the Riprendo@Home and Future Home for Future Communities research projects, the promising approach of introducing low-cost technologies that promote home rehabilitation is exploited. In order to provide reliable evaluation of patients, a reference database of healthy people’s performances is required and should consider variability related to healthy people performances. Methods. 78 healthy subjects performed several repetitions of daily-life gestures, the reaching movement (RM and hand-to-mouth (HtMM movement with both the dominant and nondominant upper limbs. Movements were recorded with a Kinect V2. A synthetic biomechanical protocol based on kinematical, dynamical, and motor control parameters was used to assess motor performance of the healthy people. The investigation was conducted by clustering participants depending on their limb dominancy (right/left, gender (male/female, and age (young/middle/senior as sources of variability. Results. Results showed that limb dominancy has minor relevance in affecting RM and HtMM; gender has relevance in affecting the HtMM; age has major effect in affecting RM and HtMM. Conclusions. An investigation of healthy subjects’ upper limb performances during daily-life gestures was performed with the Kinect V2 sensor. Findings will be the basis for a database of normative data for neurological patients’ motor evaluation.

  3. Compound nouns in spoken language production by speakers with aphasia compared to neurologically healthy speakers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiesland, Eli Anne; Lind, Marianne

    2012-03-01

    Compounds are words that are made up of at least two other words (lexemes), featuring lexical and syntactic characteristics and thus particularly interesting for the study of language processing. Most studies of compounds and language processing have been based on data from experimental single word production and comprehension tasks. To enhance the ecological validity of morphological processing research, data from other contexts, such as discourse production, need to be considered. This study investigates the production of nominal compounds in semi-spontaneous spoken texts by a group of speakers with fluent types of aphasia compared to a group of neurologically healthy speakers. The speakers with aphasia produce significantly fewer nominal compound types in their texts than the non-aphasic speakers, and the compounds they produce exhibit fewer different types of semantic relations than the compounds produced by the non-aphasic speakers. The results are discussed in relation to theories of language processing.

  4. Association between bullous pemphigoid and neurologic diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-de-la-Asunción, E; Ruano-Ruiz, J; Rodríguez-Martín, A M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-11-01

    In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population. This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study with 1:2 matching. Fifty-four patients with bullous pemphigoid were selected. We compared the percentage of patients in each group with concurrent neurologic conditions, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and solid tumors using univariate logistic regression. An association model was constructed with conditional multiple logistic regression. The case group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with cerebrovascular accident and/or transient ischemic attack (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.19-7.87], dementia (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.19-13.93), and Parkinson disease (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.57-15.94). A significantly higher percentage of cases had neurologic conditions (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.89-13.91). Dementia and Parkinson disease were independently associated with bullous pemphigoid in the multivariate analysis. Patients with bullous pemphigoid have a higher frequency of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy...... the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection...

  6. A Case-Control study of the prevalence of neurological diseases in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Aquino Gondim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurological diseases are common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients, but their exact prevalence is unknown. Method We prospectively evaluated the presence of neurological disorders in 121 patients with IBD [51 with Crohn's disease (CD and 70 with ulcerative colitis (UC] and 50 controls (gastritis and dyspepsia over 3 years. Results Our standard neurological evaluation (that included electrodiagnostic testing revealed that CD patients were 7.4 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy than controls (p = 0.045, 7.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.001 and 5.1 times more likely to develop autonomic complaints (p = 0.027. UC patients were 5 times more likely to develop large-fiber neuropathy (p = 0.027 and 3.1 times more likely to develop any type of neuromuscular condition (p = 0.015. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to prospectively establish that both CD and UC patients are more prone to neuromuscular diseases than patients with gastritis and dyspepsia.

  7. Bone metabolism in healthy ambulatory control premonopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The urinary marker of bone loss (mean urine calcium excretion) was also significantly raised among the patients (P=0.003). The mean lumbar BMDT-score results were not significantly different in the two groups. Ambulatory females in reproductive age group with epilepsy and on regular follow up were compared to healthy ...

  8. Review of control strategies for robotic movement training after neurologic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinkensmeyer David J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increasing interest in using robotic devices to assist in movement training following neurologic injuries such as stroke and spinal cord injury. This paper reviews control strategies for robotic therapy devices. Several categories of strategies have been proposed, including, assistive, challenge-based, haptic simulation, and coaching. The greatest amount of work has been done on developing assistive strategies, and thus the majority of this review summarizes techniques for implementing assistive strategies, including impedance-, counterbalance-, and EMG- based controllers, as well as adaptive controllers that modify control parameters based on ongoing participant performance. Clinical evidence regarding the relative effectiveness of different types of robotic therapy controllers is limited, but there is initial evidence that some control strategies are more effective than others. It is also now apparent there may be mechanisms by which some robotic control approaches might actually decrease the recovery possible with comparable, non-robotic forms of training. In future research, there is a need for head-to-head comparison of control algorithms in randomized, controlled clinical trials, and for improved models of human motor recovery to provide a more rational framework for designing robotic therapy control strategies.

  9. Controlled population-based comparative study of USA and international adult [55-74] neurological deaths 1989-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, C; Rosenorn-Lanng, E; Silk, A; Hansen, L

    2017-12-01

    A population-based controlled study to determine whether adult (55-74 years) neurological disease deaths are continuing to rise and are there significant differences between America and the twenty developed countries 1989-91 and 2012-14. Total Neurological Deaths (TND) rates contrasted against control Cancer and Circulatory Disease Deaths (CDD) extrapolated from WHO data. Confidence intervals compare USA and the other countries over the period. The Over-75's TND and population increases are examined as a context for the 55-74 outcomes. Male neurological deaths rose >10% in eleven countries, the other countries average rose 20% the USA 43% over the period. Female neurological deaths rose >10% in ten counties, averaging 14%, the USA up 68%. USA male and female neurological deaths increased significantly more than twelve and seventeen countries, respectively. USA over-75s population increased by 49%, other countries 56%. Other countries TND up 187% the USA rose fourfold. Male and female cancer and CDD fell in every country averaging 26% and 21%, respectively, and 64% and 67% for CDD. Male neurological rates rose significantly more than Cancer and CCD in every country; Female neurological deaths rose significantly more than cancer in 17 countries and every country for CDD. There was no significant correlation between increases in neurological deaths and decreases in control mortalities. There are substantial increases in neurological deaths in most countries, significantly so in America. Rises in the 55-74 and over-75's rates are not primarily due to demographic changes and are a matter of concern warranting further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. AUDITORY REACTION TIME IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghuntla Tejas P.; Mehta Hemant B.; Gokhale Pradnya A.; Shah Chinmay J.

    2013-01-01

    Reaction is purposeful voluntary response to different stimuli as visual or auditory stimuli. Auditory reaction time is time required to response to auditory stimuli. Quickness of response is very important in games like basketball. This study was conducted to compare auditory reaction time of basketball players and healthy controls. The auditory reaction time was measured by the reaction time instrument in healthy controls and basketball players. Simple reaction time and choice reaction time...

  11. Cephalometric comparison of obstructive sleep apnea patients and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Yilmaz, H. Huseyin; Yariktas, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the cephalometric characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with those of healthy subjects and to determine possible relationships between cephalometric measurements of OSA patients and control subjects. Methods: Standardized lateral cephalograms of 16 OSA patients and 16 healthy controls were obtained. Airway dimensions and dentofacial parameters were measured using a cephalometric analysis program (Dolphin Imaging Cephalometric and Trac...

  12. Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All...... fathers the proportion was 5.7% vs 9.7%. No single neurological disease was significantly more frequent among parents of persons with IA. Our study lent support to the notion that epilepsy and other neurological diseases are not part of the broader IA phenotype Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  13. Epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of children with infantile autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All...... fathers the proportion was 5.7% vs 9.7%. No single neurological disease was significantly more frequent among parents of persons with IA. Our study lent support to the notion that epilepsy and other neurological diseases are not part of the broader IA phenotype....

  14. Comparison of micronutrient levels in children with cerebral palsy and neurologically normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Swati; Aggarwal, Anju; Chillar, Neelam; Faridi, M M A

    2015-02-01

    To measure levels of micronutrients in children with cerebral palsy and compare them with neurologically normal children of similar nutritional status. Fifty children with cerebral palsy (2-12 y) and 50 age and sex matched controls of similar nutritional status were enrolled. Detailed dietary history was recorded and nutritional status assessed. Venous blood (3 ml) was drawn for analysis. Micronutrient levels were measured as per standard technique. Serum iron was 12.6 ± 5.9 and 20.9 ± 3.3 μmol/L in CP and controls respectively (P  0.05). There was no difference in micronutrient levels with respect to gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS) grades and limb involvement (P > 0.05). The serum levels of iron, copper and magnesium are significantly less in children with cerebral palsy, hence the need for supplementation.

  15. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours among bus operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoto, K H; French, S A

    2012-03-01

    Urban bus operators are an occupational group with high rates of overweight and obesity. Understanding methods bus operators use for weight control may be important; there may be increased risk for these workers to engage in less healthy weight management behaviours due to stressful working conditions. To examine the prevalence of unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours used by bus operators and examine associations between use of unhealthy weight control behaviours and work-related and sociodemographic variables. Bus operators from four different transit garages were invited to complete a self-administered survey; height and weight were measured by research staff. Unhealthy and healthy weight control behaviours, work hours, work schedule and social support were measured with self-report items on the employee survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate associations. Nearly 60% of bus operators endorsed at least one unhealthy method; over 50% reported skipping meals, 30% fasted and 10% reported taking diet pills in the past year. Bus operator gender, race, body mass index status and hours worked per week showed significant associations with using at least one unhealthy weight control behaviour. Worksite interventions should emphasize the benefit of healthy eating and physical activity but should also address the use of less healthy methods for weight control for individuals employed in transportation occupations.

  16. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy...... the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection...... and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes....

  17. Edaravone Reduces Hyperperfusion-Related Neurological Deficits in Adult Moyamoya Disease: Historical Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Haruto; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative hyperperfusion-related transient neurological deficits (TNDs) are frequently observed in adult patients with moyamoya disease who undergo direct bypass procedures. The present study evaluated the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on postoperative hyperperfusion in adult moyamoya disease. This study included 92 hemispheres in 72 adult patients who underwent direct bypass for moyamoya disease. Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow were conducted immediately after surgery and on postoperative days 2 and 7. In 40 hemispheres for 36 patients, edaravone (60 mg/d) was administered from the day of surgery to postsurgical day 7. The incidence of postoperative hyperperfusion and associated TNDs were compared with a control group that included 52 hemispheres in 36 patients. Radiological hyperperfusion was observed in 28 of 40 (70.0%) and 39 of 52 (75.0%) hemispheres in the edaravone and control groups, respectively (P=0.30). Hyperperfusion-related TND incidences were significantly lower in the edaravone group compared with the control group (12.5% versus 32.7%; P=0.024). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that edaravone administration (P=0.009) and left-sided surgery (P=0.037) were significantly correlated with hyperperfusion-related TNDs (odds ratios, 0.3 and 4.2, respectively). Perioperative administration of edaravone reduced the incidence of hyperperfusion-related TNDs after direct bypass procedures in adult patients with moyamoya disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. "That pulled the rug out from under my feet!" - adverse experiences and altered emotion processing in patients with functional neurological symptoms compared to healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Astrid; Fiess, Johanna; Schmidt, Roger; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-06-24

    Medically unexplained movement or sensibility disorders, recently defined in DSM-5 as functional neurological symptoms (FNS), are still insufficiently understood. Stress and trauma have been addressed as relevant factors in FNS genesis. Altered emotion processing has been discussed. The present study screened different types and times of adverse experiences in childhood and adulthood in patients with FNS as well as in healthy individuals. The relationship between stress profile, aspects of emotion processing and symptom severity was examined, with the hypothesis that particularly emotional childhood adversities would have an impact on dysfunctional emotion processing as a mediator of FNS. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE), recent negative life events (LE), alexithymia, and emotion regulation style were assessed in 45 inpatients diagnosed with dissociative disorder expressing FNS, and in 45 healthy comparison subjects (HC). Patients reported more severe FNS, more (particularly emotional) ACE, and more LE than HC. FNS severity varied with emotional ACE and negative LE, and LE partially mediated the relation between ACE and FNS. Alexithymia and suppressive emotion regulation style were stronger in patients than HC, and alexithymia varied with FNS severity. Structural equation modeling verified partial mediation of the relationship between emotional ACE and FNS by alexithymia. Early, emotional and accumulating stress show a substantial impact on FNS-associated emotion processing, influencing FNS. Understanding this complex interplay of stress, emotion processing and the severity of FNS is relevant not only for theoretical models, but, as a consequence also inform diagnostic and therapeutic adjustments.

  19. Impact of baseline vitamin B12 status on the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on neurologic function in older people: secondary analysis of data from the OPEN randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, L M; Allen, E; Clarke, R; Mills, K; Uauy, R; Dangour, A D

    2017-10-01

    The available evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that vitamin B12 supplementation does not improve neurologic function in older people with marginal but not deficient Vitamin B12 status. This secondary analysis used data from the Older People and Enhanced Neurological function (OPEN) randomised controlled trial to assess whether baseline vitamin B12 status or change in vitamin B12 status over 12 months altered the effectiveness of dietary vitamin B12 supplementation on neurologic function in asymptomatic older people with depleted vitamin B12 status at study entry. Vitamin B12 status was measured as serum concentrations of vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin, homocysteine and via a composite indicator (cB12). Neurological function outcomes included eleven electrophysiological measures of sensory and motor components of peripheral and central nerve function. Linear regression analyses were restricted to participants randomised into the intervention arm of the OPEN trial (n=91). Analyses revealed an inconsistent pattern of moderate associations between some measures of baseline vitamin B12 status and some neurological responses to supplementation. The directions of effect varied and heterogeneity in effect across outcomes could not be explained according to type of neurological outcome. There was no evidence of differences in the neurological response to vitamin B12 supplementation according to change from baseline over 12 months in any indicator of B12 status. This secondary analysis of high-quality data from the OPEN trial provides no evidence that baseline (or change from baseline) vitamin B12 status modifies the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on peripheral or central nerve conduction among older people with marginal vitamin B12 status. There is currently insufficient evidence of efficacy for neurological function to support population-wide recommendations for vitamin B12 supplementation in healthy asymptomatic older people with marginal

  20. Epilepsy and Other Neurological Diseases in the Parents of Children with Infantile Autism. A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the broader phenotype of infantile autism (IA) we compared the rates and types of epilepsy and other neurological diseases in the parents of 111 consecutively admitted patients with IA with a matched control group of parents of 330 children from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish…

  1. Effects of peer-assisted training during the neurology clerkship: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, J G; Dütsch, M; Rauch, C; Lang, C; Weih, M; Schwab, S

    2008-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of peer-assisted clinical skills training for students during their neurology clerkship. Students (n = 122) were randomized to get clinical skills training from either student (peer) instructors (experimental group) or from experienced clinical staff (control group). The remaining schedule during the clerkship did not differ between both groups. Primary endpoint was students' practical skills and knowledge tested at the end of the course by a written test and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Secondary endpoints were evaluation of the practical training and self-estimated gain in theoretical and practical competence. In the written test, the peer-trained group (n = 66) scored 69.5 +/- 10.2 (95% CI 67-72) points of 100 and the postgraduates-trained group (n = 56) 66.7 +/- 11.4 (95% CI 63.6-69.8) (P = 0.15). In the OSCE the peer-trained group scored 93.7 +/- 6.3 (95% CI 92.1 to 95.2) points of 100 and the postgraduates-trained group 92 +/- 5.1 (95% CI 90.6 to 93.4) (P = 0.11). In the evaluation and self-assessment items, there was no significant difference between the two groups except for the postgraduates' higher competence (P = 0.004). Peer-trained students pass written exam and OSCE as efficient as postgraduates-trained students. Self-assessed learning success is equally rated in both groups.

  2. Using a brain-machine interface to control a hybrid upper limb exoskeleton during rehabilitation of patients with neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, Enrique; Planelles, Daniel; Resquin, Francisco; Climent, José M; Azorín, José M; Pons, José L

    2015-10-17

    As a consequence of the increase of cerebro-vascular accidents, the number of people suffering from motor disabilities is raising. Exoskeletons, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) devices and Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) could be combined for rehabilitation purposes in order to improve therapy outcomes. In this work, a system based on a hybrid upper limb exoskeleton is used for neurological rehabilitation. Reaching movements are supported by the passive exoskeleton ArmeoSpring and FES. The movement execution is triggered by an EEG-based BMI. The BMI uses two different methods to interact with the exoskeleton from the user's brain activity. The first method relies on motor imagery tasks classification, whilst the second one is based on movement intention detection. Three healthy users and five patients with neurological conditions participated in the experiments to verify the usability of the system. Using the BMI based on motor imagery, healthy volunteers obtained an average accuracy of 82.9 ± 14.5 %, and patients obtained an accuracy of 65.3 ± 9.0 %, with a low False Positives rate (FP) (19.2 ± 10.4 % and 15.0 ± 8.4 %, respectively). On the other hand, by using the BMI based on detecting the arm movement intention, the average accuracy was 76.7 ± 13.2 % for healthy users and 71.6 ± 15.8 % for patients, with 28.7 ± 19.9 % and 21.2 ± 13.3 % of FP rate (healthy users and patients, respectively). The accuracy of the results shows that the combined use of a hybrid upper limb exoskeleton and a BMI could be used for rehabilitation therapies. The advantage of this system is that the user is an active part of the rehabilitation procedure. The next step will be to verify what are the clinical benefits for the patients using this new rehabilitation procedure.

  3. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes.

  4. The "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" randomized controlled trial for girls: study design, protocol, and baseline results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Ana Carolina Barco; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the study design, protocol, and baseline results of the "Healthy Habits, Healthy Girls" program. The intervention is being evaluated through a randomized controlled trial in 10 public schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data on the following variables were collected and assessed at baseline and will be reevaluated at 7 and 12 months: body mass index, waist circumference, dietary intake, nutrition, physical activity, social cognitive mediators, physical activity level, sedentary behaviors, self-rated physical status, and overall self-esteem. According to the baseline results, 32.4% and 23.4% of girls were overweight in the intervention and control groups, respectively, and in both groups a higher percentage failed to meet daily recommendations for moderate and vigorous physical activity and maximum screen time (TV, computer, mobile devices). There were no significant differences between the groups for most of the variables, except age (p = 0.000) and waist circumference (p = 0.014). The study showed a gap in the Brazilian literature on protocols for randomized controlled trials to prevent obesity among youth. The current study may thus be an important initial contribution to the field.

  5. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  6. Helping young weight controllers develop healthy obsessions: preliminary test of the Healthy Obsession Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2011-04-01

    The Healthy Obsession Model posits that successful weight controllers must develop a preoccupation with the planning and execution of target behaviours, including eating on programme, consistent activity and self-monitoring. When barriers emerge, committed weight controllers are expected to feel distressed (e.g. anxious or frustrated), which should motivate them to reinstate these behaviours. This study investigated the effects on moods of sudden withdrawal of self-monitoring among obese adolescents within an immersion treatment programme. Fifty-five (55% female) adolescents participated in a weight loss camp and received four weekly cognitive-behaviour therapy sessions focused on maximizing commitment to programme behaviours. During the fourth week, campers and staff completed daily mood ratings using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. After 3 d of ratings, campers' self-monitoring journals were removed without warning for 1 d. As expected, journal removal resulted in decreased positive affect for the campers, according to staff ratings. Also in accord with hypotheses, campers who demonstrated heightened commitment to the programme based on higher levels of activity and more writing in their journals reacted more negatively to the withdrawal of the opportunity to self-monitor. Mood ratings by campers did not show the effects hypothesized by the Healthy Obsession Model. These results provide preliminary support for the Healthy Obsession Model by showing some of the anticipated negative reactions to the removal of access to self-monitoring, especially among those who demonstrated strong commitments to the process. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Increased frontal electroencephalogram theta amplitude in patients with anorexia nervosa compared to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hestad KA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut A Hestad,1–3 Siri Weider,3,4 Kristian Bernhard Nilsen,5–7 Marit Sæbø Indredavik,8,9 Trond Sand7,10 1Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; 3Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Psychiatry, Specialised Unit for Eating Disorder Patients, Levanger Hospital, Health Trust Nord-Trøndelag, Levanger, Norway; 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway; 7Department of Neurology, Section for Clinical Neurophysiology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Oslo, Norway; 8Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 9Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 10Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway Objective: To conduct a blind study of quantitative electroencephalogram-band amplitudes in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN and healthy controls.Methods: Twenty-one patients with AN and 24 controls were examined with eyes-closed 16-channel electroencephalogram. Main variables were absolute alpha, theta, and delta amplitudes in frontal, temporal, and posterior regions.Results: There were no significant differences between the AN patients and controls regarding absolute regional band amplitudes in µV. Borderline significance was found for anterior theta (P=0.051. Significantly increased left and right frontal electrode theta amplitude was found in AN patients (F3, P=0.014; F4, P

  8. Cephalometric comparison of obstructive sleep apnea patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Yilmaz, H Huseyin; Yariktas, Murat

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the cephalometric characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients with those of healthy subjects and to determine possible relationships between cephalometric measurements of OSA patients and control subjects. Standardized lateral cephalograms of 16 OSA patients and 16 healthy controls were obtained. Airway dimensions and dentofacial parameters were measured using a cephalometric analysis program (Dolphin Imaging Cephalometric and Tracing Software, Chatsworth, CA, USA). All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 17.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Descriptive statistics were calculated for all measurements, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate intergroup differences. Midface length was significantly shorter and upper lip E-plane length was significantly longer in the OSA group than in the controls (Pratio were similar in both groups. Maxillary length was slightly longer in the OSA group, whereas the mandibular length showed a slight increase in the control group (Pmidface length and inferiorly placed hyoid bone and tended to have smaller airway dimensions.

  9. Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids: a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive universal eating disorder prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail; Tweed, Stacey; Blackmore, Elizabeth

    2007-06-01

    This study was a controlled evaluation of a comprehensive school-based universal prevention program involving male and female students, parents, teachers, school administrators and local public health professionals. A total of 982 male and female Grades 6 and 7 middle school students (and 91 teachers/school administrators) completed self-report surveys at baseline on measures of body satisfaction, internalization of media ideals, size acceptance, disordered eating, weight-based teasing, weight loss and muscle-gaining behaviours, and perceptions of school climate (teachers only). Eighty-four percent of the students repeated the surveys immediately following the 8-month school-wide intervention and 71% again 6 months later. Repeated measures ANCOVAs revealed that participation in the Healthy Schools-Healthy Kids (HS-HK) program had a positive influence by reducing the internalization of media ideals among male and female students and by reducing disordered eating among female students. The program was also associated with reductions in weight-loss behaviours among the students, although this effect was lost by the 6-month follow-up. When the intervention students were sub-divided into low versus high-risk groups, the high-risk group appeared to benefit most from the intervention with significant reductions in internalization of media ideals, greater body satisfaction, and reduced disordered eating over time. There were no intervention effects for teachers. Challenges of engaging teachers in prevention are discussed.

  10. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-02-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery.

  11. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ginnie Mae Housing Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Office of Administration Office of Economic Development Office of ... Ginnie Mae Housing Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes Office of Administration Office of Economic Development Office of ...

  12. 76 FR 45600 - Order of Succession for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Director of the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control for the Department of...

  13. 76 FR 45592 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Delegation of Authority for the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control AGENCY... Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control... INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew Ammon, Deputy Director, Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control...

  14. Alexithymic trait and voluntary control in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosi Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia is a personality trait characterized by deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions. Recent studies have revealed that alexithymia is associated with less activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region shown to play a role in cognitive and emotional processing. However, few studies have directly investigated the cognitive domain in relation to alexithymia to examine whether alexithymic trait is related to less efficient voluntary control. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the relationship between alexithymic trait and voluntary control in a group of healthy volunteers. We used the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 to measure alexithymic trait. Additionally, we examined state and trait voluntary control using the revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ, respectively. Alexithymic trait was positively correlated with the overall reaction time of the ANT-R, and negatively correlated with the Effortful Control factor of the ATQ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that alexithymic trait is associated with less efficient voluntary control.

  15. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianne Furtado

    Full Text Available The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep. Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high. The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor and static (clinical test of sensory integration. The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  16. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Fabianne; Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia; Forner-Cordero, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation.

  17. Haemophilic magnetic resonance imaging score in healthy controls playing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppen, W; Sluiter, D; Witkamp, T D; Mali, W P T M; Fischer, K

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive imaging modality to assess joint lesions, but the clinical relevance of subtle joint changes in haemophilic patients playing sports is unknown. A haemophilia specific MRI score is available, but was never evaluated in physically active healthy controls. It is not known if unexpected MRI changes in young active haemophilic patients are due to sports participation. The aim of this study was to evaluate knees and ankles in a cohort of young active healthy men using a haemophilia specific MRI score to provide context for joint evaluation by MRI in young haemophilic patients. Three Tesla MRI of knees and ankles were performed in 30 healthy men aged 18-26 years, regularly active in sports. MR images were scored by a single independent radiologist, using the International Prophylaxis Study Group additive MRI score. One physiotherapist assessed clinical function using the Haemophilia joint health scores (HJHS). History of complaints or injuries affecting knees and/or ankles, very intensive sports and current sports activities were documented. Median age was 24.3 years (range 19.0-26.4) and median number of sports activities per week was 3 (range 1-4). Six joints (five knees, one ankle) had a history of a sports-related injury. The median HJHS per joint was 0 out of 20 (range 0-1). All joints had a MRI score of 0. These results suggest that regular sports participation or very low HJHS scores are not associated with haemophilia specific MRI changes in knees and ankles. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Jaw sensorimotor control in healthy adults and effects of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, L; Sessle, B J

    2018-01-01

    The oro-facial sensorimotor system is a unique system significantly distinguished from the spinal sensorimotor system. The jaw muscles are involved in mastication, swallowing and articulatory speech movements and their integration with respiration. These sensorimotor functions are vital for sustaining life and necessitate complex neuromuscular processing to provide for exquisite sensorimotor control of numerous oro-facial muscles. The function of the jaw muscles in relation to sensorimotor control of these movements may be subject to ageing-related declines. This review will focus on peripheral, brainstem and higher brain centre mechanisms involved in reflex regulation and sensorimotor coordination and control of jaw muscles in healthy adults. It will outline the limited literature bearing on age-related declines in jaw sensorimotor functions and control including reduced biting forces and increased risk of impaired chewing, speaking and swallowing. The mechanisms underlying these alterations include age-related degenerative changes within the peripheral neuromuscular system and in brain regions involved in the generation and control of jaw movements. In the light of the vital role of jaw sensorimotor functions in sustaining life, normal ageing involves compensatory mechanisms that utilise the neuroplastic capacity of the brain and the recruitment of additional brain regions involved in sensorimotor performance and closely associated functions (e.g. cognition and memory). However, these regions are themselves susceptible to detrimental age-related changes. Thus, better understanding of the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying age-related sensorimotor impairment is crucial for developing improved treatment approaches to prevent or cure impaired jaw sensorimotor functions and to thereby improve health and quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neurologic Complications of Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with celiac disease (CD [n=l 11] and controls (n=211 were questioned regarding neurologic disorders, their charts were reviewed, and they received neurologic evaluations, including brain imaging or EEG if indicated, in a study of neurologic complications of CD at Carmel Medical Center, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

  20. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  1. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  2. Autonomic neural control of the cardiovascular system in patients with Behçet's disease in the absence of neurological involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Tansel; Tekin, Abdullah; Tufan, Müge; Altay, Hakan; Tekin, Göknur; Bilgi, Muhammet; Özin, Bülent; Yücel, Eftal; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2012-10-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic multi-system disease presenting with recurrent oral and genital ulceration, and relapsing uveitis. Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is a marker of parasympathetic activity. A delayed recovery of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after exercise might reflect sympathetic hyperactivity. The analysis of variations in heart rate has also been used to determine the balance between sympathetic and vagal nerve activities in the heart. Our objective was to determine HRR, the SBP response to exercise and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with BD in the absence of neurological involvement. The study population consisted of 32 patients with BD and 30 healthy controls who were matched with respect to age, sex, and physical activity. Heart rate recovery was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at 1, 2, and 3 min of recovery. Blood pressure recovery indexes were determined by dividing the systolic blood pressure at 2 and 3 min in recovery to the systolic blood pressure at peak exercise. In patients with BD, mean HRR at 1 min (HRR1) were not significantly different than that of controls (21 ± 7 vs 20 ± 7 bpm, p = 0.50). Although, resting mean SBP of patients with BD was higher than controls (121 ± 13 vs 115 ± 12 mmHg, p = 0.039), the SBP recovery indices of the patients with BD at 2 and 3 min were similar to those of controls (0.84 ± 0.07 vs 0.84 ± 0.09, p = 0.89 and 0.78 ± 0.09 vs 0.78 ± 0.08, p = 0.93, respectively). Both time domain and frequency domain parameters of patients with BD were similar to that of controls. This study shows that the patients with BD have normal HRR1 and normal SBP response to exercise and normal HRV. These findings might suggest unaltered autonomic neural control of the cardiovascular system in this disorder in the absence of neurological involvement.

  3. An electroglottographical analysis-based discriminant function model differentiating multiple sclerosis patients from healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavougios, George D; Doskas, Triantafyllos; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2018-02-15

    Dysarthrophonia is a predominant symptom in many neurological diseases, affecting the quality of life of the patients. In this study, we produced a discriminant function equation that can differentiate MS patients from healthy controls, using electroglottographic variables not analyzed in a previous study. We applied stepwise linear discriminant function analysis in order to produce a function and score derived from electroglottographic variables extracted from a previous study. The derived discriminant function's statistical significance was determined via Wilk's λ test (and the associated p value). Finally, a 2 × 2 confusion matrix was used to determine the function's predictive accuracy, whereas the cross-validated predictive accuracy is estimated via the "leave-one-out" classification process. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to create a linear function of continuous predictors. DFA produced the following model (Wilk's λ = 0.043, χ2 = 388.588, p discriminant score (S1) was used subsequently in order to form the coordinates of a ROC curve. Thus, a cutoff score of - 0.788 for S1 corresponded to a perfect classification (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, p = 1.67e -22 ). Consistent with previous findings, electroglottographic evaluation represents an easy to implement and potentially important assessment in MS patients, achieving adequate classification accuracy. Further evaluation is needed to determine its use as a biomarker.

  4. Motor abnormalities and cognitive impairment in first-episode psychosis patients, their unaffected siblings and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Moreno-Izco, Lucia; Ribeiro, María; López-Ilundain, Jose M; Lecumberri, Pablo; Cabada, Teresa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Gómez, M Sol; Peralta, Victor

    2017-10-31

    Motor abnormalities (MAs) may be already evidenced long before the beginning of illness and are highly prevalent in psychosis. However, the extent to which the whole range of MAs are related to cognitive impairment in psychosis remains understudied. This study aimed to examine comparatively the relationships between the whole range of motor abnormalities and cognitive impairments in the first-episode of psychosis (FEP), their unaffected siblings and healthy control subjects. Fifty FEP patients, 21 of their healthy siblings and 24 age- and sex matched healthy controls were included. Motor assessment included catatonic, extrapyramidal and neurological soft signs (NSS) by means of standardized instruments. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was also performed to extract the 7 cognitive dimensions of MATRICS initiative. Higher scores on NSS but not on extrapyramidal and catatonic signs showed significant associations with worse cognitive performance in the three study groups. However, the pattern of associations regarding specific cognitive functions was different among the three groups. Moreover, extrapyramidal signs showed significant associations with cognitive impairment only in FEP patients but not in their unaffected siblings and healthy controls. Catatonic signs did not show any significant association with cognitive functioning in the three study groups. These findings add evidence to the associations between motor abnormalities, particularly NSS and extrapyramidal signs, and cognitive impairment in first-episode psychosis patients. In addition, our results suggest that the specific pattern of associations between MAs and cognitive functioning is different in FEP patients from those of the unaffected siblings and healthy subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Practice on the Concurrent Performance of a Speech and Postural Task in Persons with Parkinson Disease and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bo Foreman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Persons with Parkinson disease (PD demonstrate deficits in motor learning as well as bidirectional interference (the performance of one task concurrently interferes with the performance of another task during dual-task performance. Few studies have examined the practice dosages necessary for behavioral change in rehabilitation relevant tasks. Therefore, to compare the effects of age and PD on motor learning during dual-task performance, this pilot study examined persons with PD as well as neurologically healthy participants during concurrent performance of postural and speaking tasks. Methods. Seven persons with PD and 7 healthy age-matched and 10 healthy young control subjects were tested in a motion capture facility. Task performances were performed concurrently and recorded during 3 time periods (acquisition (beginning and ending, 48-hour retention, and 1-week retention. Postural control and speech articulatory acoustic variables were measured. Results. Healthy young participants consistently performed better than other groups on all measured postural and speech variables. Healthy young participants showed decreased variability at retention, while persons with PD and healthy age-matched controls were unable to consistently improve their performance as a result of practice. No changes were noted in the speech variables. Conclusion. The lack of consistent changes in motor performance in any of the tasks, except in the healthy young group, suggests a decreased efficiency of motor learning in the age-matched and PD groups and argues for increased practice dosages during balance training.

  6. Neurological soft signs discriminating mood disorders from first episode schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, MPM; Liddle, PF; Burgerhof, JGM; Knegtering, R; Bosch, RJ

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of neurological soft signs (NSS) for first episode schizophrenia compared with mood disorders. Method: We assessed NSS in a sample of 60 healthy controls, 191 first episode psychosis patients and 81 mood disorder patients. We used a principle component

  7. Controlling the Regional Identity of hPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Neuronal Subtype Specificity of Neurological Disease Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Imaizumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The CNS contains many diverse neuronal subtypes, and most neurological diseases target specific subtypes. However, the mechanism of neuronal subtype specificity of disease phenotypes remains elusive. Although in vitro disease models employing human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs have great potential to clarify the association of neuronal subtypes with disease, it is currently difficult to compare various PSC-derived subtypes. This is due to the limited number of subtypes whose induction is established, and different cultivation protocols for each subtype. Here, we report a culture system to control the regional identity of PSC-derived neurons along the anteroposterior (A-P and dorsoventral (D-V axes. This system was successfully used to obtain various neuronal subtypes based on the same protocol. Furthermore, we reproduced subtype-specific phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD by comparing the obtained subtypes. Therefore, our culture system provides new opportunities for modeling neurological diseases with PSCs.

  8. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  10. Reduction of seizure occurrence from exposure to auditory stimulation in individuals with neurological handicaps: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bodner

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine in a clinical trial the efficacy of reducing or preventing seizures in patients with neurological handicaps through sustained cortical activation evoked by passive exposure to a specific auditory stimulus (particular music. The specific type of stimulation had been determined in previous studies to evoke anti-epileptiform/anti-seizure brain activity.The study was conducted at the Thad E. Saleeby Center in Harstville, South Carolina, which is a permanent residence for individuals with heterogeneous neurological impairments, many with epilepsy. We investigated the ability to reduce or prevent seizures in subjects through cortical stimulation from sustained passive nightly exposure to a specific auditory stimulus (music in a three-year randomized controlled study. In year 1, baseline seizure rates were established. In year 2, subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Treatment group subjects were exposed during sleeping hours to specific music at regular intervals. Control subjects received no music exposure and were maintained on regular anti-seizure medication. In year 3, music treatment was terminated and seizure rates followed. We found a significant treatment effect (p = 0.024 during the treatment phase persisting through the follow-up phase (p = 0.002. Subjects exposed to treatment exhibited a significant 24% decrease in seizures during the treatment phase, and a 33% decrease persisting through the follow-up phase. Twenty-four percent of treatment subjects exhibited a complete absence of seizures during treatment.Exposure to specific auditory stimuli (i.e. music can significantly reduce seizures in subjects with a range of epilepsy and seizure types, in some cases achieving a complete cessation of seizures. These results are consistent with previous work showing reductions in epileptiform activity from particular music exposure and offers potential for achieving a non

  11. Real-time closed-loop control of cognitive load in neurological patients during robot-assisted gait training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alexander; Novak, Domen; Omlin, Ximena; Pulfer, Michael; Perreault, Eric; Zimmerli, Lukas; Mihelj, Matjaz; Riener, Robert

    2011-08-01

    Cognitively challenging training sessions during robot-assisted gait training after stroke were shown to be key requirements for the success of rehabilitation. Despite a broad variability of cognitive impairments amongst the stroke population, current rehabilitation environments do not adapt to the cognitive capabilities of the patient, as cognitive load cannot be objectively assessed in real-time. We provided healthy subjects and stroke patients with a virtual task during robot-assisted gait training, which allowed modulating cognitive load by adapting the difficulty level of the task. We quantified the cognitive load of stroke patients by using psychophysiological measurements and performance data. In open-loop experiments with healthy subjects and stroke patients, we obtained training data for a linear, adaptive classifier that estimated the current cognitive load of patients in real-time. We verified our classification results via questionnaires and obtained 88% correct classification in healthy subjects and 75% in patients. Using the pre-trained, adaptive classifier, we closed the cognitive control loop around healthy subjects and stroke patients by automatically adapting the difficulty level of the virtual task in real-time such that patients were neither cognitively overloaded nor under-challenged. © 2011 IEEE

  12. The role of nanotechnology and nano and micro-electronics in monitoring and control of cardiovascular diseases and neurological disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-04-01

    Nanotechnology has been broadly defined as the one for not only the creation of functional materials and devices as well as systems through control of matter at the scale of 1-100 nm, but also the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena at the same scale. Growing needs in the point-of-care (POC) that is an increasing market for improving patient's quality of life, are driving the development of nanotechnologies for diagnosis and treatment of various life threatening diseases. This paper addresses the recent development of nanodiagnostic sensors and nanotherapeutic devices with functionalized carbon nanotube and/or nanowire on a flexible organic thin film electronics to monitor and control of the three leading diseases namely 1) neurodegenerative diseases, 2) cardiovascular diseases, and 3) diabetes and metabolic diseases. The sensors developed include implantable and biocompatible devices, light weight wearable devices in wrist-watches, hats, shoes and clothes. The nanotherapeutics devices include nanobased drug delivery system. Many of these sensors are integrated with the wireless systems for the remote physiological monitoring. The author's research team has also developed a wireless neural probe using nanowires and nanotubes for monitoring and control of Parkinson's disease. Light weight and compact EEG, EOG and EMG monitoring system in a hat developed is capable of monitoring real time epileptic patients and patients with neurological and movement disorders using the Internet and cellular network. Physicians could be able to monitor these signals in realtime using portable computers or cell phones and will give early warning signal if these signals cross a pre-determined threshold level. In addition the potential impact of nanotechnology for applications in medicine is that, the devices can be designed to interact with cells and tissues at the molecular level, which allows high degree of functionality. Devices engineered at nanometer scale imply a

  13. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: crossroads between neurology, psychiatry and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalho, Paulo; Oliveira-Maia, Albino J

    2013-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms contribute significantly to Parkinson's disease (PD) related disability. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been recently added to the behavioural spectrum of PD-related non-motor symptoms. Such behaviours are characterized by an inappropriate drive to conduct repetitive behaviours that are usually socially inadequate or result in harmful consequences. Parkinson disease impulse control disorders (PD-ICDs) have raised significant interest in the scientific and medical community, not only because of their incapacitating nature, but also because they may represent a valid model of ICDs beyond PD and a means to study the physiology of drive, impulse control and compulsive actions in the normal brain. In this review, we discuss some unresolved issues regarding PD-ICDs, including the association with psychiatric co-morbidities such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and with dopamine related side effects, such as hallucinations and dyskinesias; the relationship with executive cognitive dysfunction; and the neural underpinnings of ICDs in PD. We also discuss the contribution of neuroscience studies based on animal-models towards a mechanistic explanation of the development of PD-ICDs, specifically regarding corticostriatal control of goal directed and habitual actions.

  14. 75 FR 17093 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... comprehensive system for the regulation of medical devices intended for human use. Section 513 of the act (21 U... device regulations to establish special controls for these class II devices and to exempt some of these... Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), as amended by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (the...

  15. Computerized system to improve voluntary control of balance in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, D; Cardini, R

    2001-12-01

    The treatment of acquired impairments of balance is one of the most elusive problems that rehabilitative medicine faces. Computerized systems to measure how patients control their balance in static conditions were introduced long ago into clinical practice and proved to be useful; we have designed and developed a computerized system called "BioGP," which combines features of a classic stabilometric platform with those of a retraining device based on visual feedback The aim of this study was to identify homogeneous groups of patients and to provide objective proof of effectiveness for the rehabilitation of patients with balance disorders. The findings confirm that the new equipment provides clinically valid and sensitive information concerning subjects' ability to control voluntary shifts of center of pressure (COP) while standing. The information is relevant to applications using basically the same approach (1) and are encouraging for possible use of the system as a rehabilitation instrument.

  16. Perception of emotion and bilateral advantage in women with eating disorders, their healthy sisters, and nonrelated healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Michal Hason; Latzer, Yael; Stein, Daniel; Eviatar, Zohar

    2011-11-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized not only by disordered eating, but also by other psychopathology. In this exploratory study, we examined the ability of women with different diagnoses of EDs, their unaffected sisters, and healthy unrelated controls to recognize their own and other's emotions. We also looked at interhemispheric integration of emotion recognition and its relationship with depression. Five groups of women participated: 1. anorexia nervosa restricting (AN-R) and 2. (AN-B/B) binge/purge, 3. bulimia nervosa binge/purge, (BN-B/P), 4. healthy sisters of women with ED, and 5. unrelated healthy controls. We used two questionnaires measuring alexithymia and depression, and two lateralized experimental tasks requiring recognition of facial emotion. Unilateral versus bilateral presentation allow the indexing of interhemispheric integration. Alexithymia: All the ED groups were found to be more alexithymic and depressed on the self report scales compared to the two healthy groups. Depression completely mediated alexithymia in the AN-R group but not in the AN-B/P and BN-B/P patients. Sisters of ED women were more alexithymic than unrelated controls. Lateralized facial emotion recognition: ED women showed no deficits in recognizing basic emotions. However, the clinical groups did not show a bilateral advantage whereas the two healthy groups did so. We present three conclusions: we show, for the first time, evidence for a deficit in hemispheric integration in EDs. This implies that EDs may be a disconnection syndrome; alexithymia characterizes women with EDs and members of their family; depression is manifested differently in AN-R, than in women who binge/purge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  18. Effectiveness of an online fatigue self-management programme for people with chronic neurological conditions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Setareh; Leigh Packer, Tanya; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate an online fatigue self-management programme in a sample of adults with chronic neurological conditions. Randomized controlled trial. Online fatigue self-management programme delivered across Australia. Ninety-five people with fatigue secondary to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease or post-polio syndrome. An online fatigue self-management programme, an information-only fatigue self-management programme and a control group. Groups were compared at pre test, post test and at three months on primary outcomes using the Fatigue Impact Scale, Activity Card Sort and Personal Wellbeing Index. With the exception of the Personal Wellbeing Index at post test (F = 3.519; P =0.034) and the Physical Subscale of the Fatigue Impact Scale at follow-up (F = 3.473; P =0.035) there were no significant differences between the three groups on primary outcomes. Post-hoc testing showed the differences to be between the information-only and control groups (P = 0.036 and P = 0.030 respectively). Improvement in the information-only group was unexpected but appears to be similar to results of other online interventions. The fatigue self-management and information-only groups performed better than the control on some secondary outcome measures. Low power in the analysis may have contributed to the findings. Repeated-measures ANCOVA showed that the fatigue self-management and the information-only groups improved over time on the Fatigue Impact Scale and the Activity Card Sort (P<0.05). The control group showed no improvements over time. Although the fatigue self-management group improved over time, results did not demonstrate additional benefit in most outcome measures when compared with the control group.

  19. Twelve weeks of nightly stretch does not reduce thumb web-space contractures in people with a neurological condition: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lisa; de Jong, Inge; Goehl, Gerlinde; Mardwedel, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    What is the effectiveness of 12 weeks of nightly stretch in reducing thumb web-space contracture in people with neurological conditions? Assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Forty-four (one dropout)community-dwelling patients with a neurological condition (14 stroke, 7 traumatic brain injury, 23 spinal cord injury) who had uni or bilateral thumb web-space contractures (60 thumbs). The experimental thumbs were splinted into a stretched,abducted position each night for 12 weeks. The control thumbs were not splinted. Thumb web-space was measured as the carpometacarpal angle during the application of a 0.9 Nm abduction torque before and after intervention. The mean increase in thumb web-space after 12 weeks was 1 deg (95% CI, -1 to 2). Intensive stretch administered regularly over three months does not reduce thumb web-space contractures in neurological conditions.

  20. Neurologic condition of healthy term infants at 18 months : Positive association with venous umbilical DHA status and negative association with umbilical trans-fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, Hylco; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Decsi, Tamas; Boehm, Guenther; Boersma, E. Rudy; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Prenatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) and trans-fatty acids may affect neurodevelopment. In healthy term children, we determined relationships between relative fatty acid contents of umbilical arteries and veins and neurodevelopment at 18 mo. The study comprised a mixed group of

  1. Mildly Reduced Brain Swelling and Improved Neurological Outcome in Aquaporin-4 Knockout Mice following Controlled Cortical Impact Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiaoming; Uchida, Kazuyoshi; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Zador, Zsolt; Manley, Geoffrey T; Verkman, Alan S

    2015-10-01

    Brain edema following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Prior indirect evidence has suggested the involvement of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the pathogenesis of TBI. Here, focal TBI was produced in wild type (AQP4(+/+)) and knockout (AQP4(-/-)) mice by controlled cortical impact injury (CCI) following craniotomy with dura intact (parameters: velocity 4.5 m/sec, depth 1.7 mm, dwell time 150 msec). AQP4-deficient mice showed a small but significant reduction in injury volume in the first week after CCI, with a small improvement in neurological outcome. Mechanistic studies showed reduced intracranial pressure at 6 h after CCI in AQP4(-/-) mice, compared with AQP4(+/+) control mice (11 vs. 19 mm Hg), with reduced local brain water accumulation as assessed gravimetrically. Transmission electron microscopy showed reduced astrocyte foot-process area in AQP4(-/-) mice at 24 h after CCI, with greater capillary lumen area. Blood-brain barrier disruption assessed by Evans blue dye extravasation was similar in AQP4(+/+) and AQP4(-/-) mice. We conclude that the mildly improved outcome in AQP4(-/-) mice following CCI results from reduced cytotoxic brain water accumulation, though concurrent cytotoxic and vasogenic mechanisms in TBI make the differences small compared to those seen in disorders where cytotoxic edema predominates.

  2. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  3. Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children With First Attack of Seizure and on Healthy Control Group: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Razieh FALLAH; Behnaz TIRANDAZI; Ferdosian,Farzad; Nafisah FADAVI

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fallah R, Tirandazi F, Ferdosian F, Fadavi N. Iron Deficiency And Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children With First Attack of Seizure and on Healthy Control Group : A Comparative Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3): 18-23. AbstractObjectiveSeizures are the most common pediatric neurologic problem. Research of the association between iron deficiency and seizures has shown conflicting results.This study evaluates iron status of children with a first seizure attack...

  4. Healthy weight control and dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs: results from a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Trost, Ariel; Chase, Allison

    2003-01-01

    Because universal psychoeducational eating disorder prevention programs have had little success, we developed and evaluated two interventions for high-risk populations: a healthy weight control intervention and a dissonance-based intervention. Adolescent girls (N = 148) with body image concerns were randomized to one of these interventions or to a waitlist control group. Participants completed baseline, termination, and 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up surveys. Participants in both interventions reported decreased thin-ideal internalization, negative affect, and bulimic symptoms at termination and follow-up relative to controls. However, no effects were observed for body dissatisfaction or dieting and effects diminished over time. Results provide evidence that both interventions effectively reduce bulimic pathology and risk factors for eating disturbances. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara Norio; Yasui-Furukori Norio; Tsuchimine Shoko; Fujii Akira; Sato Yasushi; Saito Manabu; Matsuzaka Masashi; Takahashi Ippei; Kaneko Sunao

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD)...

  6. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  7. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-01-01

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting...

  8. The follicular skin microbiome in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Thorsen, Jonathan; Saunte, Ditte M.

    2017-01-01

    differs significantly from that in healthy controls in lesional and nonlesional skin. Overall, the following 5 microbiome types were identified: Corynebacterium species (type I), Acinetobacter and Moraxella species (type II), Staphylococcus epidermidis (type III), Porphyromonas and Peptoniphilus species...

  9. Parent and child care provider partnerships: Protocol for the Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW) cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennink-Kaminski, Heidi; Vaughn, Amber E; Hales, Derek; Moore, Reneé H; Luecking, Courtney T; Ward, Dianne S

    2018-01-01

    Formation of diet and physical activity habits begins during early childhood. However, many preschool-aged children in the United States do not achieve recommendations for a nutritious diet or active lifestyle. Two important spheres of influence, home and child care, could ensure that children receive consistent health messages. Innovative approaches that engage both parents and child care providers in a substantial way are needed. Social marketing, a promising approach for health promotion targeting children, uses principles that recognize the need to engage multiple stakeholders and to emphasize benefits and overcome barriers associated with behavior change. Yet, application of social marketing principles in interventions for preschool-age children is limited. Healthy Me, Healthy We (HMHW) is 2-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a 8-month social marketing campaign on the diet and physical activity behaviors of preschool children (3-4years old), their parents, and child care providers. The campaign is delivered by the child care center and includes branded classroom and at-home activities and materials. Primary outcomes are children's diet quality (assessed with Healthy Eating Index scores) and minutes of non-sedentary activity (measured via accelerometers). Secondary outcomes assess children's body mass index, nutrition and physical activity practices at the child care center and at home, and health behaviors of child care providers and parents. HMHW is an innovative approach to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children. The campaign targets children during a key developmental period and leverages a partnership between providers and parents to affect behavior change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The neurological disease ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Cox, Alexander P; Chaudhry, Naveed; Ng, Marcus; Sule, Donat; Duncan, William; Ray, Patrick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Smith, Barry; Ruttenberg, Alan; Szigeti, Kinga; Diehl, Alexander D

    2013-12-06

    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'disease course', and 'disorder'. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at http://code.google.com/p/neurological-disease-ontology along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data

  11. Guided self-help interventions for mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sophie; Heyman, Isobel; Coughtrey, Anna; Simmonds, Jess; Varadkar, Sophia; Stephenson, Terence; DeJong, Margaret; Shafran, Roz

    2016-11-04

    Rates of mental health disorders are significantly greater in children with physical illnesses than in physically well children. Children with neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, are known to have particularly high rates of mental health disorders. Despite this, mental health problems in children with neurological conditions have remained under-recognised and under-treated in clinical settings. Evidence-based guided self-help interventions are efficacious in reducing symptoms of mental health disorders in children, but their efficacy in reducing symptoms of common mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions has not been investigated. We aim to pilot a guided self-help intervention for the treatment of mental health disorders in children with neurological conditions. A pilot randomised controlled trial with 18 patients with neurological conditions and mental health disorders will be conducted. Participants attending specialist neurology clinics at a National UK Children's Hospital will be randomised to receive guided self-help for common mental health disorders or to a 12-week waiting list control. Participants in the treatment group will receive 10 sessions of guided self-help delivered over the telephone. The waiting list control group will receive the intervention after a waiting period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure is reduction in symptoms of mental health disorders. Exclusion criteria are limited to those at significant risk of harm to self or others, the presence of primary mental health disorder other than anxiety, depression or disruptive behaviour (e.g. psychosis, eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder) or intellectual disability at a level meaning potential participants would be unable to access the intervention. The study has ethical approval from the Camden and Islington NHS Research Ethics Committee, registration number 14.LO.1353. Results will be disseminated to patients, the wider public, clinicians and

  12. Virtual reality in neurologic rehabilitation of spatial disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Wood, Guilherme; Hofer, Daniela; Kreuzig, Walter; Kiefer, Manfred; Neuper, Christa

    2013-02-08

    Topographical disorientation (TD) is a severe and persistent impairment of spatial orientation and navigation in familiar as well as new environments and a common consequence of brain damage. Virtual reality (VR) provides a new tool for the assessment and rehabilitation of TD. In VR training programs different degrees of active motor control over navigation may be implemented (i.e. more passive spatial navigation vs. more active). Increasing demands of active motor control may overload those visuo-spatial resources necessary for learning spatial orientation and navigation. In the present study we used a VR-based verbally-guided passive navigation training program to improve general spatial abilities in neurologic patients with spatial disorientation. Eleven neurologic patients with focal brain lesions, which showed deficits in spatial orientation, as well as 11 neurologic healthy controls performed a route finding training in a virtual environment. Participants learned and recalled different routes for navigation in a virtual city over five training sessions. Before and after VR training, general spatial abilities were assessed with standardized neuropsychological tests. Route finding ability in the VR task increased over the five training sessions. Moreover, both groups improved different aspects of spatial abilities after VR training in comparison to the spatial performance before VR training. Verbally-guided passive navigation training in VR enhances general spatial cognition in neurologic patients with spatial disorientation as well as in healthy controls and can therefore be useful in the rehabilitation of spatial deficits associated with TD.

  13. Virtual reality in neurologic rehabilitation of spatial disorientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kober Silvia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topographical disorientation (TD is a severe and persistent impairment of spatial orientation and navigation in familiar as well as new environments and a common consequence of brain damage. Virtual reality (VR provides a new tool for the assessment and rehabilitation of TD. In VR training programs different degrees of active motor control over navigation may be implemented (i.e. more passive spatial navigation vs. more active. Increasing demands of active motor control may overload those visuo-spatial resources necessary for learning spatial orientation and navigation. In the present study we used a VR-based verbally-guided passive navigation training program to improve general spatial abilities in neurologic patients with spatial disorientation. Methods Eleven neurologic patients with focal brain lesions, which showed deficits in spatial orientation, as well as 11 neurologic healthy controls performed a route finding training in a virtual environment. Participants learned and recalled different routes for navigation in a virtual city over five training sessions. Before and after VR training, general spatial abilities were assessed with standardized neuropsychological tests. Results Route finding ability in the VR task increased over the five training sessions. Moreover, both groups improved different aspects of spatial abilities after VR training in comparison to the spatial performance before VR training. Conclusions Verbally-guided passive navigation training in VR enhances general spatial cognition in neurologic patients with spatial disorientation as well as in healthy controls and can therefore be useful in the rehabilitation of spatial deficits associated with TD.

  14. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  15. 78 FR 25756 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (OHHLHC) Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...] Announcement of Funding Awards for Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (OHHLHC) Grant Programs for...: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD. ACTION: Announcement of funding awards. SUMMARY: In... funding under the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control (OHHLHC) Grant Program Notices of...

  16. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology...... and craniofacial morphology. MATERIAL/METHODS: The study population comprised 36 HR patients and 49 controls. The atlas and axis dimensions were measured on cephalograms, and the differences between the groups were estimated by regression analysis. The upper spine morphology was visually assessed to estimate...... and the axis and the prevalence of the FUS were increased in HR patients compared with controls. Upper spine dimensions were associated with craniofacial dimensions, primarily in relation to the posterior cranial fossa....

  17. Comparison of Trunk Proprioception Between Patients With Low Back Pain and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela S.; Cholewicki, Jacek; Reeves, N. Peter; Zazulak, Bohdanna T.; Mysliwiec, Lawrence W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if proprioceptive impairments exist in patients with low back pain (LBP). We hypothesized that patients with LBP would exhibit larger trunk proprioception errors than healthy controls. Design Case-control study. Setting University laboratory. Participants 24 patients with non-specific LBP and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures We measured trunk proprioception in all 3 anatomical planes using motion perception threshold, active repositioning, and passive repositioning tests. Results LBP patients had significantly greater motion perception threshold than controls (Pproprioception may be detected in patients with LBP when assessed with a motion perception threshold measure. PMID:20801248

  18. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' community randomized controlled trial: a community-based healthy lifestyle program for fathers and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Burrows, Tracy; Fletcher, Richard; Okely, Anthony D; Young, Myles D; Miller, Andrew; Lloyd, Adam B; Cook, Alyce T; Cruickshank, Joel; Saunders, Kristen L; Lubans, David R

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK)' program when delivered by trained facilitators in community settings. A two-arm randomized controlled trial of 93 overweight/obese fathers (mean [SD] age=40.3 [5.3] years; BMI=32.5 [3.8] kg/m(2)) and their primary school-aged children (n=132) from the Hunter Region, Australia. In 2010-2011, families were randomized to either: (i) HDHK intervention (n=48 fathers, n=72 children) or (ii) wait-list control group. The 7-week intervention included seven sessions and resources (booklets, pedometers). Assessments were held at baseline and 14-weeks with fathers' weight (kg) as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes for fathers and children included waist, BMI, blood pressure, resting heart rate, physical activity (pedometry), and self-reported dietary intake and sedentary behaviors. Linear mixed models (intention-to-treat) revealed significant between-group differences for fathers' weight (Pfathers losing more weight (-3.3 kg; 95%CI, -4.3, -2.4) than control fathers (0.1 kg; 95%CI, -0.9,1.0). Significant treatment effects (Pfathers' waist (d=0.41), BMI (d=0.26), resting heart rate (d=0.59), energy intake (d=0.49) and physical activity (d=0.46) and for children's physical activity (d=0.50) and adiposity (d=0.07). HDHK significantly improved health outcomes and behaviors in fathers and children, providing evidence for program effectiveness when delivered in a community setting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sensory abnormalities and masticatory function after microvascular decompression or balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia compared with carbamazepine and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, Michelle Cristina; de Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; da Nobrega, Jose Claudio Marinho; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; de Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli; de Siqueira, Silvia R D T

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (iTN) is a neurological condition treated with pharmacotherapy or neurosurgery. There is a lack of comparative papers regarding the outcomes of neurosurgery in patients with iTN. The objective of this study was to investigate sensory thresholds and masticatory function in 78 patients with iTN who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) or balloon compression (BC), and compare these treatments with carbamazepine and 30 untreated healthy controls. The authors conducted a case-controlled longitudinal study. Patients were referred to 1 of 3 groups: MVD, BC, or carbamazepine. All patients were evaluated before and after treatment with a systematic protocol composed of a clinical orofacial questionnaire, Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders, Helkimo indices, and a quantitative sensory-testing protocol (gustative, olfactory, cold, warm, touch, vibration, superficial, and deep pain thresholds). Both MVD and BC were effective at reducing pain intensity (p = 0.012) and carbamazepine doses (p masticatory function according to Helkimo indices was greater after BC than MVD. MVD resulted in more gustative alterations, and both procedures caused impairment in thermal thresholds (warm and cold). However, only BC also affected touch perception. The sensorial and motor deficits after BC need to be included as targets directly associated with the success of the surgery and need to be assessed and relieved as goals in the treatment of iTN.

  20. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  1. Gratitude mediates quality of life differences between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Sirois, Fuschia; Hirsch, Jameson; Weber, Annemarie; Vajda, Christian; Schelling, Jorg; Kohls, Niko; Offenbacher, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Despite a growing literature on the benefits of gratitude for adjustment to chronic illness, little is known about gratitude in medical populations compared to healthy populations, or the degree to which potential deficits in gratitude might impact quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to (1) examine levels of gratitude and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and (2) consider the role of gratitude in explaining quality of life differences between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Participants were 173 fibromyalgia patients and 81 healthy controls. All participants completed measures of gratitude, quality of life, and socio-demographics. Although gratitude was positively associated with quality of life, levels of gratitude and quality of life were lower in the fibromyalgia sample relative to the healthy controls. This difference in gratitude partially mediated differences in quality of life between the two groups after controlling for socio-demographic variables. Our findings suggest that gratitude is a valuable positive psychological trait for quality of life in people with fibromyalgia. Interventions to improve gratitude in this patient population may also bring enhancement in quality of life.

  2. Comparison of serum and urine lead levels in opium addicts with healthy control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi-Moghadam, H; Khadem-Rezaiyan, M; Afshari, R

    2016-08-01

    Lead-contaminated opium is one of the new sources of lead exposure in our region. As far as the literature review is concerned, there are limited comparative studies about comparison of blood lead level (BLL) in addict patients with healthy controls. We aimed to compare BLL and urine lead level (ULL) between opium addicts with the healthy control group. Forty opium addict subjects (mean age: 43 ± 10 years) as the patient group and 40 healthy subjects (mean age: 41 ± 9 years) as the control group participated. Three milliliter of whole blood and urine was obtained from both groups and lead level was assessed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean value of BLL in patient group was 7.14 ± 1.41 mcg/dL and that in the healthy control group was 5.42 ± 1.46 mcg/dL. The mean value of ULL was 2.62 ± 0.83 mcg/dL in the patient group and 2.50 ± 0.76 mcg/dL in the healthy control group.BLL was different in the two groups (p lead. Therefore, screening of blood lead concentration is helpful for opium-addict patients especially with nonspecific symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Health on impulse: when low self-control promotes healthy food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  4. Health on Impulse : When Low Self-Control Promotes Healthy Food Choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; de Vet, E.

    Objective: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting

  5. 77 FR 19306 - Announcement of Funding Awards: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 AGENCY: Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control, HUD. ACTION... made by the Department in competitions for funding under the Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard...

  6. Risk of serious acute neurological illness after immunization with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine. A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, J L; Thapa, P B; Wassilak, S G; Bobo, J K; Mendelman, P M; Foy, H M

    1994-01-05

    To evaluate the association between serious acute neurological illness and receipt of whole-cell pertussis vaccine, given as diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine. Population-based case-control study. Outpatient and inpatient hospital settings, physician practices, and the general population in Washington and Oregon states. A total of 424 confirmed cases of neurological illness were identified prospectively during a 12-month period by statewide active surveillance from the population of 218,000 children 1 to 24 months of age living in Washington and Oregon (estimated 368,000 DTP immunizations given). Each case child was matched to two population control children by birth date (+/- 5 days), gender, and county of birth. Written immunization records were used to determine whether illness occurred within 7 days of immunization in case children, or within 7 days of the same reference date in control children, thus qualifying as exposed. Outpatient and inpatient cases of complex febrile seizures, seizures without fever, infantile spasms, and acute encephalitis/encephalopathy confirmed by an expert panel masked to immunization history. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for onset of serious acute neurological illness within 7 days for young children exposed to DTP vaccine was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.0). When the analysis was restricted to children with encephalopathy or complicated seizures and adjusted for factors possibly affecting vaccine administration, the OR was 3.6 (95% CI, 0.8 to 15.2). Odds ratios for specific study diagnoses varied, but all CIs included 1. No elevated risk was observed for the largest group of illnesses studied, nonfebrile seizures (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5). This study did not find any statistically significant increased risk of onset of serious acute neurological illness in the 7 days after DTP vaccine exposure for young children.

  7. Advocacy in neurology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauranik, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    ...), launched the Neurological Alliance of Ireland, a nationwide coalition of patient advocacy groups and physicians and authored Standards of Care, the "blueprint" for the development of neurological...

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eLandgrave-Gómez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of epigenetic mechanisms in the function and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS and its regulation in diseases is one of the most interesting processes of contemporary neuroscience. In the last decade, a growing body of literature suggests that long-term changes in gene transcription associated with CNS´s regulation and neurological disorders are mediated via modulation of chromatin structure.Epigenetics, introduced for the first time by Waddington in the early 1940s, has been traditionally referred to a variety of mechanisms that allow heritable changes in gene expression even in the absence of DNA mutation. However, new definitions acknowledge that many of these mechanisms used to perpetuate epigenetic traits in dividing cells are used by neurons to control a variety of functions dependent on gene expression. Indeed, in the recent years these mechanisms have shown their importance in the maintenance of a healthy CNS. Moreover, environmental inputs that have shown effects in CNS diseases, such as nutrition, that can modulate the concentration of a variety of metabolites such as acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-coA, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ and beta hydroxybutyrate (β-HB, regulates some of these epigenetic modifications, linking in a precise way environment with gene expression.This manuscript will portray what is currently understood about the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the function and homeostasis of the CNS and their participation in a variety of neurological disorders. We will discuss how the machinery that controls these modifications plays an important role in processes involved in neurological disorders such as neurogenesis and cell growth. Moreover, we will discuss how environmental inputs modulate these modifications producing metabolic and physiological alterations that could exert beneficial effects on neurological diseases. Finally, we will highlight possible future directions in the field of

  9. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp S. Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28 for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable.

  10. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  11. Efficacy and safety of nerve growth factor for the treatment of neurological diseases: a meta-analysis of 64 randomized controlled trials involving 6,297 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Li, Xiao-yan; Xu, Chun-ying; Zou, Li-ping

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: China is the only country where nerve growth factor is approved for large-scale use as a clinical medicine. More than 10 years ago, in 2003, nerve growth factor injection was listed as a national drug. The goal of this article is to evaluate comprehensively the efficacy and safety of nerve growth factor for the treatment of neurological diseases. DATA RETRIEVAL: A computer-based retrieval was performed from six databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Sino Med, CNKI, and the VIP database, searching from the clinical establishment of nerve growth factor for treatment until December 31, 2013. The key words for the searches were “nerve growth factor, randomized controlled trials” in Chinese and in English. DATA SELECTION: Inclusion criteria: any study published in English or Chinese referring to randomized controlled trials of nerve growth factor; patients with neurological diseases such as peripheral nerve injury, central nerve injury, cranial neuropathy, and nervous system infections; patients older than 7 years; similar research methods and outcomes assessing symptoms; and measurement of nerve conduction velocities. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.2.3 software. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The total effective rate, the incidence of adverse effects, and the nerve conduction velocity were recorded for each study. RESULTS: Sixty-four studies involving 6,297 patients with neurological diseases were included. The total effective rate in the group treated with nerve growth factor was significantly higher than that in the control group (P factor group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P factor group was also higher than that in the control group (P factor can significantly improve nerve function in patients with nervous system disease and is safe and effective. PMID:26109961

  12. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  13. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Schestatsky, Pedro; Torres, Vitor Felix; de Coelho, Daniella Moura; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Pereira, Fernanda dos Santos; Matte, Ursula; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2014-01-13

    Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p<0.05). Both JOA (r=-0.68) and SSPROM (r=-0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p=0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r=-0.47, p=0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p=0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies.

  14. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Promoting healthy lifestyles in high school adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2013-10-01

    Although obesity and mental health disorders are two major public health problems in adolescents that affect academic performance, few rigorously designed experimental studies have been conducted in high schools. The goal of the study was to test the efficacy of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) Program, versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on: healthy lifestyle behaviors, BMI, mental health, social skills, and academic performance of high school adolescents immediately after and at 6 months post-intervention. A cluster RCT was conducted. Data were collected from January 2010 to May of 2012 and analyzed in 2012-2013. A total of 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the U.S. Southwest participated in the trial. COPE was a cognitive-behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course, taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. The attention control program was a 15-session, 15-week program that covered common health topics. Primary outcomes assessed immediately after and 6 months post-intervention were healthy lifestyle behaviors and BMI. Secondary outcomes included mental health, alcohol and drug use, social skills, and academic performance. Post-intervention, COPE teens had a greater number of steps per day (p=0.03) and a lower BMI (p=0.01) than did those in Healthy Teens, and higher average scores on all Social Skills Rating System subscales (p-values <0.05). Teens in the COPE group with extremely elevated depression scores at pre-intervention had significantly lower depression scores than the Healthy Teens group (p=0.02). Alcohol use was 12.96% in the COPE group and 19.94% in the Healthy Teens group (p=0.04). COPE teens had higher health course grades than did control teens. At 6 months post-intervention, COPE teens had a lower mean BMI than teens in Healthy Teens (COPE=24.72, Healthy Teens=25

  16. Comparison of Intelligibility Measures for Adults with Parkinson's Disease, Adults with Multiple Sclerosis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Kaila L.; Tjaden, Kris; Wilding, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study obtained judgments of sentence intelligibility using orthographic transcription for comparison with previously reported intelligibility judgments obtained using a visual analog scale (VAS) for individuals with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis and healthy controls (K. Tjaden, J. E. Sussman, & G. E. Wilding, 2014).…

  17. Vitamin D and Testosterone in Healthy Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Trummer, Christian; Schwetz, Verena; Pachernegg, Oliver; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Available evidence shows an association of vitamin D with androgen levels in men. However, results from preliminary randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. To evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation increases total testosterone (TT) levels in healthy men. The Graz Vitamin D&TT-RCT is

  18. Children suffering from separation anxiety disorder (SAD) show increased HPA axis activity compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Wilhelm, Frank H; Kossowsky, Joe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Schneider, Silvia

    2011-04-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood, and one of the earliest emerging. Little is known about the association between SAD and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating this association in children suffering from separation anxiety compared to healthy controls. A total of 31 children with diagnosed SAD (mean age: 8.45; 17 females, 14 males) and 25 healthy controls (HC; mean age: 9.74; 12 females, 13 males) took part in the study. All participants underwent psycho-physiological testing for HPA axis challenge. Testing consisted of a separation and a social exposure paradigm. Saliva samples to assess HPA axis-related cortisol secretion were gathered in parallel. Compared to healthy controls, children with SAD showed greatly increased HPA axis activity, as reflected by an increased cortisol secretion throughout the entire period of investigation. The rise of cortisol was already observed in anticipation of, but not following the separation paradigm. No gender-related differences of cortisol secretion were observed. Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in children is reflected in greatly increased HPA axis activity. Compared to healthy controls, children with SAD showed increased cortisol values from the beginning of, and throughout, the entire investigation. This pattern of results suggests that both the anticipation of a separation and a persistent hyperactivity of the HPA axis system leads to an increased cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  20. Niacin skin flushing in schizophrenic and depressed patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld-van Haandel, Linda; Knegtering, Rikus; Kluiter, Herman; van den Bosch, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the skin reactions to the niacin flushing test of 16 schizophrenic patients with those of 17, depressed patients and 16 healthy controls. Methyl nicotinate (niacin) in a concentration of 0.1 M was applied to the forearm for 5 min. Significant differences could be observed between

  1. Differences in nutritional status between very mild Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Sijben, J.W.; Bouwman, F.H.; Dautzenberg, P.LJ.; Lansink, M.; Sipers, W.M.; Asselt, D.Z.B. van; Hees, A.M. van; Stevens, M; Vellas, B.; Scheltens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies on the systemic availability of nutrients and nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely available, but the majority included patients in a moderate stage of AD. Objective: This study compares the nutritional status between mild AD outpatients and healthy controls.

  2. Fatty acid concentrations in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Giel-Jan; Mocking, Roel; Lok, Anja; Assies, Johanna; Schene, Aart; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Although fatty acid (FA)-supplementation studies are currently being implemented, in fact little is known about FA-profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, the present study aimed at comparing FA-concentrations between PTSD-patients and healthy controls. A cross-sectional study

  3. Fatty acid concentrations in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder compared to healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, G.J.; Mocking, R.; Lok, A.; Assies, J.; Schene, A.H.; Olff, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although fatty acid (FA)-supplementation studies are currently being implemented, in fact little is known about FA-profiles in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, the present study aimed at comparing FA-concentrations between PTSD-patients and healthy controls. METHODS: A

  4. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtze, Maria; Saetre, Peter; Engberg, Göran

    2012-01-01

    on the activity of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), the enzyme converting kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Methods: We analyzed the association between KMO gene polymorphisms and CSF concentrations of KYNA in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were...

  5. Chairside intraoral qualitative somatosensory testing: reliability and comparison between patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Pigg, Maria; Ivanovic, Susanne Elmasry; Faris, Hanan; List, Thomas; Drangsholt, Mark; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To assess intraoral inter- and intraexaminer reliability of three qualitative measures of intraoral somatosensory function and to compare these measures between patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy controls. Thirty-one AO patients and 47 healthy controls participated. Inter- and intraexaminer reliability was tested on a subgroup of 46 subjects (25 AO; 21 healthy). Sensitivity to touch, cold, and pinprick stimuli was evaluated on the painful gingival site and the corresponding contralateral site in AO patients, and bilaterally on the gingiva of the first maxillary premolars in controls. Patients were asked to report hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, or normal sensitivity to stimuli on the painful site compared with the nonpainful site. Kappa values were calculated, and chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare frequencies between groups. Kappa values ranged between 0.63 and 0.75. The frequency of hypersensitivity to either modality was significantly higher in patients (29% to 61%) than in controls (9% to 17%) (P .057). Only 3.2% of the AO patients had no reports of abnormal sensitivity on any of the tests, compared with 59.6% of the healthy subjects (P < .001). Intraoral qualitative somatosensory testing can detect intraoral sensory disturbances in AO patients, and the reliability is sufficient for initial screening of orofacial somatosensory function.

  6. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  7. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M T T; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araújo, A Q-C

    2003-08-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological manifestations of HTLV-1.

  8. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stabil...

  9. Heart rate variability during sleep in detoxified alcohol-dependent males: A comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesha, Suhas; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Benegal, Vivek; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol dependence can lead to autonomic neuropathy resulting in increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. This has previously been evaluated using heart-rate variability. We compared sleep heart-rate variability of alcohol-dependent patients with that of healthy controls in this study. This study was conducted at NIMHANS, Bangalore. A case control study design was adopted. Sleep heart-rate variability of 20 male alcohol-dependent inpatients was recorded on the 5(th) day after detoxification. Sleep heart-rate variability was also recorded in 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The groups were compared using t-test for continuous variables and Chi-squared test for discrete variables. Both time and frequency domain measures were significantly lower in the patients as compared to the controls, indicating decreased HRV in alcohol-dependent individuals. Decreased HRV in alcohol dependence indicates potential autonomic neuropathy.

  10. Healthy Plant Foods Intake Could Protect Against Prostate Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilpiran, Yahya; Hezaveh, Erfan; Bahmanpour, Salmeh; Faghih, Shiva

    2017-07-27

    Background: Several studies have investigated the association between healthy plant foods intake and prostate cancer risk with inconsistent results. So this study was conducted to examine the existence of any possible association between healthy plant foods and prostate cancer risk. Materials and Methods: Sixty newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases and 60 controls engaged in a hospital-based case-control study. A validated 16o-items semi-quantitative FFQ was used to assess usual dietary intakes. Energy-adjusted amounts of healthy plant foods intake were calculated using the residual method. Logistic regression model was also used to derive beta estimates and odds ratios. Results: Cases were older and more likely to be inactive. In crude model, individuals in the highest tertile vs lowest tertile of total healthy plant foods (OR= 0.12; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.34), total fruits (OR= 0.11; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.30), total vegetables (OR= 0.08; 95 % CI 0.03, 0.24), fresh fruits (OR= 0.11; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.30), and raw vegetables (OR= 0.06; 95 % CI 0.02, 0.18) had significantly lower risk of prostate cancer. After controlling for potential confounders (age, BMI, total energy intake, job, education, smoking, physical activity, some drug usage, and also dietary intakes), just total healthy plant foods (OR= 0.12; 95 % CI 0.02, 0.55), total vegetables (OR=0.03; 95 % CI 0.00, 0.25), and raw vegetables (OR= 0.01; 95 % CI 0.00, 0.12) were associated with lower prostate cancer risk. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that a diet rich in healthy plant foods and especially total or raw vegetable may protect against prostate cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy T L; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2017-09-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice. Particularly we posit that the choice outcome of the self-control conflict is dependent on contextual cues, such that hungry consumers with the tendency to make fast decisions could benefit from following a social proof heuristic promoting the healthy options. In Study 1, we indeed observed participants' self-reported hunger to be negatively associated with state self-control, but as most participants generally experienced low levels of hunger we did not observe apparent effects of hunger on food choice (DV), and correspondingly the potential influence of the social proof heuristic in moderating the choice outcome. However, in Study 2 where hunger was manipulated, we found hungry participants making significantly less healthy choices than satiated participants, but a social proof heuristic mitigated this effect (i.e., in the presence of social proof heuristic hungry participants made just as many healthy food choices as satiated participants; and hungry participants made more healthy choices in the social proof condition than in the no heuristic condition). These findings support our approach of providing contextual cues in the environment in order to work with, rather than against, the impulsivity triggered by hunger to promote successful self-control behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Randomized controlled trial demonstrates that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam does not adversely affect neurological development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, J Rodway

    2010-03-01

    The study subjects were 507 children (228 females and 279 males) from the Casa Pia school system in Lisbon, Portugal; the same cohort of children used in a previous study. The children were 8 to 12 years old at the time of enrollment in the study, which began in January of 1997. To be included in the study, a child must have had at baseline at least one carious lesion in a permanent tooth, no previous exposure to amalgam treatments, urinary mercury level less than 10 mg/L, blood lead level less than 15 mg/dL, IQ greater than or equal to 67 as obtained with the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, and no interfering health condition. Study subjects were randomly assigned to receive dental treatment with either amalgam or resin-based composite for posterior restorations (and composite for all anterior restorations). By the end of year 1, the participants had a mean of 8.3 surfaces restored with amalgam, and the mean number of surfaces restored varied between 7.7 and 10.7 during the 7 years of follow-up. The primary outcome measures for the study were the presence of neurological hard signs (NHSs), such as tremor, and the presence and severity of neurological soft signs (NSSs), such as synkinesias. NHSs were scored as present or absent. Tremor was reported separately from other NHSs because of its relationship to mercury toxicity. Observation of NSSs did not begin until follow-up year 2, so there were no baseline data for NSSs. NSSs were evaluated using the examination described by Peters et al, and each item was scored from 0 (absent) to 3 (maximum deviation). Over the 7-year duration of the study, there were slight differences in the percentages of subjects exhibiting any NHSs (including tremor, which was reported separately) between the 2 treatment groups, but the directions of the differences were not consistent from year to year, and the differences were not statistically significant in any year. No statistically significant difference in NSSs

  14. Differences in muscle coactivation during postural control between healthy older and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Yamada, Minoru; Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in muscle coactivation during postural control between older and young adults and to identify the characteristics of postural control strategies in older adults by investigating the relationship between muscle coactivation and postural control ability. Forty-six healthy older adults (82.0±7.5 years) and 34 healthy young adults (22.1±2.3 years) participated. The postural tasks selected consisted of static standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary and gait. Coactivation of the ankle joint was recorded during each task via electromyography (EMG). The older adults showed significantly higher coactivation than the young adults during the tasks of standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary (forward), and gait (pPostural sway area (ρ=0.42, polder adults, i.e., muscle coactivation was significantly higher in the elderly with low postural control ability than in the elderly with high balance ability. Increased muscle coactivation could be a necessary change to compensate for a deterioration in postural control accompanying healthy aging. Further research is needed to clarify in greater detail positive and negative effects of muscle coactivation on postural control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emotion avoidance and fear bradycardia in patients with borderline personality disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, Malou; Nijs, Maurits; Spinhoven, Philip; Mesbah, Rahele; Hagenaars, Muriel A

    2017-12-01

    Exaggerated emotional reactivity is supposed to be essential in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). More specifically, models of defensive behavior would predict reduced freezing behavior -indicated by fear bradycardia-in response to threat. This study examined automatic fear bradycardia responses in BPD versus healthy controls and the role of emotion dysregulation, more specifically tendencies to avoid emotions. Patients with BPD (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 18) completed questionnaires and then watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures while heart rate was assessed. Emotion avoidance interacted with group: it was associated with distinct autonomic responses in healthy controls but not in BPD patients. Controls with lower emotion avoidance tendencies showed bradycardia in response to unpleasant pictures, while controls with higher emotion avoidance tendencies did not. BPD patients showed no bradycardia, irrespective of their emotion avoidance tendencies. This study is limited by a small sample size. Comorbidity or medication intake were not controlled for. The results may suggest impaired automatic defense responses in BPD. Further understanding of the regulation of distress and defense responses might improve BPD treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infection control assessment after an influenza outbreak in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Peacock, Georgina; Moore, Cynthia A; Rodgers, Loren; DiOrio, Mary; Page, Shannon L; Fowler, Brian; Stone, Nimalie D; Finelli, Lyn; Jhung, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of infection control among staff in a residential care facility for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions. Self-administered survey. Residential care facility (facility A). Facility A staff ([Formula: see text]). We distributed a survey to staff at facility A. We classified staff with direct care responsibilities as clinical (ie, physicians, nurses, and therapists) or nonclinical (ie, habilitation assistants, volunteers, and teachers) and used χ(2) tests to measure differences between staff agreement to questions. Of 248 surveys distributed, 200 (81%) were completed; median respondent age was 36 years; 85% were female; and 151 were direct care staff (50 clinical, 101 nonclinical). Among direct care staff respondents, 86% agreed they could identify residents with respiratory symptoms, 70% stayed home from work when ill with respiratory infection, 64% agreed that facility administration encouraged them to stay home when ill with respiratory infection, and 72% reported that ill residents with respiratory infections were separated from well residents. Clinical and nonclinical staff differed in agreement about using waterless hand gel as a substitute for handwashing (96% vs 78%; [Formula: see text]) and whether handwashing was done after touching residents (92% vs 75%; [Formula: see text]). Respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infection control could be improved, especially among nonclinical staff. Facilities caring for children and young adults with neurologic and neurodevelopmental conditions should encourage adherence to infection control best practices among all staff having direct contact with residents.

  17. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-30

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (ppsychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pruritic and vascular responses induced by serotonin in patients with atopic dermatitis and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausl, Aram; Nordlind, Klas; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2013-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with often severe itch. The aim of this study was to determine the pruritogenic and vascular effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) in patients with AD and in healthy controls. A 50 µg dose of 5-HT was injected intradermally into non-lesional skin of 25 patients with AD and 25 healthy control individuals, and the effect compared with 0.2 µg histamine as a positive control, and buffer as a negative control. Pruritus was recorded by the subjects, using a computerized visual analogue scale, while flare and wheal were recorded by the investigator. There was no qualitative or quantitative difference in 5-HT-induced itch between patients and control subjects, or between males and females. However, reduced flare and wheal were found in the patient group for 5-HT. There were no correlations between clinical findings (i.e. eczema severity, clinical pruritus) and recorded experimental itch, or flare or wheal responses for 5-HT, in the patients with AD. In both groups a shorter itch latency was found for 5-HT compared with histamine. Through the use of intradermal injections, making it possible to calculate the dose of substance delivered, a lower vascular response to 5-HT was shown in patients with AD compared with healthy controls. In addition to confirming a pruritogenic role of 5-HT in both patients with AD and healthy controls, we found a shorter itch latency for 5-HT compared with histamine in both groups. The short itch latency time may indicate a direct effect of 5-HT on itch receptors.

  19. Cannabis use and sensorimotor gating in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T

    2011-08-01

    Schizophrenia patients and healthy cannabis users show different attention-dependant alterations in prepulse inhibition (PPI). It is of interest then to examine PPI in patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis, given the hypothesized association between cannabis use and schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition was measured in 34 healthy cannabis users, 32 healthy non-using controls, 20 patients with schizophrenia who were current cannabis users, and 44 non-using patients with schizophrenia. PPI was measured across a range of startling stimulus intensities, during two attention set conditions. Curves of best fit were fitted to the startle magnitudes, across the stimulus intensities. A number of reflex parameters were extracted from these logistic functions. Similar to healthy cannabis users, cannabis-using patients showed altered PPI of Threshold, only when instructed to sustain attention to the auditory stimuli. Conversely, non-using patients with schizophrenia showed reduced PP of R(MAX) only when instructed to ignore the auditory stimuli. Cannabis use in patients with schizophrenia is associated with a similar pattern of attention-dependant alterations in PPI to that observed in healthy cannabis users. This is different to those observed in patients with schizophrenia who do not use cannabis and may be as a result of a dysfunction of sustained attention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Error types and error positions in neglect dyslexia: comparative analyses in neglect patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, Christiane; Kerkhoff, Georg; van Eimeren, Lucia; Keller, Ingo; Stenneken, Prisca

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect frequently involves a lateralised reading disorder, neglect dyslexia (ND). Reading of single words in ND is characterised by left-sided omissions and substitutions of letters. However, it is unclear whether the distribution of error types and positions within a word shows a unique pattern of ND when directly compared to healthy controls. This question has been difficult to answer so far, given the usually low number of reading errors in healthy controls. Therefore, the present study compared single word reading of 18 patients with left-sided neglect, due to right-hemisphere stroke, and 11 age-matched healthy controls, and adjusted individual task difficulty (by varying stimulus presentation times in participants) in order to reach approximately equal error rates between neglect patients and controls. Results showed that, while both omission and substitution errors were frequently produced in neglect patients and controls, only omissions appeared neglect-specific when task difficulty was adapted between groups. Analyses of individual letter positions within words revealed that the spatial distribution of reading errors in the neglect dyslexic patients followed an almost linear increase from the end to the beginning of the word (right-to-left-gradient). Both, the gradient in error positions and the predominance of omission errors presented a neglect-specific pattern. Consistent with current models of visual word processing, these findings suggest that ND reflects sublexical, visuospatial attentional mechanisms in letter string encoding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Borna disease virus (BDV) infection in psychiatric patients and healthy controls in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri-Tehrani, Elham; Maghsoudi, Nader; Shams, Jamal; Soori, Hamid; Atashi, Hasti; Motamedi, Fereshteh; Bode, Liv; Ludwig, Hanns

    2014-09-03

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is an evolutionary old RNA virus, which infects brain and blood cells of humans, their primate ancestors, and other mammals. Human infection has been correlated to mood disorders and schizophrenia, but the impact of BDV on mental-health still remains controversial due to poor methodological and cross-national comparability. This first report from the Middle East aimed to determine BDV infection prevalence in Iranian acute psychiatric disorder patients and healthy controls through circulating immune complexes (CIC), antibodies (Ab) and antigen (pAg) in blood plasma using a standardized triple enzyme immune assay (EIA). Samples of 314 subjects (114 psychiatric cases, 69 blood donors, and 131 healthy controls) were assayed and data analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. CICs revealed a BDV prevalence of one third (29.5%) in healthy Iranian controls (27.5% controls; 33.3% blood donors). In psychiatric patients CIC prevalence was higher than in controls (40.4%) and significantly correlating with bipolar patients exhibiting overt clinical symptoms (p = 0.005, OR = 1.65). CIC values were significantly elevated in bipolar (p = 0.001) and major depressive disorder (p = 0.029) patients as compared to controls, and in females compared to males (p = 0.031). This study supports a similarly high prevalence of subclinical human BDV infections in Iran as reported for central Europe, and provides again an indication for the correlation of BDV infection and mood disorders. Further studies should address the morbidity risk for healthy carriers and those with elevated CIC levels, along with gender disparities.

  2. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3) Udgivelsesdato: 2007...

  3. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a West African population of tuberculosis patients and unmatched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Olesen, Rikke; Rabna, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in African populations and in tuberculosis (TB) patients. VDD has been shown to be associated with TB. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the degree of vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) and VDD in TB patients and healthy adult controls...... in a West African population. DESIGN: An unmatched case-control study was performed at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea-Bissau. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] concentrations were measured in 362 TB patients and in 494 controls. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D(3)...

  4. A comparative study of visual reaction time in table tennis players and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhabhor, Mahesh K; Vidja, Kalpesh; Bhanderi, Priti; Dodhia, Shital; Kathrotia, Rajesh; Joshi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Visual reaction time is time required to response to visual stimuli. The present study was conducted to measure visual reaction time in 209 subjects, 50 table tennis (TT) players and 159 healthy controls. The visual reaction time was measured by the direct RT computerized software in healthy controls and table tennis players. Simple visual reaction time was measured. During the reaction time testing, visual stimuli were given for eighteen times and average reaction time was taken as the final reaction time. The study shows that table tennis players had faster reaction time than healthy controls. On multivariate analysis, it was found that TT players had 74.121 sec (95% CI 98.8 and 49.4 sec) faster reaction time compared to non-TT players of same age and BMI. Also playing TT has a profound influence on visual reaction time than BMI. Our study concluded that persons involved in sports are having good reaction time as compared to controls. These results support the view that playing of table tennis is beneficial to eye-hand reaction time, improve the concentration and alertness.

  5. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koolhaas Wendy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. Methods/design The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level, with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1 changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2 improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3 enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. Discussion The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the

  6. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life: design of a clustered randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; Brouwer, Sandra; Groothoff, Johan W; van der Klink, Jac Jl

    2010-08-06

    To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and responsibility towards a healthy working life. This research study aims to evaluate the process and the effectiveness of the intervention compared with care as usual. The study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial design (randomized at the supervisor level), with a 1-year follow-up. Workers aged 45 years and older have been enrolled in the study. Workers in the intervention group are receiving the intervention 'Staying healthy at work'. The main focus of the intervention is to promote a healthy working life of ageing workers by: (1) changing workers awareness and behaviour, by emphasizing their own decisive role in attaining goals; (2) improving the supervisors' ability to support workers in taking the necessary action, by means of enhancing knowledge and competence; and (3) enhancing the use of the human resource professionals and the occupational health tools available within the organization. The supervisors in the intervention group have been trained how to present themselves as a source of support for the worker. Workers in the control group are receiving care as usual; supervisors in the control group have not participated in the training. Measurements have been taken at baseline and will be followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measures are vitality, work ability and productivity. The secondary outcomes measures include fatigue, job strain, work attitude, self-efficacy and work engagement. A process evaluation will be conducted at both the supervisor and the worker levels, and satisfaction with the content of the intervention will be assessed. The intervention 'Staying healthy at work' has the potential to provide evidence-based knowledge of an innovative

  7. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  8. Adjuvant treatment with monosialoganglioside may improve neurological outcomes in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sheng

    Full Text Available Ganglioside has a neuroprotective role in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. This study aimed to evaluate the neurological outcomes of monosialoganglioside as adjuvant treatment for neonatal HIE by conducting a meta-analysis.A comprehensive literature search was made in the Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, CNKI, VIP databases through October 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing monosialoganglioside with the usual treatment for newborns having HIE deemed eligible. Weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated for continuous and dichotomous data, respectively.Ten trials consisting of 787 neonates were included. Adjuvant treatment with monosialoganglioside significantly reduced major neurodevelopmental disabilities (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.21-0.57, cerebral palsy (RR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.12-0.87, mental retardation (RR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11-0.88 as well as improved the mental (WMD = 14.95; 95% CI = 7.44-22.46 and psychomotive (WMD = 13.40; 95% CI = 6.69-20.11 development index during the follow-up. Also, monosialoganglioside significantly improved Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment scores (WMD = 2.91; 95% CI = 2.05-3.78 compared with the usual treatment. However, adverse effects associated with monosialoganglioside were poorly reported in the included trials.Adjuvant treatment with monosialoganglioside had beneficial effects in improving neurological outcomes in neonatal HIE. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because of methodological flaws in the included trials. Furthermore, safety of monosialoganglioside use should also be further evaluated.

  9. POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS WITH AND WITHOUT CHRONIC MOTION SENSITIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyahya D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postural control requires complex processing of peripheral sensory inputs from the visual, somatosensory and vestibular systems. Motion sensitivity and decreased postural control are influenced by visual-vestibular conflicts.The purpose of this study was to measure the difference between the postural control of healthy adults with and without history of sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity using a computerized dynamic posturography in a virtual reality environment. Sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity was operationally defined as a history of avoiding activities causing dizziness, nausea, imbalance, and/or blurred vision without having a related medical diagnosis. Methods: Twenty healthy adults between 22 and 33 years of age participated in the study. Eleven subjects had sub-clinical chronic motion sensitivity and 9 subjects did not. Postural control was measured in both groups using the Bertec Balance Advantage-Dynamic Computerized Dynamic Posturography with Immersion Virtual Reality (CDP-IVR. The CDP-IVR reports an over-all equilibrium score based on subjects’ center of gravity displacement and postural sway while immersed in a virtual reality environment. Subjects were tested on stable (condition 1 and unstable (condition2 platform conditions. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of mean age, height, weight, body mass index in kg/m2, postural control scores for conditions 2, and average (p>0.05. However, significant differences were observed in mean postural control for condition 1 between groups (p=0.03. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that healthy young adults without chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity have better postural control than those with chronic sub-clinical motion sensitivity. Further investigation is warranted to explore wider age ranges with larger samples sizes as well as intervention strategies to improve postural control.

  10. Emotional Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder: Comparison to Borderline Personality Disorder and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M; Suvak, Michael K; Dickstein, Benjamin D; Shea, M Tracie; Litz, Brett T

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have investigated emotional functioning in obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD). To explore the nature and extent of emotion difficulties in OCPD, the authors examined four domains of self-reported emotional functioning--negative affectivity, anger, emotion regulation, and emotion expressivity--in women with OCPD and compared them to a borderline personality disorder (BPD) group and a healthy control group. Data were collected as part of a larger psychophysiological experimental study on emotion regulation and personality. Compared to healthy controls, participants with OCPD reported significantly higher levels of negative affectivity, trait anger, emotional intensity, and emotion regulation difficulties. Emotion regulation difficulties included lack of emotional clarity, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Participants with OCPD scored similarly to participants with BPD on only one variable, namely, problems engaging in goal-directed behavior when upset. Results suggest that OCPD may be characterized by notable difficulties in several emotional domains.

  11. Inverse association between dopaminergic neurotransmission and Iowa Gambling Task performance in pathological gamblers and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine system is believed to affect gambling behavior in pathological gambling. Particularly, dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to affect decision-making in the disorder. This study investigated dopamine release in the ventral striatum in relation to gambling performance...... on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 16 Pathological Gamblers (PG) and 14 Healthy Controls (HC). We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the binding potential of [(11)C] raclopride to dopamine D2/3 receptors during a baseline and gambling condition. We hypothesized that decreased raclopride...... binding potentials in the ventral striatum during gambling (indicating dopamine release) would be associated with higher IGT performance in Healthy Controls, but lower IGT performance in Pathological Gamblers. The results showed that Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had...

  12. Electrolyte changes and urinalysis pattern in patients with vesicovaginal fistula compared to their healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Chinwe O Ewenighi; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Joel C. Onyeanusi; Linus U. M. Onoh; Gladys O. Onoh; Babatunde I. Adejumo; Ferdinand Ominyi; Uchechukwu Ezeugwu; Ilo C. Ifeyinwa; Agbapuonwu N. Ebelechukwu; Nnaemeka Okorie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present work aimed to determine the electrolyte and urinalysis pattern among vesicovaginal fistula (VVF) patients admitted into the National Obstetric Fistula Center (NOFC), Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Method: Twenty VVF patients (mean age 27.65 +/- 5.44) from the VVF Unit of NOFC and twenty apparently healthy controls (mean age 25.85 +/- 1.66) from the Medical Laboratory Science Department, Ebonyi State University, were recruited for the study. Serum concentrations o...

  13. Association between subcortical volumes and verbal memory in unmedicated depressed patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arlener D; Furey, Maura L; Drevets, Wayne C; Zarate, Carlos; Nugent, Allison C

    2012-07-01

    Research has shown poor performance on verbal memory tasks in patients with major depressive disorder relative to healthy controls, as well as structural abnormalities in the subcortical structures that form the limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuitry. Few studies, however, have attempted to link the impairments in learning and memory in depression with these structural abnormalities, and of those which have done so, most have included patients medicated with psychotropic agents likely to influence cognitive performance. This study thus examines the relationship between subcortical structural abnormalities and verbal memory using the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) in unmedicated depressed patients. A T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging scan and the CVLT were obtained on 45 subjects with major depressive disorder and 44 healthy controls. Using the FMRIB's Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool (FIRST) volumes of selected subcortical structures were segmented and correlated with CVLT performance. Depressed participants showed significantly smaller right thalamus and right hippocampus volumes than healthy controls. Depressed participants also showed impaired performance on global verbal learning ability, and appeared to depend upon an inferior memory strategy (serial clustering). Measures of serial clustering were correlated significantly with right hippocampal volumes in depressed participants. Our findings indicate that depressed participants and healthy controls differ in the memory strategies they employ, and that while depressed participants had a smaller hippocampal volume, there was a positive correlation between volume and use of an inferior memory strategy. This suggests that larger hippocampal volume is related to better memory recall in depression, but specifically with regard to utilizing an inferior memory strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Association study between COMT 158Met and creativity scores in bipolar disorder and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gerhardt Soeiro-de-Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder (BD patients have been reported to be associated higher creativity abilities, and recent data tend to support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system that could be associated with creativity. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is one of the major enzymes involved in the metabolic degradation of dopamine. The COMT gene polymorphism (rs4680 or Val158Met Met allele is reported to cause decreased activity of this enzyme in prefrontal cortex and improve performance in several cognitive domains. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Val158Met on creativity in BD type I and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-seven healthy volunteers and 120 BD type I were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and tested for creativity (Barrow Welsh Art Scale – BWAS and intelligence Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. Results COMT Met allele positively influenced creativity scores in healthy controls but not in BD subjects during mood episodes and euthymia. The presence of allele Met did not influence IQ scores. No influence of IQ total score on creativity was observed. Limitations control group presented higher IQ scores and euthymic group was under medication use. Discussion Our research suggests positive effect of COMT rs4680 (allele Met on creativity scores in healthy controls. One possible interpretation is that creativity is more likely to be associated with lesser degrees of bipolarity. The fact that the same results were not observed in BD may be associated to dysfunctions in the dopaminergic system that characterizes this disorder. Further studies with larger samples and other types of BD should explore the role of the dopaminergic system in creativity.

  15. Effects of endurance training on brain structures in chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchow, Berend; Keeser, Daniel; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Rauchmann, Boris-Stephan; Kimura, Hiroshi; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Honer, William G; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Schmitt, Andrea; Wobrock, Thomas; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging study was to examine the effects of endurance training on hippocampal and grey matter volumes in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. 20 chronic schizophrenia patients and 21 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3months of endurance training (30min, 3 times per week). 19 additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer ("foosball" in the USA) over the same period. MR imaging with 3D-volumetric T1-weighted sequences was performed on a 3T MR scanner at baseline, after 6weeks and after the 3-month intervention and 3 additional training-free months. In addition to voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we performed manual and automatic delineation of the hippocampus and its substructures. Endurance capacity and psychopathological symptoms were measured as secondary endpoints. No significant increases in the volumes of the hippocampus or hippocampal substructures were observed in schizophrenia patients or healthy controls. However, VBM analyses displayed an increased volume of the left superior, middle and inferior anterior temporal gyri compared to baseline in schizophrenia patients after the endurance training, whereas patients playing table soccer showed increased volumes in the motor and anterior cingulate cortices. After the additional training-free period, the differences were no longer present. While endurance capacity improved in exercising patients and healthy controls, psychopathological symptoms did not significantly change. The subtle changes in the left temporal cortex indicate an impact of exercise on brain volumes in schizophrenia. Subsequent studies in larger cohorts are warranted to address the question of response variability of endurance training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N. D.; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20?% price reductions), and combined (skill-building?+?20?% price reductions) interventions on women?s purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This proce...

  17. The effects of oxytocin on fear recognition in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal eFischer-Shofty

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who suffer from schizophrenia often show a marked deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions, as part of broader impairment of social cognition. Research has shown that recognition of negative emotions, specifically fear recognition, is particularly impaired among patients with schizophrenia. Recently we reported that intranasal administration of OT (IN OT increased the ability to correctly recognize fear in a group of healthy men. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of IN OT administration on fear recognition among patients with schizophrenia. Based on previous research, we also sought to examine a possible selective effect of OT dependent on baseline performance, hypothesizing that IN OT would have a greater enhancement effect on less proficient individuals. It was thus hypothesized that patients will show more improvement in fear recognition following the administration of IN OT as compared to controls. Sixty six participants (31 schizophrenia patients, 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. All participants received treatment of a single dose of 24 IU IN OT and an equivalent amount of placebo, one week apart. The participants’ ability to accurately recognize fear and happiness was evaluated using a face morphing task. Overall, as a group, both patients and healthy control participants were more accurate in recognizing fearful facial expressions, but not happy faces, following IN OT administration, as compared to their performance following placebo. IN OT did not differentially affect emotion recognition in patients and healthy controls. Yet, the results indicated a selective effect for IN OT, in which the hormone improves fear recognition only among individuals whose baseline performance was below the median, regardless of their psychiatric status.

  18. Neurological impairment among heterozygote women for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy: a case control study on a clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurologic impairments in female heterozygotes for X-linked Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) are poorly understood. Our aims were to describe the neurological and neurophysiological manifestations of a cohort of X-ALD heterozygotes, and to correlate them with age, disease duration, mutations, X-inactivation and serum concentrations of a marker of neuronal damage, neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods All 45 heterozygotes identified in our region, with previous VLCFA and molecular diagnosis, were invited to be evaluated through myelopathy scales JOA and SSPROM, nerve conduction studies and somatosensory evoked responses. X inactivation pattern was tested by HUMARA methylation assay. Serum NSE was measured by eletrochemiluminescense. Results Thirty three heterozygote women were recruited: 29 (87%) were symptomatic. Symptomatic and asymptomatic women presented different m ± sd ages (43.9 ± 10.2 versus 24.3 ± 4.6), JOA (14.5 ± 1.7 versus 16.6 ± 0.2) and SSPROM (86.6 ± 7.9 versus 98.4 ± 1.1) scores (p < 0.05). Both JOA (r = −0.68) and SSPROM (r = −0.65) correlated with age, irrespectively of the disease status (p = 0.0001, Spearman). Delayed latencies in the central ascending conduction studies on the lower limbs were present in 72% of all heterozygotes, and correlated with SSPROM (r = −0.47, p = 0.018, Spearman). NSE values were higher in heterozygote than in control women (12.9 ± 7 and 7.2 ± 7 ng/ml, p = 0.012, Mann-Whitney U). Mutation severity and inactivation patterns were not associated with neurologic status. Conclusion Neurologic manifestations, clearly related to age, were quite common in the present cohort. JOA and SSPROM scales were able to discriminate the asymptomatic from the symptomatic heterozygotes. Both scales might be useful tools to follow disease progression, in future studies. PMID:24410807

  19. VRK2 gene expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesli, Martin; Wirgenes, Katrine Verena; Hughes, Timothy; Bettella, Francesco; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Hoseth, Eva S; Nerhus, Mari; Lagerberg, Trine V; Steen, Nils E; Agartz, Ingrid; Melle, Ingrid; Dieset, Ingrid; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole A

    2016-08-01

    Common variants in the Vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2) gene have been associated with schizophrenia, but the relevance of its encoded protein VRK2 in the disorder remains unclear. To identify potential differences in VRK2 gene expression levels between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychosis not otherwise specified (PNOS) and healthy controls. VRK2 mRNA level was measured in whole blood in 652 individuals (schizophrenia, n = 201; bipolar disorder, n = 167; PNOS, n = 61; healthy controls, n = 223), and compared across diagnostic categories and subcategories. Additionally, we analysed for association between 1566 VRK2 single nucleotide polymorphisms and mRNA levels. We found lower VRK2 mRNA levels in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls (Pdisorder (Pdisorder (P = 0.00026). Expression quantitative trait loci in close proximity to the transcription start site of the short isoforms of the VRK2 gene were identified. Altered VRK2 gene expression seems specific for schizophrenia and PNOS, which is in accordance with findings from genome-wide association studies. These results suggest that reduced VRK2 mRNA levels are involved in the underlying mechanisms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Body dysmorphic disorder in university students with skin diseases compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymak, Yeşim; Taner, Ender; Simşek, Işil

    2009-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder appears relatively frequently in dermatological and cosmetic surgery settings; in fact, dermatologists may be the type of practitioner most often consulted by patients with body dysmorphic disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in Turkish university students with skin diseases. A total of 107 outpatients diagnosed with any skin disease and 109 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects recruited from the students of the same university were enrolled in the study. Subjects in both the patient and the control groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Body Dysmorphic Symptoms Scale (BDSS). Groups differed on the basis of BDSS scores (t = 3.74, p = 0.001), with higher scores in the group with skin diseases compared with those for healthy controls. Subjects with skin diseases and higher BDSS scores had higher Beck Depression Inventory scores compared with those with lower BDSS scores (z = 4.13, p = 0.001). This study suggests that patients with skin disease have higher body dysmorphic disorder scores compared with healthy controls.

  1. Differences in tidal breathing between infants with chronic lung diseases and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilitzki S

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic value of tidal breathing (TB measurements in infants is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the breathing pattern of sleeping infants with chronic lung diseases (CLD differ from healthy controls with the same postconceptional age and to assess the predictive value of TB parameters. Methods In the age of 36–42 postconceptional weeks TB measurements were performed in 48 healthy newborns (median age and weight 7d, 3100 g and 48 infants with CLD (80d, 2465 g using the deadspace-free flow-through technique. Once the infants had adapted to the mask and were sleeping quietly and breathing regularly, 20–60 breathing cycles were evaluated. Beside the shape of the tidal breathing flow-volume loop (TBFVL 18 TB parameters were analyzed using ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curves were calculated to investigate the discriminative ability of TB parameters. Results The incidence of concave expiratory limbs in CLD infants was 31% and significantly higher compared to controls (2% (p Conclusion The breathing pattern of CLD infants differs significantly from that of healthy controls. Concave TBFVL and an increased RR measured during quiet sleep and under standardized conditions may indicate diminished respiratory functions in CLD infants whereas most of the commonly used TB parameters are poorly predictive.

  2. Plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity in healthy controls compared with aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Ulku; Gamsiz-Isik, Hikmet; Cifcibasi, Emine; Ademoglu, Evin; Yalcin, Funda

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the plasma and salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and periodontally healthy controls. This cross-sectional study includes of 88 individuals seeking dental treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between January 2011 and March 2012. Fifteen AgP patients were compared with 21 healthy controls (C1), while 36 CP patients were compared with 16 healthy controls (C2). Clinical periodontal measurements were recorded, and plasma and saliva samples were collected. The TAOC of the plasma and saliva samples were determined using a commercially available colorimetric kit. The plasma TAOC of both AgP and CP patients was significantly lower for C1 and C2. The salivary TAOC of CP patients was significantly lower for C2, but there was no significant difference between AgP patients and C1. Our results demonstrate that severe periodontitis may be associated with a lower plasma antioxidant capacity. The reduced antioxidant capacity in patients with severe periodontitis, especially with aggressive forms may be an important contributing factor to severe tissue destruction.

  3. Investigating consummatory and anticipatory pleasure across motivation deficits in schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Susana; Saperia, Sarah; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Daskalakis, Z Jeff; Ravindran, Arun; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; Foussias, George

    2017-08-01

    Anhedonia has traditionally been considered a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, but the true nature of this deficit remains elusive. This study sought to investigate consummatory and anticipatory pleasure as it relates to motivation deficits. Eighty-four outpatients with schizophrenia and 81 healthy controls were administered the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), as well as a battery of clinical and cognitive assessments. Multivariate analyses of variance were used to examine the experience of pleasure as a function of diagnosis, and across levels of motivation deficits (i.e. low vs. moderate. vs. high) in schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses were also conducted to evaluate the predictive value of amotivation in relation to the TEPS. There were no significant differences between schizophrenia and healthy control groups for either consummatory or anticipatory pleasure. Within the schizophrenia patients, only those with high levels of amotivation were significantly impaired in consummatory and anticipatory pleasure compared to low and moderate groups, and compared to healthy controls. Further, our results revealed that amotivation significantly predicts both consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, with no independent contribution of group. Utilizing study samples with a wide range of motivation deficits and incorporating objective paradigms may provide a more comprehensive understanding of hedonic deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Neurorehabilitation, neurology, rehabilitation medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Edina; Szél, István; Fáy, Veronika; Dénes, Zoltán; Lippai, Zoltán; Fazekas, Gábor

    2013-05-30

    We have read several publications of great authority on the neurological profession in the last two years in which were expressed assessments of the current situation combined with opinions about neurology and the necessity to reorganize neurological patient care. These articles took up the question of neurorehabilitation too. The authors, who on a daily basis, deal with the rehabilitation of people with disabilities as a consequence of neurological conditions, summarize some important definitions of rehabilitation medicine and the present system of neurological rehabilitation, as it is defined by the rehabilitation profession.

  5. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors......, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training....... Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here....

  6. Healthy eating decisions require efficient dietary self-control in children: A mouse-tracking food decision study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, T Ryan; Burkart, Dominic; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-10-01

    Learning how to make healthy eating decisions, (i.e., resisting unhealthy foods and consuming healthy foods), enhances physical development and reduces health risks in children. Although healthy eating decisions are known to be challenging for children, the mechanisms of children's food choice processes are not fully understood. The present study recorded mouse movement trajectories while eighteen children aged 8-13 years were choosing between eating and rejecting foods. Children were inclined to choose to eat rather than to reject foods, and preferred unhealthy foods over healthy foods, implying that rejecting unhealthy foods could be a demanding choice. When children rejected unhealthy foods, mouse trajectories were characterized by large curvature toward an eating choice in the beginning, late decision shifting time toward a rejecting choice, and slowed response times. These results suggested that children exercised greater cognitive efforts with longer decision times to resist unhealthy foods, providing evidence that children require dietary self-control to make healthy eating-decisions by resisting the temptation of unhealthy foods. Developmentally, older children attempted to exercise greater cognitive efforts for consuming healthy foods than younger children, suggesting that development of dietary self-control contributes to healthy eating-decisions. The study also documents that healthy weight children with higher BMIs were more likely to choose to reject healthy foods. Overall, findings have important implications for how children make healthy eating choices and the role of dietary self-control in eating decisions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A comparison of vertebral venous networks in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Caroline A; Newell, Nicolas; Izatt, Maree T; Keenan, Bethany E; Askin, Geoffrey N; Labrom, Robert D; Pearcy, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    Cadaveric studies have previously documented a typical pattern of venous drainage within vertebral bodies (VBs), comprised primarily of the basivertebral vein. These studies, however, are limited by the number of samples available. MRI is able to provide 3D images of soft tissue structures in the spine, including the basivertebral vein without the use of contrast in both healthy controls and subjects with abnormal anatomy such as adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This study aimed to quantify the venous networks within VBs of 15 healthy adolescent controls and 15 AIS patients. Five transverse slices through the VBs were examined simultaneously and the observable vascular network traced. The length of the network on the left and right sides of the VB was calculated, and the spatial patterning assessed level-by-level within each subject. Significant differences were seen in the left/right distribution of vessels in both the control and AIS subjects, with both groups having greater length on the right side of all of their VBs. No difference was seen between AIS and control subjects in any region. Large individual variations in patterns were seen in both groups; however, the control group showed more consistent spatial patterning of the vascular networks across levels in comparison to the AIS group. The length of the basivertebral vein was seen to have a significant bias to the right hand side of the VB in both healthy and AIS adolescents. The spatial pattern of this vein showed large variations in branching both within and across individuals. No significant differences were seen between AIS and control subjects, suggesting both that this network is preserved in deformed AIS vertebrae, and that the vertebral venous system does not play a role in the etiology of AIS.

  8. Driving performance in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, interstitial lung disease and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Thomas Skovhus; Troelsen, Thomas Tværmose; Hilberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: 16 patients with COPD (8 receivers and 8 non-receivers of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT)), 8 patients with ILD (consisting of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias) and 8 healthy controls were tested in a driving simulator. Each test lasted 45 min. In the oxygen intervention part of the study...... the patients were randomised to receive oxygen therapy in the first or second test and acted as their own controls. RESULTS: Patients with COPD had significantly impaired driving performance when comparing SD from the centre of the road and number of off-road events to controls. Patients with COPD receiving.......67*; no LTOT 78.92*; ILD 40.00; controls 25.78; *pOxygen therapy had no effect on driving performance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ILD performed similarly to controls in the driving simulator, whereas patients with COPD showed decreased driving performance, especially those receiving LTOT. Doctors...

  9. Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoph, Mary J; Loth, Katie A; Eisenberg, Marla E; Haynos, Ann F; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-12-21

    Investigate the relationship between use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods and weight-related behaviors. Cross-sectional survey in 2015-2016. Young adult respondents (n = 1,817; 57% women; average age 31.0 ± 1.6 years) to the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults-IV survey, the fourth wave of a longitudinal cohort study. Use of Nutrition Facts labels on packaged foods; healthy, unhealthy, and extreme weight control behaviors; intuitive eating; binge eating. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, ethnicity/race, education, income, and weight status. In women, greater Nutrition Facts use was associated with a 23% and 10% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a 17% greater chance of engaging in binge eating. In men, greater label use was associated with a 27% and 17% greater likelihood of engaging in healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, respectively, and a lower level of intuitive eating. Professionals advising patients and clients on weight management may consider possible gender differences in response to weight loss and management guidance. Since label use was related to engagement in some unhealthy behaviors in addition to healthy behaviors, it is important to consider how individuals may use labels, particularly those at risk for, or engaging in, disordered eating behaviors. Future research investigating potential relationships between Nutrition Facts use, intuitive eating, and binge eating is needed. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Trait Self-Control on Response Conflict About Healthy and Unhealthy Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillebaart, Marleen; Schneider, Iris K; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-12-01

    Self-control leads to positive life outcomes, but it is poorly understood. While previous research has focused on self-control failure, self-control success remains unexplored. The current studies aim to shed more light on the mechanisms of self-control by focusing on the resolution of response conflict as a key component in self-control success. Trait self-control was measured, and participants reported on the magnitude of response conflict they experienced about healthy and unhealthy foods in Study 1 (N = 146; M age  = 33.03; 59 females, 83 males, 4 unknown). The response conflict process was assessed in Study 2 (N = 118; M age  = 21.45; 68 females, 41 males, 9 unknown). Outcomes showed that self-reported evaluative response conflict about food items was smaller for people high in trait self-control. Study 2 revealed that higher trait self-control predicted faster resolution of self-control conflict, and an earlier peak of the response conflict. Taken together, these results provide insight into what makes people with high trait self-control successful, namely, how they handle response conflict. Implications for self-control theories and future directions are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gait variability in people with neurological disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yaejin; Sung, JongHun; An, Ruopeng; Hernandez, Manuel E; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2016-06-01

    There has been growing evidence showing gait variability provides unique information about gait characteristics in neurological disorders. This study systemically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized (via meta-analysis) existing evidence on gait variability in various neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), cerebellar ataxia (CA), Huntington's disease (HD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Keyword search were conducted in PubMed, Web of science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Cochrane Library. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the pooled effect size for gait variability for each neurological group. Meta-regression was performed to compare gait variability across multiple groups with neurological diseases. Gait variability of 777 patients with AD, ALS, CA, HD, MS, or PD participating in 25 studies was included in meta-analysis. All pathological groups had increased amount of gait variability and loss of fractal structure of gait dynamics compared to healthy controls, and gait variability differentiated distinctive neurological conditions. The HD groups had the highest alterations in gait variability among all pathological groups, whereas the PD, AD and MS groups had the lowest. Interventions that aim to improve gait function in patients with neurological disorders should consider the heterogeneous relationship between gait variability and neurological conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECT OF CORE STABILITY TRAINING ON DYNAMIC BALANCE IN HEALTHY YOUNG ADULTS - A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhvani N Shah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Balance is a key component of normal daily activities. Therefore, it is necessary to find various programs to improve balance. The core functions to maintain postural alignment and balance during functional activities. The purpose was to study the effects of the core stability training on dynamic balance in healthy, young adults. Methods: It was an interventional study, in which 60 healthy young adults were selected. They were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each, one being experimental group and other control group. Measurement of their height, weight, BMI and leg length was taken. Subjects in both the groups were assessed for core stability with pressure biofeedback unit (PBU and dynamic balance using Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT pre and post intervention. Subjects in the experimental group underwent progressive core stability training program for six weeks (3days/week and control group was refrained from any type of structured training program. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in core stability and dynamic balance of the experimental group after six weeks of intervention. Conclusion: It is concluded that core stability training of six weeks duration is effective in improving dynamic balance in healthy, young adults.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of kimchi in chinese healthy college students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansongyi; Kim, Do Yeon; Lee, Mi Ae; Jang, Ja-Young; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the potential immunomodulatory effects of Kimchi, a traditional fermented Korean vegetable, in healthy Chinese college students. The four-week clinical-trial (randomized, open-label, prospective, controlled) was followed by a one week wash-out period. Healthy Chinese college students (over 20 years of age with a body mass index of 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2)) volunteered for this study. Forty-three students were randomly classified into two groups, Kimchi (n = 21, supplemented with 100 g of Kimchi per day) or non-Kimchi (n = 22, supplemented with 100 g of radish per day, control) groups. During the four-week intervention period, students were asked to maintain their usual diet and activity, and instructed not to take any medications, functional food products, or dietary supplements. Anthropometrics, nutritional intake, and blood immune parameters (lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immunoglobulins) were measured before and after the four weeks of intervention. Thirty-nine students (19 in the Kimchi group, 20 in the non-Kimchi group) finished the study. After the intervention, no significant changes were observed in lymphocyte subsets (T-cell, B-cell, NK cell), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), and immunoglobulins (Ig A, G, and M) between groups in either the Kimchi or non-Kimchi. These results suggest that the short-term consumption of Kimchi has no immunomodulatory effects in healthy Chinese college students.

  14. Theory of mind, insecure attachment and paranoia in adolescents with early psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Meijer, Carin J; Koeter, Maarten W J; Shergill, Sukhi S; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2013-08-01

    Impaired Theory of Mind (ToM) is found in adults with schizophrenia and is associated with paranoid symptoms. Insecure attachment is proposed to underlie impaired ToM as well as paranoia. Insight into associations between insecure attachment and impaired ToM skills may help clinicians and patients to understand interpersonal difficulties and use this knowledge to improve recovery. This study used a visual perspective-taking task to investigate whether cognitive ToM is already impaired in adolescents with early psychosis as compared to controls. Also investigated was whether perspective-taking and paranoia are associated with insecure (adult) attachment. Thirty-two adolescent patients with early psychosis and 78 healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study design and completed the level 1 perspective-taking task, psychopathology assessments (CAPE, PANSS), paranoid thoughts (GPTS), attachment style (PAM) and the WASI vocabulary. Patients did not significantly differ in level-1 perspective-taking behaviour compared to healthy controls. No significant associations were found between perspective-taking, paranoia and attachment. Insecure attachment was significantly related to paranoid thoughts, after controlling for illness-related symptoms. No impairment of level-1 perspective-taking was found in adolescent patients with early psychosis compared to healthy controls. Results indicate that level-1 perspective-taking is not impaired during the early stages of psychotic illness. The association between paranoia and attachment support previous findings and provide further insight into the nature of psychotic symptoms. Understanding the role of attachment in paranoia may help patients and their care workers to gain insight into the reasons for the development or persistence of symptoms. Future research should compare early psychosis samples with more chronic samples to explore whether perspective-taking deteriorates during the course of the illness.

  15. Proprioceptive reflexes and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Proprioceptive reflexes play an important role during the control of movement and posture. Disturbed modulation of proprioceptive reflexes is often suggested as the cause for the motoric features present in neurological disorders. In this thesis methods are developed and evaluated to quantify

  16. Chapter 38: American neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding.

  17. Prevalence of contact allergy in children suffering from atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silny, Wojciech; Bartoszak, Leszek; Jenerowicz, Dorota; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Goździewska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children. There is only scarce literature data on the prevalence of contact allergy in children with atopic dermatitis. To assess the prevalence of contact allergy among children with atopic dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and in a population of healthy children. Patch tests were performed in 104 children aged 1-20 years treated for atopic dermatitis in the Department of Dermatology, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, and also in 2 control groups: 15 subjects with seborrhoeic dermatitis (15-20 years) and 36 healthy children (1-20 years). In children with atopic dermatitis, contact allergy was observed in 47/104 patients (45.2%). With regards to the 3 age subgroups, positive patch test results were detected in 30/43 in children aged 1-5 years (69.8%), 13/36 in children aged 6-14 years (36.1%) and in 4/25 adolescents 15-20 years of age (16%). The highest proportion of positive patch tests was detected in the youngest subgroup of healthy children. Comparative analysis revealed type IV hypersensitivity statistically significantly more frequent in children with atopic dermatitis than in the 2 control groups. The statistically significant positive results in the highest proportion of patch tests in the youngest age subpopulation of children with atopic dermatitis, and detection of contact allergy most commonly in the youngest subgroup of healthy children, may suggest nonspecifically positive results associated with the immaturity of the epidermal barrier during the first years of life. Concentrations of contact allergens included in current pediatric sets of patch tests seems to be too high and should be verified.

  18. Differences in nutritional status between very mild Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Verhey, Frans R; Sijben, John W C; Bouwman, Femke H; Dautzenberg, Paul L J; Lansink, Mirian; Sipers, Walther M W; van Asselt, Dieneke Z B; van Hees, Anneke M J; Stevens, Martijn; Vellas, Bruno; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the systemic availability of nutrients and nutritional status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widely available, but the majority included patients in a moderate stage of AD. This study compares the nutritional status between mild AD outpatients and healthy controls. A subgroup of Dutch drug-naïve patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ≥20) from the Souvenir II randomized controlled study (NTR1975) and a group of Dutch healthy controls were included. Nutritional status was assessed by measuring levels of several nutrients, conducting the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®) questionnaire and through anthropometric measures. In total, data of 93 healthy cognitively intact controls (MMSE 29.0 [23.0-30.0]) and 79 very mild AD patients (MMSE = 25.0 [20.0-30.0]) were included. Plasma selenium (p < 0.001) and uridine (p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in AD patients, with a similar trend for plasma vitamin D (p = 0.094) levels. In addition, the fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes was different between groups for several fatty acids. Mean MNA screening score was significantly lower in AD patients (p = 0.008), but not indicative of malnutrition risk. No significant differences were observed for other micronutrient or anthropometric parameters. In non-malnourished patients with very mild AD, lower levels of some micronutrients, a different fatty acid profile in erythrocyte membranes and a slightly but significantly lower MNA screening score were observed. This suggests that subtle differences in nutrient status are present already in a very early stage of AD and in the absence of protein/energy malnutrition.

  19. Older adult Alexander Technique practitioners walk differently than healthy age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Kate A; Ross, Christopher; Schultz, Brooke; O'Neill, Matthew; Anderson, David I

    2016-10-01

    The Alexander Technique (AT) seeks to eliminate harmful patterns of tension that interfere with the control of posture and movement and in doing so, it may serve as a viable intervention method for increasing gait efficacy in older adults. The purpose of this study was to compare the comfortable pace gait kinematics of older AT practitioners with those of healthy, age-matched controls. Participants were six licensed AT practitioners and seven healthy age-matched controls between the ages of 61-76. During the stance phase, AT participants exhibited significantly greater ankle stance range of motion (ROM) and plantar flexion at toe off, as well as lower ROM of the trunk and head compared to controls. During the swing phase, the AT practitioners had significantly increased hip and knee flexion and a trend toward significantly increased dorsiflexion. The findings suggest that the older AT practitioners walked with gait patterns more similar to those found in the literature for younger adults. These promising results highlight the need for further research to assess the AT's potential role as an intervention method for ameliorating the deleterious changes in gait that occur with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebral injury in perinatally HIV-infected children compared to matched healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Sophie; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate the neurologic state of perinatally HIV-infected children on combination antiretroviral therapy and to attain a better insight into the pathogenesis of their persistent neurologic and cognitive deficits. We included perinatally HIV-infected children between 8 and

  1. Republished: Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS disorders increased by 41% between 1990 and 2010 and now accounts for one in every 10 lost years of health globally. This sobering statistic does not take into account the substantial excess mortality associated with these disorders or the social and economic consequences of MNS disorders on affected persons, their caregivers, and society. A wide variety of effective interventions, including drugs, psychological treatments, and social interventions, can prevent and treat MNS disorders. At the population-level platform of service delivery, best practices include legislative measures to restrict access to means of self-harm or suicide and to reduce the availability of and demand for alcohol. At the community-level platform, best practices include life-skills training in schools to build social and emotional competencies. At the health-care-level platform, we identify three delivery channels. Two of these delivery channels are especially relevant from a public health perspective: self-management (eg, web-based psychological therapy for depression and anxiety disorders and primary care and community outreach (eg, non-specialist health worker delivering psychological and pharmacological management of selected disorders. The third delivery channel, hospital care, which includes specialist services for MNS disorders and first-level hospitals providing other types of services (such as general medicine, HIV, or paediatric care, play an important part for a smaller proportion of cases with severe, refractory, or emergency presentations and for the integration of mental health care in other health-care channels, respectively. The costs of providing a significantly scaled up package of specified cost-effective interventions for prioritised MNS disorders in low-income and lower-middle-income countries is estimated at US$3-4 per head of population per year. Since a substantial proportion of MNS

  2. Addressing the burden of mental, neurological, and substance use disorders: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Chisholm, Dan; Parikh, Rachana; Charlson, Fiona J; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dua, Tarun; Ferrari, Alize J; Hyman, Steve; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Levin, Carol; Lund, Crick; Medina Mora, María Elena; Petersen, Inge; Scott, James; Shidhaye, Rahul; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Thornicroft, Graham; Whiteford, Harvey

    2016-04-16

    The burden of mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders increased by 41% between 1990 and 2010 and now accounts for one in every 10 lost years of health globally. This sobering statistic does not take into account the substantial excess mortality associated with these disorders or the social and economic consequences of MNS disorders on affected persons, their caregivers, and society. A wide variety of effective interventions, including drugs, psychological treatments, and social interventions, can prevent and treat MNS disorders. At the population-level platform of service delivery, best practices include legislative measures to restrict access to means of self-harm or suicide and to reduce the availability of and demand for alcohol. At the community-level platform, best practices include life-skills training in schools to build social and emotional competencies. At the health-care-level platform, we identify three delivery channels. Two of these delivery channels are especially relevant from a public health perspective: self-management (eg, web-based psychological therapy for depression and anxiety disorders) and primary care and community outreach (eg, non-specialist health worker delivering psychological and pharmacological management of selected disorders). The third delivery channel, hospital care, which includes specialist services for MNS disorders and first-level hospitals providing other types of services (such as general medicine, HIV, or paediatric care), play an important part for a smaller proportion of cases with severe, refractory, or emergency presentations and for the integration of mental health care in other health-care channels, respectively. The costs of providing a significantly scaled up package of specified cost-effective interventions for prioritised MNS disorders in low-income and lower-middle-income countries is estimated at US$3-4 per head of population per year. Since a substantial proportion of MNS disorders run a

  3. Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz Çepni, Serap; Kitiş, Yeter

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. The study included 572 undergraduate students of a university in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were collected with the General Characteristics Form, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Health Competence Scale and investigated with the structural equation model. Health-specific self-efficacy was an important predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Internal health locus of control influenced the healthy lifestyle behaviors through health-specific self-efficacy. The other dimension was the Powerful Others health locus of control that affected healthy lifestyle behaviors, both directly and indirectly, through health-specific self-efficacy. There was a chance that the health locus of control had a negative effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors through self-efficacy. Health-specific self-efficacy is an important prerequisite for changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which supports Pender's model. The subscales of the health locus of control vary in their effects on healthy lifestyle behaviors, which partly supports Pender's model. Nurses, by using this model, can examine ways of improving these cognitive-perceptual factors and implement health education programs that are directed towards improving them in young persons. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  5. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetics of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Mottagui-Tabar, Salim; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2004-05-01

    Neurological diseases are defined as an inappropriate function of the peripheral or central nervous system due to impaired electrical impulses throughout the brain and/or nervous system that may present with heterogeneous symptoms according to the parts of the system involved in these pathologic processes. Growing evidence on genetic components of neurological disease have been collected during recent years. Genetic studies have opened the way for understanding the underlying pathology of many neurological disorders. The outcome of current intense research into the genetics of neurological disorders will hopefully be the introduction of new diagnostic tools and the discovery of potential targets for new and more effective medications and preventive measures.

  7. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or head Electromyogram (EMG), nerve conduction velocities (NCV) MRI of the back, neck, or head Spinal tap Alternative Names Neurological deficits - focal Images Brain References Daroff RB, Jankovic ...

  8. Theory of mind in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, A; Oral, N; Utku, C; Baysak, E; Candansayar, S

    2010-03-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to represent one's own or another's mental states and has been found to be impaired in many psychiatric disorders. Our objective was to compare ToM abilities of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with healthy controls and to investigate the relation between some illness features, other cognitive functions and ToM abilities of patients. Thirty OCD patients and age, sex and education matched 30 healthy controls were compared according to their performances on ToM tasks (including first and second order false belief, hinting task and double-bluff task), verbal memory processes test, Weschler memory test (WMT) (logical memory, visual reproduction and digit span sub-tests), stroop test. Patients' performances were worse than healthy controls on all of the ToM tasks, but the results were significant for only for double-bluff task (t=-3.992, df=36.157, p<0.01). Performance on double-bluff task was significantly and positively correlated with visual reproduction-immediate recall (r=-0.411, p<0.05) and visual reproduction-delayed recall (r=0.478, p<0.05), hinting task was significantly and positively correlated with verbal memory (r=0.481, p<0.05). These results show "basic" ToM abilities of OCD patients are generally preserved, but they show significant reduction in their "advanced" ToM abilities, which seem to be related to their reduced memory capacities. The possible reasons for the relation between memory and ToM impairments, as well as the clinical significance of ToM deficits in OCD are discussed. 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Pulmonary Hypertension with CMR: Pulmonary Hypertension 
Patients and Healthy Volunteers Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng WANG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The clinical course of pulmonary hypertension (PH is one of progressive deterioration interspersed with episodes of acute decompensation. It is difficult to predict when patients will die because death may come either suddenly or slowly due to progressive heart failure. The aim of this study is to investigate morphology, function and hemodynamics in PH, compared with healthy people, and to investigate the clinical value of detection of PH by use of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR parameters. Methods CMR was performed in 56 PH patients collected from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 and 22 healthy controls. The following parameters were calculated: right ventricle (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, ejection fraction (EF, myocardial mass (MM, RV fractional area change (RVFAC, interventricular septal curvature (CIVS, left ventricular free wall curvature (CFW, and CIVS/CFW, main pulmonary artery (MPA positive peak velocity, maximal area, minimal area and distensibility. Comparisons of CMR measurements between PH patients and controls were analyzed by using the student t-tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to compare the PH diagnostic abilities for four parameters (MPA positive peak velocity, distensibility, curvature ratio, and RVFAC and combined CMR parameter. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Compared with healthy controls, RV morphology, function and hemodynamics of PH group declined and deteriorate obviously. The ROC curve analysis showed that among the four parameters distensibility of MPA had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.95. Additionally, combined CMR parameter (positive peak velocity+distensibility+curvature ratio+RVFAC had even higher AUC (AUC=0.988. Conclusion Comprehensive CMR parameters is conducive to accurately reflect the overall state RV-pulmonary circulation in patients with PH.

  10. CACNA1C risk variant and amygdala activity in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tesli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Several genetic studies have implicated the CACNA1C SNP rs1006737 in bipolar disorder (BD and schizophrenia (SZ pathology. This polymorphism was recently found associated with increased amygdala activity in healthy controls and patients with BD. We performed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study in a sample of BD and SZ cases and healthy controls to test for altered amygdala activity in carriers of the rs1006737 risk allele (AA/AG, and to investigate if there were differences across the diagnostic groups. METHODS: Rs1006737 was genotyped in 250 individuals (N = 66 BD, 61 SZ and 123 healthy controls, all of Northern European origin, who underwent an fMRI negative faces matching task. Statistical tests were performed with a model correcting for sex, age, diagnostic category and medication status in the total sample, and then in each diagnostic group. RESULTS: In the total sample, carriers of the risk allele had increased activation in the left amygdala. Group-wise analyses showed that this effect was significant in the BD group, but not in the other diagnostic groups. However, there was no significant interaction effect for the risk allele between BD and the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CACNA1C SNP rs1006737 affects amygdala activity during emotional processing across all diagnostic groups. The current findings add to the growing body of knowledge of the pleiotropic effect of this polymorphism, and further support that ion channel dysregulation is involved in the underlying mechanisms of BD and SZ.

  11. Gastrointestinal tolerance of low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements in healthy human subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Korczak, Renee; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-05-25

    There has been increasing interest in utilizing a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disease. While studies have indicated that this diet can be effective at symptom reduction, it is a restrictive diet and patients may find it challenging to find low FODMAP products to meet their nutrient needs. The primary objective of this study was to assess the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of three low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements (ONS) in healthy adults. A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study was conducted in 21 healthy adults (19-32 years). Fasted subjects consumed one of four treatments at each visit, with a one week wash out period between visits. Each participant received all treatments. Treatments included three low FODMAP ONS formulas (A, B, and C) as well as a positive control consisting of 5 g fructooligosaccharides (FOS) mixed in lactose-free milk. Breath hydrogen was measured at baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 h post treatment consumption. Subjective GI symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h following treatment consumption. Mean breath hydrogen concentrations and baseline corrected area under the curve for both breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were analyzed and compared between treatments. Significance was determined at P FODMAP ONS beverages at 3 and 4 h after consumption. There were no differences in GI symptom response between treatments. All treatments were well tolerated in healthy participants. The low FODMAP formulas resulted in a lower breath hydrogen response compared to the positive control, and may be better tolerated in individuals with IBS. More research should be conducted to better understand the GI tolerance of low FODMAP ONS in individuals with IBS. The protocol for this study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov in January 2016 (Clinical

  12. Brain responses to sound intensity changes dissociate depressed participants and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, Elisa M; Astikainen, Piia

    2017-07-01

    Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants. In addition, both depression groups, but not the control group, showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant than standard sounds. Whether these manifestations of sensory over-excitability in depression are directly related to the serotonergic neurotransmission requires further research. The method based on ERPs to sound intensity change is fast and low-cost way to objectively measure brain activation and holds promise as a future diagnostic tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of sleep deprivation on nocturnal cytokine concentrations in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Fiebich, Bernd L; Dersch, Rick; Feige, Bernd; Piosczyk, Hannah; Kopasz, Marta; Riemann, Dieter; Lieb, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported alterations of cytokine and cytokine-receptor concentrations in psychiatric patient populations, including patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, study results are conflicting, and possible causes for these abnormalities are unknown. Since sleep deprivation may induce a rapid improvement of mood in depressed patients, the authors investigated the impact of total sleep deprivation (TSD) for one night, and subsequent recovery sleep, on nocturnal concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in 15 unmedicated patients with MDD and 16 healthy volunteers. Whereas IL-6 levels normalized again during the recovery night in depressed patients, they were still elevated in control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1RA were higher in depressed patients than in controls, but were not affected by TSD. During recovery sleep, IL-1RA levels increased as compared with the preceding TSD night only in controls. Responders (N=8) differed from nonresponders (N=7) to TSD with regard to IL-1RA, which increased significantly during TSD in responders only. Sleep deprivation therefore seems to significantly affect cytokine levels in both depressed patients and healthy subjects, but does so in different ways. Sleep disturbances in depressed patients could account for the increased levels of cytokines found in these patients in several previous studies. The interaction between antidepressant effects of TSD and alterations of cytokines warrants further investigation.

  15. Sexual Functioning, Desire, and Satisfaction in Women with TBI and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Strizzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI can substantially alter many areas of a person’s life and there has been little research published regarding sexual functioning in women with TBI. Methods. A total of 58 women (29 with TBI and 29 healthy controls from Neiva, Colombia, participated. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in sociodemographic characteristics. All 58 women completed the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoL, Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI, Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI, and the Sexual Satisfaction Index (ISS. Results. Women with TBI scored statistically significantly lower on the SQoL (p<0.001, FSFI subscales of desire (p<0.05, arousal (p<0.05, lubrication (p<0.05, orgasm (p<0.05, and satisfaction (p<0.05, and the ISS (p<0.001 than healthy controls. Multiple linear regressions revealed that age was negatively associated with some sexuality measures, while months since the TBI incident were positively associated with these variables. Conclusion. These results disclose that women with TBI do not fare as well as controls in these measures of sexual functioning and were less sexually satisfied. Future research is required to further understand the impact of TBI on sexual function and satisfaction to inform for rehabilitation programs.

  16. Knee joint laxity and passive stiffness in meniscectomized patients compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Creaby, Mark W; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Bennell, Kim L

    2014-10-01

    Passive mechanical behavior of the knee in the frontal plane, measured as angular laxity and mechanical stiffness, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Little is known about knee laxity and stiffness prior to knee OA onset. We investigated knee joint angular laxity and passive stiffness in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee OA compared with healthy controls. Sixty patients meniscectomized for a medial meniscal tear (52 men, 41.4 ± 5.5 years, 175.3 ± 7.9 cm, 83.6 ± 12.8 kg, mean ± SD) and 21 healthy controls (18 men, 42.0 ± 6.7 years, 176.8 ± 5.7 cm, 77.8 ± 13.4 kg) had their knee joint angular laxity and passive stiffness assessed twice ~2.3 years apart. Linear regression models including age, sex, height and body mass as covariates in the adjusted model were used to assess differences between groups. Greater knee joint varus (-10.1 vs. -7.3°, pknee joint angular laxity and reduced passive stiffness ~3 months post surgery compared with controls. In addition, the results indicated that knee joint laxity may increase over time in meniscectomized patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Salivary Vitamin C and Catalase in HIV Positive and Healthy HIV Negative Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Vaziri-Amjad, Samaneh; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-01-01

    Saliva is a complex oral biologic fluid secreted by major and minor salivary glands. Saliva has immunological, enzymatic and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a life-threatening disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate salivary vitamin C and catalase levels in HIV-positive patients in comparison to a healthy control group. Forty-nine HIV-infected individuals and 49 healthy subjects were selected. Five mL of unstimulated saliva was collected in 5 minutes using a sterilized Falcon tube with Navazesh method. Catalase and vitamin C levels were assessed by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with STATA 12. Salivary catalase levels were 7.99±2.40 and 8.37±1.81 in the case and control groups, respectively. Catalase level was lower in the case group but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.380). Salivary vitamin C levels in the case and control groups were 3.76±1.92 and 4.87±2.20, respectively (P=0.009). HIV can alter salivary antioxidant capacity as well as vitamin C and catalase levels. Saliva may reflect serum antioxidative changes in these patients. Therefore, further research is necessary on salivary and serum oxidants and the antioxidant changes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Neuropsychology, Social Cognition and Global Functioning Among Bipolar, Schizophrenic Patients and Healthy Controls: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eCaletti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD, schizophrenic patients (SKZ and healthy controls (HC. The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, it includes stabilized schizophrenic patients (n = 30, euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 18. Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however the differences did not influence the results. Bipolar patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to schizophrenic patients, even in ecological tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p

  19. Morphometrical and morphological analysis of lateral ventricles in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meduri, Mario; Bramanti, Placido; Ielitro, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Angelo; Milardi, Demetrio; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna; Bruno, Antonio; Micò, Umberto; Pandolfo, Gianluca; La Torre, Diletta; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Anastasi, Giuseppe

    2010-07-30

    The goal of this report was to highlight lateral ventricle morphology and volume differences between schizophrenia patients and matched controls. Subjects identified as suitable for analysis comprised 15 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects. The method applied is three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering starting from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of selected ventricular regions. Differences between groups relative to the global ventricular system and its subdivisions were found. Total lateral ventricle volume, right ventricle volume and left ventricle volume were all higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls; unilateral differences between the two groups were also outlined (right ventricle volume>left ventricle volume in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy subjects). Furthermore, occipital and frontal horn enlargement was found in schizophrenia patients compared with normal controls, but the difference in the temporal horn was not statistically significant. A substantial difference was noted in lateral ventricle morphology between the two groups. Our findings were consistent with the literature and may shed light on some of the discrepancies in previous reports on differences in lateral ventricle volume enlargement. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Comparison of relative TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression level of disease and healthy gingival tissue of smoking and non-smoking patients and periodontally healthy control patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Radvar, M; Rezaee, A; Rafatpanah, H; Azangoo khiavi, H; Dadpour, Y; Radvar, N

    2013-09-01

    Toll-like receptors are a family of sensor proteins that induce the inflammatory diseases in context of microbial infection. The role of these proteins in periodontal disease and their interaction with smoking status are yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on gene expression of toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) in patients with periodontitis. RNAs were extracted from gingival biopsies of healthy sites (no bleeding on probing and pocket depth ≤3 mm) as well as diseased sites (with bleeding on probing and pocket depth ≥5 mm) of 20 smoker and 17 non-smoker subjects with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies from eight periodontally healthy, never-smoker subjects served as control. Real-time PCR was carried out to evaluate the relative quantities of TLR-2 and TLR-4 mRNA concentrations. Regardless of smoking status, the relative expression levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 were significantly greater (about 3 fold) at diseased sites compared to healthy sites of patients with periodontitis and healthy controls (p periodontitis, smoking caused an increase of about 6.5 fold in mRNA levels of TLR-4 in gingival tissue (p periodontitis might significantly increase TLR-2 and TLR-4 gene expression in gingival tissues, smoking habit in periodontitis subjects could selectively potentiate TLR-4 gene expression. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  1. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING AND SOFT ORTHOSIS APPLICATION ON THE PAIN AND FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY IN LUMBAR REGION PATHOLOGIES WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL DEFICITS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu TALU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Back pain caused by lumbar region pathologies is a condition that leads to loss of productivity and physical disability, with high costs of diagnosis and treatment. This study was planned to investigate the effect of taping and soft orthosis application on the pain and functional disability in the pathology of lumbar region without neurological deficit. Methods: This study is randomized controlled trial. Sixty-three volunteer patients were randomly divided into three groups of 21 people. Group I, soft orthotics and stabilization exercise program; Group II, Kinesio taping and stabilization exercise program; Group III, stabilization exercise program was applied. After obtaining demographic data of the participants; patients were evaluated in terms of range of motion and muscle strength. We used visual analog scale for pain level assessment, sit and reach test for flexibility assessment, timed up and go test (TUG for functional ambulation and balance, modified Schober test for lumbar spine flexibility, Oswestry Disability Index in the assessment of functional disability. They were assessed at the pretreatment, third (post treatment and six week (home programs and follow-up. Results: The results showed that significant differences (p<0.05 occurred over time in the study parameters such as functional ambulation, flexibility, lumbar flexibility, functional disability, pain, strength, range of motion in all groups. In comparisons between groups, there was a difference mainly in favor of Group II (p<0.05. Conclusions: We have concluded that in lumbar region pathologies without neurological deficits, stabilization exercises combined with orthotics and Kinesio taping applications reduces pain and functional disability.

  2. Usability and Performance Measure of a Consumer-grade Brain Computer Interface System for Environmental Control by Neurological Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Deravi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic brain injury patients and the current financial constraints in healthcare budgets, there is a need for a more intelligent way to realise the current practice of neuro-rehabilitation service provision. Brain-computer Interface (BCI systems have the potential to address this issue to a certain extent only if carefully designed research can demonstrate that these systems are accurate, safe, cost-effective, are able to increase patient/carer satisfaction and enhance their quality of life. Therefore, one of the objectives of the proposed study was to examine whether participants (patients with brain injury and a sample of reference population were able to use a low cost BCI system (Emotiv EPOC to interact with a computer and to communicate via spelling words. Patients participated in the study did not have prior experience in using BCI headsets so as to measure the user experience in the first-exposure to BCI training. To measure emotional arousal of participants we used an ElectroDermal Activity Sensor (Qsensor by Affectiva. For the signal processing and feature extraction of imagery controls the Cognitive Suite of Emotiv's Control Panel was used. Our study reports the key findings based on data obtained from a group of patients and a sample reference population and presents the implications for the design and development of a BCI system for communication and control. The study also evaluates the performance of the system when used practically in context of an acute clinical environment

  3. Comparison of functional exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in patients with multiple sclerosis with different disability levels and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnak-Guclu, Meral; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla

    2012-01-01

    To compare functional exercise capacity, pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength in fully ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis with different disability levels and healthy controls, and to elucidate the determinant factors of functional exercise capacity. Forty-three fully ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS); Group I (EDSS 0-2), Group II (EDSS 2.5-4.5). Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using a six-minute walk test, and measurement of pulmonary function, and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP, MEP). The Pulmonary Index was used as a clinical predictor of respiratory dysfunction. Respiratory muscle strength was lower in multiple sclerosis groups compared with controls, but the difference in MIP and %MIP did not reach statistical significance in Group I. The six-minute walk test distance was significantly shorter and peak expiratory flow was lower in multiple sclerosis groups (p difference in heart rate (R2 = 0.06, p = 0.007), age (R2 = 0.05, p = 0.009) and gender (R2 = 0.09, p = 0.003). Respiratory muscles are weakened, functional exercise capacity is reduced and pulmonary function is affected even in the early phase of multiple sclerosis. Ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis who have a higher level of disability have lower pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity than less disabled ones and controls. Neurological disability level, age, gender and heart rate difference on exertion are the determinants of functional exercise capacity.

  4. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  5. Lipoic Acid Stimulates cAMP Production in Healthy Control and Secondary Progressive MS Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sarah E; Yadav, Vijayshree; Kerns, Amelia R; Tsang, Catherine; Markwardt, Sheila; Kim, Edward; Spain, Rebecca; Bourdette, Dennis; Salinthone, Sonemany

    2017-11-15

    Lipoic acid (LA) exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; supplementation reduces disease severity and T lymphocyte migration into the central nervous system in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and administration in secondary progressive MS (SPMS) subjects reduces brain atrophy compared to placebo. The mechanism of action (MOA) of LA's efficacy in suppression of MS pathology is incompletely understood. LA stimulates production of the immunomodulator cyclic AMP (cAMP) in vitro. To determine whether cAMP could be involved in the MOA of LA in vivo, we performed a clinical trial to examine whether LA stimulates cAMP production in healthy control and MS subjects, and whether there are differences in the bioavailability of LA between groups. We administered 1200 mg of oral LA to healthy control, relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and SPMS subjects, and measured plasma LA and cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There were no significant differences between the groups in pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters. Healthy and SPMS subjects had increased cAMP at 2 and 4 h post-LA treatment compared to baseline, while RRMS subjects showed decreases in cAMP. Additionally, plasma concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a known cAMP stimulator) were significantly lower in female RRMS subjects compared to female HC and SPMS subjects 4 h after LA ingestion. These data indicate that cAMP could be part of the MOA of LA in SPMS, and that there is a divergent response to LA in RRMS subjects that may have implications in the efficacy of immunomodulatory drugs. This clinical trial, "Defining the Anti-inflammatory Role of Lipoic Acid in Multiple Sclerosis," NCT00997438, is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00997438 .

  6. 77 FR 75441 - Healthy Home and Lead Hazard Control Grant Programs Data Collection; Progress Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... progress of Healthy Homes Demonstration Program, Healthy Homes Technical Studies Program, Lead Base paint... through the use of appropriate automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e... of Healthy Homes Demonstration Program, Healthy Homes Technical Studies Program, Lead Base paint...

  7. Functional neurological disorders: imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V

    2014-10-01

    Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS × What research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological ... the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Living with HIV/AIDS See More About Research The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke ( ...

  9. Intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders in Benin City, Nigeria: intensity and behavioral risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaneri, Damia Uchechukwu; Ibadin, Michael Okoeguale; Ofovwe, Gabriel Egberue; Sadoh, Ayebo Evawere

    2013-05-01

    Behavioral aberrations such as nail biting, finger sucking, and pica have been postulated as risk factors that enhance helminths ova transmission. These aberrations may present commonly in children with chronic neurological disorders and predispose them to heavy intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. This comparative cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and behavioral risk factors for intestinal helminthiasis in children with chronic neurological disorders and apparently healthy controls. Fresh stool samples from 155 children (2-17 years) with chronic neurological disorders seen at the child neurology clinic and 155 age and sex matched controls from nursery and primary schools in Benin City were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique for detection of ova of helminths from November 2008 to April 2009. The prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis (31.0%) was significantly higher in children with chronic neurological disorders compared with the controls (19.4%) (P=0.03). The intensity of infections in both groups was light ranging 24-144 eggs per gram. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were the intestinal helminths isolated in both groups. Behavioral aberrations were significantly more represented in the subjects than in the controls (Pworming exercise were practices significantly associated with decreased prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in the subjects and controls. Behavioral modification in children with chronic neurological disorders should be an integral part of the control program for intestinal helminthiasis.

  10. Temperamental Characteristics in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparison with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ekinci, Suat; ?ZDEL, Kadir; ?nc?, Bedriye; ?olak, Bur?in; Kandemir, Hasan; Canat, Saynur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, the affective temperamental characteristics of adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been studied. The aim of this study is to explore those temperamental characteristics for adults diagnosed with ADHD as measured by the TEMPS-A and then to compare those results with results for individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) and with healthy controls. Methods Forty adults with ADHD, 40 patients with BD, and 40 healthy controls were enrolled ...

  11. Home-based neurologic music therapy for arm hemiparesis following stroke: results from a pilot, feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Alexander J; Magee, Wendy L; Bateman, Andrew; Parker, Michael; Odell-Miller, Helen; Fachner, Jorg

    2018-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate music therapy as a home-based intervention for arm hemiparesis in stroke. A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial, with cross-over design. Randomization by statistician using computer-generated, random numbers concealed in opaque envelopes. Participants' homes across Cambridgeshire, UK. Eleven people with stroke and arm hemiparesis, 3-60 months post stroke, following discharge from community rehabilitation. Each participant engaged in therapeutic instrumental music performance in 12 individual clinical contacts, twice weekly for six weeks. Feasibility was estimated by recruitment from three community stroke teams over a 12-month period, attrition rates, completion of treatment and successful data collection. Structured interviews were conducted pre and post intervention to establish participant tolerance and preference. Action Research Arm Test and Nine-hole Peg Test data were collected at weeks 1, 6, 9, 15 and 18, pre and post intervention by a blinded assessor. A total of 11 of 14 invited participants were recruited (intervention n = 6, waitlist n = 5). In total, 10 completed treatment and data collection. It cannot be concluded whether a larger trial would be feasible due to unavailable data regarding a number of eligible patients screened. Adherence to treatment, retention and interview responses might suggest that the intervention was motivating for participants. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT 02310438.

  12. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suboccipital decompression enhances heart rate variability indices of cardiac control in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D; Hensel, Kendi L; Pacchia, Christina F; Smith, Michael L

    2013-02-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals.

  14. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Suboccipital Decompression Enhances Heart Rate Variability Indices of Cardiac Control in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Paul D.; Hensel, Kendi L.; Pacchia, Christina F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) focused on the upper cervical spine is theorized to affect the function of the vagus nerve and thereby influence the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. This study was designed to determine the acute effect of upper cervical spine manipulation on cardiac autonomic control as measured by heart rate variability. Design Nineteen healthy, young adult subjects underwent three different experimental interventions administered in random order: cervical OMT, sham manipulation, and time control. Six minutes of electrocardiographic data were collected before and after each intervention, and heart rate variability was assessed by both time-domain and frequency-domain measures. Results No differences in resting heart rate or any measure of heart rate variability were observed between the baseline periods prior to each intervention. The OMT protocol resulted in an increase in the standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals (0.12±0.082 seconds, p0.11 for all variables). Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that upper cervical spine manipulation can acutely affect measures of heart rate variability in healthy individuals. PMID:22994907

  16. Characteristic time scales of electroencephalograms of narcoleptic patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Won; Shin, Hongbeom; Kim, Eui-Joong; Koo, Young-Jin; Choi, Byunghun; Park, Kwang Suk; Jeong, Do-Un

    2010-10-01

    Sleep electroencephalograms (EEGs) typically showed correlated fluctuations that became random-like oscillations beyond a characteristic time scale. To investigate this behavior quantitatively, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was applied to EEGs of 10 narcoleptic patients (22.0 ± 4.0 yrs; 6 males) and 8 healthy controls (24.0 ± 2.0 yrs; 5 males). The characteristic time scales of the narcoleptics and controls were estimated as 1.8 ± 0.7 and 4.4 ± 1.2s, respectively (significance level, pDFA of the EEGs segmented into 30s epochs and found that the DFA scaling exponents increased in deep sleep stages. These results were verified with power spectrum and auto-correlation analysis, and reproduced by a mathematical model. We thus concluded that characteristics of EEGs of narcoleptic patients could be differentiated from those of healthy subjects, suggesting a potential application of DFA in diagnosing narcolepsy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermittent use of an "anchor system" improves postural control in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Milena de Bem Zavanella; Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane; Moraes, Renato

    2013-07-01

    Haptic information, provided by a non-rigid tool (i.e., an "anchor system"), can reduce body sway in individuals who perform a standing postural task. However, it was not known whether or not continuous use of the anchor system would improve postural control after its removal. Additionally, it was unclear as to whether or not frequency of use of the anchor system is related to improved control in older adults. The present study evaluated the effect of the prolonged use of the anchor system on postural control in healthy older individuals, at different frequencies of use, while they performed a postural control task (semi-tandem position). Participants were divided into three groups according to the frequency of the anchor system's use (0%, 50%, and 100%). Pre-practice phase (without anchor) was followed by a practice phase (they used the anchor system at the predefined frequency), and a post-practice phase (immediate and late-without anchor). All three groups showed a persistent effect 15min after the end of the practice phase (immediate post-practice phase). However, only the 50% group showed a persistent effect in the late post-practice phase (24h after finishing the practice phase). Older adults can improve their postural control by practicing the standing postural task, and use of the anchor system limited to half of their practice time can provide additional improvement in their postural control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  19. Brain activation to favorite music in healthy controls and depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuch, Elizabeth A; Bluhm, Robyn L; Williamson, Peter C; Théberge, Jean; Densmore, Maria; Neufeld, Richard W J

    2009-08-26

    Reward-processing neurocircuitry has been delineated using verbal or visual processing and/or decision-making tasks. We examined more basic processes of listening to enjoyable music in healthy and depressed patients. The paradigm was passive, individualized, and brief. Sixteen depressed and 15 control individuals provided favorite music and identified neutral music from selections provided. In the fMRI scanner, individuals heard their neutral and their favorite music for 3 min each. Favorite versus neutral music-listening contrasts showed greater activation in controls than depressed patients in medial orbital frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum. Left medial prefrontal cortex activity was positively correlated with pleasure scores, whereas middle temporal cortex and globus pallidus were negatively correlated with pleasure. This paradigm activated neurocircuitry of reward processing and showed clinically meaningful alterations in depression.

  20. Episodic memory and executive functioning in currently depressed patients compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2015-01-01

    At present, little is still known about the link between depression, memory and executive functioning. This study examined whether there are memory-related impairments in depressed patients and whether the size of such deficits depends on the age group and on specific types of cognitive measures. Memory performances of 215 clinically depressed patients were compared to the data of a matched control sample. Regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which executive dysfunctions contributed to episodic memory impairments. When compared with healthy controls, significantly lower episodic memory and executive functioning performances were found for depressed patients of all age groups. Effect sizes appeared to vary across different memory and executive functioning measures. The extent to which executive dysfunctions could explain episodic memory impairments varied depending on the type of measure examined. These findings emphasise the need to consider memory-related functioning of depressed patients in the context of therapeutic treatments.

  1. The influence of peripheral vision induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Han; Park, Du-Jin

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of the peripheral vision (PV) induced by moving people on postural control in healthy adults. The subjects consisted of 12 healthy adult volunteers (5 males, 7 females) who had been informed of the study purpose and procedure. The visual interventions were composed of three types. PV1 and PV2 were stimulated using a one-way vertical striped pattern and a two-way vertical striped pattern, respectively. To embody the features of moving people reflected in the mirrors, researchers recorded movements of people or objects provided by mirrors on video image. In this study, this was named PV3. The subjects were exposed to each of the visual stimuli for 3 min in a random order, and their postural control was then evaluated. All the subjects were allowed to practice once prior to performing the one leg stand test, functional reaching test and body sway test. All the evaluations were made before and after the visual intervention, and the subjects rested for 30 min between each intervention. PV3 ranked second in before and after differences of trace length and velocity and had no significant difference from PV2, demonstrating that the PV3, as well as PV2, affected the amount and velocity of body sway. In addition, the standard deviation velocity, trace length and velocity values of PV3 were higher than the PV1 values. Therefore, the treatment of those who have difficulty with postural control and balance maintenance should take place in a controlled therapeutic environment.

  2. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  3. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  4. Oral salmon calcitonin improves fasting and postprandial glycemic control in lean healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigh, M; Nielsen, R H; Hansen, C; Henriksen, K; Christiansen, C; Karsdal, M A

    2012-02-01

    A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin (sCT) was recently demonstrated to improve both fasting and postprandial glycemic control and induce weight loss in diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant rats. To further explore the glucoregulatory efficacy of oral sCT, irrespective of obesity and metabolic dysfunction, the present study investigated the effect of chronic oral sCT treatment on fasting and postprandial glycemic control in male lean healthy rats. 20 male rats were divided equally into a control group receiving oral vehicle or an oral sCT (2 mg/kg) group. All rats were treated twice daily for 5 weeks. Body weight and food intake were monitored during the study period and fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and insulin sensitivity were determined and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed at study end. Compared with the vehicle group, rats receiving oral sCT had improved fasting glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), with no change in body weight or fasting plasma insulin. In addition, the rats receiving oral sCT had markedly reduced glycemia and insulinemia during OGTT. This is the first report showing that chronic oral sCT treatment exerts a glucoregulatory action in lean healthy rats, irrespective of influencing body weight. Importantly, oral sCT seems to exert a dual treatment effect by improving fasting and postprandial glycemic control and insulin sensitivity. This and previous studies suggest oral sCT is a promising agent for the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Blink reflexes in patients with atypical odontalgia and matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; List, Thomas; Kaube, Holger; Jensen, Troels S; Svensson, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Atypical odontalgia (AO) is an orofacial pain condition which has been suggested to involve neuropathic pain mechanisms. The aim of this study was to use a brain stem reflex to investigate craniofacial nociceptive mechanisms in AO. In 38 AO patients and 27 matched healthy controls, the R2 component of the blink reflex (BR) was elicited using a "nociceptive-specific" electrode and recorded with surface electromyography electrodes on both orbicularis oculi muscles. The BR was tested by stimulation of both sides of the face of the participants before, during, and after an intraoral pain provocation test with capsaicin. The data were analyzed with three- and four-way mixed-model analyses of variance. The root mean square value of the ipsilateral R2 (R2i) was significantly reduced in patients compared with controls (P=0.046). No differences in R2 between stimulation sides were detected in either group (P>0.757). In all participants, R2 responses and the intensity of the pain evoked by the electrical stimulus were decreased during and after application of capsaicin compared with baseline (P<0.001). In patients, R2i onset latencies were significantly prolonged compared with controls (P=0.031). The present data show disturbances in the central processing of craniofacial information and that endogenous pain inhibitory systems in AO patients and healthy controls were activated to a similar degree by an acute intraoral nociceptive input. Additional clinical research with AO patients will be needed to determine to what extent neuropathic pain mechanisms are involved in this pain condition.

  6. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

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    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P Aggression, Suspicion, Guilt and Irritability scales (P = 0.002-0.03) while the remaining five scales did not differ between patients and controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  7. Memory versus perception of body size in patients with anorexia nervosa and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverås, Maria; Kapstad, Hilde; Brunborg, Cathrine; Landrø, Nils Inge; Lask, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare body size estimation based on memory versus perception, in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls, adjusting for possible confounders. Seventy-one women (AN: 37, controls: 35), aged 14-29 years, were assessed with a computerized body size estimation morphing program. Information was gathered on depression, anxiety, time since last meal, weight and height. Results showed that patients overestimated their body size significantly more than controls, both in the memory and perception condition. Further, patients overestimated their body size significantly more when estimation was based on perception than memory. When controlling for anxiety, the difference between patients and controls no longer reached significance. None of the other confounders contributed significantly to the model. The results suggest that anxiety plays a role in overestimation of body size in AN. This finding might inform treatment, suggesting that more focus should be aimed at the underlying anxiety. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Genetic response in masseter muscle after orthognathic surgery in comparison with healthy controls - A Microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marewski, Maya; Petto, Carola; Schneider, Matthias; Harzer, Winfried

    2017-04-01

    One third of adult patients with orthognathic surgery of a prognathic or retrognathic mandible show relapse. The sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible leads to a displacement of both parts up to 10 mm without any changes of muscle attachment. Changed mandible length needs adaptation of muscle capacity because of changed force to moment ratio. The aim of this Microarray study was to analyze the general genetic response of masseter muscle in patients with retrognathism or prognathism of the mandible six months after surgery in comparison with healthy untreated controls. We found in tissue samples from masseter muscle a reduction of different entities between patients and controls but less in retrognathic than in prognathic patients (274/429). The different entities to controls in prognathia were reduced from 1862 to 1749 but increased in retrognathia from 1070 to 1563. We have to consider that the total amount of different entities to the controls is higher in patients with prognathic mandible (7364) because of their strong genetic controlled development compared with that in patients with retrognathic mandible (4126), which is more environmentally influenced. It can be concluded that function follows form after surgical change with high inheritance. In retrognathic patients the adaptation could be delayed or the capacity of regeneration potential is not sufficient. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wavelet-based characterization of gait signal for neurological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratin, E; Sugavaneswaran, L; Umapathy, K; Ioana, C; Krishnan, S

    2015-02-01

    Studies conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that over one billion suffer from neurological disorders worldwide, and lack of efficient diagnosis procedures affects their therapeutic interventions. Characterizing certain pathologies of motor control for facilitating their diagnosis can be useful in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and efficient treatment planning. As a suitable directive, we introduce a wavelet-based scheme for effective characterization of gait associated with certain neurological disorders. In addition, since the data were recorded from a dynamic process, this work also investigates the need for gait signal re-sampling prior to identification of signal markers in the presence of pathologies. To benefit automated discrimination of gait data, certain characteristic features are extracted from the wavelet-transformed signals. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluated using a database consisting of 15 Parkinson's disease (PD), 20 Huntington's disease (HD), 13 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 16 healthy control subjects, and an average classification accuracy of 85% is achieved using an unbiased cross-validation strategy. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of the proposed methodology for computer-aided diagnosis and automatic characterization of certain neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise training in formerly preeclamptic women and healthy parous control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Thijssen, Dick J H; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T E; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2014-11-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia demonstrate higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired vascular function, and increased sympathetic activity and are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 12 weeks of exercise training (70-80% maximum volume of oxygen utilization) in women who had had preeclampsia on physical fitness, components of MetS, vasculature, and autonomic functions compared with healthy control subjects. Our prospective case-control study included 24 normotensive women who had had preeclampsia and 20 control subjects who were matched for age and postpartum interval (all 6-12 months after delivery). Before and after training, we measured all components of MetS (ie, BP, lipids, glucose/insulin, and albuminuria), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial and superficial femoral artery endothelial function that used flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Autonomic activity was quantified with power spectral analysis (low-frequency/high-frequency power [LF/HF] ratio). At baseline, women who had had preeclampsia demonstrated higher values of most components of MetS. Compared with the control subjects, women who had had preeclampsia had increased IMT (580 ± 92 μm vs 477 ± 65 μm, respectively), impaired endothelial function (FMD brachial artery, 5.3% ± 2.2% vs 10.8% ± 3.5%, respectively; FMD superficial femoral artery, 4.9% ± 2.1% vs 8.7% ± 3.2%, respectively) and increased LF/HF power ratio (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 1.3 ± 0.4, respectively; all P exercise training decreased values of most components of MetS and IMT, improved FMD, and concurrently reduced LF/HF. Despite these improvements, vascular and autonomic variables did not normalize by 12 weeks of training in women who had had preeclampsia. This study demonstrates that exercise training in women who had had preeclampsia and control subjects improves components of MetS, endothelial function, vascular wall thickness, and autonomic control

  13. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2751-2771, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Community Violence Exposure and Conduct Problems in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Kersten

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing

  15. No differences in visual theory of mind abilities between euthymic bipolar patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Silvia; Haffner, Paula; Quinlivan, Esther; Brüne, Martin; Stamm, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Research on theory of mind (ToM) abilities in patients with bipolar disorder has yielded conflicting results. Meta-analyses point to a stable moderate impairment in remitted patients, but factors such as subsyndromal symptoms, illness severity, and deficits in basic neurocognitive functions might act as confounders. Also, differences in deficits depending on task area (cognitive or affective) or task modality (visual or verbal) have been observed. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that euthymic bipolar patients would perform more poorly than healthy subjects on visual cognitive and visual affective ToM tasks. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the relationship between ToM performance and basic neurocognitive functions, subsyndromal symptom severity, and illness burden. Twenty-nine clinically stable outpatients with bipolar disorder and 29 healthy comparison subjects completed a measure of visual cognitive ToM (Mental State Attribution Task, MSAT), a measure of visual affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, RMET), and a battery of tests assessing neurocognitive functioning (attention, verbal memory, executive functions, and intelligence). Patients did not differ significantly from healthy controls for the ToM tasks or any of the neurocognitive measures, suggesting a high level of neurocognitive functioning in the bipolar group. On average, patients were slower than controls to complete the ToM tasks. Within the bipolar group, ToM performance was moderately correlated with attention, verbal memory and reasoning abilities. Performance on the RMET was positively correlated with clinician-rated depressive symptoms with a small effect. Number of years of illness was weakly and negatively correlated with performance on the MSAT. Overall, no moderate or strong correlations were found between ToM performance, subsyndromal depressive or manic symptoms, illness duration, and number of depressive or (hypo)manic episodes. Moderate correlations between To

  16. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  17. Paternal Lifestyle-Related Parenting Practices Mediate Changes in Children's Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: Findings From the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids Community Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined potential parenting-related mediators of children's physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids (HDHK) community program. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 45 overweight/obese (mean [SD] age = 39.8 [5.4] years; BMI = 32.4 [3.8]) fathers and their children (n = 77; 58% boys; mean [SD] age = 7.7 [2.5] years). Families were randomized to either the HDHK program or wait-list control group. The program involved 7 sessions. Fathers and their children were assessed at baseline and at 14 weeks for physical activity (pedometery) and core food intake (Questionnaire). Fathers' lifestyle-related parenting practices included; self-efficacy, beliefs, modeling, logistic support, rules, cophysical activity, shared mealtime frequency and intentions. Significant intervention effects were found for cophysical activity and modeling physical activity. Cophysical activity mediated children's physical activity in the intervention ('mediated effect,' AB = 653, 95% CI = 4-2050) and was responsible for 59.5% of the intervention effect. Fathers' beliefs mediated children's percent energy from core foods (AB = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.05-5.55) and accounted for 72.9% of the intervention effect. Participation in the HDHK program positively impacted on fathers' cophysical activity with their child and beliefs about healthy eating which mediated changes in children's diet and physical activity behaviors.

  18. The effects of ketamine and risperidone on eye movement control in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmechtig, A; Lees, J; Perkins, A; Altavilla, A; Craig, K J; Dawson, G R; William Deakin, J F; Dourish, C T; Evans, L H; Koychev, I; Weaver, K; Smallman, R; Walters, J; Wilkinson, L S; Morris, R; Williams, S C R; Ettinger, U

    2013-01-01

    The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine leads to transient psychosis-like symptoms and impairments in oculomotor performance in healthy volunteers. This study examined whether the adverse effects of ketamine on oculomotor performance can be reversed by the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 72 healthy participants performed smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM), prosaccades (PS) and antisaccades (AS) while being randomly assigned to one of four drug groups (intravenous 100 ng ml−1 ketamine, 2 mg oral risperidone, 100 ng ml−1 ketamine plus 2 mg oral risperidone, placebo). Drug administration did not lead to harmful adverse events. Ketamine increased saccadic frequency and decreased velocity gain of SPEM (all Prisperidone was observed for amplitude gain and peak velocity of PS and AS, indicating hypometric gain and slower velocities compared with placebo (both P⩽0.04). No ketamine by risperidone interactions were found (all P⩾0.26). The results confirm that the administration of ketamine produces oculomotor performance deficits similar in part to those seen in schizophrenia. The atypical antipsychotic risperidone did not reverse ketamine-induced deteriorations. These findings do not support the cognitive enhancing potential of risperidone on oculomotor biomarkers in this model system of schizophrenia and point towards the importance of developing alternative performance-enhancing compounds to optimise pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:24326395

  19. The response of social anxiety disorder patients to threat scenarios differs from that of healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.V. Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of social anxiety disorder (SAD patients to threat scenarios. First-choice responses to 12 scenarios describing conspecific threatening situations and mean scores of defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions were compared between 87 SAD patients free of medication and 87 matched healthy controls (HC. A significant gender difference in the first-choice responses was identified for seven scenarios among HCs but only for two scenarios among SAD patients. A significantly higher proportion of SAD patients chose "freezing" in response to "Bush" and "Noise" scenarios, whereas the most frequent response by HCs to these scenarios was "check out". SAD males chose "run away" and "yell" more often than healthy men in response to the scenarios "Park" and "Elevator", respectively. There was a positive correlation between the severity of symptoms and both defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions. Factorial analysis confirmed the gradient of defensive reactions derived from animal studies. SAD patients chose more urgent defensive responses to threat scenarios, seeming to perceive them as more dangerous than HCs and tending to move away from the source of threat. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the physiopathology of anxiety disorders involves brain structures responsible for defensive behaviors.

  20. Neural correlates of rumination in adolescents with remitted major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhouse, Katie L; Jacobs, Rachel H; Peters, Amy T; Ajilore, Olu; Watkins, Edward R; Langenecker, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to use fMRI to examine the neural correlates of engaging in rumination among a sample of remitted depressed adolescents, a population at high risk for future depressive relapse. A rumination induction task was used to assess differences in the patterns of neural activation during rumination versus a distraction condition among 26 adolescents in remission from major depressive disorder (rMDD) and in 15 healthy control adolescents. Self-report depression and rumination, as well as clinician-rated depression, were also assessed among all participants. All of the participants recruited regions in the default mode network (DMN), including the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, and medial temporal gyrus, during rumination. Increased activation in these regions during rumination was correlated with increased self-report rumination and symptoms of depression across all participants. Adolescents with rMDD also exhibited greater activation in regions involved in visual, somatosensory, and emotion processing than did healthy peers. The present findings suggest that during ruminative thought, adolescents with rMDD are characterized by increased recruitment of regions within the DMN and in areas involved in visual, somatosensory, and emotion processing.

  1. Carbohydrate intake and glycemic index affect substrate oxidation during a controlled weight cycle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlhöfer, J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Eggeling, B; Braun, W; Pape, D; Müller, M J; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2014-09-01

    Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance. Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction and 2 weeks of hypercaloric refeeding (+50, -50 and +50% energy requirement) with low vs high GI (41 vs 74) and moderate vs high CHO intake (50% vs 65% energy). We measured adaptation of fasting macronutrient oxidation and the capacity to supress fat oxidation during an oral glucose tolerance test. Changes in fat mass were measured by quantitative magnetic resonance. During overfeeding, participants gained 1.9±1.2 kg body weight, followed by a weight loss of -6.3±0.6 kg and weight regain of 2.8±1.0 kg. Subjects with 65% CHO gained more body weight compared with 50% CHO diet (Pmetabolic flexibility was unaffected by refeeding at 50% CHO but clearly impaired by 65% CHO diet (Pcarbohydrate content affect substrate oxidation and thus the regain in body weight in healthy men. These results argue in favor of a lower glycemic load diet for weight maintenance after weight loss.

  2. Effects of the "affectionless control" parenting style on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Oshino, Shingo; Ishii, Genki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-30

    The effects of the affectionless control (AC) parenting style on personality traits were studied in 414 Japanese healthy subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which comprises care and protection factors, and personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory, which has seven dimensions. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and AC (low care/high protection). Males with maternal AC showed significantly higher harm avoidance (HA) scores and lower scores of persistence and cooperativeness than those with maternal optimal parenting. Females with maternal AC showed significantly higher HA scores and lower self-directedness scores than those with maternal optimal parenting. Paternal AC was not significantly related to any personality score. In females, the interaction between paternal rearing and maternal rearing was significant; the effect of maternal AC on HA scores was strongest when combined with paternal neglectful parenting. The present study suggests that the AC type parenting by mothers is associated with specific personality traits, especially high HA, in healthy subjects.

  3. Complexity of everyday life heart rate dynamics and attentional control in healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornas, Xavier; Llabrés, Jordi; Morillas-Romero, Alfonso; Aguayo-Siquier, Blanca; Balle, Maria; Tortella-Feliu, Miquel

    2013-07-01

    Effective regulation of emotions requires the ability to voluntarily manage attention, i.e. attentional control (AC), which has been related to heart rate variability and vagal tone in laboratory based research. In this study, we calculated the correlation dimension (CD), the fractal-like properties (scaling exponents ?1 and ?2, and fractal dimension) and the sample entropy of heart rate time series obtained from ECG recordings (4 hours long each) taken from a sample of healthy students (n=47) during everyday activities. AC was assessed through a self-reported questionnaire. As expected, a linear positive correlation was found between AC scores and CD and entropy, but no associations were found between AC and ?1 and fractal dimension. The association between AC and ?2 was negative and marginally significant. No associations were found between AC and linear heart rate variability measures. These results show that nonlinear measures of long, everyday life, heart rate time series may provide useful information about the AC ability of healthy students.

  4. Reduced heart rate variability in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, D S; Westlye, L T; Kaufmann, T; Rustan, Ø G; Brandt, C L; Haatveit, B; Steen, N E; Andreassen, O A

    2016-01-01

    Despite current diagnostic systems distinguishing schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) as separate diseases, emerging evidence suggests they share a number of clinical and epidemiological features, such as increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. It is not well understood if poor cardiac autonomic nervous system regulation, which can be indexed non-invasively by the calculation of heart rate variability (HRV), contributes to these common CVD risk factors in both diseases. We calculated HRV in 47 patients with SZ, 33 patients with BD and 212 healthy controls. Measures of symptom severity were also collected from the patient groups. Heart rate variability was significantly reduced in both these disorders in comparison with the healthy participants; however, there were no HRV differences between disorders. Importantly, these reductions were independent of the medication, age or body mass index effects. There was also preliminary evidence that patients with reduced HRV had increased overall and negative psychosis symptom severity regardless of SZ or BD diagnosis. We suggest that HRV may provide a possible biomarker of CVD risk and symptom severity in severe mental illness. Thus, our results highlight the importance of cardiometabolic screening across SZ and bipolar spectrum disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms modulate working memory in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Camila T; Christofolini, Denise; Ota, Vanessa K; Gadelha, Ary; Berberian, Arthur A; Noto, Cristiano; Mazzotti, Diego R; Spindola, Leticia M; Moretti, Patricia N; Smith, Marilia A C; Melaragno, Maria I; Belangero, Sintia I; Bressan, Rodrigo A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680) in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks. For genetic association analyses, 212 individuals with schizophrenia and 257 healthy controls (HCs) were selected. The Visual Working Memory (VWM) Task, Keep Track Task, and Letter Memory Task were administered to 133 schizophrenics and 93 HCs. We found a significant association of rs737865, with the GG genotype exerting a protective effect and the GA haplotype (rs4680/rs165599) exerting a risk effect for schizophrenia. COMT rs4680 AA carriers and rs737865 AA carriers scored lowest on the Keep Track Task. When the genotype*group interaction effect was evaluated, rs165599 exerted opposite effects for VWM and Keep Track task performance in patients and controls, with AA carriers scoring lowest on both tests among controls, but highest among patients. These data support the hypothesis that COMT polymorphisms may be associated with schizophrenia and modulate cognition in patients and controls.

  6. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT polymorphisms modulate working memory in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila T. Matsuzaka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia, related to dopaminergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. It is hypothesized that functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4680 of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene could mediate the relationship between cognition and dopamine activity in the PFC. Other COMT SNPs could also play a role. Methods: We evaluated the role of three COMT SNPs (rs737865, rs165599, and rs4680 in schizophrenia and their impact on three working memory tasks. For genetic association analyses, 212 individuals with schizophrenia and 257 healthy controls (HCs were selected. The Visual Working Memory (VWM Task, Keep Track Task, and Letter Memory Task were administered to 133 schizophrenics and 93 HCs. Results: We found a significant association of rs737865, with the GG genotype exerting a protective effect and the GA haplotype (rs4680/rs165599 exerting a risk effect for schizophrenia. COMT rs4680 AA carriers and rs737865 AA carriers scored lowest on the Keep Track Task. When the genotype*group interaction effect was evaluated, rs165599 exerted opposite effects for VWM and Keep Track task performance in patients and controls, with AA carriers scoring lowest on both tests among controls, but highest among patients. Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that COMT polymorphisms may be associated with schizophrenia and modulate cognition in patients and controls.

  7. The exercise heart rate profile in master athletes compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Osung; Park, Saejong; Kim, Young-Joo; Min, Sun-Yang; Kim, Yoo Ri; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Endurance exercise protects the heart via effects on autonomic control of heart rate (HR); however, its effects on HR indices in healthy middle-aged men are unclear. This study compared HR profiles, including resting HR, increase in HR during exercise and HR recovery after exercise, in middle-aged athletes and controls. Fifty endurance-trained athletes and 50 controls (all male; mean age, 48·7 ± 5·8 years) performed an incremental symptom-limited exercise treadmill test. The electrocardiographic findings and HR profiles were evaluated. Maximal O2 uptake (52·6 ± 7·0 versus 34·8 ± 4·5 ml kg(-1)  min(-1) ; PHealthy middle-aged men participating in regular endurance exercise showed more favourable exercise HR profiles and a lower incidence of PVCs during exercise than sedentary men. These results reflect the beneficial effect of endurance training on autonomic control of the heart. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Longitudinal changes in ultrasound measurements: a parallel study in subjects with genetic disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaba, Zenon; Pyrkosz, Antoni; Adamczyk, Piotr; Drozdzowska, Bogna; Pluskiewicz, Wojciech

    2006-03-01

    Disturbances in skeletal status in subjects with genetic disorder may increase their fracture risk. The aim of the study was longitudinal observation of phalangeal speed of sound changes across the bone over a period of 2 y in 24 patients (14 boys and 10 girls, mean age 9.63 +/- 1.8 y.) and 24 age-matched healthy controls (14 boys and 10 girls, mean age 9.65 +/- 1.71 y.). Weight and height did not differ between patients and controls at baseline and follow-up. Patients with the following disorders were evaluated: 7 with Down syndrome, 6 nonspecific mental retardations of unknown etiology, 5 Martin-Bell syndrome and 6 with other diseases. In patients and controls, no factors potentially influencing bone metabolism (except for genetic disorder) were present. Bone status was assessed by quantitative ultrasound at hand phalanges using DBM Sonic 1200 (IGEA, Carpi, Italy), which measures amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS [m/s]). At baseline, Ad-SoS and Z-score were significantly lower in patients than in controls (1892 +/- 51 m/s versus 1936 +/- 43 m/s, p Z-score increased significantly in patients (1892 +/- 51 m/s to 1934 +/- 48 m/s, p Z-Score were significantly lower in patients (p Z-score weight did not differ between patients and control, and height increased more in controls (13.2 +/- 2.8 cm versus 11.4 +/- 5.9 cm, p over a period of observation. In conclusion, despite comparable improvement in measured ultrasound parameter in patients and controls observed over a study duration, the difference between them remained stable.

  9. Landing mechanics during single hop for distance in females following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigsted, Stephanie M; Post, Eric G; Bell, David R

    2017-05-01

    To determine possible differences in single-hop kinematics and kinetics in females with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction compared to healthy controls. A second purpose was to make comparisons between the healthy and reconstructed limbs. Subjects were grouped based on surgical status (33 ACLR patients and 31 healthy controls). 3D motion capture synchronized with force plates was used to capture the landing phase of three successful trials of single hop for distance during a single data collection session. Peak values during the loading phase were analysed. Subjects additionally completed three successful trials of the triple hop for distance Tegner activity scale and International Knee Document Committee 2000 (IKDC). Controls demonstrated greater peak knee flexion and greater internal knee extension moment and hip extension moment than ACLR subjects. Within the ACLR group, the healthy limb exhibited greater peak knee flexion, hip flexion, hip extension moment, single hop and triple hops for distance and normalized quadriceps strength. Patients who undergo anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction land in a more extended posture when compared to healthy controls and compared to their healthy limb. III.

  10. Whole Grain Intake and Glycaemic Control in Healthy Subjects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Marventano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: There is growing evidence from both observational and intervention studies that Whole Grain (WG cereals exert beneficial effects on human health, especially on the metabolic profile. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT to assess the acute and medium/long-term effect of WG foods on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Methods: A search for all the published RCT on the effect of WG food intake on glycaemic and insulin response was performed up to December 2016. Effect size consisted of mean difference (MD and 95% CI between the outcomes of intervention and the control groups using the generic inverse-variance random effects model. Results: The meta-analysis of the 14 studies testing the acute effects of WG foods showed significant reductions of the post-prandial values of the glucose iAUC (0–120 min by −29.71 mmol min/L (95% CI: −43.57, −15.85 mmol min/L, the insulin iAUC (0–120 min by −2.01 nmol min/L (95% CI: −2.88, −1.14 nmol min/L, and the maximal glucose and insulin response. In 16 medium- and long-term RCTs, effects of WG foods on fasting glucose and insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance values were not significant. Conclusions: The consumption of WG foods is able to improve acutely the postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis compared to similar refined foods in healthy subjects. Further research is needed to better understand the long-term effects and the biological mechanisms.

  11. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations......, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human....... DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low...

  12. Personality styles in patients with fibromyalgia, major depression and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Tore C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is suggested to be a manifestation of depression or affective spectrum disorder. We measured the cognitive style of patients with FMS to assess personality styles in 44 patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS by comparing them with 43 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD and 41 healthy controls (HC. Methods Personality styles were measured by the Sociotropy and Autonomy Scale (SAS and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS. The Structured Clinical interview for DSM Axis I was applied to Axis I disorders, while the Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression severity. Results Patients with FMS in general have a sociotropic personality style similar to patients with MDD, and different from HC, but FMS patients without a lifetime history of MDD had a cognitive personality style different from patients with MDD and similar to HC. Conclusion These findings suggest that a depressotypic personality style is related to depressive disorder, but not to FMS.

  13. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Most Efficacious Dose of Botulinum Toxin-A for Sialorrhea Treatment in Asian Adults with Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazlina Mazlan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the most efficacious dose of Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A in reducing sialorrhea in Asian adults with neurological diseases. A prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted over 24 weeks. Thirty patients with significant sialorrhea were randomly assigned to receive a BoNT-A (Dysport® injection into the submandibular and the parotid glands bilaterally via an ultrasound guidance. The total dose given per patient was either BoNT-A injection of (i 50 U; (ii 100 U; or (iii 200 U. The primary outcome was the amount of saliva reduction, measured by the differential weight (wet versus dry of intraoral dental gauze at baseline and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. The secondary outcome was the subjective report of drooling using the Drooling Frequency and Severity Scale (DFS. Saliva reduction was observed in response to all BoNT-A doses in 17 patients who completed the assessments. Although no statistically significant difference among the doses was found, the measured reduction was greater in groups that received higher doses (100 U and 200 U. The group receiving 200 U of Dysport® showed the greatest reduction of saliva until 24 weeks and reported the most significant improvement in the DFS score.

  14. Physiological Responses to Arm Activity in Individuals With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Compared With Healthy Controls: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vanessa Pereira; Iamonti, Vinicius C; Velloso, Marcelo; Janaudis-Ferreira, Tania

    The mechanisms underlying physiological limitations during arm activity in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to describe cardiorespiratory responses, symptoms, chest wall kinematics, muscle activity, and lung volumes during arm activity in individuals with COPD relative to the responses of healthy controls. Original research articles that compared cardiorespiratory responses, symptoms, muscle activity, chest wall kinematics, and lung function during arm activity between individuals with COPD and healthy controls were identified after searches of 5 electronic databases and reference lists of pertinent articles. Two reviewers performed the electronic and manual searches with 1 screening title and abstracts. Two investigators screened the full texts to determine eligibility for inclusion. One reviewer performed the data extraction and tabulation using a standardized form with a second reviewer double-checking the data extracted. Of the 54 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, 6 met the inclusion criteria. Reduced cardiorespiratory responses during peak arm exercise in individuals with COPD compared with healthy controls were evident. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with COPD had increased dyspnea and hyperinflation during peak arm exercise. Increased effort of the trapezius muscle during arm activities was also found in persons with COPD compared with healthy controls. There is limited evidence describing physiological responses during arm activity in individuals with COPD. Findings of this systematic review suggest that individuals with COPD have decreased cardiorespiratory responses during peak arm exercise compared with controls but increased dyspnea, hyperinflation, and arm muscle effort.

  15. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  16. Developing a ubiquitous health management system with healthy diet control for metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yao-Chiang; Chen, Kai-Hong; Lin, Hsueh-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Self-management in healthcare can allow patients managing their health data anytime and everywhere for prevention of chronic diseases. This study established a prototype of ubiquitous health management system (UHMS) with healthy diet control (HDC) for people who need services of metabolic syndrome healthcare in Taiwan. System infrastructure comprises of three portals and a database tier with mutually supportive components to achieve functionality of diet diaries, nutrition guides, and health risk assessments for self-health management. With the diet, nutrition, and personal health database, the design enables the analytical diagrams on the interactive interface to support a mobile application for diet diary, a Web-based platform for health management, and the modules of research and development for medical care. For database integrity, dietary data can be stored at offline mode prior to transformation between mobile device and server site at online mode. The UHMS-HDC was developed by open source technology for ubiquitous health management with personalized dietary criteria. The system integrates mobile, internet, and electronic healthcare services with the diet diary functions to manage healthy diet behaviors of users. The virtual patients were involved to simulate the self-health management procedure. The assessment functions were approved by capturing the screen snapshots in the procedure. The proposed system development was capable for practical intervention. This approach details the expandable framework with collaborative components regarding the self-developed UHMS-HDC. The multi-disciplinary applications for self-health management can support the healthcare professionals to reduce medical resources and improve healthcare effects for the patient who requires monitoring personal health condition with diet control. The proposed system can be practiced for intervention in the hospital. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phospholipid analysis in sera of horses with allergic dermatitis and in matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallamaa, Raija; Batchu, Krishna

    2016-03-02

    Lipids have become an important target for searching new biomarkers typical of different autoimmune and allergic diseases. The most common allergic dermatitis of the horse is related to stings of insects and is known as insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) or summer eczema, referring to its recurrence during the summer months. This intense pruritus has certain similarities with atopic dermatitis of humans. The treatment of IBH is difficult and therefore new strategies for therapy are needed. Autoserum therapy based on the use of serum phospholipids has recently been introduced for horses. So far, serum lipids relating to these allergic disorders have been poorly determined. The main aim of this study was to analyse phospholipid profiles in the sera of horses with allergic dermatitis and in their healthy controls and to further assess whether these lipid profiles change according to the clinical status after therapy. Sera were collected from 10 horses with allergic dermatitis and from 10 matched healthy controls both before and 4 weeks after the therapy of the affected horses. Eczema horses were treated with an autogenous preparation made from a horse's own serum and used for oral medication. Samples were analysed for their phospholipid content by liquid chromatography coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Data of phospholipid concentrations between the groups and over the time were analysed by using the Friedman test. Correlations between the change of concentrations and the clinical status were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation test. The major phospholipid classes detected were phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Eczema horses had significantly lower total concentrations of PC (p equine insect bite hypersensitivity.

  18. Active vision task and postural control in healthy, young adults: Synergy and probably not duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Baudry, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    In upright stance, individuals sway continuously and the sway pattern in dual tasks (e.g., a cognitive task performed in upright stance) differs significantly from that observed during the control quiet stance task. The cognitive approach has generated models (limited attentional resources, U-shaped nonlinear interaction) to explain such patterns based on competitive sharing of attentional resources. The objective of the current manuscript was to review these cognitive models in the specific context of visual tasks involving gaze shifts toward precise targets (here called active vision tasks). The selection excluded the effects of early and late stages of life or disease, external perturbations, active vision tasks requiring head and body motions and the combination of two tasks performed together (e.g., a visual task in addition to a computation in one's head). The selection included studies performed by healthy, young adults with control and active - difficult - vision tasks. Over 174 studies found in Pubmed and Mendeley databases, nine were selected. In these studies, young adults exhibited significantly lower amplitude of body displacement (center of pressure and/or body marker) under active vision tasks than under the control task. Furthermore, the more difficult the active vision tasks were, the better the postural control was. This underscores that postural control during active vision tasks may rely on synergistic relations between the postural and visual systems rather than on competitive or dual relations. In contrast, in the control task, there would not be any synergistic or competitive relations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparative study of the working memory multicomponent model in psychosis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Elosúa, M Rosa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2015-08-01

    Working memory deficits are considered nuclear deficits in psychotic disorders. However, research has not found a generalized impairment in all of the components of working memory. We aimed to assess the components of the Baddeley and Hitch working memory model: the temporary systems-the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer (introduced later by Baddeley)-and the central executive system, which includes four executive functions: divided attention, updating, shifting and inhibition. We assessed working memory performance in a sample of 21 patients with a psychotic disorder and 21 healthy controls. Patients also underwent a clinical assessment. Both univariate and repeated measures ANOVAs were applied to analyze performance in the working memory components between groups. Patients with a psychotic disorder underperformed compared to the controls in all of the working memory tasks, but after controlling for age and premorbid IQ, we only found a difference in performance in the N-Back task. Repeated measures ANCOVAs showed that patients also underperformed compared to the controls in the Digit span test and the TMT task. Not all of the components of working memory were impaired in the patients. Specifically, patients' performance was impaired in the tasks selected to assess the phonological loop and the shifting executive function. Patients' also showed worse performance than controls in the N-Back task, representative of the updating executive function. However, we did not find higher impairment in the patients' performance respect to controls when increasing the loading of the task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurological diseases and pain

    OpenAIRE

    Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequentl...

  1. Comparison of salivary calcium level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kambalyal, Preeti; Kambalyal, Prabhuraj; Hungund, Shital

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare salivary calcium (Ca) level in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 56 subjects were included in the study and were grouped as follows: 12 subjects who were periodontally healthy (Group I), 12 subjects having chronic periodontitis who were non-smokers (Group II), 12 non-smokers having aggressive periodontitis (Group III), 12 smokers with chronic periodontit...

  2. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Standardized patient outcomes trial (SPOT in neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Safdieh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The neurologic examination is a challenging component of the physical examination for medical students. In response, primarily based on expert consensus, medical schools have supplemented their curricula with standardized patient (SP sessions that are focused on the neurologic examination. Hypothesis-driven quantitative data are needed to justify the further use of this resource-intensive educational modality, specifically regarding whether using SPs to teach the neurological examination effects a long-term benefit on the application of neurological examination skills. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis of prospectively collected data from medical students at Weill Cornell Medical College. The control group (n=129 received the standard curriculum. The intervention group (n=58 received the standard curriculum and an additional SP session focused on the neurologic examination during the second year of medical school. Student performance on the neurologic examination was assessed in the control and intervention groups via an OSCE administered during the fourth year of medical school. A Neurologic Physical Exam (NPE score of 0.0 to 6.0 was calculated for each student based on a neurologic examination checklist completed by the SPs during the OSCE. Composite NPE scores in the control and intervention groups were compared with the unpaired t-test. Results: In the fourth year OSCE, composite NPE scores in the intervention group (3.5±1.1 were statistically significantly greater than those in the control group (2.2±1.1 (p<0.0001. Conclusions: SP sessions are an effective tool for teaching the neurologic examination. We determined that a single, structured SP session conducted as an adjunct to our traditional lectures and small groups is associated with a statistically significant improvement in student performance measured 2 years after the session.

  4. Differential cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary response to amphetamine in male pathological gamblers versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Martin; Boileau, Isabelle; Payer, Doris; Chugani, Bindiya; Lobo, Daniela S; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Warsh, Jerry J; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) disturbances have been observed in individuals who are pathological gamblers (PGs). These may partly derive from chronic exposure to gambling. Response to amphetamine (AMPH) may reveal such disturbances while controlling for differential conditioned responses to gambling in PGs vs healthy controls (HCs). This study assessed heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasma cortisol following oral AMPH (0.4 mg/kg) in male PGs (n=12) and HCs (n=11) who underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The Stop Signal Task enabled assessment of the link between physiological and behavioral dysregulation. Trait moderating effects were explored. The responses of PGs to AMPH differed from those of HCs on every index. PGs displayed persistent elevation in DBP and concomitant reduction in HR (i.e. baroreflex) compared to HCs beyond 90 min post-dose. PGs displayed deficits in cortisol compared to HCs that were partially reversed by AMPH. Impairment on the Stop Signal Task correlated positively with HR in controls, but negatively with HR in PGs, suggesting that strong initial and compensatory cardiac responses to a stimulant may each predict disinhibition. Extraversion predicted greater disinhibition in PGs. Noradrenergic disturbances may contribute to sensitized responses to stimulant challenge and disinhibition in PGs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging volumetric findings in children with Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disability, or healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate selected regions of interest in children and adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), Asperger syndrome (AS), and age-matched healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It was hypothesized that children with AS would show larger volumes of the amygdala and hippocampal regions than the other groups. It was also hypothesized that both clinical groups would show differences in the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). There were a total of 89 children in the final sample (31 controls, 29 NVLD, 29 AS). Each child completed a MRI scan as well as basic cognitive screening measures. High-resolution T1-weighted MR volumetric images were acquired. The volume of gray matter, white matter, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was obtained. The hypothesis that the AS group would show larger hippocampal and amygdala volumes than the other groups was confirmed. For the AS and NVLD groups, the ACC was found to be significantly smaller than that of the control group. These results suggest that the ACC and amygdala/hippocampal regions are deficient in children with AS, likely contributing to difficulty with modulating of emotional reactivity.

  6. The relationship of DNA methylation with age, gender and genotype in twins and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco P Boks

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytosine-5 methylation within CpG dinucleotides is a potentially important mechanism of epigenetic influence on human traits and disease. In addition to influences of age and gender, genetic control of DNA methylation levels has recently been described. We used whole blood genomic DNA in a twin set (23 MZ twin-pairs and 23 DZ twin-pairs, N = 92 as well as healthy controls (N = 96 to investigate heritability and relationship with age and gender of selected DNA methylation profiles using readily commercially available GoldenGate bead array technology. Despite the inability to detect meaningful methylation differences in the majority of CpG loci due to tissue type and locus selection issues, we found replicable significant associations of DNA methylation with age and gender. We identified associations of genetically heritable single nucleotide polymorphisms with large differences in DNA methylation levels near the polymorphism (cis effects as well as associations with much smaller differences in DNA methylation levels elsewhere in the human genome (trans effects. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of array-based approaches in studies of DNA methylation and highlight the vast differences between individual loci. The identification of CpG loci of which DNA methylation levels are under genetic control or are related to age or gender will facilitate further studies into the role of DNA methylation and disease.

  7. Differences in Athletic Performance Between Sportsmen With Symptomatic Femoroacetabular Impingement and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Karen; Hanlon, Michael; Carton, Patrick

    2017-06-22

    Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a commonly recognized condition in athletes characterized by activity-related hip pain and stiffness, which if left untreated can progress to hip osteoarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of symptomatic FAI on performance in young athletes based on the hypothesis that athletes with FAI would show deficits in performance compared with healthy controls. The functional performance of a cohort of preoperative, competitive sportsmen with symptomatic FAI (FAI group, n = 54), was compared with that of a group of age, sex and activity-level matched controls (n = 66). Participants performed functional tests including a 10-m sprint, a modified agility T-test, a maximal deep squat test and a single-leg drop jump (reactive strength index). Hip range of motion was assessed by measuring maximal hip flexion, abduction, and internal rotation (at 90 degree hip flexion). The FAI group was significantly slower during the 10-m sprint (3%, P = 0.002) and agility T-test (8%, P FAI group were reduced compared with controls (P FAI group also reported higher levels of anterior groin pain during the 10-m sprint, modified agility T-test, and while squatting. Many sportsmen with confirmed FAI continue sports participation up to and after diagnosis, despite issues with activity-related pain and stiffness. This study highlights the functional limitations in speed, agility, and flexibility that are likely to be present in this group of FAI patients.

  8. Multi-strategic intervention to enhance implementation of healthy canteen policy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Janssen, Lisa M; Wiggers, John; Reilly, Kathryn; Delaney, Tessa; Williams, Christopher M; Bell, Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Libby; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Chris; Freund, Megan; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2017-01-11

    Internationally, governments have implemented school-based nutrition policies to restrict the availability of unhealthy foods from sale. The aim of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy. The impact of the intervention on the energy, total fat, and sodium of children's canteen purchases and on schools' canteen revenue was also assessed. Australian primary schools with a canteen were randomised to receive a 12-14-month, multi-strategic intervention or to a no intervention control group. The intervention sought to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy which required schools to remove unhealthy items (classified as 'red' or 'banned') from regular sale and encouraged schools to 'fill the menu' with healthy items (classified as 'green'). The intervention strategies included allocation of a support officer to assist with policy implementation, engagement of school principals and parent committees, consensus processes with canteen managers, training, provision of tools and resources, academic detailing, performance feedback, recognition and marketing initiatives. Data were collected at baseline (April to September, 2013) and at completion of the implementation period (November, 2014 to April, 2015). Seventy schools participated in the trial. Relative to control, at follow-up, intervention schools were significantly more likely to have menus without 'red' or 'banned' items (RR = 21.11; 95% CI 3.30 to 147.28; p ≤ 0.01) and to have at least 50% of menu items classified as 'green' (RR = 3.06; 95% CI 1.64 to 5.68; p ≤ 0.01). At follow-up, student purchases from intervention school canteens were significantly lower in total fat (difference = -1.51 g; 95% CI -2.84 to -0.18; p = 0.028) compared to controls, but not in energy (difference = -132.32 kJ; 95% CI -280.99 to 16.34; p = 0.080) or sodium (difference = -46

  9. [Neurological soft signs in pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halayem, S; Bouden, A; Halayem, M B; Tabbane, K; Amado, I; Krebs, M O

    2010-09-01

    Many studies have focused on specific motor signs in autism and Asperger's syndrome, but few has been published on the complete range of neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Scarce are the studies evaluating NSS in children suffering from PDD not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). This study compared performance of 11 autistic children (AD) and 10 children with PDDNOS, with controls matched on age, sex and cognitive performance on Krebs et al.'s NSS scale. Because of the duration of the assessments and specific difficulties encountered in managing some items, an adaptation of the scale had to be made during a pilot study with the agreement of the author. To be eligible, patients had to meet the following inclusion criteria: an age range of 6-16 years, a diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDDNOS based on the DSM IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association 1994). The autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) was used in order to confirm the diagnosis and to evaluate the association of the symptoms to the severity of the NSS. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was completed for the patients in order to evaluate symptoms at the time of the NSS examination. Cognitive ability was assessed with Raven's progressive matrices. Were excluded patients with: history of cerebral palsy, congenital anomaly of the central nervous system, epilepsy, known genetic syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, antecedent of severe head trauma, Asperger's syndrome, obvious physical deformities or sensory deficits that would interfere with neurological assessment, deep mental retardation and recent or chronic substance use or abuse. Healthy controls shared the same exclusion criteria, with no personal history of neurological, psychiatric disorder or substance abuse, no family history of psychiatric disorder and normal or retardation in schooling. All study procedures were approved by the local Ethics Committee (Comité d

  10. Neurological soft signs in non-psychotic patients with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Alain; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Laqueille, Xavier; Krebs, Marie-Odile

    2013-03-01

    Psychomotor performance has consistently been found to be altered in chronic cannabis users. Neurological soft signs (NSS) reflect neurological dysfunction involving integrative networks, especially those involving the cerebellum, where cannabinoid receptors are particularly concentrated. Our objective was to study, for the first time, NSS in a group of patients with cannabis dependence compared with a of healthy control subjects, matched for age, gender and level of education. All outpatients seeking treatment for chronic cannabis use in the substance abuse department of Sainte-Anne Hospital in Paris between June 2007 and May 2009 and meeting the cannabis dependence DSM-IV criteria were included in the study (n = 45). Patients with psychotic disorders, bipolar 1 disorder and current alcohol, opioid or cocaine dependence were excluded. All patients and controls were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, which screens for lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses, and the Standardized Neurological Examination of Neurological Soft Signs. NSS scores were significantly higher in patients with cannabis dependence compared with healthy subjects (8.90 ± 4.85 versus 6.71 ± 2.73, respectively, Mann-Whitney: U = 775.0, P = 0.05). Patients had particularly high scores on motor coordination and sensory integration NSS factors. Cannabis dependence is associated with more NSS and especially motor coordination and sensory integration signs. These results suggest that cannabinoids interact with the brain networks underlying NSS, known to be altered in schizophrenia. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. STRATEGY OF VISUAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH INJURY TO THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT OF THE KNEE AND HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS (SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Piontek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Knee joint dysfunction resulting from injury to the anterior crucial ligament (ACL is associated not only with mechanical joint instability but also with damage of ligamentous receptors responsible for the joint proprioception. It was found that disturbances of signals from the damaged joint produce disorders in movement perception and position of the analogous joint in the normal limb. This study is aimed at evaluating the control strategy in patients with an injury to the anterior crucial ligament.Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Subjects/Patients- 84 men, aged 15 to 55 years (mean age 27 years were included in this study. Methods- Patients were divided into two groups: those with unilateral injury to the ACL (33 patients and a control group of healthy volunteers (soccer players; 51 men. Anterior crucial ligament damage was confirmed with arthroscopic knee joint examination in every patient. The way of visual proprioceptive control was assessed with both dynamic (DRT and static (SRT Riva tests standing on one leg. Tests were performed with the Delos Postural Proprioceptive System (Delos s.r.l., Corso Lecce, Torino, Italy in the biomechanical evaluation laboratory at Rehasport Clinic in Poznań. Results: A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT (static Riva test with closed eyes was found between the limb with a damaged ACL and the normal limb in the group of patients with injury to the ACL (p=0.006 and between the limb with a damaged ACL and normal limbs in healthy volunteers (p=0.022. A statistically significant difference for deviations from the averaged axis in SRT with closed eyes was also found between the dominant and non-dominant limb in healthy volunteers (p=0.013. No significant differences in the results of tests with open eyes were noted. Conclusions: The results of systems and their contribution to the visual proprioceptive control suggest an important role of the

  12. Effects of altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease and healthy controls.

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    de Vries, S T; Komdeur, P; Aalbersberg, S; van Enst, G C; Breeman, A; van 't Hof, A W J

    2010-03-01

    Background. To evaluate the safety and effects of high altitude on exercise level and heart rate in patients with coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls.Methods. Eight patients with a history of an acute myocardial infarction (ejection fraction >5%) with a low-risk score were compared with seven healthy subjects during the Dutch Heart Expedition at the Aconcagua in Argentina in March 2007. All subjects underwent a maximum exercise test with a cycle ergometer at sea level and base camp, after ten days of acclimatisation, at an altitude of 4200 m. Exercise capacity and maximum heart rate were compared between groups and within subjects.Results. There was a significant decrease in maximum heart rate at high altitude compared with sea level in both the patient and the control group (166 vs. 139 beats/min, pheart rate between patients and healthy controls (-31 vs. -30%, p=0.673).Conclusion. Both patients and healthy controls showed a similar decrease in exercise capacity and maximum heart rate at 4200 m compared with sea level, suggesting that patients with a history of coronary artery disease may tolerate stay and exercise at high altitude similarly to healthy controls. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:118-21.).

  13. Impact of a Healthy Nails Program on Nail-Biting in Turkish Schoolchildren: A Controlled Pretest-Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Ayse; Toprak, Rumeysa; Sisman, Fatma Nevin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a healthy nails program on nail-biting in Turkish schoolchildren. This quasi-experimental study was of pretest-posttest control group design. A total of 50 students of a primary school formed the intervention group, while 53 students from the same school formed the control group. Data were…

  14. Circulating microRNA expression pattern separates patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis from healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, C.; Carlsen, A.; Weiner, M.

    2015-01-01

    . Methods. Plasma samples from two AAV cohorts (n=67 and 38) were compared with samples from healthy controls (n=27 and 45) and disease controls (n=20). A panel of 32 miRNAs was measured using a microfluidic quantitative real-time PCR system, and results were compared with clinical data. Results. Seven...

  15. Lactate: Brain Fuel in Human Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison with Normal Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil A.; Horning, Michael A.; McArthur, David L.; Hovda, David A.; Vespa, Paul; Brooks, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the hypothesis that lactate shuttling helps support the nutritive needs of injured brains. To that end, we utilized dual isotope tracer [6,6-2H2]glucose, that is, D2-glucose, and [3-13C]lactate techniques involving arm vein tracer infusion along with simultaneous cerebral (arterial [art] and jugular bulb [JB]) blood sampling. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients with nonpenetrating brain injuries (n=12) were entered into the study following consent of patients' legal representatives. Written and informed consent was obtained from control volunteers (n=6). Patients were studied 5.7±2.2 (mean±SD) days post-injury; during periods when arterial glucose concentration tended to be higher in TBI patients. As in previous investigations, the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRgluc, i.e., net glucose uptake) was significantly suppressed following TBI (pcerebral lactate uptake related to systemic lactate supply, approximated 11% in both healthy control subjects and TBI patients. Further, neither the CMR for lactate (CMRlac, i.e., net lactate release), nor the tracer-measured cerebral lactate uptake differed between healthy controls and TBI patients. The percentages of lactate tracer taken up and released as 13CO2 into the JB accounted for 92% and 91% for control and TBI conditions, respectively, suggesting that most cerebral lactate uptake was oxidized following TBI. Comparisons of isotopic enrichments of lactate oxidation from infused [3-13C]lactate tracer and 13C-glucose produced during hepatic and renal gluconeogenesis (GNG) showed that 75–80% of 13CO2 released into the JB was from lactate and that the remainder was from the oxidation of glucose secondarily labeled from lactate. Hence, either directly as lactate uptake, or indirectly via GNG, peripheral lactate production accounted for ∼70% of carbohydrate (direct lactate uptake+uptake of glucose from lactate) consumed by the injured brain. Undiminished cerebral lactate fractional

  16. Healthy eating index in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A case-control study

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    Mahbobeh Sadat Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many effort to identify and control the factors involved in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, there are no available reports indicating the association of healthy eating index (HEI and PCOS. Objective: The present study has been conducted to examine the relationship between HEI and PCOS. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, the study population comprised 297 women aged 20-40 yr referred to Baqiyatallah Hospital Clinics, Tehran, Iran in two groups: case group (n=99 and control group (n=198. The usual dietary data were collected using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Standard anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and waist circumference were also taken. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the PCOS and the HEI. Results: The mean age and body mass index of case and control groups were 29±5.5 vs. 29.5±6 yr and 26.6±4.8 vs. 26±4.2 kg/m², respectively (p=0.752, p=0.822. Mean HEI scores for the case and control groups were found to be 61 and 65, respectively. In final model and after adjustment for confounders, the prevalence of PCOS in subjects in the highest tertile HEI score was significantly (50% less than those in the lowest tertile HEI score (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.74, p=0.001. Conclusion: Our results suggest that HEI score is inversely associated with the risk of PCOS in adult women

  17. Gender Differences in Interpersonal Problems of Alcohol-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls

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    Marc Walter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  18. Dual tasking affects lateral trunk control in healthy younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tsuyoshi; Doi, Takehiko; Hirata, Soichiro; Ando, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Assessing the effects of attention-demanding tasks on trunk movement provides useful insights into postural control while walking in an attention-split situation, such as occurs in daily life. The coefficient of attenuation of acceleration (CoA) at the trunk is a useful gait index to assess whole trunk movements. We investigated the effect of attention-demanding tasks on CoA to assess the role of attention on trunk control during walking. Thirty healthy, community-dwelling older adults (70.1±5.6 years) and 38 younger adults (22.1±3.4 years) participated in this study. Participants walked 20 m at a self-selected speed (slow, normal, fast) and while performing an attention-demanding cognitive task. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the lower (L3 spinous process) and upper (C7 spinous process) trunk and used to compute CoA (the reduction in acceleration from the lower to upper trunk). Results showed that an attention-demanding task significantly decreased CoA in the medio-lateral (ML) direction in both age groups (p<0.001), whereas it did not affect CoA in the vertical (VT) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Our findings suggest that the priority of whole trunk control in the ML direction may be higher than in other directions and be strongly associated with attention, whereas whole trunk control in the VT and AP directions may be passively regulated and require minimal attentional control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Altered core and skin temperature responses to endurance exercise in heart failure patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Nathalie M M; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Van Dijk, Arie P J; Bellersen, Louise; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopman, Maria T E

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training represents a central aspect of rehabilitation of heart failure patients. Previous work on passive heating suggests impaired thermoregulatory responses in heart failure patients. However, no previous study directly examined thermoregulatory responses to an exercise bout, that is, active heating, as typically applied in rehabilitation settings in heart failure. Cross-sectional observational study to compare changes in core body temperature (Tcore) and skin temperature (Tskin) during exercise between heart failure patients and controls. Fourteen heart failure subjects (65 ± 7 years, 13:1 male:female) and 14 healthy controls (61 ± 5 years, 12:2 male:female) were included. Tcore (telemetric temperature pill) and Tskin (skin thermistors) were measured continuously during a 45-min cycle exercise at comparable relative exercise intensity. Tcore increased to a similar extent in both groups (controls 1.1 ± 0.4℃, heart failure patients 0.9 ± 0.3℃, 'time*group': p = 0.15). Tskin decreased during the initial phase of exercise in both groups, followed by an increase in Tskin in controls (1.2 ± 1.0℃), whilst Tskin remained low in HF patients (-0.3 ± 1.4℃) ('time*group': p  0.05). Heart failure patients and controls show comparable exercise-induced increase in Tcore, whilst heart failure patients demonstrate altered Tskin responses to exercise and attenuated elevation in Tskin per increase in Tcore. These impaired thermoregulatory responses to exercise are, at least partly, explained by the lower absolute workload and lower physical fitness level in heart failure patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. Efficacy of a child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy behaviors in Chinese American children: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B; Lustig, Robert H

    2010-06-01

    To examine the efficacy of an interactive, child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy lifestyles in Chinese American children. A randomized controlled study of a culturally sensitive behavioral intervention. Sixty-seven Chinese American children (ages, 8-10 years; normal weight and overweight) and their families. Anthropometry, blood pressure, measures of dietary intake, physical activity, knowledge and self-efficacy regarding physical activity and diet at baseline and 2, 6 and 8 months after baseline assessment. Linear mixed modeling indicated a significant effect of the intervention in decreasing body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and fat intake while increasing vegetable and fruit intake, actual physical activity and knowledge about physical activity. This interactive child-centred and family-based behavioral program appears feasible and effective, leading to reduced body mass index and improved overweight-related health behaviors in Chinese American children. This type of program can be adapted for other minority ethnic groups who are at high risk for overweight and obesity and have limited access to programs that promote healthy lifestyles.

  1. DHA supplementation improved both memory and reaction time in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehouse, Welma; Conlon, Cathryn A; Podd, John; Hill, Stephen R; Minihane, Anne M; Haskell, Crystal; Kennedy, David

    2013-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, and its status is dependent on dietary intakes. Therefore, individuals who consume diets low in omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may cognitively benefit from DHA supplementation. Sex and apolipoprotein E genotype (APOE) affect cognition and may modulate the response to DHA supplementation. We investigated whether a DHA supplement improves cognitive performance in healthy young adults and whether sex and APOE modulate the response. Healthy adults (n = 176; age range: 18-45 y; nonsmoking and with a low intake of DHA) completed a 6-mo randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind intervention in which they consumed 1.16 g DHA/d or a placebo. Cognitive performance was assessed by using a computerized cognitive test battery. For all tests, z scores were calculated and clustered into cognitive domains as follows: episodic and working memory, attention, reaction time (RT) of episodic and working memory, and attention and processing speed. ANCOVA was conducted with sex and APOE as independent variables. RTs of episodic and working memory improved with DHA compared with placebo [mean difference (95% CI): -0.18 SD (-0.33, -0.03 SD) (P = 0.02) and -0.36 SD (-0.58, -0.14 SD) (P = 0.002), respectively]. Sex × treatment interactions occurred for episodic memory (P = 0.006) and the RT of working memory (P = 0.03). Compared with the placebo, DHA improved episodic memory in women [0.28 SD (0.08, 0.48 SD); P = 0.006] and RTs of working memory in men [-0.60 SD (-0.95, -0.25 SD); P = 0.001]. APOE did not affect cognitive function, but there were some indications of APOE × sex × treatment interactions. DHA supplementation improved memory and the RT of memory in healthy, young adults whose habitual diets were low in DHA. The response was modulated by sex. This trial was registered at the New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/default.aspx) as ACTRN12610000212055.

  2. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  3. Healthy Foundations Study: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate biological embedding of early-life experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Catherine, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; Jack, Susan M; Atkinson, Leslie; Kobor, Michael; Sheehan, Debbie; Tonmyr, Lil; Waddell, Charlotte; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2018-01-26

    Adverse early experiences are associated with long-lasting disruptions in physiology, development and health. These experiences may be 'biologically embedded' into molecular and genomic systems that determine later expressions of vulnerability. Most studies to date have not examined whether preventive interventions can potentially reverse biological embedding. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is an evidence-based intervention with demonstrated efficacy in improving prenatal health, parenting and child functioning. The Healthy Foundations Study is an innovative birth cohort which will evaluate the impact of the NFP on biological outcomes of mothers and their infants. Starting in 2013, up to 400 pregnant mothers and their newborns were recruited from the British Columbia Healthy Connections Project-a randomised controlled trial of the NFP, and will be followed to child aged 2 years. Women were recruited prior to 28 weeks' gestation and then individually randomised to receive existing services (comparison group) or NFP plus existing services (intervention group). Hair samples are collected from mothers at baseline and 2 months post partum to measure physiological stress. Saliva samples are collected from infants during all visits for analyses of stress and immune function. Buccal swabs are collected from infants at 2 and 24 months to assess DNA methylation. Biological samples will be related to child outcome measures at age 2 years. The study received ethical approval from seven research ethics boards. Findings from this study will be shared broadly with the research community through peer-reviewed publications, and conference presentations, as well as seminars with our policy partners and relevant healthcare providers. The outcomes of this study will provide all stakeholders with important information regarding how early adversity may lead to health and behavioural disparities and how these may be altered through early interventions. NCT01672060; Pre-results.

  4. Skin sensitivity to rocuronium and vecuronium: a randomized controlled prick-testing study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhonneur, Gilles; Combes, Xavier; Chassard, Didier; Merle, Jean Claude

    2004-04-01

    Prick tests are frequently used for the authentication of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) as causative drugs for anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia. Unfortunately, the actual threshold concentration for skin testing remains debatable for most NMBDs. We studied the flare and wheal responses to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium. Thirty healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers (14 men and 16 women) from 18 to 40 yr of age were assigned randomly to receive a total of 10 prick tests-4 ascending dilutions (1:1000, 1:100, 1:10, and 1) of rocuronium and vecuronium and 2 controls-on both forearms. An assessor blinded to the assignment monitored systemic and skin responses to NMBDs and measured wheal and flare surfaces immediately after and 15 min after prick tests. None of the volunteers experienced any immediate systemic or cutaneous responses to rocuronium or vecuronium. Although a dilution of 1:1000 of both NMBDs failed to promote any skin response at 15 min, 50% and 40% of the subjects had a positive skin reaction to undiluted rocuronium and vecuronium, respectively. We demonstrated a sex effect related to smaller threshold concentration-induced cutaneous reactions in female volunteers to both muscle relaxants. Our observation questions the reliability of prick testing with undiluted solutions of rocuronium and vecuronium for the diagnosis of allergy. Building concentration-skin response curves to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium in healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers demonstrated that the nonreactive concentration for both muscle relaxants is the 1:1000 dilution of the stock solutions. Our observation calls into question the past practice of prick-testing skin for sensitivity to neuromuscular blocking drugs by using undiluted solutions.

  5. Safety and pharmacokinetics of oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy older subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amir I A; van den Elsen, Geke A H; Colbers, Angela; van der Marck, Marjolein A; Burger, David M; Feuth, Ton B; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Kramers, Cornelis

    2014-09-01

    There is a great concern about the safety of THC-based drugs in older people (≥65 years), as most of THC-trials did not include such group. In this phase 1, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, we evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of three oral doses of Namisol(®), a novel THC in tablet form, in older subjects. Twelve healthy older subjects (6 male; mean age 72±5 years) randomly received a single oral dose of 3mg, 5mg, or 6.5mg of THC or matching placebo, in a crossover manner, on each intervention day. The data for 11 subjects were included in the analysis. The data of 1 subject were excluded due to non-compliance to study medication. THC was safe and well tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events (AEs) were drowsiness (27%) and dry mouth (11%). Subjects reported more AEs with THC 6.5mg than with 3mg (p=0.048), 5mg (p=0.034) and placebo (p=0.013). There was a wide inter-individual variability in plasma concentrations of THC. Subjects for whom the Cmax fell within the sampling period (over 2h), Cmax was 1.42-4.57ng/mL and Tmax was 67-92min. The AUC0-2h (n=11) was 1.67-3.51ng/mL. Overall, the pharmacodynamic effects of THC were smaller than effects previously reported in young adults. In conclusion, THC appeared to be safe and well tolerated by healthy older individuals. Data on safety and effectiveness of THC in frail older persons are urgently required, as this population could benefit from the therapeutic applications of THC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma copeptin in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus in comparison to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Ralf; Perenthaler, Thomas Johannes; Steveling, Antje; Stein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    In a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus the trial tested the hypothesis that copeptin levels are associated with kidney function, biometrical data and quality of diabetes control. A total of 141 subjects were recruited to participate in the trial: 80 patients with type 1 diabetes (13.0±3.4years, HbA1c 7.85±1.42%) and 61 healthy controls (12.4±2.8years). Clinical and socio-economic data were assessed. A sandwich immunoassay (B.R.A.H.M.S. GmbH/Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hennigsdorf/Berlin, Germany) was used for measuring plasma copeptin levels. The mean concentration of copeptin in the diabetic patients was 4.75±3.46pmol/l. There was a strong inverse correlation between copeptin and GFR (r=-0.86, p=0.021), as well as with total cholesterol (r=-0.23, p=0.041), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.24, p=0.036), but not with serum creatinine, albuminuria, HbA1c, blood glucose, MAGE, CRP, systolic or diastolic blood pressure or age, diabetes duration, weight, height and BMI. Comparing patients with a diabetes duration of ⩾7years (n=45) with those with a diabetes duration copeptin levels (5.24±2.26 vs 4.13±2.86, p=0.045). Performing multivariate analyses only GFR could be identified as a parameter associated with copeptin (R-square=0.05, β=-0.23, p=0.032). In the healthy controls mean copeptin concentration was 5.56±3.15pmol/l. The copeptin concentration and GFR were inversely correlated as well (r=-0.61, p=0.034). However, other correlation and multivariate analyses revealed no further significant results. Comparing patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus with the healthy controls, the diabetes patients revealed no significant difference with respect to copeptin (p=0.24), serum creatinine (49.8±11.9 vs 50.4±11.0μmol/l, p=0.53) or GFR (102.4±23.3 vs 104.5±19.1ml/min, p=0.47). On the other hand, patients with type 1 diabetes had lower concentrations of CRP (1.66±3.91 vs 3.21±3.04μg/ml, p=0,013), triglycerides (0.88±0.53 vs 1.13±0.60mmol

  7. Profiling of childhood adversity-associated DNA methylation changes in alcoholic patients and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Zhang

    Full Text Available The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays. The effect of CA on methylation of individual CpGs and overall methylation in promoter regions of genes was evaluated using a linear regression analysis (with consideration of sex, age, and ancestry proportion of subjects and a principal components-based analysis, respectively. In EAs, hypermethylation of 10 CpGs in seven genes (ALDH1A1, CART, CHRNA5, HTR1B, OPRL1, PENK, and RGS19 were cross validated in AD patients and healthy controls who were exposed to CA. P values of two CpGs survived Bonferroni correction when all EA samples were analyzed together to increase statistical power [CHRNA5_cg17108064: P(adjust = 2.54×10(-5; HTR1B_cg06031989: P(adjust  = 8.98×10(-5]. Moreover, overall methylation levels in the promoter regions of three genes (ALDH1A1, OPRL1 and RGS19 were elevated in both EA case and control subjects who were exposed to CA. However, in AAs, CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients were not validated in healthy controls. Our findings suggest that CA could induce population-specific methylation alterations in the promoter regions of specific genes, thus leading to changes in gene transcription and an increased risk for AD and other disorders.

  8. Prevalence of gluteus medius weakness in people with chronic low back pain compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nicholas A; Scavo, Kelsey M; Strickland, Kyle J; Tipayamongkol, Natti; Nicholson, Jeffrey D; Bewyer, Dennis C; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2016-04-01

    Clinical observation suggests that hip abductor weakness is common in patients with low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the prevalence of hip abductor weakness in a clinical population with chronic non-specific LBP and a matched sample without LBP. One hundred fifty subjects with chronic non-specific LBP and a matched cohort of 75 control subjects were recruited. A standardized back and hip physical exam was performed. Specifically tensor fascia lata, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus strength were assessed with manual muscle testing. Functional assessment of the hip abductors was performed with assessment for the presence of the Trendelenburg sign. Palpation examination of the back, gluteal and hip region was performed to try and reproduce the subject's pain complaint. Friedman's test or Cochran's Q with post hoc comparisons adjusted for multiple comparisons was used to compare differences between healthy controls and people with chronic low back pain for both the affected and unaffected sides. Mann-Whitney U was used to compare differences in prevalence between groups. Hierarchical linear regression was used to identify predictors of LBP in this sample. Gluteus medius is weaker in people with LBP compared to controls or the unaffected side (Friedman's test, p palpation tenderness over the gluteals, greater trochanter, and paraspinals in people with low back pain compared to controls (Cochran's Q, p muscle tenderness are common symptoms in people with chronic non-specific LBP. Future investigations should validate these findings with quantitative measures as well as investigate the effect of gluteus medius strengthening in people with LBP.

  9. Dex/CRH test cortisol response in outpatients with major depression and matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Linda L; Ross, Nicole S; Tyrka, Audrey R; Anderson, George M; Kelly, Megan; Price, Lawrence H

    2009-09-01

    The dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test has been proposed as a potential tool for identifying endophenotypes relevant to mood disorders. An exaggerated cortisol response to the test during major depressive episodes has been demonstrated for inpatients with melancholic or psychotic features. A diminished hormone response has been observed in chronically depressed outpatients. Following a battery of self-report and interview assessments, 68 adults completed the Dex/CRH test. Thirty-four met structured interview criteria for current major depressive disorder and 34 age- and sex-matched control subjects had no current or lifetime DSM-IV depressive disorder. Effect of diagnosis on cortisol response to the Dex/CRH test was examined in a repeated measures general linear model. The matched groups were equivalent with regard to childhood adversity. Cortisol response to the Dex/CRH test among subjects with current MDD was not significantly different from that seen in matched healthy controls. Independent of diagnosis, an exploratory analysis showed a trend-level association between maltreatment history and diminished cortisol response; no interactive effects with depression diagnosis were detected. The results do not support the hypothesis that elevated cortisol response to the Dex/CRH test represents a marker for major depressive episodes.

  10. Direct experience while eating: Laboratory outcomes among individuals with eating disorders versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elices, Matilde; Carmona, Cristina; Narváez, Vanessa; Seto, Victoria; Martin-Blanco, Ana; Pascual, Juan C; Soriano, José; Soler, Joaquim

    2017-12-01

    To compare individuals with eating disorders (EDs) to healthy controls (HCs) to assess for differences in direct engagement in the eating process. Participants (n=58) were asked to eat an orange slice. To assess the degree of direct engagement with the eating process, participants were asked to write down 10 thoughts about the experience of eating the orange slice. Next, the participants were instructed to classify the main focus of each thought as either experiential ("direct experience") or analytical ("thinking about"). A direct experience index (DEI) was computed by dividing the number of times that participants classified an experience as a "direct experience" (the numerator) by the total number of all observations (i.e., direct experience+thinking about). Participants also completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) and the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) to assess mindfulness facets and decentering, respectively. Compared to controls, participants in the EDs group presented significantly lower levels of direct experience during the eating task (EDs group: mean=43.54, SD=29.64; HCs group: mean=66.17, SD=22.23, p=0.03). Participants in the EDs group also scored significantly lower on other mindfulness-related variables. These findings suggest that engagement with the direct experience of eating is lower in individuals with EDs. Future research should investigate the role of mindfulness-based interventions to address direct experience while eating in individuals with EDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Minor Physical Anomalies in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Manouilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor Physical Anomalies (MPAs are subtle abnormalities of the head, face, and limbs, without significant cosmetic or functional impact to the individual. They are assumed to represent external markers of developmental deviations during foetal life. MPAs have been suggested to indicate severity in mental illness and constitute external markers for atypical brain development. Higher frequencies of MPAs can be found in children with autism. The aims of the present study were to examine the prevalence and patterns of MPAs in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and to investigate whether MPAs are associated with symptom severity and overall functioning. Fifty adults with ASD and intelligence within the normal range and 53 healthy controls were examined with the Waldrop scale, an instrument for assessing MPAs. Face and feet were photographed enabling blinded assessment. Significant differences between the ASD and the control group were found on the MPA total scores, and also in the craniofacial region scores. Moreover, the shape of the ears was associated with autistic traits, in the ASD group. High MPA total scores were associated with poorer functioning. The findings suggest a link between MPAs, autistic traits, and level of functioning. Assessment of MPAs may assist in the diagnostic procedure of psychiatric disorders.

  12. Comparison of prevalence of periodontal disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ehsan Rahiminejad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, affecting 4-18% of them. Previous studies also showed that periodontal diseases are associated with different components of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the association between PCOS and periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: A total of 196 women (98 with PCOS and 98 healthy controls were enrolled. PCOS diagnosis was confirmed by history, clinical signs, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and ultrasound studies. Both cases and controls were examined by the same periodontist. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth, clinical attachment loss (CAL, plaque index, and tooth loss were investigated in all participants. Pregnant women, smokers, individuals with a history of malignancy or osteoporosis, and those taking prophylactic antibiotics for dental procedures or receiving periodontal treatment during the 6-month period before examination were excluded. Data were analyzed using t-test, Chi-square test, and linear regression. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: CAL and sites with BOP were significantly higher in women with PCOS (P < 0.05. However, no significant difference was observed in the tooth loss rate between PCOS and non-PCOS participants (P = 0.384. Conclusion: The prevalence of periodontal disease seems to be higher in women with PCOS. This may be related to the role of chronic systemic inflammation in the pathophysiology of both PCOS and periodontal diseases.

  13. Temperament-creativity relationships in mood disorder patients, healthy controls and highly creative individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Connie M; Nowakowska, Cecylia; Santosa, Claudia M; Wang, Po W; Kraemer, Helena C; Ketter, Terence A

    2007-06-01

    To investigate temperament-creativity relationships in euthymic bipolar (BP) and unipolar major depressive (MDD) patients, creative discipline controls (CC), and healthy controls (HC). 49 BP, 25 MDD, 32 CC, and 47 HC (all euthymic) completed three self-report temperament/personality measures: the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A), and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI); and four creativity measures yielding six parameters: the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS-Total, BWAS-Like, and BWAS-Dislike), the Adjective Check List Creative Personality Scale (ACL-CPS), and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking--Figural (TTCT-F) and Verbal (TTCT-V) versions. Factor analysis was used to consolidate the 16 subscales from the three temperament/personality measures, and the resulting factors were assessed in relationship to the creativity parameters. Five personality/temperament factors emerged. Two of these factors had prominent relationships with creativity measures. A Neuroticism/Cyclothymia/Dysthymia Factor, comprised mostly of NEO-PI-R-Neuroticism and TEMPS-A-Cyclothymia and TEMPS-A-Dysthymia, was related to BWAS-Total scores (r=0.36, pcreativity. The former could provide affective (Neuroticism, i.e. access to negative affect, and Cyclothymia, i.e. changeability of affect) and the latter cognitive (flexibility) advantages to enhance creativity. Further studies are indicated to clarify mechanisms of creativity and its relationships to affective processes and bipolar disorders.

  14. Examining frontotemporal connectivity and rTMS in healthy controls: implications for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, Paula M; Tracy, Derek K; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Krabbendam, Lydia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have clinically beneficial effects in altering the perception of auditory hallucinations (AH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, the mode of action is not clear. Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that rTMS has the potential to induce not only local effects but also changes in remote, functionally connected brain regions. Frontotemporal dysconnectivity has been proposed as a mechanism leading to psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The current study examines functional connectivity between temporal and frontal brain regions after rTMS and the implications for AH in schizophrenia. A connectivity analysis was conducted on the fMRI data of 11 healthy controls receiving rTMS, compared with 11 matched subjects receiving sham TMS, to the temporoparietal junction, before engaging in a task associated with robust frontotemporal activation. Compared to the control group, the rTMS group showed an altered frontotemporal connectivity with stronger connectivity between the right temporoparietal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular gyrus. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that normalizing the functional connectivity between the temporoparietal and frontal brain regions may underlie the therapeutic effect of rTMS on AH in schizophrenia.

  15. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in "ecological" tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning.

  16. Impaired mediolateral postural control at the ankle in healthy, middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T; Mercier, Marie; Szaffarczyk, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Elderly adults sway more than young adults. Based on the literature, the authors expected the mediolateral ankle postural control mechanism to be affected before age 60 years. Twelve healthy young adults (24.21 ± 2.50 years) and 12 middle-aged adults (51.13 ± 6.09 years) participated in the study. To challenge mediolateral stance, the conditions modified the mediolateral distance among the feet (narrow and standard distances), mandibular position (rest position, left and right laterality occlusion positions), and the occlusion with clenching (intercuspal occlusion, left and right maximal voluntary clenches). As we expected, middle-aged adults exhibited significantly reduced contribution of the ankle mechanism. It was so both in narrow and standard stances. A second objective was to show a greater contribution of the 2 mechanisms in narrow than in standard stances. The results confirmed our hypothesis. As we expected, mandibular conditions only had a significant effect on center of pressure sway. Unexpectedly, middle-aged adults did not increase their range of center of pressure sway in narrow stance. They may have overconstrained their center of pressure sway because of their ankle impairments. On the practical level, our results suggest that older adults should increase their stance width to relieve their hip and ankle control mechanisms and to stabilize their mediolateral posture.

  17. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  18. School-based intervention to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast: a survey and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, S; Koren-Morag, N; Siman-Tov, M; Livne, I; Altmen, H

    2011-02-01

    The recent rapid increase in childhood obesity rates suggests that a consideration of the role of the schools in addressing this problem is necessary. 'Fits me' program functions to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast among elementary school children. Separate children groups were sampled each year by clusters from seven regions around Israel. They filled a self-administered questionnaire at the beginning of 2003, before the program started, and in 2003-2005, after the program. A separate sample was collected in 2006 in a case-control structure. The answer to the question: 'what do you eat for breakfast?' considered as a healthy breakfast if it included one of the following food items: A sandwich (not including chocolate, jam or butter), cereals, vegetable, fruit, egg and dairy product. As compared with 2003 before the program, more children reported eating daily breakfast over the years (51-65% before and until 2005, respectively, P for trendhealthy breakfast, in 2006 in the intervention (n=417) vs controls (n=572), adjusted for sex and age were OR=1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04). However, only a third of 75% of the children who ate a healthy breakfast in the intervention group estimated that they were eating a healthy breakfast. After implementation an educational program to promote daily and healthy breakfast eating, the goal of a healthier breakfast was achieved. However, one should strive to define an exact definition of a healthy breakfast.

  19. Short- and Long-Term Sleep Stability in Insomniacs and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jordan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Basta, Maria; Pejovic, Slobodanka; He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O.

    2015-01-01

    classifying one's sleep duration. Citation: Gaines J, Vgontzas AN, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Basta M, Pejovic S, He F, Bixler EO. Short- and long-term sleep stability in insomniacs and healthy controls. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1727–1734. PMID:26237768

  20. [Neurology and literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2010-10-01

    Literature complements medical literature in the academic and clinical development of neurologists. The present article explores the contributions of writers of fiction on neurology. Literary works of fiction with particular reference to neurology. A symbiosis between writers of fiction and doctors has been well recognised. From Shakespeare to Cervantes by way of Dickens and Cela to writer - physicians such as Anton Chekhov or António Lobo Antunes have contributed through their medically informed literature to the better understanding of neurology. Some writers like Dostoevsky, Machado de Assis and Margiad Evans have written about their own experiences with disease thus bringing new insights to medicine. Furthermore, some neurological disorders have been largely based on literary descriptions. For instance, Dostoevsky's epilepsy has been retrospectively analysed by famous neurologists including Freud, Alajouanine or Gastaut, whilst his writings and biography have prompted others like Waxman and Geschwind to describe typical behavioural changes in temporal lobe epilepsy, finding their source of inspiration in Dostoevsky. Likewise, Cirignotta et al have named an unusual type of seizure after the Russian novelist. Inspired by Lewis Carroll, Todd introduced the term Alice in Wonderland Syndrome to refer to visual distortions generally associated with migraine. Writers of fiction offer a humanised perception of disease by contributing new insights into the clinical history, informing about the subjective experience of the illness and helping to eradicate the stigma associated to neurological disorders.

  1. Suicide in Neurologic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas, David B.; Anderson, C. Alan

    2002-11-01

    The risk of attempted or completed suicide is increased in patients with migraine with aura, epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Huntington's disease. Contrary to the general perception that the risk of suicide among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementing conditions is low, several reports suggest that the risk of suicide in these patients increases relative to the general population. Some patients at risk for neurologic disorders are also at increased risk for suicide; in particular, the risk of suicide is increased among persons at risk for Huntington's disease, independent of the presence or absence of the Huntington's gene mutation. The risk of attempted or completed suicide in neurologic illness is strongly associated with depression, feelings of hopelessness or helplessness, and social isolation. Additional suicide risk factors in persons with neurologic illness include cognitive impairment, relatively younger age (under 60 years), moderate physical disability, recent onset or change in illness, a lack of future plans or perceived meaning in life, recent losses (personal, occupational, or financial), and prior history of psychiatric illness or suicidal behavior. Substance dependence, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders (eg, borderline personality disorder) may also contribute to increased risk of suicide among persons with neurologic illnesses. Identification and aggressive treatment of psychiatric problems, especially depression, as well as reduction of modifiable suicide risk factors among patients with neurologic illness is needed to reduce the risk of attempted and completed suicide in this population.

  2. Neurologic manifestations of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jacqueline T; Bodensteiner, John B; Butler, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the best described and most common form of the congenital short-limbed dwarfing conditions. Achondroplasia is apparent at birth and has a birth prevalence of 1 in 20000-30000 live-born infants. Achondroplasia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, although 80% of cases occur sporadically as new events in their families. Achondroplasia is caused, in virtually all of the cases, by a G380R mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Patients with achondroplasia should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians including geneticists, neurologists, and orthopedists, since there are numerous bony and neurological complications. The most severe complication results from craniocervical stenosis and medullary and upper spinal cord compression, which can have devastating and even lethal sequelae during early childhood. In subsequent decades, including adolescence, spinal cord and nerve compression are more prominent. The neurological complications of achondroplasia have been recognized in adults for more than a century and are attributed to bony defects, connective tissue structures, or both. Similar neurological complications are now appreciated in infants, young children, and teenagers with achondroplasia. Defective connective tissue elements in achondroplasia frequently lead to ligamentous laxity, which can aggravate the complications associated with bony stenosis. Bony abnormalities are known to cause neurological morbidity and lead to a shortened lifespan. Neurological complications associated with achondroplasia are reviewed, including recommendations for the evaluation and management of these clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Determining optimal threshold for glucose control in organ donors after neurologic determination of death: a United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 Donor Management Goals Workgroup prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally, Mitchell B; Ewing, Tyler; Crutchfield, Megan; Patel, Madhukar S; Raza, Shariq; De La Cruz, Salvador; Zatarain, John; Malinoski, Darren Jay

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate level of glucose control in organ donors after neurologic determination of death (DNDD) remains uncertain. We hypothesized that a glucose target of 180 mg/dL would be appropriate for optimizing organ transplantation rates and outcomes. Demographic, critical care, organ transplantation, and graft outcome data were prospectively collected on all DNDDs in United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) Region 5 from 2010 to 2012. Glucose levels were assessed at four time points in the organ donation process. The primary outcome measure was having four or more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). Univariate analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between glucose levels and OTPD, organ transplantation rates, and graft function. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine independent predictors of four or more OTPDs. Glucose levels were analyzed at the following cutoff points: 150 or less, 180, and 200 mg/dL. Results with a p Glucose levels of 150 mg/dL or less were not associated with differences in organ use. Levels of 180 mg/dL or less were associated with more OTPDs (3.5 vs. 3.2), a higher rate of four or more OTPDs (42% vs. 34%), and more heart (34% vs. 28%), pancreas (18% vs. 11%), and kidney (85% vs. 81%) use. Levels of 200 mg/dL or less revealed similar results. However, only a level of 180 mg/dL or less was an independent predictor of four or more OTPDs (odds ratio, 1.4). All three levels were associated with higher kidney graft survival after a mean (SD) of 10 (6.0) months of follow-up (97% vs. 95%). Hyperglycemia is common in DNDDs and is associated with lower organ transplantation rates and worse graft outcomes. Targeting a glucose level of 180 mg/dL or less seems to preserve outcomes and is consistent with general critical care guidelines. Therapeutic study, level II.

  5. Pressure-regulated volume control vs. volume control ventilation in healthy and injured rabbit lung: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porra, Liisa; Bayat, Sam; Malaspinas, Iliona; Albu, Gergely; Doras, Camille; Broche, Ludovic; Strengell, Satu; Peták, Ferenc; Habre, Walid

    2016-10-01

    It is not well understood how different ventilation modes affect the regional distribution of ventilation, particularly within the injured lung. We compared respiratory mechanics, lung aeration and regional specific ventilation ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) distributions in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbits ventilated with pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) mode with a decelerating inspiratory flow or with volume control (VC) mode. Randomised experimental study. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8) were anaesthetised, paralysed and mechanically ventilated either with VC or PRVC mode (tidal volume: 7 ml kg; rate: 40 min; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): 3 cmH2O), at baseline and after lung injury induced by lung lavage. Airway resistance (Raw), respiratory tissue damping (G) and elastance (H) were measured by low-frequency forced oscillations. Synchrotron radiation computed tomography during stable xenon wash-in was used to measure regional lung aeration and specific ventilation and the relative fraction of nonaerated, trapped, normally, poorly and hyperinflated lung regions. Lung lavage significantly elevated peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (P lungs with, however, a significantly lower peak pressure. Our data suggest that the lower PIP on PRVC ventilation was because of the decelerating flow pattern rather than the ventilation distribution.

  6. Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swinburn Boyd

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It! program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a

  7. [Neurological sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Ramin

    2014-11-01

    Neurological sleep disorders are common in the general population and may have a strong impact on quality of life. General practitioners play a key role in recognizing and managing sleep disorders in the general population. They should therefore be familiar with the most important neurological sleep disorders. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most prevalent and important neurological sleep disorders, including Restless legs syndrome (with and without periodic limb movements in sleep), narcolepsy, NREM- and REM-sleep parasomnias and the complex relationship between sleep and epilepsies. Although narcolepsy is considered as a rare disease, recent discoveries in narcolepsy research provided insight in the function of brain circuitries involved in sleep wake regulation. REM sleep behavioral parasomnia (RBD) is increasingly recognized to represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular evolving synucleinopathies. Early diagnosis may thus open new perspectives for developing novel treatment options by targeting neuroprotective substances.

  8. Plasma ANP and BNP during exercise in patients with major depressive disorder and in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisén, Anita G M; Ekberg, Kristina; Wohlfart, Björn; Ekman, Rolf; Westrin, Asa

    2011-03-01

    Increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been shown to reduce the hormones in the HPA axis. In this study we addressed the question whether patients with unmedicated major depressive disorder (MDD) might have altered baseline levels of these natriuretic peptides and an altered response to acute exercise. An incremental exercise test was performed in 18 patients with MDD and in 18 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of ANP and BNP were determined at rest, during the exercise test and 30 min post exercise using immunoradiometric assays. During the exercise test the concentrations of ANP and BNP increased significantly in both groups. The MDD group showed significantly lower levels of ANP than the controls at rest, at maximal work rate and post exercise and of BNP at rest and at maximal work rate. The dynamic changes of both ANP and BNP, respectively, from baseline to maximal work rate were significantly lower in the MDD group. A slightly lower (non-significant) maximal work rate was observed in the MDD group compared with the controls. Group sizes are relatively limited. Lower concentrations of ANP and BNP during rest and exercise were observed in the MDD patients together with a decreased dynamic response to maximal exercise. Hypothetically, the reduced ANP and BNP concentration contributes to the high hormone levels in the HPA system seen in depressive disorders. Of interest for future research is whether physical training might increase the levels of ANP and BNP and thereby diminish depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  10. Vitamin d deficiency in a multiethnic healthy control cohort and altered immune response in vitamin D deficient European-American healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L Ritterhouse

    Full Text Available In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals.Healthy individuals (n = 774 comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470, African-Americans (AA, n = 125, and Native Americans (NA, n = 179 were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (24.8 ng/mL vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed.Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30 demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05. Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04, decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04 and CD8+ T (p = 0.04 cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels.A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation.

  11. Intraoperative Epi-Aortic Scans Reduce Adverse Neurological Sequelae in Elderly, High Risk Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery - a Propensity Matched, Cumulative Sum Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suvitesh; Leiva Juarez, Miguel M; Tahir, Zaheer; Yiu, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Adverse neurological sequelae are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery, due to manipulation of an atherosclerotic aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of intraoperative epi-aortic scanning in reducing neurologic sequelae after CABG, and the patient subgroups that are benefitted the most. Patients that underwent first-time CABG from July 2010 to March 2014 (n=1,989) were retrospectively reviewed and stratified by history of intraoperative epi-aortic scan (n=350) or no scan (n=1,639). Baseline characteristics, rates of adverse neurological events, and overall survival were compared among groups in both matched and unmatched cohorts and tested using Student's t-test, chi(2) test, or log-rank test, respectively. Multivariable analysis using logistic regression was performed to identify potential predictors for neurological sequelae. Cumulative summation plots (CUSUM) were constructed to display the number of preventable adverse neurological events per consecutive patient that underwent CABG. A p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The use of epi-aortic scan (OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.09-0.99, p=0.48) was an independent predictor of adverse events. Overall rates of stroke (0.29% vs 0.55%), postoperative confusional state (1.43% vs 3.42%), or both (1.71% vs 3.72%) were lower in those scanned. CUSUM scores were higher in scanned patients, especially in those with an age above 70 years or logistic Euroscore >2. Intraoperative epi-aortic scan is an effective assessment tool for atherosclerotic burden in the ascending aorta and can guide surgical strategy to decrease adverse neurological outcomes, particularly in high risk and elderly patients. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  12. Neurologic Diseases and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Daniel A; Chokroverty, Sudansu

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders and neurologic illness are common and burdensome in their own right; when combined, they can have tremendous negative impact at an individual level as well as societally. The socioeconomic burden of sleep disorders and neurologic illness can be identified, but the real cost of these conditions lies far beyond the financial realm. There is an urgent need for comprehensive care and support systems to help with the burden of disease. Further research in improving patient outcomes in those who suffer with these conditions will help patients and their families, and society in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurologic Complications in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuero, Mauricio Ruiz; Varelas, Panayiotis N

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women are subject to the same complications as the general population, as well to specific neurologic complications associated with pregnancy, such as preeclampsia or eclampsia. The hormonal and physiologic changes during pregnancy lead to altered incidences of these complications, which usually present during the late period of pregnancy, labor, or the puerperium. In addition, the treatment of these conditions is different from that of nonpregnant women, because special attention is paid to avoid any abnormalities or death of the fetus. This article discusses the most common of these neurologic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The neurology literature 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoujah, Danya; Chang, Wan-Tsu W; Abraham, Michael K

    2017-09-06

    Emergency neurology is a complex and rapidly changing field. Its evolution can be attributed in part to increased imaging options, debates about optimal treatment, and simply the growth of emergency medicine as a specialty. Every year, a number of articles published in emergency medicine or other specialty journals should become familiar to the emergency physician. This review summarizes neurology articles published in 2016, which the authors consider crucial to the practice of emergency medicine. The articles are categorized according to disease process, with the understanding that there can be significant overlap among articles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nuria eRuffini; Giandomenico eD'alessandro; Nicolò eMariani; Alberto ePollastrelli; Lucia eCardinali; Francesco eCerritelli

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-ar...

  16. Leukocyte DNA methylation signature differentiates pancreatic cancer patients from healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina S Pedersen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PaC is one of most difficult tumors to treat. Much of this is attributed to the late diagnosis. To identify biomarkers for early detection, we examined DNA methylation differences in leukocyte DNA between PaC cases and controls in a two-phase study. In phase I, we measured methylation levels at 1,505 CpG sites in treatment-naïve leukocyte DNA from 132 never-smoker PaC patients and 60 never-smoker healthy controls. We found significant differences in 110 CpG sites (false discovery rate <0.05. In phase II, we tested and validated 88 of 96 phase I selected CpG sites in 240 PaC cases and 240 matched controls (p≤0.05. Using penalized logistic regression, we built a prediction model consisting of five CpG sites (IL10_P348, LCN2_P86, ZAP70_P220, AIM2_P624, TAL1_P817 that discriminated PaC patients from controls (C-statistic = 0.85 in phase I; 0.76 in phase II. Interestingly, one CpG site (LCN2_P86 alone could discriminate resectable patients from controls (C-statistic= 0.78 in phase I; 0.74 in phase II. We also performed methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTL analysis and identified three CpG sites (AGXT_P180_F, ALOX12_E85_R, JAK3_P1075_R where the methylation levels were significantly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (false discovery rate <0.05. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic variation in easily obtainable leukocyte DNA, manifested by reproducible methylation differences, may be used to detect PaC patients. The methylation differences at certain CpG sites are partially attributable to genetic variation. This study strongly supports future epigenome-wide association study using leukocyte DNA for biomarker discovery in human diseases.

  17. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi(2) analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms

  18. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

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    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  19. Differences in resting state functional connectivity between young adult endurance athletes and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Raichlen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running. Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n=11; age=21.3±2.5 and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n=11; age=20.6±1.1, to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults. Although generally considered an automated repetitive task, locomotion, especially at an elite level, likely engages multiple cognitive actions including planning, inhibition, monitoring, attentional switching and multi-tasking, and motor control. Here, we examined connectivity in three resting-state networks that link such executive functions with motor control: the Default Mode Network (DMN, the Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN, and the Motor Network (MN. We found two key patterns of significant between-group differences in connectivity that are consistent with the hypothesized cognitive demands of elite endurance running. First, enhanced connectivity between the FPN and brain regions often associated with aspects of working memory and other executive functions (frontal cortex, suggest endurance running may stress executive cognitive functions in ways that increase connectivity in associated networks. Second, we found significant anti-correlations between the DMN and regions associated with motor control (paracentral area, somatosensory functions (postcentral region, and visual association abilities (occipital cortex. DMN deactivation with task-positive regions has been shown to be generally beneficial for cognitive performance, suggesting anti-correlated regions observed here are engaged during running. For all between

  20. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy suppresses dental plaque formation in healthy adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose-Tsuno, Akiko; Aoki, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Kirikae, Teruo; Shimbo, Takuro; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-Il; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Maruoka, Yutaka; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Isao; Izumi, Yuichi

    2014-12-15

    Oral care is important for oral and systemic health, especially for elderly institutionalized individuals and compromised patients. However, conventional mechanical plaque control is often difficult for these patients because of the pain or the risk of aspiration. Although antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), which is considered an alternative or adjunct to mechanical approaches, has potential application as a less stressful method of daily plaque control, no clinical application of this technique has been reported. We investigated the inhibitory effect of a combination of toluidine blue O (TBO), and a red light-emitting diode (LED) on dental plaque formation in healthy volunteers. The optimal concentration of TBO was determined in preliminary in vitro experiments to evaluate the bactericidal effect of aPDT on Streptococcus oralis and to clarify its safety in fibroblast cells. To survey the mechanism of TBO-mediated aPDT, the quality and quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during aPDT were also examined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of aPDT on dental plaque formation was investigated in eleven subjects as a clinical pilot study. The right or left mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to the treatment (with aPDT) or control (without aPDT) groups. In total, aPDT was applied six times (twice per day) to the teeth in the test group over a period of four days. On the fourth day, the study concluded and the analyses were performed. A combination of 500 or 1000 μg/ml TBO and LED irradiation for 20 s significantly decreased the number of colony forming units of Streptococcus oralis. The cytotoxicity of aPDT was comparable to that of standard antiseptics used in the oral cavity. Hydroxyl radicals were detected by ESR analysis, but singlet oxygen was not. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that aPDT with 1000 μg/ml TBO and red LED irradiation significantly suppressed dental plaque

  1. Enhancing a sustainable healthy working life : design of a clustered randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, W.; Brouwer, S.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To improve a sustainable healthy working life, we have developed the intervention 'Staying healthy at work', which endeavours to enhance work participation of employees aged 45 years and older by increasing their problem-solving capacity and stimulating their awareness of their role and

  2. Novel Endophytic Trichoderma spp. Isolated from Healthy Coffea arabica Roots are Capable of Controlling Coffee Tracheomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Belayneh Mulaw

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest threats to coffee growers in East Africa are emerging vascular wilt diseases (tracheomycosis caused by Fusarium spp. Many Trichoderma species are known to be natural antagonists of these pathogens and are widely used in biological control of fungal plant diseases. More recently, several Trichoderma spp., which exhibited high antifungal activity have been isolated as endophytes. Consequently, we have investigated the presence and the antagonistic activity of endophytic Trichoderma isolated from roots of healthy coffee plants (Coffea arabica from the major coffee growing regions of Ethiopia. Our results showed that community of Trichoderma spp. in roots of C. arabica contains fungi from coffee rhizosphere, as well as putatively obligate endophytic fungi. The putatively “true” endophytic species, until now, isolated only from coffee plant ecosystems in Ethiopia and recently described as T. flagellatum and novel T. sp. C.P.K. 1812 were able to antagonize Fusarium spp., which cause coffee tracheomycosis. Moreover, we found that strains of these species are also highly antagonistic against other phytopathogenic fungi, such as Alternaria alternata, Botryotinia fuckeliana (anamorph: Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  3. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free fatty acid (FFA metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients.

  5. Visual selective attention in body dysmorphic disorder, bulimia nervosa and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollei, Ines; Horndasch, Stefanie; Erim, Yesim; Martin, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral models postulate that selective attention plays an important role in the maintenance of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). It is suggested that individuals with BDD overfocus on perceived defects in their appearance, which may contribute to the excessive preoccupation with their appearance. The present study used eye tracking to examine visual selective attention in individuals with BDD (n=19), as compared to individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) (n=21) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=21). Participants completed interviews, questionnaires, rating scales and an eye tracking task: Eye movements were recorded while participants viewed photographs of their own face and attractive as well as unattractive other faces. Eye tracking data showed that BDD and BN participants focused less on their self-rated most attractive facial part than HCs. Scanning patterns in own and other faces showed that BDD and BN participants paid as much attention to attractive as to unattractive features in their own face, whereas they focused more on attractive features in attractive other faces. HCs paid more attention to attractive features in their own face and did the same in attractive other faces. Results indicate an attentional bias in BDD and BN participants manifesting itself in a neglect of positive features compared to HCs. Perceptual retraining may be an important aspect to focus on in therapy in order to overcome the neglect of positive facial aspects. Future research should aim to disentangle attentional processes in BDD by examining the time course of attentional processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism of action of whole milk and its components on glycemic control in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Kubant, Ruslan; Akhavan, Tina; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2014-11-01

    Milk reduces post-meal glycemia when consumed either before or within an ad libitum meal. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of each of the macronutrient components and their combination with whole milk on postprandial glycemia, glucoregulatory and gastrointestinal hormones and gastric emptying in healthy young men. In a randomized, crossover study, 12 males consumed beverages (500 ml) of whole milk (3.25% M.F.) (control), a simulated milk beverage based on milk macronutrients, complete milk protein (16 g), lactose (24 g) or milk fat (16 g). Whole and simulated milk was similar in lowering postprandial glycemia and slowing gastric emptying while increasing insulin, C-peptide, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but simulated milk resulted in higher (41%) glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and lower (43%) ghrelin areas under the curve (AUC) than whole milk (P=.01 and P=.04, respectively). Whole and simulated milk lowered glucose (P=.0005) more than predicted by the sum of AUCs for their components. Adjusted for energy content, milks produced lower glucose and hormone responses than predicted from the sum of their components. The effect of protein/kcal on the AUCs was higher than fat/kcal for insulin, C-peptide, insulin secretion rate, GLP-1, CCK and paracetamol (Pmilk lowers postprandial glycemia by both insulin and insulin-independent mechanisms arising from interactions among its macronutrient components and energy content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of yoga on verbal aggressiveness in normal healthy adults. Methods : Of the 1228 persons who attended introductory lectures, 226 subjects of both sexes who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. These 226 subjects were between the ages of 17 and 62 years and 173/226 completed the eight weeks of intervention. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The control group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices (by trained experts for one hour daily, six days a week for eight weeks. Verbal Aggressiveness was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered Verbal Aggressive Scale. Results : The baseline score of the two groups did not differ significantly ( P = 0.66. There was a significant decrease in verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group ( P = 0.01 paired samples t-test with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group. ANCOVA using pre- values as covariates showed a significant difference between the groups ( P = 0.013. RMANOVA for interaction between the sexes or age groups in change scores were not significant. Conclusions : This study has demonstrated that an eight week intervention of an integrated yoga module decreased verbal aggressiveness in the yoga group (in males and those below 25 years of age, with a nonsignificant increase in the PE group.

  8. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cognitive Performance in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder vs Healthy Controls: A Neuropsychological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, M Carlotta; Arici, Chiara; Cremaschi, Laura; Cristoffanini, Marta; Dobrea, Cristina; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Altamura, A Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment may affect patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) beyond the acute episodes, qualifying as a potential endophenotype. However, which cognitive domains are specifically affected in euthymic patients with BD and the potential influence of confounding factors (e.g., age and concomitant pharmacological treatment) are still a matter of debate. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess cognitive performance across specific domains in euthymic bipolar patients, not older than 50 years (to avoid potential age-related bias) versus healthy controls (HCs). A cognitive task battery, including the Wisconsin Card Test, Span Attention Test, Tower of London, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Matrices Scores and N-Back, was administered to 62 subjects (30 bipolar patients and 32 matched HCs) and differences between the groups analyzed. Bipolar patients performed significantly worse than HCs in the Span Forward task, in the expression of Verbal Fluency Test (Category) and in the N-Back task (all pbipolar patients and HCs, supporting the notion that specific cognitive functions may remain impaired even after the resolution of the acute episodes in subjects suffering from BD. Future studies on larger samples are warranted to confirm the present results and further explore potential differences in cognitive impairment across specific bipolar subtypes.

  10. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder: A comparison with panic disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn A; Rosenberg, Nicole K; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2016-03-01

    Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared to patients with panic disorder (PD), and healthy controls (HCs). A total of 107 participants retrieved four memories cued by verbal phrases associated with either social anxiety (SA) or panic anxiety (PA), with two memories for each cue category. PA-cued memories were experienced with stronger imagery and as more traumatic. They were also rated as more central to identity than SA-cued memories, but not among participants with SAD, who perceived SA-cued memories as equally central to their identity. When between-group effects were detected, participants with anxiety disorders differed from HCs, but not from each other. Central limitations include reliance on self-report measures, comorbidity in the anxiety disorder groups, and lack of a neutrally cued memory comparison. The findings align with models of SAD suggesting that past negative social events play a central role in this disorder. Future research is suggested to further explore the function of negative memories, not only in SAD, but also in other anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-D?part Sant? cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    B?langer, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, St?phanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a growing concern for public health. Given a majority of children in many countries spend approximately 30 h per week in early childcare centers, this environment represents a promising setting for implementing strategies to foster healthy behaviours for preventing and controlling childhood obesity. Healthy Start-Départ Santé was designed to promote physical activity, physical literacy, and healthy eating among preschoolers. The objectives of this stud...

  12. Balance ability and postural stability among patients with painful shoulder disorders and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baierle, Tobias; Kromer, Thilo; Petermann, Carmen; Magosch, Petra; Luomajoki, Hannu

    2013-10-02

    In therapeutic settings, patients with shoulder pain often exhibit deficient coordinative abilities in their trunk and lower extremities. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) if there is a connection between shoulder pain and deficits in balance ability and postural stability, 2) if pain intensity is related to balance ability and postural stability, and 3) if there is a connection between body mass index (BMI) and balance ability and postural stability. In this case-control study, patients (n = 40) with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) were matched with a healthy controls (n = 40) and were compared with regard to their balance ability and postural stability. Outcome parameters were postural stability, balance ability and symmetry index which were measured using the S3-Check system. In addition, the influence of shoulder pain intensity and BMI on the outcome parameters was analysed. Patients with shoulder pain showed significantly worse results in measurements of postural stability right/left (p shoulder pain group. There was no correlation between pain intensity and measurements of balance ability or postural stability. Likewise, no correlation between BMI and deficiencies in balance ability and postural stability was established. Patients with pathological shoulder pain (> 4 months) have deficiencies in balance ability and postural stability; however the underlying mechanisms for this remain unclear. Neither pain intensity nor BMI influenced the outcome parameters. Patients with shoulder pain shift their weight to the affected side. Further research is needed to determine if balance training can improve rehabilitation results in patients with shoulder pathologies.

  13. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  14. Cardiac autonomic control and complexity during sleep are preserved after chronic sleep restriction in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Covassin, Naima; Calvin, Andrew; Singh, Prachi; Bukartyk, Jan; Wang, Shiang; Montano, Nicola; Somers, Virend K

    2017-04-01

    Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time). Attended polysomnographic (PSG) studies were performed every night; a subset of them was selected for the analysis at baseline (day 3-D3), the first night after sleep restriction (day 5-D5), at the end of sleep restriction period (day 11-D11), and at the end of recovery phase (day 14-D14). We extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration from the PSG and divided into wakefulness (W), nonrapid eye movements (REM) sleep (N2 and N3) and REM sleep. CAC was evaluated by means of linear spectral analysis, nonlinear symbolic analysis and complexity indexes. In both RES and CON groups, sympathetic modulation decreased and parasympathetic modulation increased during N2 and N3 compared to W and REM at D3, D5, D11, D14. Complexity analysis revealed a reduction in complexity during REM compared to NREM sleep in both DEP and CON After 8 days of moderate SD, cardiac autonomic dynamics, characterized by decreased sympathetic, and increased parasympathetic modulation, and higher cardiac complexity during NREM sleep, compared to W and REM, are preserved. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Neurological aspects of eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dejana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficult types of preeclampsia and eclampsia are presented with the neurological symptoms. The break of cerebral autoregulation mechanism plays the most important role in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nevertheless eclampsia isn’t just an ordinary hypertensive encephalopathy because other pathogenic mechanisms are involved in its appearance. The main neuropathologic changes are multifocal vasogenic edema, perivascular multiple microinfarctions and petechial hemorrhages. Neurological clinical manifestations are convulsions, headache, visual disturbances and rarely other discrete focal neurological symptoms. Eclampsia is a high-risk factor for onset of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. This is a reason why neurological diagnostic tests are sometimes needed. The method of choice for evaluation of complicated eclampsia is computerized brain topography that shows multiple areas of hypodensity in occipitoparietal regions. These changes are focal vasogenic cerebral edema. For differential diagnosis of eclampsia and stroke other diagnostic methods can be used - fundoscopic exam, magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebral angiography and cerebrospinal fluid exam. The therapy of eclampsia considers using of magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive, anticonvulsive and antiedematous drugs.

  16. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  17. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Parpura, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 149-158 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * Alzheimer's disease * Alexander disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Effects of cortisol on hippocampal subfields volumes and memory performance in healthy control subjects and patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Scott G; Coupland, Nicholas J; Hegadoren, K; Silverstone, Peter H; Huang, Yushan; Carter, Rawle; Fujiwara, Esther; Seres, Peter; Malykhin, Nikolai V

    2016-09-01

    Overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most consistently replicated biological findings in psychiatry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have consistently demonstrated that hippocampal (HC) volume is decreased in patients with MDD. The improved spatial resolution of high field strength MRI has recently enabled measurements of HC subfield volumes in vivo. The main goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol concentrations over a day and HC subfield volumes in patients with MDD compared to healthy controls and to investigate whether diurnal cortisol measures are related to memory performance. Fourteen MDD patients with moderate or severe episodes were recruited, together with 14 healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a 4.7T whole-body imaging system. HC subfields and subregions were segmented manually using previously defined protocol. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale IV. The salivary cortisol levels were measured over the course of one day. We found that cortisol awakening response to 8h (CAR-8h) was higher in MDD patients compared to controls and that this increase in CAR-8h in MDD patients correlated negatively with left total Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-3 and left HC head volume. In healthy controls mean cortisol levels were negatively associated with right total CA1-3, right HC head, and right total HC volume. In addition, in healthy controls higher CAR-8h was related to worse performance on the immediate content memory. These results provide the first in vivo evidence of the negative associations between cortisol level, CA1-3 HC subfield volume and memory performance in patients with MDD and healthy controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of life in young patients after bone tumor surgery around the knee joint and comparison with healthy controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W.P.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Schaap, G.R.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Beishuizen, A.; Tissing, W.J.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Anninga, J.K.; Taminiau, A.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. PROCEDURE: Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received

  20. Quality of life in young patients after bone tumor surgery around the knee joint and comparison with healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W. Peter; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P. M.; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Schaap, Gerard R.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Beishuizen, Auke; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Anninga, Jacob K.; Taminiau, Antonie H. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received the TNO (Netherlands

  1. Frequency and Duration of Rhinovirus Infections in Children with Cystic Fibrosis and Healthy Controls : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, Jasper S; van Ewijk, Bart E; Wilbrink, Berry; Wolfs, Tom FW; Kimpen, Jan L L; van der Ent, Cornelis K

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral infections are an important cause of morbidity in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that patients with CF are more susceptible to human rhinovirus (HRV) infections than healthy controls. METHODS: In a 6-months

  2. Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, K R; Johansen, J D; Reibel, J

    2017-01-01

    candidiasis. Immunohistochemistry were performed using poly- and monoclonal filaggrin antibodies. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity for filaggrin was significantly more intense in the oral mucosa in the patients with OLP/OLL compared to healthy controls (p=0.000025). No difference was noted in the incidence...

  3. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients.

  4. Cognitive performance and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration: a study of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad, Sindre; Jakobsson, Joel; Sellgren, Carl; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of neurodegeneration are associated with cognition in bipolar disorder and healthy controls, respectively. CSF concentrations of total and phosphorylated tau, amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38, soluble amyloid precursor protein α and β, and neurofilament light chain protein were analyzed in relation to neuropsychological performance in 82 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 healthy controls. Linear regression models were applied to account for performance in five cognitive domains using the CSF biomarkers. In patients, the CSF biomarkers explained a significant proportion of the variance (15-36%, p=.002 - cognitive domains independently of age, medication, disease status, and bipolar subtype I or II. However, the CSF biomarkers specifically mirroring Alzheimer-type brain changes, i.e., P-tau and Aβ1-42, did not contribute significantly. In healthy controls, CSF biomarkers did not explain the variance in cognitive performance. Selected CSF biomarkers of neurodegenerative processes accounted for cognitive performance in persons with bipolar disorder, but not for healthy controls. Specifically, the ratios of Aβ42/40 and Aβ42/38 were consistently associated with altered cognitive performance.

  5. Specific Interference between a Cognitive Task and Sensory Organization for Stance Balance Control in Healthy Young Adults: Visuospatial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Raymond K. Y.; Mills, Bradley; Dailey, Leanna; Lane, Elizabeth; Smith, Sarah; Lee, Kyoung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a computational overload results when two activities, one motor and the other cognitive that draw on the same neural processing pathways, are performed concurrently. Healthy young adult subjects carried out two seemingly distinct tasks of maintaining standing balance control under conditions of low (eyes closed),…

  6. Effects of visual center of pressure feedback on postural control in young and elderly healthy adults and in stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dault, Mylène C.; de Haart, Mirjam; Geurts, Alexander C. H.; Arts, Ilse M. P.; Nienhuis, Bart

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare young and elderly healthy individuals and elderly stroke patients in their capacity to use visual CP feedback (VF) in controlling both quiet standing and weight shifting and to assess their sensory re-weighing when this VF is withdrawn. A total of 40

  7. Relationship between eating styles and temperament in an Anorexia Nervosa, Healthy Control, and Morbid Obesity female sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baños, R.M.; Cebolla, A.; Moragrega, I.; Strien, T. van; Fernandez-Aranda, F.; Aguera, Z.; Torre, R. de la; Casanueva, F.F.; Fernandez-Real, J.M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J.C.; Fruhbeck, G.; Gomez-Ambrosi, J.; Jimenez-Murcia, S.; Rodriguez, R.; Tinahones, F.J.; Botella, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Eating styles have been studied in both Obesity (OB) and Eating Disorders (ED), but they have not been examined in these two weight conditions together. The present study explores differences in eating styles in an Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and OB sample, compared to Healthy Controls (HC),

  8. Quality of Life in Young Patients After Bone Tumor Surgery Around the Knee Joint and Comparison With Healthy Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, W. Peter; Vlieland, Theodora P. M. Vliet; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Schaap, Gerard R.; Schreuder, H. W. Bart; Beishuizen, Auke; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Anninga, Jacob K.; Taminiau, Antonie H. M.

    Background. This study aimed to compare the health related quality of life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents after malignant bone tumor surgery of the leg with healthy controls. Procedure. Patients between 8 and 25 years old were cross-sectional recruited. Patients under 16 years of age received

  9. Pilot study of vibration stimulation on neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jianfeng; Shull, Pete; Ji, Linhong

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted therapy has been proved effective for dyskinesia, and has many unique advantages compared with traditional treatment, such as repeatability, accuracy, objectivity. But some studies show that the effect of the robot-assisted rehabilitation for improving patients' activities of daily life (ADLs) is not obvious. This study introduces a novel auxiliary method-vibration stimulation combined with robots which may improve patients' ADLs. In controlled trials, two kinds of feedback-vibration and visual feedback are applied to prompt subjects for rehabilitation, and electromyographic signals (EMGs) and motion parameters are recorded in real time. Experimental results show that subjects' EMGs using vibration feedback are similar to healthy people, and characteristics of motion are closer to the theoretical value compared with control group. Vibration stimulation may serve as a kind of efficient auxiliary means to improve the efficiency of neurological rehabilitation.

  10. [Voice disorders caused by neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, J; Jiménez-Jiménez, F J; Mate, M A; Cobeta, I

    To review voice disorders in neurological diseases, with special emphasis to acoustic analysis. In the first part of this article we describe data regarding neural control of voice, physiology of phonation, and examination of the patient with voice disturbances, including the use of voice laboratory, acoustic analysis fundamentals, phonetometric measures and aerodynamic measures. In the second part, we review the voice disturbances associated to neurological diseases, emphasizing into movement disorders (specially Parkinson s disease, essential tremor, and spasmodic dysphonia). A number of neurological diseases causing alterations of corticospinal pathway, cerebellum, basal ganglia and upper and/or lower motoneurons can induce voice disturbances. Voice examination using ear, nose & throat examination, endoscopy and videorecording of laryngeal movements, acoustic analysis, elecroglottography, laryngeal electromyography, and aerodynamic measures, could be useful in the clinical examination of some neurological diseases.

  11. Differences in Topographical Pressure Pain Sensitivity Maps of the Scalp Between Patients With Migraine and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón, Johanna; Ruiz, Marina; Palacios-Ceña, María; Madeleine, Pascal; Guerrero, Ángel L; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2017-02-01

    To investigate differences in topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the scalp between patients with migraine and healthy controls considering the chronicity (episodic/chronic) and side (strictly unilateral/bilateral) of the symptoms. It seems that the trigeminal area is sensitized in migraine. No study has investigated topographical pressure sensitivity maps of the scalp in patients with migraine. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed from 21 points distributed over the scalp in 86 patients with episodic migraine, 76 with chronic migraine, and 42 healthy age and matched healthy controls in a blinded design. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps based on interpolation of the PPTs were constructed. Clinical features of migraine, anxiety, and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) were collected. The multivariate ANCOVA revealed significant differences in PPT between points (F = 55.674; P migraine groups than in healthy controls in all points (P migraine (P > .335) except for Fp1 (P = .045) and Fp2 (P = .017) points where subjects with chronic migraine had lower PPTs than those with episodic migraine; (3) no differences between bilateral/unilateral migraine (P > .417). An anterior to posterior gradient was found, with the lowest PPTs located in frontal regions and the highest PPTs in occipital areas (all groups, P migraine exhibited generalized pressure pain hypersensitivity in the head as compared to healthy controls and that hypersensitivity was similar between episodic/chronic and unilateral/bilateral migraine. Topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps revealed an anterior to posterior gradient of pressure pain sensitivity in both migraine and control groups. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  12. Urinary neopterine levels in patients with major depressive disorder: alterations after treatment with paroxetine and comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymur, Ibrahim; Özdel, Kadir; Özen, Nurper Erberk; Güngör, Buket Belkiz; Atmaca, Murad

    2015-03-01

    A close relationship has been shown between mood disorders and pteridine levels. The aim of this study was to examine alterations in the urine neopterine levels of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who responded to paroxetine during the initial treatment and to compare their levels to those of healthy controls. Sixteen patients with major depression and 19 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. In order to assess depression severity levels, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Urinary neopterine values that were measured using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were compared using non-parametric tests for the MDD patients before and after treatment. Urine neopterine levels in MDD patients before and after treatment were compared to those of the healthy control group. Urinary neopterine levels were recorded as follows: For the MDD group before treatment the mean level was 187.92±54.79 μmol/creatinine. The same group under treatment at 4 to 8 weeks was at 188.53±4962 μmol/creatinine, and the healthy control group showed 150.57±152.98 μmol/creatinine levels. There was no statistically significant difference in the urinary neopterine levels among the MDD patients before and after treatment (p=0.938). When urine neopterine levels in MDD patients before and after treatment were compared to those of the healthy control group, levels in the MDD group were found to be significantly higher (p=0.004 and p=0.005, respectively). Findings from the current study suggest that despite treatment response, depression is related to higher levels of urine neopterine. Paroxetine treatment has no significant effect on urine levels of neopterine in MDD patients.

  13. Does a short self-compassion intervention for students increase healthy self-regulation? A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Ingrid; Binder, Per-Einar; Hansen, Tia G B; Stige, Signe Hjelen

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of a two-week self-compassion course on healthy self-regulation (personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse control) and unhealthy self-regulation (self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking) in university students. We also examined the effects on self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Students (N = 158, 85% women, mean age = 25 years) were randomized to an intervention group and a waiting-list control group in a multi-baseline randomized control trial. Healthy self-control was measured by the Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS) and the Self-Control Scale; unhealthy self-control was measured by the Non-judgement subscale from the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (reversed) and the Habit Index of Negative Thinking (HINT). Secondary outcomes were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-trait), the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). A 2 × 3 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed gains for the intervention-group in personal growth self-efficacy and healthy impulse-control and reductions in self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking, as well as increases in self-compassion and reductions in anxiety and depression. After all participants had completed the course, the groups were combined and repeated measures ANOVAs showed that changes remained at six-month follow-up for personal growth self-efficacy, self-judgment and habitual negative self-directed thinking; as well as for self-compassion, anxiety and depression. Concluding, a short self-compassion course seems an effective method of increasing self-compassion and perceived control over one's life for university students, as well as increasing mental health. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  15. A process evaluation of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha N D; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Crawford, David A

    2016-02-24

    Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) was a randomized controlled trial that operationalized a socioecological approach to population-level dietary behaviour change in a real-world supermarket setting. SHELf tested the impact of individual (skill-building), environmental (20% price reductions), and combined (skill-building + 20% price reductions) interventions on women's purchasing and consumption of fruits, vegetables, low-calorie carbonated beverages and water. This process evaluation investigated the reach, effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance of the SHELf interventions. RE-AIM provided a conceptual framework to examine the processes underlying the impact of the interventions using data from participant surveys and objective sales data collected at baseline, post-intervention (3 months) and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact, χ (2) and t-tests assessed differences in quantitative survey responses among groups. Adjusted linear regression examined the impact of self-reported intervention dose on food purchasing and consumption outcomes. Thematic analysis identified key themes within qualitative survey responses. Reach of the SHELf interventions to disadvantaged groups, and beyond study participants themselves, was moderate. Just over one-third of intervention participants indicated that the interventions were effective in changing the way they bought, cooked or consumed food (p < 0.001 compared to control), with no differences among intervention groups. Improvements in purchasing and consumption outcomes were greatest among those who received a higher intervention dose. Most notably, participants who said they accessed price reductions on fruits and vegetables purchased (519 g/week) and consumed (0.5 servings/day) more vegetables. The majority of participants said they accessed (82%) and appreciated discounts on fruits and vegetables, while there was limited use (40%) and appreciation of discounts on low-calorie carbonated

  16. A case–control study examining whether neurological deficits and PTSD in combat veterans are related to episodes of mild TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Ronald George; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Piero, Traci; Ruff, Suzanne Smith

    2012-01-01

    Background Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common injury among military personnel serving in Iraq or Afghanistan. The impact of repeated episodes of combat mTBI is unknown. Objective To evaluate relationships among mTBI, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and neurological deficits (NDs) in US veterans who served in Iraq or Afghanistan. Methods This was a case–control study. From 2091 veterans screened for traumatic brain injury, the authors studied 126 who sustained mTBI with one or more episodes of loss of consciousness (LOC) in combat. Comparison groups: 21 combat veterans who had definite or possible episodes of mTBI without LOC and 21 veterans who sustained mTBI with LOC as civilians. Results Among combat veterans with mTBI, 52% had NDs, 66% had PTSD and 50% had PTSD and an ND. Impaired olfaction was the most common ND, found in 65 veterans. The prevalence of an ND or PTSD correlated with the number of mTBI exposures with LOC. The prevalence of an ND or PTSD was >90% for more than five episodes of LOC. Severity of PTSD and impairment of olfaction increased with number of LOC episodes. The prevalence of an ND for the 34 combat veterans with one episode of LOC (4/34=11.8%) was similar to that of the 21 veterans of similar age and educational background who sustained civilian mTBI with one episode of LOC (2/21=9.5%, p-NS). Conclusions Impaired olfaction was the most frequently recognised ND. Repeated episodes of combat mTBI were associated with increased likelihood of PTSD and an ND. Combat setting may not increase the likelihood of an ND. Two possible connections between mTBI and PTSD are (1) that circumstances leading to combat mTBI likely involve severe psychological trauma and (2) that altered cerebral functioning following mTBI may increase the likelihood that a traumatic event results in PTSD. PMID:22431700

  17. Efficacy of early administration of escitalopram on depressive and emotional symptoms and neurological dysfunction after stroke: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S; Lee, Eun-Jae; Chang, Dae-Il; Park, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Heo, Ji Hoe; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Eog; Kim, Hahn Young; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Jei; Seo, Woo-Keun; Lee, Jun; Park, Sang-Won; Koh, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2017-01-01

    Mood and emotional disturbances are common in patients with stroke, and adversely affect the clinical outcome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of early administration of escitalopram to reduce moderate or severe depressive symptoms and improve emotional and neurological dysfunction in patients with stroke. This was a placebo controlled, double-blind trial done at 17 centres in South Korea. Patients who had had an acute stroke within the past 21 days were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral escitalopram (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. Randomisation was done with permuted blocks stratified by centre, via a web-based system. The primary endpoint was the frequency of moderate or severe depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥16). Endpoints were assessed at 3 months after randomisation in the full analysis set (patients who took study medication and underwent assessment of primary endpoint after randomisation), in all patients who were enrolled and randomly assigned (intention to treat), and in all patients who completed the trial (per-protocol analysis). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01278498. Between Jan 27, 2011, and June 30, 2014, 478 patients were assigned to placebo (n=237) or escitalopram (n=241); 405 were included in the full analysis set (195 in the placebo group, 210 in the escitalopram group). The primary outcome did not differ by study group in the full analysis set (25 [13%] patients in the placebo group vs 27 [13%] in the escitalopram group; odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·56-1·80; p>0·99) or in the intention-to-treat analysis (34 [14%] vs 35 [15%]; OR 1·01, 95% CI 0·61-1·69, p=0·96). The study medication was generally well tolerated; the most common adverse events were constipation (14 [6%] patients who received placebo vs 14 [6%] who received escitalopram), muscle pain (16 [7%] vs ten [4%]), and insomnia (12 [5%] vs 12 [5%]). Diarrhoea was more common in the

  18. Fibrinolytic activity in cerebrospinal fluid of dogs with different neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, C; Monreal, L; Cerón, J; Pastor, J; Viu, J; Añor, S

    2012-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is activated in humans by different pathologic processes. To investigate fibrinolytic activity in the CSF of dogs with neurological disorders by measuring CSF D-dimer concentrations. One hundred and sixty-nine dogs with neurological disorders, 7 dogs with systemic inflammatory diseases without central nervous system involvement (SID), and 7 healthy Beagles were included in the study. Dogs with neurological disorders included 11 with steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA), 37 with other inflammatory neurological diseases (INF), 38 with neoplasia affecting the central nervous system (NEO), 28 with spinal compressive disorders (SCC), 15 with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), and 40 with noninflammatory neurological disorders (NON-INF). Prospective observational study. D-dimers and C-reactive protein (CRP) were simultaneously measured in paired CSF and blood samples. D-dimers and CRP were detected in 79/183 (43%) and in 182/183 (99.5%) CSF samples, respectively. All dogs with IE, SID, and controls had undetectable concentrations of D-dimers in the CSF. CSF D-dimer concentrations were significantly (P dogs with SRMA than in dogs with other diseases and controls. CSF CRP concentration in dogs with SRMA was significantly (P dogs of other groups and controls, except for the SID group. No correlation was found between blood and CSF D-dimer concentrations. Intrathecal fibrinolytic activity seems to be activated in some canine neurological disorders, and it is high in severe meningeal inflammatory diseases. CSF D-dimer concentrations may be considered a diagnostic marker for SRMA. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Sensitivity of self-reported opioid use in case-control studies: Healthy individuals versus hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Hamideh; Hadji, Maryam; Marzban, Maryam; Gholipour, Mahin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Kamangar, Farin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Babhadi-Ashar, Nima; Ghiasvand, Reza; Khavari-Daneshvar, Hossein; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Several case-control studies have shown associations between the risk of different cancers and self-reported opium use. Inquiring into relatively sensitive issues, such as the history of drug use, is usually prone to information bias. However, in order to justify the findings of these types of studies, we have to quantify the level of such a negative bias. In current study, we aimed to evaluate sensitivity of self-reported opioid use and suggest suitable types of control groups for case-control studies on opioid use and the risk of cancer. In order to compare the validity of the self-reported opioid use, we cross-validated the response of two groups of subjects 1) 178 hospitalized patients and 2) 186 healthy individuals with the results of their tests using urine rapid drug screen (URDS) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The questioners were asked by trained interviewers to maximize the validity of responses; healthy individuals were selected from the companions of patients in hospitals. Self-reported regular opioid use was 36.5% in hospitalized patients 19.3% in healthy individuals (p-value> 0.001).The reported frequencies of opioid use in the past 72 hours were 21.4% and 11.8% in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals respectively. Comparing their responses with the results of urine tests showed a sensitivity of 77% and 69% among hospitalized patients and healthy individuals for self-reports (p-value = 0.4). Having corrected based on the mentioned sensitivities; the frequency of opioid regular use was 47% and 28% in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals, respectively. Regular opioid use among hospitalized patients was significantly higher than in healthy individuals (p-value> 0.001). Our findings showed that the level of opioid use under-reporting in hospitalized patients and healthy individuals was considerable but comparable. In addition, the frequency of regular opioid use among hospitalized patients was significantly higher than that in the

  20. Extinction of Fear Generalization: A Comparison Between Fibromyalgia Patients and Healthy Control Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Ann; Meulders, Michel; Stouten, Iris; De Bie, Jozef; Vlaeyen, Johan W S

    2017-01-01

    Fear learning deficiencies might contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability. Fear is often not restricted to movements (conditioned stimulus [CS+]) originally associated with pain (unconditioned stimulus), but expands to similar movements (generalization stimuli [GSs]). This spreading of fear becomes dysfunctional when overgeneralization to safe stimuli occurs. More importantly, persistence of pain-related fear to GSs despite corrective feedback might even be more debilitating and maintain long-term chronic pain disability. Yet, research on this topic is lacking. Using a voluntary joystick movement paradigm, we examined (extinction of) pain-related fear generalization in fibromyalgia patients (FM) and healthy control participants (HC). During acquisition, one movement (CS+) predicted pain; another did not (CS-). We tested (extinction of) fear generalization to 5 GSs varying in similarity with the CS+ and CS-. Results revealed flatter pain expectancy generalization gradients in FM than in HC due to elevated responses to GSs more similar to the CS-; the fear generalization gradients did not differ. Although pain-related fear and expectancy to the GSs decreased during extinction, responses to the GSs remained higher for FM than HC, suggesting that extinction of generalization is impaired in chronic pain patients. Persistence of excessive protective responses may contribute to maintaining long-term chronic pain disability. Pain-related fear and expectancy to movements-varying in similarity with the original painful and nonpainful movement-decrease during extinction in HC and FM. Yet, conditioned responses remain elevated in patients despite corrective feedback, indicating impaired extinction of generalization. Persistent excessive protective responses may contribute to preserving pain disability. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep and body mass index in depressed children and healthy controls.

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    Wojnar, Julita; Brower, Kirk J; Dopp, Richard; Wojnar, Marcin; Emslie, Graham; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne

    2010-03-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) has been associated with more sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms, but the combined effects of depression and BMI on sleep have not been studied in children. This study evaluated the relationship between BMI and polysomnography in children with major depressive disorder (MDD), compared to healthy controls (HCs). The sample of 104 subjects included 72 children, 8-17 years old, with MDD and 32 similarly aged HCs with no personal or family history of psychopathology. BMI was adjusted using the CDC formula for percentiles by age. Subjects were categorized as (1) normal weight (5-84th percentile) or (2) high weight, which included at risk of overweight and overweight (> or = 85th percentile). All analyses were adjusted for sex and Tanner maturational stage scores. In the MDD group only, higher BMI was significantly correlated with decreased sleep efficiency, decreased percentage of rapid eye movement sleep (REM%), and higher percentage of time spent awake and moving (TSPAM). In the HC group only, higher BMI correlated with higher total sleep time. Multivariate analyses revealed significant interactions between the BMI and diagnostic groups for several REM sleep parameters, such that high-weight children from the HC and MDD groups had increases and decreases in REM sleep, respectively. TSPAM increased in the high-weight MDD group, but decreased in the high-weight HC group. Although limited by small sample size, these findings suggest that children and adolescents with MDD and a high BMI have more fragmented sleep than other children. The increased REM sleep patterns observed with MDD in this and other studies normalized in high-weight children with MDD. Prevention and treatment strategies should target both sleep and weight as factors that can potentially influence the development and course of MDD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple sclerosis patients have a diminished serologic response to vitamin D supplementation compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Pavan; Steele, Sonya U; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Revirajan, Nisha R; Marcus, Jacqueline; Dembele, Marieme; Cassard, Sandra D; Hollis, Bruce W; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mowry, Ellen M

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), and patients do not always show the expected response to vitamin D supplementation. We aimed to determine if vitamin D supplementation leads to a similar increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) levels in patients with MS and healthy controls (HCs). Participants in this open-label study were female, white, aged 18-60 years, had 25(OH)D levels ⩽ 75 nmol/l at screening, and had relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or were HCs. Participants received 5000 IU/day of vitamin D3 for 90 days. Utilizing generalized estimating equations we examined the relationship between the primary outcome (serum 25(OH)D level) and the primary (MS versus HC status) and secondary predictors. For this study 27 MS patients and 30 HCs were enrolled. There was no significant difference in baseline 25(OH)D level or demographics except for higher body mass index (BMI) in the MS group (25.3 vs. 23.6 kg/m(2), p=0.035). In total, 24 MS subjects and 29 HCs completed the study. In a multivariate model accounting for BMI, medication adherence, and oral contraceptive use, MS patients had a 16.7 nmol/l (95%CI: 4.2, 29.2, p=0.008) lower increase in 25(OH)D levels compared with HCs. Patients with MS had a lower increase in 25(OH)D levels with supplementation, even after accounting for putative confounders. © The Author(s), 2015.

  3. Physical, emotional, and social health differences between posttreatment young adults with cancer and matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Garcia, Sofia F; Yanez, Betina; Sanford, Stacy D; Snyder, Mallory A; Victorson, David

    2014-08-01

    Young adults (YAs; ages 18-39 years) with cancer face interrupted developmental milestones and increased stressors that can adversely influence psychosocial adjustment. Transitioning from active treatment to posttreatment survivorship can be particularly challenging. The purpose of this study is to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychological adaptation of YAs after treatment, relative to young adults without cancer. Three cohorts of YAs of mixed cancer diagnoses (N = 120, 0-12 months after treatment; N = 102, 13-24 months after treatment; and N = 113, 25-60 months after treatment; combined M = 31.8 years old, combined sex = 68% women) and an age-, education-, sex-, and partner status-matched group of healthy control participants (HCs; N = 335) were recruited via an online research panel. All participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, HRQL (physical, emotional, social, and spiritual), and psychological adaptation (anxiety, depression, positive affect, posttraumatic growth). Measure content was slightly modified for applicability to HCs without a cancer history. Multivariate analysis of covariance found a significant main effect for group (YAs versus HCs) and a significant group-by-cohort interaction. YAs reported poorer physical (P = .005, d = .22) and emotional well-being (P = .011, d = .20) but better social well-being (P < .001, d = .49). YAs reported comparatively stable scores (P = .74) for posttraumatic growth compared to HCs, who reported greater posttraumatic growth across cohorts (P = .01, d = 16). Findings underscore the negative and positive sequelae for YAs and highlight the need for comprehensive assessment among YA survivors of cancer. A matched, HC group allows the HRQL and psychological adaptation of YAs to be placed in context, enabling a more precise determination of the impact of cancer on YAs. © 2014 American Cancer

  4. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  5. Morbidity profile of first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia: a comparison with mood disorder and healthy control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okewole, Adeniran O; Adewuya, Abiodun O; Makanjuola, Roger O A; Owoeye, Olugbenga A

    2015-03-01

    There is a paucity of data on heritability of psychotic disorders in Africa. The study aimed to investigate morbid risk of schizophrenia and mood disorder among first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands, compared with mood disorder and healthy controls. The study examined 330 first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia (n = 50), 350 first-degree relatives of probands with mood disorder (n = 50) and 387 first-degree relatives of healthy control (n = 50). The Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, SCAN was used to ascertain diagnosis in ill subjects. To each subject, a socio-demographic questionnaire was administered. Family history was obtained using the Family History Schedule. Morbid risk estimates were calculated using the Weinberg shorter method. There was a significant difference between the mean age of relatives of schizophrenia probands compared to mood disorder (p = 0.01, 95 % CI 1.34-9.61) and healthy control (p schizophrenia probands and the number of children of normal control (p schizophrenia probands compared to normal control (p = 0.04, 95 % CI 0.01-0.94). Finally, there was a significant difference between the number of first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands compared to the number of first-degree relatives of healthy control who were below the age of risk for schizophrenia (p = 0.01, 95 % CI -0.12 to -1.27). Morbid risks of 4.38 and 0.39 were obtained for schizophrenia among first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia and mood disorder, while first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia, mood disorder and healthy control had morbid risks for mood disorder of 0.42, 3.82 and 0.35, respectively. The study revealed excess mortality among first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. First-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia and mood disorder also had higher morbid risks for these psychotic conditions than healthy control with some measure of overlap between the

  6. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population.

  7. Aerobic exercise as a potential way to improve self-control after ego-depletion in healthy female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling eZou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control.Methods: 45 healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 minutes for a period of five weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of five weeks. Before and after the five-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT (with and without a distraction component. Results: There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant, possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Conclusions: Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population.

  8. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Eating Healthy Eating Healthy Contact Us Resources Eating Healthy Eating healthy is part of living a healthy life. Healthy eating is a responsibility of our communities, schools, clinics, ...

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

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    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  10. The neurology of proverbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker, D

    1990-01-01

    Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are "concrete", recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests) point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH). Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  11. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  12. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  13. [Vitamin D and neurology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Éric; Camu, William

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of multiple sclerosis and also with a higher relapse rate as well as a higher number of MRI lesions. Elders with vitamin D deficiency have worse cognitive performance. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for developing Alzheimer's disease. Ischemic stroke are more frequent and more severe in patients with low vitamin D levels. Carotid atherosclerosis is more frequent and more severe in patients with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk and worse prognosis of Parkinson's disease. In the different neurological disorders discussed herein, gene polymorphisms that could alter vitamin D metabolism are also associated with a higher incidence or a worse disease prognosis. Despite the links between vitamin D deficiency and the risks of developing neurological disorders, there is, to date, no proof that supplementation could alter the course of these diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Comparing the Course of Mental Health Over the First Year After Stroke With Healthy Controls in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Megan; Olabarrieta Landa, Laiene; Calderón Chagualá, Amilkar; Chacón Peralta, Helmer; Vergara Torres, Gina; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a primary cause of death and disability in upper-middle-income countries such as Colombia. Given the lack of comprehensive rehabilitation for stroke patients in Colombia, there is a need to assess longitudinal mental health problems poststroke in this region. To compare the course of mental health in stroke patients to healthy controls over the first year poststroke in Ibague, Colombia. Cross-sectional study. The Psychological Attention Center of Antonio Nariño University in Ibague, Colombia. Stroke patients (n = 50) and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (n = 50). Patients and controls completed self-report Spanish versions of demographic information, injury-related characteristics, and mental health questionnaires MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes assessed included mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress) at 3, 6, and 12 months poststroke. Hierarchical linear models suggested that stroke patients had worse depression and anxiety over time than controls (P Colombia. Despite the improvements in anxiety and depression over the first year poststroke, patient anxiety and depression were still worse in comparison to those in healthy controls. The current findings indicate a need for rehabilitation services in Colombia, especially targeting mental health issues. I. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurologic complications of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, James M; Weimer, Louis H

    2014-06-01

    This review serves as an overview of neurologic conditions associated with alcohol abuse or withdrawal, including epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnostic approach, and treatment. Frequent alcohol abuse and frank alcoholism are very common among adults in the United States. Although rates decline with each decade, as many as 10% of the elderly drink excessively. Given the ubiquitous nature of alcoholism in society, its complications have been clinically recognized for generations, with recent advances focusing on improved understanding of ethanol's biochemical targets and the pathophysiology of its complications. The chronic effects of alcohol abuse are myriad and include neurologic complications through both direct and indirect effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. These disorders include several encephalopathic states related to alcohol intoxication, withdrawal, and related nutritional deficiencies; acute and chronic toxic and nutritional peripheral neuropathies; and myopathy. Although prevention of alcoholism and its neurologic complications is the optimal strategy, this article reviews the specific treatment algorithms for alcohol withdrawal and its related nutritional deficiency states.

  16. Palliative care and neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  17. DNA methylation changes separate allergic patients from healthy controls and may reflect altered CD4+ T-cell population structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm E Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered DNA methylation patterns in CD4(+ T-cells indicate the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in inflammatory diseases. However, the identification of these alterations is complicated by the heterogeneity of most inflammatory diseases. Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR is an optimal disease model for the study of DNA methylation because of its well-defined phenotype and etiology. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation (N(patients = 8, N(controls = 8 and gene expression (N(patients = 9, Ncontrols = 10 profiles of CD4(+ T-cells from SAR patients and healthy controls using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 and HT-12 microarrays, respectively. DNA methylation profiles clearly and robustly distinguished SAR patients from controls, during and outside the pollen season. In agreement with previously published studies, gene expression profiles of the same samples failed to separate patients and controls. Separation by methylation (N(patients = 12, N(controls = 12, but not by gene expression (N(patients = 21, N(controls = 21 was also observed in an in vitro model system in which purified PBMCs from patients and healthy controls were challenged with allergen. We observed changes in the proportions of memory T-cell populations between patients (N(patients = 35 and controls (N(controls = 12, which could explain the observed difference in DNA methylation. Our data highlight the potential of epigenomics in the stratification of immune disease and represents the first successful molecular classification of SAR using CD4(+ T cells.

  18. Co-activation: its association with weakness and specific neurological pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiles Charles M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Net agonist muscle strength is in part determined by the degree of antagonist co-activation. The level of co-activation might vary in different neurological disorders causing weakness or might vary with agonist strength. Aim This study investigated whether antagonist co-activation changed a with the degree of muscle weakness and b with the nature of the neurological lesion causing weakness. Methods Measures of isometric quadriceps and hamstrings strength were obtained. Antagonist (hamstring co-activation during knee extension was calculated as a ratio of hamstrings over quadriceps activity both during an isometric and during a functional sit to stand (STS task (using kinematics in groups of patients with extrapyramidal (n = 15, upper motor neuron (UMN (n = 12, lower motor neuron (LMN with (n = 18 or without (n = 12 sensory loss, primary muscle or neuromuscular junction disorder (n = 17 and in healthy matched controls (n = 32. Independent t-tests or Mann Witney U tests were used to compare between the groups. Correlations between variables were also investigated. Results In healthy subjects mean (SD co-activation of hamstrings during isometric knee extension was 11.8 (6.2% and during STS was 20.5 (12.9%. In patients, co-activation ranged from 7 to 17% during isometric knee extension and 15 to 25% during STS. Only the extrapyramidal group had lower co-activation levels than healthy matched controls (p Conclusion It is concluded that antagonist co-activation does not systematically vary with the site of neurological pathology when compared to healthy matched controls or, in most patient groups, with strength. The lower co-activation levels found in the extrapyramidal group require confirmation and further investigation. Co-activation may be relevant to individuals with muscle weakness. Within patient serial studies in the presence of changing muscle strength may help to understand these relationships more clearly.

  19. To Fear Is to Gain? The Role of Fear Recognition in Risky Decision Making in TBI Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie C Visser-Keizer

    Full Text Available Fear is an important emotional reaction that guides decision making in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty. Both recognition of facial expressions of fear and decision making ability can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI, in particular when the frontal lobe is damaged. So far, it has not been investigated how recognition of fear influences risk behavior in healthy subjects and TBI patients. The ability to recognize fear is thought to be related to the ability to experience fear and to use it as a warning signal to guide decision making. We hypothesized that a better ability to recognize fear would be related to a better regulation of risk behavior, with healthy controls outperforming TBI patients. To investigate this, 59 healthy subjects and 49 TBI patients were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (Facial Expression of Emotion: Stimuli and Tests and a gambling task (Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. The results showed that, regardless of post traumatic amnesia duration or the presence of frontal lesions, patients were more impaired than healthy controls on both fear recognition and decision making. In both groups, a significant relationship was found between better fear recognition, the development of an advantageous strategy across the IGT and less risk behavior in the last blocks of the IGT. Educational level moderated this relationship in the final block of the IGT. This study has important clinical implications, indicating that impaired decision making and risk behavior after TBI can be preceded by deficits in the processing of fear.

  20. To Fear Is to Gain? The Role of Fear Recognition in Risky Decision Making in TBI Patients and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J; Gerritsen, Marleen J J; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2016-01-01

    Fear is an important emotional reaction that guides decision making in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty. Both recognition of facial expressions of fear and decision making ability can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI), in particular when the frontal lobe is damaged. So far, it has not been investigated how recognition of fear influences risk behavior in healthy subjects and TBI patients. The ability to recognize fear is thought to be related to the ability to experience fear and to use it as a warning signal to guide decision making. We hypothesized that a better ability to recognize fear would be related to a better regulation of risk behavior, with healthy controls outperforming TBI patients. To investigate this, 59 healthy subjects and 49 TBI patients were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (Facial Expression of Emotion: Stimuli and Tests) and a gambling task (Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)). The results showed that, regardless of post traumatic amnesia duration or the presence of frontal lesions, patients were more impaired than healthy controls on both fear recognition and decision making. In both groups, a significant relationship was found between better fear recognition, the development of an advantageous strategy across the IGT and less risk behavior in the last blocks of the IGT. Educational level moderated this relationship in the final block of the IGT. This study has important clinical implications, indicating that impaired decision making and risk behavior after TBI can be preceded by deficits in the processing of fear.

  1. Reliability of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls – a multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Pigg, Maria; Yang, Guangju; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Drangsholt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Summary The reliability of comprehensive intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic orofacial pain. The aim of the present multi-center study was to examine test-retest and inter-examiner reliability of intraoral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five AO patients and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intraoral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on one day by two different examiners and once approximately one week later by one of the examiners). Intraclass correlation coefficients and kappa values for inter-examiner and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardized intraoral QST measures showed fair to excellent inter-examiner (9–12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7–11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between AO patients and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intraoral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. PMID:25284726

  2. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hormonal response during physical exercise of different intensities in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Peter; Nilsson, Staffan; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Lindblad, Bengt

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity is a critical component in the care of diabetes. Although it offers health benefits it presents challenges. To investigate differences between adolescent boys and girls with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls in terms of maximal work capacity (VO(2) max) and hormonal response to physical exercise of different intensities. Twelve individuals (six boys and six girls; age 14-19 yr, pubertal stage 4-5) with type 1 diabetes (duration, 6.3 ± 4.4 yr; hemoglobin A1c, 63 ± 10 mmol/mol) were compared with 12 healthy controls matched for age, sex, pubertal stage, body mass index standard deviation score, and amount of regular physical activity. During consecutive days, three different workloads; maximal, endurance, and interval, were performed on an Ergometer cycle. During the tests, levels of lactate, glucose, insulin, and regulatory hormones [glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), adrenaline, and noradrenaline] were measured in blood. Subcutaneous glucose was measured continuously. VO(2) max did not differ between the groups, diabetes 49.8 ± 9.9 vs. control 50.7 ± 12.0 mL/min/kg. Hormonal responses did not differ between the groups except for mean peak GH level during the interval test, diabetes 63.2 ± 27.0 vs. control 33.8 ± 20.9 mU/L, p exercise of different intensities did not differ between adolescents with diabetes and healthy controls. Thus, adolescents with type 1 diabetes can participate in physical activity on the same terms as healthy peers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in patients with optic neuritis as a clinically isolated syndrome and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Etemadifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The onset of multiple sclerosis in the majority of the cases occurs as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. We sought to assess serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD in CIS patients and healthy controls. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 40 patients (36 women and 4 men with CIS manifesting as a single isolated optic neuritis and 40 Age- and sex-matched healthy controls (35 women and 5 men were enrolled between late October 2010 and early March 2011. General vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-OHD levels of lower than 20 ng/ml and was classified as mild (15 < 25-OHD <20 ng/ml, moderate (8 < 25-OHD <15 ng/ml, and severe (25-OHD <8 ng/ml. Results: We found no difference in the median interquartile range [IQR] between CIS patients and controls (17.95 [10.40-29.13] vs. 17.00 [12.25-31.00]; P=0.57. However, when stratified by the levels of deficiency, among CIS patients a significantly higher proportion had severe vitamin D deficiency in comparison to healthy controls (20% vs. 2.5%; P=0.034. Nevertheless, the frequency of general (62.5% vs. 60%, P=0.82, mild (25% vs. 30%, P=0.80, and moderate (17.5% vs. 27.5%, P=0.42 vitamin D deficiency were not different between the two groups. Conclusions: Our findings do not indicate any significant difference of serum 25-OHD between CIS patients and healthy controls. However, in our series severe vitamin D deficiency was more frequent among CIS patients.

  5. Pretreatment Differences in Intraindividual Variability in Reaction Time between Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Christie; Rich, Jill B; Tannock, Ian F; Seruga, Bostjan; Tirona, Kattleya; Bernstein, Lori J

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy has adverse effects on cognitive performance in women treated for breast cancer, but less is known about the period before chemotherapy. Studies have focused on mean level of performance, yet there is increasing recognition that variability in performance within an individual is also an important behavioral indicator of cognitive functioning and underlying neural integrity. We examined intraindividual variability (IIV) before chemotherapy and surgery in women diagnosed with breast cancer (n=31), and a healthy control group matched on age and education (n=25). IIV was calculated across trials of a computerized Stroop task, including an examination of the slowest and fastest trials of reaction time (RT) responses. The groups were equivalent on overall accuracy and speed, and participants in both groups were less accurate and slower on incongruent trials compared with congruent trials. However, women with breast cancer became more variable with increased task difficulty relative to healthy controls. Among the slowest RT responses, women with breast cancer were significantly more variable than healthy controls on incongruent trials. This suggests that a specific variability-producing process (e.g., attentional lapses) occurs in task conditions that require executive control (e.g., incongruent trials). Results are consistent with other evidence of executive dysfunction among women treated for breast cancer. These findings highlight the importance of pretreatment assessment and show that variability in performance provides information about cognition that measures of central tendency do not.

  6. Efficacy of escitalopram for hot flashes in healthy menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Guthrie, Katherine A; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S; Anderson, Garnet L; Larson, Joseph C; Ensrud, Kristine E; Reed, Susan D; Newton, Katherine M; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2011-01-19

    Concerns regarding the risks associated with estrogen and progesterone to manage menopausal symptoms have resulted in its declining use and increased interest in nonhormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10 to 20 mg/d escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity, and bother of menopausal hot flashes. A multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial that enrolled 205 women (95 African American; 102 white; 8 other) between July 2009 and June 2010. Women received 10 to 20 mg/d of escitalopram or a matching placebo for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries at weeks 4 and 8. Secondary outcomes were hot flash bother, recorded on daily diaries, and clinical improvement (defined as hot flash frequency ≥50% decrease from baseline). Mean (SD) daily hot flash frequency was 9.78 (5.60) at baseline. In a modified intent-to-treat analysis that included all randomized participants who provided hot flash diary data, the mean difference in hot flash frequency reduction was 1.41 (95% CI, 0.13-2.69) fewer hot flashes per day at week 8 among women taking escitalopram (P hot flashes per day in the escitalopram and placebo groups, respectively. Fifty-five percent of women in the escitalopram group vs 36% in the placebo group reported a decrease of at least 50% in hot flash frequency (P = .009) at the 8-week follow-up. Reductions in hot flash severity scores were significantly greater in the escitalopram group (-0.52; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.40 vs -0.30; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.17 for placebo; P women in the escitalopram group reported a mean 1.59 (95% CI, 0.55-2.63; P = .02) more hot flashes per day than women in the placebo group. Among healthy women, the use of escitalopram (10-20 mg/d) compared with placebo resulted in fewer and less severe menopausal hot

  7. Psychological findings in preterm children related to neurologic status and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, P; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Korkman, M; Pyhtinen, J; Järvelin, M R

    1998-08-01

    Preterm children experience learning disabilities more often than full-term children, but detailed information on their neuropsychological and neurologic determinants is lacking. We therefore examined these problems more closely and also studied if clinical neurologic examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as tools to screen the preterm children at risk for these problems. In a population-based study, the psychological performance of 42 preterm children with a birth weight <1750 g and of their matched controls was assessed at 8 years of age and the findings were then related to clinical neurologic examination and MRI. Learning disabilities of these children, reported by the teachers, were also studied. The cognitive ability of the preterm children, although in the normal range, was significantly lower than that of the control children. They performed particularly poorly in tasks requiring spatial and visuoperceptual abilities, which were associated with the finding of periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, especially with posterior ventricular enlargement. The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunction (MND) had the most problems in neuropsychological tests, whereas the clinically healthy preterm children and those with cerebral palsy had fewer problems. The problems of MND children emerged in the domain of attention. They also experienced the most problems at school. Visuospatial problems were associated with periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, but learning disabilities were most frequent among the preterm children with minor neurologic abnormalities. We recommend closer follow-up of preterm children with MND.

  8. Sensorimotor Control in Individuals With Idiopathic Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Rutger M J; Osmotherly, Peter G; Rivett, Darren A; Farrell, Scott F; Snodgrass, Suzanne J

    2017-06-01

    (1) To identify reported tests used to assess sensorimotor control in individuals with idiopathic neck pain and (2) to investigate whether these tests can quantify differences between individuals with idiopathic neck pain and healthy individuals. Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus. Studies reporting sensorimotor outcomes in individuals with idiopathic neck pain or healthy individuals were identified. There were 1,677 records screened independently by 2 researchers for eligibility: 43 studies were included in the review, with 30 of these studies included in the meta-analysis. Methodologic quality was determined using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction table. Sensorimotor control was most commonly assessed by joint position error and postural sway. Pooled means for joint position error after cervical rotation in individuals with neck pain (range, 2.2°-9.8°) differed significantly (P=.04) compared with healthy individuals (range, 1.66°-5.1°). Postural sway with eyes open ranged from 4.85 to 10.5cm 2 (neck pain) and 3.5 to 6.6cm 2 (healthy) (P=.16), and postural sway with eyes closed ranged from 2.51 to 16.6cm 2 (neck pain) and 2.74 to 10.9cm 2 (healthy) (P=.30). Individual studies, but not meta-analysis, demonstrated differences between neck pain and healthy groups for postural sway. Other test conditions and other tests were not sufficiently investigated to enable pooling of data. The findings from this review suggest sensorimotor control testing may be clinically useful in individuals with idiopathic neck pain. However, results should be interpreted with caution because clinical differences were small; therefore, further cross-sectional research with larger samples is needed to determine the magnitude of the relation between

  9. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. Methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. The resulting peptide mixtures were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction and separated online with 2 h gradients by nano-scale C18 reversed-phase chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray source. The eluting peptides were analyzed on a tandem mass spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. Results We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system and inflammatory markers in periodontitis and dental caries compared to healthy controls. Bacterial proteome profiles and functional annotation were very similar in health and disease. Conclusions Overexpression of proteins related to the complement system and inflammation seems to correlate with oral disease status. Similar bacterial proteomes in healthy and diseased individuals suggests that the salivary microbiota predominantly thrives in a planktonic state expressing no disease-associated characteristics of metabolic activity.

  10. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  11. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...

  12. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack...... of muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to investigate VA of the trapezius muscle during MVCs in subjects with and without neck/shoulder pain by use of the twitch interpolation technique. Ten cases suffering from pain and ten age and gender matched, healthy controls were included in the study....... Upper trapezius muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonography and pain intensity was measured on a 100mm visual analog scale (VAS). VA was calculated from five maximal muscle activation attempts. Superimposed stimuli were delivered to the accessory nerve at peak force and during a 2% MVC following...

  13. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Brynskov, J.; Steenholdt, C.

    2012-01-01

    process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures...... of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative...... PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even...

  14. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    was developed in Belgian cardiac patients, but little is known about its applicability in other nationalities. The objectives of the present article were to cross-validate the Type D Personality Scale-16 (DS16) in a Danish sample of patients with a first myocardial infarction and a random sample of healthy...

  15. Poorer elbow proprioception in patients with lateral epicondylitis than in healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B.; Lund, H.; Hansen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of women, 15 patients with lateral epicondylitis and 21 healthy controls, were studied to compare proprioception in the elbows and knees between the groups. Outcome measures were absolute error and variable error for joint position sense and for threshold to detection of a passive...... movement. Both absolute error and variable error of threshold to detection of a passive movement were greater in the lateral epicondylitis-diagnosed elbows than in the controls' elbows (lateral epicondylitis, 1.8 degrees vs controls 1.1 degrees, P = .026; lateral epicondylitis, 0.8 degrees vs controls 0.......3 degrees, P = .015), and there was a tendency toward a greater absolute error of joint position sense compared with the control elbows (lateral epicondylitis, 8.2 degrees vs controls, 5.6 degrees; P = .078). Absolute error of joint position sense was greater in the elbows than in the knees of the lateral...

  16. Peer-led healthy lifestyle program in supportive housing: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana; O'Hara, Kathleen; El-Bassel, Nabila; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Luchsinger, José A; Gates, Lauren; Younge, Richard; Wall, Melanie; Weinstein, Lara; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2015-09-02

    The risk for obesity is twice as high in people with serious mental illness (SMI) compared to the general population. Racial and ethnic minority status contribute additional health risks. The aim of this study is to describe the protocol of a Hybrid Trial Type 1 design that will test the effectiveness and examine the implementation of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention in supportive housing agencies serving diverse clients with serious mental illness who are overweight or obese. The Hybrid Trial Type 1 design will combine a randomized effectiveness trial with a mixed-methods implementation study. The effectiveness trial will test the health impacts of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention versus usual care in supportive housing agencies. The healthy lifestyle intervention is derived from the Group Lifestyle Balanced Program, lasts 12 months, and will be delivered by trained peer specialists. Repeated assessments will be conducted at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months post randomization. A mixed-methods (e.g., structured interviews, focus groups, surveys) implementation study will be conducted to examine multi-level implementation factors and processes that can inform the use of the healthy lifestyle intervention in routine practice, using data from agency directors, program managers, staff, and peer specialists before, during, and after the implementation of the effectiveness trial. This paper describes the use of a hybrid research design that blends effectiveness trial methodologies and implementation science rarely used when studying the physical health of people with SMI and can serve as a model for integrating implementation science and health disparities research. Rigorously testing effectiveness and exploring the implementation process are both necessary steps to establish the evidence for large-scale delivery of peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention to improve the physical health of racial/ethnic minorities with SMI. www

  17. Methadone vs. buprenorphine/naloxone during early opioid substitution treatment: a naturalistic comparison of cognitive performance relative to healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Rapeli, Pekka; Fabritius, Carola; Alho, Hannu; Salaspuro, Mikko; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    Background Both methadone- and buprenorphine-treated opioid-dependent patients frequently show cognitive deficits in attention, working memory, and verbal memory. However, no study has compared these patient groups with each other during early opioid substitution treatment (OST). Therefore, we investigated attention, working memory, and verbal memory of opioid-dependent patients within six weeks after the introduction of OST in a naturalistic setting and compared to those of healthy controls....

  18. Evaluation of Dream Content among Patients with Schizophrenia, their Siblings, Patients with Psychiatric Diagnoses other than Schizophrenia, and Healthy Control

    OpenAIRE

    Leeba Rezaie; Masoud Rezaei; Schwebel, David C.; Golrokh Younesi; Masoud Tahmasian; Habibolah Khazaie; Mehrak Mohamadi; Arezo Ghanbari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with unknown etiology that causes cognitive impairment, affecting thinking, behavior, social function, sleep and dream content. This study considered the dream content of patients with schizophrenia, siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and a group of healthy controls. The aim of this study was to compare the dream content of patients with schizophrenia with dream content...

  19. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Tony; Mathew, Shilpa; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo

    2014-01-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active®) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30 – 50 y). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml...

  20. Static and Functional Balance in Individuals With COPD: Comparison With Healthy Controls and Differences According to Sex and Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Larissa A; Ribeiro, Laís Rg; Mesquita, Rafael; de Carvalho, Débora R; Felcar, Josiane M; Merli, Myriam F; Fernandes, Karen Bp; da Silva, Rubens A; Teixeira, Denilson C; Spruit, Martijn A; Pitta, Fabio; Probst, Vanessa S

    2016-11-01

    Studies have shown that individuals with COPD have impaired body balance, probably caused by the disease's multisystemic manifestations plus age-related decline in balance, potentially increasing the risk of falling and its consequences. However, little is known about the profile of individuals with COPD who present balance impairments, especially related to sex and disease severity stages. The aim of this work was to compare static and functional balance between subjects with COPD and healthy controls and to check possible differences according to sex and degrees of disease severity. Forty-seven subjects with COPD and 25 healthy controls were included in this study. Their static balance was assessed in one-legged stance using a force platform and functional balance with the Timed Up and Go test. Additionally, participants performed spirometry, the 6-min walk test and isometric quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction assessment. Disease severity was classified according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease stages and BODE (body mass index, air-flow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity) scores. In comparison with healthy controls, subjects with COPD had worse static (center of pressure displacement area: 9.3 ± 1.9 cm(2) vs 11.6 ± 4.0 cm(2), respectively, P = .01) and functional balance (Timed Up and Go test: 8.5 ± 1.3 s vs 10.3 ± 1.8 s, respectively, P static balance in comparison with men for all parameters related to center of pressure (P balance results. Individuals with COPD had worse static and functional balance in comparison with healthy controls. Sex can mediate these results, depending on the type of balance evaluation (force platform or functional test). Balance performance was similar among the groups classified according to disease severity. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  1. Gram-negative bacteria account for main differences between faecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigsnæs, L K; Brynskov, J; Steenholdt, C; Wilcks, A; Licht, T R

    2012-12-01

    Detailed knowledge about the composition of the intestinal microbiota may be critical to unravel the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC), a human chronic inflammatory bowel disease, since the intestinal microbes are expected to influence some of the key mechanisms involved in the inflammatory process of the gut mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the faecal microbiota in patients either with UC in remission (n=6) or with active disease (n=6), and in healthy controls (n=6). The composition of Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria was examined. Antigenic structures of Gram-negative bacteria such as lipopolysaccharides have been related to the inflammatory responses and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Dice cluster analysis and principal component analysis of faecal microbiota profiles obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR, respectively, revealed that the composition of faecal bacteria from UC patients with active disease differed from the healthy controls and that this difference should be ascribed to Gram-negative bacteria. The analysis did not show any clear grouping of UC patients in remission. Even with the relatively low number of subjects in each group, we were able to detect a statistically significant underrepresentation of Lactobacillus spp. and Akkermansia muciniphila in UC patients with clinically active disease compared to the healthy controls. In line with previous communications, we have shown that the microbiota in UC patients with active disease differ from that in healthy controls. Our findings indicate that alterations in the composition of the Gram-negative bacterial population, as well as reduced numbers of lactobacilli and A. muciniphila may play a role in UC.

  2. Neurology and literature 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-05-01

    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  4. Neurological complications of chickenpox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the neurological complications of chickenpox with prognosis. Background: The neurological complications occur in 0.03% of persons who get chickenpox. There is no universal vaccination against chicken pox in India. Most patients prefer alternate modalities of treatment. Hence these complications of chickenpox are likely to continue to occur. Study Design: A prospective study was conducted for 2 years (from March 2002 on the admitted cases with neurological complications after chickenpox (with rash or scar. Patients were investigated with CT/MRI, CSF study, EEG and nerve conduction studies and hematological workup. They were followed-up for 1 year and outcome assessed using modified Rankin scale. Results: The latency for the neurological complications was 4-32 days (mean: 16.32 days. There were 18 cases: 10 adults (64% and 8 children (36%. Cerebellar ataxia (normal CT/MRI was observed in 7 cases (32% (mean age: 6.85 years. One patient (6 years had acute right hemiparesis in the fifth week due to left capsular infarct. All these cases spontaneously recovered by 4 weeks. The age range of the adult patients was 13-47 years (mean: 27 years. The manifestations included cerebellar and pyramidal signs (n-4 with features of demyelination in MRI who recovered spontaneously or with methylprednisolone by 8 weeks. Patient with encephalitis recovered in 2 weeks with acyclovir. Guillain Barre syndrome of the demyelinating type (n-2 was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and they had a slow recovery by a modified Rankin scale (mRs score of 3 and 2 at 6 months and 1 year, respectively. One case died after hemorrhage into the occipital infarct. There were two cases of asymmetrical neuropathy, one each of the seventh cranial and brachial neuritis. Conclusion: Spontaneous recovery occurs in post-chickenpox cerebellar ataxia. Rarely, serious complications can occur in adults. The demyelinating disorders, either of the central or peripheral

  5. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

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    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  6. Pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders show increased cortisol secretion and poor sleep compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, Martin; Brand, Serge; Perren, Sonja; von Wyl, Anges; Stadelmann, Stephanie; von Klitzing, Kai; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2012-05-01

    Various studies of child cortisol secretion and sleep show a close association between poor sleep, deterioration of the HPA axis and unfavorable psychological functioning. However, there is little evidence as to whether these associations are clearly present in pre-school children suffering from psychiatric disorders. A total of 30 pre-schoolers suffering from psychiatric disorders (anxiety, adjustment disorders, emotional and attachment disorder; hyperactivity or oppositional disorder) and 35 healthy controls took part in the study. Saliva cortisol secretion was assessed both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was assessed via activity monitoring for seven consecutive days and nights, using a digital movement-measuring instrument. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires assessing children's cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The Berkeley Puppet Interview provided child-based reports of cognitive-emotional processes. Compared to healthy controls, children suffering from psychiatric disorders had much higher cortisol secretion both at baseline and under challenge conditions. Sleep was also more disturbed, and parents and teachers rated children suffering from psychiatric disorders as cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally more impaired, relative to healthy controls. Children with psychiatric disorders reported being more bullied and victimized. In five-year old children the presence of psychiatric disorders is reflected not only at psychological, social and behavioral, but also at neuroendocrine and sleep-related levels. It is likely that these children remain at increased risk for suffering from psychiatric difficulties later in life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. General anxiety of adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease is comparable with that in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; Hess, John; Hager, Alfred

    2013-04-30

    This study aimed to compare situational and trait anxiety levels in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) with that in healthy controls and to investigate their correlation to the perceived health status. From November 2007 to December 2009 in total 879 patients (405 female, 15-71 years) with various CHD and 40 healthy controls completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to assess state and trait anxiety, the depression scaling instrument CES-D, and the health-related quality of life questionnaire SF-36. In patients with CHD no increased anxiety as a trait could be found (Mann-Whitney Utest, p = .186). Only situational anxiety in the setting of an outpatient department in a tertiary center was increased compared to healthy controls (Mann-Whitney U test, p = .004). Anxiety was closely related to depression and to all of the nine SF-36 dimensions (r = -.149 to r = -.745, psituational anxiety levels at the hospital are increased and still remain an important challenge for doctors and psychologists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Associations between chronotype, sleep quality, suicidality, and depressive symptoms in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Boysan, Murat; Atli, Abdullah; Agargun, Mehmed Yucel; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2010-10-01

    Research interest concerning associations between sleep characteristics and suicidality in psychopathology has been growing. However, possible linkages of suicidality to sleep characteristics in terms of sleep quality and chronotypes among depressive patients have not been well documented. In the current study, the authors investigated the possible effects of sleep quality and chronotype on the severity of depressive symptoms and suicide risk in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls. The study was conducted on 80 patients clinically diagnosed with major depression and 80 healthy subjects who were demographically matched with the patient group. All participants completed a questionnaire package containing self-report measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS), and subjects were interviewed with the suicidality section of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Results are as follows: (a) logistic regression analyses revealed that poor sleep quality and depression symptom severity significantly predicted onset of major depression; (b) morningness-type circadian rhythm may play as a significant relief factor after onset of major depression; (c) sleep variables of chronotype and sleep quality did not significantly predict suicide ideation after controlling for depressive symptoms in the major depression group; and (d) suicide ideation and poor sleep quality were antecedents of depression symptom severity in patients with major depression, and in healthy controls. Findings are discussed under the theoretical assumptions concerning possible relations between chronotype, sleep quality, depression, and suicidality.

  9. Heart rate variability in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls during non-REM sleep and REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyunbin Kwon; Heenam Yoon; Dawoon Jung; Sangho Choi; Jaewon Choi; Yujin Lee; Do-Un Jeong; Kwangsuk Park

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate heart rate variability (HRV) in major depressive disorder patients (MDD) and healthy controls during different sleep stages, and to examine the association of HRV during sleep and depression severity. Polysomnography was recorded from 15 depressive patients with a higher beck depression inventory index (BDI > 25, H-BDI-D), 15 depressive patients with a lower BDI index (BDI ≤ 25, L-BDI-D) and 15 healthy controls. HRV was calculated during the first three rapid eye movements (REM) periods and non-REM stages (i.e. sleep stage 2 and 3) with time domain, power spectral and fractal analysis. As a result, H-BDI-D patients showed the highest short-term fractal alpha-1 exponent during first REM period and healthy controls had the lowest values. Our results suggest an association between the depression severity and the autonomic nerve function, especially during the first REM sleep. The pathophysiological analysis for this property should be conducted in future prospective studies.

  10. Cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging correlate with preoperative neurological status in neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholdt, Sonia; Latal, Beatrice; Liamlahi, Rabia; Prêtre, René; Scheer, Ianina; Goetti, Robert; Dave, Hitendu; Bernet, Vera; Schmitz, Achim; von Rhein, Michael; Knirsch, Walter

    2014-04-01

    To determine the prevalence, spectrum and course of cerebral lesions in neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing full flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to examine the correlation between cerebral lesions and clinical neurological abnormalities. Prospective cohort study of neonates with d-transposition of the great arteries (n = 22), univentricular heart malformation with hypoplastic aortic arch (n = 6) and aortic arch obstructions (n = 2) undergoing CPB. Neonates underwent cerebral MRI and blinded standardized neurological examination before (median day 6) and after surgery (day 13). The MRI findings were compared with those of 20 healthy controls. Preoperative cerebral lesions were present in 7 of 30 patients (23%) with isolated mild or moderate white matter injury (WMI) (n = 4), isolated small cerebral stroke (n = 1) and combined WMI and stroke (n = 2). None of the healthy controls had cerebral lesions on MRI. CHD neonates with preoperative cerebral lesions had more neurological abnormalities (P = 0.01) than neonates without cerebral lesions. Low arterial oxygen saturation (P = 0.03) was a risk factor for preoperative cerebral lesions, while balloon atrioseptostomy (P = 0.19) was not. After surgery, preoperative cerebral lesions persisted in 5 of 7 neonates, and 2 neonates (7%) showed signs of additional WMI in their postoperative MRI. In neonates with severe CHD, WMI was the predominant preoperative finding, while cerebral strokes were less frequent. New postoperative lesions were rare. Preoperative neurological abnormalities correlated with the presence of cerebral lesions on MRI.

  11. Dual-phase 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography in patients with primary progressive aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, and healthy controls: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Chou Kuo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: To determine whether dual-phase 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography imaging with perfusion-like and amyloid deposition information can distinguish among primary progressive aphasia (PPA, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and healthy controls (HCs. Methods: Patients diagnosed with PPA, including four semantic dementia (SD and two progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA, as well as one logopenic variant (LV of PPA, were studied. All PPA patients, and age-/sex-matched patients with probable AD (n=8 and HCs (n=8 were subjected to dual-phase 18F-florbetapir imaging. Atlas-based quantitative volumes of interest (VOIs analysis for six cortical areas and whole cerebellum was performed. The standardized uptake value ratios were calculated by normalizing the dual-phase-integrated activities of the six VOIs to whole cerebellum counts. Results: Early phase 18F-florbetapir image showed significantly lower global perfusion index in six PPA patients as compared with HCs. According to VOI analysis, the hypoperfusion lesions were identified in the frontal, anterior cingulate, parietal, precuneus, and temporal regions. Similar findings were confirmed by voxel-base image comparison. 18F-florbetapir late-phase image showed significantly increased amyloid burden in the global cortex index and all six brain regions of eight AD and LV patients when compared with the other six PPA patients and eight HCs. There was no apparent uptake of amyloid tracer in both six PPA patients and eight HCs. Conclusion: Dual-phase 18F-florbetapir images of six PPA (SD and PNFA patients showed hypoperfusion in the frontotemporal cortex, and little global amyloid uptake, which may be a distinct image pattern for differentiation among HC, AD, and PPA patients. Keywords: 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid amyloid imaging, Alzheimer's disease, logopenic variant, primary progressive aphasia, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, dementia, clinical neurology, diagnostic

  12. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  13. Physical Exercise Keeps the Brain Connected: Biking Increases White Matter Integrity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatkova, Alena; Mandl, René C W; Scheewe, Thomas W; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2015-07-01

    It has been shown that learning a new skill leads to structural changes in the brain. However, it is unclear whether it is the acquisition or continuous practicing of the skill that causes this effect and whether brain connectivity of patients with schizophrenia can benefit from such practice. We examined the effect of 6 months exercise on a stationary bicycle on the brain in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Biking is an endemic skill in the Netherlands and thus offers an ideal situation to disentangle the effects of learning vs practice. The 33 participating patients with schizophrenia and 48 healthy individuals were assigned to either one of two conditions, ie, physical exercise or life-as-usual, balanced for diagnosis. Diffusion tensor imaging brain scans were made prior to and after intervention. We demonstrate that irrespective of diagnosis regular physical exercise of an overlearned skill, such as bicycling, significantly increases the integrity, especially of motor functioning related, white matter fiber tracts whereas life-as-usual leads to a decrease in fiber integrity. Our findings imply that exercise of an overlearned physical skill improves brain connectivity in patients and healthy individuals. This has important implications for understanding the effect of fitness programs on the brain in both healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, the outcome may even apply to the nonphysical realm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

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    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  15. Early traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history, and birth risk factors in patients with depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Gutermann, Julia; Peter, Helmut; Wedekind, Dirk

    2013-02-01

    Only few studies have compared the frequency of traumatic life events during childhood in inpatients with depression with a healthy control group. Consecutively admitted inpatients with depression (n = 79), most of whom belonged to the melancholic subtype (n = 73; 92.4%), and healthy controls (n = 110) were investigated using a comprehensive retrospective interview with 203 questions regarding childhood traumatic life events, parental attitudes, family history of psychiatric disorders and birth risk factors. Depressed patients had significantly more severe traumatic events (mean score 1.33; SD 1.4) than control subjects (0.85; SD 1.2) on a 0-10 point "severe trauma scale". 70.9% (n = 56) of the depressed patients, but only 48.2% (n = 53) of the controls reported at least one severe traumatic event. When looking at single events, only few differences were found between patients and controls. Compared to controls, patients described significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders in their families, in particular depression. Parental rearing styles were rated as more unfavorable in the patient group. In a logistic regression model, of all possible etiological factors examined, only a family history of psychiatric disorders showed a significant influence (OR = 3.6). Melancholic depression seems to be less associated with traumatic events than other psychiatric disorders.

  16. Conflict processing in juvenile patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 and healthy controls – Two pathways to success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annet Bluschke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1 is a monogenetic autosomal-dominant disorder with a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and is commonly associated with cognitive deficits. Patients with NF1 frequently exhibit cognitive impairments like attention problems, working memory deficits and dysfunctional inhibitory control. The latter is also relevant for the resolution of cognitive conflicts. However, it is unclear how conflict monitoring processes are modulated in NF1. To examine this question in more detail, we used a system neurophysiological approach combining high-density ERP recordings with source localisation analyses in juvenile patients with NF1 and controls during a flanker task. Behaviourally, patients with NF1 perform significantly slower than controls. Specifically on trials with incompatible flanker-target pairings, however, the patients with NF1 made significantly fewer errors than healthy controls. Yet, importantly, this overall successful conflict resolution was reached via two different routes in the two groups. The healthy controls seem to arrive at a successful conflict monitoring performance through a developing conflict recognition via the N2 accompanied by a selectively enhanced N450 activation in the case of perceived flanker-target conflicts. The presumed dopamine deficiency in the patients with NF1 seems to result in a reduced ability to process conflicts via the N2. However, NF1 patients show an increased N450 irrespective of cognitive conflict. Activation differences in the orbitofrontal cortex (BA11 and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24 underlie these modulations. Taken together, juvenile patients with NF1 and juvenile healthy controls seem to accomplish conflict monitoring via two different cognitive neurophysiological pathways.

  17. Neurological aspects of grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana C; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Natalia P; de Mello Schier, Alexandre R; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Paes, Flavia; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Pessoa, Tamires M

    2014-01-01

    Despite grief being a universal experience and the increased scientific attention paid to grief and bereavement in recent years, studies that seek to better understand the role of the neurological aspects of grief are still scarce. We found 5 studies that discussed the relationship between the neurological aspects of grief due to the death of a loved one. All studies showed an activation of common areas, i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), insula and amygdala. These findings could indicate that there is a group of areas working together and responding to generate the symptomatology of grief. Because grief is a universal experience, it is essential that the necessary and effective support can be provided to those who experience the loss of someone considered important in their lives, and this requires understanding grief's manifestation, its differential diagnosis in reference to other clinical conditions, mainly psychiatric ones, and adequate forms of intervention and treatment when necessary. Proper understanding and support can help prevent the emergence of more serious health problems.

  18. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza

    2007-08-23

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. A total of 335 healthy, 25-64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. ACTRNO12606000521527.

  19. Cognitive-constructivist Approach in Medical Settings: The Use of Personal Meaning Questionnaire for Neurological Patients’ Personality Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Barbara; Carelli, Laura; Lafronza, Annalisa; Solca, Federica; Faini, Andrea; Ciammola, Andrea; Grobberio, Monica; Raimondi, Vanessa; Pezzati, Rita; Ardito, Rita B.; Silani, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The cognitive-constructivist psychotherapy approach considers the self as a continuous regulation process between present and past experience, in which attributions of meaning is characterized by the use of internal rules. In this conception, everyone would be driven by a specific inner coherence called Personal Meaning Organization (PMO). Such approach has never been applied to neurological patients by means of ad hoc developed tools. We performed an explorative study aimed to characterize personality styles in different neurological conditions within the theoretical framework of cognitive-constructivist model. Materials and Methods: Three groups of neurological patients (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis, Primary Headache) and a sample of healthy participants, each composed by 15 participants, for a total of 60 participants, were recruited. The Personal Meaning Questionnaire (PMQ), an Italian questionnaire assessing PMOs construct, and other clinical tools for psychological and quality of life assessment were administered to all subjects. Results: The main finding concerned the detection, across all clinical conditions, of a higher prevalence of phobic personality style, with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis showing a relevant prevalence of such PMO with respect to all other neurological conditions and controls. However, with respect to controls, in all clinical conditions, PMQ highlighted a tendency, even if not statistically significant, to codify experience by means of specific cognitive and emotional patterns. Conclusion: Our findings represent the first contribution towards understanding the personality profiles of patients affected by neurological conditions according to cognitive-constructivist theory. PMID:28443057

  20. Association of Optimism with Emotional and Cardiovascular Reactivity in Coronary Patients, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-12

    Freud (1856-1939) included both optimism and pessimism as concepts in his theory of human nature and development. He asserted that humans have a drive...drive towards death represents the pessimistic aspect of human nature ( Freud , 1964). Psychologist William James (1842-1910), was the first to consider...such patients. Although optimism interventions have demonstrated ability to increase optimism scores in healthy adolescents (Chang, 2001) and

  1. The saccadic and neurological deficits in type 3 Gaucher disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Benko

    Full Text Available Our objective was to characterize the saccadic eye movements in patients with type 3 Gaucher disease (chronic neuronopathic in relationship to neurological and neurophysiological abnormalities. For approximately 4 years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 15 patients with Gaucher type 3, ages 8-28 years, by measuring saccadic eye movements using the scleral search coil method. We found that patients with type 3 Gaucher disease had a significantly higher regression slope of duration vs amplitude and peak duration vs amplitude compared to healthy controls for both horizontal and vertical saccades. Saccadic latency was significantly increased for horizontal saccades only. Downward saccades were more affected than upward saccades. Saccade abnormalities increased over time in some patients reflecting the slowly progressive nature of the disease. Phase plane plots showed individually characteristic patterns of abnormal saccade trajectories. Oculo-manual dexterity scores on the Purdue Pegboard test were low in virtually all patients, even in those with normal cognitive function. Vertical saccade peak duration vs amplitude slope significantly correlated with IQ and with the performance on the Purdue Pegboard but not with the brainstem and somatosensory evoked potentials. We conclude that, in patients with Gaucher disease type 3, saccadic eye movements and oculo-manual dexterity are representative neurological functions for longitudinal studies and can probably be used as endpoints for therapeutic clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00001289.

  2. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frontal assessment battery in a Brazilian sample of healthy controls: normative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Beato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show data on the performance of healthy subjects in the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, correlating with gender, age, education, and scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-five healthy individuals with mean age of 66.4±10.6 years-old were evaluated. Mean total FAB scores were established according to the educational level. RESULTS: Mean total FAB scores according to the educational level were 10.9±2.3, for one to three years; 12.8±2.7, for four to seven years; 13.8±2.2, for eight to 11 years; and 15.3±2.3, for 12 or more years. Total FAB scores correlated significantly with education (r=0.47; p<0.0001 and MMSE scores (r=0.39; p<0.0001. No correlation emerged between FAB scores, age, and gender. CONCLUSION: In this group of healthy subjects, the Brazilian version of the FAB proved to be influenced by the education level, but not by age and gender.

  4. Healthy Beyond Pregnancy, a Web-Based Intervention to Improve Adherence to Postpartum Care: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Katherine Park; Donovan, Heidi; Wang, Stephanie; Weaver, Carrie; Grove, Jillian Rae; Facco, Francesca Lucia

    2017-10-10

    During the postpartum visit, health care providers address issues with short- and long-term implications for maternal and child health. Women with Medicaid insurance are less likely to return for a postpartum visit compared with women with private insurance. Behavioral economics acknowledges that people do not make exclusively rational choices, rather immediate gratification, cognitive and psychological biases, and social norms influence decision making. Drawing on insights from decision science, behavioral economists have examined how these biases can be modulated through carefully designed interventions. We have developed a Web-based tool, Healthy Beyond Pregnancy, that incorporates empirically derived concepts of behavioral economics to improve adherence rates to the postpartum visit. The primary objectives of this pilot study were to (1) refine and assess the usability of Healthy Beyond Pregnancy and (2) assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the intervention. We used a multistep process and multidisciplinary team of maternal-fetal medicine physicians, a behavioral economist, and researchers with expertise in behavioral interventions to design Healthy Beyond Pregnancy. We assessed the usability of the program with the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), a validated 7-point scale, and semistructured interviews with postpartum women. We then conducted a feasibility trial to determine the proportion of eligible women who were willing to participate in an RCT of Healthy Beyond Pregnancy and the proportion of women willing to complete the Web-based program. Exploratory outcomes of the pilot trial included attendance at the postpartum visit, uptake of long-acting reversible contraception, and uptake of any contraception. The median PSSUQ score for Healthy Beyond Pregnancy was 6.5 (interquartile range: 6.1-7) demonstrating high usability. Semistructured interviews (n=10) provided in-depth comments about users' experience and

  5. Modafinil increases the latency of response in the Hayling Sentence Completion Test in healthy volunteers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Dahir Mohamed

    Full Text Available Modafinil is a medication licensed for the treatment of narcolepsy. However, it has been reported that healthy individuals without wakefulness disorders are using modafinil off-label to enhance cognitive functioning. Although some studies have reported that modafinil improves cognitive task performance in healthy volunteers, numerous other studies have failed to detect cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil on several well-established neuropsychological tasks. Interestingly, several clinical and preclinical studies have found that improved cognitive task performance by modafinil is accompanied by slower response times. This observation raises the question as to whether this slowing of response time in healthy volunteers is a necessary and sufficient condition for cognitive enhancement with modafinil. The aim of the current experiment was to explore this question by investigating the effects of modafinil on the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT.Sixty-four healthy volunteers received either a single dose (200 mg of modafinil (n = 32 or placebo (n = 32 in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in which the principal outcome measures were response latencies on the response initiation and response inhibition sections of the HSCT.Participants dosed with modafinil had significantly longer mean response latencies on the HSCT for both the response initiation and response inhibition compared to participants dosed with placebo. However, participants in both groups made a similar number of errors on each of these measures, indicating that modafinil did not enhance the accuracy of performance of the task relative to placebo.This study demonstrated that administration of single 200 mg doses of modafinil to healthy individuals increased the latency of responses in the performance of the HSCT, a task that is highly sensitive to prefrontal executive function, without enhancing accuracy of performance. This finding may

  6. Modafinil increases the latency of response in the Hayling Sentence Completion Test in healthy volunteers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed Dahir; Lewis, Chris Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Modafinil is a medication licensed for the treatment of narcolepsy. However, it has been reported that healthy individuals without wakefulness disorders are using modafinil off-label to enhance cognitive functioning. Although some studies have reported that modafinil improves cognitive task performance in healthy volunteers, numerous other studies have failed to detect cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil on several well-established neuropsychological tasks. Interestingly, several clinical and preclinical studies have found that improved cognitive task performance by modafinil is accompanied by slower response times. This observation raises the question as to whether this slowing of response time in healthy volunteers is a necessary and sufficient condition for cognitive enhancement with modafinil. The aim of the current experiment was to explore this question by investigating the effects of modafinil on the Hayling Sentence Completion Test (HSCT). Sixty-four healthy volunteers received either a single dose (200 mg) of modafinil (n = 32) or placebo (n = 32) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study in which the principal outcome measures were response latencies on the response initiation and response inhibition sections of the HSCT. Participants dosed with modafinil had significantly longer mean response latencies on the HSCT for both the response initiation and response inhibition compared to participants dosed with placebo. However, participants in both groups made a similar number of errors on each of these measures, indicating that modafinil did not enhance the accuracy of performance of the task relative to placebo. This study demonstrated that administration of single 200 mg doses of modafinil to healthy individuals increased the latency of responses in the performance of the HSCT, a task that is highly sensitive to prefrontal executive function, without enhancing accuracy of performance. This finding may provide

  7. Influence of deep breathing exercise on spontaneous respiratory rate and heart rate variability: a randomised controlled trial in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharion, Elizabeth; Samuel, Prasanna; Rajalakshmi, R; Gnanasenthil, G; Subramanian, Rajam Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Studies show that yogic type of breathing exercises reduces the spontaneous respiratory rate. However, there are no conclusive studies on the effects of breathing exercise on heart rate variability. We investigated the effects of non-yogic breathing exercise on respiratory rate and heart rate variability. Healthy subjects (21-33 years, both genders) were randomized into the intervention group (n=18), which performed daily deep breathing exercise at 6 breaths/min (0.1 Hz) for one month, and a control group (n=18) which did not perform any breathing exercise. Baseline respiratory rate and short-term heart rate variability indices were assessed in both groups. Reassessment was done after one month and the change in the parameters from baseline was computed for each group. Comparison of the absolute changes [median (inter-quartile ranges)] of the parameters between the intervention and control group showed a significant difference in the spontaneous respiratory rate [intervention group -2.50 (-4.00, -1.00), control group 0.00 (-1.00, 1.00), cycles/min, Prate and cardiac autonomic modulation of the intervention group were significant, when compared to the changes in the control group. Thus practice of deep slow breathing exercise improves heart rate variability in healthy subjects, without altering their cardiac autonomic balance. These findings have implications in the use of deep breathing exercises to improve cardiac autonomic control in subjects known to have reduced heart rate variability.

  8. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

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    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  9. Comparison of Arab breast cancer survivors and healthy controls for spousal relationship, body image, and emotional distress.

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    Cohen, Miri; Mabjish, Ahlam Abdallah; Zidan, Jamal

    2011-03-01

    Cultural perceptions and norms affect individuals' psychological reactions to cancer and quality of life, but very few studies have assessed reactions to breast cancer in specific cultural groups. Such assessments are especially rare for Arab women with breast cancer. To assess the effect of spousal support, sharing household tasks, and body image in relation to emotional distress in Arab breast cancer survivors compared with matched healthy controls. Fifty-six Israeli Arab breast cancer survivors (stages I-III), and 66 age- and education-matched women answered Brief Symptoms Inventory-18, Perceived Body Image, Perceived Spousal Support and Division of Household Labor scale questionnaires. Breast cancer patients experienced higher psychological distress, especially anxiety and somatization. They reported receiving more support from their spouses and higher sharing of household tasks than did matched healthy controls, but were not different regarding body image. Twenty-eight percent of the variance of psychological distress was explained, with group, perceived support, and group × body image interaction. Thus, higher psychological distress was more likely to occur in participants receiving lower support and in breast cancer survivors with lower body image. The study described the effects of breast cancer on Arab women compared to healthy women. It highlights the need for culture-sensitive care for Arab breast cancer patients, as well as other patients from minority groups residing in other Western countries.

  10. Dynamic Connectivity States Estimated from Resting fMRI Identify Differences among Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Healthy Control Subjects

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    Barnaly eRashid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs in cohorts of healthy controls (HC and age matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity (FNC, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between healthy controls and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average and dynamic (windowed connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Schizophrenia patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3. Also group differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1 and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3. Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  11. Central Arterial Hemodynamic Effects of Dark Chocolate Ingestion in Young Healthy People: A Randomized and Controlled Trial

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    T. Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the vascular benefits of dark chocolate in healthy and young individuals. Methods. A randomized and controlled trial was carried out involving 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups: control group (CG; n=30 and intervention group (IG; n=30. The IG ingested a daily dosage of 10 g of dark chocolate (>75% cocoa for a month. Blood pressure (BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD, arterial stiffness index (ASI, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV, and pulse wave analysis (PWA were assessed at baseline and one week after the one-month intervention period. Results. Arterial function improved after intervention in the IG, with PWV decreasing from 6.13±0.41 m/s to 5.83±0.53 m/s (P=0.02, with no significant differences observed in the CG. A significant decrease in ASI (0.16±0.01 to 0.13±0.01; P75% cocoa during a month significantly improves vascular function in young and healthy individuals.

  12. A single consumption of curry improved postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects: a randomized, controlled crossover trial.

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    Nakayama, Hideki; Tsuge, Nobuaki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Masamura, Noriya; Yamada, Shohei; Satomi, Shigeki; Higashi, Yukihito

    2014-06-28

    Curry, one of the most popular foods in Japan, contains spices that are rich in potentially antioxidative compounds, such as curcumin and eugenol. Oxidative stress is thought to impair endothelial function associated with atherosclerosis, a leading cause of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single consumption of curry meal would improve endothelial function in healthy men. Fourteen healthy male subjects (BMI 23.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; age 45 ± 9 years) were given a single serving of curry meal or spice-free control meal (180 g of curry or control and 200 g of cooked rice; approximately 500 kcal in total) in a randomized, controlled crossover design. Before and 1 hr after the consumption, fasting and postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses and other parameters were measured. The consumption of the control meal decreased FMD from 5.8 ± 2.4% to 5.1 ± 2.3% (P = 0.039). On the other hand, the consumption of the curry meal increased FMD from 5.2 ± 2.5% to 6.6 ± 2.0% (P = 0.001), and the postprandial FMD after the curry meal was higher than that after the control meal (P = 0.002). Presence of spices in the curry did not alter significantly the systemic and forearm hemodynamics, or any biochemical parameters including oxidative stress markers measured. These findings suggest that the consumption of curry ameliorates postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects and may be beneficial for improving cardiovascular health. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000012012.

  13. Neurologic uses of botulinum neurotoxin type A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Ney

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available John P Ney, Kevin R JosephMadigan Army Medical Center, Neurology Service, Tacoma, WA, USAAbstract: This article reviews the current and most neurologic uses of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A, beginning with relevant historical data, neurochemical mechanism at the neuromuscular junction. Current commercial preparations of BoNT-A are reviewed, as are immunologic issues relating to secondary failure of BoNT-A therapy. Clinical uses are summarized with an emphasis on controlled clinical trials (as appropriate, including facial movement disorders, focal neck and limb dystonias, spasticity, hypersecretory syndromes, and pain.Keywords: botulinum neurotoxins, BOTOX®, Dysport®, chemodenervation

  14. Biomarker for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Expression of SMN in Peripheral Blood of SMA Patients and Healthy Controls.

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    Christian Czech

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a functional deletion of SMN1 on Chromosome 5, which leads to a progressive loss of motor function in affected patients. SMA patients have at least one copy of a similar gene, SMN2, which produces functional SMN protein, although in reduced quantities. The severity of SMA is variable, partially due to differences in SMN2 copy numbers. Here, we report the results of a biomarker study characterizing SMA patients of varying disease severity. SMN copy number, mRNA and Protein levels in whole blood of patients were measured and compared against a cohort of healthy controls. The results show differential regulation of expression of SMN2 in peripheral blood between patients and healthy subjects.

  15. Psychomotor speed in chronic low-back pain patients and healthy controls: construct validity and clinical significance of the measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, S; Taimela, S; Alaranta, H; Hurri, H

    1998-12-01

    The effect of ethanol on reaction times was studied in 5 healthy men to test the construct validity of the measure. Reaction times were studied among 61 healthy controls and 99 patients with chronic low-back pain (68 moderate and 31 severe) to evaluate the diagnostic value of reaction time measurements. Analysis of receiver operating characteristics was used to calculate the discriminative power of the reaction time measurements. The severity of low-back pain was associated with slow reaction times but the diagnostic value of a single reaction time measurement was low due to insufficient sensitivity. In conclusion, even though many patients with low-back pain suffer from central impairment of motor function, a single reaction time measurement is not usable in evaluation of the severity of low-back pain.

  16. Neurological soft signs in persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and the relationships to neuropsychological functions

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    Li Hui-jie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological abnormalities have been reported in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. The current study aimed to examine the prevalence of neurological soft signs (NSS in this clinical group and to examine the relationship of NSS to other neuropsychological performances. Methods Twenty-nine people with aMCI and 28 cognitively healthy elderly people were recruited for the present study. The NSS subscales (motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory and a set of neuropsychological tests were administered to all the participants. Results People with aMCI exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs, disinhibition signs, and total NSS than normal controls. Correlation analysis showed that the motor coordination subscale score and total score of NSS were significantly inversely correlated with the combined Z-score of neuropsychological tests in aMCI group. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggested that people with aMCI demonstrated a higher prevalence of NSS compared to healthy elderly people. Moreover, NSS was found to be inversely correlated with the neuropsychological performances in persons with aMCI. When taken together, these findings suggested that NSS may play a potential important role and serve as a tool to assist in the early detection of aMCI.

  17. [Post-ischemia neurologic recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraud-Chaumeil, Bernard; Pariente, Jérémie; Albucher, Jean-François; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Chollet, François

    2002-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most common affliction of patients with neurological symptoms. Rehabilitation of stroke patients is a difficult task. Our knowledge on rehabilitation has recently improved with the emergence of data from new neuroimaging techniques. A prospective, double blind, cross over, placebo, controlled study on 8 patients with pure motor hemiparesia, is conducted to determine the influence of a single dose of fluoxetine on motor performance and cerebral activation of patients recovering from stroke. Each patient undergoes two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examinations, one under fluoxetine and one under placebo. A single dose of fluoxetine is enough to modulate cerebral sensori-motor activation and significantly improves motor skills of the affected side. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of chronic administration of fluoxetine on motor function.

  18. Porphyria and its neurologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrias are rare disorders resulting from a defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. They can produce significant disease of both the peripheral and central nervous systems, in addition to other organ systems, with acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary coproporphyria, and variegate porphyria as the subtypes associated with neurologic manifestations. The presence of a motor-predominant peripheral neuropathy (axonal predominant), accompanied by gastrointestinal distress and neuropsychiatric manifestations, should be a strong clue to the diagnosis of porphyria. Clinical confirmation can be made through evaluation of urine porphyrins during an exacerbation of disease. While hematin is helpful for acute treatment, long-term effective management requires avoidance of overstimulation of the cytochrome P450 pathway, as well as other risk factor control. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary care perceptions of neurology and neurology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Angela M; Wade, Carrie; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-06-01

    Neurophobia (fear of neural sciences) and evaluation of independent sector contracts in neurology have seldom been examined among general practitioners (GPs). A questionnaire determined GPs' perceptions of neurology compared with other medical specialties. GP experiences of neurology services with independent sector companies and the local National Health Service (NHS) were compared. Areas of potential improvement in NHS neurology services were recorded from thematic analyses. Among 76 GPs neurology was perceived to be as interesting as other medical specialties. GPs reported less knowledge, more difficulty and less confidence in neurology compared with other medical specialties. There was a preference for a local NHS neurology service (pneurology services provided better patient satisfaction. GPs prefer local NHS neurology services to independent sector contracts. GPs' evaluations should inform commissioning of neurology services. Combating neurophobia should be an integral part of responsive commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Exploring the association between television advertising of healthy and unhealthy foods, self-control, and food intake in three European countries.

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    Giese, Helge; König, Laura M; Tăut, Diana; Ollila, Hanna; Băban, Adriana; Absetz, Pilvikki; Schupp, Harald; Renner, Britta

    2015-03-01

    Building upon previous results, the present study explored the relationship between exposure to unhealthy and healthy food TV commercials, trait self-control, and food intake. In total, 825 Finns (53% female), 1,055 Germans (55% female), and 971 Romanians (55% female) aged 8-21 reported advertisement exposure, self-control, and food intake. Altogether, participants indicated higher exposure to unhealthy compared to healthy food advertisements (F(1, 2848) = 354.73, p Self-control was associated with higher consumption of healthy (β ≥ .09, p self-control were mainly independent (interactions: β ≤ |.07|, p ≥ .002). Even though the results suggest that healthy advertisement exposure and self-control might be beneficial for children's and adolescents' diet, self-control might be insufficient to alleviate the positive relationship between unhealthy food advertising and unhealthy eating. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  1. Vertebral fractures in patients with inflammatory bowel disease COMPARED with a healthy population: a prospective case-control study

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    Vázquez Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective study was performed to compare the prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures (MVF between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD and healthy subjects and to identify predictive factors of fracture. Methods A total of 107 patients with IBD (53 with Crohn’s disease and 54 with ulcerative colitis and 51 healthy subjects participated in the study. Information about anthropometric parameters, toxins, previous fractures, and parameters related to this disease were evaluated. The index of vertebral deformity, bone mass density (BMD, and biochemical parameters were calculated. Results A total of 72 fractures were detected in 38.32% of patients with IBD, and 10 fractures were detected in 13.73% of healthy subjects; the risk of fracture in patients with IBD was higher than that in control subjects (OR, 4.03; 95% CI, 1.652–9.847; p p = 0.17 and femoral neck, r = −0.138, p = 0.07. Corticosteroid treatment was not associated with prevalent vertebral fractures nor with taking corticosteroids (r = 0.135, p = 0.14 or the duration for which they were taken (r = 0.08, p = 0.38, whereas this relationship was present in the controls (r = −0.365, p = 0.01. In the multivariate analysis, none of the measured parameters were significantly predictive of fracture, only to manifested IBD. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 55.14% of patients with IBD. Conclusions The prevalence of morphometric vertebral fractures is higher in patients with IBD than in the healthy population, without association with BMD or corticoid treatment. Simply having IBD was proven to be a predictive factor of fracture. We observed a high incidence of hypovitaminosis D in patients with IBD.

  2. Deja vu in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The significance of deja vu is widely recognised in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, and enquiry about deja vu is frequently made in the clinical assessment of patients with possible epilepsy. Deja vu has also been associated with several psychiatric disorders. The historical context of current understanding of deja vu is discussed. The literature reveals deja vu to be a common phenomenon consistent with normality. Several authors have suggested the existence of a "pathological" form of deja vu that differs, qualitatively or quantitatively, from "non-pathological" deja vu. The features of deja vu suggesting neurological or psychiatric pathology are discussed. Several neuroanatomical and psychological models of the deja vu experience are highlighted, implicating the perceptual, mnemonic and affective regions of the lateral temporal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the genesis of deja vu. A possible genetic basis for a neurochemical model of deja vu is discussed. Clinical approaches to the patient presenting with possible deja vu are proposed.

  3. Evaluation of the 'healthy start to pregnancy' early antenatal health promotion workshop: a randomized controlled trial

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    Wilkinson Shelley A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is an ideal time to encourage healthy lifestyles as most women access health services and are more receptive to health messages; however few effective interventions exist. The aim of this research was to deliver a low-intensity, dietitian-led behavior change workshop at a Maternity Hospital to influence behaviors with demonstrated health outcomes. Methods Workshop effectiveness was evaluated using an RCT; ‘usual care’ women (n = 182 received a nutrition resource at their first antenatal visit and 'intervention' women also attended a one-hour ‘Healthy Start to Pregnancy’ workshop (n = 178. Dietary intake, physical activity levels, gestational weight gain knowledge, smoking cessation, and intention to breastfeed were assessed at service-entry and 12 weeks later. Intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP analyses examined change over time between groups. Results Approximately half (48.3% the intervention women attended the workshop and overall response rate at time 2 was 67.2%. Significantly more women in the intervention met pregnancy fruit guidelines at time 2 (+4.3%, p = 0.011 and had a clinically-relevant increase in physical activity (+27 minutes/week compared with women who only received the resource (ITT. Women who attended the workshop increased their consumption of serves of fruit (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.004, vegetables (+0.4 serves/day, p = 0.006, met fruit guidelines (+11.9%, p , had a higher diet quality score (p = 0.027 and clinically-relevant increases in physical activity (+21.3 minutes/week compared with those who only received the resource (PP. Conclusions The Healthy Start to Pregnancy workshop attendance facilitates improvements in important health behaviors. Service changes and accessibility issues are required to assist women's workshop attendance to allow more women to benefit from the workshop’s effects. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  4. Acoustic variation during passage reading for speakers with dysarthria and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Christina; Tjaden, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic variation in a passage read by speakers with dysarthria and healthy speakers was examined. 15 speakers with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), 12 speakers with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 14 healthy speakers were studied. Acoustic variables included measures of global speech timing (e.g., articulation rate, pause characteristics), vocal intensity (e.g., mean sound pressure level and intensity modulation), and segmental articulation (i.e., utterance-level second formant interquartile range (F2 IQR)). Acoustic measures were obtained from three segments operationally defined to represent the beginning, middle, and end of a reading passage. Two speaking conditions associated with common treatment techniques for dysarthria were included for comparison to a habitual speaking condition. These conditions included a slower-than-habitual rate (Slow) and greater-than-habitual intensity (Loud). There was some degree of acoustic variation across the three operationally-defined segments of the reading passage. The Slow, Loud and Habitual conditions yielded comparable characteristics of variation. Patterns of acoustic variation across the three passage segments also were largely similar across speaker groups. Within-task acoustic variation during passage reading should be considered when making decisions regarding speech sampling in clinical practice and research. The contributions of speech disorder severity and linguistic variables to within-task acoustic change warrant further investigation. Readers will be able to (1) discuss the motivation for studying and understanding within-task variation in contextual speech, (2) describe patterns of acoustic variation for speakers with dysarthria and healthy speakers during passage reading, (3) discuss the relationship between non-habitual speaking conditions and within-task variation, (4) understand the need to consider within-speaker, within-task variation in speech sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurology and diving.

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    Massey, E Wayne; Moon, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Diving exposes a person to the combined effects of increased ambient pressure and immersion. The reduction in pressure when surfacing can precipitate decompression sickness (DCS), caused by bubble formation within tissues due to inert gas supersaturation. Arterial gas embolism (AGE) can also occur due to pulmonary barotrauma as a result of breath holding during ascent or gas trapping due to disease, causing lung hyperexpansion, rupture and direct entry of alveolar gas into the blood. Bubble disease due to either DCS or AGE is collectively known as decompression illness. Tissue and intravascular bubbles can induce a cascade of events resulting in CNS injury. Manifestations of decompression illness can vary in severity, from mild (paresthesias, joint pains, fatigue) to severe (vertigo, hearing loss, paraplegia, quadriplegia). Particularly as these conditions are uncommon, early recognition is essential to provide appropriate management, consisting of first aid oxygen, targeted fluid resuscitation and hyperbaric oxygen, which is the definitive treatment. Less common neurologic conditions that do not require hyperbaric oxygen include rupture of a labyrinthine window due to inadequate equalization of middle ear pressure during descent, which can precipitate vertigo and hearing loss. Sinus and middle ear overpressurization during ascent can compress the trigeminal and facial nerves respectively, causing temporary facial hypesthesia and lower motor neuron facial weakness. Some conditions preclude safe diving, such as seizure disorders, since a convulsion underwater is likely to be fatal. Preventive measures to reduce neurologic complications of diving include exclusion of individuals with specific medical conditions and safe diving procedures, particularly related to descent and ascent. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptor Availability Is Associated with Executive Function in Healthy Controls but Not Methamphetamine Users.

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    Michael E Ballard

    Full Text Available Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the striatum has been linked with executive function in healthy individuals, and is below control levels among drug addicts, possibly contributing to diminished executive function in the latter group. This study tested for an association of striatal D2/D3 receptor availability with a measure of executive function among research participants who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence.Methamphetamine users and non-user controls (n = 18 per group completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and positron emission tomography with [18F]fallypride.The methamphetamine users displayed significantly lower striatal D2/D3 receptor availability on average than controls after controlling for age and education (p = 0.008, but they did not register greater proportions of either perseverative or non-perseverative errors when controlling for education (both ps ≥ 0.622. The proportion of non-perseverative, but not perseverative, errors was negatively correlated with striatal D2/D3 receptor availability among controls (r = -0.588, p = 0.010, but not methamphetamine users (r = 0.281, p = 0.258, and the group-wise interaction was significant (p = 0.030.These results suggest that cognitive flexibility, as measured by perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, is not determined by signaling through striatal D2/D3 receptors in healthy controls, and that in stimulant abusers, who have lower D2/D3 receptor availability, compensation can effectively maintain other executive functions, which are associated with D2/D3 receptor signaling in controls.

  7. Serum ferritin level and red blood cell parameters in healthy controls and chronic periodontitis patients

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    S Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease causes reduction in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. It is found to be caused by specific pathogenic subgingival plaque bacteria. Periodontitis is host mediated through release of pro inflammatory cytokines by local tissues and immune cells in response to bacterial flora and its products, especially lipopolysacharides. Periodontitis is found to have systemic effect and the cytokines produced inhibit proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes leading to anaemia. This study evaluate level of hemoglobin erythrocytes, hematocrit and serum ferritin levels in healthy subjects and periodontitis patient.

  8. Alcohol use is associated with thinner cerebral cortex and larger ventricles in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, E H; Nerland, S; Jørgensen, K N; Mørch-Johnsen, L; Nesvåg, R; Hartberg, C B; Haukvik, U K; Osnes, K; Melle, I; Andreassen, O A; Agartz, I

    2017-03-01

    Excessive alcohol use is associated with brain damage but less is known about brain effects from moderate alcohol use. Previous findings indicate that patients with severe mental illness, particularly schizophrenia, are vulnerable to alcohol-related brain damage. We investigated the association between levels of alcohol consumption and cortical and subcortical brain structures in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients and healthy controls, and investigated for group differences for this association. 1.5 T structural magnetic resonance images were acquired of 609 alcohol-using participants (165 schizophrenia patients, 172 bipolar disorder patients, 272 healthy controls), mean (s.d.) age 34.2 (9.9) years, 52% men. Past year alcohol use was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test - Consumption part (AUDIT-C). General linear models were used to investigate associations between AUDIT-C score and cortical thickness, surface area, and total brain and subcortical volumes. Increasing AUDIT-C score was linearly associated with thinner cortex in medial and dorsolateral frontal and parieto-occipital regions, and with larger left lateral ventricle volume. There was no significant interaction between AUDIT-C score and diagnostic group. The findings remained significant after controlling for substance use disorders, antipsychotic medication and illness severity. The results show a dose-dependent relationship between alcohol use and thinner cortex and ventricular expansion. The findings are present also at lower levels of alcohol consumption and do not differ between schizophrenia or bipolar disorder patients compared to healthy controls. Our results do not support previous findings of increased vulnerability for alcohol-related brain damage in severe mental illness.

  9. Comparision of Parent Reported Sleeping Habits and Sleep Problems Between Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ozturk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD children has been shown to affect the quality of sleep. In this study it is aimed to evaluate sleep habits and sleep problems between the cases who are diagnosed with ADHD and healthy controls. The study group consisted of 61 children (8-12 years old with ADHD; the control group (87 children comprised patients of other clinics at hospital. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL and DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale vere used. Children's sleep habits and sleep problems were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. ADHD group compared to healthy controls; statistical significant difference was found in bedtime resistance, the sleep onset delay, the sleep duration, the sleep anxiety, the night wakings, the parasomnias and the daytime sleepiness but statistical significant difference wasn’t found the sleep disordered breathing. In our study, problems in the sleep habits evaluated by parents ADHD are more than campared with healty controls likewise literature. However, further studies with larger sample size and objective measures such as actigraphy and polysomnography may allow us to have more knowledge in this area. [JCBPR 2017; 6(3.000: 108-114

  10. Changes in proprioceptive weighting during quiet standing in women with early and established knee osteoarthritis compared to healthy controls.

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    Mahmoudian, Armaghan; van Dieen, Jaap H; Baert, Isabel A C; Jonkers, Ilse; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Luyten, Frank P; Faber, Gert S; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2016-02-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is highly prevalent in people above the age of 60, and is typically associated with pain, stiffness, muscle weakness and proprioceptive deficits. Muscle-tendon vibration has been used to assess the spatial reweighting of proprioceptive input during standing. The current study aimed to investigate whether weighting of proprioceptive input is altered in patients with early and established knee OA compared to asymptomatic controls. The upright posture of 27 participants with early OA, 26 with established OA, and 27 asymptomatic controls was perturbed by vibrating (frequency: 70Hz and amplitude: approximately 0.5mm) ankle muscles (i.e. tibialis anterior and triceps surae) and knee muscles (vastus medialis). Center of pressure displacements of the participants were recorded using a force plate. Both patients with early and established OA were more sensitive to triceps surae vibration compared to their healthy peers (Pmuscles between patients with knee OA and healthy controls. These results suggest that the early stages of knee OA may already lead to reweighting of proprioceptive information, suggesting more reliance on ankle proprioceptive input for postural control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of Childhood Traumatic Experience and Attachment Styles among Patients in Suicide Attempts with Drugs and the Healthy Control Group

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    Sinay Önen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Early traumatic experiences and neglect can be related to negative emotional, cognitive and neurodevelopmental changes and can lead to a predisposition to several mental disorders, including suicidal behaviors. In this study we aimed to examine the attachment styles of suicide attempters using drugs and their early traumatic experiences, compared to healthy controls. Method: The study involved 76 people who had attempted suicide with drugs and 84 healthy controls who did not have any psychiatric disorder. In the evaluation we have used the following: a sociodemographic data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Childhood Traumas Questionnaire (CTQ - 28 and Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ with those who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Fearful attachment styles from the relation scale survey of those who attempted suicide were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.001. BDI (p<0.001, BAI (p<0.001, emotional abuse (p<0.001, physical abuse (p=0.001, emotional neglect (p<0.001, physical neglect (p<0.001 and sexual abuse (p=0.001 scale scores were statistically higher in suicide attempters than those of the control group. Conclusion: Negative early life experiences and attachment style constitute the main beliefs of a person, and these beliefs can present themselves in how somebody build relationships and in interpersonal problems. Early traumatic experiences and attachment styles developed on this axis have an important role in the formation of psychopathologies. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 51-58

  12. Time perception in narcolepsy in comparison to patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls - an exploratory study.

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    Poryazova, Rositsa; Mensen, Armand; Bislimi, Fatime; Huegli, Gordana; Baumann, Christian R; Khatami, Ramin

    2013-12-01

    The striatum and the prefrontal cortex play an important role in cognitive time processing, and time perception depends on sustained attention. Narcolepsy patients are unable to maintain sustained attention, due probably to deficient hypocretin signalling. Impaired time perception has been found in Parkinson's disease (PD) and attributed to a dysfunctional dopaminergic striatal pacemaker. We aimed to assess time perception in patients with narcolepsy and PD and to compare the outcome to healthy control participants. Seventeen narcolepsy patients, 12 PD patients and 15 healthy controls performed a short time production task, where they had to produce an interval of 1, 2 or 5 s. The accuracy of time production differed significantly according to task target duration, and there was a trend towards a group difference with narcolepsy patients tending to overproduce all target durations. Absolute variability was significantly different between groups, with narcolepsy patients showing higher absolute variability in comparison to controls and PD patients. The analysis of the temporal course of time estimation showed more pronounced overproduction of each target duration at the end of each trial in narcolepsy patients, whereas performance was more or less stable in controls and PD patients. Overproduction and higher variability of all time durations in narcolepsy indicate impaired short interval timing in the seconds range, while the scalar property of timing was preserved. The time-course of accuracy and variability of time production within sessions indicate an attention-related mechanism of impaired interval timing. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program: effects on memory, mood, and sleep.

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    Diamond, Keri; Mowszowski, Loren; Cockayne, Nicole; Norrie, Louisa; Paradise, Matthew; Hermens, Daniel F; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Naismith, Sharon L

    2015-01-01

    With the rise in the ageing population and absence of a cure for dementia, cost-effective prevention strategies for those 'at risk' of dementia including those with depression and/or mild cognitive impairment are urgently required. This study evaluated the efficacy of a multifaceted Healthy Brain Ageing Cognitive Training (HBA-CT) program for older adults 'at risk' of dementia. Using a single-blinded design, 64 participants (mean age = 66.5 years, SD = 8.6) were randomized to an immediate treatment (HBA-CT) or treatment-as-usual control arm. The HBA-CT intervention was conducted twice-weekly for seven weeks and comprised group-based psychoeducation about cognitive strategies and modifiable lifestyle factors pertaining to healthy brain ageing, and computerized cognitive training. In comparison to the treatment-as-usual control arm, the HBA-CT program was associated with improvements in verbal memory (p = 0.03), self-reported memory (p = 0.03), mood (p = 0.01), and sleep (p = 0.01). While the improvements in memory (p = 0.03) and sleep (p = 0.02) remained after controlling for improvements in mood, only a trend in verbal memory improvement was apparent after controlling for sleep. The HBA-CT program improves cognitive, mood, and sleep functions in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, and therefore offers promise as a secondary prevention strategy.

  14. Comparison of the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy young women.

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    Shirazi, Zahra Rojhani; Jahromi, Fatemeh Nikhalat

    2013-09-01

    The maintenance of balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities and muscular fatigue is a factor to impair postural control, so this study was done to compare the effect of selected muscle groups fatigue on postural control during bipedal stance in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy female students (24.3 ± 2.6 years) completed three testing session with a break period of at least 2 days. During each session, postural control was assessed during two 30-s trials of bipedal stance with eyes close before and after the fatigue protocol. Fatigue protocols were performed by 60% of their unfatigued Maximum Voluntary Contraction of unilateral ankle plantar flexors, bilateral lumbar extensors and bilateral neck extensors. One of the three fatigue protocols was performed on each session. The result showed that fatigue had a significant effect on COP velocity and it increase COP velocity but there was not found any difference in postural sway between muscle groups. Localized muscle fatigue caused deficits in postural control regardless of the location of fatigue. Authors suggest the possibility of the contributions of central mechanisms to postural deficits due to fatigue and it seems that difference was not between muscle groups due to central fatigue.

  15. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR

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    Seyednezami Nasrin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior amon