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Sample records for neurological symptoms related

  1. Clinical study of syringomyelia. Relation of neurological symptoms and imaging diagnosis

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    Ohga, Ritsu; Konishi, Yoshihiro; Higashi, Yasuto; Kawai, Kingo; Yasuda, Takeshi; Terao, Akira (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1988-12-01

    We discussed the relationship between neurological symptoms and the locations of syringes observed by CT and MRI (imaging diagnosis) in six cases of syringomyelia admitted to our department during the past five years. Neurological symptoms of the upper cervical and thoracic cords were found in six cases and five cases of them had symmetric distribution. Syringes were found in all cases by delayed CT (D-CT) and MRI. Five cases had laterality. The sites in the spinal cord exhibiting severe involvement of neurological symptoms corresponded with the sites of syringes in imaging diagnosis. The main asymmetric lesions of the syringes were located in the posterior horn. They indicated the relationship with the appearance of the neurological symptoms of the lesion. We compared with the width of the longitudinal level from neurological findings and imaging diagnosis. The rostral level of both corresponded in all cases, but the caudal level corresponded in only one case and neurological symptoms were broader than syringes in imaging diagnosis. It was difficult to identify small syringes when there was complicated scoliosis. The diagnosis of typical cases of syringomyelia is mainly based on such neurological symptoms as a bilateral segmental pattern of dissociated sensory impairment in the past, but imaging diagnosis has recently come to be regarded as very important. (J.P.N.).

  2. Transient Neurological Symptoms after Spinal Anesthesia

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    Zehra Hatipoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has been used for more than 50 years for spinal anesthesia and has a remarkable safety record. In 1993, a new adverse effect, transient neurologic toxicity was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine. Transient neurological symptoms have been defined as pain in the lower extremities (buttocks, thighs and legs after an uncomplicated spinal anesthesia and after an initial full recovery during the immediate postoperative period (less than 24 h. The incidence of transient neurological symptoms reported in prospective, randomized trials varies from 4% to 37%. The etiology of transient neurological symptoms remains unkonwn. Despite the transient nature of this syndrome, it has proven to be difficult to treat effectively. Drug or some interventional therapy may be necessary. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 33-44

  3. [Neurological symptoms in children with intussusception].

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    Domínguez-Carral, J; Puertas-Martín, V; Carreras-Sáez, I; Maraña-Pérez, A I; Escobar-Delgado, T; García-Peñas, J J

    2014-05-01

    Intussusception is a potentially severe obstructive disease that occurs when a more proximal portion of bowel invaginates into a more distal part of the bowel. Patients with intussusception often present with a wide range of non-specific systemic symptoms, with less than one quarter presenting with the classic triad of vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stools. An acute change in level of consciousness could be the only clinical symptom of this disorder. To ascertain the frequency and nature of the neurological symptoms in children with intussusception, and to describe the characteristics of the patients presenting in this atypical way. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 351 children presenting with intussusception from 2000 to 2012. General epidemiological data, abdominal and neurological signs and symptoms, duration of symptoms and effectiveness of treatment, were analysed in all patients. Of the 351 patients studied, 15 (4.27%) had one or more neurological symptoms recorded at presentation, with lethargy being the most frequent (66.66%), followed by hypotonia, generalized weakness, paroxysmal events, and fluctuating consciousness. Sixty per cent of these fifteen patients showed isolated neurological symptomatology, and eleven of them (73.3%) needed a laparotomy to reduce the intussusception. Intussusception should be considered in the differential diagnosis in infants and young children presenting as a pediatric emergency with lethargy, hypotonia, generalized weakness, paroxysmal events and/or sudden changes in consciousness, even in the absence of the classical symptoms of intussusception. An early recognition of intussusception may improve the global prognosis and avoid ischaemic intestinal sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

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    Hollund BE

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41, as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64 in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest. Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms

  5. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

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    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

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    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  7. Migraine- and dystonia-related disease-mutations of Na+/K+-ATPases: Relevance of behavioral studies in mice to disease symptoms and neurological manifestations in humans

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    Bøttger, Pernille; Doganli, Canan; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The two autosomal dominantly inherited neurological diseases: familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) and familial rapid-onset of dystonia-parkinsonism (Familial RDP) are caused by in vivo mutations of specific alpha subunits of the sodium–potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Intriguingly, patients...... patient symptoms and manifestations. Thus, it is interesting that mouse models targeting a specific -isoform cause different, although still comparable, phenotypes consistent with classical symptoms and other manifestations observed in FHM2 and RDP patients. This review highlights that use of mouse models...... with classical FHM2 and RDP symptoms additionally suffer from other manifestations, such as epilepsy/seizures and developmental disabilities. Recent studies of FHM2 and RDP mouse models provide valuable tools for dissecting the vital roles of the Na+/K+-ATPases, and we discuss their relevance to the complex...

  8. Neurologic signs and symptoms frequently manifest in acute HIV infection.

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    Hellmuth, Joanna; Fletcher, James L K; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena

    2016-07-12

    To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre-antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3-56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: An observational analysis

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    Tessema Fasil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900 in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. Results In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. Conclusion We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Obsessive–Compulsive Symptoms in Neurologic Disease: A Review

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    M. S. George

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD is an increasingly recognized disorder with a prevalence of 2–3% (Robins et al., 1984. Once thought to be psychodynamic in origin, OCD is now generally recognized as having a neurobiological cause. Although the exact pathophysiology of OCD in its pure form remains unknown, there are numerous reports of obsessive–compulsive symptoms arising in the setting of known neurological disease. In this paper, we review the reported cases of obsessive–compulsive symptoms associated with neurologic diseases and outline the known facts about the underlying neurobiology of OCD. Finally, we synthesize these findings into a proposed theory of the pathophysiology of OCD, in both its pure form and when it accompanies other neurological illness.

  11. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

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    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  12. Diagnosis and management of functional neurological symptoms: The Dutch experience

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    de Schipper, L.J.; Vermeulen, M; Eeckhout, A.M.; Foncke, E.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) were considered as a psychiatric disorder at the beginning of the 20th century (conversion disorder). Psychiatrists performed diagnosis and treatment throughout most of the past century in the Netherlands, but in the latest decades patients were

  13. Diagnosis and management of functional neurological symptoms: The Dutch experience

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    de Schipper, Laura J.; Vermeulen, Marinus; Eeckhout, Augustinus M.; Foncke, Elisabeth M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neurological symptoms (FNS) were considered as a psychiatric disorder at the beginning of the 20th century (conversion disorder). Psychiatrists performed diagnosis and treatment throughout most of the past century in the Netherlands, but in the latest decades patients were usually firstly

  14. LEARNERS SATISFACTION FACTORS IN NEUROLOGY RELATED MOOCs

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    Ionela MANIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.

  15. Reports of cases of renal tubular acidosis with neurologic symptomes

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    Ghafarpour M

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Proximal weakness specially in extremitas is a common neurologic symptom of patients, for which the physician should consider toxic, metabolic, infectious and paraneoblastic diseases affecting muscular system as well as primary myopathies. Osteomalacia is one of the most common considerations which is treatable but disabling as its natural course. Osteomalacia is the most often due to VITD or calcium deficiency but work up is necessary to find other primary defects that cause this disease. Renal tubular acidosis is one of these primary defects and osteomalacia secondary to it dose not respond to classic treatment of osteomalacia, so specific management is necessary. In this article we report six patients who have been referred to the clinic of neurology of Imam Khomeini Hospital since 1370 to 1374 with proximal weakness for whom RTA has been diagnosed

  16. Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community population: the ESPRIT study.

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    Soremekun, Mishael; Stewart, Robert; Portet, Florence; Artero, Sylvaine; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Ritchie, Karen

    2010-07-01

    Depression in the elderly is common and often resistant to treatment. It has been suggested that late-life depression may be related to underlying neurobiological changes. However, these observations are derived from diverse clinical samples and as yet have not been confirmed in a more representative population study. Our aim was to investigate associations between neurological signs as markers of underlying brain dysfunction and caseness for depression in an elderly community sample, controlling for physical health and comorbid/past neurological disorders. A cross-sectional analysis of 2102 older people without dementia from the ESPRIT project. Depressive symptomatology was ascertained using the CES-D and abnormal neurological signs/comorbidity from a full neurological examination according to ICD-10 criteria. Pyramidal, extrapyramidal, cranial nerve and sensory deficit signs were significantly associated with case-level depressive symptoms. However, all odds ratios were close to null values in participants who did not have previous neurological disorder. We confirmed previous findings of an association between neurological signs and case-level depressive symptoms in late life. However, this association may simply reflect the impact of more severe comorbid neurological disorder. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [Differential Diagnosis of Immune-Mediated Encephalopathies: "Neurological Symptoms of Diffuse Brain Damage": A New Concept].

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    Maki, Yoshimitsu; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, incidence of autoimmune encephalopathies has increased. The diagnosis of the severe form of autoimmune encephalopathy is not difficult; however, milder forms can be misdiagnosed as general encephalopathies. We often treat Hashimoto's encephalopathy, which has diverse clinical symptoms and is often misdiagnosed as a psychosomatic disease. We have found that the neurological findings and symptoms of patients with Hashimoto's encephalopathy are similar to those of psychogenic diseases, such as giveway weakness and atypical sensory disorder. To understand the mechanism underlying these symptoms, we propose a new concept: neurological symptoms of diffuse brain damage. This theory is based on the premise that etiologically, symptoms observed were caused by diffuse, spotty, and shaded brain damage due to autoimmune encephalopathies. We also found similar neurological conditions in patients with anti-ganglionic acetylcholine receptor antibody-related encephalopathy, encephalopathies that developed after injection of the cervical cancer vaccine, and encephalopathies associated with Stiff person syndrome. In conclusion, the clinical features of autoimmune encephalopathy include the "neurological symptoms of diffuse brain damage" as well as the presence of antibodies. We could diagnose autoimmune encephalopathy more easily, using this new diagnostic concept.

  18. Lyme neuroborreliosis in cases of non-specific neurological symptoms.

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    Roaldsnes, Erlend; Eikeland, Randi; Berild, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid is required in order to diagnose Lyme neuroborreliosis. We investigated the symptoms of patients in a highly endemic area who were referred for evaluation of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis, and explored whether cerebrospinal fluid analysis confirmed or ruled out the diagnosis. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent lumbar puncture at Sørlandet Hospital Arendal in the period 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013. A total of 140 patients were referred with suspected Lyme neuroborreliosis. Of these, 110 patients had non-specific neurological symptoms (e.g. fatigue, dizziness and headache), only one of whom received a diagnosis of possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. Thirty patients had symptoms typical of the condition (such as radiculitis or peripheral facial nerve palsy). Six of these were diagnosed with definite Lyme neuroborreliosis, and one with possible Lyme neuroborreliosis. None of those diagnosed with Lyme neuroborreliosis had had symptoms lasting more than six months. The probability of Lyme neuroborreliosis is low in the absence of typical symptoms of the condition, even when anti-Borrelia antibodies are detected in serum and especially when the symptoms are of long duration.

  19. Network localization of neurological symptoms from focal brain lesions.

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    Boes, Aaron D; Prasad, Sashank; Liu, Hesheng; Liu, Qi; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Caviness, Verne S; Fox, Michael D

    2015-10-01

    A traditional and widely used approach for linking neurological symptoms to specific brain regions involves identifying overlap in lesion location across patients with similar symptoms, termed lesion mapping. This approach is powerful and broadly applicable, but has limitations when symptoms do not localize to a single region or stem from dysfunction in regions connected to the lesion site rather than the site itself. A newer approach sensitive to such network effects involves functional neuroimaging of patients, but this requires specialized brain scans beyond routine clinical data, making it less versatile and difficult to apply when symptoms are rare or transient. In this article we show that the traditional approach to lesion mapping can be expanded to incorporate network effects into symptom localization without the need for specialized neuroimaging of patients. Our approach involves three steps: (i) transferring the three-dimensional volume of a brain lesion onto a reference brain; (ii) assessing the intrinsic functional connectivity of the lesion volume with the rest of the brain using normative connectome data; and (iii) overlapping lesion-associated networks to identify regions common to a clinical syndrome. We first tested our approach in peduncular hallucinosis, a syndrome of visual hallucinations following subcortical lesions long hypothesized to be due to network effects on extrastriate visual cortex. While the lesions themselves were heterogeneously distributed with little overlap in lesion location, 22 of 23 lesions were negatively correlated with extrastriate visual cortex. This network overlap was specific compared to other subcortical lesions (P network overlap in cortical areas previously implicated in symptom expression (P brain regions involved in symptom expression; and (ii) publically available human connectome data can be used to incorporate these network effects into traditional lesion mapping approaches. Because the current technique

  20. Symptom prevalence, severity and palliative care needs assessment using the Palliative Outcome Scale: a cross-sectional study of patients with Parkinson's disease and related neurological conditions.

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    Saleem, Tariq Z; Higginson, Irene J; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Martin, Anne; Burman, Rachel; Leigh, P Nigel

    2013-09-01

    Palliative care is rarely being offered to patients with Parkinson's disease. To assess symptom prevalence, severity and palliative care needs in advanced stages of Parkinsonism. A cross-sectional survey using a palliative care assessment tool, the Palliative Outcome Scale was administered to patients. Eight-two patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, multiple systems atrophy or progressive supranuclear palsy were included in the study. Their mean age and disease stages 3-5 Hoehn and Yahr were 67 years and 4.1, respectively. Patients reported a mean of 10.7 (standard deviation = 3.9) physical symptoms. Over 80% had pain, fatigue, day time somnolence and problems with mobility. Other symptoms in 50%-80% included constipation, loss of bladder control, swallowing difficulties, drooling, breathlessness and sleep problems. Symptoms rated as causing severe problems were pain, fatigue, constipation and drooling. Assessment of mood revealed 70% of the patients felt anxiety and 60% had felt depressed. Eight-five per cent felt their families were anxious or worried about them. Thirty-eight per cent would have liked more information and 42% had practical problems that still needed to be addressed. There was a positive correlation between number of symptoms and disease severity (r = 0.39, p = 0.01). The total mean Palliative Outcome Scale score was 13.6 (standard deviation = 6.1), suggesting moderate palliative care needs. This is the first study to describe the care needs of people with Parkinson's disease using the Palliative Outcome Scale tool. The burden of symptoms and concerns was high in advanced stages of disease. It might be appropriate that people severely affected by these conditions should be considered for referral to specialist palliative care services.

  1. Atypical Craniosynostosis with Torticollis and Neurological Symptoms: A Rhombencephalosynapsis Sequence

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    Virve Koljonen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We describe a case of 3-year-old girl with rhombencephalosynapsis, a rare cerebellar anomaly. Patient. A 3-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to congenital torticollis and asymmetry of face, skull and trunk. Craniosynostosis was suspected due to abnormal head shape. 3D-CT revealed closure of the sagittal suture without scaphocephalic skull. Due to atypical craniosynostosis with neurological symptoms, brain-MRI was performed revealing rhombencephalosynapsis. Results. Our patient presented with atypical craniosynostosis and balance problems, not typical for scaphocephaly. Operative treatment for craniosynotosis was not carried out because the cause of the problems was the cerebellum instead of the brain. Conclusions. Therefore, we conclude that patients with atypical craniosynostosis should be examined with brain-MRI to exclude the intracranial malformations, which 3D-CT does not reveal. Without brain-MRI, decision (not to perform surgery could have been different.

  2. Cortical arousal in children and adolescents with functional neurological symptoms during the auditory oddball task

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    Kasia Kozlowska, MBBS., PhD. FRANZCP

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings add to a growing literature indicating that a baseline state of high arousal may be a precondition for generating functional neurological symptoms, a finding that helps explain why a range of psychological and physiological stressors can trigger functional neurological symptoms in some patients. Interventions that target cortical arousal may be central to the treatment of paediatric patients with functional neurological symptom disorder.

  3. Prevalence and predictors of unexplained neurological symptoms in an academic neurology outpatient clinic--an observational study.

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    Snijders, T.J.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Klumpers, U.M.H.; Kappelle, L.J.; Gijn, J. van

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine the prevalence of unexplained symptoms among newly referred patients in a Dutch academic outpatient clinic for general neurology; (b) To identify factors that can serve as characteristics and possibly as screening instruments for unexplained symptoms in this population.

  4. Functional neurological symptoms modulate processing of emotionally salient stimuli.

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    Fiess, Johanna; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Schmidt, Roger; Wienbruch, Christian; Steffen, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Dysfunctional emotion processing has been discussed as a contributing factor to functional neurological symptoms (FNS) in the context of conversion disorder, and refers to blunted recognition and the expression of one's own feelings. However, the emotion processing components characteristic for FNS and/or relevant for conversion remain to be specified. With this goal, the present study targeted the initial, automatic discrimination of emotionally salient stimuli. The magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was monitored in 21 patients with functional weakness and/or sensory disturbance subtypes of FNS and 21 healthy comparison participants (HC) while they passively watched 600 emotionally arousing, pleasant, unpleasant or neutral stimuli in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) design. Neuromagnetic activity was analyzed 110-330ms following picture onset in source space for prior defined posterior and central regions of interest. As early as 110ms and across presentation interval, posterior neural activity modulation by picture category was similar in both groups, despite smaller initial (110-150ms) overall and posterior power in patients with FNS. The initial activity modulation by picture category was also evident in the left sensorimotor area in patients with FNS, but not significant in HC. Similar activity modulation by emotional picture category in patients with FNS and HC suggests that the fast, automatic detection of emotional salience is unchanged in patients with FNS, but involves an emotion-processing network spanning posterior and sensorimotor areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cingulo-insular structural alterations associated with psychogenic symptoms, childhood abuse and PTSD in functional neurological disorders.

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    Perez, David L; Matin, Nassim; Barsky, Arthur; Costumero-Ramos, Victor; Makaretz, Sara J; Young, Sigrid S; Sepulcre, Jorge; LaFrance, W Curt; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2017-06-01

    Adverse early-life events are predisposing factors for functional neurological disorder (FND) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cingulo-insular regions are implicated in the biology of both conditions and are sites of stress-mediated neuroplasticity. We hypothesised that functional neurological symptoms and the magnitude of childhood abuse would be associated with overlapping anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular volumetric reductions, and that FND and PTSD symptoms would map onto distinct cingulo-insular areas. This within-group voxel-based morphometry study probes volumetric associations with self-report measures of functional neurological symptoms, adverse life events and PTSD symptoms in 23 mixed-gender FND patients. Separate secondary analyses were also performed in the subset of 18 women with FND to account for gender-specific effects. Across the entire cohort, there were no statistically significant volumetric associations with self-report measures of functional neurological symptom severity or childhood abuse. In women with FND, however, parallel inverse associations were observed between left anterior insular volume and functional neurological symptoms as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 and the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms Conversion Disorder subscale. Similar inverse relationships were also appreciated between childhood abuse burden and left anterior insular volume. Across all subjects, PTSD symptom severity was inversely associated with dorsal ACC volume, and the magnitude of lifetime adverse events was inversely associated with left hippocampal volume. This study reveals distinct cingulo-insular alterations for FND and PTSD symptoms and may advance our understanding of FND. Potential biological convergence between stress-related neuroplasticity, functional neurological symptoms and reduced insular volume was identified. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017

  6. Anthropological neurology: symptoms and their meanings according to Joseph Prick (1909-1978)

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    Meulen, B.C. ter; Dekkers, W.J.M.; Keyser, A.J.M.; Woerkom, T.C. van

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the life and work of the Dutch neurologist Joseph Prick (1909-1978) and his idea of an anthropological neurology. According to Prick, neurological symptoms should not only be explained from an underlying physico-chemical substrate but also be regarded as meaningful. We present

  7. Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni.

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    Price, Lance B; Roess, Amira; Graham, Jay P; Baqar, Shahida; Vailes, Rocio; Sheikh, Kazim A; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-07-01

    To examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with Campylobacter exposure, Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms, and neuropathologic antibodies. Questionnaires, serum samples, and stool specimens were collected from 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by stool culture and serum antibodies; neurologic symptoms were assessed by questionnaire; and neuropathologic antibodies were measured by serum anti-glycolipid antibody concentrations. Poultry workers had significantly higher anti-Campylobacter immunoglobulin G titers compared with that of referents (P Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms; and male poultry workers had a higher point risk estimate for detectable neuropathologic anti-glycolipid immunoglobulin G titers (P = 0.07) compared with male referents. These data suggest that poultry workers are at elevated risk of Campylobacter exposure and may be at elevated risk for Campylobacter-associated neurologic sequelae.

  8. [Neurological symptoms and disability in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].

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    Carod-Artal, F J; Mesquita, H Mourao; Ribeiro, L da Silveira

    2008-03-01

    The human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that causes tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Objectives. To describe neurological characteristics and the severity of disability in a sample of patients with TSP/HAM. All TSP/HAM patients consecutively admitted during 2006 at the Brasilia Sarah Hospital, neurology outpatient clinic were included in the study. HTLV-I infected patient fulfilled criteria for serological positivity at both ELISA and western blot. Ashworth spasticity scale, Barthel index of activities of daily living, kurtzke functional systems and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were applied. All patients performed electrophysiological studies (evoked potentials, electromyogram) and brain/spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty two of 249 paraparetic patients (16.9%; 26 females; mean age: 49.8 years) were diagnosed as having TSP/HAM. Mean time of evolution was 11.2 years. Most common neurological syndrome was a chronic progressive spastic paraparesis with hyperreflexia, ankle clonus and bilateral Babinski sign (97.7 %). Other findings were proximal muscle atrophy in lower limbs (28.6 %) , ataxia (21.4%), and peripheral neuropathy (7.1%). Half of patients were wheel-chair restricted or had a domiciliary walk. EDSS median was 6 and Barthel index mean score was 65. Most common findings on spinal cord MRI were thoracic spinal cord atrophy (66.7%) and white matter hyper-intensity areas in cerebral subcortical (42.8 %) and spinal cord (21.4%) regions. TSP/HAM is a very disabilitating disorder. Peripheral neuropathy and ataxia are other syndromes that should be included in the spectrum of HTLV-I infection.

  9. Increased pediatric functional neurological symptom disorders after the Boston marathon bombings: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Pier, Danielle B; de Gusmão, Claudio M; Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Maski, Kiran P; Urion, David K; Waugh, Jeff L

    2014-11-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorders are frequently the basis for acute neurological consultation. In children, they are often precipitated by high-frequency everyday stressors. The extent to which a severe traumatic experience may also precipitate functional neurological abnormalities is unknown. For the 2-week period after the Boston Marathon bombings, we prospectively collected data on patients whose presentation suggested a functional neurological symptom disorder. We assessed clinical and demographic variables, duration of symptoms, extent of educational impact, and degree of connection to the Marathon bombing. We contacted all patients at 6 months after presentation to determine the outcome and accuracy of the diagnosis. In a parallel study, we reported a baseline of 2.6 functional neurological presentations per week in our emergency room. In the week after the Marathon bombings, this frequency tripled. Ninety-one percent of presentations were delayed by 1 week, with onset around the first school day after a city-wide lockdown. Seventy-three percent had a history of a prior psychiatric diagnosis. At the 6 months follow-up, no functional neurological symptom disorder diagnoses were overturned and no new organic diagnosis was made. Pediatric functional neurological symptom disorder may be precipitated by both casual and high-intensity stressors. The 3.4-fold increase in incidence after the Boston Marathon bombings and city-wide lockdown demonstrates the marked effect that a community-wide tragedy can have on the mental health of children. Care providers must be aware of functional neurological symptom disorders after stressful community events in vulnerable patient populations, particularly those with prior psychiatric diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurological symptoms and syndromes in municipal transport drivers

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    Halina Sińczuk-Walczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The way the municipal transport drivers perform their job contributes to varied burdens linked with the body posture at work, stress, shift work, vibration, noise and exposure to chemical agents. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of the nervous system (NS in municipal transport drivers. Material and Methods: The study covered 42 men, aged 43.4 years (standard deviation (SD: 8.3, employed as bus drivers in the municipal transport enterprise. The duration of employment was 11.8 years on average (SD: 8.6. The condition of the nervous system was assessed on the basis of clinical neurological examinations. Results: Chronic lumbosacral syndrome was found in 54.8% of the subjects. A significant relationship between the incidence of lumbosacral syndrome and the duration of employment (p = 0.032 was observed; significantly higher in drivers employed for 11–15 years (90.9% in comparison to the remaining groups. Nervous system functional disorders were niejedcharacterized by the increased emotional irritability (47.6%, sleep disorders manifested by excessive sleepiness (33.3% or insomnia (28.6% and headaches (3%, mostly tension headaches. Excessive daytime sleepiness was significantly age-dependent (p = 0.038. Conclusions: The evidenced NS disorders indicate the need to undertake preventive measures tailored for the occupational group of bus drivers. Med Pr 2015;66(3:333–341

  11. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assogna, Francesca; Fagioli, Sabrina; Cravello, Luca; Meco, Giuseppe; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Imperiale, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pontieri, Francesco E; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses. Methods One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity. Results When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups. Conclusion Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological manifestations on MDD, MIND, and NODEP. PMID

  12. Natural course and pathogenesis of transient focal neurologic symptoms during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Anatoly; Karussis, Dimitrios; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Abramsky, Oded; Leker, Ronen R

    2008-02-01

    To determine the pathogenesis and course of transient focal neurologic symptoms in pregnant women and to identify prognostic variables that will enable targeted workup. Case-control series. Tertiary care university hospital. Pregnant patients with acute transient focal neurologic symptoms. Women with histories of migraine, recurrent thromboembolism, or cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging, gradient-recalled echo imaging, and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) and angiography to determine the presence of brain ischemia and venous thrombosis. Patients underwent echocardiography, duplex ultrasonography, and a battery of hypercoagulability tests and were followed up a mean of 12 months after the event. Twenty-eight controls and 14 patients were enrolled from 23 773 pregnancies. Mean age was 31.2 (range, 24-41) years and mean gestational age at symptom onset was 28 (range, 17-44) weeks. No controls reported transient focal neurologic symptoms, migraine aura, or headache. Presenting symptoms included dysphasia (6 patients) and hemisensory (5) and hemimotor (7) syndrome. In 4 patients, these symptoms were preceded by scintillating scotoma; in 9 patients, focal symptoms were followed by a first-ever, throbbing, migraine-like headache. Only 1 patient had evidence of frank infarction on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); 2 patients had single, small, hyperintense bright foci on FLAIR imaging without accompanying lesions on DWI, and 11 patients had normal MRI and MRV results. Echocardiography, carotid duplex ultrasonography, and hypercoagulability results were negative in all patients. None of the patients had ischemic events and 4 (29%) developed migraines with aura headaches during follow-up. Focal neurologic symptoms in healthy pregnant women are frequently preceded by aural visual phenomena and can usually be attributed to a first-ever migraine attack

  13. Anthropological neurology: symptoms and their meanings according to Joseph Prick (1909-1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Meulen, B C; Dekkers, W J M; Keyser, A; van Woerkom, T C A M

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the life and work of the Dutch neurologist Joseph Prick (1909-1978) and his idea of an anthropological neurology. According to Prick, neurological symptoms should not only be explained from an underlying physico-chemical substrate but also be regarded as meaningful. We present an outline of the historical and philosophical context of his ideas with a focus on the theory of the human body by the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961) and the concept of anthropology-based medicine developed by Frederik Buytendijk (1887-1974). We give an overview of anthropological neurology as a clinical practice and finally we discuss the value of Prick's approach for clinical neurology today.

  14. Neurological symptoms, evaluation and treatment in Danish patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, Mia Aagaard; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Hove, Hanne Buciek

    2017-01-01

    Aim To investigate the prevalence of neurological symptoms and the types of complications in a cohort of Danish patients with mutation verified achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia and compare the results with previously reported findings. Methods Retrospective descriptive study by chart review...... of patients followed in three outpatients clinics in the period 1997-2014. Forty-eight patients with achondroplasia and a median age of 9,5 years old and 20 patients with hypochondroplasia and a median age of 12 years old were enrolled. Neurological manifestations, epidemiological variables and clinical data...... for referral to an MRI scan or neurosurgery. Conclusion Through investigation of phenotypes and genotypes in patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia we report the frequencies of neurological symptoms, foramen magnum stenosis, spinal cord compression and neurosurgery in Danish patients. Variation...

  15. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assogna F

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of

  16. Diabetes-related neurological implications and pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Rojas Carranza Camilo; Helena, Bustos Cruz Rosa; Juliana, Pino Pinzón Carmen; Viviana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy; Margarita, Gómez Bello Rosa; Marisa, Cañadas Garre

    2017-03-17

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality. The pathology's effects increase cerebral damage, leading to the rapid onset of neurodegenerative diseases. Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in tissues which are susceptible to the complications involved in diabetes, including peripheral nerves. Other additional mechanisms include activation of polyol aldose reductase signalling accompanied by protein kinase C (PKC)-ß activation, poly(ADP ribose) polymerase activation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 activation, endothelial dysfunction, altered Na+/K+ ATPase pump function, dyslipidaemia and perturbation of calcium balance. All the forgoing has an impact on neuron activity, mitochondrial function, membrane permeability and endothelial function. These biochemical processes directly affect the neurons and endothelial tissue, thereby accelerating cerebral aging by means of peroxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids and thus injuring cell membrane integrity and inducing apoptosis in the glial cells. The central nervous system (CNS) includes two types de glial cells: microglia and macroglia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and radial cells which include Bergmann cells and Müller cells). Glial cells constitute more than 90% of the CNS cell population. Human studies have shown that some oral anti-diabetic drugs can

  17. Prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and occurrence of neurological symptoms in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H; Andersen, P E

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease. HHT is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms.......Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease. HHT is characterized by a wide variety of clinical manifestations, including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and neurological symptoms....

  18. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

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    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA. METHODS: Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded. RESULTS: PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test. CONCLUSIONS: Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and

  19. Brain magnetic resonance imaging screening is not useful for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Teruya, Katsuji; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the diagnostic usefulness of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms in detecting intracranial diseases at early stages. In this retrospective analysis, the study patients were HIV-1-infected patients who underwent brain MRI scan in clinical practice between 2001 and 2013. We excluded patients with MRI for (1) follow-up examination for prediagnosed intracranial diseases, (2) cancer staging, (3) screening mycobacterium/bacteria/fungi disease proliferation in the brain, and (4) evaluation for meningitis/encephalitis. The study patients (n=485) were classified into two groups: those who underwent brain MRI scan without any neurological symptoms/signs (asymptomatic patients, n=158) and those who underwent MRI due to such symptoms (symptomatic patients, n=327). Asymptomatic patients had lower CD4 counts than symptomatic patients (median 78 versus 241/μl). Intracranial diseases were detected in three (2%) of the asymptomatic patients [two toxoplasmosis and one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)] compared to 58 (19%) of the symptomatic patients (the χ(2) test, pMRI screening for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms is of little value.

  20. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia: A case study

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    Hamid Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  1. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-30

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (ppsychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The cerebro-morphological fingerprint of a progeroid syndrome: white matter changes correlate with neurological symptoms in xeroderma pigmentosum.

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    Jan Kassubek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome. It has recently been shown that the underlying DNA repair defect plays a central role in the aging process. In addition to skin symptoms, various premature neurological abnormalities have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the clinical neurological phenotype in 14 XP patients (seven subtypes, in seven of these patients together with conventional and multiparametric advanced MRI data to assess the macrostructural and microstructural cerebral morphology in comparison to controls, including volumetric measurements, MR spectroscopy ((1H MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Clinical hallmarks were spinocerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and mild cognitive deficits. DTI demonstrated significantly reduced WM directionality in all regions investigated, i.e. the thalamus, the corticospinal tracts and the dorsal corpus callosum. Single patients showed a marked relative hippocampal volume reduction, but the patients were not different from controls in the volumetric measurements of hippocampal and whole brain volumes at group level. However, (1H MRS demonstrated that the hippocampal formation was metabolically altered. CONCLUSIONS: The most prominent feature was the white matter affectation, as assessed by DTI, with volume and directionality reductions of the fiber projections involving both the craniocaudal fibers and the interhemispheric connections. These findings, although heterogeneous among the study sample, could be correlated with the clinico-neurological symptoms. The imaging findings support the position that myelin structures degrade prematurely in the brain of XP patients.

  3. The Cerebro-Morphological Fingerprint of a Progeroid Syndrome: White Matter Changes Correlate with Neurological Symptoms in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassubek, Jan; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Pinkhardt, Elmar H.; Unrath, Alexander; Müller, Hans-Peter; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Ludolph, Albert C.; Berneburg, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Background Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome. It has recently been shown that the underlying DNA repair defect plays a central role in the aging process. In addition to skin symptoms, various premature neurological abnormalities have been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the clinical neurological phenotype in 14 XP patients (seven subtypes), in seven of these patients together with conventional and multiparametric advanced MRI data to assess the macrostructural and microstructural cerebral morphology in comparison to controls, including volumetric measurements, MR spectroscopy (1H MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Clinical hallmarks were spinocerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and mild cognitive deficits. DTI demonstrated significantly reduced WM directionality in all regions investigated, i.e. the thalamus, the corticospinal tracts and the dorsal corpus callosum. Single patients showed a marked relative hippocampal volume reduction, but the patients were not different from controls in the volumetric measurements of hippocampal and whole brain volumes at group level. However, 1H MRS demonstrated that the hippocampal formation was metabolically altered. Conclusions The most prominent feature was the white matter affectation, as assessed by DTI, with volume and directionality reductions of the fiber projections involving both the craniocaudal fibers and the interhemispheric connections. These findings, although heterogeneous among the study sample, could be correlated with the clinico-neurological symptoms. The imaging findings support the position that myelin structures degrade prematurely in the brain of XP patients. PMID:22363517

  4. B12 deficiency is common in infants and is accompanied by serious neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irevall, T; Axelsson, I; Naumburg, E

    2017-01-01

    Adverse neurological symptoms have been linked to vitamin B12 deficiency in infants. This explorative study described the clinical presentation associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in this age group. The study comprised infants who were born between 2004 and 2012 and were tested for vitamin B12 levels after they were admitted to a hospital with neurological symptoms at less than one year of age. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as low cobalamin in serum and/or increased homocysteine and/or increased methylmalonate. It was diagnosed according to the applicable International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and recorded as vitamin B12 deficiency in the medical records. All information was retrieved from medical records and compared to symptomatic infants with normal levels. Of the 121 infants tested, 35 had vitamin B12 deficiency and 86 had normal levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed at an average age of 1.7 months and was more common among boys. Seizures and apparent life-threatening events were the most common symptoms among infants with B12 deficiency compared to infants with normal levels. Vitamin B12 deficiency was more common in infants than we expected and presented with severe symptoms, such as seizures and apparent life-threatening events. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neurological symptoms and signs in HTLV-1 patients with overactive bladder syndrome

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    Davi Tanajura Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare neurological symptoms and signs in HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers and HTLV-1 patients with overactive bladder (OB syndrome. METHODS: We studied 102 HTLV-1 positive individuals without HAM/TSP (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of OB syndrome. Clinical interview, neurological exam and proviral load was performed in all patients. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with OB were more commonly female (84.3 vs. 60.8% of asymptomatics, p=0.01. The prevalence of neurological complaints was higher in OB group, especially hand or foot numbness and arm or leg weakness. There was no difference between the groups in neurological strength and reflexes. Weakness complaint remained strongly associated with OB in multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sex and age [adjusted odds ratio and 95%CI 3.59 (1.45-8.88 in arms and 6.68 (2.63-16.93 in legs]. Proviral load was also different between the two groups with higher level on OB individuals.

  6. Case of herpes simplex encephalitis without neurologic symptoms. A comparison between CT scan and MRI

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    Kawabata, N.; Tanaka, T.; Hiramoto, N.; Takazuka, K.; Komatsu, T.

    1987-03-01

    The lack of neurologic symptoms is rare in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). A 42-year-old woman presented with psychiatric features alone, such as Korsakoff syndrome and abortive type Kluver-Bucy syndrome. The diagnosis of HSE was confirmed by serologically elevated antibody titer. The patient underwent both X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). X-ray computed tomography showed transient contrast enhancement and low density area confined to the lateral lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse areas with a high MRI signal intensity. Considering that the lack of neurologic features, as seen in the present HSE patient, may sometimes rule out the possibility of parenchymal disease, imaging modalities, especially MRI, may be of value in the detection of lesions for HSE.

  7. Recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the setting of transient neurological symptoms: a case report

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    Saeed Wajeeha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction First described in Japan, takotsubo cardiomyopathy is increasingly becoming recognized worldwide as a cause of sudden and reversible diminished left ventricular function characterized by left apical ballooning and hyperkinesis of the basal segments, often with symptoms mimicking a myocardial infarction. Associated with physical or emotional stress, its exact pathogenesis has not been established, though evidence supports a neurohumoral etiology. Additionally, recurrence of this condition is rare. In this report, we present a rare case of recurrent takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a post-menopausal woman who presented with transient neurological complaints on both occasions. Case presentation We present a rare case of a 76-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of congestive heart failure who presented to our emergency department twice with transient neurological complaints. On the first occasion, she was found to have transient aphasia which resolved within 24 hours, yet during that period she also developed symptoms of congestive heart failure and was noted to have a new, significantly depressed ejection fraction with apical akinesis and possible apical thrombus. One month after her presentation a repeat echocardiogram revealed complete resolution of all wall motion abnormalities and a return to baseline status. Seven months later she presented with ataxia, was diagnosed with vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and again developed symptoms and echocardiography findings similar to those of her first presentation. Once again, at her one-month follow-up examination, all wall motion abnormalities had completely resolved and her ejection fraction had returned to normal. Conclusion Though the exact etiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is unclear, a neurohumoral mechanism has been proposed. Recurrence of this disorder is rare, though it has been reported in patients with structural brain abnormalities. This report is the first to

  8. Organophosphate intermediate syndrome with neurological complications of extrapyramidal symptoms in clinical practice

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    Mark B. Detweiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are ubiquitous in the world as domestic and industrial agricultural insecticides. Intentional poisoning as suicides attempts are clinical phenomena seen in emergency departments and clinics in agricultural areas. Intermediate syndrome with the neurological complication of extra pyramidal symptoms following acute OP ingestion may occur in pediatric and adult cases. While death is the most serious consequence of toxic OP doses, low levels of exposure and nonfatal doses may disrupt the neurobehavioral development of fetuses and children in addition to bring linked to testicular cancer and male and female infertility. These are disturbing. Chronic and acute toxicity from OPs are barriers to the health of our present and future generations. Symptoms and treatment of acute and chronic OP exposure are briefly referenced with inclusion of the intermediate syndrome. Suggestions for local and systemic reduction of the acute and long term consequences of OP ingestion are opined.

  9. Neurological symptoms associated with acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy: treatment dilemma and diagnostic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Saeed, Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (AMPPE) is thought to be caused by vasculitis of the choroid. Central nervous system involvement is rare. We report a case of a 28-year-old male who developed blurred vision (6/12 OD, 6/24 OS). Past medical history involved non-specific viral meningitis treated with intravenous antibiotics and antivirals. Subsequently, the patient complained of recurrent headaches. Based on typical clinical findings and fluorescein angiogram, he was diagnosed with AMPPE. Visual disturbance resolved without any systemic treatment. Six months later, visual symptoms recurred and resolved spontaneously, but his headache continued. A few months later, the patient developed acute progressive neurological signs and symptoms necessitating inpatient admission. Lacunar infarcts in the CNS were found, which had not been noted in previous neuro-imaging studies. Cerebral vasculitis associated with AMPPE was diagnosed and treated with systemic steroids and immune suppression. Currently, the patient remains asymptomatic under joined care of an ophthalmologist and a neurologist.

  10. Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurological conditions: Observations on a clinical sample of outpatients neurorehabilitation service

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    Fabrizio Torelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The overall aims of this study were to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS associated with neurological conditions and their prevalence and impact on a clinical sample of outpatients of a neurorehabilitation service. Materials and methods: We reviewed the files of 132 patients treated in our neurorehabilitation service from December 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided into several subgroups based on the neurological diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis (MS, other demyelinating diseases, Peripheral Neuropathy, neurovascular disorders (ND, neoplastic disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI, Parkinson and Parkinsonism, spinal cord injuries (SCI. Urinary status was based on medical evaluations of history of LUTS, type, degree, onset and duration of symptoms. We tried to analyze prevalence, kind of disorder, timing of presentation (if before or after the neurological onset and eventual persistence of urological disorders (in the main group and in all subgroups. Results: At the time of admission to our rehabilitation service, LUTS were observed in 14 out of 132 cases (11%. A high proportion of these outpatients (64.2% presented bothersome urinary symptoms such as incontinence, frequency and urgency (storage LUTS. The most frequent symptom was urinary urge incontinence (42.8%. This symptom was found to be prevalent in the multiple sclerosis and neurovascular disorders. In 93% the urinary symptoms arose as a result of neurologic conditions and 78.5% did not present a complete recovery of urological symptoms in spite of improved selfreported functional activity limitations. None of these patients performed urological rehabilitation. Conclusions: Neurological disorders are a significant issue in rehabilitation services and it can lead to lower tract dysfunction, which causes LUTS. Storage symptoms are more common, especially urge incontinence. Current literature reports that a further optimization of the rehabilitation potential

  11. ‘Smoke in the air’: a rare cerebrovascular cause of neurological signs and symptoms in a young adult

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    Imtiaz Ismail

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease is a rare neurological condition that affects children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by chronic, progressive stenosis of the circle of Willis that ultimately leads to the development of extensive collateral vessels. Presenting symptoms are usually due to cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage. The Japanese term moyamoya (meaning puffy or obscure was coined to describe the characteristic ‘smoke in the air’ appearance of these vessels on cerebral angiography. Moyamoya has the highest recorded incidence in Japan (0.28 per 100,000. In the west it is an extremely rare condition with an overall incidence of (0.086 per 100,000 in the Western United States. Etiology for the most part is unknown; however, genetic susceptibility related to RNF213 gene on chromosome 17q25.3 has been suggested. Moyamoya is being diagnosed more frequently in all races with varying clinical manifestations. Moyamoya disease is a rare progressive neurologic condition characterized by occlusion of the cerebral circulation with extensive collaterals recruitment in children and adults. Distinguished radiological findings confirm the diagnosis. Early recognition and swift institution of therapy is vital in order to minimize neurological deficits. We present the case of a 19-year-old African American female who presented with left-sided parastheia, weakness, and headache for 2 days duration.

  12. Decompression illness with hypovolemic shock and neurological failure symptoms after two risky dives: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapa, Sebastian; Meyne, Johannes; Kähler, Wataru; Tillmans, Frauke; Werr, Henning; Binder, Andreas; Koch, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Hypovolemia is known to be a predisposing factor of decompression illness (DCI) while diving. The typical clinically impressive neurological symptoms of DCI may distract from other symptoms such as an incipient hypovolemic shock. We report the case of a 61-year-old male Caucasian, who presented with an increasing central and peripheral neural failure syndrome and massive hypovolemia after two risky dives. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest and Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head revealed multiple cerebral and pulmonary thromboembolisms. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Furthermore, the patient displayed hypotension as well as prerenal acute kidney injury with elevated levels of creatinine and reduced renal clearance, indicating a hypovolemic shock. Early hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy reduced the neurological deficits. After volume expansion of 11 liters of electrolyte solution (1000 mL/h) the cardiopulmonary and renal function normalized. Hypovolemia increases the risk of DCI during diving and that of hypovolemic shock. Early HBO therapy and fluid replacement is crucial for a favorable outcome. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. New progress in brain aging and its related neurological diseases

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    Ming-wei ZHU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging-related neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA have become one of the major diseases endangering the health of old people in China. Although the mechanism of brain aging and pathogenesis of its related neurodegenerative diseases remain unclear, protein pathological studies such as tau, α-synuclein (α-Syn, TDP-43 and amyloid-β protein (Aβ based on brain tissue bank and case registration database are opening the door to solve the mystery in the brain aging process and unlock pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Research on functional neuroimaging including 11C-PIB PET and 18F-FDDNP PET in Alzheimer's disease and 18F-FDG PET in Parkinson's disease, and biomarkers such as total-tau, phosphorylated-tau, and the 42 amino acid fragment of β-amyloid in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease now become hot topics in the field of elderly dementia and movement disorders. Clinicopathological correlation research of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy is also one of focuses in the geriatric neurological diseases. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.004

  14. The impact of self-reported depressive symptoms on memory function in neurological outpatients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Ruis, C.; Kappelle, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of self-reported depressive symptoms on memory function in a non-psychiatric, non-litigation outpatient sample and to identify which memory tests may be most susceptible for depression-related decline. METHODS: Self-reported depressive symptoms were measured by the

  15. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

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    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  16. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  17. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of feature like the eyes, nose, and breasts.Conversion disorder is when physical symptoms that are similar ... is the best treatment option? Do I need therapy? Medicine?Will lifestyle changes, such as learning how ...

  18. Imaging findings of paediatric oncology patients presenting with acute neurological symptoms

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    Chu, W.C.W. E-mail: winnie@med.cuhk.edu.hk; Lee, V.; Howard, R.G.; Roebuck, D.J.; Chik, K.W.; Li, C.K

    2003-08-01

    Paediatric oncology patients are prone to central nervous system (CNS) complications due to multiple factors including disorders of the blood cell counts (which include neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or hyperleukocytosis), immunosuppression, neurotoxicity of the treatment, CNS dysfunction due to failure of other organ systems, disease progression of the primary malignancy or metastases. Imaging plays an important role in the management of paediatric oncology patients presenting with acute neurological symptoms. This pictorial review is from our institutional experience on imaging children who are under the care of the Child Cancer Centre. The review consists of a spectrum of neurological complications in paediatric oncology patients. The complications can be classified as (1) cerebrovascular complications, (2) treatment-elated complications, (3) opportunistic infections and (4) tumoural involvement of the CNS. Computed tomography (CT) is the initial choice of investigation, which is easily available and helps to exclude major intracranial abnormality such as haemorrhage. If the CT is negative, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed, which is more sensitive for detection of CNS lesions.

  19. A Woman with Treated Breast Cancer, Recent Neurological Symptoms and Xanthoderma

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    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 69-year-old-woman with antecedent of breast cancer and recent transitory neurological symptoms. Physical examination showed yellow to orange skin pigmentation, more conspicuous on her palms and soles, while discoloration changes were absent in the eye and oral mucous membranes. Routine laboratory findings were not indicative of hemolytic anemia, liver or bile disorders, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. We emphasize the role of her excessive ingestion of papaw and tomato. These foods are rich in carotenoids (β-carotene and lycopene, which are associated with pigmentation disorders. The skin discoloration improved in about two months after correction of the inadequate diet. Major concerns about differential diagnosis of yellow skin pigmentation are also highlighted.

  20. Occipital transcranial magnetic stimulation discriminates transient neurological symptoms of vascular origin from migraine aura without headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Gilles; Fogang, Yannick; Ligot, Noémie; Mavroudakis, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    The diagnosis of transient neurological attacks (TNA) relies on medical history. Transient ischemic attack is often considered until proven otherwise, because of lack of objective paraclinical tools that can help discriminate TIA from differential diagnoses such as migraine aura. This may lead to needless and potentially harmful stroke secondary prevention in many cases. This study aimed at determining the yield of occipital transcranial magnetic stimulation (oTMS) in discriminating TNA of vascular origin from migraine aura without headache (MAWH). Ten patients with acute TNA of vascular origin and ten patients with migraine aura without headache (MAWH), without prior history of migrainous headache, were prospectively included. TNA of vascular origin were considered for individuals presenting unilateral focal symptoms with full resolution within 24hours and positive diffusion weighted imaging (DWI+). For individuals with MAWH, diagnostic criteria were either ICHD-III beta or Fischer criteria for a first episode of MAWH. All participants underwent one session of oTMS. Induction and threshold of phosphene induction were recorded. In TNA of vascular origin, MRI disclosed cortical lesions in nine and one sub-cortical lesion. Phosphenes were induced in 9/10 subjects with MAWH with a mean threshold of 66% of the maximal intensity, whereas oTMS induced phosphenes in only one subject with TNA of vascular origin at a threshold of 85%. In this pilot study, oTMS was found to be an effective tool to discriminate between MAWH and transient neurological symptoms of vascular origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Catheter-related epidural abscesses -- don't wait for neurological deficits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royakkers, A.A.; Willigers, H.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Wilmink, J.T.; Durieux, M.; Kleef, M. van

    2002-01-01

    Epidural abscess is a rare but serious complication of epidural anesthesia for peri- and postoperative analgesia. It is feared because of possible persistent neurological deficits. Epidural abscess presents mostly with a classic triad of symptoms: back pain, fever and variable neurological signs and

  2. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C; Stein, Cynthia J; Bachur, Richard G

    2014-12-09

    To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Effect of neurological symptoms on the course and the healing of fractures of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhina N.M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: to study the dental status and neurological symptoms in patients with fractures of the mandible for improving diagnosis, predicting the course of reparative processes and the application of preventive measures of infam-matory complications. Material. We observed 132 patients with mandibular fractures of different location, the hospital received no later than 3 days after injury and comparison group, consisting of 15 healthy people. Dental status of patients included clinical examination: identifying reasons for injuries, complaints external examination of maxillofacial area. Assessment of pain that was observed in patients in the area of innervation of the trigeminal nerve, was carried out using a scale for measuring the intensity of pain and need for analgesics (Lantsev EA, AA Smirnov, 1990. Zone of hypesthesia and hyperesthesia were detected in patients in the study of the surface (pain, temperature and tactile and the deep sensitivity of the skin. State of the motor portion of the third branch of the trigeminal nerve was assessed by palpation of masticatory and temporal muscles, according to electromyographic, in the late periods of the presence of atrophy of the masticatory muscles on the affected side and disturbance trajectory of the mandible. In addition, elec-trophysiological examination included registration of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials. The study of pain sensitivity of the teeth was carried out using a digital tester to determine the viability of the pulp «Digitest». This study was conducted on the day of admission and on the 10th day of treatment. Results. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of patients with uncomplicated fractures of the mandibular nerve fber damage detected in 100 % of cases. In complicated fractures clinically identifed sensory disorders paresteticheskih signs of interest in the trigeminal nerve were found in 51.8 % of cases. In

  4. Injury mechanism of midfacial fractures in football causes in over 40% typical neurological symptoms of minor brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutsch, Volker; Gesslein, Markus; Loose, Oliver; Weber, Johannes; Nerlich, Michael; Gaensslen, Axel; Bonkowsky, Viktor; Krutsch, Werner

    2017-02-08

    The injury mechanisms of midfacial fractures may be typical causes of concussion, but hardly any scientific data on midfacial injuries sustained in football are available. Head and brain trauma represent frequent injuries in athletes of different sports that require appropriate treatment by sports and trauma physicians. This study investigated the management of midfacial fractures in football and the association of such fractures with concomitant brain injury. In a prospective cohort study lasting 24 months (2012 to 2013), midfacial injuries of football players were analysed with regard to the injury mechanisms, first aid procedures on the field, treatment and return-to-play. To analyse concomitant and potentially overlooked minor brain injuries due to the trauma, we retrospectively investigated the neurological symptoms of the study population. The study included 132 football players (37 semi-professionals and 95 amateurs) with midfacial fractures. The main injury mechanisms were head-to-head and head-to-elbow trauma. The mean period of return-to-play after trauma was 33.5 days, which was significantly shortened if a protective face mask was worn (mean 10.4 days earlier, p = 0.0006). Semi-professional football players returned to play earlier (p = 0.009) and more often used protective face masks (p = 0.001). 55 players (41.6%) had neurological symptoms immediately after trauma as a possible sign of concomitant minor brain injury. 5 of 132 players with concussion had been hospitalised for 24 h, but no persistent neurological symptoms were detected. In football, midfacial fractures represent moderate-to-severe injuries with time away from sports of more than 4 weeks. Over 40% of athletes with a midfacial fracture showed concomitant neurological symptoms as a sign of minor brain injury. Therefore, sports physicians and other staff supervising athletes in daily practice should be aware of the presence of neurological symptoms. Level III.

  5. Complex neurological symptoms in bilateral thalamic stroke due to Percheron artery occlusion

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    Caruso P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Caruso, Paolo Manganotti, Rita Moretti Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy Abstract: The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomical variant where a single thalamic perforating artery arises from the proximal posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment between the basilar artery and the posterior communicating artery and supplies the rostral mesencephalon and both paramedian territories of the thalami. Almost one-third of human brains present this variant. Occlusion of the artery of Percheron mostly results in a bilateral medial thalamic infarction, which usually manifests with altered consciousness (including coma, vertical gaze paresis, and cognitive disturbance. The presentation is similar to the “top of the basilar syndrome”, and early recognition should be prompted. We describe the case of a young female with this vessel variant who experienced a bilateral thalamic stroke. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated bilateral thalamic infarcts and a truncated artery of Percheron. Occlusion of the vessel was presumably due to embolism from a patent foramen ovale. Thrombolysis was performed, with incomplete symptom remission, cognitive impairment, and persistence of speech disorders. Early recognition and treatment of posterior circulation strokes is mandatory, and further investigation for underlying stroke etiologies is needed. Keywords: thalamus vascularization, cognitive impairment, paramedian thalamus territory, speech disorder, vertical gaze palsy

  6. Findings at brain MRI in children with dengue fever and neurological symptoms

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    Rastogi, Ruchi; Garg, Bhavya [Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2016-01-15

    Dengue is a flavivirus of the genus arbovirus with four serotypes, from DEN 1 to DEN 4. There has been an increase in incidence of dengue infection in children in the tropics and subtropics. Dengue has a variable clinical presentation, with many patients being asymptomatic. Its clinical manifestations in children vary from fever and arthralgia to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We describe MRI findings in children with neurological involvement including dengue encephalopathy, acute hypoxic injury and dengue encephalitis. Dengue encephalopathy is usually secondary to multisystem derangement such as shock, hepatitis, coagulopathy and concurrent bacterial infection and is relatively common. Dengue encephalitis from direct neuronal invasion is rare. Nonspecific changes are seen on brain MRI in dengue infection. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as outcome do not necessarily correspond with brain MRI findings. (orig.)

  7. Is Further Examination Necessary in Patients with Behcets Disease Without Any Neurological Signs or Symptoms?

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    Halit YAsAR

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Visually evoked potential examination may be used as a conductive method to detect the subclinical neurological pathologies in Behcets disease. The possible silent neurological involvement should be evaluated with further neuro-screening methods. [Dis Mol Med 2015; 3(3.000: 29-34

  8. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

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    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  9. Symptoms of stroke-related visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona

    2013-06-01

    Investigate the frequency and type of visual symptoms following stroke. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Vision in Stroke [VIS]) in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki. Standardized referral/investigation protocol with detailed assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment/motility, visual field and visual perception, plus quality of life score. A total of 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69.18 years (standard deviation 14.19). Reported symptoms included diplopia, blurred vision, reading difficulty, field loss, perceptual difficulty, and oscillopsia. Sixteen percent (149) had no visual symptoms: 22 patients had normal eye examinations by orthoptic assessment and 127 had diagnoses of central/peripheral visual loss, ocular motility or perceptual abnormalities. Eighty-four percent had visual symptoms, but 50 patients had normal eye examinations. There was no significant difference in type of symptom and quality of life score. Treatment included refraction, prisms, occlusion, orthoptic exercises, low vision aids, and advice. Of those with no visual symptoms, 85% had objectively measured visual impairment. Conversely, 6.5% of those with visual symptoms had normal orthoptic examinations. Thus the presence or absence of visual symptoms does not infer absence or presence of visual impairment and may relate to recovery of visual impairment, cognitive, or communication impairment.

  10. A case of neuro-Behcet's disease: comparison of neurological symptoms with PET, SPECT, and MRI findings

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    Kim, Jin Wook; An, Min; Kim, So Yon; Kim, Young Jung; Cho, Min Koo; Lee, Gwon Jun; Lim, Sang Mun; Hong, Sung Woon; Choi, Chang Woon [Korea Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We describe a 27-year-old man who developed gait disturbance and dysarthria 2 years after the onset of cardinal symptoms of Behect's disease. Position emission tomography with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose revealed severe hypometabolism in the cerebellum, in accordance with cerebellar symptoms and signs of the patients. However, single-photon emission tomography with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD did not disclose significant perfusion abnormalities in the brain. Routine brain magnetic resonance imaging did not show signal abnormalities. The findings of imaging studies compared with neurological manifestations of the patient are discussed.

  11. Prehospital delay and stroke-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Inoue, Takuya; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital delay is the major cause of treatment delay in stroke. This study was conducted to clarify the contribution of specific stroke-related symptoms to prehospital delay. A consecutive series of 469 patients hospitalized within 2 weeks of stroke onset was collected. In this study, prehospital delay was defined as the time interval from recognition of stroke-related symptoms to hospital arrival. The prevalence of each symptom or sign and prehospital delay were analyzed. Weakness of the lower limb (43.5%) was the most common symptom followed by weakness of the upper limb (37.1%) and dysarthria (31.6%). Conversely, the most common sign was weakness of the upper limb (54.1%) followed by dysarthria (53.3%), weakness of the lower limb (53.1%), and sensory disturbance (39.0%). The presence of confusion/decreased level of consciousness (psymptoms in univariate analyses. Conversely, the presence of sensory disturbance (p=0.0017) and vertigo/dizziness (p=0.044) were associated with a significant delay in hospital visitation compared with the absence of these symptoms. There was a discrepancy in the prevalence between symptoms recognized by the patients or bystanders and signs diagnosed by the physicians. There was a significant overall correlation between prehospital delay and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores. Public education is therefore necessary to encourage early hospital visitation even with the appearance of mild symptoms.

  12. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD patients and compile their clinical, 1H-MRS, biochemical and molecular data. Six GAMT [N-guanidinoacetatemethyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.2)] and 10 X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) but no AGAT (GATM) [L-arginine/glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2.1.4.1)] deficient patients were identified in this manner. Three additional affected sibs were further identified after familial inquiry (1 brother with GAMT deficiency and 2 brothers with SLC6A8 deficiency in two different families). The prevalence of PCD in this population was 0.25% (0.09% and 0.16% for GAMT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, respectively). Seven new PCD-causing mutations were discovered (2 nonsense [c.577C > T and c.289C > T] and 1 splicing [c.391 + 15G > T] mutations for the GAMT gene and, 2 missense [c.1208C > A and c.926C > A], 1 frameshift [c.930delG] and 1 splicing [c.1393-1G > A] mutations for the SLC6A8 gene). No hot spot mutations were observed in these genes, as all the mutations were distributed throughout the entire gene sequences and were essentially patient/family specific. Approximately one fifth of the mutations of SLC6A8, but not GAMT, were attributed to neo-mutation, germinal or somatic mosaicism events. The only SLC6A8-deficient female patient in our series presented with the severe phenotype usually characterizing affected male patients, an observation in agreement with recent evidence that is in support of the fact that this X-linked disorder might be more frequent than expected in the female population with intellectual disability. PMID:23234264

  13. Neurological signs in relation to type of cerebrovascular disease in vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staekenborg, S.S.; van der Flier, W.M.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Lane, R.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE - The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of a number of neurological signs in a large population of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and to compare the relative frequency of specific neurological signs dependent on type of cerebrovascular disease. METHODS -

  14. Enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot and mouth diseases with neurologic symptoms, a university hospital experience in Korea, 2009

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    Hye Kyung Cho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD is a common viral illness in children, which is usually mild and self-limiting. However, in recent epidemics of HFMD in Asia, enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been recognized as a causative agent with severe neurological symptoms with or without cardiopulmonary involvement. HFMD was epidemic in Korea in the spring of 2009. Severe cases with complications including death have been reported. The clinical characteristics in children with neurologic manifestations of EV71 were studied in Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital. Methods : Examinations for EV71 were performed from the stools, respiratory secretion or CSF of children who presented neurologic symptoms associated with HFMD by realtime PCR. Clinical and radiologic data of the patients were collected and analyzed. Results : EV71 was isolated from the stool of 16 patients but not from respiratory secretion or CSF. Among the 16 patients, meningitis (n=10 was the most common manifestation, followed by Guillain-Barr&eacute; syndrome (n=3, meningoencephalitis (n=2, poliomyelitis-like paralytic disease (n=1, and myoclonus (n=1. Gene analysis showed that most of them were caused by EV71 subgenotype C4a, which was prevalent in China in 2008. Conclusion : Because EV71 causes severe complications and death in children, a surveillance system to predict upcoming outbreaks should be established and maintained and adequate public health measures are needed to control disease.

  15. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

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    Dillon C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia

  16. Differential Survival for Men and Women with HIV/AIDS-Related Neurologic Diagnoses

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L Carvour; Jerald P Harms; Lynch, Charles F.; Randall R Mayer; Meier, Jeffery L.; Dawei Liu; Torner, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) frequently lead to disability or death in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether survival patterns differ between men and women with HIV/AIDS-related neurologic disease (neuro-AIDS). Methods Retrospective cohort data from a statewide surveillance database for HIV/AIDS were used to characterize survival following an HIV/AIDS-related neuro...

  17. A somatic cell defect is associated with the onset of neurological symptoms in a lysosomal storage disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Larson, Denise M.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Anderson, Stacie M.; Kirby, Martha R.; Trivedi, Niraj S.; Porter, Forbes D.; Pavan, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in individuals with the lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) are heterogeneous, not localized to specific protein domains, and not correlated to time of onset or disease severity. We demonstrate direct correlation of the time of neurological symptom onset with the severity of lysosomal defects in NPC1 patient-derived fibroblasts. This is a novel assay for NPC1 individuals that may be predictive of NPC1 disease progression and broadly applicable to other lysosomal disorders. PMID:23850077

  18. Transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine versus other local anaesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, Dusanka; Pace, Nathan Leon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia has been in use since 1898. During the last decade there has been an increase in the number of reports implicating lidocaine as a possible cause of temporary and permanent neurologic complications after spinal anaesthesia. Follow up of patients who received uncompli......BACKGROUND: Spinal anaesthesia has been in use since 1898. During the last decade there has been an increase in the number of reports implicating lidocaine as a possible cause of temporary and permanent neurologic complications after spinal anaesthesia. Follow up of patients who received...... complications after spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine compared to other local anaesthetics. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2008); MEDLINE (1966 to August 2008); EMBASE (1980 to week 35, 2008); LILACS (August 2008......); and handsearched the reference lists of trials and review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized and quasi-randomized studies comparing the frequency of TNS and neurologic complications after spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine as compared to other local anaesthetics. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS...

  19. Preinjury somatization symptoms contribute to clinical recovery after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Tarima, Sergey; LaRoche, Ashley A; Hammeke, Thomas A; Barr, William B; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Randolph, Christopher; McCrea, Michael A

    2016-05-17

    To determine the degree to which preinjury and acute postinjury psychosocial and injury-related variables predict symptom duration following sport-related concussion. A total of 2,055 high school and collegiate athletes completed preseason evaluations. Concussed athletes (n = 127) repeated assessments serially (history variables; baseline psychological, neurocognitive, and balance functioning; acute injury characteristics; and postinjury clinical measures. Preinjury somatic symptom score (Brief Symptom Inventory-18 somatization scale) was the strongest premorbid predictor of symptom duration. Acute (24-hour) postconcussive symptom burden (Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 symptom severity) was the best injury-related predictor of recovery. These 2 predictors were moderately correlated (r = 0.51). Path analyses indicated that the relationship between preinjury somatization symptoms and symptom recovery was mediated by postinjury concussive symptoms. Preinjury somatization symptoms contribute to reported postconcussive symptom recovery via their influence on acute postconcussive symptoms. The findings highlight the relevance of premorbid psychological factors in postconcussive recovery, even in a healthy athlete sample relatively free of psychopathology or medical comorbidities. Future research should elucidate the neurobiopsychosocial mechanisms that explain the role of this individual difference variable in outcome following concussive injury. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Conversion Disorder, Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder, and Chronic Pain: Comorbidity, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Patricia; Deptula, Andrew; Yuan, Derek Y

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions. Advances in neuroimaging may also help further our understanding of conversion disorder. Creating a supportive environment and a collaborative treatment relationship and improving understanding of conversion symptoms appear to help individuals diagnosed with conversion disorder engage in appropriate treatments. Novel uses of earlier treatments, such as hypnosis and psychodynamic approaches, could potentially be beneficial and require a more vigorous and systematic study. There are treatments that produce significant improvements in functioning and reduction of physical symptoms from conversion disorder even for very severe cases. Hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and inpatient multidisciplinary treatment with intensive physiotherapy for severe cases have the most evidence to support reduction of symptoms. Components of treatment for conversion disorder overlap with treatments for chronic pain and can be used together to produce therapeutic effects for both conditions. Treatment needs to be tailored for each individual's specific symptoms.

  1. Quantitative MRI shows cerebral microstructural damage in hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients with severe neurological symptoms but no changes in conventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissenborn, Karin; Worthmann, Hans; Heeren, Meike [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Neurology, Hannover (Germany); Bueltmann, Eva; Donnerstag, Frank; Giesemann, Anja M.; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); Kielstein, Jan; Schwarz, Anke [Hannover Medical School, Clinic for Nephrology and Hypertension, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Severe neurological symptoms in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) are often accompanied by none or only mild alterations of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aims to analyze if quantitative MRI is able to reveal cerebral pathological alterations invisible for conventional MRI. In nine patients with STEC-HUS associated severe neurological symptoms but inconspicuous cerebral MRI findings maps of the parameters T2 relaxation time, relative proton density (PD), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were generated. Quantitative values of these parameters were measured at the basal ganglia, thalamus, and white matter of the frontal and parietal lobe and compared to those of nine age- and sex-matched controls. Significant T2 prolongation (p < 0.01) was found in the basal ganglia of all patients compared to controls. PD and ADC were not significantly altered. A significant reduction of FA in patients was seen at caput nuclei caudati (p < 0.01). Prolonged T2 relaxation time indicates cerebral microstructural damages in these patients despite their inconspicuous MRI findings. T2 relaxometry could be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of metabolic-toxic brain syndromes. (orig.)

  2. Job Stress Reactivity and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Neurology of the newborn. In E.M. Brett (Ed), Paediatric Neurology, (3d ed), pp 1-24, New York: Churchill Livingstone. Brogmus, G.E., Sorock, G.S., and...York State Dentistry Journal, 64, 44-48. Flor, H., Turk, D.C., and Birbaumer, N. (1985). Assessment of stress-related psychophysiological reactions in

  3. Late-onset visceral presentation with cardiomyopathy and without neurological symptoms of adult Sanfilippo A syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hove, JLK; Wevers, RA; Van Cleemput, J; Moerman, P; Sciot, R; Matthijs, G; Schollen, E; de Jong, JGN; Carey, WF; Muller, [No Value; Nicholls, C; Perkins, K; Hopwood, JJ

    2003-01-01

    Sanfilippo A syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA, is caused by a deficiency of heparan sulphamidase activity, and usually presents in childhood with neurodegeneration leading to death in teenage years. Visceral symptoms are limited to coarsening and diarrhea. We now describe an adult patient

  4. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.

  5. The heart in Friedreich ataxia: definition of cardiomyopathy, disease severity, and correlation with neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Frank; Rummey, Christian; Bijnens, Bart; Störk, Stefan; Jasaityte, Ruta; Dhooge, Jan; Baltabaeva, Aigul; Sutherland, George; Schulz, Jörg B; Meier, Thomas

    2012-04-03

    This cross-sectional study provides a practical approach for the clinical assessment of Friedreich ataxia (FA) cardiomyopathy (FA-CM). A comprehensive cardiac assessment, including standard echocardiography, color Doppler myocardial imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, ECG, and exercise stress testing, was performed in 205 FA patients. To assess myocardial hypertrophy in FA-CM, the end-diastolic interventricular septal wall thickness (IVSTd) was found to be the best echocardiographic parameter compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-determined left ventricular mass. With the use of this parameter, 4 groups of patients with FA-CM could be defined. Patients with normal values for IVSTd (31.7%) were classified as having no FA-CM. Patients with an IVSTd exceeding the predicted normal IVSTd were classified as having mild FA-CM (40%) if IVSTd exceeded the normal value by cardiomyopathy associated with FA based on echocardiographic IVSTd and ejection fraction data. Because no distinct interrelations between FA-CM and neurological status could be determined, regular follow-up of potential cardiac involvement in FA patients is essential in clinical practice.

  6. Chloroquine use improves dengue-related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carvalho Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in the world. As chloroquine, an antimalarial agent, has shown some antiviral effects, this study evaluated its effect in patients with dengue. A randomised, double-blind study was performed by administering chloroquine or placebo for three days to 129 patients with dengue-related symptoms. Of these patients, 37 were confirmed as having dengue and completed the study; in total, 19 dengue patients received chloroquine and 18 received placebo. There was no significant difference in the duration of the disease or the degree and days of fever. However, 12 patients (63% with confirmed dengue reported a substantial decrease in pain intensity and a great improvement in their ability to perform daily activities (p = 0.0004 while on the medication and the symptoms returned immediately after these patients stopped taking the medication. The same effect was not observed in patients with diseases other than dengue. Therefore, this study shows that patients with dengue treated with chloroquine had an improvement in their quality of life and were able to resume their daily activities. However, as chloroquine did not alter the duration of the disease or the intensity and days of fever, further studies are necessary to confirm the clinical effects and to assess the side effects of chloroquine in dengue patients.

  7. Is the number of microembolic signals related to neurologic outcome in coronary bypass surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malheiros Suzana M. F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB may potentially reduce the number of microembolic signals (MES associated with aortic manipulation or generated by the pump circuit, resulting in a better neurologic outcome after surgery. Our aim was to compare the frequency of MES and neurologic complications in CABG with and without CPB. Twenty patients eligible to routine CABG without CPB were randomized to surgery with CPB and without CPB and continuously monitored by transcranial Doppler. Neurologic examination was performed in all patients before and after surgery. The two groups were similar with respect to demographics, risk factors, grade of aortic atheromatous disease and number of grafts. The frequency of MES in the nonCPB group was considerably lower than in CPB patients, however, we did not observe any change in the neurologic examination during the early postoperative period. Neurologic complications after CABG may be related to the size and composition of MES rather than to their absolute numbers. A large prospective multicentric randomized trial may help to elucidate this complex issue.

  8. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with neurolymphomatosis and intravascular lymphoma: a unique autopsy case with diverse neurological symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Sohsuke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell’s palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1 month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL. Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL and intravascular lymphoma (IVL was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.

  9. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with neurolymphomatosis and intravascular lymphoma: a unique autopsy case with diverse neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Tanimoto, Akihide; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Tasaki, Takashi; Wang, Ke-Yong; Kitada, Shohei; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2012-08-13

    A 78-year-old Japanese male noticed a difficulty in the beginning of standing up, followed by 7a progressive numbness of extremities with pain, Bell's palsy, dysarthria, and difficulty in swallowing. A clinician had suspected cancer of unknown primary origin, accompanied by the diverse and elusive neurological symptoms, likely presenting as painful mononeuropathy simplex and cranial neuropathy. He developed dysbasia over weeks and died 1 month after the symptom onset. At autopsy, an ill-defined large and soft tumor mass in the right lobe of the liver with direct invasion into the right adrenal gland was observed. The left adrenal gland or right iliopsoas muscle was also involved. Microscopic findings showed a monotonous proliferation of medium-sized to large atypical lymphoid cells, which were diffusely positive for CD20 in immunohistochemistry, consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). Furthermore, the lymphoma cells aggressively infiltrated endoneurial and subperineurial spaces not only in the peripheral nerves and plexuses, but partly in the spinal nerve roots, and intravascular spaces in various tissues. Therefore, systemic lymphoma (DLBL) complicated with neurolymphomatosis (NL) and intravascular lymphoma (IVL) was diagnosed. Very early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for the NL patients with poor prognosis. The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5862472377020448.

  10. Minor neurological dysfunction from birth to 12 years. II : Puberty is related to decreased dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunsing, R J; Hadders-Algra, M; Huisjes, H J; Touwen, B C

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  11. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION FROM BIRTH TO 12 YEARS .2. PUBERTY IS RELATED TO DECREASED DYSFUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    To determine whether puberty is related to decreased minor neurological dysfunction (MND), 174 children from the Groningen Perinatal Project who had had MND at nine years were re-examined at 12 years. No signs of MND could be demonstrated in 39 of the children, 33 of whom showed at least three signs

  12. Could cadmium be responsible for some of the neurological signs and symptoms of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Fiore, Maria G; Magherini, Stefano; Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J V; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2012-09-01

    According to the World Health Organization, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a neurological disease characterized by widespread inflammation and multi-systemic neuropathology. Aetiology and pathogenesis are unknown, and several agents have been proposed as causative agents or as factors perpetuating the syndrome. Exposure to heavy metals, with particular reference to mercury and gold in dental amalgams, has been considered among the triggers of ME/CFS. Here we hypothesize that cadmium, a widespread occupational and environmental heavy metal pollutant, might be associated with some of the neurological findings described in ME/CFS. In fact, ME/CFS patients show a decrease of the volume of the gray matter in turn associated with objective reduction of physical activity. Cadmium induces neuronal death in cortical neurons through a combined mechanism of apoptosis and necrosis and it could then be hypothesized that cadmium-induced neuronal cell death is responsible for some of the effects of cadmium on the central nervous system, i.e. a decrease in attention level and memory in exposed humans as well as to a diminished ability for training and learning in rats, that are symptoms typical of ME/CFS. This hypothesis can be tested by measuring cadmium exposure in a cohort of ME/CFS patients compared with matched healthy controls, and by measuring gray matter volume in un-exposed healthy controls, exposed non-ME/CFS subjects, un-exposed ME/CFS patients and exposed ME/CFS patients. In addition, we hypothesize that cadmium exposure could be associated with reduced cerebral blood flow in ME/CFS patients because of the disruptive effects of cadmium on angiogenesis. In fact, cadmium inhibits angiogenesis and low global cerebral flow is associated with abnormal brain neuroimaging results and brain dysfunction in the form of reduced cognitive testing scores in ME/CFS patients. This hypothesis can be tested by measuring cerebral cortex blood flow in un

  13. Individual features of autoimmune disoders in patients with arterial hypotension in structure of neurologic symptom complexes of organic lesion of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Зинченко

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the special features of formation of individual clinical phenotype with an evident humoral sensitizing in patients with arterial hypotension in structure of neurologic symptom complexes of organic lesion of the central nervous system in accordance with the features of disorders of immune resistance and changes of the hormonal background.Materials and methods. There was carried out an examination of 201 patients: 89 with vegetative dysfunction, 50 in remote period of the closed craniocerebral trauma and 64 with cerebral arachnoiditis on the background of the chronic nidi of infection.45 examined persons with physiological arterial hypotension formed a control group. There were carried out clinical and neurological examinations, monitoring of arterial pressure, definition of the state of the primary, secondary immunity and hormonal background.Results. The main pathogenetic mechanisms in individual clinical phenotype with an evident humoral sensitizing that were formed on the background of the chronic infection are more connected with the humoral link of immunity (the high concentration of circulating immune complexes of the small values of molecular weight and peptides of the mean molecular weight, the growth of IgM content and form autoimmune disorders. This category can be related to the patients with irreversible functional states that complicates prescription of therapeutic measures.Conclusions. For patients with an evident humoral sensitizing it is reasonable to use desensitizing preparations, enterosorbents, plasmapheresis in the complex treatment. At persistent viral infection the use of specific antiviral immunoglobulins of IgG is recommended

  14. Dysmyelination not demyelination causes neurological symptoms in preweaned mice in a murine model of Cockayne syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revet, Ingrid; Feeney, Luzviminda; Tang, Amy A.; Huang, Eric J.; Cleaver, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease that is associated with mutations in either of two transcription-coupled DNA repair genes, CSA or CSB. Mice with a targeted mutation in the Csb gene (Cs-bm/m) exhibit a milder phenotype compared with human patients with mutations in the orthologous CSB gene. Mice mutated in Csb were crossed with mice lacking Xpc (Xp-c−/−), the global genome repair gene, to enhance the pathological symptoms. These Cs-bm/m.Xp-c−/− mice were normal at birth but exhibited progressive failure to thrive, whole-body wasting, and ataxia and died at approximately postnatal day 21. Characterization of Cs-bm/m.Xp-c−/− brains at postnatal stages demonstrated widespread reduction of myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin in the sensorimotor cortex, the stratum radiatum, the corpus callosum, and the anterior commissure. Quantification of individual axons by electron microscopy showed a reduction in both the number of myelinated axons and the average diameter of myelin surrounding the axons. There were no significant differences in proliferation or oligodendrocyte differentiation between Cs-bm/m.Xp-c−/− and Cs-bm/+.Xp-c−/− mice. Rather, Cs-bm/m.Xp-c−/− oligodendrocytes were unable to generate sufficient MBP or to maintain the proper myelination during early development. Csb is a multifunctional protein regulating both repair and the transcriptional response to reactive oxygen through its interaction with histone acetylase p300 and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1 pathway. On the basis of our results, combined with that of others, we suggest that in Csb the transcriptional response predominates during early development, whereas a neurodegenerative response associated with repair deficits predominates in later life. PMID:22393014

  15. Postoperative Dilatation of Superficial Temporal Artery Associated with Transient Neurologic Symptoms After Direct Bypass Surgery for Moyamoya Angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Daizo; Okazaki, Takahito; Matsushige, Toshinori; Shinagawa, Katsuhiro; Ichinose, Nobuhiko; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2017-10-01

    In moyamoya angiopathy, transient neurologic symptoms (TNS) are occasionally observed after superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery direct bypass surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between TNS and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging as well as perform a perfusion study. We reviewed 52 hemispheres in 33 consecutive patients with moyamoya angiopathy. TNS were defined as reversible neurologic dysfunction without any apparent intracranial infarction or hemorrhage. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography before and within 5 days after surgery. Maximum diameter of STA on time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography and the dilatation ratio of STA were calculated. The presence of signal changes on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and regional cerebral blood flow were also evaluated. TNS were observed in 13 of 52 (25%) cases 1-16 days after surgery. The mean preoperative STA dilatation, postoperative STA dilatation, and dilatation ratio of STA were 1.33 mm ± 0.27, 1.67 mm ± 0.30, and 29.31% ± 28.13%. Postoperative intraparenchymal cortical hyperintensity lesions and high-intensity signals in the cortex sulci (ivy sign) were detected in 24 (46.2%) cases and 29 (55.8%) cases, respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated no association between TNS and postoperative signal change on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images as well as cerebral blood flow. Only >1.5-fold dilatation of STA was significantly correlated with TNS (P dilatation was correlated with TNS after direct bypass surgery for moyamoya angiopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa increases hydroxocobalamin oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in vitamin B12 deficiency with neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Loukili, Mouna; Soudy, Imar D; Rtibi, Kaies; Özel, Aslihan; Limas-Nzouzi, Nicolas; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Eto, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability and clinical benefits of oral new formulation (HB12 ) of hydroxocobalamin (Hdrx) with Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS). First, in an observational study, a cohort of 30 vitamin B12 -deficient patients (vit B12 < 200 pg/mL) with neurological symptoms received oral fixed dose of Hdrx containing 15 mg Hdrx daily for 10 days followed by 15 mg monthly. Clinical benefits were evaluated on haematological and biochemical parameters, and neurological improvement at days 10 and 90 compared to day 0. To understand the mechanism, intestinal mucosa from mice were mounted in vitro in Ussing chambers to measure Hdrx Fluxes. In the clinical study, serum vitamin B12 level increased from 55.1 ± 36.9 to 1330 ± 335.5 pg/mL at day 10 and 431.0 ± 24.27 pg/mL at day 90, without overt adverse effects. In mice ileum, (i) intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in dose-dependent manner with HB12 . The apparent permeability of Hdrx was Papp = 34.9 ± 4.6 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of 3 mg/mL (HB12 B) compared to the control Papp = 6.2 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) cm/s. (ii) Total transepithelial electrical conductance (Gt ) increased in dose-dependent manner with HB12 , Gt = 161.5 ± 10.8 mS/cm² with HB12 B (Hdrx 1 mg + HS 3 mg) compared to the control Hdrx, Gt = 28.7 ± 4.0 mS/cm². In conclusion, the clinical study suggests that injections are not required when Hdrx is given orally. Intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in vitro when it was used concomitantly with HS. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Strokes with minor symptoms: an exploratory analysis of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Pooja; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Yeatts, Sharon D; Saver, Jeffrey L; Levine, Steven R; Lyden, Patrick D; Moomaw, Charles J; Palesch, Yuko Y; Jauch, Edward C; Broderick, Joseph P

    2010-11-01

    The pivotal National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator trials excluded patients with ischemic stroke with specific minor presentations or rapidly improving symptoms. The recombinant tissue plasminogen activator product label notes that its use for minor neurological deficit or rapidly improving stroke symptoms has not been evaluated. As a result, patients with low National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores are not commonly treated in clinical practice. We sought to further characterize the patients with minor stroke who were included in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trials. Minor strokes were defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤ 5 at baseline for this retrospective analysis, because this subgroup is most commonly excluded from treatment in clinical practice and trials. Clinical stroke syndromes were defined based on prespecified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale item score clusters. Clinical outcomes were reviewed generally and within these cluster subgroups. Only 58 cases had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores of 0 to 5 in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trials (42 recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and 16 placebo), and 2971 patients were excluded from the trials due to "rapidly improving" or "minor symptoms" as the primary reason. No patients were enrolled with isolated motor symptoms, isolated facial droop, isolated ataxia, dysarthria, isolated sensory symptoms, or with only symptoms/signs not captured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (ie, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale=0). There were ≤ 3 patients with each of the other isolated deficits enrolled in the trial. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke trials excluded a substantial number of strokes with minor presentations, those that were included were small in number, and conclusions

  18. Relationship between Urinary N-Desmethyl-Acetamiprid and Typical Symptoms including Neurological Findings: A Prevalence Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima Tiwaa Marfo

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists used worldwide. Their environmental health effects including neurotoxicity are of concern. We previously determined a metabolite of acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid in the urine of a patient, who exhibited some typical symptoms including neurological findings. We sought to investigate the association between urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and the symptoms by a prevalence case-control study. Spot urine samples were collected from 35 symptomatic patients of unknown origin and 50 non-symptomatic volunteers (non-symptomatic group, NSG, 4-87 year-old. Patients with recent memory loss, finger tremor, and more than five of six symptoms (headache, general fatigue, palpitation/chest pain, abdominal pain, muscle pain/weakness/spasm, and cough were in the typical symptomatic group (TSG, n = 19, 5-69 year-old; the rest were in the atypical symptomatic group (ASG, n = 16, 5-78 year-old. N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and six neonicotinoids in the urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was the most frequent and highest in TSG (47.4%, 6.0 ppb (frequency, maximum, followed by in ASG (12.5%, 4.4 ppb and in NSG (6.0%, 2.2 ppb, however acetamiprid was not detected. Thiamethoxam was detected in TSG (31.6%, 1.4 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, 1.9 ppb, but not in NSG. Nitenpyram was detected in TSG (10.5%, 1.2 ppb, in ASG (6.3%, not quantified and in NSG (2.0%, not quantified. Clothianidin was only detected in ASG (6.3%, not quantified, and in NSG (2.0%, 1.6 ppb. Thiacloprid was detected in ASG (6.3%, 0.1 ppb. The cases in TSG with detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were aged 5 to 62 years and 13 to 62 years, respectively. Detection of N-desmethyl-acetamiprid was associated with increased prevalence of the symptoms (odds ratio: 14, 95% confidence interval: 3.5-57. Urinary N-desmethyl-acetamiprid can be used as a

  19. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  20. Psychological findings in preterm children related to neurologic status and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsén, P; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Korkman, M; Pyhtinen, J; Järvelin, M R

    1998-08-01

    Preterm children experience learning disabilities more often than full-term children, but detailed information on their neuropsychological and neurologic determinants is lacking. We therefore examined these problems more closely and also studied if clinical neurologic examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as tools to screen the preterm children at risk for these problems. In a population-based study, the psychological performance of 42 preterm children with a birth weight <1750 g and of their matched controls was assessed at 8 years of age and the findings were then related to clinical neurologic examination and MRI. Learning disabilities of these children, reported by the teachers, were also studied. The cognitive ability of the preterm children, although in the normal range, was significantly lower than that of the control children. They performed particularly poorly in tasks requiring spatial and visuoperceptual abilities, which were associated with the finding of periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, especially with posterior ventricular enlargement. The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunction (MND) had the most problems in neuropsychological tests, whereas the clinically healthy preterm children and those with cerebral palsy had fewer problems. The problems of MND children emerged in the domain of attention. They also experienced the most problems at school. Visuospatial problems were associated with periventricular leukomalacia in MRI, but learning disabilities were most frequent among the preterm children with minor neurologic abnormalities. We recommend closer follow-up of preterm children with MND.

  1. Cortical thickness and surface area relate to specific symptoms in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Gro O; Walhovd, Kristine B; Sowa, Piotr; Chepkoech, Joy-Loi; Bjørnerud, Atle; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Landrø, Nils I; Damangir, Soheil; Spulber, Gabriela; Storsve, Andreas B; Beyer, Mona K; Fjell, Anders M; Celius, Elisabeth G; Harbo, Hanne F

    2015-04-01

    Cortical atrophy is common in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Whether this atrophy is caused by changes in cortical thickness or cortical surface area is not known, nor is their separate contributions to clinical symptoms. To investigate the difference in cortical surface area, thickness and volume between early RRMS patients and healthy controls; and the relationship between these measures and neurological disability, cognitive decline, fatigue and depression. RRMS patients (n = 61) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurological and neuropsychological examinations. We estimated cortical surface area, thickness and volume and compared them with matched healthy controls (n = 61). We estimated the correlations between clinical symptoms and cortical measures within the patient group. We found no differences in cortical surface area, but widespread differences in cortical thickness and volume between the groups. Neurological disability was related to regionally smaller cortical thickness and volume. Better verbal memory was related to regionally larger surface area; and better visuo-spatial memory, to regionally larger cortical volume. Higher depression scores and fatigue were associated with regionally smaller cortical surface area and volume. We found that cortical thickness, but not cortical surface area, is affected in early RRMS. We identified specific structural correlates to the main clinical symptoms in early RRMS. © The Author(s), 2014.

  2. Gastrointestinal symptoms related to the irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinsvig Poulsen, Chalotte; Falgaard Eplov, Lene; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can develop into persistent states often categorised as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the severe end of the GI symptom continuum, other coexisting symptoms are common. We aimed to investigate the GI symptom continuum in relation...... symptom groups and mortality (p = 0.47). IBS and GI symptoms with abdominal pain were significantly associated with development of GI diseases. Only GI symptoms with abdominal pain were associated with development of severe GI diseases (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: [1.06–1.79]). There were no statistically...... significant interactions between symptom groups and coexisting symptoms in relation to the two outcomes. Conclusions GI diseases were seen more frequently, but IBS was not associated with severe GI diseases or increased mortality. Clinicians should be more aware when patients do not fulfil the IBS definition...

  3. Impact of Elevated D-Dimer on Diagnosis of Acute Aortic Dissection With Isolated Neurological Symptoms in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimuta, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Okajima, Toshiya; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Higashi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Kenshi; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yasuda, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Plasma D-dimer is known to be a useful clinical marker of thrombogenic status, and D-dimer is used as a diagnostic marker for acute aortic dissection (AAD). Little is known, however, regarding the clinical value of D-dimer for diagnosis of asymptomatic AAD in patients with ischemic stroke. We investigated whether D-dimer could be used for early diagnosis of AAD with isolated neurological symptoms in ischemic stroke patients. We evaluated a total of 1,236 consecutive patients with symptomatic ischemic stroke without chest or back pain who underwent either head computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. D-dimer was measured within 24 h after onset. There were 9 patients with Stanford type A AAD and they had significantly higher D-dimer than the patients without AAD (mean, 46.47±54.48 μg/ml; range, 6.9-167.1 μg/ml vs. 2.33±3.58 μg/ml, 0.3-57.9 μg/ml, Psymptoms in ischemic stroke patients. Whole-body contrast-enhanced computed tomography should be performed in ischemic stroke patients who have high D-dimer.

  4. Histo- and immunopathological features of terminal AIDS. An autopsy case of a Japanese man with neurological signs as initial symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, H; Takeya, M; Takahashi, K; Koito, A; Hattori, T; Takatsuki, K

    1988-10-01

    An autopsy case of a 37-year-old Japanese man, confirmed as an AIDS patient infected by an undetermined route of transmission, is presented. The initial symptoms of full-blown AIDS in this case were neurological, and the patient died of severe pneumonia 9 months after onset. The main histo- and immunopathological features were a marked depletion of helper-inducer T cells and dendritic reticulum cells in the lymphoid tissues, opportunistic infections, and some neuropathologic changes. Very few cells, possibly macrophages, immunoreactive with a monoclonal antibody (VAK-5) against HIV-gag protein P24 were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes. Numerous pathogens had induced opportunistic infections in many organs: severe and generalized cytomegalovirus infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, bronchopneumonia (possibly due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa), candidiasis in the tongue and oral cavity, and atypical mycobacteriosis in the pulmonic hilar lymph nodes. Vascular proliferation was found in the perinodal regions of some lymph nodes, but this was not neoplastic vascular proliferation compatible with that of localized Kaposi's sarcoma.

  5. "That pulled the rug out from under my feet!" - adverse experiences and altered emotion processing in patients with functional neurological symptoms compared to healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Astrid; Fiess, Johanna; Schmidt, Roger; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-06-24

    Medically unexplained movement or sensibility disorders, recently defined in DSM-5 as functional neurological symptoms (FNS), are still insufficiently understood. Stress and trauma have been addressed as relevant factors in FNS genesis. Altered emotion processing has been discussed. The present study screened different types and times of adverse experiences in childhood and adulthood in patients with FNS as well as in healthy individuals. The relationship between stress profile, aspects of emotion processing and symptom severity was examined, with the hypothesis that particularly emotional childhood adversities would have an impact on dysfunctional emotion processing as a mediator of FNS. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE), recent negative life events (LE), alexithymia, and emotion regulation style were assessed in 45 inpatients diagnosed with dissociative disorder expressing FNS, and in 45 healthy comparison subjects (HC). Patients reported more severe FNS, more (particularly emotional) ACE, and more LE than HC. FNS severity varied with emotional ACE and negative LE, and LE partially mediated the relation between ACE and FNS. Alexithymia and suppressive emotion regulation style were stronger in patients than HC, and alexithymia varied with FNS severity. Structural equation modeling verified partial mediation of the relationship between emotional ACE and FNS by alexithymia. Early, emotional and accumulating stress show a substantial impact on FNS-associated emotion processing, influencing FNS. Understanding this complex interplay of stress, emotion processing and the severity of FNS is relevant not only for theoretical models, but, as a consequence also inform diagnostic and therapeutic adjustments.

  6. Functional neurological disorders: imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, V

    2014-10-01

    Functional neurological disorders, also known as conversion disorder, are unexplained neurological symptoms. These symptoms are common and can be associated with significant consequences. This review covers the neuroimaging literature focusing on functional motor symptoms including motor functioning and upstream influences including self-monitoring and internal representations, voluntariness and arousal and trauma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James; Reed, George; Kristeller, Jean; Merriam, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    Although the relationship between religious practice and health is well established, the relationship between spirituality and health is not as well studied. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program was associated with increases in mindfulness and spirituality, and to examine the associations between mindfulness, spirituality, and medical and psychological symptoms. Forty-four participants in the University of Massachusetts Medical School's MBSR program were assessed preprogram and postprogram on trait (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale) and state (Toronto Mindfulness Scale) mindfulness, spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-Being Scale), psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Participants also kept a log of daily home mindfulness practice. Mean changes in scores were computed, and relationships between changes in variables were examined using mixed-model linear regression. There were significant improvements in spirituality, state and trait mindfulness, psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Increases in both state and trait mindfulness were associated with increases in spirituality. Increases in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with decreases in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. Changes in both trait and state mindfulness were independently associated with changes in spirituality, but only changes in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with reductions in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. No association was found between outcomes and home mindfulness practice. Participation in the MBSR program appears to be associated with improvements in trait and state mindfulness, psychological distress, and medical symptoms. Improvements in trait mindfulness and spirituality appear, in turn, to be associated with improvements in psychological and

  8. Teriflunomide reduces relapse-related neurological sequelae, hospitalizations and steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Paul W; Lublin, Fred D; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Confavreux, Christian; Comi, Giancarlo; Freedman, Mark S; Olsson, Tomas P; Miller, Aaron E; Dive-Pouletty, Catherine; Bégo-Le-Bagousse, Gaëlle; Kappos, Ludwig

    2013-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses impose a substantial clinical and economic burden. Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying therapy approved for the treatment of relapsing MS. We evaluated the effects of teriflunomide treatment on relapse-related neurological sequelae and healthcare resource use in a post hoc analysis of the Phase III TEMSO study. Confirmed relapses associated with neurological sequelae [defined by an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale/Functional System (sequelae-EDSS/FS) ≥ 30 days post relapse or by the investigator (sequelae-investigator)] were analyzed in the modified intention-to-treat population (n = 1086). Relapses requiring hospitalization or intravenous (IV) corticosteroids, all hospitalizations, emergency medical facility visits (EMFV), and hospitalized nights for relapse were also assessed. Annualized rates were derived using a Poisson model with treatment, baseline EDSS strata, and region as covariates. Risks of sequelae and hospitalization per relapse were calculated as percentages and groups were compared with a χ(2) test. Compared with placebo, teriflunomide reduced annualized rates of relapses with sequelae-EDSS/FS [7 mg by 32 % (p = 0.0019); 14 mg by 36 % (p = 0.0011)] and sequelae-investigator [25 % (p = 0.071); 53 % (p Teriflunomide-treated patients spent fewer nights in hospital for relapse (p Teriflunomide 14 mg also decreased annualized rates of all hospitalizations (p = 0.01) and EMFV (p = 0.004). The impact of teriflunomide on relapse-related neurological sequelae and relapses requiring healthcare resources may translate into reduced healthcare costs.

  9. Gain-of-function SAMD9L mutations cause a syndrome of cytopenia, immunodeficiency, MDS, and neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesi, Bianca; Davidsson, Josef; Voss, Matthias; Rahikkala, Elisa; Holmes, Tim D; Chiang, Samuel C C; Komulainen-Ebrahim, Jonna; Gorcenco, Sorina; Rundberg Nilsson, Alexandra; Ripperger, Tim; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Bryder, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Henter, Jan-Inge; Möttönen, Merja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Nilsson, Lars; Pronk, Cornelis Jan; Puschmann, Andreas; Qian, Hong; Uusimaa, Johanna; Moilanen, Jukka; Tedgård, Ulf; Cammenga, Jörg; Bryceson, Yenan T

    2017-04-20

    Several monogenic causes of familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have recently been identified. We studied 2 families with cytopenia, predisposition to MDS with chromosome 7 aberrations, immunodeficiency, and progressive cerebellar dysfunction. Genetic studies uncovered heterozygous missense mutations in SAMD9L, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome arm 7q. Consistent with a gain-of-function effect, ectopic expression of the 2 identified SAMD9L mutants decreased cell proliferation relative to wild-type protein. Of the 10 individuals identified who were heterozygous for either SAMD9L mutation, 3 developed MDS upon loss of the mutated SAMD9L allele following intracellular infections associated with myeloid, B-, and natural killer (NK)-cell deficiency. Five other individuals, 3 with spontaneously resolved cytopenic episodes in infancy, harbored hematopoietic revertant mosaicism by uniparental disomy of 7q, with loss of the mutated allele or additional in cisSAMD9L truncating mutations. Examination of 1 individual indicated that somatic reversions were postnatally selected. Somatic mutations were tracked to CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cell populations, being further enriched in B and NK cells. Stimulation of these cell types with interferon (IFN)-α or IFN-γ induced SAMD9L expression. Clinically, revertant mosaicism was associated with milder disease, yet neurological manifestations persisted in 3 individuals. Two carriers also harbored a rare, in trans germ line SAMD9L missense loss-of-function variant, potentially counteracting the SAMD9L mutation. Our results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor SAMD9L cause cytopenia, immunodeficiency, variable neurological presentation, and predisposition to MDS with -7/del(7q), whereas hematopoietic revertant mosaicism commonly ameliorated clinical manifestations. The findings suggest a role for SAMD9L in regulating IFN-driven, demand-adapted hematopoiesis. © 2017 by The American

  10. Current Issues in the Neurology and Genetics of Learning-Related Traits and Disorders: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    This introductory article briefly describes each of the following eight articles in this special issue on the neurology and genetics of learning related disorders. It notes the greater appreciation of learning disability as a set of complex disorders with broad and intricate neurological bases and of the large individual differences in how these…

  11. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (pperfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  12. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co......-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.......14-0.54. Significant associations (pperfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms...

  13. Genetic variation in the HN and SH genes of mumps viruses: a comparison of strains from mumps cases with and without neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Aili; Brown, David W G; Xu, Wenbo; Jin, Li

    2013-01-01

    It is known that mumps virus (MuV) strains may vary in their neurovirulent capacity, and certain MuV strains may be highly neurotropic. In animal models and epidemiological studies, mutations at specific amino acids (aa) have been proposed to be associated with neurovirulence. To assess whether these genetic variations can be observed in clinical samples from patients and if they correlate with neurovirulence as determined by clinical symptoms, 39 mumps patients with or without neurological symptoms were investigated. Respiratory samples, oral fluids, throat swabs, and neurological and cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by RT-PCR and products sequenced. Sequences of the entire small hydrophobic (SH) gene and the partial hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene were compared. The results showed there was no significant difference between the samples of the two groups of patients at the aa sites in either the HN protein or the SH protein, which have previously been hypothesized to be associated with neurovirulence or antigenicity. The occurrence of neurological symptoms of mumps does not appear to be due to a single point mutation in either the HN or SH gene.

  14. Genetic variation in the HN and SH genes of mumps viruses: a comparison of strains from mumps cases with and without neurological symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that mumps virus (MuV strains may vary in their neurovirulent capacity, and certain MuV strains may be highly neurotropic. In animal models and epidemiological studies, mutations at specific amino acids (aa have been proposed to be associated with neurovirulence. To assess whether these genetic variations can be observed in clinical samples from patients and if they correlate with neurovirulence as determined by clinical symptoms, 39 mumps patients with or without neurological symptoms were investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Respiratory samples, oral fluids, throat swabs, and neurological and cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by RT-PCR and products sequenced. Sequences of the entire small hydrophobic (SH gene and the partial hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN gene were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed there was no significant difference between the samples of the two groups of patients at the aa sites in either the HN protein or the SH protein, which have previously been hypothesized to be associated with neurovirulence or antigenicity. The occurrence of neurological symptoms of mumps does not appear to be due to a single point mutation in either the HN or SH gene.

  15. Differential Survival for Men and Women with HIV/AIDS-Related Neurologic Diagnoses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Carvour

    Full Text Available Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS frequently lead to disability or death in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether survival patterns differ between men and women with HIV/AIDS-related neurologic disease (neuro-AIDS.Retrospective cohort data from a statewide surveillance database for HIV/AIDS were used to characterize survival following an HIV/AIDS-related neurologic diagnosis for men and women with one or more of the following conditions: cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and HIV-associated dementia. A second, non-independent cohort was formed using university-based cases to confirm and extend the findings from the statewide data. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival experiences for men and women in the cohorts. Cox regression was employed to characterize survival while controlling for potential confounders in the study population.Women (n=27 had significantly poorer outcomes than men (n=198 in the statewide cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=2.31, 95% CI: 1.22 to 4.35, and a similar, non-significant trend was observed among university-based cases (n=17 women, 154 men. Secondary analyses suggested that this difference persisted over the course of the AIDS epidemic and was not attributable to differential antiretroviral therapy responses among men and women.The survival disadvantage of women compared to men should be confirmed and the mechanisms underlying this disparity elucidated. If this relationship is confirmed, targeted clinical and public health efforts might be directed towards screening, treatment, and support for women affected by neuro-AIDS.

  16. Differential Survival for Men and Women with HIV/AIDS-Related Neurologic Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvour, Martha L; Harms, Jerald P; Lynch, Charles F; Mayer, Randall R; Meier, Jeffery L; Liu, Dawei; Torner, James C

    2015-01-01

    Neurologic complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) frequently lead to disability or death in affected patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether survival patterns differ between men and women with HIV/AIDS-related neurologic disease (neuro-AIDS). Retrospective cohort data from a statewide surveillance database for HIV/AIDS were used to characterize survival following an HIV/AIDS-related neurologic diagnosis for men and women with one or more of the following conditions: cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and HIV-associated dementia. A second, non-independent cohort was formed using university-based cases to confirm and extend the findings from the statewide data. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival experiences for men and women in the cohorts. Cox regression was employed to characterize survival while controlling for potential confounders in the study population. Women (n=27) had significantly poorer outcomes than men (n=198) in the statewide cohort (adjusted hazard ratio=2.31, 95% CI: 1.22 to 4.35), and a similar, non-significant trend was observed among university-based cases (n=17 women, 154 men). Secondary analyses suggested that this difference persisted over the course of the AIDS epidemic and was not attributable to differential antiretroviral therapy responses among men and women. The survival disadvantage of women compared to men should be confirmed and the mechanisms underlying this disparity elucidated. If this relationship is confirmed, targeted clinical and public health efforts might be directed towards screening, treatment, and support for women affected by neuro-AIDS.

  17. Children's perception and interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Hoeve, Inge; Meesters, Cor; Mayer, Birgit

    2004-09-01

    The present study examined children's perception and interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms in a sample of 4-12-year-old primary school children (N = 129). Children were presented with neutral scenarios in which the main character experienced an anxiety-related physical symptom (e.g., hands trembling, heart beating very fast), and asked to attribute various emotions to this character. Children were also interviewed about idiosyncratic experiences with anxiety-related physical symptoms. Results showed that physical symptoms were associated with a broad range of emotions. "Hands trembling", "heart beating fast", and "difficulties with breathing" were the only symptoms that were more frequently linked to fear than to other emotions. Furthermore, developmental patterns were found for fear-related interpretations of physical symptoms. That is, from the age of 7, children more frequently associated physical symptoms to fear. Finally, children reported to experience anxiety-related physical symptoms in daily life, although frequently not in relation to fearful situations and circumstances.

  18. Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S; Parmar, Priya; Huang, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has linked depressive symptoms to various indices of societal-level inequality and relative deprivation. A larger literature has also addressed cognitive vulnerability and correlates of depression. Despite this evidence, little research to date has examined the relationship of depressive symptoms with such downstream individual-level consequences of inequality as subjective relative deprivation, or whether relative deprivation is associated with cognitive vulnerability in depression. We conducted two investigations among four separate samples (total N = 2999) to examine associations between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms and cognitions. Across our studies and four different self-report measures of depressive symptoms, we found consistent significant positive associations between subjective relative deprivation and depression symptoms. Further, we found that subjective relative deprivation was predictive of depressive symptoms over and above other known vulnerability factors. Finally, we found that the relationship between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by negative automatic thoughts about self. These results provide further evidence of the importance of subjective deprivation in maintaining negative mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perceived attachment: relations to anxiety sensitivity, worry, and GAD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Rabian, Brian

    2008-06-01

    This investigation examined the relation between perceived alienation from parents and peers, anxiety sensitivity (AS), and current worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on factors that may contribute to the development of AS and its role in worry. The mediating role of AS between perceptions of alienation and current worry and GAD symptoms was also examined. Ninety-four non-clinical worriers completed self-report questionnaires assessing their perceptions of attachment, AS levels, and worry and GAD symptoms. Even after controlling for worry and GAD symptoms, greater perceptions of alienation from mothers and peers were significantly associated with higher AS symptoms. AS as a unitary construct mediated the relation between perceptions of alienation from mothers and peers and worry and GAD symptoms. The facets fear of publicly observable symptoms and fear of cognitive dyscontrol also mediated this relation. The role of alienation in relation to AS, worry, and GAD symptoms is discussed along with directions for future research.

  20. Predictors of Trauma-Related Symptoms among Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about trauma-related symptoms among runaway adolescents. Precocious departure from familial homes often exposes youth to traumatic victimization. This study examined the extent to which runaway adolescents present trauma symptomotology and assessed factors that predict trauma symptoms. Participants (N = 350) were 12-18 years of age…

  1. Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to inflammatory cytokines in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. ... Measurements of fatigue symptoms and markers of systemic inflammation were assessed before and at the end of the study for all participants in both groups. Results: The mean values of inflammatory ...

  2. Psychosocial work environment and building related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several

  3. A Clinical Study of ADHD Symptoms with Relation to Symptoms of Learning Disorders in Schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia; Van Meerbeke, Alberto Velez; Reyes, Rodrigo Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible relationships between symptoms of ADHD and of learning disorder (LD) in a population geographically, culturally, and linguistically distinct from previous studies. Method: The authors evaluated a cross section of 834 Colombian schoolchildren for childhood neurological pathologies on the basis of a medical…

  4. Aura and Other Neurologic Dysfunction in or with Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoon, Narayan R; Cutrer, Fred Michael

    2017-07-01

    Migraine can present with a wide range of neurological symptoms. Based on currently available data, the symptoms of typical migraine aura are most likely related to cortical spreading depression (CSD), and evidence supports that CSD can lead to trigeminovascular activation resulting in the headache phase of migraine. An alternative diagnosis to migraine aura should be considered if migrainous headaches present with transient neurological symptoms that have features inconsistent with aura. © 2017 American Headache Society.

  5. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aims We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower...... for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Methods Non-diabetic participants (n = 7662) of the “English Longitudinal Study...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  6. Relation of Dieting in College and High School Students to Symptoms Associated with Semi-starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, M M; Tomaka, J; Moss, D E

    2000-01-01

    Dieting and concern with weight were found to be associated with psychological and neurological symptoms observed in cases of severe semi-starvation. College students of both sexes (n 292) and high school females (n121) rated themselves on dietary restraint and psychological and physical symptoms that were prevalent in men after 24 weeks in the Minnesota semi-starvation experiment of 1944-5. Apprehension, irritability, and moodiness were associated with a high concern with restraint. Blank spells, hunger pain, concern for health, and social withdrawal were associated with a history of restraint. Depression, lower self-esteem, eating behavior patterns, apathy, and decreased motivation were associated with both restraint parameters. Our results suggest that normal dieting may be more closely related to psychological and health risks associated with chronic semi-starvation than is commonly believed.

  7. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  8. Edaravone Reduces Hyperperfusion-Related Neurological Deficits in Adult Moyamoya Disease: Historical Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Haruto; Nakayama, Naoki; Kazumata, Ken; Kuroda, Satoshi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2016-07-01

    Postoperative hyperperfusion-related transient neurological deficits (TNDs) are frequently observed in adult patients with moyamoya disease who undergo direct bypass procedures. The present study evaluated the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on postoperative hyperperfusion in adult moyamoya disease. This study included 92 hemispheres in 72 adult patients who underwent direct bypass for moyamoya disease. Serial measurements of cerebral blood flow were conducted immediately after surgery and on postoperative days 2 and 7. In 40 hemispheres for 36 patients, edaravone (60 mg/d) was administered from the day of surgery to postsurgical day 7. The incidence of postoperative hyperperfusion and associated TNDs were compared with a control group that included 52 hemispheres in 36 patients. Radiological hyperperfusion was observed in 28 of 40 (70.0%) and 39 of 52 (75.0%) hemispheres in the edaravone and control groups, respectively (P=0.30). Hyperperfusion-related TND incidences were significantly lower in the edaravone group compared with the control group (12.5% versus 32.7%; P=0.024). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that edaravone administration (P=0.009) and left-sided surgery (P=0.037) were significantly correlated with hyperperfusion-related TNDs (odds ratios, 0.3 and 4.2, respectively). Perioperative administration of edaravone reduced the incidence of hyperperfusion-related TNDs after direct bypass procedures in adult patients with moyamoya disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Maternal anxiety is related to infant neurological condition, paternal anxiety is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Middelburg, Karin J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Parental anxiety and stress may have consequences for infant neurological development. Aims: To study relationships between parental anxiety or well-being and infant neurological development approximately one year after birth. Study design: Longitudinal study of a birth cohort of infants

  10. [Could aspecific symptoms be related to Borrelia infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papo, T

    2007-01-01

    Chronic manifestations (knee arthritis, encephalomyelitis, axonal polyneuropathy) may occur in the late phase of Lyme disease. Contrasting with such well-defined manifestations, the "post-Lyme syndrome" includes symptoms such as fatigue, algia, malaise, cognitive disorders, after treatment of a documented Lyme disease. The analysis of clinical, neuropsychological, bacteriological, immunological, epidemiological, quality of life, and treatment data does not support the reality of such a syndrome. Moreover, no physiopathological data can relate Borrelia infection to such symptoms in patients without previously documented Lyme disease symptoms but who are seropositive (or even sometimes without serodiagnosis as for instance in the Munchausen by proxy, or Gulf war syndromes).

  11. Sexual violence and pregnancy-related physical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasse Mirjam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the impact of sexual violence on health during pregnancy. We examined the association between sexual violence and the reporting of physical symptoms during pregnancy. Methods A population-based national cohort study conducted by The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa collected data from pregnant women through postal questionnaires at 17 and 32 weeks gestation. Three levels of sexual violence were measured: 1 mild (pressured into sexual relations, 2 moderate (forced with violence into sexual relation and 3 severe (rape. Differences between women reporting and not reporting sexual violence were assessed using Pearson’s X2 test and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Of 78 660 women, 12.0% (9 444 reported mild, 2.8% (2 219 moderate and 3.6% (2 805 severe sexual violence. Sexual violence was significantly associated with increased reporting of pregnancy-related physical symptoms, both measured in number of symptoms and duration/degree of suffering. Compared to women not reporting sexual violence, the probability of suffering from ≥8 pregnancy-related symptoms estimated by Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR was 1.49 (1.41–1.58 for mild sexual violence, 1.66(1.50–1.84 for moderate and 1.78 (1.62–1.95 for severe. Severe sexual violence both previously and recently had the strongest association with suffering from ≥8 pregnancy-related symptoms, AOR 6.70 (2.34–19.14. Conclusion A history of sexual violence is associated with increased reporting of pregnancy-related physical symptoms. Clinicians should consider the possible role of a history of sexual violence when treating women who suffer extensively from pregnancy-related symptoms.

  12. Practice Parameter: treatment of nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Sullivan, K L; Arnulf, I; Chaudhuri, K R; Morgan, J C; Gronseth, G S; Miyasaki, J; Iverson, D J; Weiner, W J

    2010-03-16

    Nonmotor symptoms (sleep dysfunction, sensory symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive abnormalities) in Parkinson disease (PD) are a major cause of morbidity, yet are often underrecognized. This evidence-based practice parameter evaluates treatment options for the nonmotor symptoms of PD. Articles pertaining to cognitive and mood dysfunction in PD, as well as treatment of sialorrhea with botulinum toxin, were previously reviewed as part of American Academy of Neurology practice parameters and were not included here. A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index was performed to identify clinical trials in patients with nonmotor symptoms of PD published between 1966 and August 2008. Articles were classified according to a 4-tiered level of evidence scheme and recommendations were based on the level of evidence. Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) may be considered to treat erectile dysfunction in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) (Level C). Macrogol (polyethylene glycol) may be considered to treat constipation in patients with PD (Level C). The use of levodopa/carbidopa probably decreases the frequency of spontaneous nighttime leg movements, and should be considered to treat periodic limb movements of sleep in patients with PD (Level B). There is insufficient evidence to support or refute specific treatments for urinary incontinence, orthostatic hypotension, and anxiety (Level U). Future research should include concerted and interdisciplinary efforts toward finding treatments for nonmotor symptoms of PD.

  13. [Psychosocial factors predicting postnatal anxiety symptoms and their relation to symptoms of postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.

  14. Prospective study of work related respiratory symptoms in trainee bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Bovenzi, M

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms and to assess the effect of atopy in a group of trainee bakers. A prospective study of work related respiratory symptoms among 125 trainee bakers who were investigated with a questionnaire plus skin prick test with wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens at baseline and then after 6, 18, and 30 months. At the baseline examination, four students (3.2%) complained of respiratory symptoms (cough and rhinitis) when working with flours and four were skin positive to wheat flour or alpha-amylase. The incidence of work related respiratory symptoms was 3.4% at 6 months, and the cumulative incidence was 4.8% and 9.0% at 18 and 30 months, respectively. The incidence of skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was 4.6% at 6 months and the cumulative incidence was 4.6% at 18 months and 10.1% at 30 months. The generalised estimating equation approach to longitudinal data showed that work related respiratory symptoms in the study population was significantly associated with a personal history of allergic disease (odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8 to 18.2) and skin sensitisation to wheat flour or alpha-amylase (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 14.9). Atopy based on prick test was not related to the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms over time (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.3 to 3.8). Personal history of allergic disease is a predisposing factor for the development of symptoms caused by exposure to wheat flour and may be a criterion of unsuitability for starting a career as a baker. Atopy based on the skin prick test is useful for identifying subjects with allergic disease, but should not be used to exclude non-symptomatic atopic people from bakery work.

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of neurological soft signs in relatives of people with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Kishen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological soft signs are subtle but observable impairments in motor and sensory functions that are not localized to a specific area of the brain. Neurological soft signs are common in schizophrenia. It has been established that soft signs meet two of five criteria for an endophenotype, namely: association with the illness, and state independence. This review investigated whether soft signs met a further criterion for an endophenotype, namely familial association. It was hypothesized that if familial association were present then neurological soft signs would be: (a more common in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia than in controls; and (b more common in people with schizophrenia than in their first-degree relatives. Method A systematic search identified potentially eligible studies in the EMBASE (1980-2011, OVID - MEDLINE (1950-2011 and PsycINFO (1806-2011 databases. Studies were included if they carried out a three-way comparison of levels of soft signs between people with schizophrenia, their first-degree relatives, and normal controls. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and cross-checked by double entry. Results After screening 8678 abstracts, seven studies with 1553 participants were identified. Neurological soft signs were significantly more common in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia than in controls (pooled standardised mean difference (SMD 1.24, 95% confidence interval (c.i 0.59-1.89. Neurological soft signs were also significantly more common in people with schizophrenia than in their first-degree relatives (SMD 0.92, 95% c.i 0.64-1.20. Sensitivity analyses examining the effects of age and group blinding did not significantly alter the main findings. Conclusions Both hypotheses were confirmed, suggesting that the distribution of neurological soft signs in people with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives is consistent with the endophenotype criterion of

  16. HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and depression among Malawian women. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... These findings suggest that interventions that reduce HIV-related stigma are likely to enhance psychological functioning among Malawian women, which in turn will improve the women's ...

  17. The occurrence of overtraining-related symptoms among under-21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manifestation of overtraining-related symptoms among U-21 rugby players, and to gain insight into the detection and prevention thereof. The methodology consisted of a self-constructed questionnaire, which focused on the gathering of psychological, health and biological-related ...

  18. Psychiatric and neurological symptoms in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C): Findings from the International NPC Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Gama, Clarissa S; Mengel, Eugen; Pineda, Mercè; Vanier, Marie T; Watson, Louise; Watissée, Marie; Schwierin, Barbara; Patterson, Marc C

    2017-10-09

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare inherited neurovisceral disease that should be recognised by psychiatrists as a possible underlying cause of psychiatric abnormalities. This study describes NP-C patients who had psychiatric manifestations at enrolment in the international NPC Registry, a unique multicentre, prospective, observational disease registry. Treating physicians' data entries describing psychiatric manifestations in NPC patients were coded and grouped by expert psychiatrists. Out of 386 NP-C patients included in the registry as of October 2015, psychiatric abnormalities were reported to be present in 34% (94/280) of those with available data. Forty-four patients were confirmed to have identifiable psychiatric manifestations, with text describing these psychiatric manifestations. In these 44 patients, the median (range) age at onset of psychiatric manifestations was 17.9 years (2.5-67.9; n = 15), while the median (range) age at NP-C diagnosis was 23.7 years (0.2-69.8; n = 34). Almost all patients (43/44; 98%) had an occurrence of ≥1 neurological manifestation at enrolment. These data show that substantial delays in diagnosis of NP-C are long among patients with psychiatric symptoms and, moreover, patients presenting with psychiatric features and at least one of cognitive impairment, neurological manifestations, and/or visceral symptoms should be screened for NP-C.

  19. Parent Attributions About Child Symptoms Related to Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Ashley; Dupuis, Lee L; Cassidy, Marilyn; Portwine, Carol; Johnston, Donna L; Pradier Silva, Mariana; Sung, Lillian; Barrera, Maru

    2016-01-29

    Symptom assessment is an emergent area of research in pediatric cancer. Our team previously reported on the development of a questionnaire to be completed by parents to determine symptom prevalence and bother. This exploratory study examined parental nonprobed, free-text comments about their child's treatment-related symptoms reported on the questionnaire. Participants were parents of children aged 4 to 18 years who had been diagnosed with cancer at least 2 months prior to enrolment and had received intravenous chemotherapy within the past month at 1 of 5 pediatric cancer centers. The questionnaire consisted of 69 or 71 items (based on child's age) addressing physical and psychological sequelae. Each symptom query was accompanied by a blank space in which parents could comment on their response. Comments were analyzed guided by content analysis methodology. Five major themes emerged: parental attributions for the symptoms experienced in their child; coping patterns and communication styles within the family; evidence of anticipatory, procedural, and other anxieties; interruption of daily life; and changes in the child's physical appearance. These exploratory findings provide context to parental perception of their child's treatment-related symptoms and may contribute to a better understanding of parental perception of child and the family coping and communicating style. These findings may assist in the development of psychoeducational interventions aimed at promoting open communication styles within the family and reducing child and parent burden during treatment procedures. © 2016 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  20. IS MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AT 12 YEARS RELATED TO BEHAVIOR AND COGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; OLINGA, AA; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    Behavioural and cognitive development at 12 years were studied in 172 children with and 174 children without minor neurological dysfunction (MND). MND could be differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems, hypotonia and choreiform dyskinesia. Fine manipulative disability

  1. Neurologic complications of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, James M; Weimer, Louis H

    2014-06-01

    This review serves as an overview of neurologic conditions associated with alcohol abuse or withdrawal, including epidemiology, clinical symptoms, diagnostic approach, and treatment. Frequent alcohol abuse and frank alcoholism are very common among adults in the United States. Although rates decline with each decade, as many as 10% of the elderly drink excessively. Given the ubiquitous nature of alcoholism in society, its complications have been clinically recognized for generations, with recent advances focusing on improved understanding of ethanol's biochemical targets and the pathophysiology of its complications. The chronic effects of alcohol abuse are myriad and include neurologic complications through both direct and indirect effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. These disorders include several encephalopathic states related to alcohol intoxication, withdrawal, and related nutritional deficiencies; acute and chronic toxic and nutritional peripheral neuropathies; and myopathy. Although prevention of alcoholism and its neurologic complications is the optimal strategy, this article reviews the specific treatment algorithms for alcohol withdrawal and its related nutritional deficiency states.

  2. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu MR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mei R Fu,1 Deborah Axelrod,2,3 Charles M Cleland,1 Zeyuan Qiu,4 Amber A Guth,2,3 Robin Kleinman,2 Joan Scagliola,2 Judith Haber1 1College of Nursing, New York University, 2Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 3NYU Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97

  3. One-Stage Correction Surgery of Scoliosis Associated With Syringomyelia: Is it Safe to Leave Untreated a Syrinx Without Neurological Symptom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Sun, Jianmin; Jiang, Zhensong; Cui, Xingang; Cui, Jiangchao

    2015-06-01

    Retrospective study. To investigate the safety to leave a syrinx untreated in 1-stage correction surgery of scoliosis associated with syringomyelia without progressive neurological symptom. The present protocol for patients with scoliosis secondary to syringomyelia advocated to treat the syrinx first because of the increased risk in correction surgery. However, in daily life, these patients could still do lateral bending, in which spinal cord distracted albeit without any neurological symptom occurred. Twenty-one consecutive patients with scoliosis associated with syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation underwent surgery in our department from 2003 to 2010 were included in this study. Patients with progressive neural deficits were excluded. Every patient received detailed neurological and radiologic examination before the surgery, including whole spine films, lateral-bending and fulcrum-bending films, 3-dimensional computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging. All the patients underwent 1-stage correction surgery without treatment of syrinx. During the surgery, Spinal Cord Monitor (SCM) and wake-up test were used to prevent serious neurological complications. At follow-up, patients received neurological examination and whole spine x-ray films. There were 13 male and 8 female patients. Before the surgery, 3 patients complained wasting of the intrinsic muscles of hand, 1 complained numbness of left upper extremity, and 4 complained back pain. Negative abdomen reflex occurred on 12 of 21 patients. All the patients were single major curve, including 14 thoracic curves and 7 thoracolumbar curves. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of scoliosis was 68.05±20.1 degrees, on bending films was 39.48±21.56 degrees, postoperative was 23.19±14.14 degrees, at final follow-up was 25.76±14.46 degrees. The mean flexibility was 0.452±0.158, correction ratio was 0.685±0.140. During the operation, SCM showed motor evoked potential (MEP) loss transiently in 2

  4. Symptom Management: The Effects of Self-Affirmation on Chemotherapy-Related Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Meltem; Gulsoy, Hatice; Batmaz, Makbule; Ozgat, Cansu; Yesilbursali, Gulser; Aydin, Reyhan; Ekiz, Sedanur

    2017-02-01

    Positive effects of auditory stimulations are common in symptom management. However, the effect of self-affirmations on symptom management is not well known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of self-affirmations and nature sounds on chemotherapy-related symptoms. This randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted with 140 patients receiving chemotherapy. The first experimental group listened to affirmations, the second listened to nature sounds, and the third listened to both. In the affirmation group, pain, tiredness, drowsiness, lack of appetite, depression, anxiety, and lack of well-being scores were lower. In the affirmation and nature sounds group, drowsiness, depression, anxiety, and lack of well-being scores were reduced. In the nature sounds group, tiredness, drowsiness, and lack of well-being scores were reduced. In the control group, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, and lack of well-being scores were higher.

  5. Work-related symptoms and hazard preventative measures among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of work-related symptoms among oral health workers other than the dentist in Nigeria and the preventive measures put in place to reduce exposure to hazardous agents and practices. The study was by means of self-administered questionnaires filled by all cadres of oral ...

  6. HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral therapy patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A longitudinal study. ... Overall, the participants reported medications as the most frequently occurring management strategy, with the second being spiritual, and the third being complementary or traditional ...

  7. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  8. Genetics of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Mottagui-Tabar, Salim; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2004-05-01

    Neurological diseases are defined as an inappropriate function of the peripheral or central nervous system due to impaired electrical impulses throughout the brain and/or nervous system that may present with heterogeneous symptoms according to the parts of the system involved in these pathologic processes. Growing evidence on genetic components of neurological disease have been collected during recent years. Genetic studies have opened the way for understanding the underlying pathology of many neurological disorders. The outcome of current intense research into the genetics of neurological disorders will hopefully be the introduction of new diagnostic tools and the discovery of potential targets for new and more effective medications and preventive measures.

  9. A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Corsentino, Elizabeth; Moxley, Jerad; Hames, Jennifer L; Rushing, Nicole C; Sawyer, Kathryn; Joiner, Thomas; Selby, Edward A; Zarit, Steven; Gotlib, Ian H; Steffens, David C

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume loss. A second goal was to determine if LOD, compared with EOD, would demonstrate more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. At regular intervals over a four-year period non-demented, older, depressed adults were assessed on the Mini-Mental Status Examination and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. They were also assessed on magnetic resonance imaging. Compared with LOD, EOD had more depressive symptoms, more suicidal thoughts, and less social support. Growth curve analyses indicated that EOD demonstrated higher levels of residual depressive symptoms over time. The LOD group exhibited a greater decrement in cognitive scores. Contrary to the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, participants with EOD lost right hippocampal volume at a slower rate than did participants with LOD. Right cerebrum gray matter was initially smaller among participants with LOD. EOD is associated with greater severity of depressive illness. LOD is associated with more severe cognitive and neurological changes. These differences are relevant to understanding cognitive impairment in geriatric depression.

  10. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  12. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Skoufi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  13. Obesity is related to increased menopausal symptoms among Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana M; Cuadros, José L; Chedraui, Peter; Mendoza, Marcela; Cuadros, Angela M; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2010-09-01

    To assess the metabolic syndrome (METS) and its components in postmenopausal women using updated diagnostic criteria and explore their relation to menopausal symptom severity. Medical records of the first visit of 574 postmenopausal Caucasian Spanish women attending a menopause clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Recorded information included general demographic data, type of menopause, menopausal symptom intensity (Kupperman index) and baseline hormonal and metabolic parameters. METS was established if three or more of the following criteria were met: body mass index (BMI) >28.8 kg/m(2), fasting glycaemia ≥100 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) menopause and 38.9% were obese. In all, 23.1% met diagnostic criteria for METS who were significantly older and displayed higher rates of being married, obesity and abnormal glucose, triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure values, when compared with those without the syndrome. The mean Kupperman index score for the whole sample was 26.4±10.6, with 73.8% displaying moderate to severe scores (20 or more). Logistic regression analysis determined that obesity and marriage status were independent risk factors related to more severe menopausal symptoms (Kupperman index scores of 20 or more). Although METS was observed in a lower frequency than previous reports, obesity was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal Spanish women.

  14. Early carotid endarterectomy performed 2 to 5 days after the onset of neurologic symptoms leads to comparable results to carotid endarterectomy performed at later time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Farber, Alik; Abou Ali, Adham N; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Eslami, Mohammad H

    2017-12-01

    Timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) after onset of neurologic symptoms remains controversial. We assessed the association of CEA timing with postoperative outcomes. The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) database (2003-2014) was queried to identify CEA performed for symptomatic carotid stenosis during the same hospitalization. Cases were divided into four groups based on the time from onset of neurologic symptoms to CEA: group I, <2 days; group II, 2 to 5 days; group III, ≥6 days; and group IV, same-day CEA. The χ2 test and t-test were used to compare demographics, medical history, modified Rankin scores, and outcomes (30-day postoperative death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and aggregate events [stroke/myocardial infarction]). Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare the association of time to surgery with outcomes while adjusting for confounding variables. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed at 1 year to evaluate survival and stroke rates between the groups. There were 989 of 14,864 VSGNE CEA cases that fit the inclusion criteria. The frequency of cases was highest in group II (36.6%), followed by groups I (31.9%), III (18.9%), and IV (12.4%). Age, gender, and comorbidity compositions were similar between groups, although group III had the highest rates of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass graft procedures, congestive heart failure, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 4 and the highest modified Rankin score (P < .05). Stroke rates were highest in group I (7.3%; P = .016), whereas group III had the highest rate of discharges to nursing facilities (37.2%; P < .001); other adverse outcomes were comparable among groups. CEAs in group I had significantly increased adjusted odds of stroke; adverse outcomes of CEAs in groups II and III were comparable to those in group IV. Our results suggest that CEAs performed 2 to 5 days after a neurologic event

  15. Chapter 38: American neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding.

  16. Neurological manifestaions among Sudanese patients with multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study demonstrated that the most common non- neurological symptoms was locomotor symptoms (24%) ,while the most common neurological symptoms were backache and neck pain .The most common neurological findings were cord compression (8%) followed by peripheral neuropathy (2%) and CVA (2%). 22% of ...

  17. Acupuncture in the treatment of cancer-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nadia Elisabeth; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture is being adopted by cancer patients for a wide range of cancer-related symptoms including highly prevalent psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, and impairment in quality of life. Pharmacological treatment of prevalent symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance can contribute to the high chemical burden already carried by cancer patients, creating additional side effects. As a result, patients and providers alike are interested in evidence-based nonpharmacologic alternatives like acupuncture for these symptoms. This article reviews the current literature (January 2000 through April 2013) for acupuncture in cancer-related psychological symptoms with attention to both efficacy and acupuncture-specific methodology. All published studies that met our review criteria demonstrate a positive signal for acupuncture for the treatment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and for improving quality of life with most results showing statistical significance. However, there are only a handful of acupuncture studies that were specifically designed to evaluate depression, sleep disturbance, and quality of life as primary outcomes, and no studies were found that looked at anxiety as a primary outcome in this population. Published studies in cancer patients and survivors show that acupuncture treatment is not only safe but also more acceptable with fewer side effects than standard of care pharmacological treatments like antidepressants. Finally, there is wide variability in both the implementation and reporting of acupuncture methods in the literature, with only 2 of 12 studies reporting full details of acupuncture methods as outlined in the revised Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines, published in 2010 and providing an essential framework for the reporting of acupuncture methodology. This lack of methodological detail affects outcomes, generalizability, and validity of research

  18. Anti-tumor immune response correlates with neurological symptoms in a dog with spontaneous astrocytoma treated by gene and vaccine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Grogan, Patrick T; Seiler, Charlie; Goulart, Michelle; Santacruz, Karen S; Carlson, Cathy; Chen, Wei; Olin, Mike R; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G; Haines, Stephen J; Ohlfest, John R

    2010-04-26

    Gene therapy and vaccination have been tested in malignant glioma patients with modest, albeit encouraging results. The combination of these therapies has demonstrated synergistic efficacy in murine models but has not been reported in large animals. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (GemA) is a low-grade glioma that typically progresses to lethal malignancy despite conventional therapies. Until now there has been no useful animal model of GemA. Here we report the treatment of a dog with spontaneous GemA using the combination of surgery, intracavitary adenoviral interferon gamma (IFNgamma) gene transfer, and vaccination with glioma cell lysates mixed with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Surgical tumor debulking and delivery of Ad-IFNgamma into the resection cavity were performed. Autologous tumor cells grew slowly in culture, necessitating vaccination with allogeneic tumor lysate in four of the five vaccinations. Transient left-sided blindness and hemiparesis occurred following the fourth and fifth vaccinations. These neurological symptoms correlated with a peak in the levels of tumor-reactive IgG and CD8(+) T cells measured in the blood. All symptoms resolved and this dog remains tumor-free over 450 days following surgery. This case report preliminarily demonstrates the feasibility of treating dogs with spontaneous glioma using immune-based therapy and warrants further study using this therapeutic approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  20. Menopause-related symptoms: traditional Chinese medicine vs hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hoda; Feng Liu, Yan; Du, Lin; Hua Wang, Chao; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Ollah Esmaily, Habib; Azizi, Hamideh; Ou Xue, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), acupuncture, and hormone therapy on menopause- related symptoms of peri- and postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven Chinese women completed 2 months of treatment with either CHM (5 g twice daily, n = 22), acupuncture plus CHM (Kun Bao Wan) 5 g twice daily plus sessions of acupuncture, n = 20), or hormone therapy (n = 15). Kupperman index score, levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol, and the number of symptoms before and after treatment were the main outcome measures. CHM, acupuncture plus CHM, and hormone therapy significantly decreased Kupperman score (P acupuncture plus CHM and CHM with significantly better results by acupuncture plus CHM. Acupuncture plus CHM, as well as hormone therapy, significantly reduced the level of FSH (P .05). The mean difference in the level of FSH between baseline and 2 months among the three groups was significantly different (P = .02). This difference was only between CHM and hormone therapy with significantly better results by hormone therapy. The three treatments didn't make any significant increase in the level of E2 (P > .05). application of the combination of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture proved as effective as hormone therapy in the treatment of menopause-related symptoms, and it achieved better outcomes than herbal medicine alone.

  1. Neurological aspects of vibroacoustic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho Pimenta, A J; Castelo Branco, N A

    1999-03-01

    Mood and behavioral abnormalities are the most common early findings related to vibroacoustic disease (VAD). Other signs and symptoms have been observed in VAD patients. Brain MRI discloses small multifocal lesions in about 50% of subjects with more than 10 yr of occupational exposure to large pressure amplitude (> or = 90 dB SPL) and low frequency (< or = 500 Hz) (LPALF) noise. However, to date, there have been no studies globally integrating all the neurological, imaging and neurophysiological data of VAD patients. This is the main goal of this study. The 60 male Caucasians diagnosed with VAD were neurologically evaluated in extreme detail in order to systematically identify the most common and significant neurological disturbances in VAD. This population demonstrates cognitive changes (identified through psychological and neurophysiological studies (ERP P300)), vertigo and auditory changes, visual impairment, epilepsy, and cerebrovascular diseases. Neurological examination reveals pathological signs and reflexes, most commonly the palmo-mental reflex. A vascular pattern underlying the multifocal hyperintensities in T2 MR imaging, with predominant involvement of the small arteries of the white matter, is probably the visible organic substratum of the neurological picture. However, other pathophyisological mechanisms are involved in epileptic symptomatology.

  2. The feasibility of home polysomnographic recordings prescribed for sleep-related neurological disorders: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, N; Jonas, J; Schaff, J-L; Koessler, L; Maillard, L; Vespignani, H

    2014-09-01

    Home polysomnography is being increasingly developed for sleep studies, with various grades of quality. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of affordable, high quality home polysomnographic recordings prescribed for suspected sleep-related neurological disorders. We prospectively screened all patients referred to the specialist sleep disorders clinic in Nancy University Hospital between May 2011 and August 2011. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they required polysomnography for the diagnosis of a sleep-related neurological disorder. One-night, polysomnography was performed in each patient's home by a trained sleep technician. Financial cost was determined prior to inclusion. A recording was considered as satisfactory if all the following criteria were present: at least, one EEG channel with continuous signal allowing determination of sleep stages and wake during more than 66% of sleep time; at least, one usable respiratory channel (airflow or either band) during more than 66% of sleep time; and usable oximetry during more than 66% of sleep time. Forty-eight of the 139 screened patients were included. Among the 48 home polysomnography recordings, 35 (72.9%) were satisfactory. Thirteen (27.1%) tracings displayed an unsatisfactory loss of EEG data, including seven (14.6%) tracings with an unsatisfactory loss of respiratory data. Home polysomnography prescribed for suspected sleep-related neurological disorders is feasible, with affordable costs, whilst maintaining high quality recording. Further studies are needed to measure the real medico-economic impact of promoting outpatient domiciliary explorations for sleep-related neurological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Does cervical kyphosis relate to symptoms following whiplash injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for developing long-lasting neck pain after whiplash injuries are still largely unrevealed. In the present study it was investigated whether a kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, as opposed to a straight or a lordotic spine, was associated with the symptoms at baseline......, and with the prognosis one year following a whiplash injury. MRI was performed in 171 subjects about 10 d after the accident, and 104 participated in the pain recording at 1-year follow-up. It was demonstrated that postures as seen on MRI can be reliably categorized and that a straight spine is the most frequent...... appearance of the cervical spine in supine MRI. In relation to symptoms it was seen that a kyphotic deformity was associated with reporting the highest intensities of headache at baseline, but not with an increased risk of long-lasting neck pain or headache. In conclusion, a kyphotic deformity...

  4. Stress-Related Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation: The Roles of Rumination and Depressive Symptoms Vary by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1375 young adults, primarily non-White (78 %) females (72 %), recruited from a public university in the Northeastern U.S., who completed measures of stress-related symptoms (as a response to a stressful event), rumination, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. The relation between stress-related symptoms and suicidal ideation was accounted for by the brooding subtype of rumination and depressive symptoms among females. Depressive symptoms, but not rumination, better accounted for suicidal ideation among males. These findings suggest that the role of brooding and depressive symptoms in the relationship between stress-related symptoms and suicidal ideation may vary by gender. PMID:27695146

  5. Prevalence of Sleep Related Symptoms in Four Latin American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouscoulet, Luis Torre; Vázquez-García, Juan Carlos; Muiño, Adriana; Márquez, Maria; López, Maria Victorina; de Oca, Maria Montes; Talamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuze, Julio; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of the most common sleep related symptoms (SRS) in the metropolitan areas of Mexico City, Montevideo (Uruguay), Santiago (Chile), and Caracas (Venezuela). Methods: The study consisted of a multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥ 40 years living in metropolitan areas. All participants completed a questionnaire on sleep related symptoms. Simplified respiratory polygraphy during sleep was conducted on 188 subjects from Mexico City. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 11 and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 15 events/h; a cut-off of 15 was chosen because of its high sensitivity and specificity in association with the portable monitor used in the study. Results: The study included 4,533 subjects (1,062 in Mexico City, 941 in Montevideo, 1,173 in Santiago, and 1,357 in Caracas). Snoring was reported by 60.2% (95% CI 58.8% to 61.6%), excessive daytime sleepiness by 16.4% (15.3% to 17.5%), observed apneas by 12.3% (11.4% to 13.3%), insomnia by 34.7% (33.3% to 36%), sedative use by 15.1% (14.1% to 16.2%), daytime napping by 29.2% (27.7% to 30.6%), and a combination of snoring, sleepiness, and observed apneas by 3.4% (2.9% to 4%). Men had a higher frequency of snoring and daytime napping, whereas women reported more insomnia and sedative use. Prevalence of OSAS varied from 2.9% among subjects who denied snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and observed apneas, to 23.5% among those reporting these 3 symptoms. Conclusions: A high prevalence of sleep related symptoms and undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea in Latin America was observed. Citation: Bouscoulet LT; Vázquez-García JC; Muiño A; Márquez M; López MV; Montes de Oca M; Talamo C; Valdivia G; Pertuze J; Menezes AMB; Pérez-Padilla R. Prevalence of Sleep Related Symptoms in Four Latin American Cities. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(6):579-585. PMID:19110888

  6. Leg pain location and neurological signs relate to outcomes in primary care patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    Background Low back pain (LBP) patients with related leg pain and signs of nerve root involvement are considered to have a worse prognosis than patients with LBP alone. However, it is unclear whether leg pain location above or below the knee and the presence of neurological signs are important...... in primary care patients. The objectives of this study were to explore whether the four Quebec Task Force categories (QTFC) based on the location of pain and on neurological signs have different characteristics at the time of care seeking, whether these QTFC are associated with outcome, and if so whether......, across LBP with leg pain above the knee and below the knee to LBP with nerve root involvement. However, the variation within the categories was considerable. Conclusion The QTFC identify different LBP subgroups at baseline and there is a consistent ranking of the four categories with respect to outcomes...

  7. Leg pain location and neurological signs relate to outcomes in primary care patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Lisbeth; Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) patients with related leg pain and signs of nerve root involvement are considered to have a worse prognosis than patients with LBP alone. However, it is unclear whether leg pain location above or below the knee and the presence of neurological signs are important...... in primary care patients. The objectives of this study were to explore whether the four Quebec Task Force categories (QTFC) based on the location of pain and on neurological signs have different characteristics at the time of care seeking, whether these QTFC are associated with outcome, and if so whether......, across LBP with leg pain above the knee and below the knee to LBP with nerve root involvement. However, the variation within the categories was considerable. CONCLUSION: The QTFC identify different LBP subgroups at baseline and there is a consistent ranking of the four categories with respect to outcomes...

  8. [Neurological changes related to malnutrition during the spanish civil war (1936-1939)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Jesús M

    2014-04-01

    In this lecture, given at the International Conferences on Neuroscience, in Quito, May 31st-June 1st of 2013, the topic of famine situations during the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, was approached. Madrid, the capital of Spain, was under food, water and milk rationing during that period. This situation led to conditions that showed the relationships between the nervous system and nutrition. The Madrilenian population was submitted to a real experiment of hyponutrition, similar to the one that may be reproduced at the laboratory. At the end of the war, the National Direction on Health and the Institute of Medical Investigations, with the collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation, carried out a series of clinical and food consumption surveys among the Madrilenian population. There were three medical situations that were of particular relevance during the Civil War and after it: the pellagra epidemics, the onset of lathyrism, and the socalled Vallecas syndrome. The occurrence of pellagra cases was paramount because it allowed reconsidering all the unspecific symptoms observed from an already known vitamin deficiency. Pellagra became the most prevalent deficitrelated disease, and most clearly related to nutrition. Lathyrism is a chronic intoxication produced by the accumulation of neurotoxins. It is due to common intake of chickling peas (Lathyrus sativus). Chickling peas are toxic only if they represent more than 30% of the daily calories consumed for a prolonged period greater than two to three months. Lathyrism would reoccur in the Spanish population after the war, in 1941 and 1942, the so called "famine years", when due to the scarcity of foods chickling pea flour was again consumed in high amounts. Deficiency-related neuropathies observed in Madrid during the Civil War led to new and original clinical descriptions. In children from schools of the Vallecas neighborhood, a deficiency syndrome, likely related to vitamin B complex deficiency, was described, which

  9. Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbom, A

    2001-01-01

    In 1979 the first study was published which indicated that environmental exposure to power frequency, electric and magnetic fields (EMF), might increase the risk of chronic disease. This was a study on cancer. However, this research area has gradually evolved and come also to include outcomes other than cancer. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the literature on neurodegenerative diseases and on suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF by using a meta-analysis technique. It is concluded that for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there are relatively strong data indicating that electric utility work may be associated with an increased risk. However, EMF exposure is only one of several possible explanations to this. For Alzheimer's disease the combined data on an association with EMF are weaker than that for ALS. For suicide an overall assessment yields the conclusion that the support for an association is weak. For depressive symptoms the assessment is more complex, but the overall conclusion is nevertheless that the evidence is relatively weak. For other diseases, such as Parkinson's, there is not enough information for an assessment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Sapra, Katherine J; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the occurrence of 5-minute Apgar scores of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, free-standing birth center midwife, and home midwife) in the United States from 2007-2010. Data from the United States Centers for Disease Control's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files were used to assess deliveries by physicians and midwives in and out of the hospital for the 4-year period from 2007-2010 for singleton term births (≥37 weeks' gestation) and ≥2500 g. Five-minute Apgar scores of 0 and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction were analyzed for 4 groups by birth setting and birth attendant (hospital physician, hospital midwife, freestanding birth center midwife, and home midwife). Home births (relative risk [RR], 10.55) and births in free-standing birth centers (RR, 3.56) attended by midwives had a significantly higher risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 (P Apgar score of 0 and seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction of out-of-hospital births should be disclosed by obstetric practitioners to women who express an interest in out-of-hospital birth. Physicians should address patients' motivations for out-of-hospital delivery by continuously improving safe and compassionate care of pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients in the hospital setting. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychometric Properties of a Generic, Patient-Centred Palliative Care Outcome Measure of Symptom Burden for People with Progressive Long Term Neurological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Crosby, Vincent; Wilcock, Andrew; Burman, Rachael; Silber, Eli; Hepgul, Nilay; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Higginson, Irene J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no standard palliative care outcome measure for people with progressive long term neurological conditions (LTNC). This study aims to determine the psychometric properties of a new 8-item palliative care outcome scale of symptom burden (IPOS Neuro-S8) in this population. Data and Methods Data were merged from a Phase II palliative care intervention study in multiple sclerosis (MS) and a longitudinal observational study in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The IPOS Neuro-S8 was assessed for its data quality, score distribution, ceiling and floor effects, reliability, factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, concurrent validity with generic (Palliative care Outcome Scale) and condition specific measures (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale; Non-motor Symptoms Questionnaire; Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire), responsiveness and minimally clinically important difference. Results Of the 134 participants, MS patients had a mean Extended Disability Status Scale score 7.8 (SD = 1.0), patients with an IPD, MSA or PSP were in Hoehn & Yahr stage 3–5. The IPOS Neuro-S8 had high data quality (2% missing), mean score 8 (SD = 5; range 0–32), no ceiling effects, borderline floor effects, good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.7) and moderate test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient = 0.6). The results supported a moderately correlated two-factor structure (Pearson’s r = 0.5). It was moderately correlated with generic and condition specific measures (Pearson’s r: 0.5–0.6). There was some evidence for discriminant validity in IPD, MSA and PSP (p = 0.020), and for good responsiveness and longitudinal construct validity. Conclusions IPOS Neuro-S8 shows acceptable to promising psychometric properties in common forms of progressive LTNCs. Future work needs to confirm these findings with larger samples and its usefulness in wider disease groups. PMID

  12. Management of Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Ledbetter, Alexander K

    2016-05-01

    This case review examines treatments speech-language pathologists at our clinic delivered to middle school, high school, and college students for the management of persistent cognitive symptoms after sport-related concussion. The goal is to examine a range of treatment options, describe clinical rationale for selecting those treatments, and report outcomes in order to identify feasible interventions for systematic evaluation through efficacy research. Review of clinic intake data identified 63 cases referred for cognitive rehabilitation over a 36-month period. Twenty-four cases (14 women and 10 men) met selection criteria, including documented sport-related concussion, postconcussion symptoms persisting at least 2 months with deleterious effect on school performance, and enrollment in secondary or postsecondary education. The authors independently coded demographics, treatment approaches, functional goal domains, and outcomes. Treatment approaches fell into 4 broad categories: direct attention training, metacognitive strategy training, training assistive technology for cognition, and psychoeducational supports. Eighty-three percent of clients achieved self-selected functional goals. Research has focused primarily on return to play and provision of academic accommodations in the initial weeks following concussion. Findings from this case series suggest that speech-language pathologists can deliver individualized interventions that lead to positive clinical outcomes. The authors hope findings encourage efficacy research.

  13. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  14. Efficacy of early administration of escitalopram on depressive and emotional symptoms and neurological dysfunction after stroke: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong S; Lee, Eun-Jae; Chang, Dae-Il; Park, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Heo, Ji Hoe; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Eog; Kim, Hahn Young; Kim, Seongheon; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, Jei; Seo, Woo-Keun; Lee, Jun; Park, Sang-Won; Koh, Seong-Ho; Kim, Jin Young; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2017-01-01

    Mood and emotional disturbances are common in patients with stroke, and adversely affect the clinical outcome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of early administration of escitalopram to reduce moderate or severe depressive symptoms and improve emotional and neurological dysfunction in patients with stroke. This was a placebo controlled, double-blind trial done at 17 centres in South Korea. Patients who had had an acute stroke within the past 21 days were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral escitalopram (10 mg/day) or placebo for 3 months. Randomisation was done with permuted blocks stratified by centre, via a web-based system. The primary endpoint was the frequency of moderate or severe depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥16). Endpoints were assessed at 3 months after randomisation in the full analysis set (patients who took study medication and underwent assessment of primary endpoint after randomisation), in all patients who were enrolled and randomly assigned (intention to treat), and in all patients who completed the trial (per-protocol analysis). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01278498. Between Jan 27, 2011, and June 30, 2014, 478 patients were assigned to placebo (n=237) or escitalopram (n=241); 405 were included in the full analysis set (195 in the placebo group, 210 in the escitalopram group). The primary outcome did not differ by study group in the full analysis set (25 [13%] patients in the placebo group vs 27 [13%] in the escitalopram group; odds ratio [OR] 1·00, 95% CI 0·56-1·80; p>0·99) or in the intention-to-treat analysis (34 [14%] vs 35 [15%]; OR 1·01, 95% CI 0·61-1·69, p=0·96). The study medication was generally well tolerated; the most common adverse events were constipation (14 [6%] patients who received placebo vs 14 [6%] who received escitalopram), muscle pain (16 [7%] vs ten [4%]), and insomnia (12 [5%] vs 12 [5%]). Diarrhoea was more common in the

  15. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  16. [Forty-two years of neurophysiology in Aragon in relation to other neurological specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Alegría, F

    1998-04-01

    Forty two years after the first EEG had been done in our community we decided (encouraged by the Sociedad Aragonesa de Neurofisiología Clínica) to write a biographical synopsis of the specialty of neurophysiology in Aragón, since knowledge of the past usually makes for a better future. Initially, seven specialists, many others with their smaller contributions, the proceedings of the Sociedad Aragonesa de Neurofisiología Clínica, the proceedings of Serrate and the archives of the chair of Psychiatry of Zaragoza University have all provided information about the history of neurophysiology in Aragón. We studied the activities of public hospitals, private centres as well as academic neurophysiology activities. We also evaluated influences from outside our community in training different specialists, finding information about training in France and Germany an, in our country, in Barcelona and Pamplona. We observed that the specialty has now become fully developed in our community. However, it had done so in close relationship with the specialties of Neurology and Psychiatry, with which it is perfectly integrated. The university has been successfully involved in development of the specialty and, in recent years, so has the Sociedad Aragonesa de Neurofisiología Clínica.

  17. Relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating; A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, S.T.P.; Stice, E.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Strien, T. van; Croon, M.A.; Heck, G.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Temporal relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating are tested through three competing models that demonstrate the relationship between future binge eating, dietary restraint and depressive symptoms. The pattern of relations and effect sizes suggest that depressive

  18. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) in a patient with confusional symptoms, diffuse EEG abnormalities, and bilateral vasospasm in transcranial Doppler ultrasound: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo de la Cruz, M; Domínguez Rubio, R; Luque Buzo, E; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Orcajo Rincón, J; Prieto Montalvo, J; Contreras Chicote, A; Grandas Pérez, F

    2017-04-17

    HaNDL syndrome (transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis) is characterised by one or more episodes of headache and transient neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. To date, few cases of HaNDL manifesting with confusional symptoms have been described. Likewise, very few patients with HaNDL and confusional symptoms have been evaluated with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). TCD data from patients with focal involvement reveal changes consistent with vasomotor alterations. We present the case of a 42-year-old man who experienced headache and confusional symptoms and displayed pleocytosis, diffuse slow activity on EEG, increased blood flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries on TCD, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings suggestive of diffuse involvement, especially in the left hemisphere. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a patient with HaNDL, confusional symptoms, diffuse slow activity on EEG, and increased blood flow velocity in TCD. Our findings suggest a relationship between cerebral vasomotor changes and the pathophysiology of HaNDL. TCD may be a useful tool for early diagnosis of HaNDL. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Calibrated imaging reveals altered grey matter metabolism related to white matter microstructure and symptom severity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Nicholas A; Turner, Monroe P; Ouyang, Minhui; Himes, Lyndahl; Thomas, Binu P; Hutchison, Joanna L; Faghihahmadabadi, Shawheen; Davis, Scott L; Strain, Jeremy F; Spence, Jeffrey; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang; Hart, John; Frohman, Teresa C; Frohman, Elliot M; Okuda, Darin T; Rypma, Bart

    2017-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves damage to white matter microstructures. This damage has been related to grey matter function as measured by standard, physiologically-nonspecific neuroimaging indices (i.e., blood-oxygen-level dependent signal [BOLD]). Here, we used calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine the extent to which specific, evoked grey matter physiological processes were associated with white matter diffusion in MS. Evoked changes in BOLD, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ) were measured in visual cortex. Individual differences in the diffusion tensor measure, radial diffusivity, within occipital tracts were strongly associated with MS patients' BOLD and CMRO2 . However, these relationships were in opposite directions, complicating the interpretation of the relationship between BOLD and white matter microstructural damage in MS. CMRO2 was strongly associated with individual differences in patients' fatigue and neurological disability, suggesting that alterations to evoked oxygen metabolic processes may be taken as a marker for primary symptoms of MS. This work demonstrates the first application of calibrated and diffusion imaging together and details the first application of calibrated functional MRI in a neurological population. Results lend support for neuroenergetic hypotheses of MS pathophysiology and provide an initial demonstration of the utility of evoked oxygen metabolism signals for neurology research. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5375-5390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  1. Magnesium/calcium related neurological disorders in the ALS focus of the Kii Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Yoshida, Munehito; Tamaki, Tetsuya; Taniguchi, Yasunori; Minamide, Akihito; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1997-01-01

    Current epidemiological surveys in the Western Pacific area and Kii Peninsula have suggested that low calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg) and high aluminum(Al) and manganese(Mn) in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenetic process of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) and Parkinsonism-dementia(PD). The condition of unbalanced minerals was experimentally mimicked in this study using rats. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. In the groups maintained on unbalanced mineral diets, Ca and Mg contents of the bones were lower than standard diet. On the other hand, Ca content of CNS showed higher values in the unbalanced diet groups than those in the standard diet group. This was determined by neutron activation analysis(NAA) at KUR. Also, Ca content in soft tissues of rats given unbalanced mineral diets was higher than those on standard diet. Mg content of soft tissues and spinal cord of rats was markedly lower in the low Ca-Mg plus high Al diet group than the other three groups as determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry(ICP). Six Kii cases with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis(ALS) also showed higher Ca and lower Mg contents in the CNS tissues than those of neurologically normal controls. The calcification of the spinal ligaments(CSL) has been reported in only 120 cases in the world and 28 cases of CSL in the Kii Peninsula have been found in the same foci as ALS. We analyzed Mg content of 7 spinal bones and 10 ligaments of the CSL and Ca content of 5 spinal bones compared with controls. The CSL showed lower values of Mg contents in bones and ligaments compared to controls. The Ca content in bones of CSL was significantly lower than that of controls. This suggests that the environmental factor may contribute to the pathogenesis of CSL due to low Ca and Mg intake as well as for ALS. (J.P.N.)

  2. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  3. Assessing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among otolaryngology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Grundfast, Kenneth M; Levi, Jessica R

    Previous studies have suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms are common among practicing otolaryngologists. Early training can be the ideal time to foster knowledge of ergonomics and develop safe work habits, however, little data exists regarding musculoskeletal symptoms in residents. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize musculoskeletal symptoms in a preliminary sample of otolaryngology residents. A cross-sectional survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was sent to 30 Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residencies to examine musculoskeletal symptoms among residents. A two-sample test of proportions was performed to compare symptoms between male and female residents. In total, 141 respondents (response rate=34.7%) completed the survey. Fifty-five percent of survey respondents were male and 45% were female. Musculoskeletal symptoms were most frequently reported in the neck (82.3%), followed by the lower back (56%), upper back (40.4%), and shoulders (40.4%). The most common symptoms were stiffness in the neck (71.6%), pain in the neck (61.7%), and pain in the lower back (48.2%). In total, 6.4% of residents missed work and 16.3% of residents stopped during an operation at some point due to their symptoms. Most residents (88.3%) believed their musculoskeletal symptoms were attributed to their surgical training. Female residents were significantly more likely to experience neck (p<0.0001) and wrist/hand (p=0.019) discomfort compared to male residents. Musculoskeletal symptoms were common among residents, approaching rates similar to those previously identified in practicing otolaryngologists. Increased emphasis on surgical ergonomics is warranted to improve workplace safety and prevent future injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. Methods A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants’ socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All...

  5. Neurological manifestations of atypical celiac disease in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, Çiğdem Genç; Aksoy, Erhan; Aksoy, Ayşe; Yüksel, Deniz; Özbay, Ferda

    2017-09-01

    Various typical and atypical neurological manifestations can be seen as the initial symptoms of celiac disease (CD). We suggest that gluten toxicity is the most suspicious triggering risk factor for probable pathophysiological pathways of neurological involvement in atypical CD. The medical charts of 117 patients diagnosed with atypical CD were retrieved from a tertiary center in Ankara, Turkey. Eight patients reported as having neurologic manifestations as initiating symptoms were evaluated in detail. The initial neurological manifestations of CD in our study included atypical absence, which was reported first in this study, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, severe axial hypotonia and down phenotype, multifocal leukoencephalopathy, mild optic neuritis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and short duration headaches. Seizures mostly emphasizing atypical absence could be the initial presentation manifestation of CD, first described in this literature. Gluten toxicity could be one of the most powerful triggering factors for developing epilepsy in CD. Learning disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, short duration headaches, mild optic neuritis, encephalopathy, and DS could also be the initial neurological manifestations of atypical CD. A gluten-restricted diet may improve neurological complaints, epileptic discharges, and neuropsychiatric symptoms. All we found may be a small part of the full range of neurological disorders of unknown origin related to CD. Clinical suspicion should be the rule for accurate diagnosis of the disease.

  6. Reprint of "Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2017-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurocysticercosis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011: Epidemiology of a neglected neurologic cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Cavalcanti, Marta Guimarães; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38.2%) as associated cause. Overall age-adjusted mortality rate for the period was 0.97 deaths/1,000,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.12). The highest NCC-related mortality rates were found in males, elderly, white race/colour and residents in endemic states/regions. Age-adjusted mortality rates at national level decreased significantly over time (annual percent change [APC]: -4.7; 95% CI: -6.0 to -3.3), with a decrease in the Southeast, South and Central-West regions, and a non-significant increasing trend in the North and Northeast regions. We identified spatial and spatiotemporal high-risk mortality clusters located mainly in NCC-endemic areas. Conditions related to the nervous system were the most commonly associated causes of death when NCC was mentioned as an underlying cause, and HIV/AIDS was the main underlying cause when NCC was an associated cause. NCC is a neglected and preventable cause of severe neurologic disease and death with high public health impact in Brazil. There is a clear need to strengthen nationwide epidemiological surveillance and control for the taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gluten intolerance: gender- and age-related differences in symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Maria Teresa; Fredella, Clara; Saladino, Valeria; Trovato, Cristina; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Quatrini, Maurizio; Prampolini, Luigia

    2005-01-01

    Gluten intolerance is a common, immunologically mediated disorder with a widely variable clinical presentation that affects genetically predisposed subjects. Women seem to be more frequently affected although data on sex differences are poor. In this study the prevalence of different clinical pictures according to sex and age is analysed in a large series of patients. A total of 1436 patients with gluten intolerance were retrospectively considered, diagnosed from January 1975 to August 2001 based on compatible small-bowel biopsy and response to a gluten-free diet, plus immunofluorescent detection of granular IgA in papillary derma for dermatitis herpetiformis. The clinical picture at onset (classic, non-classic, silent) and age at diagnosis ( 2 and 14 years) was recorded; 362 parents of coeliac probands undergoing a familial screening were also studied. The relations among sex, age class and symptoms were analysed using the chi2 test with Yates's correction. The overall female/male ratio was 2.3:1 but the inter-sex difference was significant only when the diagnosis was made in adulthood where a significant association between iron-deficiency anaemia as manifestation at onset in adult women (34% versus 7%) was found. Low weight, dyspepsia and hypertransaminasaemia were more common in adult men than women (20%, 14% and 7% versus 13%, 3% and 2%, respectively). Dermatitis herpetiformis was present more frequently in men (16% versus 9%). The prevalence of silent cases was 6% in men and 3% in women. Familial screening showed the same prevalence (9.3%) of current coeliac disease in fathers and mothers. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is more frequent in women but physicians' awareness of sex- and age-related differences in clinical presentation could improve diagnostic performances in men.

  9. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying Dyscalculia Symptoms Related to Magnocellular Reasoning Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Greger Siem; Babic, Ankica

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that has developed a mobile software application for assisting diagnosis of learning disabilities in mathematics, called dyscalculia, and measuring correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and magnocellular reasoning. Usually, software aids for dyscalculic individuals are focused on both assisting diagnosis and teaching the material. The software developed in this study however maintains a specific focus on the former, and in the process attempts to capture alleged correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and possible underlying causes of the condition. Classification of symptoms is performed by k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm classifying five parameters evaluating user's skills, returning calculated performance in each category as well as correlation strength between detected symptoms and magnocellular reasoning abilities. Expert evaluations has found the application to be appropriate and productive for its intended purpose, proving that mobile software is a suitable and valuable tool for assisting dyscalculia diagnosis and identifying root causes of developing the condition.

  11. Symptoms in relation to chemicals and dampness in newly built dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Y; Kishi, R; Sata, F; Katakura, Y; Urashima, Y; Hatakeyama, A; Kobayashi, S; Jin, K; Kurahashi, N; Kondo, T; Gong, Y Y; Umemura, T

    2004-10-01

    As the airtightness of dwellings has recently increased, problems associated with indoor air pollution and dampness have become important environmental health issues. The aim of this study was to clarify whether symptoms in residents living in newly built dwellings were related to chemicals and dampness. Symptoms of 317 residents were surveyed by standardized questionnaires, and the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their homes were measured. Dampness (condensation on window panes and/or walls, and mold growth) was identified by questionnaires given to the householders or their partners. Some VOCs (toluene, butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, alpha-pinene, p-dichlorobenzene, nonanal, and xylene) were significantly related to the symptoms, and the sum of all VOCs (all identified VOCs) was significantly related to throat and respiratory symptoms [odds ratio (OR) for eye symptoms =2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-5.5], although the concentrations of VOCs were relatively low. As for the dampness index, condensation on window panes and/or walls was related to all symptoms, and mold growth was related to all symptoms except skin, throat and respiratory and general symptoms. As the number of dampness signs increased, the ORs increased for the symptoms except general symptoms (OR for nose symptoms = 4.4, 95% CI 1.6-11.9). Both VOCs and dampness were significantly related to symptoms. We should take measures to reduce the concentrations of VOCs, dampness and microbial growth in dwellings.

  12. Neurological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus: role of antiphospholipid antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golstein, M; Meyer, O; Bourgeois, P; Palazzo, E; Nicaise, P; Labarre, C; Kahn, M F

    1993-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APL) are associated with venous and arterial thrombosis in SLE patients. Various thrombotic and non-thrombotic neurological manifestations have been reported in SLE but whether or not they are related to the presence of APL antibodies remains uncertain. To assess the possible association between neurological involvement in SLE and APL antibodies, IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (IgG ACL) were looked for using an ELISA technique in 92 consecutive SLE patients seen over a one-year period. Other APL determinations included VDRL and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) testing using APTT and the diluted thromboplastin time. Twenty-four SLE patients presented with neurological manifestations (40 episodes): 15/24 (62.5%) were found positive for APL antibodies (11 VDRL, 8 LAC, 7 ACL antibodies) versus 22/68 patients (32%) without neurological symptoms (p < 0.01). APL antibodies antedated neurological symptoms in 13/16 cases. Neurological manifestations were subsequently divided into 3 groups: thrombotic (n = 14), psychosis and convulsions (n = 15), miscellaneous (n = 10). No correlation was found between APL antibodies and any of the 3 subgroups. Among patients with neurological SLE, APL antibodies were present in two with valvular heart disease, as well as in seven with a history of either deep vein thrombosis, livedo reticularis or miscarriage. Among 7 patients with thrombocytopenia and neurological symptoms, 6 had APL antibodies. These data suggest that APL syndrome is associated with neuro-ophthalmological manifestations of SLE regardless of whether or not the mechanism of neurological involvement is thrombotic. SLE patients with APL antibodies may be at risk for future neurological manifestations. However, it is still questionable that APL positivity has definite therapeutic consequences.

  13. Acute and subacute symptoms among workers in the printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Andersen, I; Mølhave, Lars

    1982-01-01

    The study population comprised 52 male printers and 52 controls. Each person was interviewed about job history, general health, and work-related symptoms. Symptoms from eyes and airways, neurological symptoms, and general symptoms were recorded. A lung function test and a measurement of the sense...

  14. Event-Related Potentials Index Subclinical Neurological Differences in HIV Patients During Rapid Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    W0C S. w C 1.44444444 4.44 0 7i tests were chosen instead of more traditional tests like the Weschler Adult Intelligence Test for three reasons: 1...battery of behavioral and electrophysiological assessments. The behavioral measures tested 10, computational skills, visual-spatial memory, and...affected. Another possible explanation for the inconsistencies in the HIV- related neuropsychological literature is that some tests allow the individual

  15. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  16. Are Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Mental Health Service Use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating the use of mental health services by combat veterans can help illuminate utilization and unmet needs of this population. The aims of this study were to estimate the use of mental health services and to examine how such use is associated with self-reported symptoms...... the Danish registers. RESULTS: The prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased over time, and almost 10% of the sample reported high levels of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years postdeployment. Overall, 37% of the soldiers utilized mental health services; 6% utilized psychiatric services, and 12.4% redeemed a prescription...... for psychiatric medicine. Approximately one-third received psychotherapy at the Military Psychological Division. In those reporting high PTSD symptomatology, 83% utilized 1 or more types of mental health service. At predeployment and homecoming, high PTSD symptomatology was significantly (P

  17. Bullous pemphigoid in a leg affected with hemiparesia: a possible relation of neurological diseases with bullous pemphigoid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureur, N; Descamps, V; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Picard-Dahan, C; Grossin, M; Belaich, S; Crickx, B

    2001-01-01

    We report a typical case of bullous pemphigoid (BP) associated with a neurological disorder and study a possible link between neurological disorders and BP. An 84-year-old hemiplegic woman presented with unilateral BP on the hemiparetic side. BP was confirmed by histological and immunofluorescence data. The medical records of the previous 46 consecutive patients with BP were retrospectively analyzed (average age: 79; median age: 85). Thirty of the 46 patients with BP had neurological disorders. These disorders included dementia, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke, Parkinson's disease, gonadotropic adenoma, trembling, dyskinesia, lumbar spinal stenosis. In a control group of the 46 consecutive oldest patients (older than 71; average age: 82,5; median age: 80) with another skin disease referred during the previous two-year-period to our one-day-unit only, 13 patients had a neurological disorder. This study demonstrates that there is a high prevalence of neurological disorders in patients with BP (p = 0.0004). A prospective case control study with neurological examination and psychometrical evaluation is warranted to confirm these data. We speculate that neuroautoimmunity associated with the aging process or neurological disorders may be involved in pemphigoid development via an autoimmune response against dystonin which shares homology with bullous pemphigoid antigen 1. Bullous pemphigoid could be considered to be a marker of neurological disorder.

  18. Neurological condition in 42-month-old children in relation to pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Fidler, [No Value; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1998-01-01

    Adverse neurological effects of exposure to PCBs have been found up to 18 months of age. Now we report on the effect of pre-and postnatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on the neurological condition at 42 months of age. For this purpose, PCB levels were determined in cord and maternal plasma, and used

  19. Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, Bjørn E; Koushede, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour...... to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance......, regardless of socio-economic position....

  20. Death anxiety as related to somatic symptoms in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2009-10-01

    Two undergraduate samples from Kuwait (52 men, 157 women; M age = 21.2 yr., SD =2.1) and the USA (46 men, 145 women; M age = 22.4 yr., SD = 5.3) answered the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The Kuwaiti sample obtained significantly higher mean scores on all the scales than the American sample. Scores on the Somatic Symptoms Inventory were positively correlated with Death Anxiety scores, indicating that people who enjoy good physical health are less concerned with death.

  1. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms

  2. Life Stress: Related Symptoms, Subjective Appraisal and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, James E.; And Others

    Stress and its influence upon physiological and emotional functioning has been well documented in research literature. In order to extend this research to study the relationship between accumulated life stress, symptoms, and coping responses, 202 college graduates and undergraduates, (144 females and 58 males) responded to three self-report…

  3. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Menstrually related worsening of symptoms in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorgdrager, A; DeKeyser, J

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the menstrual cycle influences multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. Seventy-two normally menstruating women (aged 20-50 years) with MS were interviewed. Of the 60 patients with a relapsing-remitting form of MS (RR-MS), 26 (43%) regularly

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  6. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  7. Dengue: a new challenge for neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is a leading cause of illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Forty percent of the world’s population currently lives in these areas. The clinical picture resulting from dengue infection can range from relatively minor to catastrophic hemorrhagic fever. Recently, reports have increased of neurological manifestations. Neuropathogenesis seems to be related to direct nervous system viral invasion, autoimmune reaction, metabolic and hemorrhagic disturbance. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis, encephalopathy, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, and cerebromeningeal hemorrhage. The development of neurological symptoms in patients with positive Immunoglobulin M (IgM dengue serology suggests a means of diagnosing the neurological complications associated with dengue. Viral antigens, specific IgM antibodies, and the intrathecal synthesis of dengue antibodies have been successfully detected in cerebrospinal fluid. However, despite diagnostic advancements, the treatment of neurological dengue is problematic. The launch of a dengue vaccine is expected to be beneficial.

  8. Neurological aspects of eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dejana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficult types of preeclampsia and eclampsia are presented with the neurological symptoms. The break of cerebral autoregulation mechanism plays the most important role in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nevertheless eclampsia isn’t just an ordinary hypertensive encephalopathy because other pathogenic mechanisms are involved in its appearance. The main neuropathologic changes are multifocal vasogenic edema, perivascular multiple microinfarctions and petechial hemorrhages. Neurological clinical manifestations are convulsions, headache, visual disturbances and rarely other discrete focal neurological symptoms. Eclampsia is a high-risk factor for onset of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. This is a reason why neurological diagnostic tests are sometimes needed. The method of choice for evaluation of complicated eclampsia is computerized brain topography that shows multiple areas of hypodensity in occipitoparietal regions. These changes are focal vasogenic cerebral edema. For differential diagnosis of eclampsia and stroke other diagnostic methods can be used - fundoscopic exam, magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebral angiography and cerebrospinal fluid exam. The therapy of eclampsia considers using of magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive, anticonvulsive and antiedematous drugs.

  9. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Autism Symptom-Related Traits in Probands and Parents: Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Schellenberg, Gerard; Bernier, Raphael; Abbott, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Autism susceptibility genes likely have effects on continuously distributed autism-related traits, yet few measures of such traits exist. The Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale (BPASS), developed for use with affected children and family members, measures social motivation, social expressiveness, conversational skills, and flexibility. Based…

  11. Clinical study on the cardiac hemodynamics and the possibility of demonstration of the left intraatrial thrombi by echocardiography, angiocardiography and computed tomography and the neurological symptoms in patients with heart disorder and cerebral embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1987-03-01

    In an attempt to elucidate risk factors for developing cerebral embolism (CE) in patients with heart disease, hemodynamic, sonographic or radiologic, and neurologic manifestations of heart disease developing into CE were retrospectively analyzed in 44 patients with CE and 122 patients with mitral valve disease (MVD). The most common underlying disease of CE was valve disease (50 %), followed by myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, and infectious endocarditis. In MVD patients, risk factors for CE were considered to be atrial fibrillation, mitral stenosis, and intraatrial thrombi. Combined use of various imaging modalities revealed the presence of intraatrial thrombi in 65 % of the CE patients. Cranial computed tomography showed hemorrhagic infarction in 22 %, and found the mid-arotic artery to be the commonest responsible region (81 %). The frequent initial neurologic symptom was hemiplegia. Half of the patients had disturbance of consciousness on admission. Prognosis was better in patients with MVD than those with the other types of heart disease. (Namekawa, K.). 117 refs.

  12. Hemangiosarcoma of the liver in workers of the PVC industry and other VC-induced diseases with angiologic-dermatologic, hepatologic, radiologic and neurologic symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halama, J.; Becker-Stone, S.; Halama, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Occupational diseases resulting from exposure to vinyl chloride (VC) include angiosarcoma of the liver and other neoplasms. Among workers exposed to VC the authors have found capillary abnormalities in the extremities, with scleroderma and Raynaud syndrome, acro-osteolysis, neurological and psychiatric diseases and chromosome abnormalities, as well as abnormal liver metabolism and haematological findings.

  13. Symptom-Based Clustering in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Relates to History of Aspirin Sensitivity and Postsurgical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Rohit; Patel, Neil; Jin, Jay; Hagan, John; Rank, Matthew; Lal, Devyani; Kita, Hirohito; O'Brien, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms burden in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be assessed by interviews or by means of validated tools such as the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). However, when only the total SNOT-22 scores are used, the pattern of symptom distribution and heterogeneity in patient symptoms is lost. To use a standardized symptom assessment tool (SNOT-22) on preoperative symptoms to understand symptom heterogeneity in CRS and to aid in characterization of distinguishing clinical features between subgroups. This was a retrospective review of 97 surgical patients with CRS. Symptom-based clusters were derived on the basis of presurgical SNOT-22 scores using unsupervised analysis and network graphs. Comparison between clusters was performed for clinical and demographic parameters, postsurgical symptom scores, and presence or absence of a history of aspirin sensitivity. Unsupervised analysis reveals coclustering of specific symptoms in the SNOT-22 tool. Using symptom-based clustering, patients with CRS were stratified into severe overall (mean total score, 90.8), severe sinonasal (score, 62), moderate sinonasal (score, 40), moderate nonsinonasal (score, 37) and mild sinonasal (score, 16) clusters. The last 2 clusters were associated with lack of history of aspirin sensitivity. The first cluster had a rapid relapse in symptoms postoperatively, and the last cluster demonstrated minimal symptomatic improvement after surgery. Symptom-based clusters in CRS reveal a distinct grouping of symptom burden that may relate to aspirin sensitivity and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and stress-related biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, S W N; Bijlenga, D; Verduijn, J; Bron, T I; Beekman, A T F; Kooij, J J S; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-05-01

    The current study examined whether (a) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms, and (b) whether ADHD symptoms interact with affective disorders in their association with dysregulated stress-related mechanisms. Data were obtained from 2307 subjects participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Stress-related mechanisms were reflected by the following biomarkers: (1) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve, evening cortisol, cortisol suppression after a 0.5mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST)); (2) autonomic nervous system measures (heart rate, pre-ejection period, respiratory sinus arrhythmia); (3) inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha); (4) brain-derived neurotrophic factor. ADHD symptoms were measured using Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale and used both dichotomous (High ADHD symptoms (yes/no)) and continuous (Inattentive symptoms, Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms, and the ADHD index). Regression analyses showed associations between High ADHD symptoms, Inattentive symptoms, the ADHD index and a higher cortisol awakening curve, between Hyperactive/Impulsive symptoms and less cortisol suppression after DST, and between Inattentive symptoms and a longer pre-ejection period. However, the associations with the cortisol awakening curve disappeared after adjustment for depressive and anxiety disorders. No associations were observed between ADHD symptoms and inflammatory markers or BDNF. ADHD symptoms did not interact with affective disorders in dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms. Some associations were observed between ADHD symptoms, the HPA-axis, and the pre-ejection period, but these were mostly driven by depressive and anxiety disorders. This study found no evidence that ADHD symptomatology was associated with dysregulations in inflammatory markers and BDNF. Consequently

  15. Isotretinoin-induced Spondyloarthropathy-related Symptoms: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Samet; Kayiran, Nuriye; Zengin, Orhan; Kalem, Ali; Kimyon, Gezmis; Kilinc, Emine Ozkul; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Kirtak, Necmettin; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Kisacik, Bunyamin

    2015-11-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the pilosebaceous unit of the skin. Isotretinoin is a systemic retinoid that is often used as an effective treatment option for severe and treatment-resistant acne. Isotretinoin may also cause rheumatologic symptoms. The aim of this prospective observational study was to present followup results regarding the rheumatologic symptoms of patients who received systemic therapy for the treatment of acne (isotretinoin and tetracycline). For inclusion in the study, all consecutive patients with acne who were aged > 18 years were evaluated by the same dermatologist. The first 42 consecutive patients were included in the isotretinoin group, and after matching for age and sex, 32 consecutive patients were included in the tetracycline group. Isotretinoin treatment was planned as an average dose of 30 mg daily and a total dose of 120-150 mg/kg for 4-6 months. The patients were administered a dose of 1 g/day of tetracycline as 2 equal doses for 3 months. Forty-two patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris were treated with isotretinoin 20.6 ± 4.4 (male/female: 17/22), and 32 patients were treated with tetracycline 20.6 ± 2.7 (male/female: 8/24). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to age and sex. Unilateral Achilles enthesopathy developed in 3 patients, whereas both Achilles enthesopathy and unilateral sacroiliitis developed in 1 patient. Inflammatory back pain developed in 6 patients in the isotretinoin group. To our knowledge, this was the first prospective observational study that assessed the rheumatologic symptoms of isotretinoin treatment. The spondyloarthropathy findings were identified in 23.1% of the patients who used isotretinoin.

  16. Ancient, globally distributed lineage of Sarcocystis from sporocysts of the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) and its relation to neurological sequalae in intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Lindsay, David S; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-07-01

    There is an emerging concern that snakes are definitive hosts of certain species of Sarcocystis that cause muscular sarcocystosis in human and non-human primates. Other species of Sarcocystis are known to cycle among snakes and rodents, but have been poorly characterized in the USA and elsewhere. Although neurological sequalae are known for certain species of Sarcocystis, no such neurological symptoms are known to typify parasites that naturally cycle in rodents. Here, sporocysts of a species of Sarcocystis were found in the intestinal contents of a rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) from Maryland, USA. The sporocysts were orally infective for interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mice, but not to Swiss Webster outbred mice. The KO mice developed neurological signs, and were necropsied between 33 and 52 days post-inoculation. Only schizonts/merozoites were found, and they were confined to the brain. The predominant lesion was meningoencephalitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, granulomas, and necrosis of the neuropil. The schizonts and merozoites were located in neuropil, and apparently extravascular. Brain homogenates from infected KO mice were infective to KO mice and CV-1 cell line. DNA extracted from the infected mouse brain, and infected cell cultures revealed the highest identity with Sarcocystis species that employ snakes as definitive hosts. This is the first report of Sarcocystis infection in the endangered rat snake (P. alleghaniensis) and the first report of neurological sarcocystosis in mice induced by feeding sporocysts from a snake. These data underscore the likelihood that parasites in this genus that employ snakes as their definitive hosts constitute an ancient, globally distributed monophyletic group. These data also raise the possibility that neurological sequalae may be more common in intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis spp. than has previously been appreciated.

  17. Factors related to immediate response to symptoms in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruiz, R; Silva Fernández, J; García Ruiz, R M; Recio Bermejo, M; Arias Arias, Á; Santos Pinto, A; Lomas Meneses, A; Botía Paniagua, E; Abellán Alemán, J

    2017-12-23

    Despite recent advances in the management of acute stroke, fewer than 10% of patients receive reperfusion therapy. One of the main reasons for such a low rate of administration is the delay on the part of patients and their families in seeking medical attention. This study aimed to analyse this delay. A prospective observational study was conducted on consecutive stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Data on sociodemographic and clinical parameters, decision delay, pre-hospital delay, and first medical contact were collected. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with seeking medical attention within the first 15minutes of stroke or TIA occurrence. A total of 382 patients were included, 24.9% of whom had a decision delay of 15minutes or less. Stroke severity (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13; P<.001), patient's son/daughter witnessing the event (OR 3.44; 95% CI, 1.88-6.27; P<.001), and insulin treatment (OR 2.89; 95% CI, 1.35-6.20; P=.006) were related to an immediate reaction. Lacunar infarcts (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.97; P=.042), partial anterior circulation infarcts (OR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.85; P=.015), and monosymptomatic events not involving limb paresis or aphasia (OR 0.15; 95% CI, 0.033-0.724; P=.018) favoured delays longer than 15minutes. Severity of the event and presence of a son/daughter are the factors most frequently associated with an immediate response to stroke. Future interventions should emphasise the need for an immediate response irrespective of severity and include a wider spectrum of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Autism Symptoms Related to Tyrosinemia Type III: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yolga Tahiroğlu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The published literature on tyrosinemia type III consists of only a few case reports. In this report, we present a patient with tyrosinemia type III, autism, and mental retardation. This patient’s speech improved and his autistic symptoms lessened on a tyrosine-restricted diet, although his mental retardation remained unchanged. This is the first published report of a patient with tyrosinemia type III and autism. This observation is significant due to the paucity of published information about tyrosinemia type III. Turk Jem 2008; 12: 55-6

  19. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  20. Human perception, productivity and symptoms related to indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.

    1998-08-01

    Three objectives of the present study are formulated: (1) to investigate whether total sensory pollution load on the air in space can be estimated by adding sensory pollution loads from the individual pollution sources; (2) to develop alternative reference exposures which can be used to calibrate sensory evaluations of the air quality indoors made by trained subjects; and (3) to investigate whether decreasing the pollution loads on the air indoors is an effective measure for improving the perceived air quality, reducing the prevalence of health symptoms and increasing people`s productivity. Limited data exist on the addition of families of sensory pollution, sources, i.e., building materials, people and tobacco smoke (research was mainly performed on building materials), and that no field study on addition has been carried out previously. Consequently, laboratory and field experiments on the addition of families of sensory pollution sources were undertaken. Reducing the sensory pollution load on the air indoors proved to be an effective and energy-efficient measure to improve the perceived quality of air, to lower the prevalence of symptoms and to improve productivity. Suggestions for future experiments are made including, i.a., using other sub-populations of subjects stratified for age, sensitivity and type of work, other pollution sources, as well as the independent measures design and repeated exposures to the same environmental conditions. (EG) 209 refs.

  1. Partners’ Attributions for Service Members’ Symptoms of Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Keith D.; Allen, Elizabeth S.; Carter, Sarah P.; Markman, Howard J.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    The association of service members’ combat-related PTSD with partners’ distress is weaker when spouses/partners believe that service members experienced more traumatic events during deployment. Also, when simultaneously examining partners’ perceptions of all PTSD symptoms, perceptions of re-experiencing symptoms (the symptoms most obviously connected to traumatic events) are significantly, negatively related to distress in partners. These findings are consistent with the notion that partners may be less distressed if they make external, rather than internal, attributions for service members’ symptoms. The present study explicitly tests this possibility. Civilian wives of active duty service members completed measures regarding their own marital satisfaction, their perceptions of service members’ combat exposure during deployments, their perceptions of service members’ symptoms of PTSD, and their attributions for those symptoms. External attributions were significantly, positively associated with perceptions of combat exposure (rp = .31) and re-experiencing symptoms (β = .33) and significantly, negatively associated with perceptions of numbing/withdrawal symptoms (rp = −.22). In contrast, internal attributions were significantly, negatively associated with perceptions of re-experiencing symptoms (β = −.18) and significantly, positively associated with perceptions of numbing/withdrawal symptoms (β = .46). Internal attributions significantly moderated the negative association of PTSD symptoms with marital satisfaction, such that the association strengthened as internal attributions increased. These findings are the first explicit support for an attributional understanding of distress in partners of combat veterans. Interventions that alter partners’ attributions may improve marital functioning. PMID:24491194

  2. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Health-Related Risk-Taking in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, C. Rylann; Steinberg, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between symptoms and a variety of health-related risk-taking behaviors during adolescence. A survey of 20,745 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health provided data for analysis. Adolescents who reported more depressive symptoms were found to wear seatbelts less often, wear…

  4. [Fear of childbirth among nulliparous women: Relations with pain during delivery, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and postpartum depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, P; Chabot, K; Béland, M; Goulet-Gervais, L; Morin, A J S

    2016-04-01

    Fear of childbirth is common in women who are pregnant with their first child and is associated with important consequences such as abortions and miscarriages. Twenty percent of nulliparous women seem to exhibit a mild or moderate fear, while 6% present an excessive and irrational fear known as tocophobia. Tocophobia is suggested to be associated with many negative consequences such as postpartum depression (PPD) and Post-traumatic stress (PTS). However, there is little empirical evidence to support these relationships. Recently, Fairbrother and Woody (2007) did not observe a link between the fear of childbirth and symptoms of PPD and PTS in nulliparous women. Some results, near the significance level, could be explained by a lack of statistical power. The present study focused on the link between the fear of childbirth and the process of delivery, the perception of pain, PPD and PTS. More specifically, it aimed to test three hypotheses: (i) fear of childbirth will be linked to the process of delivery, especially regarding the perception of pain, the use of anaesthesia and the use of Caesarean section; (ii) a high level of fear of childbirth will be associated with more negative postpartum consequences (namely PPD/PTS symptoms); (iii) the process of delivery and pain will also be related to post-delivery symptoms. Mediation effects were tested. Data from a longitudinal study were used to meet the hypotheses. A total of 176 nulliparous pregnant women responded to questionnaires at two time measurements (during pregnancy and at 5weeks postpartum). Fear of childbirth is related to the perception of pain at birth among women delivering vaginally, in the absence of anaesthesia. It is also linked to symptoms of PPD and PTS, regardless of whether or not anaesthesia was used. Fear of childbirth also appears to be strongly associated to symptoms of PTS in women who have experienced an unplanned caesarean section. Thus, symptoms of postpartum PTS could play a mediating role

  5. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovic, Elmedina; de Roos, Carlijn; van Rood, Yanda; Dommerholt, Agnes; Rodenburg, Roos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods Five children (aged 8–18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (sub)clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session). Conclusions In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy. Highlights of the article The first study to examine the potential effects of EMDR to reduce clinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms in children with epilepsy. After 1–3 EMDR (45 min) sessions, positive treatment effects were found on a range of seizure-related PTSD symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. During treatment, no seizures, absences, or any other adverse events were observed; the seizure diaries showed that none of the children experienced more seizures (or an unusual pattern) after treatment. At the reevaluation of EMDR, all children and parents

  6. Ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroid-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchar, A; Luton, D; Koskas, M

    2015-11-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign uterine tumors in women of reproductive age. Although most women are asymptomatic (80%), fibroids, according to their type and location, can cause several symptoms and impact quality of life. To date, no medical treatment is able to eliminate fibroids. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an orally active synthetic selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) characterized by a tissue-specific progesterone antagonist effect that reduces the proliferation of leiomyoma cells and induces apoptosis. It was licensed in Europe for preoperative fibroid treatment in 2012. Its pharmacological and pharmacodynamic characteristics, its efficacy and good tolerance make UPA a new important tool in the management of uterine fibroids. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive values of symptoms in relation to cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnik, Ivan; Andersen, John Sahl

    a manual describing the symptoms that should engender reasonable suspicion of malignancy (“alarm symptoms”) to the general practitioner. Objectives: To investigate the evidence in the literature of the predictive value (PPV) placed on the”alarm symptoms” for colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer......Background/significance: Poorer prognosis for cancer patients in Denmark than in comparable countries has been shown and contributed to the introduction of accelerated diagnostic trajectories for patients suspicious for cancer in 2008. For all types of cancers the National Board of Health developed...... and lung cancer in a general practice setting. Methods: The literature search was done in PubMed. The quality of each paper was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Results: 14 original studies were identified. Colon cancer: Concerning ”Rectal bleeding” the PPV is high for patients >60...

  8. Concurrent and Short-Term Prospective Relations among Neurocognitive Functioning, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lindsay D; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The present short-term longitudinal study examined the concurrent and prospective relations among executive functioning (i.e., working memory and cognitive flexibility), coping (primary and secondary control coping), and depressive symptoms in children. Participants were 192 children between 9 and 15 years old (M age = 12.36 years, SD = 1.77) recruited from the community. Youth were individually administered neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and intelligence and completed self-report measures of executive dysfunction, coping, and depressive symptoms in small groups; the latter two measures were completed again 4 months later (Time 2 [T2]). Linear regression analyses were used to examine direct associations among executive functions, coping, and depressive symptoms, and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test indirect effects of executive functioning on depressive symptoms through coping. Significant prospective relations were found between working memory measured at Time 1 (T1) and both primary and secondary control coping measured at T2, controlling for T1 coping. T1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted T2 secondary control coping, controlling for T1 coping. Working memory deficits significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms 4 months later, controlling for T1 depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses revealed that primary and secondary control coping each partially mediated the relation between working memory and depressive symptoms; secondary control coping partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and depressive symptoms. Coping may be one pathway through which deficits in executive functioning contribute to children's symptoms of depression.

  9. Concurrent and Short-term Prospective Relations among Neurocognitive Functioning, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lindsay D.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present short-term longitudinal study examined the concurrent and prospective relations among executive functioning (i.e., working memory and cognitive flexibility), coping (primary and secondary control coping), and depressive symptoms in children. Method Participants were 192 children between 9 and 15 years old (mean age = 12.36 years, SD = 1.77) recruited from the community. Youth were individually administered neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and intelligence, and completed self-report measures of executive dysfunction, coping, and depressive symptoms in small groups; the latter two measures were completed again four months later (Time 2). Linear regression analyses were used to examine direct associations among executive functions, coping, and depressive symptoms, and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test indirect effects of executive functioning on depressive symptoms through coping. Results Significant prospective relations were found between working memory measured at Time 1 (T1) and both primary and secondary control coping measured at Time 2 (T2), controlling for T1 coping. T1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted T2 secondary control coping, controlling for T1 coping. Working memory deficits significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms four months later, controlling for T1 depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses revealed that primary and secondary control coping each partially mediated the relation between working memory and depressive symptoms; secondary control coping partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Coping may be one pathway through which deficits in executive functioning contribute to children's symptoms of depression. PMID:25651455

  10. SBS symptoms in relation to dampness and ventilation in inspected single-family houses in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedje, Greta; Wang, Juan; Norbäck, Dan; Nilsson, Håkan; Engvall, Karin

    2017-06-17

    To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.

  11. Gay male sexual assault survivors: the relations among internalized homophobia, experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Lexington, Jennifer M

    2007-03-01

    This study explored the relations among internalized homophobia (IH), experiential avoidance, and psychological symptom severity in a community sample of 74 gay male sexual assault survivors. Results indicated that IH is associated with both depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. IH accounted for more variance than assault severity in predicting both PTSD and depression symptom severity. IH and experiential avoidance similarly predicted PTSD symptom severity. In comparison with IH, however, experiential avoidance is a stronger predictor of depression symptom severity. Results also showed that experiential avoidance partially mediated the relation between IH and both depressive and PTSD symptom severity. The implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

  12. Diabetes-related symptom distress in association with glucose metabolism and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, Marcel C; Pouwer, Frans; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between diabetes-related symptom distress, glucose metabolism status, and comorbidities of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional sample of 281 individuals with normal glucose metabolism (NGM......), 181 individuals with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), and 107 subjects with type 2 diabetes. We used the revised type 2 Diabetes Symptom Checklist (DSC-R) to assess diabetes-related symptom distress. RESULTS: The total symptom distress score (range 0-100) was relatively low for diabetic subjects...... levels across all DSC-R domains. CONCLUSIONS: Worsening glucose metabolism is associated with increasing diabetes-related symptom distress. This relationship is attenuated by ischemic heart disease and particularly by depression....

  13. Are symptoms of ADHD related to substance use among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2012-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that often persists into adolescence and adulthood and has been associated with an increased risk for substance use. Due to improved treatment and educational policies, more students with high levels of ADHD symptoms are attending college despite continued ADHD symptoms. Little research has examined whether college students with higher levels of ADHD symptoms are at increased risk for heavy substance use compared to college students with few ADHD symptoms. The current study examined the relation of ADHD symptoms to substance use (e.g., cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, and cocaine use). We hypothesized that greater ADHD symptomatology (inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, and total ADHD) would be related to higher rates of cigarette smoking, alcohol use, alcohol-problems, and illicit drug use. Participants were 889 college undergraduates who completed an online survey. Results suggest that ADHD symptoms, particularly inattentive symptoms, were positively associated with cigarette smoking and problems associated with alcohol after controlling for conduct disorder (CD) symptoms. ADHD symptoms were not significantly associated with alcohol use or illicit drug use after the effects of CD symptoms were accounted for. Results have important implications for prevention and treatment of college student substance use. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Combination of 24-Hour and 7-Day Relative Neurological Improvement Strongly Predicts 90-Day Functional Outcome of Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jie; Wang, Huaiming; Tu, Mingyi; Zi, Wenjie; Hao, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Liu, Wenhua; Wan, Yue; Geng, Yu; Lin, Min; Jin, Ping; Xiong, Yunyun; Xu, Gelin; Yin, Qin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-01-03

    Early judgment of long-term prognosis is the key to making medical decisions in acute anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) after endovascular treatment (EVT). We aimed to investigate the relationship between the combination of 24-hour and 7-day relative neurological improvement (RNI) and 90-day functional outcome. We selected the target population from a multicenter ischemic stroke registry. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at baseline, 24 hours, and 7 days were collected. RNI was calculated by the following equation: (baseline NIHSS - 24-hour/7-day NIHSS)/baseline NIHSS × 100%. A modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days was defined as a favorable outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between RNI and 90-day outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the predictive power and cutoff point of RNI for functional outcome. A total of 568 patients were enrolled. Both 24-hour and 7-day RNI were independent predictors of 90-day outcome. The best cutoff points of 24-hour and 7-day RNI were 28% and 42%, respectively. Compared with those with 24-hour RNI of less than 28% and 7-day RNI of less than 42%, patients with 24-hour RNI of 28% or greater and 7-day RNI of 42% or greater had a 39.595-fold (95% confidence interval 22.388-70.026) increased probability of achieving 90-day favorable outcome. The combination of 24-hour and 7-day RNI very strongly predicts 90-day functional outcome in patients with acute anterior circulation LVOS who received EVT, and it can be used as an early accurate surrogate of long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Palliative care and neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  16. Side differences in cerebrovascular accidents after cardiac surgery: a statistical analysis of neurologic symptoms and possible implications for anatomic mechanisms of aortic particle embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivie, Patrik; Edström, Cecilia; Engström, Karl Gunnar

    2005-03-01

    Aortic manipulation and particle embolization have been identified to cause cerebrovascular accidents in cardiac surgery. Recent data suggest that left-hemispheric cerebrovascular accident (right-sided symptoms) is more common, and this has been interpreted as being caused by aortic cannula stream jets. Our aim was to evaluate symptoms of cerebrovascular accident and side differences from a retrospective statistical analysis. During a 2-year period, 2641 consecutive cardiac surgery cases were analyzed. Patients positive for cerebrovascular accident were extracted from a database designed to monitor clinical symptoms. A protocol was used to confirm symptom data with the correct diagnosis in patient records. Patients were subdivided into 3 groups: control, immediate cerebrovascular accident, and delayed cerebrovascular accident. Among pooled patients, immediate and delayed cerebrovascular accidents were 3.0% and 0.9%, respectively. The expected predisposing factors behind immediate cerebrovascular accidents were significant, although the type of operation affected this search. Aortic quality was a strong predictor ( P cerebrovascular accident was unaffected by surgery group. Left-sided symptoms of immediate cerebrovascular accident were approximately twice as frequent ( P = .016) as on the contralateral side. This phenomenon was observed for pooled patients and for isolated coronary bypass procedures (n = 1882; P = .025). Immediate cerebrovascular accident and aortic calcifications are linked. The predominance of left-sided symptoms may suggest that aortic manipulation and anatomic mechanisms in the aortic arch are more likely to cause cerebrovascular accidents than effects from cannula stream jets.

  17. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  18. [Menopause-related symptoms in middle-aged women residing in the Zaragoza Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo Ramón; Martínez-Dearth, Rebeca; López-Baena, María Teresa; Ornat-Clemente, Lía

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess menopausal symptoms and related sociodemographic conditions in middle-aged women from the Spanish province of Zaragoza. This was a cross-sectional study in which 241 women (40-59 years old) from the Zaragoza province completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data to assess symptoms associated with the menopause. The most prevalent symptoms were musculoskeletal, followed by hot flushes and perspiration. Somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms were more severe in post-menopausal women. Somatic and urogenital symptoms worsen with age, body mass index, age at menopause, and partner age. Multiple linear regression analysis (MA) for somatic symptoms was related with the menopausal status, psychiatric treatment, problems with sexual relationships, and history of gender violence. The MA for psychological symptoms was associated with menopausal status, psychiatric treatment and a history of gender violence. The MA for urogenital symptoms was associated with menopausal status, problems with sexual relationships, urinary incontinence and partner alcohol abuse. A history of gender violence was reported by 11.6% of the women. In this sample of middle-aged women, menopausal symptoms were related to menopausal status, and other factors associated with their partner factors, including gender violence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining cultural, social, and self-related aspects of stigma in relation to sexual assault and trauma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitz, Mandi F; Williams, Stacey L; Rife, Sean C; Cantrell, Peggy

    2015-05-01

    The current study investigated a model explaining sexual assault victims' severity of trauma symptoms that incorporated multiple stigma constructs. Integrating the sexual assault literature with the stigma literature, this study sought to better understand trauma-related outcomes of sexual assault by examining three levels of stigma-cultural, social, and self. Results showed self-stigma was significantly and positively related to trauma symptom severity. Thus, results revealed that the internalized aspect of stigma served as a mechanism in the relation between sexual assault severity and increased levels of trauma symptom severity, highlighting the importance of assessing self-stigma in women reporting sexual assault experiences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Symptoms in Children with Intermittent Exotropia and Their Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Sarah R; Leske, David A; Liebermann, Laura; Holmes, Jonathan M

    2016-12-01

    In childhood intermittent XT, the frequency and type of symptoms have not been rigorously studied. We aimed to identify specific symptoms in children with intermittent XT, their frequency, and effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). 35 children (5-13 years) with intermittent XT without previous surgery were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Specific symptoms were identified from a previous study involving child and parent interviews and formulated as a 22-item symptom questionnaire. A frequency Likert-type rating scale was used and a response of "sometimes" or more was considered consistent with having the symptom. All 35 children, along with one parent for each child, also completed the patient-derived intermittent XT HRQOL questionnaire (IXTQ) with Child, Proxy, and Parent components. The frequency of symptoms was calculated, and the relationship between individual symptom question scores and Child, Proxy, and Parent HRQOL scores, was evaluated in multivariate linear regression analyses. The mean number of specific symptoms was 7 (range 2 to 19). The most frequently reported were: rubbing the eye (29 [83%] of 35), problems with eyes in the sun, and the eyes feeling tired (each 22, 63%). Lower (worse) Child IXTQ HRQOL scores were associated with symptoms of difficulty focusing eyes (P=0.0007), double vision (P=0.007), eyes hurting (P=0.006), and problems with eyes in the sun (P=0.06). There were weak associations between Proxy IXTQ and Parent IXTQ scores and child symptoms. Overall, 7 symptom questions were associated with reduced HRQOL in multivariate models. Children with intermittent XT frequently experience symptoms, some of which impact the child's HRQOL. Formal assessment of symptoms may aid understanding of the effects of intermittent XT on an individual child, and could use just the 7 symptom questions associated with reduced HRQOL.

  1. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A; Weeks, Justin W; Dougherty, Lea R; Lipton, Melanie F; Daruwala, Samantha E; Kline, Kathryn; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-12-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors ) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents ( n =75; ages 14-17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation ( β =0.37, t =2.41, p =.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors ( β =0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation ( β =0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety.

  2. Allelic Variation of Risk for Anxiety Symptoms Moderates the Relation Between Adolescent Safety Behaviors and Social Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Weeks, Justin W.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Lipton, Melanie F.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Kline, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety often develops in adolescence, and precedes the onset of depression and substance use disorders. The link between social anxiety and use of behaviors to minimize distress in social situations (i.e., safety behaviors) is strong and for some patients, this link poses difficulty for engaging in, and benefiting from, exposure-based treatment. Yet, little is known about whether individual differences may moderate links between social anxiety and safety behaviors, namely variations in genetic alleles germane to anxiety. We examined the relation between adolescent social anxiety and expressions of safety behaviors, and whether allelic variation for anxiety moderates this relation. Adolescents (n=75; ages 14–17) were recruited from two larger studies investigating measurement of family relationships or adolescent social anxiety. Adolescents completed self-report measures about social anxiety symptoms and use of safety behaviors. They also provided saliva samples to assess allelic variations for anxiety from two genetic polymorphisms (BDNF rs6265; TAQ1A rs1800497). Controlling for adolescent age and gender, we observed a significant interaction between social anxiety symptoms and allelic variation (β=0.37, t=2.41, p=.02). Specifically, adolescents carrying allelic variations for anxiety evidenced a statistically significant and relatively strong positive relation between social anxiety symptoms and safety behaviors (β=0.73), whereas adolescents not carrying allelic variation evidenced a statistically non-significant and relatively weak relation (β=0.22). These findings have important implications for treating adolescent social anxiety, in that we identified an individual difference variable that can be used to identify people who evidence a particularly strong link between use of safety behaviors and expressing social anxiety. PMID:26692635

  3. Job Stress Reactivity and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-07

    disorders (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis , gout, systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, alcoholism, and/or any chronic or acute...El Elbow El Yes El No Gout El El Thyroid Problems El El Lupus El El Rheumatoid Arthritis El El 31. Have you ever had surgery for work-related... symptomatology and disability related to CTS specifically, and perhaps WRUEDs in general, may be multiply determined by factors other than physiological

  4. Depressive symptoms and mechanisms of relational turbulence as predictors of relationship satisfaction among returning service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Leanne K; Theiss, Jennifer A

    2011-08-01

    In contrast to romanticized portrayals of reunion after deployment, U.S. military personnel may contend with the harsh reality of both depressive symptoms and upheaval in their romantic relationships during the postdeployment transition. This study employed the relational turbulence model to evaluate mechanisms linking depressive symptoms with relationship satisfaction. Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from 220 service members living in 27 states who had returned home from deployment within the past six months. As hypothesized, the negative association between depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction was mediated by relational uncertainty and interference from partners. These findings advance scholarship on depressive symptoms and relational turbulence, and they also suggest guidelines for helping service members with depressive symptoms maintain satisfying romantic relationships upon reentry.

  5. Building-related symptoms among U.S. office workers and risks factors for moisture and contamination: Preliminary analyses of U.S. EPA BASE Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Cozen, Myrna

    2002-09-01

    The authors assessed relationships between health symptoms in office workers and risk factors related to moisture and contamination, using data collected from a representative sample of U.S. office buildings in the U.S. EPA BASE study. Methods: Analyses assessed associations between three types of weekly, workrelated symptoms-lower respiratory, mucous membrane, and neurologic-and risk factors for moisture or contamination in these office buildings. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the strength of associations for these risk factors as odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for personal-level potential confounding variables related to demographics, health, job, and workspace. A number of risk factors were associated (e.g., 95% confidence limits excluded 1.0) significantly with small to moderate increases in one or more symptom outcomes. Significantly elevated ORs for mucous membrane symptoms were associated with the following risk factors: presence of humidification system in good condition versus none (OR = 1.4); air handler inspection annually versus daily (OR = 1.6); current water damage in the building (OR = 1.2); and less than daily vacuuming in study space (OR = 1.2). Significantly elevated ORs for lower respiratory symptoms were associated with: air handler inspection annually versus daily (OR = 2.0); air handler inspection less than daily but at least semi-annually (OR=1.6); less than daily cleaning of offices (1.7); and less than daily vacuuming of the study space (OR = 1.4). Only two statistically significant risk factors for neurologic symptoms were identified: presence of any humidification system versus none (OR = 1.3); and less than daily vacuuming of the study space (OR = 1.3). Dirty cooling coils, dirty or poorly draining drain pans, and standing water near outdoor air intakes, evaluated by inspection, were not identified as risk factors in these analyses, despite predictions based on previous findings elsewhere, except that very

  6. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  7. The "brain-sparing" effect: antenatal cerebral Doppler findings in relation to neurologic outcome in very preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherjon, S. A.; Smolders-DeHaas, H.; Kok, J. H.; Zondervan, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to study the relationship between fetal cerebral circulation and neurologic outcome. STUDY DESIGN: In 117 high-risk fetuses (gestational age 25 to 33 weeks) flow velocity waveforms were recorded from the umbilical and medial cerebral arteries. The ratio between umbilical

  8. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  9. Testing Reciprocal Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cong V.; Cole, David A.; Weiss, Bahr

    2012-01-01

    A 2-wave longitudinal study of young adolescents was used to test whether peer victimization predicts depressive symptoms, depressive symptoms predict peer victimization, or the 2 constructs show reciprocal relations. Participants were 598 youths in Grades 3 through 6, ages 8 to 14 (M = 10.9, SD = 1.2) at Wave 1. The sample was 50.7% female and…

  10. Children's Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children's depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children's EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using…

  11. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Tracy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents' peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of…

  12. Girls in residential care: From child maltreatment to trauma-related symptoms in emerging adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.; Lanctôt, N.; Paquette, G.; Collin-Vezina, D.; Lemieux, A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the association between child maltreatment and trauma-related symptoms in emerging adulthood - over and above the incidence of such symptoms and conduct problems during adolescence - among a sample of female adolescents in residential care. This study used data from a

  13. Breast-related stereotype threat contributes to a symptom cluster in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Gao, Wei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Zhu, Song-Ying; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of breast-related stereotype threat and its effects on a symptom cluster consisting of anxiety, depression and fatigue and on each symptom. The stereotype that breasts are a sign of women's femininity results in patients with breast cancer fearing diminished femininity and rejection, which may induce psychological problems that co-occur as a symptom cluster. Cross-sectional study. A total of 131 patients with breast cancer postmastectomy completed the study. A question measuring breast-related stereotype threat, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue Scale were used to assess their breast-related stereotype threat and symptoms of anxiety, depression and fatigue. Of the 131 patients who answered the breast-related stereotype threat question, 86 (65·6%) reported breast-related stereotype threat. They did not differ significantly in social and clinical characteristics compared with those without the stereotype, but did report significantly higher levels of the symptom cluster and each symptom (anxiety, depression and fatigue). The odds ratios of the stereotype were significant for the symptom cluster, depression and fatigue (odds ratios = 2·52-3·98, p stereotype threat was common in patients with breast cancer. There was about a twofold increase in their risk of experiencing the symptom cluster and symptoms of depression and fatigue. In clinical practice, breast-related stereotype threat should be measured together with prevalent symptoms (e.g. anxiety, depression and fatigue) in patients with breast cancer. Our findings will aid the development of interventions for improving the mental health of women with breast cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pregnancy-related anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with visuospatial working memory errors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataja, E-L; Karlsson, L; Huizink, A C; Tolvanen, M; Parsons, C; Nolvi, S; Karlsson, H

    2017-08-15

    Cognitive deficits, especially in memory and concentration, are often reported during pregnancy. Similar cognitive dysfunctions can also occur in depression and anxiety. To date, few studies have investigated the associations between cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. This field is of interest because maternal cognitive functioning, and particularly its higher-order aspects are related to maternal well-being and caregiving behavior, as well as later child development. Pregnant women (N =230), reporting low (n =87), moderate (n =97), or high (n =46) levels of depressive, general anxiety and/or pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms (assessed repeatedly with EPDS, SCL-90/anxiety subscale, PRAQ-R2, respectively) were tested in mid-pregnancy for their cognitive functions. A computerized neuropsychological test battery was used. Pregnant women with high or moderate level of psychiatric symptoms had significantly more errors in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning task than mothers with low symptom level. Depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy and concurrent pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were significant predictors of the performance in the task. General anxiety symptoms were not related to visuospatial working memory. Cognitive functions were evaluated only at one time-point during pregnancy precluding causal conclusions. Maternal depressive symptoms and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were both associated with decrements in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning. Depressive symptoms seem to present more stable relationship with cognitive deficits, while pregnancy-related anxiety was associated only concurrently. Future studies could investigate, how stable these cognitive differences are, and whether they affect maternal ability to deal with demands of pregnancy and later parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Suicide in Neurologic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniegas, David B.; Anderson, C. Alan

    2002-11-01

    The risk of attempted or completed suicide is increased in patients with migraine with aura, epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and Huntington's disease. Contrary to the general perception that the risk of suicide among patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementing conditions is low, several reports suggest that the risk of suicide in these patients increases relative to the general population. Some patients at risk for neurologic disorders are also at increased risk for suicide; in particular, the risk of suicide is increased among persons at risk for Huntington's disease, independent of the presence or absence of the Huntington's gene mutation. The risk of attempted or completed suicide in neurologic illness is strongly associated with depression, feelings of hopelessness or helplessness, and social isolation. Additional suicide risk factors in persons with neurologic illness include cognitive impairment, relatively younger age (under 60 years), moderate physical disability, recent onset or change in illness, a lack of future plans or perceived meaning in life, recent losses (personal, occupational, or financial), and prior history of psychiatric illness or suicidal behavior. Substance dependence, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, and some personality disorders (eg, borderline personality disorder) may also contribute to increased risk of suicide among persons with neurologic illnesses. Identification and aggressive treatment of psychiatric problems, especially depression, as well as reduction of modifiable suicide risk factors among patients with neurologic illness is needed to reduce the risk of attempted and completed suicide in this population.

  16. Peer Rejection and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: Reciprocal Relations Through Ages 4, 6, and 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenseng, Frode; Belsky, Jay; Skalicka, Vera; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predicts poor peer relationships. What remains unclear is whether poor peer relationships affect ADHD symptomatology. Hence, reciprocal effects of peer rejection and ADHD symptoms were examined in a community sample of 962 Norwegian children at ages 4, 6, and 8. Results showed that ADHD symptoms at age 4 predicted more peer rejection at age 6, and that peer rejection at age 4 predicted more symptoms at age 6. However, when conducting analyses on ADHD subtypes, hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness symptoms were adversely affected by peer rejection at ages 6 and 8, whereas peer rejection was unaffected by such symptoms, indicating that the effect of peer rejection on ADHD symptoms was most robust. Mediational relation were also identified. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Prevalence of depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances in patients with myelopathy: Their relation with functional and neurological recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B; Thennarasu, K

    2016-11-01

    To observe the prevalence of fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance in patients with myelopathy and their correlation with neurological and functional recovery. Study conducted in a university tertiary research hospital with 127 patients with myelopathy (92 males) admitted to neurorehabilitation unit between January 2010 and December 2013. Mean age was 32.71 ± 13.08 years (range 15-65 years), and mean duration of injury was 76.22 ± 82.5 days (range 14-365 days). Functional status and impairments were assessed using Barthel Index and Spinal Cord Independence Measures. Depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scales, respectively. Neurological recovery was assessed using American Spinal Injury Association's impairment scale. Forty-four out of 104 (42%) patients had borderline or confirmed depression, 36/108 (33%) had significant fatigue, and 62/106 (58%) had significant sleep disturbances at admission. Significant correlation was observed between change in fatigue and depression scores with change in functional status scores (P  0.05) between change in sleep disturbance scores and functional status score and neurological recovery (P > 0.05). Similarly, change in fatigue and depression scores had no correlation with neurological status improvement. Fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance scores showed significant improvement, that is, admission vs. discharge scores (P < 0.05) with significant correlation between improvement in all three variables (P < 0.05). Study variables showed significant improvement in the present study with myelopathy patients but not necessarily correlating with functional and neurological recovery.

  18. Pediatric seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms treated with EMDR: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmedina Dautovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods: Five children (aged 8–18 with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results: Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (subclinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session. Conclusions: In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy.

  19. The therapeutic alliance in a naturalistic psychiatric setting: temporal relations with depressive symptom change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A; Beard, Courtney; Auerbach, Randy P; Menninger, Eliza; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported associations between the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptom improvement in outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between the alliance and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in naturalistic, psychiatric hospital settings. Adult patients with major depression (n = 103) receiving combined cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptoms, as well as a pretreatment assessment of their expectation of symptom improvement. Results indicated that the alliance and treatment outcome expectancies significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptom change. However, in a model in which prior symptom change and treatment outcome expectancies were statistically controlled, the alliance-outcome association was rendered nonsignificant. The alliance was significantly associated with prior symptom improvement. Findings highlight the importance of controlling for plausible third variable and temporal confounds to minimize biased estimates of alliance-outcome associations in future studies. Overall, results were more consistent with the alliance being a consequence, rather than a cause, of symptom change. Finally, findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the role of treatment outcome expectancies in predicting symptom improvement, even within our relatively severely depressed sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurological manifestations in Fabry's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2007-01-01

    . Neurological symptoms, such as burning sensations (occasionally accompanied by acroparesthesia) and stroke, are among the first to appear, and occur in both male and female patients. A delay in establishing the diagnosis of Fabry's disease can cause unnecessary problems, especially now that enzyme replacement...... treatment is available to prevent irreversible organ damage. Females with Fabry's disease who present with pain have often been ignored and misdiagnosed because of the disorder's X-linked inheritance. This Review will stress the importance of recognizing neurological symptoms for the diagnosis of Fabry...

  1. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  2. [EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domján, Nóra; Csifcsák, Gábor; Janka, Zoltán

    2016-01-30

    The investigation of schizophrenia's aetiology and pathomechanism is of high importance in neurosciences. In the recent decades, analyzing event-related potentials have proven to be useful to reveal the neuropsychological dysfunctions in schizophrenia. Even the very early stages of auditory stimulus processing are impaired in this disorder; this might contribute to the experience of auditory hallucinations. The present review summarizes the recent literature on the relationship between auditory hallucinations and event-related potentials. Due to the dysfunction of early auditory sensory processing, patients with schizophrenia are not able to locate the source of stimuli and to allocate their attention appropriately. These deficits might lead to auditory hallucinations and problems with daily functioning. Studies involving high risk groups may provide tools for screening and early interventions; thus improving the prognosis of schizophrenia.

  3. PERSONALITY PREDISPOSITIONS IN CHINESE ADOLESCENTS: THE RELATION BETWEEN SELF-CRITICISM, DEPENDENCY, AND PROSPECTIVE INTERNALIZING SYMPTOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiong Zhao; Abela, John R.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the prospective relation between two personality predispositions, self-criticism and dependency, and internalizing symptoms. Specifically, it was examined whether self-criticism and dependency predicted symptoms of depression and social anxiety, and if a moderation (e.g. diathesis-stress) or mediation model best explained the relation between the personality predispositions and emotional distress in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 1,150 adolescents (597 females and 553 males) from mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of self-criticism, dependency, and neuroticism at baseline, and self-report measures of negative events, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety symptoms once a month for six months. Findings showed that self-criticism predicted depressive symptoms, while dependency predicted social anxiety symptoms. In addition, support was found for a mediation model, as opposed to a moderation model, with achievement stressors mediating the relation between self-criticism and depressive symptoms. Overall, these findings highlight new developmental pathways for the development of depression and social anxiety symptoms in mainland Chinese adolescents. Implications for cross-cultural developmental psychopathology research are discussed. PMID:25798026

  4. Work-related sensitization and respiratory symptoms in carpentry apprentices exposed to wood dust and diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Paloma; Aranda, Ana; Rondon, Carmen; Doñia, Inmaculada; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Canto, Gabriela; Lisbona, Francisco-Javier; Pineda, Fernando; Blanca, Miguel

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to certain substances in the workplace may lead to sensitization and increased respiratory symptoms. To evaluate the frequency of work-related specific sensitization and respiratory symptoms in carpentry apprentices with occupational exposure to wood dust and diisocyanates. Apprentices (n=101) completed an occupational and symptoms questionnaire. Spirometry and skin prick tests to aeroallergens and to a battery of 14 different woods were performed in all the participants. Blood samples were collected for total IgE measurement and detection of specific IgE to diisocyanates. Half the participants (56%) had work-related respiratory symptoms: 54% due to wood dust, 15% due diisocyanates, and 9% to both. Participants with respiratory symptoms related to wood dust exposure had a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second compared with symptomatic individuals due to diisocyanates and asymptomatic individuals (P diisocyanates was detected in 2% of exposed participants. Work-related respiratory symptoms are common in carpentry apprentices and are more frequently related to exposure to wood dust than to diisocyanates. Symptomatic participants due to wood dust exposure had a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Individuals with a history of rhinitis or asthma had an increased risk of respiratory symptoms. Sensitization to wood was more common in atopic apprentices with a history of rhinitis and a high total IgE level.

  5. Age-related longitudinal changes in depressive symptoms following breast cancer diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Levine, Beverly; Naughton, Michelle J; Case, L Douglas; Naftalis, Elizabeth; Van Zee, Kimberly J

    2013-05-01

    Younger women being treated for breast cancer consistently show greater depression shortly after diagnosis than older women. In this longitudinal study, we examine whether these age differences persist over the first 26 months following diagnosis and identify factors related to change in depressive symptoms. A total of 653 women within 8 months of a first time breast cancer diagnosis completed questionnaires at baseline and three additional timepoints (6, 12, and 18 months after baseline) on contextual/patient characteristics, symptoms, and psychosocial variables. Chart reviews provided cancer and treatment-related data. The primary outcome was depressive symptomatology assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory. Among women younger than age 65, depressive symptoms were highest soon after diagnosis and significantly decreased over time. Depressive symptoms remained stable and low for women aged 65 and older. Age was no longer significantly related to depressive symptoms in multivariable analyses controlling for a wide range of covariates. The primary factors related to levels of and declines in depressive symptomatology were the ability to pay for basics; completing chemotherapy with doxorubicin; and decreases in pain, vasomotor symptoms, illness intrusiveness, and passive coping. Increased sense of meaning/peace and social support were related to decreased depression. Interventions to reduce symptoms and illness intrusiveness, improve a sense of meaning and peace, and increase social support, may help reduce depression and such interventions may be especially relevant for younger women.

  6. Sintomas neurológicos transitórios após raquianestesia Síntomas neurológicos transitorios después de raquianestesia Transient neurological symptoms after spinal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Tanaka

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os sintomas neurológicos transitórios têm sido descritos em pacientes submetidos à raquianestesia sem outras complicações, após completa recuperação do bloqueio espinhal. Este estudo tem por objetivo apresentar uma revisão sobre o assunto. CONTEÚDO: São apresentados a história, incidência, possíveis etiologias, fatores de risco e tratamento dos sintomas neurológicos transitórios. CONCLUSÕES: A raquianestesia é bastante segura e a incidência destes sintomas é relativamente baixa, não justificando o abandono da técnica anestésica, bem como o uso da lidocaína.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los síntomas neurológicos transitorios han sido descritos en pacientes sometidos a raquianestesia sin más complicaciones, después de la completa recuperación del bloqueo espinal. Este estudio tiene por objetivo presentar una revisión sobre el asunto. CONTENIDO: Son presentados la historia, incidencia, posibles etiologías, factores de riesgo y tratamiento de los síntomas neurológicos transitorios. CONCLUSIONES: La raquianestesia es bastante segura y la incidencia de estos síntomas es relativamente baja, no justificando el abandono de la técnica anestésica, bien como el uso de la lidocaína.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transient neurological symptoms have been described in patients submitted to spinal anesthesia without other complications, after total spinal block recovery. This study aimed at reviewing this subject. CONTENTS: Transient neurological symptoms history, incidence, possible etiologies, risk factors and treatment are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Spinal anesthesia is a very safe procedure with a low incidence of these symptoms, not justifying abandoning the technique as well as lidocaine.

  7. Increased release of histamine in patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Skov, P S; Mosbech, H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Environmental perfume exposure may cause respiratory symptoms. Individuals with asthma and perfume contact allergy report such symptoms more frequently than others. However, immunologic mechanisms have not been demonstrated and the symptoms are not associated with IgE-mediated allergy....... The study aimed to investigate whether basophils from patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume released more histamine in the presence of perfume as compared with healthy volunteers. METHODS: Histamine release was measured by the glass fibre method. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers (n......=20) and patients with respiratory symptoms related to perfume (n=17) attending a dermatological outpatient clinic for patch testing. The effect of an international brand perfume was investigated using the basophil histamine release test with perfume. Furthermore, basophils from a healthy non...

  8. Association between symptoms of allergic rhinitis with decreased general health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehle, Lloyd P; Speth, Marlene M; Phillips, Katie M; Gaudin, Robert A; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-07-01

    The impact of specific allergic rhinitis symptoms on patient quality of life (QOL) is currently unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the association between nasal and extranasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis with general health-related QOL. A total of 150 participants with ages > 18 years and persistent allergic rhinitis were prospectively recruited for this cross-sectional study. General health-related QOL was measured by using the visual analog scale (VAS) from the five-dimension EuroQol QOL survey (EQ-5D). The severity of nasal and extranasal symptoms was measured by using the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). The severity of nasal obstruction was measured by using the Nasal Obstruction Severity Evaluation (NOSE) scale. Each participant also completed a Rhinitis Control Assessment Test (RCAT). The total SNOT-22 score was significantly correlated with RCAT (r = -0.68 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.75 to -0.58]; p < 0.001) and EQ-5D VAS (r = -0.44 [95% CI, -0.56 to -0.30]; p < 0.001). Of the 22 symptoms assessed on the SNOT-22, sleep-related symptoms, and otologic symptoms were associated with the greatest decrease in general health-related QOL. Nasal symptoms were least associated with general health-related QOL. The symptom of nasal obstruction was not at all associated with general health-related QOL (p = 0.267). We confirmed this finding by showing no significant correlation between the NOSE score and EQ-5D VAS (r = -0.05 [95% CI, -0.21 to 0.12]; p = 0.582). Sleep and otologic symptoms were associated with the greatest negative impact on QOL in adults with persistent allergic rhinitis and should be routinely assessed in their clinical evaluation.

  9. Sleep-related factors: associations with poor attention and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, J E; Uusitalo-Malmivaara, L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep duration is known to be associated with depression and attention deficits in children, though the majority of studies have focused on adolescents. Attention problems and depressive symptoms related to sleep factors have not been studied simultaneously in the non-clinical child population before. Sleep quantity, adverse bedtime behaviour, daytime sleepiness, poor attention and symptoms of depression were assessed using self-report measures. The participants were 11 years old (n = 439). Short sleep duration during the school week is related to poor attention and high depression. It is not a significant predictor of low attention and high depression symptoms in logistic regression analyses. Instead, adverse bedtime behaviour and daytime sleepiness predict them highly significantly. Short sleep duration is related to poor attention and depressive symptoms as suggested by previous work. However, the significant role of other sleep-related factors calls for further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms in medical students: a randomised controlled pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dias, Marcio; Pagnin, Daniel; de Queiroz Pagnin, Valéria; Reis, Regina Lucia Ribeiro; Olej, Beni

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of electroacupuncture on stress-related symptoms-sleep disorders, anxiety, depression and burnout-in medical students, and provide data to inform a power analysis to determinate...

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  12. Neurological complications in hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Codemo, Valentina; Palmieri, Arianna; Schiff, Sami; Cagnin, Annachiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo

    2012-02-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum can impair correct absorption of an adequate amount of thiamine and can cause electrolyte imbalance. This study investigated the neurological complications in a pregnant woman with hyperemesis gravidarum. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for hyperemesis gravidarum. Besides undernutrition, a neurological examination disclosed weakness with hyporeflexia, ophthalmoparesis, multidirectional nystagmus and optic disks swelling; the patient became rapidly comatose. Brain MRI showed symmetric signal hyperintensity and swelling of periaqueductal area, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies, medial and posterior portions of the thalamus and columns of fornix, consistent with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Neurophysiological studies revealed an axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, likely due to thiamine deficiency or critical illness polyneuropathy. Sodium and potassium supplementation and parenteral thiamine were administered with improvement of consciousness state in a few days. WE evolved in Korsakoff syndrome. A repeat MRI showed a marked improvement of WE-related alterations and a new hyperintense lesion in the pons, suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis. No sign or symptom due to involvement of the pons was present.

  13. Development and validation of a scale to measure disease-related symptoms of kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, David; Yount, Susan; Brucker, Penny S; Du, Hongyan; Bukowski, Ronald; Vogelzang, Nicholas; Bro, William P

    2007-01-01

    Using patient and expert provider input, we previously developed a 15-item index of the most important symptoms and concerns of people being treated for advanced kidney cancer, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Kidney Symptom Index (FKSI). These 15 concerns are a mixture of disease-related symptoms and treatment-related side effects. As a result, it may be difficult to assign an informative label to the score defined as the summation of these 15 most important concerns. Because one of the primary goals of treating advanced kidney cancer is the relief of disease-related symptoms, we set out to differentiate from the list of 15 symptoms those that are predominantly attributable to kidney cancer itself rather than its treatment, and to evaluate this abbreviated FKSI - Disease-Related Symptoms (FKSI-DRS). Survey results from 18 experienced clinical experts were summarized to separate DRS from other concerns more arguably attributable to treatment side effects. This nine-item FKSI-DRS was then validated on a sample of 141 people with kidney cancer. The FKSI-DRS is reliable (internal consistency range = 0.75-0.78; test-retest reliability intraclass correlation = 0.85), and valid, separating groups by performance status and the patient's own global rating of change. The likely minimally important difference in the FKSI-DRS is in the range of 2-3 points. The FKSI-DRS is a reliable, valid, and responsive brief index of the most important symptoms associated with advanced kidney cancer.

  14. Lack of Control as a Predictive Factor for Stress-related Symptoms in Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Sombke, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Researchers have agreed that most rape victims vii experience stress-related symptoms similar to post-traumatic stress disorder. There have also been numerous studies that have tried to predict the severity of those stress-related symptoms, but the literature is inconclusive. Lack of perceived control is consistently mentioned in the rape research literature as being present in rape victims, but no study has empirically examined the relationship between perceived control and a rape victim's s...

  15. ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions in Taiwanese children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Fang-Ju; Liu, Shu-Tsen; Lee, Chi-Mei; Lee, Wang-Tso; Fan, Pi-Chuan; Lin, Wei-Sheng; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether Asian children with epilepsy have more attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms, emotional/ behavioral problems, and physical conditions compared with those described in Western studies. The authors investigated the rates of ADHD-related symptoms, emotional/behavioral problems, and physical conditions among pediatric patients with epilepsy. Methods: We recruited 61 patients with epilepsy, aged 6–16 years, and 122 age-, sex-, and parenta...

  16. The symptom burden of cancer: Evidence for a core set of cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeland, Charles S; Zhao, Fengmin; Chang, Victor T; Sloan, Jeff A; O'Mara, Ann M; Gilman, Paul B; Weiss, Matthias; Mendoza, Tito R; Lee, Ju-Whei; Fisch, Michael J

    2013-12-15

    A set of common cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms has been proposed for quality of care assessment and clinical research. Using data from a large, multicenter, prospective study, the authors assessed the effects of disease site and stage on the percentages of patients rating these proposed symptoms as moderate to severe. The severity of 13 symptoms proposed to represent "core" oncology symptoms was rated by 3106 ambulatory patients with cancer of the breast, prostate, colon/rectum, or lung, regardless of disease stage or phase of care; 2801 patients (90%) repeated the assessment 4 to 5 weeks later. At the time of the initial assessment, approximately 33% of the patients reported ≥ 3 symptoms in the moderate-to-severe range; 11 of the 13 symptoms were rated as moderate to severe by at least 10% of all patients and 6 were rated as moderate to severe by at least 20% of those receiving active treatment. Fatigue/tiredness was the most severe symptom, followed by disturbed sleep, pain, dry mouth, and numbness/tingling. More patients with lung cancer and patients receiving active treatment reported moderate to severe symptoms. Percentages of symptomatic patients increased by disease stage, less adequate response to therapy, and declining Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The percentages of patients reporting moderate to severe symptoms were stable across both assessments. The results of the current study support a core set of moderate to severe symptoms that are common across outpatients with solid tumors, that can guide consideration of progression-free survival as a trial outcome, and that should be considered in clinical care and in assessments of quality of care and treatment benefit. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  17. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  18. Moderating Effects of Relational Interdependence on the Association Between Peer Victimization and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Onishi, Ayako

    2017-04-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the association between relational and physical victimization and subsequent depressive symptoms together with the roles of social cognitive processes (i.e., relational interdependence) and gender in this association. A total of 580 Japanese adolescents in the seventh and eighth grades (52 % girls; age range 12-14) participated in this study across an academic year. Results of structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational and physical victimization, which was assessed via self- and teacher- reports, was concurrently associated with greater depressive symptoms, regardless of the gender of the youth and the level of relational interdependence. Furthermore, after controlling for the stability and co-occurrence between each construct, relational victimization (not physical victimization) was predictive of elevated depressive symptoms only for boys who exhibited relatively higher relational interdependence. The findings are discussed from developmental, gender, and cultural perspectives.

  19. Reward processing and mood-related symptoms: An RDoC and translational neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    Two objectives of the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative are to identify (a) mechanisms that are common to multiple psychiatric disorders, and (b) mechanisms that are unique to specific psychiatric symptoms, and that reflect markers of differential risk for these symptoms. With respect to these objectives, a brain-behavior dimension that has received considerable attention and that is directly relevant to the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC initiative involves reward processing. The present review paper first examines the relationship between reward processing and mood-related symptoms from an RDoC perspective. We then place this work in a larger context by examining the relationship between reward processing abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms defined broadly, including mood-related symptoms, schizophrenia, and addiction. Our review suggests that reward hyposensitivity relates to a subtype of anhedonia characterized by motivational deficits in unipolar depression, and reward hypersensitivity relates to a cluster of hypo/manic symptoms characterized by excessive approach motivation in the context of bipolar disorder. Integrating this perspective with research on reward processing abnormalities in schizophrenia and addiction, we further argue that the principles of equifinality and multifinality may be preferable to a transdiagnostic perspective for conceptualizing the relationship between reward processing and psychiatric symptoms defined broadly. We propose that vulnerability to either motivational anhedonia or approach-related hypo/manic symptoms involve extreme and opposite profiles of reward processing. We further propose that an equifinality and multifinality perspective may serve as a useful framework for future research on reward processing abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The neurological disease ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark; Cox, Alexander P; Chaudhry, Naveed; Ng, Marcus; Sule, Donat; Duncan, William; Ray, Patrick; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Smith, Barry; Ruttenberg, Alan; Szigeti, Kinga; Diehl, Alexander D

    2013-12-06

    We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms 'disease', 'diagnosis', 'disease course', and 'disorder'. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at http://code.google.com/p/neurological-disease-ontology along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data

  1. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Length of delay in seeking medical care by patients with heart failure symptoms and the role of symptom-related factors: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravely-Witte, Shannon; Jurgens, Corrine Y; Tamim, Hala; Grace, Sherry L

    2010-10-01

    The delay in seeking timely medical care by patients with acute coronary syndrome and stroke is well established. Less is known about the delay in patients with heart failure (HF). Reducing the delay in seeking care and the early initiation of treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients with HF. The purpose of this narrative review was to describe the length of the delay in seeking care for HF symptoms and identify symptom-related factors that contribute to the delay in seeking medical care. A literature search was conducted to identify English language studies that (i) describe the length of care-seeking delay for HF symptoms and/or (ii) identify symptom-related factors that contribute to delay in seeking medical care. The results of this review demonstrate that upon hospital admission patients report wide variations in median symptom time course from 2 h to 7 days from the onset of symptoms to hospital admission. The ability of patients to recognize, interpret, and appraise HF symptoms has been demonstrated to be limited. Symptom characteristics such as dyspnoea, oedema, orthopnoea, higher somatic awareness, higher symptom distress, nocturnal symptom onset, and the pattern of symptom onset were related to longer delay in care-seeking for HF symptoms. Furthermore, cognitive responses to HF may also play an important role in symptom appraisal. Delays in seeking care for HF symptoms have been shown to range from hours to days from symptom onset to hospital admission. Healthcare professionals should therefore be more vigilant in identifying high-risk individuals and educating them about the warning signs of HF. Moreover, access to outpatient chronic disease management programmes may have the potential to reduce these delays.

  3. The role of parental education in the relation between ADHD symptoms and executive functions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Carin; Granvald, Viktor

    2015-06-01

    Using a population-based sample of 9-year-old children, this study examined whether the relation between symptoms of ADHD and executive functions (EFs) depended on socioeconomic status (SES; indexed by parental education). Parents and teachers rated the children's ADHD symptoms, and parents also indicated their educational level in a questionnaire. The children performed a comprehensive set of EF tasks. Whereas working memory was similarly related to ADHD symptoms in the lower and higher parental education group, the relations of inhibition and mental set-shifting with ADHD symptoms were generally stronger in the higher educational group, a pattern that was supported by several significant group differences in correlations. This suggests that the EF pathway in contemporary multiple pathway models of ADHD etiology may be particularly relevant in higher SES parts of the population. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  4. Longitudinal Relations between Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Youth: Coping as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lindsay D.; Kouros, Chrystyna; Frankel, Sarah A.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Diamond, Guy S.; Schloredt, Kelly A.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    The present prospective study examined the relations among stressful life events, coping, and depressive symptoms in children at varied risk for depression. Participants were 227 children between 7 and 17 years old (mean age = 12.13 years, SD = 2.31, 54.6% female) who were part of a longitudinal study of depressed and nondepressed parents and their children. Youth completed measures assessing stressful life events and coping strategies at four time points over 22 months. Children’s depressive symptoms were assessed at each time point by clinical interviews of parents and children, and children’s self-report. Structural equation modeling indicated that stressful life events significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses of the indirect effects in three different models revealed that primary control engagement coping and disengagement coping strategies partially mediated the relation between stressful life events and children’s depressive symptoms across time. Regarding the direction of effects, more consistent relations were found for coping as a mediator of the link from stress to depressive symptoms than from symptoms to stress. Thus, one potential mechanism by which stressful life events may contribute to depressive symptoms in children is through less use of primary control coping and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. This is consistent with the view that the adverse effects of stress may contribute to impairments in the ability to cope effectively. PMID:24993312

  5. Neurologic Manifestations of Vitamin B Deficiency after Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchai, Suriya; Hanipah, Zubaidah Nor; Meister, Katherine M; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, clinical presentation, and outcomes of neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiencies following bariatric surgery. Patients at a single academic institution who underwent bariatric surgery and developed neurologic complications secondary to low levels of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and B12 between the years 2004 and 2015 were studied. In total, 47 (0.7%) bariatric surgical patients (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass n = 36, sleeve gastrectomy n = 9, and duodenal switch n = 2) developed neurologic manifestations secondary to vitamin B deficiencies. Eleven (23%) patients developed postoperative anatomical complications contributed to poor oral intake. Median duration to onset of neurologic manifestation following surgery was 12 months (IQR, 5-32). Vitamin deficiencies reported in the cohort included B1 (n = 30), B2 (n = 1), B6 (n = 12), and B12 (n = 12) deficiency. The most common manifestations were paresthesia (n = 31), muscle weakness (n = 15), abnormal gait (n = 11), and polyneuropathy (n = 7). Four patients were diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) which was developed after gastric bypass (n = 3) and sleeve gastrectomy (n = 1). Seven patients required readmission for management of severe vitamin B deficiencies. Overall, resolution of neurologic symptoms with nutritional interventions and pharmacotherapy was noted in 40 patients (85%). The WKS was not reversible, and all four patients had residual mild ataxia and nystagmus at the last follow-up time. Nutritional neurologic disorders secondary to vitamin B deficiency are relatively uncommon after bariatric surgery. While neurologic disorders are reversible in most patients (85%) with vitamin replacements, persistent residual neurologic symptoms are common in patients with WKS.

  6. Shame and Alienation Related to Child Maltreatment: Links to Symptoms Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock Fenerci, Rebecca L; DePrince, Anne P

    2017-11-20

    The current study investigated associations between appraisals of shame and alienation related to mothers' own experiences of child maltreatment and symptoms across generations-in mothers themselves as well as their toddler/preschool-aged children. Mothers who survived maltreatment (N = 113) with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 were recruited to participate in an online study on Maternal Coping, Attachment and Health. Mother participants completed a series of questionnaires, including those that asked about posttrauma appraisals of their own maltreatment experiences as well as their child's and their own mental health symptoms. When taking into account other posttrauma appraisals (e.g., fear, betrayal, anger, self-blame), maternal shame and alienation were both significantly associated with maternal trauma-related distress (a composite of anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and depressive symptoms). Maternal shame was also significantly linked to child internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms. Lower levels of fear and higher levels of betrayal were associated with externalizing symptoms as well. Maternal trauma-related distress mediated the relationship between maternal shame and child externalizing symptoms, and partially mediated the relationship between shame and internalizing symptoms. This study is the first of its kind to examine the role of posttrauma appraisals among mother survivors of maltreatment as they relate to symptoms in their young children. Although additional research is necessary, findings suggest that mothers' posttrauma appraisals, such as shame, could be a relevant factor in the early social-emotional development of survivors' children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Pulmonary function tests and work-related respiratory and allergic symptoms in Iranian bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hosein; Taheri, Ehsan; Ahmadi, Sina; Ebrahimi, Kolsoumeh; Soudaneh, Malihe; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Sabourhasanzadeh, Alireza

    2009-06-01

    Bakers are frequently exposed to various irritant chemicals during work which can induce respiratory problems. In this study, pulmonary function tests and self-reported respiratory and allergic symptoms in bakers were compared with matched control subjects. The frequency of respiratory and allergic symptoms was evaluated in a sample of 58 Iranian bakers and 58 control subjects using a questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) were also measured in all participants. All respiratory symptoms were significantly higher in bakers than control croup (pbakers were also significantly greater than control group (pbakers compared to rest period (pbakers than control subjects (pbakers have a higher frequency of work related respiratory symptoms and to a lesser extend allergic symptoms particularly during the work period. PFT values were also significantly reduced among bakers.

  8. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  9. The relationship between post-traumatic symptom severity and object relations deficits in persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Kristine M; Bell, Morris D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if object relations deficits in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (i.e., schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) are related to co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cross-sectional and correlational. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, and Bell Object Relations Inventory were administered to 60 people with schizophrenia in an outpatient setting. With four hierarchical regressions, we hypothesized that, controlling for schizophrenia symptoms, diagnosis type, and potential demographic features, PTSD symptoms would correlate with each of the four types of object relations deficits. All participants reported experiencing at least one traumatic experience. As predicted, PTSD symptoms were a significant predictor of alienation, insecure attachment, and egocentricity controlling for schizophrenia symptoms, diagnosis type, and demographic features. Against prediction, PTSD was not associated with Social Incompetence. If PTSD symptoms contribute to object relations deficits in persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, then interventions such as psychotherapy need to be developed to address PTSD symptoms in the treatment of these interpersonal deficits. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Cancer-related loneliness mediates the relationships between social constraints and symptoms among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca N; Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Abonour, Rafat; Kroenke, Kurt

    2017-10-05

    Cancer patients have high rates of persistent and disabling symptoms. Evidence suggests that social constraints (e.g., avoidance and criticism) negatively impact symptoms, but pathways linking these variables have yet to be identified. This study examined whether cancer-related loneliness (i.e., feeling socially disconnected related to having cancer) mediated the relationships between social constraints and symptoms (i.e., pain interference, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and cognitive complaints) in patients with various cancers (N = 182). Patients (51% female, mean age = 59) were recruited from the Indiana Cancer Registry and completed questionnaires assessing social constraints, cancer-related loneliness, and symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the hypothesized relationships among variables. The model demonstrated good fit. Consistent with our hypothesis, cancer-related loneliness mediated the relationships between social constraints and each symptom. Findings suggest that addressing cancer-related loneliness in symptom management interventions may mitigate the negative impact of social constraints on outcomes.

  11. Neurological complications of underwater diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Justyna; Łukasik, Maria; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The diver's nervous system is extremely sensitive to high ambient pressure, which is the sum of atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure. Neurological complications associated with diving are a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They occur in both commercial and recreational diving and are connected with increasing interest in the sport of diving. Hence it is very important to know the possible complications associated with this kind of sport. Complications of the nervous system may result from decompression sickness, pulmonary barotrauma associated with cerebral arterial air embolism (AGE), otic and sinus barotrauma, high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) and undesirable effect of gases used for breathing. The purpose of this review is to discuss the range of neurological symptoms that can occur during diving accidents and also the role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection in pathogenesis of stroke in divers. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. APOE-related frequency of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacabelos, R; Rodríguez, B; Carrera, C; Caamaño, J; Beyer, K; Lao, J I; Sellers, M A

    1996-12-01

    Although memory disorders and the aphaso-apraxo-agnosic syndrome are the most relevant clinical symptoms in dementia, behavioral changes, mood-related disturbances and sleep disorders are the major cause of institutionalization and caregiver concern. In the present study we have investigated the frequency and progression of cognitive and noncognitive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as the APOE-related frequency of clinical symptoms in dementia. Memory decline (100%), aphasia (94%), apraxia (99%), agnosia (94%) and motor dysfunction (90%) appeared in practically all cases with mild (GDS-3), moderate (GDS 3-4) and severe (GDS 6-7) dementia. The most frequent noncognitive symptoms include anxiety (76%), depression (68%), behavioral changes (67%), psychotic symptoms (43%), sleep disorders (43%), incontinence (23%) and cerebrovascular symptoms (75%). Anxiety, depression, behavioral changes, psychotic symptoms, motor dysfunction and cognitive deterioration paralleled the severity of dementia, increasing their frequency from mild to severe dementia. The most important sleep disorders were irregular sleep-wake pattern (67%) and insomnia (47%). Disorientation (90%) and drug administration (88%) appeared to be the most important factors in causing sleep disorders in dementia. Disorientation, agitation and motor disorders were slightly more frequent in patients with APOE-4/4, while anxiety and sleep disorders appeared more frequently in APOE-3/4. Behavioral changes and psychotic symptoms did not show any clear association with specific APOE subtypes. In conclusion, our results suggest that noncognitive symptoms are very important clinical events in the disease progression and in decision making for therapeutic intervention and institutionalization. Furthermore, it is likely that some brain dysfunctions leading to particular clinical symptoms might be associated with specific AD genotypes.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

  14. Longitudinal Relations between Peer Victimization, Emotion Dysregulation, and Internalizing Symptoms among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Sarah T.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal relations between overt and relational victimization, sadness and anger dysregulation, and depressive and anxiety symptoms across 6 months among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth graders (N = 485; 48% male; 65% African American). No direct longitudinal relations were found between peer victimization and…

  15. Specific antibodies to diisocyanate and work-related respiratory symptoms in apprentice car-painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragos, M; Jones, M; Malo, J-L; Ghezzo, H; Gautrin, D

    2009-04-01

    Isocyanates are the main cause of occupational asthma in most countries. Study of immunological markers of diisocyanate asthma may identify individuals at risk. (1) To study changes in specific antibodies to hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI); (2) to describe the incidence of work-related respiratory symptoms in relation to changes in specific antibody levels. Prospective study in 385 apprentice car-painters during their 18 months of training. Participants were assessed on entering and completing their training using questionnaires, methacholine challenges and measurements of HDI-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclass 4 of IgG (IgG4) antibodies. Complete data are available for 298 subjects. 13 subjects (4.4%) reported >or=1 new work-related lower respiratory symptoms and 19 (6.4%), >or=1 new work-related nasal symptoms. Increases in levels of specific IgE and IgG above the 97th and 95th percentiles were significantly associated with duration of exposure. Increase in specific IgG was inversely related to incidence of work-related lower respiratory symptoms (OR = 0.001, 95% CI 0.000 to 0.09) after adjusting for relevant covariates. The rise in specific IgG4 was significantly greater in those who did not develop work-related nasal symptoms (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.7). In this cohort of apprentice car-painters, a small proportion show increases in HDI-specific IgG and IgE after few months of exposure. Increases in specific IgG and IgG4 appear to have a protective effect on the incidence of work-related lower and upper respiratory symptoms, respectively. Assessment of specific antibodies to isocyanates may help identify subjects at risk of developing symptoms.

  16. Attention to Irrelevant Cues Is Related to Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard; Griffiths, Oren; Le Pelley, Michael E.; Weickert, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Many modern learning theories assume that the amount of attention to a cue depends on how well that cue predicted important events in the past. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in attention and recent theories of psychosis have argued that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are related to a failure of selective attention. However, evidence demonstrating that attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia is lacking. We used a novel method of measuring attention to nonpredictive (and thus irrelevant) cues in a causal learning test (Le Pelley ME, McLaren IP. Learned associability and associative change in human causal learning. Q J Exp Psychol B. 2003;56:68–79) to assess whether healthy adults and people with schizophrenia discriminate previously predictive and nonpredictive cues. In a series of experiments with independent samples, we demonstrated: (1) when people with schizophrenia who had severe positive symptoms successfully distinguished between predictive and nonpredictive cues during training, they failed to discriminate between predictive and nonpredictive cues relative to healthy adults during subsequent testing and (2) learning about nonpredictive cues was correlated with more severe positive symptoms scores in schizophrenia. These results suggest that positive symptoms of schizophrenia are related to increased attention to nonpredictive cues during causal learning. This deficit in selective attention results in learning irrelevant causal associations and may be the basis of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:22267535

  17. Military-related trauma is associated with eating disorder symptoms in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditte Hall, Kimberly A; Bartlett, Brooke A; Iverson, Katherine M; Mitchell, Karen S

    2017-11-01

    Eating disorders are understudied among male veterans, who may be at increased risk due to the high rates of trauma exposure and experiences of multiple traumatization in this population. This study sought to examine the associations between specific types of trauma (i.e., childhood physical abuse, adult physical assault, childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and military-related trauma) and eating disorder symptoms in a large, nationally-representative sample of trauma-exposed male veterans. Survey data were collected from N = 642 male veterans. Traumatic experiences in childhood and adulthood were assessed using the Trauma History Screen and the National Stressful Events Survey. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Analyses also controlled for age and body mass index. Multiple traumatization was associated with increased eating disorder symptoms. However, military-related trauma was the only trauma type that was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms when controlling for other trauma types. Examination of different types of military-related trauma indicated that this association was not driven by exposure to combat. Noncombat, military-related trauma was associated with eating disorder symptom severity in male veterans. Results highlight the need for better assessment of eating disorder symptoms in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in Japanese people with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Junji; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Nishizaka, Mari; Ando, Shin-ichi

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms and assessed the relationship with obesity or unusual sleep postures in Down syndrome patients in Japan. We obtained the demographic characteristics, sleep postures, and obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms experienced by 90 people as reported by their caregivers. Although 71% reported snoring and 59% arousals, obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms were not significantly different between obese and non-obese participants. The youngest age group had the fewest obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms, especially symptoms of snoring. The odds for arousal, nocturia, and apnea tended to be higher in the unusual sleep-postures group. Unusual sleep postures were most frequent in the group 6-15 years of age. People with Down syndrome might sleep in unusual postures to avoid upper airway obstruction caused by other anatomical factors. For nurses and other health professionals working in mainstream service, it is important to screen all persons with Down syndrome for symptoms suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea, particularly those six years of age and older, and to refer them for further evaluation for sleep disorders. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Self-perceptions in relation to self-reported depressive symptoms in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Samirah; Manassis, Katharina; Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela

    2011-08-01

    Low self-esteem is associated with depressive symptoms in children. However, the association between domains of self-esteem (e.g., self perceptions) and depressive symptoms may vary by gender. This study evaluated self-perceptions in relation to self-reported depressive symptoms in boys and girls. School children in grades 3 to 6 (n = 140; 54% boys; 46% girls) completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and The Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) as part of a school-based intervention targeting anxious and depressive symptoms. The CDI was re-administered about 1 month later. Pearson correlations between the subscales of the SPPC and the average CDI T-scores were determined. Significant correlations were entered in stepwise regressions to predict depressive symptoms for the whole sample and then separately for boys and girls. Self-perceived scholastic competence, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct accounted for 19.8% of the variance in self-reported depressive symptoms overall. Behavioral conduct was a more salient predictor in boys (adjusted R(2) =0.146) whereas scholastic competence and physical appearance were more salient in girls (adjusted R(2) =0.203). Although replication is needed, boys and girls appear to have different self-perceptions in relation to depressive symptoms. Understanding these differences may help to inform clinical interventions.

  20. Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kouichi Yoshimasu1, Tetsuya Kondo2,4, Shoji Tokunaga3, Yoshio Kanemitsu2, Hideyo Sugahara2, Mariko Akamine2, Kanichiro Fujisawa2, Kazuhisa Miyashita1, Chiharu Kubo21Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate school of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Patients with suicidal ideation (SI have various mental or somatic symptoms. A questionnaire-based interview elicited details concerning mental and somatic symptoms in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. Univariate logistic regression analyses followed by multiple regression models using a stepwise method were selected for identifying the candidate symptoms. Overall, symptoms related to depression were associated with SI in both sexes. Although women showed more various somatic symptoms associated with SI than men, many of those associations were diminished once severity of the depression was controlled. The current results suggest that a variety of self-reported symptoms, mainly related to depression, might reveal suicidal risk in outpatients with an urban hospital clinical setting.Keywords: suicidal ideation, psychosomatic clinic, subjective symptoms

  1. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients

  2. Building-related symptoms and inflammatory potency of dust from office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allermann, Leila; Pejtersen, Jan; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    2007-01-01

    linear part of the concentration- response curve. Symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS) were associated with the potency of surface dust (OR ¼ 1.4). This association may be due to an association between an index of CNS symptoms and dust potency in offices of 1-6 occupants (OR ¼ 1.5). No single...... symptoms correlated with the potency of surface dust. The PD was not related to single building factors. The inflammatory PD may be used as an integrated proxy measure of biologically active compounds in dust, reflecting health relevant properties of the dust....

  3. Building-related symptoms and inflammatory potency of dust from office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allermann, L; Pejtersen, J; Gunnarsen, L

    2007-01-01

    linear part of the concentration-response curve. Symptoms of the central nervous system (CNS) were associated with the potency of surface dust (OR = 1.4). This association may be due to an association between an index of CNS symptoms and dust potency in offices of 1-6 occupants (OR = 1.5). No single...... symptoms correlated with the potency of surface dust. The PD was not related to single building factors. The inflammatory PD may be used as an integrated proxy measure of biologically active compounds in dust, reflecting health relevant properties of the dust. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The potency of surface...

  4. Children’s Depressive Symptoms in Relation to EEG Frontal Asymmetry and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Forbes, Erika E.; Kovacs, Maria; George, Charles J.; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Fox, Nathan A.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relations of school-age children’s depressive symptoms, frontal EEG asymmetry, and maternal history of childhood-onset depression (COD). Participants were 73 children, 43 of whom had mothers with COD. Children’s EEG was recorded at baseline and while watching happy and sad film clips. Depressive symptoms were measured using parent-report of Children’s Depression Inventory. The key findings are the interaction effects between baseline and film frontal EEG asymmetry on child depressive symptoms. Specifically, relative right frontal EEG asymmetry while watching happy or sad film clip was associated with elevated depressive symptoms for children who also exhibited right frontal EEG asymmetry at baseline. Results suggest that right frontal EEG asymmetry that is consistent across situations may be an marker of depression-prone children. PMID:21894523

  5. Are severe depressive symptoms associated with infertility-related distress in individuals and their partners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Sejbæk, Camilla Sandal; Prritano, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    the individual and partner level. What is known already?: An infertility diagnosis, the stress of medical treatments and a prior history of depression are risk factors for future depression in those undergoing fertility treatments. Studies examining the impact of severe depressive symptoms on infertility......Study question: Are severe depressive symptoms in women and men associated with individual and dyadic infertility-related stress in couples undergoing infertility treatment? Summary answer: Severe depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased infertility-related distress at both....../materials, setting, methods: Participants were consecutively referred patients undergoing a cycle of medically assisted reproduction treatment at five Danish public and private clinics specializing in treating fertility patients. Severe depressive symptoms were measured by the Mental Health Inventory 5 from...

  6. [Can music therapy for patients with neurological disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myskja, Audun

    2004-12-16

    Recent developments in brain research and in the field of music therapy have led to the development of music-based methods specifically aimed at relieving symptoms of Parkinson's disease and other neurologic disorders. Rhythmic auditory stimulation uses external rhythmic auditory cues from song, music or metronome to aid patients improving their walking functioning and has been shown to be effective both within sessions and as a result of training over time. Melodic intonation therapy and related vocal techniques can improve expressive dysphasia and aid rehabilitation of neurologic disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease, stroke and developmental disorders.

  7. Immigration transition and sleep-related symptoms experienced during menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2017-01-01

    The transition due to immigration from one country to another country (referred to as immigration transition henceforth) is inherently stressful, placing an additional dimension of stress to midlife women in the menopausal transition. However, few studies have examined the association of immigration to sleep-related symptoms experienced by midlife women in the menopausal transition. The authors' purpose for this study was to explore the associations of immigration to sleep-related symptoms among four major racial/ethnic groups of 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of data from two national surveys that were collected from 2005 to 2013. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, immigration transition, and the Sleep Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using t-tests, chi-square tests, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Immigrants reported fewer total numbers of and lower total severity scores of sleep-related symptoms than non-immigrants (p < .01). Yet, when background characteristics and health and menopausal status were controlled, self-reported racial/ethnic identity was the only significant factor associated with sleep-related symptoms (ΔR2 = 0.02, p < .01). Health-care providers need to consider self-reported racial/ethnic identity as a factor significantly related to sleep-related symptoms during the menopausal transition.

  8. Sex differences in the trauma-related symptoms: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerotić Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the year 2014, a part of the population from Serbia was exposed to floods. After natural disasters and other types of extreme trauma, some people will be more affected by trauma than others. How women and men differ, in the symptoms that can manifest after the exposure to extreme trauma, is still an open question. Aim: To evaluate if there are differences in the severity of trauma-related symptom clusters between the sexes (re-experiencing, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and arousal; according to DSM V and in experiencing negative emotional states (depression, anxiety, stress. Material and methods: Forty healthy volunteers from Obrenovac (25 women and 15 men were administered with three instruments: The Life Events Checklist - LEC-5, PTSD checklist for DSM V - PCL-5 and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - DASS. Results: The majority of subjects reported floods as the major lifetime trauma (72.5%. Despite the relatively low level of the post-traumatic symptom intensity (5.02 ±4.99, women exhibited significantly higher total post-traumatic symptom severity scores in comparison to men (p<0.01 and higher severity of trauma re-experiencing symptoms (p<0.01. Sex differences were neither observed in other trauma-related symptoms clusters, nor in the severity of current depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. Conclusion: In the non-clinical sample, with only a sub-threshold level of post-traumatic symptoms, the most prominent difference between sexes was found in relation to re-experiencing and this finding is consistent with the results obtained from clinical samples. Future studies are needed, in order to examine whether trauma-focused treatments can be gender-tailored and to which extent they might prevent the full-blown post-traumatic stress disorder.

  9. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  10. Self-reported food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS are common and associated with more severe symptoms and reduced quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhn, Lena; Störsrud, Stine; Törnblom, Hans; Bengtsson, Ulf; Simrén, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    Despite the fact that food and diet are central issues, that concern patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), the current understanding about the association between the intake of certain foods/food groups and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptom pattern, psychological symptoms, and quality of life is poor. The aim of this study was to determine which food groups and specific food items IBS patients report causing GI symptoms, and to investigate the association with GI and psychological symptoms and quality of life. We included 197 IBS patients (mean age 35 (18-72) years; 142 female subjects) who completed a food questionnaire in which they specified symptoms from 56 different food items or food groups relevant to food intolerance/allergy. The patients also completed questionnaires to assess depression and general anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression), GI-specific anxiety (Visceral Sensitivity Index), IBS symptoms (IBS-Severity Scoring System), somatic symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-15), and quality of life (Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life Questionnaire). In all, 84% of the studied population reported symptoms related to at least one of the food items surveyed. Symptoms related to intake of food items with incompletely absorbed carbohydrates were noted in 138 (70%) patients; the most common were dairy products (49%), beans/lentils (36%), apple (28%), flour (24%), and plum (23%). Of these, 58% experienced GI symptoms from foods rich in biogenic amines, such as wine/beer (31%), salami (22%), and cheese (20%). Histamine-releasing foods, such as milk (43%), wine/beer (31%), and pork (21%), were also considered causes of symptoms in IBS patients. GI symptoms were also frequently reported after intake of fried and fatty foods (52%). With increasing IBS symptom severity, patients reported more food items responsible for their GI symptoms (P=0.004), and this was also found in patients with more severe somatic symptoms (Pfood items causing symptoms

  11. Symptoms of Depression and ADHD in Relation to Stimulant Medication Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2017-07-28

    The misuse of stimulant medications, commonly used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is a concern on college campuses. This study sought to examine the relations between the misuse of stimulant medications and symptoms of depression and ADHD. Eight hundred and ninety students ages 18-26 from one public university took a web-based survey including rating scales measuring symptoms of depression and ADHD. The prevalence rate of misuse in the past year was 23%. Symptoms of depression were significantly related to misuse; however, once symptoms of ADHD were included in the analysis, depression was no longer a significant predictor. Further, there was not a significant interaction between ADHD and depression, but symptoms of ADHD were significantly related to misuse. Conclusions/Importance: Results suggest that attention difficulties may be one of the most important factors in predicting stimulant medication misuse. Therefore, prevention efforts to reduce the misuse of stimulant medication would be most successful when targeting students with symptoms of inattention.

  12. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease are related to decreased hippocampus and amygdala volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Tom J; Chung, Chin; Foncke, Elisabeth M; Berendse, Henk W; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), and are among the non-motor symptoms that interfere with quality of life dramatically. Motor, cognitive, and affective features overlap in PD, hampering diagnosis. To shed more light on the contribution of structural brain changes to the presence of PD-related depressive symptoms, we conducted a Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) study. We hypothesized that depressive symptoms in PD are related to regional gray matter (GM) volume loss within the limbic circuit. We analyzed the T1-weigthed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of 67 PD patients with a mean disease duration of 2.95 (±3.39) years. Scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and GM probability maps were analyzed by regression analysis to study the association between GM volume and severity of depressive symptoms. Results are reported at both the uncorrected and the family-wise error (FWE) corrected level for multiple comparisons. The BDI scores correlated negatively with bilateral hippocampus and right amygdala volume and positively with the volume of the anterior cingulate cortex. These findings confirm the hypothesized involvement of the limbic circuit in PD-related depressive symptoms. We speculate that non-dopaminergic changes are essential in the pathophysiology of depressive symptoms in PD, because our findings suggest the involvement of extra-striatal brain regions. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Association of work-related factors with psychosocial job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among Japanese pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Katsura; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2007-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore what work-related factors were associated with job stress among pediatricians in Japan, as determined by the demand-control-support model and psychosomatic symptoms. We sent an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 3,000 members selected from the nationwide register of the Japan Pediatric Society and received 850 responses (response rate, 28%). Data from the 590 respondents who worked more than 35 h per week as a pediatrician and had no missing responses in the questionnaire were analyzed. We measured workload-related variables (e.g. working hours, work schedule) and recovery-related variables (e.g. workdays with no overtime, days off with no work in the past month) as exposure variables, and psychosocial job stressors (the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire) and psychosomatic symptoms as outcome variables. Longer working hours per week was significantly associated with greater job demand, lower job control and more psychosomatic symptoms (pworking hours, more workdays with no overtime was significantly associated with lower job demand, greater job control and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (pworking hours is a risk factor for job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms, and that workdays with no overtime is a protective factor which may facilitate recovery. Controlling working hours and encouraging non-overtime workdays may be important for reducing job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among pediatricians in Japan.

  14. Smoking-related respiratory symptoms in tehran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunesian, Masud; Homayoun-Vash, Javad; Asghari, Fariba; Foruzanfar, Mohammad-Hosein; Hosein-Poor, Ahmad-Reza; Farhud, Dariush

    2008-09-01

    Active smoking and passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke cause respiratory symptoms as well as long-term complications. We know little about the sources of exposure to tobacco smoke in our population and the symptoms that can be related to smoking in adults and children. A survey on the range of symptoms relevant to smoke exposure was conducted. Residents of Tehran were interviewed by telephone through random digit dialing. Exposure to tobacco smoke and other environmental pollutants were sought at individual level. A geographical information system was used to determine the levels of the pollutants corresponding to addresses of the participants. We interviewed 34,121 individuals. Of the male and female adults, 21.3% and 3.4% were current smokers, respectively. About one third of the children and teenagers were exposed to smoking in one way or the other. In regression analysis, respiratory symptoms such as cough, phlegm, breathlessness, chest tightness, and throat discomfort were consistently associated with smoking in adults. In teenage group, cough and phlegm were related to habitual smoking. We failed to find a significant relation between passive smoking and symptoms in children. The range of respiratory symptoms associated with smoking is different in various age groups. The high percentage of children exposed to passive smoking expedites rigorous educational measures.

  15. Efficacy of Adaptive Biofeedback Training in Treating Constipation-Related Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofeedback therapy is a well-known and effective therapeutic treatment for constipation. A previous study suggested that adaptive biofeedback (ABF training was more effective than traditional (fixed training parameters biofeedback training. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of ABF in relieving constipation-related symptoms. We noticed that in traditional biofeedback training, a patient usually receives the training twice per week. The long training sessions usually led to poor compliance. This study proposes an intensive biofeedback therapy and compares intensive therapy with nonintensive therapy in patients with constipation-related symptoms. Methods. 63 patients with constipation-related symptoms were treated with ABF between 2012 and 2013. These patients were further divided into the intensive therapy and nonintensive therapy groups. Results. A total of 63 patients were enrolled in the study, including 24 in the nonintensive therapy group and 39 in the intensive therapy group. 100% (N=21 of constipation patients achieved the primary efficacy endpoint (≥3 bowel movements/week. There was significant improvement in constipation-related symptoms after adaptive biofeedback. The intensive biofeedback therapy did not show better performance compared to nonintensive biofeedback therapy. Conclusions. This investigation provides support for the efficacy of biofeedback for constipation-related symptoms. The efficacy of intensive therapy is similar to nonintensive therapy.

  16. Culturally related stress, hopelessness, and vulnerability to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Miranda, Regina

    2013-03-01

    Culturally related experiences are seldom considered in assessing risk for suicidal behavior among emerging adults, despite racial/ethnic differences in suicide attempts. The present study examined the impact of culturally related stressors on hopelessness, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation-well-known predictors of suicidal behavior-among emerging adults over time, and whether hopelessness would mediate the relation between culturally related stressors and both depression and ideation. An ethnically diverse sample of 143 emerging adults, ages 18 to 25, completed self-report measures of acculturative stress, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms at 1 time point, and self-report measures of ethnic identity, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation 2 to 3years later. Higher baseline acculturative stress and perceived discrimination predicted hopelessness, but not symptoms of depression, when entered simultaneously into a regression analysis. However, there was an indirect relation between these culturally related stressors and depressive symptoms through hopelessness. There was also a direct relation between acculturative stress at baseline and suicidal ideation at follow-up, and hopelessness mediated this relation. However, the indirect relations between culturally related stressors and depression and suicidal ideation through hopelessness were only present at low levels of ethnic identity, but not at average or high levels of ethnic identity. Acculturative stress and perceived discrimination may thus increase vulnerability to depression and suicidal ideation to the extent that they increase hopelessness, but a strong ethnic identity may buffer against this relation. This study highlights the need for incorporating culturally related experiences in assessing risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, particularly among emerging adults from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Sex differences in patterns of relations between family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smojver-Azić, Sanja; Bezinović, Petar

    2011-08-15

    To gain insight into the relations between protective/risk family interactions and depressive symptoms in adolescent boys and girls. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was conducted on a representative sample of 1191 secondary school students (617 girls and 574 boys) aged from 14 to 19 years, with a median of 16, from all secondary schools in the Primorsko-goranska County, Croatia in January and February 2010. Students reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions about the relationship with their mother and father, family activities, and parents' conflict resolution strategies. Data were analyzed by hierarchical multiple regression to calculate the effects of family supportive and harmful interactions on depressive symptoms in girls and boys. Depressive symptoms were reported often and very often by 19.1% of girls and 15.8% of boys. Girls' assessment of the family relations was significantly more positive than boys', including the assessment of family activities, constructive family conflict resolution, or father's and mother's warmth and affection. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the examined family variables accounted for 16.3% of the variance of depressive symptoms in boys and for 17.2% in girls. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a difference in the relation of family variables and depressive symptoms between boys and girls. Depressive symptoms in girls were more linked to the lack of protective family factors (9.9% of the explained variance in girls vs. 5.5% in boys), while depressive symptoms in boys were more linked to the existence of harmful family factors (10.8% of the explained variance in boys vs.7.3% in girls). Family activities and the father's warmth and affection have a higher significance for girls than for boys, while destructive parental conflict and the mother's aggression and hostility are equally significant for both girls and boys. These results indicate the targets for family-based preventive and intervention

  18. Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E.; Puente, Gabriella C.; Atencio, Guillermo; Qiu, Chungfang; Yanez, David; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods This case control study included 479 PTB cases and 480 term controls. In-person interviews were conducted to assess women’s depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared with women reporting no or minimal depressive symptoms, the aOR (95% CI) for PTB associated with consecutive severity of depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 assessment method were as follows: mild 2.22 (95% CI 1.64–3.00) and moderate-severe 3.67 (95% CI 2.09–6.46). The corresponding aORs for mild, moderate, and moderate- severe depressive symptoms based on the DASS-21 assessment were, 1.00 (reference), 3.82 (95% CI 1.90–7.66) and 2.90 (95% CI 1.66–5.04), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of PTB with severity of anxiety (ptrend <0.001) and stress symptoms (ptrend <0.001). Conclusions The odds of PTB are increased in pregnant Peruvian women with psychiatric symptoms. Efforts to screen and treat affected women may modify risks of PTB and possibly other associated disorders. PMID:23447915

  19. Medical Costs and Productivity Costs Related to Voice Symptoms in Colombian Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor Cutiva, Lady Catherine; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the medical costs and productivity costs of voice symptoms among teachers and to assess the contribution of the characteristics of voice symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and work-related factors to these costs. This is a cross-sectional study. In 2012, we conducted a longitudinal study in 12 public schools in Bogotá D.C., Colombia. This study is focused on cross-sectional results obtained in the first stage of the data collection process. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographics, voice symptoms, work-related conditions, use of health care, productivity loss at work, and sickness absence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore associations among health care use, voice-related absenteeism and productivity loss with duration and severity of voice symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and work-related factors. In total, 621 Colombian teachers participated in this research, 438 of whom had self-reported voice complaints and who therefore made up the study population. Total medical costs and productivity costs due to presence of voice symptoms among teachers with voice complaints equaled around 37% of their monthly wage. Approximately, 3% of the costs were direct costs for health care use, and 97% were indirect costs for productivity losses. Severity of voice symptoms was significantly associated with health care use and absenteeism. Voice symptoms among teachers have important economic consequences because of health care use, voice-related absenteeism, and productivity loss at work. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Work-related symptoms in indoor environments: a puzzling problem for the occupational physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    People who work indoors often manifest symptoms related to the work environment. Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a condition closely associated with sealed, air-conditioned workplaces and is especially frequent in countries with a cold climate. However, it is also present in Mediterranean countries where artificial ventilation accompanies the natural one. The significance of personal factors, air quality perception, and psychosocial work conditions in relation to SBS and other work-related symptoms needs to be clarified. Workers from 28 companies in the Latium region of Italy were invited to answer a questionnaire during their routine medical examination at the workplace. A total of 4,029 out of 4,129 took part in the survey, giving a response rate of 97.6 %. A high percentage of workers (31.9 %) reported symptoms related to work, and two-thirds of the employees (65.4 %) complained of environmental problems. In logistic regression models, personal factors (gender, smoking habit, age, and atopy), anxiety and depression, environmental discomfort and job strain were associated both with symptoms of SBS and other work-related symptoms. There was a significant association between the perception of stuffy air, dry air, and electricity and cases of SBS. Some associations between symptoms and the work environment lacked biological plausibility. The occupational physician's task is to systematically monitor workers' symptoms and their perception of the work environment in order to analyze this relationship and indicates the best mode of preventing illness/discomfort. This paper provides a method and reference values.

  1. Functional Disorders in Neurology : Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, Jon; Hoeritzauer, Ingrid; Gelauff, Jeannette; Lehn, Alex; Gardiner, Paula; van Gils, Anne; Carson, Alan

    Functional, often called psychogenic, disorders are common in neurological practice. We illustrate clinical issues and highlight some recent research findings using six case studies of functional neurological disorders. We discuss dizziness as a functional disorder, describing the relatively new

  2. Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Crisanta I; Khalaf, Kristin; Berenson, Karina; Globe, Denise; Chancellor, Michael; Carr, Lesley K

    2013-01-31

    Patients with neurologic diseases often have neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), which can result in a loss of voluntary bladder control and uncontrollable urinary incontinence (UI).The impact of UI due to NDO on patients' lives has not been well studied. The objective of this review was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden in patients with urgency UI due to NDO in select countries in North America, the European Union, Asia, and Australia. Systematic literature searches and reviews of articles published in English (January 2000 to February 2011) were conducted using MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the impact of UI on HRQoL of patients with an underlying neurologic condition of interest (i.e., multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, or spina bifida) were included. Economic studies in urgency UI also were included. Of 876 citations generated in the initial search, a total of 27 articles were deemed relevant: 16 articles presented HRQoL data and 11 articles presented information on the economic burden of UI. Humanistic studies used a range of HRQoL instruments to measure HRQoL burden, and the economic studies included different cost components to quantify the economic burden, making meaningful comparisons challenging. Despite this heterogeneity, the literature suggests that HRQoL in patients with UI due to NDO is worse than patients with UI in general or those with the same underlying neurologic condition without UI. In addition, urgency UI also results in substantial economic costs. Incontinent patients with underlying neurologic conditions have impaired HRQoL as well as substantial economic burden attributable to UI due to NDO. There is a need for urgency UI treatments that improve HRQoL of these patients and alleviate the economic burden of this condition.

  3. Health-related quality of life and economic impact of urinary incontinence due to detrusor overactivity associated with a neurologic condition: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with neurologic diseases often have neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), which can result in a loss of voluntary bladder control and uncontrollable urinary incontinence (UI).The impact of UI due to NDO on patients’ lives has not been well studied. The objective of this review was to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden in patients with urgency UI due to NDO in select countries in North America, the European Union, Asia, and Australia. Methods Systematic literature searches and reviews of articles published in English (January 2000 to February 2011) were conducted using MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Library. Studies assessing the impact of UI on HRQoL of patients with an underlying neurologic condition of interest (i.e., multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, or spina bifida) were included. Economic studies in urgency UI also were included. Results Of 876 citations generated in the initial search, a total of 27 articles were deemed relevant: 16 articles presented HRQoL data and 11 articles presented information on the economic burden of UI. Humanistic studies used a range of HRQoL instruments to measure HRQoL burden, and the economic studies included different cost components to quantify the economic burden, making meaningful comparisons challenging. Despite this heterogeneity, the literature suggests that HRQoL in patients with UI due to NDO is worse than patients with UI in general or those with the same underlying neurologic condition without UI. In addition, urgency UI also results in substantial economic costs. Conclusions Incontinent patients with underlying neurologic conditions have impaired HRQoL as well as substantial economic burden attributable to UI due to NDO. There is a need for urgency UI treatments that improve HRQoL of these patients and alleviate the economic burden of this condition. PMID:23369111

  4. Perspectives of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors on adjuvant endocrine therapy-related symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Londen, G.J.; Donovan, H.S.; Beckjord, E.B.; Cardy, A.L.; Bovbjerg, D.H.; Davidson, N.E.; Morse, J.Q.; Switzer, G.E.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Dew, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To conduct an investigation of women's experiences related to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) and managing AET-related symptoms. Research Approach: Qualitative, focus group design. Setting: Main campus of the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Participants: 14 breast

  5. Relational Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Rejection Sensitivity as a Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Joanna M.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior…

  6. Common and Specific Emotion-Related Predictors of Anxious and Depressive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Hoffman, Brian; Zeman, Janice L.; Thomassin, Kristel

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether specific emotion-related constructs may be uniquely related to anxious or depressive symptoms in youth. Although anxiety and depression are comorbid in both youth and adult populations, delineation of these disorders is a worthwhile endeavor given that such differentiation may lead to a clearer conceptualization of the…

  7. Premenstrual symptoms in dysmenorrheic college students: prevalence and relation to vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Bayan A; Alchalabi, Haifa A; Abdul-Razzak, Khalid K; Al-Farras, Mudhaffar I

    2012-11-16

    To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS) due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH) levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. A cross-sectional study. One Jordanian university. A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation-related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  8. Depressive Symptoms, Ethnic Identity, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Obese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Silverstein, Janet; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn; Janicke, David M

    2016-05-01

    Examine relations between depressive symptoms, ethnic identity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in overweight or obese (OV/OB) children. A total of 166 OV/OB 8- to 17-year-olds (M = 12.94 years; 86.7% obese; 50.6% racial/ethnic minority) attending an outpatient pediatric obesity medical clinic participated. Children completed the Children's Depression Inventory-Short Form, Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Increased depressive symptoms significantly predicted reduced total, physical, and psychosocial HRQOL. For minority OV/OB youth only, MEIM Affirmation/Belonging moderated depressive symptoms and total HRQOL (effect = -2.59, t = -2.24, p = .027; R(2) overall model = 0.315) and depressive symptoms and psychosocial HRQOL (effect = -3.01, t = -2.47, p = .015; R(2) overall model = 0.331). Depressive symptoms are negatively associated with HRQOL. In minority OV/OB youth, high ethnic identity may be protective when depressive symptoms are minimal. Ethnic identity and other cultural factors are important to consider in psychosocial treatments for pediatric obesity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Premenstrual Symptoms in Dysmenorrheic College Students: Prevalence and Relation to Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan A. Obeidat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms (PMS due to primary dysmenorrhea among a sample of university female students, and to explore possible association with vitamin D and parathyroid (PTH levels, as well as frequency of consumption of dairy products. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: One Jordanian university. Subjects: A total of 177 female students aged between 18 and 24 years who experienced primary dysmenorrhea participated in the study and completed a self administered questionnaire to collect information concerning demographics, menstruation- related information, associated specified premenstrual symptoms, and consumption of dairy products. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin vitamin D level and intact parathyroid hormone level were measured. Results: Of the 177 participants 91.5% had two or more symptoms among which fatigue, mood swings, anxiety, abdominal bloating, and depression were the most prevalent symptoms. There was no evident association between presence of symptoms and vitamin D status, PTH level or dairy products consumption. Headaches and social withdrawal were significantly lower in those women who consumed high amounts of dairy products. Conclusion: Premenstrual symptoms are very common in young women with primary dysmenorrhea. PMS has no relation to levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone or dairy products consumption. Headache and social withdrawal may be affected by dairy product consumption.

  10. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitivity to independently observable teen misbehavior as well as long-term, predictive links between maternal symptoms and teen behavior. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted relative increases over time in teen externalizing behavior. Child effects were also found, however, in which teen externalizing behavior predicted future relative increases in maternal depressive symptoms. Findings are interpreted as revealing a tightly-linked behavioral-affective system in families with mothers experiencing depressive symptoms and teens engaged in externalizing behavior, and further suggest that research on depressive symptoms in women with adolescent offspring should now consider offspring externalizing behaviors as a significant risk factor. PMID:21090880

  11. Maladaptive trauma appraisals mediate the relation between attachment anxiety and PTSD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M; Rubin, David C; Siegler, Ilene C

    2016-05-01

    In a large sample of community-dwelling older adults with histories of exposure to a broad range of traumatic events, we examined the extent to which appraisals of traumatic events mediate the relations between insecure attachment styles and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity. Participants completed an assessment of adult attachment, in addition to measures of PTSD symptom severity, event centrality, event severity, and ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion for the potentially traumatic life event that bothered them most at the time of the study. Consistent with theoretical proposals and empirical studies indicating that individual differences in adult attachment systematically influence how individuals evaluate distressing events, individuals with higher attachment anxiety perceived their traumatic life events to be more central to their identity and more severe. Greater event centrality and event severity were each in turn related to higher PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the relation between attachment avoidance and PTSD symptoms was not mediated by appraisals of event centrality or event severity. Furthermore, neither attachment anxiety nor attachment avoidance was related to participants' ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion. Our findings suggest that attachment anxiety contributes to greater PTSD symptom severity through heightened perceptions of traumatic events as central to identity and severe. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Psychological distress longitudinally mediates the effect of vertigo symptoms on vertigo-related handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid-Mühlbauer, Gabriele; Radziej, Katharina; Limburg, Karina; Pieh, Christoph; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-02-01

    Vertigo symptoms can lead to more or less vertigo-related handicap. This longitudinal study investigated whether depression, anxiety, and/or somatization mediate the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. N=111 patients with vertigo/dizziness provided complete data on the following measures: Vertigo symptoms at baseline, depression at 6-month follow-up, anxiety at 6-month follow-up, somatization at 6-month follow-up, and vertigo handicap at 12-month follow-up. Mediation analyses with bootstrapping were performed to investigate the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization in the relationship between vertigo symptoms and vertigo-related handicap. When the mediating role of anxiety, depression, and somatization was evaluated separately from each other in single mediation models, the effect vertigo symptoms at baseline exerted on vertigo-related handicap at 12-month follow-up was significantly mediated by depression at 6-month follow-up (phandicap at 12-month follow-up (phandicap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Solifenacin improves double-J stent-related symptoms in both genders following uncomplicated ureteroscopic lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Ju; Huang, Kuo-How; Yang, Hung-Ju; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Chen, Jun; Yang, Teng-Kai

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of solifenacin on double-J stent-related symptoms following uncomplicated ureterosocpic lithotripsy (URSL). A total of 70 patients who underwent double-J ureteral stent insertion following URSL were consecutively recruited and received solifenacin postoperatively. Another 70 age- and sex-matched subjects without solifenacin therapy were enrolled as a control group. The clinical data including stone and stent characteristics were collected. All subjects completed the brief-form Ureteral Symptom Score Questionnaire (Chinese-version) to assess the lower urinary tract symptoms, stent-related body pain and hematuria 2 weeks after operation. The severity of stent-related symptoms was compared between two groups. The mean age was 53.8 in solifenacin group and 53.4 years in the control group (p = 0.87). The stone characteristics, stent size, position and curl completeness were similar in both groups. Compared to the control group, solifenacin group had significantly lower total symptom score, urgency and urge incontinence scores. As for stent-related body pain, solifenacin group had significantly less flank, abdominal, urethral pain and hematuria scores (all p genders (all p genders.

  14. Neurological recovery after coma related to diffuse cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Interest in thrombi-aspiration with Penumbra system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariel, Florent; Berge, Jerome; Dousset, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    We report a young man with a history of deep coma secondary to an extensive superior sagittal sinus thrombosis despite full systemic anticoagulation. Endovascular treatment combining a 5 Max ACE reperfusion catheter (Penumbra) and Solitaire (Covidien) retrieval device permitted revascularization of the superior sagittal sinus with restoration of anterograde venous flow. This treatment led to the disappearance of cytotoxic edema on MRI and to a neurological improvement with a modified Rankin scale score of 2 after two months. Our experience shows that this technique provides a useful and safe tool after failure of anticoagulation in cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Sex Difference in Oxidative Stress Parameters in Spinal Cord of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis: Relation to Neurological Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Mirjana; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Stojić-Vukanić, Zorica; Vujnović, Ivana; Pilipović, Ivan; Nacka-Aleksić, Mirjana; Leposavić, Gordana

    2017-02-01

    The study examined (a) whether there is sex difference in spinal cord and plasma oxidative stress profiles in Dark Agouti rats immunised for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the principal experimental model of multiple sclerosis, and (b) whether there is correlation between the oxidative stress in spinal cord and neurological deficit. Regardless of rat sex, with the disease development xanthine oxidase (XO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression increased in spinal cord, whereas glutathione levels decreased. This was accompanied by the rise in spinal cord malondialdehyde level. On the other hand, with EAE development superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased, while O2(-) concentration increased only in spinal cord of male rats. Consequently, SOD activity was lower, whereas O2(-) concentration was higher in spinal cord of male rats with clinically manifested EAE. XO activity and iNOS mRNA expression were also elevated in their spinal cord. Consistently, in the effector phase of EAE the concentration of advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) was higher in spinal cord of male rats, which exhibit more severe neurological deficit than their female counterparts. In as much as data obtained in the experimental models could be translated to humans, the findings may be relevant for designing sex-specific antioxidant therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, the study indicated that the increased pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in plasma may be an early indicator of EAE development. Moreover, it showed that plasma AOPP level may indicate not only actual activity of the disease, but also serve to predict severity of its course.

  16. [Aura-related symptoms associated with cluster headache: outcomes of a LUCA substudy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrink, L A; Cheung, Carlo; Weller, Claudia M; Ferrari, Michel D; Haan, Joost

    2013-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of aura in a Dutch cluster headache (CH) population. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. As part of a large-scale study into headaches conducted in Leiden (the Netherlands), patients experiencing headaches were identified by means of questionnaires on a headache website. One group of patients with CH was approached by telephone and an interview on aura-related symptoms was performed by means of a standardized questionnaire. The presence of migraine co-morbidity was also investigated. Of the interviewed CH patients, 22 out of 244 (9.0%) had aura-related symptoms preceding a CH attack, which were predominantly visual in nature. The majority (72.7%) of these patients did not have migraine co-morbidity. Aura-related symptoms can occur in CH without migraine co-morbidity. In clinical practice, it should be taken into account that the presence of an aura does not always indicate migraine.

  17. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  18. Development of intracerebral hemorrhage in the short-term clinical course of a patient with microscopic polyangiitis without neurological symptoms at diagnosis: an autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Sada, Ken-Ei; Taniguchi, Kohei; Kakio, Yuki; Wada, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A 77-year-old man with high-grade fever, progressive renal dysfunction, high serum level of C-reactive protein and positive serum myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) was diagnosed with microscopic polyangiitis with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, and remission induction treatment with glucocorticoids and intravenous cyclophosphamide was initiated. Although his general condition improved in a short time, intracerebral hemorrhage occurred 12 days after the initiation of treatment and emergent hematoma evacuation was performed. However, he passed away on day 14. Surprisingly, even though no clinical findings for any organs except for renal involvement was detected before his death, autopsy revealed necrotizing vasculitis affecting various systemic organs including kidney, pancreas, liver, myocardium in ventricle, adipose tissue of the left adrenal gland, small intestine, gallbladder, bronchus, prostate, testis and spleen. It is difficult to detect widespread vasculitis without clinical symptoms and signs in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. A whole body assessment tool is necessary to detect unexpected vital organ damage, including cerebral vessels.

  19. [Factors that related to the depressive symptoms among elderly in urban and rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Chen, R; Hu, X; Ren, X H

    2017-08-10

    Objective: The aim of this research was to study the prevalence and differences of depressive symptoms and related factors in elderly in both urban and rural areas so as to develop relative strategies on this issue. Methods: Ten-question-version of the Center Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) was applied to score the depressive status. Data used in this research was from the 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Binary logistic regressions method was applied to examine the influential factors related to depression symptoms. Results: In the elderly population, the mean score on depressive symptoms was 8.3±5.9, with a prevalence as 26.8%. The incidence rates on 'Elderly depression' in urban and rural areas were 16.4% and 30.0% respectively. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was relatively low (Pareas. Age and alcohol consumption appeared factors that influencing the depressive symptoms of the elderly in rural areas, while the average income was an influencing factor on the elderly in urban areas. Incidence of depression was relatively low in age ≥75 years group in rural areas. However, elderly in the rural areas with abstinence of alcohol intake showed higher incidence of depressive symptoms (Pareas. Conclusions: Incidence of depression appeared high among the elderly and even higher in the rural areas. Strategies would include the following points: to strengthen the construction of urban-rural integration, improving and strengthening the rural pension insurance system, upgrading the urban social assistance for low-income elderly, strengthening the psychological consultation service of primary medical institutions and actively developing the three-tier levels related to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  20. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2013-10-11

    To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants' socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All analyses were stratified by gender, and multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine associations between work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and work-related risk factors. The risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 1.9 times higher among male workers in the kitchen department than males in the room department (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.03-3.79), and 2.5 times higher among male workers with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.57-4.04). All of the aforementioned cases demonstrated a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Moreover, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 3.3 times higher among female workers aged between 30 and 34 than those aged 24 or younger (OR = 3.32, 95% CI = 1.56-7.04); 0.3 times higher among females in the back office department than those in the room department (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.12-0.91); 1.6 times higher among females on shift schedules than those who were not (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.02-2.59); 1.8 times higher among females who performed more intensive work than those who performed less intensive work (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.17-3.02), and; 2.1 times higher among females with lower sleep satisfaction than those with higher sleep satisfaction (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.34-3.50). All of the aforementioned cases also displayed a statistically significant association with work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. This study

  1. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  2. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Terkildsen Maindal, Helle

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Non-diabetic participants (n=7662) of the "English Longitudinal Study of Ageing" (3398 men) aged 50-91years were followed until 2012/2013, after baseline assessment of depressive symptoms, social support, relational strain, and network size. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for relevant confounders. Age and sex adjusted HRs showed that social relations were associated with incident diabetes (Support: HR 0.98 95% CI 0.97; 0.99, Strain: HR 1.02 95% CI 1.01; 1.04, Network limited : HR 1.19 95% CI 0.98; 1.44), however, when adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, household wealth, health behaviour, and body mass index the associations were attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher diabetes risk. This effect was not modified by any of the social variables. People with stronger social relations are at lower risk of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of endometriosis-related symptoms on work life and work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed endometrio...... symptom onset to diagnosis was associated with low work ability. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a severe impact of endometriosis on the work ability of employed women with endometriosis and add to the evidence that this disease represents a significant socio-economic burden....

  4. Risk factors for work-related symptoms in northern California office workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    In most episodes of health complaints reported in office buildings in the last-twenty years, causal factors have not been identified. In order to assess risk factors for work-related symptoms in office workers, a reanalysis was performed of previous studies, and an epidemiologic study was conducted. The reanalysis of data, showed remarkable agreement among studies. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with higher prevalence of headache, lethargy, and eye, nose, or throat problems. Humidification was not a necessary factor for this higher prevalence. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. A study was conducted among 880 office workers, within 12 office buildings selected without regard to worker complaints, in northern California. A number of factors were found associated with prevalence of work-related symptoms, after adjustment in a logistic regression model for personal, psychosocial, job, workspace, and building factors. Two different ventilation types were associated with increases Ln symptom prevalence, relative to workers in naturally ventilated buildings: mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation, without air conditioning and with operable windows; and air-conditioning with sealed windows. No study buildings were humidified. In both these ventilation types, the highest odds ratios (ORs) found were for skin symptoms (ORs-5.0, 5.6) and for tight chest or difficulty breathing (ORs-3.6, 4.3). Use of carbonless copies or photocopiers, sharing a workspace, carpets, new carpets, new walls, and distance from a window were associated with symptom increases. Cloth partitions and new paint were associated with symptom decreases.

  5. Relating ASD symptoms to well-being: moving across different construct levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, M K; Borsboom, D; Begeer, S; Geurts, H M

    2017-09-11

    Little is known about the specific factors that contribute to the well-being (WB) of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A plausible hypothesis is that ASD symptomatology has a direct negative effect on WB. In the current study, the emerging tools of network analysis allow to explore the functional interdependencies between specific symptoms of ASD and domains of WB in a multivariate framework. We illustrate how studying both higher-order (total score) and lower-order (subscale) representations of ASD symptomatology can clarify the interrelations of factors relevant for domains of WB. We estimated network structures on three different construct levels for ASD symptomatology, as assessed with the Adult Social Behavior Questionnaire (item, subscale, total score), relating them to daily functioning (DF) and subjective WB in 323 adult individuals with clinically identified ASD (aged 17-70 years). For these networks, we assessed the importance of specific factors in the network structure. When focusing on the highest representation level of ASD symptomatology (i.e. a total score), we found a negative connection between ASD symptom severity and domains of WB. However, zooming in on lower representation levels of ASD symptomatology revealed that this connection was mainly funnelled by ASD symptoms related to insistence on sameness and experiencing reduced contact and that those symptom scales, in turn, impact different domains of WB. Zooming in across construct levels of ASD symptom severity into subscales of ASD symptoms can provide us with important insights into how specific domains of ASD symptoms relate to specific domains of DF and WB.

  6. Acute respiratory symptoms and evacuation-related behavior after exposure to chlorine gas leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Woo; Choi, Won-Jun; Yi, Min-Kee; Song, Seng-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Han, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed on the accidental chlorine gas leakage that occurred in a factory of printed circuit boards manufactured without chlorine. Health examination was performed for all 52 workers suspected of exposure to chlorine gas, and their evacuation-related behaviors were observed in addition to analyzing the factors that affected the duration of their acute respiratory symptoms. Behavioral characteristics during the incidence of the accidental chlorine gas leakage, the estimated time of exposure, and the duration of subjective acute respiratory symptoms were investigated. In addition, clinical examination, chest radiography, and dental erosion test were performed. As variables that affected the duration of respiratory symptoms, dose group, body weight, age, sex, smoking, work period, and wearing a protective gear were included and analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazard model. Of 47 workers exposed to chlorine gas, 36 (77 %) developed more than one subjective symptom. The duration of the subjective symptoms according to exposure level significantly differed, with a median of 1 day (range, 0-5 days) in the low-exposure group and 2 days (range, 0-25 days) in the high-exposure group. Among the variables that affected the duration of the acute respiratory symptoms, which were analyzed by using the Cox proportional hazard model, only exposure level was significant (hazard ratio 2.087, 95 % CI = 1.119, 3.890). Regarding the evacuation-related behaviors, 22 workers (47 %) voluntarily evacuated to a safety zone immediately after recognizing the accidental exposure, but 25 workers (43 %) delayed evacuation until the start of mandatory evacuation (min 5, max 25 min). The duration of the subjective acute respiratory symptoms significantly differed between the low- and high-exposure groups. Among the 27 workers in the high-exposure group, 17 misjudged the toxicity after being aware of the gas leakage, which is a relatively high number.

  7. Post-stroke Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Mobility and Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntosh, Bradley J; Edwards, Jodi D; Kang, Mani; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Chen, Joyce L; Mochizuki, George; Herrmann, Nathan; Swardfager, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fatigue and depressive symptoms are common and often inter-related stroke sequelae. This study investigates how they are related, directly or indirectly, to mobility and cognitive outcomes within 6 months of stroke. Methods: Participants were recruited from 4 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada. Post-stroke fatigue was assessed using the Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS). Depressive symptoms were screened using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D). Factor analyses were used to construct scores from mobility (distance traveled during a 2-min walk test, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment leg score, and Berg Balance Scale total score) and cognitive (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Trail-Making Tests A and B, and five-word free recall) tests. Direct associations were assessed in linear regression models and indirect effects were assessed in path models. Covariates were age, sex, education, antidepressant use, days since stroke, and stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Severity Scale score). Results: Fatigue and depressive symptoms were highly correlated (r > 0.51, p symptoms were associated with cognition (β = -0.184, p = 0.04) and indirectly with mobility, mediated by fatigue (indirect effect = -0.0142, 95% CI: -0.0277 to -0.0033). Fatigue was associated with mobility (β = -0.253, p = 0.01), and indirectly with cognition, mediated by depressive symptoms (indirect effect = -0.0113, 95% CI: -0.0242 to -0.0023). Conclusions: Fatigue and depressive symptoms are related distinctly to cognitive and mobility impairments post-stroke. Fatigue was associated with poorer lower limb motor function, and with cognition indirectly via depressive symptoms.

  8. Gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and ...

  9. The effects of aromatherapy in relieving symptoms related to job stress among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Chuan; Fang, Shu-Hui; Fang, Li

    2015-02-01

    Workplace-related stress has become today's most serious occupational hazard. Aromatherapy is a simple, convenient and non-invasive method of stress relief. There is little research regarding the efficacy of aromatherapy by means of inhaling essential oil in reducing workplace stress-related symptoms among nurses. Therefore, this study was to examine the effectiveness of lavender oil inhalation in reducing job stress-related symptoms among nurses. The 53 nurses in the experimental group pinned small bottles containing 3% lavender oil on the clothes of their right chests, whereas 57 participants in the control group pinned bottles with no lavender oil. Aromatherapy was shown to be effective in the reduction of the number of stress symptoms for 3 or 4 days. The stress symptoms of the experimental group decreased from 6.1 to 2.8 after aromatherapy was carried out (P = 0.126, 0.159, 0.035 and 0.026). This represented a significant decrease in stress, whereas the stress symptoms in the control group increased from 5.6 to 5.8. Hospital staff managers are still encouraged to include aromatherapy concepts and techniques in the continuing education of nursing staff. Concurrently, future research should focus on the possible side effects of aromatherapy to assure safety. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The relation between Vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relation between Vitamin D deficiency with depressive and fatigue symptoms in both Multiple sclerosis (MS patients and healthy population have been reported. To represent our regional achievement in this field we investigated the relation between Vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms in MS patients. Materials and Methods: In two hundred MS patients, depressive symptoms and fatigue were measured using Beck PC (BDI-PC and FFS scale, respectively. Venous blood sample was obtained from all participants and serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA method. Mean score of FSS, BDI-PC and EDSS were compared in patients with normal and low level of Vitamin D. The relation between FSS, BDI-PC score, EDSS and low Vitamin D status was determined. Results: There was a moderate significant correlation between MS disability evaluated by EDSS and fatigue (r = 0.37, P < 0.001 and depression (r = 0.26, P < 0.001. The prevalence of low Vitamin D status was 48.5%. Low Vitamin D status was inversely associated with depressive symptoms of patients with MS (P = 0.02 rs = -0.16, but there was not significant correlation between Vitamin D and fatigue symptoms (P = 0.2. Conclusion: More interventional studies for determining the role of Vitamin D supplements in this regard is recommended.

  11. Advocacy in neurology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauranik, Apoorva

    2008-01-01

    ...), launched the Neurological Alliance of Ireland, a nationwide coalition of patient advocacy groups and physicians and authored Standards of Care, the "blueprint" for the development of neurological...

  12. Provider perspectives on barriers and facilitators to adjuvant endocrine therapy-related symptom management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Cleo A; Turner, Kea; Donovan, Heidi A S; Beckjord, Ellen; Cardy, Alexandra; Dew, Mary Amanda; van Londen, G J

    2017-07-06

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) utilization is linked to improved clinical outcomes among breast cancer survivors (BCS); yet, AET adherence rates remain suboptimal. Little is known about provider perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to AET-related symptom management (SM). In this study, we examined provider perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to AET-related SM among BCS and opportunities for improvement. We conducted three focus groups (FGs) with a multidisciplinary group of healthcare providers (n = 13) experienced in caring for BCS undergoing AET. We utilized semi-structured discussion guides to elicit provider perspectives on AET-related SM. FGs were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative software to identify key themes. Providers described patient-, provider-, and system-level barriers and facilitators to AET-related SM. At the patient-level, barriers included competing demands, limited time/resources, and possible misattribution of some symptoms to AET, while family/social relationships and insurance emerged as important facilitators. Discomfort with SM, limited time, and challenges distinguishing AET-related symptoms from other conditions were key provider-level barriers. Provider-level facilitators included routine symptom documentation and strong provider relationships. Care fragmentation and complexity of the cancer care delivery system were described as system-level barriers; however, survivor clinics were endorsed by providers. Provider perspectives on AET-related SM can shed light on SM barriers and facilitators spanning multiple levels of the cancer care delivery system. Strategies for improving AET-related SM in BCS include increasing patients' knowledge and engagement in SM, equipping providers with efficient SM strategies, and improving coordination of symptom-related services through survivorship programs.

  13. Symptoms of common mental disorders and related stressors in Danish professional football and handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Aoki, Haruhito; Haagensen, Rasmus; Jensen, Claus; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was twofold, namely (i) to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among current and retired professional football and handball players and (ii) to explore the relationship of psychosocial stressors with the outcome measures under study. A total of 1155 players were enrolled in an observational study based on a cross-sectional design. Questionnaires based on validated scales were set up and distributed among current and retired professional football and handball players by the Danish football and handball players' union. In professional football, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 18% and 19% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. In professional handball, the highest prevalence (4 weeks) of symptoms of CMDs was 26% and 16% for anxiety/depression among current and retired players, respectively. For both the current and retired professional football and handball players, a higher number of severe injuries and recent adverse life events (LE) were related to the presence of symptoms of CMD. Players exposed to severe injuries and/or recent adverse LE were 20-50% times more likely to report symptoms of CMD. The results suggest that it is possible to recognize the population of professional athletes that are more likely to develop symptoms of CMD. This could create the opportunity to intervene preventively on athletes that suffered from severe injury and/or recent adverse LE that could lead to a faster and safer recovery and psychological readiness to return to play.

  14. Job stress management and ergonomic intervention for work-related upper extremity symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Michael; Nicholas, Rena A; Huang, Grant D; Dimberg, Lennart; Ali, Danielle; Rogers, Heather

    2004-11-01

    In practice the secondary prevention of work-related upper extremity (WRUE) symptoms generally targets biomechanical risk factors. Psychosocial risk factors have also been shown to play an important role in the development of WRUE symptom severity and future disability. The addition of a stress management component to biomechanically focused interventions may result in greater improvements in WRUE symptoms and functional limitations than intervening in the biomechanical risk factors alone. Seventy office workers with WRUE symptoms were randomly assigned to an ergonomics intervention group (assessment and modification of work station and stretching exercises) or a combined ergonomic and job stress intervention group (ergonomic intervention plus two 1-h workshops on the identification and management of workplace stress). Baseline, 3- and 12-month follow-up measures of observed ergonomic risks and self-reported ergonomic risks, job stress, pain, symptoms, functional limitation, and general physical and mental health were obtained from all participants. While both groups experienced significant decreases in pain, symptoms, and functional limitation from baseline to three months with improvements continuing to 12 months post baseline, no significant differences between groups were observed for any outcome measures. Findings indicate that the additional two-session job stress management component did not significantly enhance the short- or long-term improvements brought about by the ergonomic intervention alone.

  15. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mæhle Magne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache were reported by the children. Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. Results The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. Conclusion The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  16. Peer victimization as reported by children, teachers, and parents in relation to children's health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løhre, Audhild; Lydersen, Stian; Paulsen, Bård; Mæhle, Magne; Vatten, Lars J

    2011-05-06

    Victims of bullying in school may experience health problems later in life. We have assessed the prevalence of children's health symptoms according to whether peer victimization was reported by the children, by their teachers, or by their parents. In a cross-sectional study of 419 children in grades 1-10 the frequency of peer victimization was reported by children, teachers and parents. Emotional and somatic symptoms (sadness, anxiety, stomach ache, and headache) were reported by the children.Frequencies of victimization reported by different informants were compared by the marginal homogeneity test for paired ordinal data, concordance between informants by cross-tables and Spearman's rho, and associations of victimization with health symptoms were estimated by logistic regression. The concordance of peer victimization reported by children, teachers, and parents varied from complete agreement to complete discordance also for the highest frequency (weekly/daily) of victimization. Children's self-reported frequency of victimization was strongly and positively associated with their reports of emotional and somatic symptoms. Frequency of victimization reported by teachers or parents showed similar but weaker associations with the children's health symptoms. The agreement between children and significant adults in reporting peer victimization was low to moderate, and the associations of reported victimization with the children's self-reported health symptoms varied substantially between informants. It may be useful to assess prospectively the effects of employing different sources of information related to peer victimization.

  17. Longitudinal relations between symptoms, neurocognition and self-concept in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eHesse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. Method: We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms and self-concepts were assessed at two time points twelve months apart. Structural equation modelling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model. Results: Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts twelve months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. Conclusion: The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of one year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed

  18. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-12-15

    Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Aedo, Sócrates; Fica, Juan; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Laribezcoa, Fiorella; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstatinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases during female mid-life and although many factors have been identified, data from Latin America is lacking. To assess factors related to obesity among middle-aged women and determine the association with depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle and other factors. A total of 6079 women aged 40-59 years of 11 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data, anthropometric measures and lifestyle information. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity was observed in 18.5% and sedentary lifestyle in 63.9%. A 55.5% presented vasomotor symptoms, 12.2% had severe menopausal symptoms and 13.2% used hormone therapy for the menopause. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.5% and anxiety 59.7%. Our logistic regression model found that significant factors associated to obesity included: arterial hypertension (OR: 1.87), depressive symptoms (OR: 1.57), sedentary lifestyle (OR: 1.50) diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.34), higher number of individuals living at home (OR: 1.31), sleep problems (OR:1.22), anxiety (OR: 1.21), having a stable partner (OR: 1.20), parity (OR: 1.16) and vasomotor symptoms (OR:1.14). A lower risk for obesity was found among women using hormonal contraceptives (OR: 0.69). Obesity in middle-aged women is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. It was associated to hypertension, depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle, climacteric symptoms and other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Building-related health problems: reflections on different symptom prevalence among pupils and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörn, A

    1998-10-01

    The occurrence of non-specific symptoms among populations in modern buildings is common in the northern parts of the world, and is often called the Sick Building Syndrome. Many factors have been shown to be associated with the prevalence of such symptoms. Based on a case study of a primary school in subarctic Sweden, the complicated nature of building-related, non-specific symptoms is reviewed. Preventive and corrective actions in cases of sick buildings often fail. It is suggested that failures of such actions might depend on their predominant origin in biomedical models. The study therefore proposes that the combined and simultaneous use of biomedical and psychosocial models should be tried in the management of building-related health problems.

  1. Symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Sjøgren, Per; Timm, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aims were to describe symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Greenlandic patients with advanced cancer and to assess the applicability and internal consistency of the Greenlandic version of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 core version 3.0. Methods A Greenlandic version of the EORTC...... QLQ-C30 v.3.0 was developed. The translation process included independent forward translation, reconciliation and independent back translation by native Greenlandic-speaking translators who were fluent in English. After pilot testing, a population-based cross-sectional study of patients with advanced...... functioning. This indicates a potential for improving palliative care service and increasing the focus on symptom management. The Greenlandic version of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 represents an applicable and reliable tool to describe symptoms and health-related quality of life among Greenlandic patients with advanced...

  2. Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation: a study in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina G; Lykoudis, Spyridon P; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K

    2016-06-01

    Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion. Two thermal indices, Actual Sensation Vote (ASV) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), were estimated in order to obtain an objective measure of individuals' thermal sensation. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify risk parameters while cluster analysis was used to determine thresholds of air temperature, ASV and UTCI related to health effects. Exhaustion was the most frequent symptom reported by the interviewees. Females and smokers were more likely to report heat-related symptoms than males and nonsmokers. Based on cluster analysis, 35 °C could be a cutoff point for the manifestation of heat-related symptoms during summer. The threshold for ASV was 0.85 corresponding to "warm" thermal sensation and for UTCI was about 30.85 °C corresponding to "moderate heat stress" according to the Mediterranean assessment scale.

  3. The effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on neurocognitive impairment and symptoms after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia; Pearce, Kelly; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Johnson, Eric; Collins, Michael; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have reported that sleep duration is positively related to baseline neurocognitive performance. However, researchers have yet to examine the effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on postconcussion impairments. To compare neurocognitive impairment and symptoms of athletes with preinjury sleep difficulties to those without after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The sample included 348 adolescent and adult athletes (age, mean ± SD, 17.43 ± 2.34 years) with a diagnosed SRC. The sample was divided into 2 groups: (1) 34 (10%) participants with preinjury sleep difficulties (sleeping less as well as having trouble falling asleep; SLEEP SX) and (2) 231 (66%) participants without preinjury sleep difficulties (CONTROL). The remaining 84 (24%) participants with minimal sleep difficulties (1 symptom) were excluded. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at baseline and 3 postinjury intervals (2, 5-7, and 10-14 days after injury). A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance with Bonferroni correction, controlling for baseline non-sleep-related symptoms, were conducted to compare postinjury neurocognitive performance between groups. Follow-up exploratory t tests examined between-group differences at each time interval. A series of analyses of variance were used to examine total PCSS score, sleep-related, and non-sleep-related symptoms across time intervals between groups. Groups differed significantly in PCSS scores across postinjury intervals for reaction time (P SLEEP SX group performing worse than controls at 5-7 days (mean ± SD, 0.70 ± 0.32 [SLEEP SX], 0.60 ± 0.14 [CONTROL]) and 10-14 days (0.61 ± 0.17 [SLEEP SX]; 0.57 ± 0.10 [CONTROL]) after injury. Groups also differed significantly on verbal memory performance (P = .04), with the SLEEP SX (68.21 ± 18.64) group performing worse than the CONTROL group (76.76 ± 14

  4. Problematic Internet use in Chinese adolescents and its relation to psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing problem in Chinese adolescents. Little is known about associations of PIU with physical and psychological health. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of PIU and to test the relationships between PIU and psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction among adolescents in mainland China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted comprising a large representative sample of 17 599 students in eight cities of China. PIU was assessed by the 20-item Young Internet Addiction Test (YIAT). The Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents and the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale were administered to obtain information on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction. Demographics and Internet usage patterns were also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the effects of PIU on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction. Results Approximately 8.1% of subjects showed PIU. Adolescents with PIU were associated with males, high school students, urban, eastern and western areas, upper self-report family economy, service type mostly used for entertainment and relieving loneliness and more frequency of Internet use. Compared with normal Internet users, adolescents with PIU were more likely to suffer from psychosomatic symptoms (P Adolescents with PIU had lower scores on total and all dimensions of life satisfaction (all P Internet-related factors, there was positive significant relationship between PIU and psychosomatic symptoms, but negatively related to life satisfaction. Conclusions PIU is common among Chinese students, and PIU was significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction. Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem and interventions to prevent the effects of PIU on psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction should be conducted as early as possible. PMID:21995654

  5. Risk of Placental Abruption in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, Nicole C.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Huaman, Luis E.; Chang, Guillermo Diez; Pacora, Percy N.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Ananth, Cande V.; Qiu, Chungfang; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of psychiatric factors on the etiology of placental abruption (PA), an obstetrical condition that complicates 1-2% of pregnancies. We examined the risk of AP in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. Methods This case-control study included 373 AP cases and 368 controls delivered at five medical centers in Lima, Peru. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounders. Results Depressive symptoms of increasing severity (using the DASS depression subscale) was associated with AP (p for trend=0.02). Compared with women with no depressive symptoms, the aOR (95%CI) for AP associated with each level of severity of depression symptoms based on the DASS assessment were as follows: mild 1.84 (0.91-3.74); moderate 1.25 (0.67-2.33); and severe 4.68 (0.98-22.4). The corresponding ORs for mild, moderate, and moderately severe depressive symptoms based on the PHQ assessment were 1.10 (0.79-1.54), 3.31 (1.45-7.57), and 5.01 (1.06-23.6), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of AP with severity of anxiety (p for trend=0.002) and stress symptoms (p for trend=0.002). Limitations These cross-sectionally collected data may be subject to recall bias. Conclusions Maternal psychiatric disorders may be associated with an increased occurrence of AP. Larger studies that allow for more precise evaluations of maternal psychiatric health in relation to AP risk are warranted. PMID:20692040

  6. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms in relation to work exposures at call centre companies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Kerstin; Floderus, Birgitta; Hagman, Maud; Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2008-01-01

    Call centres (CCs) are one of the most rapidly growing types of workplaces in Sweden. The purpose of the study was to assess associations between exposures at CC work and symptoms in the Neck/shoulders and Arm/hand. Comparisons were made between internal and external CCs. An internal CC is a department or separate unit within a larger company with another main core business, while an external CC is a free-standing company. A cross-sectional study of a selected sample of CCs was conducted. A questionnaire, covering characteristics of work and management, physical and psychosocial exposures and symptoms during the last month, was answered by 1,183 operators from 28 CCs. Three out of four operators reported pain or aches in one or more of the requested body regions, with no major difference between internal and external CC operators. Comfort of the work environment, showed the strongest association with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder and Arm/hand, in both types of CCs. Other exposures associated with symptoms in the Neck/shoulder or Arm/hand in either type of CC were: low complexity of work, long total time of customer calls per day, continuous computer work without a break, high psychological demands, low decision latitude, lack of social support from colleagues and supervisor. The study is unique in that there are no previous studies focusing on a large variety of exposures specific to CC work, based on a large number of workers from different types of CCs. The study confirms previously suggested associations between unfavourable work characteristics and management, a poor physical and psychosocial environment, and musculoskeletal symptoms in computer-telephone interactive tasks. The nature of calls during work were related to symptoms of persons working in internal CCs, whereas the time spent seated and continuous computer work were related to symptoms of those in external CCs.

  8. Sleep-related eye symptoms and their potential for identifying driver sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filtness, Ashleigh J; Anund, Anna; Fors, Carina; Ahlström, Christer; Akerstedt, Torbjørn; Kecklund, Göran

    2014-10-01

    The majority of individuals appear to have insight into their own sleepiness, but there is some evidence that this does not hold true for all, for example treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Identification of sleep-related symptoms may help drivers determine their sleepiness, eye symptoms in particular show promise. Sixteen participants completed four motorway drives on two separate occasions. Drives were completed during daytime and night-time in both a driving simulator and on the real road. Ten eye symptoms were rated at the end of each drive, and compared with driving performance and subjective and objective sleep metrics recorded during driving. 'Eye strain', 'difficulty focusing', 'heavy eyelids' and 'difficulty keeping the eyes open' were identified as the four key sleep-related eye symptoms. Drives resulting in these eye symptoms were more likely to have high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings than drives where similar eye discomfort was not reported. Furthermore, drivers having unintentional line crossings were likely to have 'heavy eyelids' and 'difficulty keeping the eyes open'. Results suggest that drivers struggling to identify sleepiness could be assisted with the advice 'stop driving if you feel sleepy and/or have heavy eyelids or difficulty keeping your eyes open'. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of Sasang typology: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Suk Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to review clinical studies on digestive system-related pathophysiological symptoms of each Sasang type to obtain the generalizable typespecific clinical features, which are important for the diagnosis of the Sasang type and subsequent disease treatment. Sasang typology and digestive system symptom-related keywords were used to search through eight domestic and foreign databases up to March 2012. The results were organized and analyzed based on four categories [digestive function, appetite, eating pattern, and body mass index (BMI] to elucidate type-specific symptoms. Sasang type-specific digestive system-related symptoms were identified by reviewing 30 related articles that were gathered by searching through the databases. The Tae-Eum (TE type had the highest digestive functions and the So-Eum (SE type had the lowest. The TE type appeared to have larger volume with fast eating speed compared with the SE type and individuals in the TE category preferred fatty or salty food, which is responsible for the high occurrence rates of organic digestive diseases such as gastritis. Moreover, BMI was higher in the TE type and lower in the SE type. We systematically reviewed previously published clinical reports on digestive functions, which can be used to meet the objective of Sasang-type differentiation and pathophysiological pattern identification.

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Persons with Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, D.J.; Lucassen, P.L.; Hilderink, P.H.; Naarding, P.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Research on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older persons with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is scarce, and, in contrast with younger patients, interactions with chronic somatic diseases are more complex. DESIGN: In the current study we compared HRQoL between older

  11. Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-07-01

    Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population.

  12. A study on postpartum symptoms and their related factors in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Many women complained of postpartum discomfort. Although, while some postpartum care methods which are traditionally believed to be appropriate care in Korea can be helpful to women's recovery, most of them are not. We confirmed that physical symptoms and depression are closely related to each other.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Persons with Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Denise J. C.; Lucassen, Peter L. B. J.; Hilderink, Peter H.; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Research on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older persons with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) is scarce, and, in contrast with younger patients, interactions with chronic somatic diseases are more complex. Design: In the current study we compared HRQoL between older

  14. Learning Processes Associated with Panic-Related Symptoms in Families with and without Panic Disordered Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Munsch, Simone; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared learning processes associated with panic-related symptoms in families with and without panic disordered mothers. Using a multi-informant approach, 86 mothers [of whom 58 had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD)], their partners and teenage children (mean age, 16.67 years) reported about parents' behavior (modeling…

  15. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  16. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermann, H.C.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom.

  17. The Developmental Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: An Examination of School-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the heterogeneity of depressive symptom trajectories and the roles of school-related factors in predicting the membership of different trajectories in a sample of early adolescents in Taiwan. In all, 870 junior high school students were followed for 3 years. Using growth mixture modeling, the study identified four distinct…

  18. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Sares-Jäske, Laura; Kronholm, Erkki; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Lundqvist, Annamari; Partonen, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Knekt, Paul

    2012-07-28

    Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000-2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30-79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7-8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14%) than men (10%). Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  19. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  20. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fects XTj XT ~ $e~s~~ Bran es Chemo .. ---- - Bran Mts Hormonal’ Effects Effects Lymphedema F Effects’ anv tlru Piexopathy< CN$PNPS Coriive Peripheral...Saykin Andrew J. Breast cancer chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction. Clinical Breast Cancer 2002;3( Supplement 3):S84-$90. 8. Ahles Tim A., Saykin...429-434. 40. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a double-blind randomized

  1. Mediated moderation of the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms: role of adolescent physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A

    2015-11-01

    To examine the mediating effect of family functioning on the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms and determine whether the magnitude of the mediating effect is different for adolescents with and without chronic physical health conditions. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. A representative survey of 11,813 adolescents and their mothers was included. Maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms were measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Multilevel multiple-group path analysis was used to examine potential mediating and moderating effects. Family functioning measured when adolescents were 14-15 years mediated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms (measured at 10-13 years) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured at 16-19 years) for both adolescents with [αβ = 0.02 (0.02, 0.03)] and without chronic health conditions [αβ = 0.01 (0.00, 0.01)]. These findings provided evidence to suggest mediated moderation, Δαβ = 0.02 (0.01, 0.03), that is, the mediating effect of family functioning was significantly larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. The mediating effect of family functioning in the relation between maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms is larger for adolescents with chronic health conditions. Within the framework of family-centered care, maternal depressive symptoms and family functioning are suitable targets for preventive intervention for adolescents with chronic health conditions.

  2. Fault isolability with different forms of the faults–symptoms relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kóscielny Jan Maciej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The definitions and conditions for fault isolability of single faults for various forms of the diagnostic relation are reviewed. Fault isolability and unisolability on the basis of a binary diagnostic matrix are analyzed. Definitions for conditional and unconditional isolability and unisolability on the basis of a fault information system (FIS, symptom sequences and directional residuals are formulated. General definitions for conditional and unconditional isolability and unisolability in the cases of simultaneous evaluation of diagnostic signal values and a sequence of symptoms are provided. A comprehensive example is discussed.

  3. Dysphoric symptoms in relation to other behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, among elderly in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbo, Agnes; Gustafsson, Maria; Isaksson, Ulf; Sandman, Per-Olof; Lövheim, Hugo

    2017-09-07

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common and varied in the elderly. The aim of the current study was to explore associations between BPSD and dysphoric symptoms at different levels of cognitive impairment. Assessments of 4397 elderly individuals living in nursing homes in Sweden were performed. Data on cognitive function and BPSD were collected using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The relationships between dysphoria and eight BPSD factors were plotted against cognitive function to investigate how dysphoria affects BPSD throughout the dementia disease. Overall, dysphoric symptoms were most prevalent in persons with moderate cognitive impairment. However, moderate to severe dysphoric symptoms showed no clear variation with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, aggressive behavior, verbally disruptive/attention-seeking behavior, hallucinatory symptoms and wandering behavior were more common with concurrent dysphoria regardless of cognitive function. In contrast, passiveness was more common with concurrent dysphoria in mild cognitive impairment but not in moderate to severe cognitive impairment. BPSD, including aggressive behavior and hallucinations, were more common with concurrent dysphoric symptoms, providing insight into behavioral and psychological symptoms among individuals with cognitive impairment. Apathy was more commonly associated with concurrent dysphoria at early stages of cognitive decline but not at later stages, indicating that apathy and dysphoria represent separate syndromes among elderly patients with moderate to severe cognitive impairment.

  4. Do Cancer-Related Beliefs Influence the Severity, Incidence, and Persistence of Psychological Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautels, Caroline; Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Ruel, Sophie; Ivers, Hans; Savard, Josée

    Previous studies have suggested that negative beliefs about cancer may impair patients' psychological well-being, but only a few of these studies focused on specific psychological symptoms, and many were cross-sectional. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the relationship of cancer-related cognitions with the severity, incidence, and persistence of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms during an 18-month period. Patients scheduled to undergo surgery for cancer (N = 962) completed a questionnaire assessing cancer-related cognitions at baseline (T1), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the severity subscale of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, and the Insomnia Severity Index at baseline (T1) and 2 (T2), 6 (T3), 10 (T4), 14 (T5), and 18 (T6) months later. Group × time factorial analyses using mixed models revealed that participants endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions consistently reported more severe symptoms throughout the 18-month period. Logistic regression analyses suggested that endorsing more negative cancer-related cognitions at T1 significantly increased incidence and persistence rates of clinical levels of psychological symptoms. These findings suggest that the endorsement of negative cancer-related beliefs at the perioperative period influences the longitudinal evolution of anxiety, fear of cancer recurrence, depression, and insomnia symptoms in the following months. These results highlight the relevance of using cognitive restructuring early during the cancer care trajectory to potentially revise erroneous beliefs about cancer and prevent the incidence and persistence of psychological disturbances over time.

  5. Neuro-QOL: brief measures of health-related quality of life for clinical research in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, D; Lai, J-S; Nowinski, C J; Victorson, D; Peterman, A; Miller, D; Bethoux, F; Heinemann, A; Rubin, S; Cavazos, J E; Reder, A T; Sufit, R; Simuni, T; Holmes, G L; Siderowf, A; Wojna, V; Bode, R; McKinney, N; Podrabsky, T; Wortman, K; Choi, S; Gershon, R; Rothrock, N; Moy, C

    2012-06-05

    To address the need for brief, reliable, valid, and standardized quality of life (QOL) assessment applicable across neurologic conditions. Drawing from larger calibrated item banks, we developed short measures (8-9 items each) of 13 different QOL domains across physical, mental, and social health and evaluated their validity and reliability. Three samples were utilized during short form development: general population (Internet-based, n = 2,113); clinical panel (Internet-based, n = 553); and clinical outpatient (clinic-based, n = 581). All short forms are expressed as T scores with a mean of 50 and SD of 10. Internal consistency (Cronbach α) of the 13 short forms ranged from 0.85 to 0.97. Correlations between short form and full-length item bank scores ranged from 0.88 to 0.99 (0.82-0.96 after removing common items from banks). Online respondents were asked whether they had any of 19 different chronic health conditions, and whether or not those reported conditions interfered with ability to function normally. All short forms, across physical, mental, and social health, were able to separate people who reported no health condition from those who reported 1-2 or 3 or more. In addition, scores on all 13 domains were worse for people who acknowledged being limited by the health conditions they reported, compared to those who reported conditions but were not limited by them. These 13 brief measures of self-reported QOL are reliable and show preliminary evidence of concurrent validity inasmuch as they differentiate people based upon number of reported health conditions and whether those reported conditions impede normal function.

  6. Course of symptoms and health-related quality of life during specialized pre-dialysis care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Ocak, Gurbey; Rotmans, Joris I; Eijgenraam, Jan-Willem; Dekker, Friedo W; Halbesma, Nynke

    2014-01-01

    Concerns are present on the limited value of renal function alone in defining the optimal moment to start dialysis. Disease-related symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may have additional clinical value in defining this moment, but little is known about how these parameters change during pre-dialysis care. The aims of our study were to describe the course of symptoms and HRQOL during pre-dialysis care and to investigate their association with poor health outcomes. In the prospective PREPARE-2 cohort, incident patients starting specialized pre-dialysis care were included when referred to one of the 25 participating Dutch outpatient clinics (2004-2011). In the present analysis, 436 patients with data available on symptoms and HRQOL were included. Clinical data, symptoms (revised illness perception questionnaire), and HRQOL (short form-36 questionnaire; physical and mental summary score) were collected every 6-month interval. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model was used to associate symptoms and HRQOL with the combined poor health outcome (i.e. starting dialysis, receiving a kidney transplant, and death). All symptoms increased, especially fatigue and loss of strength, and both the physical and mental summary score decreased over time, with the most pronounced change during the last 6-12 months of follow-up. Furthermore, each additional symptom (adjusted HR 1.04 (95% CI, 1.00-1.09)) and each 3-point lower physical and mental summary score (adjusted HR 1.04 (1.02-1.06) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) respectively) were associated with a higher risk of reaching the combined poor health outcome within the subsequent 6 months. The number of symptoms increased and both the physical and mental HRQOL score decreased during pre-dialysis care and these changes were associated with starting dialysis, receiving a kidney transplant, and death. These results may indicate that symptoms and HRQOL are good markers for the medical condition and disease stage of pre

  7. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  8. Maltreatment Related Trauma Symptoms Affect Academic Achievement through Cognitive Functioning: A Preliminary Examination in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Ogata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect could have some deleterious impacts on both intellectual and academic performance of school students. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among child maltreatment, trauma symptoms, cognitive functioning, and academic achievement. Data were collected from child guidance centers, where maltreated children were substantiated, assessed, evaluated, protected, and treated clinically. The selection criteria for subjects included Japanese children (1 who had a history of maltreatment; (2 whose IQs were measured using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children second edition (KABC-II; and (3 whose traumatic stress was evaluated using the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children alternate version (TSCC-A. Covariance structure analysis showed the model that explains the relations of trauma symptom (measured by TSCC-A on academic achievement (measured by KABC-II as being intervened by cognitive functioning (measured by KABC-II.

  9. [Psychosocial factors in indoor work-related symptoms. Application of the MM040/IAQ questionnaire. ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, Nicola

    2014-05-28

    To study the relationship between psychosocial factors and the perception of the work environment by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the efficacy of using a questionnaire for contributing to the solution of environmental problems and for monitoring work-related stress. Before the routine medical examination, the occupational physician administered questionnaires to all the employees who had been working at least one year in an indoor environment in 28 companies. 4,029 out of 4,129 subjects participated (97.6%). There was a significant association between psychosocial factors and perception of the work environment. The association between psychosocial factors and symptoms was also significant. RESULTS confirmed the role of psychosocial factors in the perception of the work environment and in the attribution of symptoms to occupational exposure, without excluding the possibility that symptoms were actually caused by occupational exposure. The questionnaire proved to be a valid tool for monitoring perceived occupational stress.

  10. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Brown, Hallie R; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children's ADHD.

  11. The impact of non-motor symptoms on health-related quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martin, P.; Rodriguez-Blazquez, C.; Kurtis, M.M.; Chaudhuri, K.R.; Bloem, B.R.; Esselink, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-motor symptoms are detrimental to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Parkinson's disease patients. In this study, the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) was used to assess the impact of the non-motor symptoms on HRQoL of Parkinson's disease patients. METHODS: In a multicenter,

  12. Impaired decision making and delayed memory are related with anxiety and depressive symptoms in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Iris; Santos, Alicia; Valassi, Elena; Pires, Patricia; Webb, Susan M; Resmini, Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of cognitive function in acromegaly has revealed contradictory findings; some studies report normal cognition in patients with long-term cured acromegaly, while others show attention and memory deficits. Moreover, the presence of affective disorders in these patients is common. Our aim was to evaluate memory and decision making in acromegalic patients and explore their relationship with affective disorders like anxiety and depressive symptoms. Thirty-one patients with acromegaly (mean age 49.5 ± 8.5 years, 14 females and 17 males) and thirty-one healthy controls participated in this study. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were used to evaluate decision making, verbal memory, anxiety, and depressive symptoms, respectively. Acromegalic patients showed impairments in delayed verbal memory (p multiple correlations between anxiety and depressive symptoms and performance in memory and decision making were found. Impaired delayed memory and decision making observed in acromegalic patients are related to anxiety and depressive symptoms. Providing emotional support to the patients could improve their cognitive function. A key clinical application of this research is the finding that depressive symptoms and anxiety are essentially modifiable factors.

  13. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  14. BDNF genotype moderates the relation between physical activity and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J; Gotlib, Ian H

    2010-03-01

    To test whether the BDNF gene interacts with exercise to predict depressive symptoms. Physical activity is associated with a range of positive health outcomes, including fewer depressive symptoms. One plausible mechanism underlying these findings involves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a protein hypothesized to limit or repair the damage caused by stress. Physical activity increases expression of BDNF, which may enhance brain health. BDNF expression is controlled by the BDNF gene. Compared with individuals without a BDNF met allele, met-allele carriers have a lower expression of BDNF, which has been associated with Major Depressive Disorder. Eighty-two healthy adolescent girls were genotyped for the BDNF val66met polymorphism, and their depressive symptoms and physical activity were assessed using questionnaires. BDNF genotype, Children's Depression Inventory, and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents. The BDNF polymorphism was found to moderate the relation between exercise and depressive symptoms: being physically active was protective for girls with a BDNF met allele (fewer depressive symptoms) but not for girls with the val/val polymorphism. By integrating psychological and biological factors, the present study enhances our understanding of how physical activity contributes to resilience to psychopathology. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The relation between procrastination and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, Hannah C M; Scheres, Anouk

    2014-12-01

    Procrastination is defined as the tendency to delay activities that have to be completed before a deadline. It is often part of psychotherapies for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, procrastination is officially not acknowledged as an ADHD-related symptom. Therefore, little is known about the role of procrastination in ADHD. We investigated the relation between procrastination and ADHD-related symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity in 54 students with varying levels of self-reported ADHD-related behaviours. Various measures of procrastination were used, including questionnaires of academic, general procrastination and susceptibility to temptation as well as direct observation of academic procrastination while solving math problems. We expected a positive relation between severity of ADHD-related behaviours and procrastination, specifically for impulsivity. However, partial correlations (corrected for the other symptom domain of ADHD) indicated that only inattention was correlated with general procrastination. This specific and preliminary finding can stimulate future research in individuals diagnosed with ADHD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Formaldehyde-related clinical symptoms reported by medical students during gross anatomy cadaver dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Pietrzyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Formaldehyde is a noxious gas used as a tissue preservative of cadavers in autopsy rooms. Therefore, exposure to higher concentrations applies particularly to laboratory staff, anatomists and medical students. Prolonged exposure to formaldehyde is associated with clinical complications. Objective. To assess whether exposure to repeated inhalation of low concentrations of formaldehyde (FA experienced during a gross anatomy course triggers subjective clinical symptoms in medical students. Material and methods . All 198 first-year medical students of the Medical University of Lublin, Poland (28% with allergy history and 72% without allergy history; 69% male and 31% female responded to a questionnaire concerning their subjective FA-related clinical symptoms. Differences in proportions of experienced symptoms between allergic vs. nonallergic, and female vs. males were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results . Even though formaldehyde concentrations in the gross anatomy laboratory were relatively low (0.47–0.57 mg/m3, medical students experienced various reactions (lacrimation in 85.9%, red eyes, dry and itchy eyes, runny nose, sneezing, and headache in > 50% of students, cough in 44%, and dry throat or throat irritation in 42% of students. Among students with a history of allergy, eye, nose, skin and respiratory system symptoms occurred more frequently in comparison to nonallergic students. Female individuals demonstrated higher sensitivity to FA exposure. Conclusions . Exposure to formaldehyde may result in development of clinical symptoms in medical students. Particularly unpleasant symptoms may be experienced by individuals with allergy history. It is necessary to decrease formaldehyde concentrations in the anatomy dissection laboratory.

  17. NIH State-of-the-Science Conference Statement on management of menopause-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data on the management of menopause-related symptoms. A non-DHHS, nonadvocate 12-member panel representing the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, general internal medicine, endocrinology, rheumatology, family and health psychology, geriatric medicine, health services research, demography, biochemistry, epidemiology, clinical research, and biostatistics. In addition, 26 experts in fields related to the conference topic presented data to the panel and to the conference audience. Presentations by experts and a systematic review of the medical literature prepared by the Oregon Evidence-based Practice Center, through the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Evidence-based Practice Centers Program. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Answering pre-determined questions, the panel drafted its statement based on scientific evidence presented in open forum and on the published scientific literature. The draft statement was read in its entirety on the final day of the conference and circulated to the audience for comment. The panel then met in executive session to consider the comments received, and released a revised statement later that day at http://consensus.nih.gov. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. A final copy of this statement is available, along with other recent conference statements, at the same web address of http://consensus.nih.gov. Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstrual periods that occurs naturally in women, usually in their early 50s. Many women have few or no symptoms; these women are not in need of medical treatment. Premenopausal or perimenopausal women who have menopause induced by surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation are more likely to experience bothersome and even disabling symptoms. These

  18. Why does Income Relate to Depressive Symptoms? Testing the Income Rank Hypothesis Longitudinally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo Hounkpatin, Hilda; Wood, Alex M; Brown, Gordon D A; Dunn, Graham

    This paper reports a test of the relative income rank hypothesis of depression, according to which it is the rank position of an individual's income amongst a comparison group, rather than the individual's absolute income, that will be associated with depressive symptoms. A new methodology is developed to test between psychosocial and material explanations of why income relates to well-being. This method was used to test the income rank hypothesis as applied to depressive symptoms. We used data from a cohort of 10,317 individuals living in Wisconsin who completed surveys in 1992 and 2003. The utility assumed to arise from income was represented with a constant relative risk aversion function to overcome limitations of previous work in which inadequate specification of the relationship between absolute income and well-being may have inappropriately favoured relative income specifications. We compared models in which current and future depressive symptoms were predicted from: (a) income utility alone, (b) income rank alone, (c) the transformed difference between the individual's income and the mean income of a comparison group and (d) income utility, income rank and distance from the mean jointly. Model comparison overcomes problems involving multi-collinearity amongst the predictors. A rank-only model was consistently supported. Similar results were obtained for the association between depressive symptoms and wealth and rank of wealth in a cohort of 32,900 British individuals who completed surveys in 2002 and 2008. We conclude that it is the rank of a person's income or wealth within a social comparison group, rather than income or wealth themselves or their deviations from the mean within a reference group, that is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms.

  19. Increased generalization of learned associations is related to re-experiencing symptoms in veterans with symptoms of post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasides, Nicole; Beck, Kevin D; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J; Gilbertson, Mark W; Orr, Scott P; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    One interpretation of re-experiencing symptoms in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is that memories related to emotional information are stored strongly, but with insufficient specificity, so that stimuli which are minimally related to the traumatic event are sufficient to trigger recall. If so, re-experiencing symptoms may reflect a general bias against encoding background information during a learning experience, and this tendency might not be limited to learning about traumatic or even autobiographical events. To test this possibility, we administered a discrimination-and-transfer task to 60 Veterans (11.2% female, mean age 54.0 years) self-assessed for PTSD symptoms in order to examine whether re-experiencing symptoms were associated with increased generalization following associative learning. The discrimination task involved learning to choose the rewarded object from each of six object pairs; each pair differed in color or shape but not both. In the transfer phase, the irrelevant feature in each pair was altered. Regression analysis revealed no relationships between re-experiencing symptoms and initial discrimination learning. However, re-experiencing symptom scores contributed to the prediction of transfer performance. Other PTSD symptom clusters (avoidance/numbing, hyperarousal) did not account for significant additional variance. The results are consistent with an emerging interpretation of re-experiencing symptoms as reflecting a learning bias that favors generalization at the expense of specificity. Future studies will be needed to determine whether this learning bias may pre-date and confer risk for, re-experiencing symptoms in individuals subsequently exposed to trauma, or emerges only in the wake of trauma exposure and PTSD symptom development.

  20. GABA system dysfunction in autism and related disorders: from synapse to symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Suzanne; Horder, Jamie; Inkster, Becky; Mendez, M Andreina; Murphy, Declan G; Nutt, David J

    2012-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental syndromes characterised by repetitive behaviours and restricted interests, impairments in social behaviour and relations, and in language and communication. These symptoms are also observed in a number of developmental disorders of known origin, including Fragile X Syndrome, Rett Syndrome, and Foetal Anticonvulsant Syndrome. While these conditions have diverse etiologies, and poorly understood pathologies, emerging evidence suggests that they may all be linked to dysfunction in particular aspects of GABAergic inhibitory signalling in the brain. We review evidence from genetics, molecular neurobiology and systems neuroscience relating to the role of GABA in these conditions. We conclude by discussing how these deficits may relate to the specific symptoms observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relations between hopelessness, depressive symptoms and suicidality: mediation by reasons for living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Courtney L; Lamis, Dorian A; Nadorff, Michael; Osman, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether reasons for living (RFL) would partially account for the associations between traditional risk factors (depressive symptoms, hopelessness) and suicidal ideation and attempts. Data were collected from 1,075 undergraduate college students who completed a battery of online assessments. Results from a series of simultaneous mediational models indicated that the relations between risk factors and current suicidal ideation were partially mediated by total RFL (and Coping Beliefs and Self-Evaluation subscales). Further, total RFL (and the Coping Beliefs subscale) fully mediated the relation between hopelessness and past-year suicide attempt, and partially mediated the depressive symptoms-suicide attempt relation. This study demonstrates the importance of assessing for the presence of these suicide risk and protective factors. Implications for the improved identification and treatment of young adults at risk for suicide are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Are severe depressive symptoms associated with infertility-related distress in individuals and their partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brennan D; Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pirritano, Matthew; Schmidt, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Are severe depressive symptoms in women and men associated with individual and dyadic infertility-related stress in couples undergoing infertility treatment? Severe depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increased infertility-related distress at both the individual and partner level. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: An infertility diagnosis, the stress of medical treatments and a prior history of depression are risk factors for future depression in those undergoing fertility treatments. Studies examining the impact of severe depressive symptoms on infertility-related distress in couples are lacking. This cross-sectional study included 1406 couples who were consecutively referred patients undergoing fertility treatments in Denmark in the year 2000. A total of 1049 men and 1131 women were included in the study. Participants were consecutively referred patients undergoing a cycle of medically assisted reproduction treatment at five Danish public and private clinics specializing in treating fertility patients. Severe depressive symptoms were measured by the Mental Health Inventory 5 from the Short Form Health Survey 36. Infertility distress was measured by the COMPI Fertility Problem Stress Scales. Multilevel modelling using the actor-partner interdependence model was used to study the couple as the unit of analysis. Severe depressive symptoms were reported in 11.6% of women and 4.3% of men, and were significantly associated with increased infertility-related distress at the individual and partner level. There was no significant interaction for gender indicating that men and women did not differ in how severe depressive symptoms were associated with infertility distress. Because of the cross-sectional study design, the study findings only show an association between severe depressive symptoms to individual and partner distress at a single point in time; however, nothing is known about causality. This study adds to the growing body of literature using the couple

  3. Relationships among therapy-related symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in Chinese children hospitalized with cancer: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Williams, Phoebe D; Lopez, Violeta; Chung, Joyce Oi Kwan; Chiu, Sau Ying

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in cancer screening and treatment have resulted in a decrease in mortality rates in children and adolescents. However, despite the improved prognosis, the course of cancer treatment continues to be a very stressful experience in the life of a child. The objectives of the study were to assess the occurrence and severity of treatment-related symptoms manifested by children and adolescents undergoing active cancer treatment and to examine the relationships between therapy-related symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life of these pediatric patients. A cross-sectional study design was used, and 135 Hong Kong Chinese children (9- to 16-year-olds) who were admitted for treatment of cancer in a pediatric oncology unit were invited to participate in the study. Results indicated that children and adolescents receiving combined cancer treatment generally experienced greater symptom occurrence and severity. In addition, children reporting greater symptom occurrence and severity experienced higher levels of depression and a lower level of quality of life. The study revealed that therapy-related symptoms are a strong predictor of quality of life of children and adolescents hospitalized for cancer treatment. Cancer and its treatments significantly affect the psychosocial well-being and quality of life of children and adolescent hospitalized for cancer care. Therapy-related symptoms can be a useful indicator for screening those pediatric patients who are likely to exhibit psychosocial distress or are at high risk of depression. It is essential for nurses to be sensitive and knowledgeable about the therapy-related symptoms of cancer treatment and their effects on children and adolescents to promote the psychosocial well-being of these patients and enhance their quality of life.

  4. Efficacy of amantadine treatment on symptoms and neurocognitive performance among adolescents following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Cara Camiolo; Collins, Michael; Lovell, Mark; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of amantadine in the treatment of symptoms and neurocognitive performance in adolescents following sports-related concussion. A clinical sample of 25 male (n = 11) and female (n = 14) adolescent subjects with an age-, sex-, and concussion history-matched group of 25 male (n = 11) and female (n = 14) control subjects. Outpatient concussion clinic. Retrospective, case-control design. Treatment group consisted of patients treated with 100 mg of amantadine twice daily (200 mg total per day) following a period of rest. Matched controls were evaluated and treated conservatively without medication at the same concussion program prior to the start of the current amantadine protocol. Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test computerized neurocognitive test battery and symptom report. Results support significantly greater improvements from pre- to posttest in reported symptoms, verbal memory, and reaction time performance for the amantadine group than the matched controls. There were no significant differences for visual memory or visual motor processing speed. This study provides empirical support for amantadine as an effective pharmacologic treatment of certain concussion-related cognitive deficits and symptoms in athletes with protracted recovery of more than 3 weeks.

  5. Stoma-related symptoms in patients operated for rectal cancer with abdominoperineal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinez, Adiela Correa; González, Elisabeth; Holm, Kajsa; Bock, David; Prytz, Mattias; Haglind, Eva; Angenete, Eva

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to characterize the frequency, severity, and distress of symptoms from the colostomy and colostomy acceptance in rectal cancer patients. The secondary aims were to study the symptomatic parastomal herniation, its relationship to stoma-related symptoms, and potential risk factors for the development of symptomatic parastomal herniation. Data was collected from the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and from surgical charts. Patients operated for rectal cancer with an abdominoperineal excision in Sweden between 2007 and 2009 and alive 3 years postoperatively were contacted (n = 852). Patients who consented to participate, had a colostomy constructed during the abdominoperineal excision, and who answered a questionnaire 3 years postoperative were included (n = 495). Answers were analyzed with emphasis on stoma-related symptoms and their intensity as well as the level of distress associated with the symptoms. Almost 90% of patients did not feel limited in their daily life by their colostomy. Patients with symptomatic parastomal hernia had a 53% higher risk of flatulence. Fifty-six patients developed symptomatic parastomal hernia (11%). The only risk factor associated with the development of symptomatic parastomal hernia was high body mass index (BMI). This study shows that most patients do not feel limited by their stoma 3 years after surgery for rectal cancer. Symptomatic parastomal hernia was associated with high BMI but not with the surgical technique.

  6. Time trends of chest pain symptoms and health related quality of life in coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksson Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is at present a lack of knowledge of time trends in health related quality of life (HRQL in common patients with coronary artery disease (CAD treated in ordinary care. The objective of this study is to assess and compare time trends of health related quality of life (HRQL and chest pain in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods 253 consecutive CAD patients in Stockholm County, Sweden – 197 males/56 females; 60 ± 8 years – were followed during two years. Perceived chest pain symptoms and three global assessments of HRQL were assessed at baseline, after one and after two years. EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D with a predefined focus on function and symptoms; the broader tapping global estimates of HRQL; EuroQol VAS (EQ-VAS and Cardiac Health Profile (CHP were used. Chest pain was ranked according to Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS. Change in HRQL was analysed by a repeated measurements ANOVA and chest pain symptoms were analysed by Friedman non-parametric ANOVA. Results Perceived chest pain decreased during the two years (p Conclusion HRQL did not increase despite a reduction in the severity of chest pain during two years. This implies that the major part of HRQL in these consecutive ordinary patients with CAD is unresponsive to change in chest pain symptoms.

  7. Strategies and issues for managing menopause-related symptoms in diverse populations: ethnic and racial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Valerie Montgomery

    2005-12-19

    Menopause is a naturally occurring "equal opportunity" event that every woman who lives beyond the age of approximately 52 years will experience. During the next 20 years, approximately 3.5 million African American women, 2 million Latinas, and 1 million Asian American women will enter the menopause. How a woman approaches the menopausal transition depends on a number of factors, from educational level to socioeconomic status; health-related factors, including stress; and marital status. Increasingly, the roles of race and ethnicity, as they relate to menopausal symptoms, are being explored. Understanding similarities and differences among women of color in perceptions, attitudes, and expectations surrounding the menopause can help provide culturally appropriate care and promote lifestyles that may decrease symptoms and increase quality of life. For example, minority women are usually the gatekeepers for healthcare for themselves and their families and have a highly developed social support network, often including extended family, a church community, and involvement in sororal or social organizations. In the future, research on menopausal symptoms among women of different racial/ethnic groups should focus on exploring in greater detail the effect of dietary factors and body mass index, additional evaluation of pituitary sensitivity, and use of complementary and alternative medicines in symptom management, with a better understanding of the risks and benefits of such therapies.

  8. Are externalizing and internalizing difficulties of young children with spelling impairment related to their ADHD symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara

    2012-08-01

    Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Disentangling the relative influence of schools and neighborhoods on adolescents' risk for depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Milliren, Carly E; Evans, Clare R; Subramanian, S V; Richmond, Tracy K

    2015-04-01

    Although schools and neighborhoods influence health, little is known about their relative importance, or the influence of one context after the influence of the other has been taken into account. We simultaneously examined the influence of each setting on depression among adolescents. Analyzing data from wave 1 (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we used cross-classified multilevel modeling to examine between-level variation and individual-, school-, and neighborhood-level predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Also, we compared the results of our cross-classified multilevel models (CCMMs) with those of a multilevel model wherein either school or neighborhood was excluded. In CCMMs, the school-level random effect was significant and more than 3 times the neighborhood-level random effect, even after individual-level characteristics had been taken into account. Individual-level indicators (e.g., race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status) were associated with depressive symptoms, but there was no association with either school- or neighborhood-level fixed effects. The between-level variance in depressive symptoms was driven largely by schools as opposed to neighborhoods. Schools appear to be more salient than neighborhoods in explaining variation in depressive symptoms. Future work incorporating cross-classified multilevel modeling is needed to understand the relative effects of schools and neighborhoods.

  10. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  11. Neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury: III. Criterion-related validity and sensitivity to change in the NABIS hypothermia-II clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Moretti, Paolo; Macleod, Marianne C; Pedroza, Claudia; Drever, Pamala; Fourwinds, Sierra; Frisby, Melisa L; Beers, Sue R; Scott, James N; Hunter, Jill V; Traipe, Elfrides; Valadka, Alex B; Okonkwo, David O; Zygun, David A; Puccio, Ava M; Clifton, Guy L

    2013-09-01

    The neurological outcome scale for traumatic brain injury (NOS-TBI) is a measure assessing neurological functioning in patients with TBI. We hypothesized that the NOS-TBI would exhibit adequate concurrent and predictive validity and demonstrate more sensitivity to change, compared with other well-established outcome measures. We analyzed data from the National Acute Brain Injury Study: Hypothermia-II clinical trial. Participants were 16-45 years of age with severe TBI assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. For analysis of criterion-related validity (concurrent and predictive), Spearman's rank-order correlations were calculated between the NOS-TBI and the glasgow outcome scale (GOS), GOS-extended (GOS-E), disability rating scale (DRS), and neurobehavioral rating scale-revised (NRS-R). Concurrent validity was demonstrated through significant correlations between the NOS-TBI and GOS, GOS-E, DRS, and NRS-R measured contemporaneously at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury (all pvalidity as well as sensitivity to change, compared with gold-standard outcome measures. The NOS-TBI may enhance prediction of outcome in clinical practice and measurement of outcome in TBI research.

  12. The Relation Between ADHD Symptoms and Alcohol Use in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Glenn R

    2015-08-01

    Although there is evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and alcohol use in college students, results are inconclusive primarily because studies have failed to control for related variables. Thus, this study was designed to systematically compare the relative contributions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a sample of college students while controlling for effects of antisocial behaviors. A total of 192 undergraduate college students from a rural Midwestern university received class credit for participating in the study. They completed measures of alcohol use, ADHD symptoms, and antisocial behavior. Hierarchical regressions revealed inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, was related to alcohol-related problems even when controlling for antisocial behavior. However, neither inattention nor hyperactivity/impulsivity was related to alcohol use regardless of whether current antisocial behavior was controlled. Inattention may be an important factor related to alcohol-related problems in college students. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  13. Voices of spouses living with partners with neuropsychiatric symptoms related to dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Marie; Hillerås, Pernilla; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Fossum, Bjöörn; Religa, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Persons with dementia, who reside in their own homes, are often cared for by family members. The presence of a family career is said to have a protective effect, postponing admissions to residential care. The majority of persons with dementia develop behavioural and personality changes during the disease trajectory also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms. Quality of life for both the person with neuropsychiatric symptoms and their careers are affected, increasing suffering and risk for hospitalisation and admission to long-term residential care. Family careers to persons with dementia have identified behavioural changes as more distressing than cognitive impairment leading to increased burden of care and admissions to residential care. Knowledge gaps exist regarding how family careers living with persons with dementia experience neuropsychiatric symptoms in a community setting. The aim was to describe spouses' experiences of living with partners who have developed neuropsychiatric symptoms related to dementia in a community setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 14 spouses of partners with dementia. The interviews included completion of the neuropsychiatric inventory. Interview data were analysed using a content analysis approach. The results showed that spouses identified in the neuropsychiatric inventory that partners with dementia had on average five to eight co-existing symptoms. Frequency, severity and distress varied. From the narrative data, the theme living on the edge lacking support and time for self, emerged. The findings of this study suggest that support offered to persons with dementia and their spouses should have a person-centred approach meeting individual needs. Safety and welfare of persons with dementia and their spouses residing in their own homes may be jeopardised in the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. A greater awareness is required in the community regarding the well-being of these persons.

  14. Factors related to knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors in a norwegian stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, Antje; Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Rønning, Ole Morten; Thommessen, Bente

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have identified insufficient knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors both among survivors of stroke and in the general population. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors in a Norwegian stroke population and to identify factors associated with good knowledge. This prospective study included patients with acute transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors was explored by asking open-ended questions. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to good knowledge. In total, 287 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 70.0 ± 12.9 years) answered the open-ended questionnaire of which 71% knew at least 1 symptom of stroke whereas 43% knew at least 1 risk factor. Knowledge of both numbness/weakness and speech difficulties as symptoms of stroke (43% of the patients) was associated with lower age (odds ratio [OR], .96; 95% confidence interval [CI], .94-.99), higher education (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.17-4.30), and having previously received information regarding stroke (OR, 7.74; 95% CI, 3.82-15.67). Knowing at least 2 of the 3 risk factors of stroke "smoking", "hypertension", and "diabetes" (14% of the patients) was associated with lower age (OR, .94; 95% CI, .92-.97). Knowledge of stroke symptoms and risk factors in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease seems to be insufficient. Further educational efforts are needed, as better knowledge may improve prevention of stroke and increase the number of patients who can receive thrombolysis. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The stroke caregiving trajectory in relation to caregiver depressive symptoms, burden, and intervention outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Rachel; LeLaurin, Jennifer; Schmitzberger, Magda; Freytes, I Magaly; Orozco, Tatiana; Dang, Stuti; Uphold, Constance R

    2017-10-01

    Caregiver depression and burden have a detrimental effect on stroke survivors' rehabilitation and are contributors to stroke survivors' hospital readmission and institutionalization. The stroke caregiving trajectory is unique compared to other illnesses, and the effect of length of caregiving on stroke caregiver outcomes is poorly understood. Interventions can improve caregiver outcomes, but the optimal timing of these interventions is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between: (1) length of caregiving and stroke caregiver depressive symptoms and burden, and (2) length of caregiving and amount of change in depressive symptoms and burden following the Resources and Education for Stroke Caregivers' Understanding and Empowerment (RESCUE) intervention - an online and telephone problem-solving, education, and support intervention. We analyzed retrospective data collected from 72 stroke caregivers who participated in the RESCUE intervention. Outcomes were caregiver depressive symptoms and burden. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects regression analysis. Baseline depressive symptoms and burden were both negatively related to length of caregiving (p symptoms and burden following an intervention. The interaction between changes in outcomes and length of caregiving was not significant for either depressive symptoms (p = 0.26) or burden (p = 0.10). This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between length of caregiving and depression, burden, and intervention outcomes. Clinicians should recognize that the stroke caregiving trajectory can be nonlinear. Routine and repeated clinical assessment of caregiver well-being is needed, along with implementation of interventions when necessary, regardless of how much time has passed since the stroke.

  16. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Size of lumbar disc hernias measured using computed tomography and related to sciatic symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M.K.J.; Thelander, U.; Friberg, S. (Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics)

    1990-11-01

    The change in the relative size of lumbar disc hernias and its relation to sciatic symptoms was investigated in 30 consecutive patients after conservative treatment of CT verified lumbar disc herniations. CT and clinical examination were performed before the start of therapy (CT1), as well as 3 months (CT2) and 24 months (CT3) after institution of treatment. In each patient the size of the lumbar disc herniation in relation to the size of the spinal canal was measured on identical CT slices and expressed as an index. The disc herniation index decreased markedly from CT1 to CT2 (p<0.001). Between CT2 and CT3 the reduction of the hernias was less pronounced and not significant for hernias located centrally but still significant for intermediate (p=0.03) and lateral (p=0.04) hernias. The degree of sciatic symptoms also decreased markedly between CT1 and CT2 (p=0.001) while no further improvement occurred from CT2 to CT3. There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement from sciatic pain and the reduction in the size of the individual hernia (CT1-CT2 p=0.02, CT2-CT3 p<0.001). Thus, the disc herniation index provided a method to study the anatomic effect of conservative treatment as well as a method to evaluate sciatic symptoms in relation to anatomic changes. (orig.).

  18. Relational victimization, loneliness and depressive symptoms: indirect associations via self and peer reports of rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Trevaskis, Sarah; Nesdale, Drew; Downey, Geraldine A

    2014-04-01

    Theory suggests that aversive social experiences generate emotional maladjustment because they prompt the development of a hypersensitivity to perceiving and overreacting to rejection. The primary aim of this study was to test hypothesized direct and indirect (via rejection sensitivity) links of overt/relational victimization and friendship conflict with early adolescents' loneliness and depressive symptoms. Participants were 366 Australian early adolescents age 10-14 years (50.5 % girls). Using both a self-report and peer-report measure of rejection sensitivity, no difference was found when comparing the significant correlations of each measure with loneliness and depressive symptoms. Tests of direct and indirect associations with structural equation modeling showed that adolescents higher in relational victimization reported more loneliness and depressive symptoms and part of this association was by way of their greater self-reports of rejection sensitivity and their peers' identification that they were higher in rejection sensitivity. Additionally, relational victimization was the only unique correlate of emotional maladjustment, and adolescents who reported more overt victimization were identified by their peers as higher in rejection sensitivity. Finally, gender and rejection sensitivity were tested as moderators. No gender moderation was found, but friendship conflict was associated more strongly with emotional maladjustment for adolescents low, rather than high, in rejection sensitivity. These findings identify relational victimization as particularly salient for emotional maladjustment both directly and indirectly via links with elevated rejection sensitivity. They show how rejection sensitivity and aversive experiences may contribute independently and jointly to emotional maladjustment for both boys and girls.

  19. Relational victimization and depressive symptoms: The role of autonomic nervous system reactivity in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterman, Leigh Ann; Murray-Close, Dianna K; Breslend, Nicole L

    2016-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate the association between relational victimization, defined as being the target of aggressive acts that damage relationships (e.g., gossip, social exclusion) and depressive symptoms during the relatively understudied developmental period of emerging adulthood. In addition, as individual differences in stress reactivity may influence the outcomes associated with victimization by peers, the moderating roles of sympathetic nervous system (SNS; as measured by skin conductance reactivity) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS; as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to social and non-social stressors were examined. Findings indicated that relational victimization was positively related to depressive symptoms in individuals demonstrating coactivation (i.e., high SNS and PNS reactivity) and coinhibition (blunted SNS and PNS reactivity) to both social and non-social stressor tasks. These patterns may reflect a breakdown of regulation in the body's physiological response to stress, thus increasing risk for depressive symptoms in the context of peer stress. Findings highlight potential areas for future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of Wfs1 protein in the central nervous system of the mouse and its relation to clinical symptoms of the Wolfram syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luuk, H.; Koks, S.; Plaas, M.

    2008-01-01

    enrichment of Wf1 protein in the central extended amygdala and ventral striatum. Prominent Wfs1 expression was seen in the hippocampal CA1 region, parasubiculum, superficial part of the second and third layers of the prefrontal cortex and proisocortical areas, hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system......, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure; subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The neuroanatomical findings suggest that the lack of Wf1 protein function can be related to several neurological...... and psychiatric symptoms found in Wolfram syndrome. Enrichment of Wfs1 protein in the central extended amygdala suggests a role in the modulation of anxiety and fear Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/20...

  1. Farmacologia da unidade motora: aspectos de interesse em neurologia Pharmacology of motor end-plate: aspects related to neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Sannomiya

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available Os AA fazem revisão sobre a unidade motora em seu aspecto morfológico, fisiológico e farmacológico como base para o estudo e tratamento da miastenia grave e da síndrome miastênica. Estudos eletromiográficos, farmacológicos e eletrofisiológicos, realizados por diversos autores, determinam características especiais que definem a miastenia grave e a síndrome miastênica. Certos sinais e sintomas, comumente observados em casos de envenenamento por elapídeos, são semelhantes aos causados por drogas bloqueadoras neuromusculares.In order to understand the treatment of miasthenia gravis and miasthenic sindrome, the morphology, physiology and pharmacology of the motor unit were reviewed. Electromiographic, pharmacologic and electrophysiologic studies accomplished by several authors have special caractheristics which define miasthenia gravis and miasthenic sindrome. Certain venoms such as those from Elapidae can produce signals and symptoms resembling those produced by neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  2. Neurological Disorders in Medical Use of Cannabis: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the longterm have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events. It has been noticed that the use of medical cannabis can lead to a paradoxical effects depending on the amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) -like cannabinoids the preparation contain. Accordingly, some neurological disorders or symptoms (e.g. multiple sclerosis, seizures, epilepsy, headache) may be caused or exacerbated by the same treatment supposed to cure them. The current review presents an update of the neurological adverse effects resulting from the use of cannabis for medical purposes, highlighting the need to weigh the benefits and risks, when using cannabinoidbased treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  4. Sleep and sadness: exploring the relation among sleep, cognitive control, and depressive symptoms in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlind, W Michael; Beevers, Christopher G; Sherman, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Logan T; McGeary, John E; Matthews, Michael D; Maddox, W Todd; Schnyer, David M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common feature of depression. However, recent work has found that individuals who are vulnerable to depression report poorer sleep quality compared to their low-risk counterparts, suggesting that sleep disturbance may precede depression. In addition, both sleep disturbance and depression are related to deficits in cognitive control processes. Thus we examined if poor sleep quality predicts subsequent increases in depressive symptoms and if levels of cognitive control mediated this relation. Thirty-five undergraduate students participated in two experimental sessions separated by 3 weeks. Participants wore an actigraph watch between sessions, which provided an objective measure of sleep patterns. We assessed self-reported sleep quality and depressive symptoms at both sessions. Last, individuals completed an exogenous cuing task, which measured ability to disengage attention from neutral and negative stimuli during the second session. Using path analyses, we found that both greater self-reported sleep difficulty and more objective sleep stability measures significantly predicted greater difficulty disengaging attention (i.e., less cognitive control) from negative stimuli. Less cognitive control over negative stimuli in turn predicted increased depression symptoms at the second session. Exploratory associations among the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput gene, CLOCK, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs11932595, as well as sleep assessments and depressive symptoms also are presented. These preliminary results suggest that sleep disruptions may contribute to increases in depressive symptoms via their impact on cognitive control. Further, variation in the CLOCK gene may be associated with sleep quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Remission of Maternal Depression: Relations to Family Functioning and Youth Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cynthia Ewell; Webster, Melissa C.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya J.; Talati, Ardesheer; Rush, A. John; Hughes, Carroll W.; Garber, Judy; Malloy, Erin; Cerda, Gabrielle; Kornstein, Susan G.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Fava, Maurizio; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Family functioning and parenting were hypothesized to mediate the relation between remission of maternal depression and children's psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 114 mother-child dyads participating in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Child 3-month follow-up. All mothers had been diagnosed with major depressive disorder and were treated initially with citalopram; 33% of mothers experienced remission of depressive symptoms. Youth ranged in age from 7 to 17. Remission of maternal depression was associated with changes in children's reports of their mothers' warmth/acceptance, which in turn partially mediated the relation between maternal depression remission and youth internalizing symptoms, accounting for 22.9% of the variance. PMID:18991123

  6. Work-related skin and airway symptoms among Swedish dentists rarely cause sick leave or change of professional career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, H; Ortengren, U; Barregård, L; Karlsson, S

    2001-10-01

    Dentistry usually is 'wet work' with risk of damage to the skin barrier, and the hands may be exposed to skin irritants and contact-sensitizing substances used in dental materials or gloves. Airway irritants may also be present. This study assessed the consequences of work-related skin and airway symptoms among dentists in terms of contact with health authorities, sick leave, or changes in the professional career. A questionnaire on these factors was answered by more than 3000 Swedish dentists. Only 6% of the respondents had consulted a physician, although 22% had noted work-related skin symptoms. In 2% the skin symptoms had caused sick leave, and about 2% had reported their skin symptoms as an occupational disease. Two per cent had consulted a physician owing to work-related airway symptoms, which is a minor part of the 13% who had experienced such symptoms when in contact with dental materials. Twenty-five dentists (dentists reported change of activities or occupation owing to work-related skin or airway symptoms, and in most cases these symptoms only contributed to their decision. In summary, whereas sick leave in dentists because of musculoskeletal problems may be common, the present study shows that this is not the case for work-related skin or airway symptoms, and such symptoms seldom affect the dentists' professional career.

  7. [HIV-related symptoms in patients with HIV infection enrolled in an HIV case management program in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Liu, Hsiao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2009-02-01

    Patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) experience multiple signs and symptoms that accompany the progress of HIV-related diseases. HIV-related symptoms are associated with side effects and HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) complications. The purposes of this study were to estimate the frequency and intensity of HIV-related signs and symptoms in patients with HIV infection and to explore relationships between HIV-related symptoms and the HAART regimen. Data on a total of 172 HIV-positive patients enrolled in an HIV case management program were analyzed for this study. Participants experienced an average of 9.73+/-7.27 symptoms, with fatigue, dry mouth and weakness the most frequently reported. Average mean symptom intensity among participants was 13.24+/-11.48. Insomnia, depression and disorientation were the most severe symptoms. No differences were recorded between HIV-related symptoms and disease progression. Fatigue intensity showed significant differences between NRTI (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), +NNRTI (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) and NRTI+PI (protease inhibitors) based regimens (p=.03). In addition, cluster symptoms of confusion/distress among participants without HAART had a significantly higher mean intensity than those with HAART (t=2.0, df=1, p=.04). Our study indicated that symptom management for fatigue and early detection of psychological distress is needed to improve quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  8. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students With a Trauma History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Avery, Megan L; Bracken, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Participants were 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and lack of emotional awareness. Men reported significantly more drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, lack of emotional clarity, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: impulse control difficulties when upset, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, nonacceptance of emotional responses, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, impulse control difficulties and difficulties engaging in goal directed behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect. When examined separately by

  9. Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Relations between ToM Impairments and Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Fretland, Ragnhild Avdem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social cognition in schizophrenia has received increasing interest over the last decade because of its role as an important determinant of functioning. However, one lacks a clear understanding about how social cognition abilities relates to the clinical symptomatology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate one well-established domain of social cognition, Theory of Mind (ToM), and its associations to symptoms in a group of persons with schizophrenia. Specificall...

  10. Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Servatius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

  11. Association of MBL With Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms in Bakery Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi-Ae; Yoon, Moon Kyung; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Hae-Sim

    2016-01-01

    Baker's asthma is the most prevalent occupational asthma, and IgE-mediated response is known as a major pathogenesis. However, recent studies have suggested the involvement of innate immune response because wheat flour contains bacterial endotoxins or lipopolysaccharides. To further understand a role of innate immune response in the development of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in bakery workers, we investigated mannose-binding lectin (MBL), one of the initiating components of the co...

  12. Efficacy of Adaptive Biofeedback Training in Treating Constipation-Related Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Tang; Zhihui Huang; Yan Tan; Nina Zhang; Anping Tan; Jun Chen; Jianfeng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a well-known and effective therapeutic treatment for constipation. A previous study suggested that adaptive biofeedback (ABF) training was more effective than traditional (fixed training parameters) biofeedback training. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of ABF in relieving constipation-related symptoms. We noticed that in traditional biofeedback training, a patient usually receives the training twice per week. The long training sessions usually led ...

  13. Effect of Work-Related Factors on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Nurses and Secretaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yeliz; Kaya, Coşkun; Baseskioglu, Barbaros; Ozerdoğan, Nebahat; Yenilmez, Aydın; Demirüstü, Canan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between work-related factors and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and to emphasize the vicious circle between symptoms and work conditions. The Turkish version of the Nurse Bladder Survey was used to estimate the prevalence of LUTS and to assess the relationship between individual characteristics, personal habits and work-related factors in nurses and secretaries who were working in Eskisehir Osmangazi University Hospital. The Turkish version of the Short Form 36 Health Survey was used to assess the nurses' and secretaries' health-related quality of life (HRQL). Of the 281 women who participated in the study, 218 (77.5%) and 63 (22.5%) were nurses and secretaries, respectively. There were no significant differences in personal habits and work-related factors between the nurses and secretaries. Of the study participants, 121 (43.1%) experienced at least one type of LUTS. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of any type of LUTS between the two groups. Only the mean scores of social functioning were significantly different for nurses and secretaries on the other aspects of HRQL in the SF-36. When the nurses with LUTS and the secretaries with LUTS were compared, the secretaries had a greater score on the general health domain than nurses. There is a vicious circle between symptoms and work conditions. To prevent the working women from harmful effects of this circle, the employers should be aware of this health problem; working conditions should be improved; educational programs for LUTS should be organized and the working women should be encouraged to go to the health providers to seek treatment when the symptoms occurred. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Relation between psychotic symptoms, parental care and childhood trauma in severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Ana; Angosto, Virxina; Díaz, Aida; Valverde, Cristina; de Artaza, Maider Gonzalez; Sesma, Eva; Maruottolo, Claudio; Galletero, Iñaki; Bustamante, Sonia; Bilbao, Amaia; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-01

    A relation between different types of parental care, trauma in childhood and psychotic symptoms in adulthood has been proposed. The nature of this association is not clear and if it is more related to psychotic disorders per se or to a cluster of symptoms such as positive psychotic symptoms remains undefined. We have analysed the presence of childhood trauma using the CTQ scale and types of parental care using the PBI scale in three groups of subjects: borderline personality disorder patients (n=36), first psychotic episode patients (n=61) and healthy controls (n=173). Positive psychotic symptomatology was assessed with the CAPE scale. General linear models were used to study the relation between positive psychotic symptomatology and variables of interest. BPD patients had the highest rate of any kind of trauma, followed by FEP patients. We found a positive relationship between psychotic symptomatology and the existence of trauma in childhood in all groups. Moreover, an affectionless control rearing style was directly associated with the existence of trauma. Furthermore, subjects with trauma presented less probability of having an optimal parenting style in childhood. The relation between psychotic symptoms and trauma remained statistically significant after adjusting for other variables including parental rearing style. There seems to be a link between trauma in childhood and psychotic symptomatology across different populations independently of psychiatric diagnosis. Taking into account that there is an association between trauma and psychosis and that trauma is a modifiable factor, clinicians should pay special attention to these facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety and Related Symptoms among Critical Care Nurses in Albaha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Background/objective: Nursing is considered an Angel of Mercy profession, but it is also one of the most stressful jobs compared to other health care sectors. The aim of this study was to determine the anxiety levels and related symptoms among critical care nurses in Albaha governmental hospitals. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. It was conducted in Albaha at four governmental hospitals in the period from January to March 2015. Sixty nurses from critical care settings (in...

  16. HIV-Related Stigma, Shame, and Avoidant Coping: Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms Among Youth Living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S; Hersh, Jill; Herres, Joanna; Foster, Jill

    2016-08-01

    Youth living with HIV (YLH) are at elevated risk of internalizing symptoms, although there is substantial individual variability in adjustment. We examined perceived HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping as risk factors of internalizing symptoms among YLH. Participants (N = 88; ages 12-24) completed self-report measures of these potential risk factors and three domains of internalizing symptoms (depressive, anxiety, and PTSD) during a regularly scheduled HIV clinic visit. Hierarchical regressions were conducted for each internalizing symptoms domain, examining the effects of age, gender, and maternal education (step 1), HIV-related stigma (step 2), shame- and guilt-proneness (step 3), and avoidant coping (step 4). HIV-related stigma, shame-proneness, and avoidant coping were each correlated with greater depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms. Specificity was observed in that shame-proneness, but not guilt-proneness, was associated with greater internalizing symptoms. In multivariable analyses, HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness were each related to greater depressive and PTSD symptoms. Controlling for the effects of HIV-related stigma and shame-proneness, avoidant coping was associated with PTSD symptoms. The current findings highlight the potential importance of HIV-related stigma, shame, and avoidant coping on the adjustment of YLH, as interventions addressing these risk factors could lead to decreased internalizing symptoms among YLH.

  17. PTSD's risky behavior criterion: Relation with DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Weiss, Nicole H; Dranger, Paula; Ruggero, Camilo; Armour, Cherie

    2017-06-01

    A new symptom criterion of reckless and self-destructive behaviors (E2) was recently added to posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, which is unsurprising given the well-established relation between PTSD and risky behaviors. Researchers have questioned the significance and incremental validity of this symptom criterion within PTSD's symptomatology. Unprecedented to our knowledge, we aim to compare trauma-exposed groups differing on their endorsement status of the risky behavior symptom on several psychopathology constructs (PTSD, depression, distress tolerance, rumination, anger). The sample included 123 trauma-exposed participants seeking mental health treatment (M age=35.70; 68.30% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, depression, rumination, distress tolerance, and anger. Results of independent samples t-tests indicated that participants who endorsed the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level reported significantly greater PTSD subscale severity; depression severity; rumination facets of repetitive thoughts, counterfactual thinking, and problem-focused thinking; and anger reactions; and significantly less absorption and regulation (distress tolerance facets) compared to participants who did not endorse the E2 criterion at a clinically significant level. Results indicate the utility of the E2 criterion in identifying trauma-exposed individual with greater posttraumatic distress, and emphasize the importance of targeting such behaviors in treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlates of pain symptoms among Iraq and Afghanistan military personnel following combat-related blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-01-01

    Pain complaints are highly prevalent among military servicemembers and Veterans of the recent combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The high comorbidity of pain with conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) underscores the importance of a greater understanding of factors associated with complex polytraumatic injuries among military personnel. The present study aimed to identify correlates of current pain among 201 U.S. military personnel who reported at least one blast experience during combat deployment (age [mean +/– standard deviation]: 27.20 +/– 7.58 yr). Theoretically derived subsets of variables were analyzed in successive hierarchical regression models to determine correlates of self-reported pain symptoms. Preliminary models evaluated demographic features, medical and injury characteristics (e.g., TBI classification), psychosocial history (e.g., trauma exposure), and psychiatric variables. A final model was then derived, in which older age, possible or probable mild TBI, depression symptoms, and PTSD re-experiencing symptoms emerged as significant correlates of pain. The findings further the understanding of polytrauma symptoms among military personnel by identifying specific patient characteristics and comorbidity patterns related to pain complaints. Increased awareness of demographic, psychiatric, or medical factors implicated in pain will enhance comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention efforts.

  19. Connecting combat-related mild traumatic brain injury with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms through brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Michelle E; Chou, Yi-Yu; Leaman, Suzanne; Pham, Dzung L; Keyser, David; Nathan, Dominic E; Coughlin, Mary; Rapp, Paul; Roy, Michael J

    2014-08-08

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may share common symptom and neuropsychological profiles in military service members (SMs) following deployment; while a connection between the two conditions is plausible, the relationship between them has been difficult to discern. The intent of this report is to enhance our understanding of the relationship between findings on structural and functional brain imaging and symptoms of PTSD. Within a cohort of SMs who did not meet criteria for PTSD but were willing to complete a comprehensive assessment within 2 months of their return from combat deployment, we conducted a nested case-control analysis comparing those with combat-related mTBI to age/gender-matched controls with diffusion tensor imaging, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and a range of psychological measures. We report degraded white matter integrity in those with a history of combat mTBI, and a positive correlation between the white matter microstructure and default mode network (DMN) connectivity. Higher clinician-administered and self-reported subthreshold PTSD symptoms were reported in those with combat mTBI. Our findings offer a potential mechanism through which mTBI may alter brain function, and in turn, contribute to PTSD symptoms. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring devices for evaluating transient loss of consciousness or other related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritsuko Kohno, MD, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing electrocardiograms (ECGs during spontaneous events is the most powerful available tool to identify or exclude an arrhythmic cause of symptoms, and often can elucidate the definite diagnosis for different conditions, such as transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC, lightheadedness, or palpitations. Current ambulatory ECG monitoring technologies include 24-hour Holter, wearable event recorder, external loop recorder (ELR, and insertable cardiac monitoring (ICM. Of them, Holter ECG is most frequently used in daily practice in Japan, while ELR and ICM are less frequently used. However, the appropriate monitor choice should be based on the expected frequency of symptoms. Frequent events may be adequately detected by Holter ECG, but less frequent symptoms are more effectively assessed by longer-term monitoring (i.e., ELR or ICM. In this report, based on our clinical experience, we review the usefulness of ambulatory ECG monitoring devices, especially of ELR, for evaluating T-LOC and other potentially arrhythmia-related symptoms. Specifically, we focus on the use of ELR and ICM for evaluating Japanese patients with T-LOC. Keywords: Transient loss of consciousness, Syncope, Insertable cardiac monitoring, External loop recorder, Holter electrocardiogram

  1. Quality of life related to health chronic kidney disease: Predictive importance of mood and somatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales Montilla, Carmen M; Duschek, Stefan; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    To compare the predictive capacity of self-reported somatic symptoms and mood (depression and anxiety) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic renal disease. Data were obtained from 52 patients undergoing haemodialysis. Measures included a) the SF-36 health survey, b) the somatic symptoms scale revised (ESS-R) and c) the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Multiple regression was the main method of statistical analysis. Patients exhibited HRQOL levels below normative values, with anxiety and depression prevalence at 36.5% and 27%, respectively. Mood was the strongest predictor of physical (β=-.624) and mental (β=-.709) HRQOL. Somatic symptoms were also associated with physical HRQOL, but their predictive value was weaker (β=-.270). These results indicate that mood is a superior predictor of the physical and mental components of HRQOL in patients compared with the number and severity of physical symptoms. The data underline the importance of assessing negative emotional states (depression and anxiety) in kidney patients as a basis for intervention, which may facilitate reduction of the impact of chronic renal disease on HRQOL. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency of narcolepsy symptoms and other sleep disorders in narcoleptic patients and their first-degree relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Ferini-Strambi, L; Plazzi, G; Smirne, S; Castronovo, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder affecting around 0.05% of the general population. Genetic factors are known to have an important role in narcolepsy. However, because of its very low prevalence, it is difficult to have groups of comparison between first-degree relatives and general

  3. Sleep quality moderates the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2013-05-01

    This study sought to extend research on the relation between depression symptoms and problematic cannabis use by evaluating the potential moderating role of perceived sleep quality among medical cannabis users. This employed a cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 162 adults (mean age = 42.05 years, SD = 14.8; 22% female), with current recommendations from a doctor for medical cannabis, recruited from a medical cannabis dispensary. Consistent with previous research, individuals with heightened depression symptoms had greater problematic cannabis use. In addition, perceived sleep quality moderated this relation, such that depression symptoms differentially related to problematic cannabis use as a function of perceived quality of sleep (ΔR(2) = .03, p = .02). Participants with higher levels of depression and good perceived sleep quality had the greatest rates of problematic cannabis use. These results suggest that individuals with heightened depression may have higher rates of problematic cannabis use, in part, because of the beneficial effects of cannabis in terms of perceived sleep quality.

  4. Depressive Symptoms, Pain, and Quality of Life among Patients with Nonalcohol-Related Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E. Balliet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study was conducted to determine if depressive symptoms were associated with variability in pain perception and quality of life among patients with nonalcohol-related chronic pancreatitis. Methods. The research design was cross-sectional, and self-report data was collected from 692 patients with nonalcohol-related, intractable pancreatitis. The mean age of the sample was 52.6 (; 41% of the sample were male. Participants completed the MOS SF12 Quality of Life Measure, the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression Scale (CESD, and a numeric rating scale measure of “pain on average” from the Brief Pain Inventory. Results. Depressive symptoms were significantly related to participants’ reports of increased pain and decreased quality of life. The mean CESD score of the sample was 10.6 ( and 52% of the sample scored above the clinical cutoff for the presence of significant depressive symptomology. Patients scoring above the clinical cutoff on the depression screening measure rated their pain as significantly higher than those below the cutoff ( and had significantly lower physical quality of life ( and lower mental quality of life (. Conclusion. Although causality cannot be determined based on cross-sectional, correlational data, findings suggest that among patients with nonalcoholic pancreatitis, the presence of depressive symptoms is common and may be a risk factor associated with increased pain and decreased quality of life. Thus, routine screening for depressive symptomology among patients with nonalcoholic pancreatitis may be warranted.

  5. Attachment insecurity, mentalization and their relation to symptoms in eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Greet S; van Loenhout, Zara; van der Ark, L Andries; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationships of attachment security and mentalization with core and co-morbid symptoms in eating disorder patients. We compared 51 eating disorder patients at the start of intensive treatment and 20 healthy controls on attachment, mentalization, eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, personality disorders, psycho-neuroticism, autonomy problems and self-injurious behavior, using the Adult Attachment Interview, the SCID-I and II and several questionnaires. Compared with the controls, the eating disorder patients showed a higher prevalence of insecure attachment; eating disorder patients more often than controls received the AAI classification Unresolved for loss or abuse. They also had a lower level of mentalization and more autonomy problems. In the patient group eating disorder symptoms, depression, anxiety, psycho-neuroticism and autonomy problems were neither related to attachment security nor to mentalization; self-injurious behavior was associated with lesser attachment security and lower mentalization; borderline personality disorder was related to lower mentalization. In the control group no relations were found between attachment, mentalization and psychopathologic variables. Eating disorder patients' low level of mentalization suggests the usefulness of Mentalization Based Treatment techniques for eating disorder treatment, especially in case of self-injurious behavior and/or co-morbid borderline personality disorder.

  6. Food-Related Symptoms and Food Allergy in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Vetander, Mirja; Kull, Inger; Hedlin, Gunilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Bergström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for persistence of food-related symptoms (FRS) and food allergy (FA) from early life to adolescence are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for FRS and FA in adolescence amongst children with FRS or FA in the first four years of life (early life). In children enrolled in a Swedish birth cohort and followed to 16 years (n = 2572), we defined children with early life FRS in the absence of FA, and FA. Corresponding phenotypes were defined at 16 years. Associations between potential risk factors at 4 years and FRS and FA at 16 years were investigated using logistic regression. Early life FRS and FA prevalences were 12.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Amongst children with early life FRS, 35.7% had FRS or FA at 16 years, whereas 74.3% of the children with early life FA had FA at 16 years. For each of the early life phenotypes, parental allergy, early life allergic multimorbidity, early life reactions to peanuts/tree nuts and IgE reactivity at 4 years were statistically significantly associated with FRS or FA at 16 years. In contrast, male sex was associated with an increased risk of FA at 16 years among children with early life FA only. In early life, food-related symptoms are twice as common as food allergy. Unlike food allergy, food-related symptoms often remit by adolescence. Yet, these phenotypes have many common risk factors for persistence to adolescence.

  7. Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Cognitive Flexibility in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosain Relation to Comorbid Symptoms of Depression, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms and Duration of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößner, Anne; Juniak, Izabela; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Kappel, Viola

    2017-09-01

    Whereas the evidence in adolescents is inconsistent, anorexia nervosa (AN) in adults is characterized by weak cognitive flexibility. This study investigates cognitive flexibility in adolescents with AN and its potential associations with symptoms of depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and duration of illness. 69 patients and 63 age-matched healthy controls (HC) from 9 till 19 years of age were assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and self-report questionnaires. In hierarchical regression analyses, set-shifting ability did not differ between AN and HC, whereas AN patients reported significantly higher rates of depression symptoms and OCD symptoms. Age significantly predicted set-shifting in the total sample. Only among AN patients aged 14 years and older did set-shifting decline with increasing age. The presence of AN with depression or OCD symptoms or the duration of illness do not influence cognitive flexibility in children and adolescents. Early interventions may be helpful to prevent a decline in cognitive flexibility in adolescent AN with increasing age.

  9. Antisocial personality disorder and borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the change version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of Axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Symptoms are Differentially Related to Impulsivity and Course of Illness in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and –II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the Change version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Results ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Conclusions Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. PMID:22835849

  11. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  12. Constipation-related symptoms and bowel program concerning individuals with spinal cord injury.

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    Harari, D; Sarkarati, M; Gurwitz, J H; McGlinchey-Berroth, G; Minaker, K L

    1997-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of constipation-related symptoms in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), to describe the bowel program as reported by patients and including use of bowel medications and evacuation techniques, and to examine the clinical, functional and pharmacological risks of difficulty with evacuation. This is a cross-sectional study of all in-patients at least 3 months beyond acute injury, on the West Roxbury/Brockton VAMC SCI Service, during a 10 month period (n = 197). Clinical, functional, and medication data were abstracted from medical and nursing records. Individual interviews were conducted with all available participants (n = 161, 82%) regarding bowel-related symptoms and treatment over the previous 1 month period. The study definition of difficulty with evacuation was spending more than 1 h per episode of bowel evacuation. Forty-one percent of the 161 interview responders spent more than 1 h on bowel evacuation, 50% reported abdominal distension and 38% reported abdominal pain, 27% reported headaches or sweats relieved by having a bowel movement, and 33% reported fecal incontinence at least once a month. The bisacodyl suppository was the most commonly used laxative agent, while docusate was the most popular oral agent. Subjects with difficulty with evacuation (n = 66) were compared with those who spent less than 1 h on evacuation (n = 95). Factors associated with difficulty with evacuation were tetraplegia, Frankel grade A/B, laxative use, polypharmacy, previous urinary outlet surgery, and symptoms of abdominal pain and distension. Constipation-related symptoms are highly prevalent in individuals with spinal cord injury, despite considerable laxative use. Our findings suggest that difficulty with evacuation can be predicted on the basis of a patient's clinical profile.

  13. Work-related respiratory symptoms among health centres cleaners: A cross-sectional study

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    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies, mostly based on questionnaire-derived data, have shown an increased risk of allergic diseases, especially asthma, among cleaners. The risk factors and etiological mechanisms are still being investigated. Occupational exposure to various chemical and biological agents may induce specific sensitization and/or irritant effects. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of work-related symptoms suggesting the presence of allergic disease reported by cleaners, and to relate them to the results of commercially available and standardized objective tests used for screening detection of occupational sensitization and chronic respiratory disorders. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed among 142 Polish workers of cleaning service in their workplaces. A detailed questionnaire, skin prick tests to common allergens and chemicals used by these workers for cleaning purposes (chloramine T, chlorhexidine, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, benzalconium chloride, total and specific serum IgE antibodies to disinfectants and rest spirometry were performed in all the subjects. Results: Fifty nine percent of all the subjects declared occurrence of at least 1 symptom suggesting allergic ailment during cleaning activities at work. Skin prick tests and specific serum IgE antibodies to disinfectants were negative in all the subjects. In 8 cases wheezing was detected during auscultation, but only in 5 of them obstructive pattern in rest spirometry was found. Conclusions: Occupational allergic causation of symptoms among cleaners could be less likely than work-related symptoms associated with exacerbations of new-onset or pre-existing respiratory diseases. Therefore, in this group of workers, mainly the non-specific irritant impact of chemicals on airways should be taken into consideration.

  14. Coeliac disease and gastrointestinal symptom screening in adult first-degree relatives.

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    Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Alvarez-Cuenllas, Begoña; Hernando, Mercedes; Iglesias-Blazquez, Cristina; Menéndez-Arias, Cristina; Vivas, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with coeliac disease are the main risk group for disease development. The study aims to evaluate the screening strategy in FDRs with negative coeliac serology based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping, followed by duodenal biopsy, and to analyze the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the influence of gluten intake. Adult FDRs with negative coeliac serology were invited to participate (n = 205), and a total of 139 completed the study protocol. HLA genotyping, transglutaminase antibody assessment, and duodenal biopsy were performed. Symptomatology was assessed using questionnaires during the various phases of dietary modification (baseline diet, gluten-free diet, and gluten overload). The study included 139 participants (mean age, 42 years; 53.2% women). HLA-DQ2/8 was positive in 78.4% of the participants (homozygous, 15.1%; heterozygous, 63.3%). Histopathological alterations were noted in 37.1% of participants who underwent duodenal biopsy (Marsh I, 32.7%; Marsh IIIa, 4.4%). At baseline, symptoms were observed in 45.7% of the participants, and the proportion decreased to 24.5% after the gluten-free diet (P < 0.001). Symptoms were not associated with the presence of histological alterations or genetic risk. However, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91), female sex (OR = 2.9), and the presence of autoimmune disorders (OR = 2.8) were independently associated with a significant symptom response to the gluten-free diet. Duodenal lymphocytosis and atrophy are frequently noted in FDRs, despite negative serological markers. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly present and associated with gluten intake regardless of the histological pathology. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Factors Affecting Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Relatives of Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Işıl; Zincircioğlu, Çiler; Öztürk, Yasemin Kılıç; Çakmak, Meltem; Güldoğan, Evin Aydın; Demir, Hafize Fisun; Şenoglu, Nimet; Erbay, Rıza Hakan; Gonullu, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    To determine the incidences of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and to investigate the relationships between psychological symptoms and demographic features of the patients and their relatives. Relatives of 78 ICU patients were enrolled in the study. Sociodemographic features of patients and their relatives were recorded. The Turkish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression. Twenty-eight (35.9%) cases with anxiety and 56 (71.8%) cases with depression were identified. The mean anxiety and depression scores were 9.49 ± 4.183 and 9.40 ± 4.286, respectively. Anxiety (P = .028) and concomitant anxiety with depression (P = .035) were more frequent among family members of young patients. The relationship to the patient, especially being a spouse, was significantly associated with symptoms (anxiety, P = .009; depression, P = .019; and both, P = .005). Spouses and family members of relatively young patients had higher rates of anxiety and depression. In contrast to the literature, depression was more common than anxiety among the relatives of ICU patients. Further research is needed on the impact of cultural and regional differences on anxiety and depression rates in family members of ICU patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. No consistent risk factor pattern for symptoms related to the sick building syndrome: a prospective population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Kolstad, Henrik; Ørbaek, Palle; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2006-06-01

    To examine associations between perceived indoor environment at work and the non-specific symptoms that are often referred to as the sick building syndrome (SBS), using cross-sectional and prospective analyses for a large cohort from the general population. The sample comprised 2,164 adults in employment, who completed a postal questionnaire in April 2001. Of these 1,402, who were still working and living in the same place, completed a second questionnaire a year later. The outcome measures were the prevalence of mucous membrane symptoms and general symptoms at baseline and the incidence and persistence of these symptoms at follow-up. Self-reports of the indoor environment from the baseline questionnaire were used as predictors in the analyses. Inconsistent results were found between the cross-sectional and the longitudinal analyses for the associations between perceived indoor environment factors at work and symptoms. Whereas mucous membrane symptoms in the cross-sectional analysis were significantly associated with self-reported high temperature and dry air, the prospective analyses showed that onset of mucous membrane symptoms was associated with the sensation of draught, dry air, and noise. Persistent mucous membrane symptoms were associated only with stuffy air. General symptoms were associated with self-reported stuffy air and dry air in the cross-sectional analysis, while draught was the only predictor of onset of general symptoms. We found no predictors in the indoor environment for the persistence of general symptoms. The symptoms that are often connected with SBS are very common symptoms in the general population among manual workers as well as non-manual workers. Our study gives only limited support to the hypothesis of causal relationships between the indoor environment and these symptoms. We found no evidence of persistent mucous membrane symptoms and general symptoms related to specific factors in the indoor environment.

  17. Depressive symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Miquel; Martín, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are very common in chronic conditions. This is true so for neurodegenerative diseases. A number of patients with cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease and related conditions like Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal degeneration amongst other entities, experience depressive symptoms in greater or lesser grade at some point during the course of the illness. Depressive symptoms have a particular significance in neurological disorders, specially in neurodegenerative diseases, because brain, mind, behavior and mood relationship. A number of patients may develop depressive symptoms in early stages of the neurologic disease, occurring without clear presence of cognitive decline with only mild cognitive deterioration. Classically, depression constitutes a reliable diagnostic challenge in this setting. However, actually we can recognize and evaluate depressive, cognitive or motor symptoms of neurodegenerative disease in order to establish their clinical significance and to plan some therapeutic strategies. Depressive symptoms can appear also lately, when the neurodegenerative disease is fully developed. The presence of depression and other neuropsychiatric symptoms have a negative impact on the quality-of-life of patients and caregivers. Besides, patients with depressive symptoms also tend to further decrease function and reduce cognitive abilities and also uses to present more affected clinical status, compared with patients without depression. Depressive symptoms are treatable. Early detection of depressive symptoms is very important in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, in order to initiate the most adequate treatment. We review in this paper the main neurodegenerative diseases, focusing in depressive symptoms of each other entities and current recommendations of management and treatment. PMID:26301229

  18. Health Benefits of Green Public Housing: Associations With Asthma Morbidity and Building-Related Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; MacNaughton, Piers; Kane, John; Bennett-Fripp, Mae; Spengler, John; Adamkiewicz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of several health outcomes with green and conventional low-income housing, where the prevalence of morbidities and environmental pollutants is elevated. Methods. We used questionnaires and a visual inspection to compare sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and asthma-related morbidity among residents in multifamily units in Boston, Massachusetts, between March 2012 and May 2013. Follow-up was approximately 1 year later. Results. Adults living in green units reported 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 2.05) fewer SBS symptoms than those living in conventional (control) homes (P < .001). Furthermore, asthmatic children living in green homes experienced substantially lower risk of asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.12, 1.00), asthma attacks (OR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11, 0.88), hospital visits (OR = 0.24; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.88), and asthma-related school absences (OR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.06, 0.74) than children living in conventional public housing. Conclusions. Participants living in green homes had improved health outcomes, which remained consistent over the study period. Green housing may provide a significant value in resource-poor settings where green construction or renovation could simultaneously reduce harmful indoor exposures, promote resident health, and reduce operational costs. PMID:26469661

  19. Latent-level relations between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters and problematic smartphone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Frankfurt, Sheila B; Weiss, Nicole H; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-07-01

    Common mental health consequences following the experience of potentially traumatic events include Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and addictive behaviors. Problematic smartphone use is a newer manifestation of addictive behaviors. People with anxiety severity (such as PTSD) may be at risk for problematic smartphone use as a means of coping with their symptoms. Unique to our knowledge, we assessed relations between PTSD symptom clusters and problematic smartphone use. Participants (N = 347), recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), completed measures of PTSD and smartphone addiction. Results of the Wald tests of parameter constraints indicated that problematic smartphone use was more related to PTSD's negative alterations in cognitions and mood (NACM) than to PTSD's avoidance factor, Wald χ2(1, N = 347) = 12.51, p = 0.0004; and more to PTSD's arousal compared to PTSD's avoidance factor, Wald χ2(1, N = 347) = 14.89, p = 0.0001. Results indicate that problematic smartphone use is most associated with negative affect and arousal among trauma-exposed individuals. Implications include the need to clinically assess problematic smartphone use among trauma-exposed individuals presenting with higher NACM and arousal severity; and targeting NACM and arousal symptoms to mitigate the effects of problematic smartphone use.

  20. Season-independent cognitive deficits in seasonal affective disorder and their relation to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Ozenne, Brice; Mc Mahon, Brenda; Hageman, Ida; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2017-11-01

    Although cognitive impairments are common in depressed individuals, it is unclear which aspects of cognition are affected and whether they represent state or trait features of depression. We here exploited a naturalistic model, namely the seasonal fluctuations in depressed status in individuals with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), to study depression-related cognition, longitudinally. Twenty-nine medication-free individuals diagnosed with winter-SAD and 30 demographically matched healthy controls with no seasonality symptoms completed the Letter-number Sequencing task (LNS), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Simple Reaction Time (SRT) twice; in summer and in winter. Compared to controls, SAD individuals showed significant season-independent impairments in tasks measuring working memory (LNS), cognitive processing speed (SDMT) and motor speed (SRT). In SAD individuals, cognitive processing speed was significantly negatively associated with the seasonal change in SAD depressive symptoms. We present novel evidence that in SAD individuals, working memory, cognitive processing- and motor speed is not only impaired in the winter but also in the summer. This suggests that certain cognitive impairments are SAD traits. Furthermore, impairments in cognitive processing speed appear to be related to depressive symptoms in SAD. Reduced processing speed may thus constitute a SAD vulnerability trait marker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Valsalva-Related Subretinal Hemorrhage as a Presenting Symptom of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif Subhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a case of Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage as a presenting symptom of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. The patient refrained from treatment against our best advice, and thus this is also a rare case of the natural course of an untreated PCV. Methods. Case report. Results. A 66-year-old female with a respiratory infection coughed intensely until exhaustion, after which she developed visual symptoms on the right eye. Primary care ophthalmologist examined the patient on the same day of the onset of symptoms and referred her to our tertiary medical retinal service for detailed retinal diagnosis including fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. The right eye had a large subretinal hemorrhage and pigment epithelium detachment in the lower temporal arcade with foveal involvement. Against our best advice, the patient refused treatment. In the following 9 months, the BCVA decreased from 68 to 55 ETDRS letters, the subretinal hemorrhage almost regressed, pigment epithelium detachments persisted, and macular edema, intraretinal cysts, and subretinal fibrosis developed. Conclusions. Although classic Valsalva retinopathy with preretinal hemorrhage in most cases can be managed by careful observation and no treatment, this case demonstrates that Valsalva-related subretinal hemorrhage needs different attention and approach.

  2. Para-psychobiotic Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 ameliorates stress-related symptoms and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K; Sawada, D; Kawai, T; Kuwano, Y; Fujiwara, S; Rokutan, K

    2017-12-01

    To confirm the stress-relieving effects of heat-inactivated, enteric-colonizing Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 (paraprobiotic CP2305) in medical students taking a cadaver dissection course. Healthy students (21 males and 11 females) took paraprobiotic CP2305 daily for 5 weeks during a cadaver dissection course. The General Health Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were employed to assess stress-related somatic symptoms and sleep quality respectively. The aggravation of stress-associated somatic symptoms was observed in female students (P = 0·029). Sleep quality was improved in the paraprobiotic CP2305 group (P = 0·038), particularly in men (P = 0·004). Among men, paraprobiotic CP2305 shortened sleep latency (P = 0·035) and increased sleep duration (P = 0·048). Diarrhoea-like symptoms were also effectively controlled with CP2305 (P = 0·005) in men. Thus, we observed sex-related differences in the effects of paraprobiotic CP2305. In addition, CP2305 affected the growth of faecal Bacteroides vulgatus and Dorea longicatena, which are involved in intestinal inflammation. CP2305 is a potential paraprobiotic that regulates stress responses, and its beneficial effects may depend on specific cell component(s). This study characterizes the effects of a stress-relieving para-psychobiotic in humans. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Motivation-focused thinking: Buffering against stress-related physical symptoms and depressive symptomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jeremy M; Perry, Raymond P; Chipperfield, Judith G; Stewart, Tara L; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Developmental transitions are experienced throughout the life course and necessitate adapting to consequential and unpredictable changes that can undermine health. Our six-month study (n = 239) explored whether selective secondary control striving (motivation-focused thinking) protects against the elevated levels of stress and depressive symptoms increasingly common to young adults navigating the challenging school-to-university transition. Path analyses supplemented with tests of moderated mediation revealed that, for young adults who face challenging obstacles to goal attainment, selective secondary control indirectly reduced long-term stress-related physical and depressive symptoms through selective primary control and previously unexamined measures of discrete emotions. Results advance the existing literature by demonstrating that (a) selective secondary control has health benefits for vulnerable young adults and (b) these benefits are largely a consequence of the process variables proposed in Heckhausen et al.'s (2010) theory.

  4. Season-independent cognitive deficits i