WorldWideScience

Sample records for neurological hepatic pulmonary

  1. Pulmonary, neurological and hepatic compromise in paragonimiasis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriza Carrasco, Alfonso Jose; Cuervo Valencia, Catalina; Valencia M, Andres Mauricio; Echeverri Toro, Lina Maria

    2011-01-01

    Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infectious disease, frequently with pulmonary abnormalities, although erratic parasite migration can compromise other organs. this disease is endemic in areas of southeast Asia, but it has been described in other tropical and subtropical regions. In this article, we report a case of indigenous patient with pulmonary abnormalities by Paragonimiasis, neurologic and hepatic abnormalities too.

  2. [Features of neurologic semiotics at chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, I V; Baranov, V L; Kolcheva, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is actual pathology, when it forms the mixed hypoxemia. In the conditions of a chronic hypoxemia structures of organism with high level of metabolic processes, namely brain tissues, suffer. Character of defeat of the central nervous system at that pathology is insufficiently studied. In this article we studied and analysed the presence of such changes as depression, anxiety, cognitive impairment and features of neurologic semiotics at COPD in 50 patients.

  3. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekov Evgeni V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a preventable, treatable disease with significant extrapulmonary manifestations that could affect negatively its course in some patients. Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV, on the other hand, is associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations. COPD patients have increased prevalence of HCV and patients with HCV, especially older ones, have increased prevalence and faster progression of COPD. HCV infection exerts long-term effects on lung tissue and is an additional risk factor for the development of COPD. The presence of HCV is associated with an accelerated loss of lung function in COPD patients, especially in current smokers. COPD could represent extrahepatic manifestation associated with HCV infection. The aim of this article was to review the literature on prevalence of HCV in COPD and vice versa, pathogenetic link and the consequences of their mutual existence.

  4. MFAP4: a candidate biomarker for hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölleken, Christian; Poschmann, Gereon; Bonella, Francesco; Costabel, Ulrich; Sitek, Barbara; Stühler, Kai; Meyer, Helmut E; Schmiegel, Wolff H; Marcussen, Niels; Helmer, Michael; Nielsen, Ole; Hansen, Søren; Schlosser, Anders; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2016-03-29

    Several comparable mechanisms have been identified for hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis. The human microfibrillar associated glycoprotein 4 (MFAP4), produced by activated myofibroblasts, is a ubiquitous protein playing a potential role in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and was recently identified as biomarker for hepatic fibrosis in hepatitis C patients. The current study aimed to evaluate serum levels of MFAP4 in patients with pulmonary fibrosis in order to test its potential as biomarker in clinical practice. A further aim was to determine whether MFAP4 deficiency in mice affects the formation of pulmonary fibrosis in the bleomycin model of lung fibrosis. 91 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 23 with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and 31 healthy subjects were studied. In the mouse model, C57BL/6 Mfap4+/+ and Mfap4-/- mice between 6-8 weeks of age were studied. Serum levels of MFAP4 were measured by ELISA in patients and in mice. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) and LDH were measured as comparison biomarkers in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Morphometric assessment and the Sircol kit were used to determine the amount of collagen in the lung tissue in the mouse model. Serum levels of MFAP4 were not elevated in lung fibrosis - neither in the patients with IPF or HP nor in the animal model. Furthermore no significant correlations with pulmonary function tests of IPF patients could be found for MFAP4. MFAP4 levels were increased in BAL of bleomycin treated mice with pulmonary fibrosis. MFAP4 is not elevated in sera of patients with pulmonary fibrosis or bleomycin treated mice with pulmonary fibrosis. This may be due to different pathogenic mechanisms of liver and lung fibrogenesis. MFAP4 seems to be useful as serum biomarker for hepatic but not for lung fibrosis.

  5. Emergency hepatectomy for hepatic arteriovenous malformation combined with pulmonary hypertension in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruhiko Murase

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hepatic arteriovenous malformations rarely present with pulmonary hypertension. We report the case of a 3-month-old boy who developed severe pulmonary hypertension due to a hepatic arteriovenous malformation. The use of pulmonary vasodilators to treat the patient's pulmonary hypertension worsened his high-output heart failure. This is the first case in which emergency hepatectomy rescued a patient with hepatic arteriovenous malformations who developed pulmonary hypertension.

  6. Hepatitis E virus infection and acute non-traumatic neurological injury: A prospective multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, H.R.; Eijk, J.J.J. van; Cintas, P.; Madden, R.G.; Jones, C.; Webb, G.W.; Norton, B.; Pique, J.; Lutgens, S.; Devooght-Johnson, N.; Woolson, K.; Baker, J.; Saunders, M.; Househam, L.; Griffiths, J.; Abravanel, F.; Izopet, J.; Kamar, N.; Alfen, N. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Hunter, J.G.; Eijk, A.A. van der; Bendall, R.P.; McLean, B.N.; Jacobs, B.C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been associated with a number of neurological syndromes, but causality has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between HEV and neurological illness by prospective HEV testing of patients presenting with acute

  7. Pulmonary and intestinal permeabilities in alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Botton, S.; Huglo, B.; Canva-Delacambre, V.; Colombel, J.F.; Beauchat, V.; Ziegels, P.; Prangere, T.; Steinling, M.; Machandise, X.; Wallaert, B.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate simultaneously the intestinal permeability (IP), usually normal, and the pulmonary permeability, (PP) rather rarely studied, in patients afflicted with hepatic cirrhosis of alcoholic (HCA) origin. Thirty five non-smoker patients, afflicted with HCA, proved by biopsy, without pulmonary pathology and with normal pulmonary scanography were subject to our investigation. The pre-graft hepatic examination contained also respiratory functional explorations as well as bronchi-alveolar clearance (BAC) explorations. After inhalation of the DTPA- 99m Tc aerosols, a 20 min dynamical study in posterior-front condition was achieved. After exponential matching on the activity/time curve of the right lung, the half life (T 1/2 in min) and the Residual Activity at 10 min (RA in %) were calculated. The PI were than estimated and on the basis of urinary activity of EDTA- 51 Cr obtained on 24 h and expressed in % of the uptake activity, according to the Bjarnasson's technique. The results were compared (significant non-parametric tests if p 1/2 and 87.1% ± 6.7 vs 92.8% ± 2.6 (p < 0.002) for RA. It is significantly correlated with the total number of cells (r = -0.379) and with the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.351) in the BAC. For the first time an enhanced PP was observed in HCA, correlated with the increase in the number of cells at BAC

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy before and neurological complications after liver transplantation have no impact on the employment status 1 year after transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Pflugrad, Henning; Tryc, Anita B; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Strassburg, Christian P; Barg-Hock, Hannelore; Klempnauer, J?rgen; Weissenborn, Karin

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of hepatic encephalopathy before orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and neurological complications after OLT on employment after OLT. METHODS One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic liver disease aged 18-60 years underwent neurological examination to identify neurological complications, neuropsychological tests comprising the PSE-Syndrome-Test yielding the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score, the critical flicker frequency and the Repeatable Batt...

  9. Neuronal CCL2 is upregulated during hepatic encephalopathy and contributes to microglia activation and neurological decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Matthew; Frampton, Gabriel; Thompson, Michelle; Galindo, Cheryl; Standeford, Holly; Whittington, Eric; Alpini, Gianfranco; DeMorrow, Sharon

    2014-07-10

    Acute liver failure leads to systemic complications with one of the most dangerous being a decline in neurological function, termed hepatic encephalopathy. Neurological dysfunction is exacerbated by an increase of toxic metabolites in the brain that lead to neuroinflammation. Following various liver diseases, hepatic and circulating chemokines, such as chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), are elevated, though their effects on the brain following acute liver injury and subsequent hepatic encephalopathy are unknown. CCL2 is known to activate microglia in other neuropathies, leading to a proinflammatory response. However, the effects of CCL2 on microglia activation and the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy following acute liver injury remain to be determined. Hepatic encephalopathy was induced in mice via injection of azoxymethane (AOM) in the presence or absence of INCB 3284 dimesylate (INCB), a chemokine receptor 2 inhibitor, or C 021 dihydrochloride (C021), a chemokine receptor 4 inhibitor. Mice were monitored for neurological decline and time to coma (loss of all reflexes) was recorded. Tissue was collected at coma and used for real-time PCR, immunoblots, ELISA, or immunostaining analyses to assess the activation of microglia and consequences on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Following AOM administration, microglia activation was significantly increased in AOM-treated mice compared to controls. Concentrations of CCL2 in the liver, serum, and cortex were significantly elevated in AOM-treated mice compared to controls. Systemic administration of INCB or C021 reduced liver damage as assessed by serum liver enzyme biochemistry. Administration of INCB or C021 significantly improved the neurological outcomes of AOM-treated mice, reduced microglia activation, reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and alleviated AOM-induced cytokine upregulation. These findings suggest that CCL2 is elevated systemically following acute liver injury and that CCL2 is involved in both the

  10. Release of hepatic Plasmodium yoelii merozoites into the pulmonary microvasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Baer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium undergoes one round of multiplication in the liver prior to invading erythrocytes and initiating the symptomatic blood phase of the malaria infection. Productive hepatocyte infection by sporozoites leads to the generation of thousands of merozoites capable of erythrocyte invasion. Merozoites are released from infected hepatocytes as merosomes, packets of hundreds of parasites surrounded by host cell membrane. Intravital microscopy of green fluorescent protein-expressing P. yoelii parasites showed that the majority of merosomes exit the liver intact, adapt a relatively uniform size of 12-18 microm, and contain 100-200 merozoites. Merosomes survived the subsequent passage through the right heart undamaged and accumulated in the lungs. Merosomes were absent from blood harvested from the left ventricle and from tail vein blood, indicating that the lungs effectively cleared the blood from all large parasite aggregates. Accordingly, merosomes were not detectable in major organs such as brain, kidney, and spleen. The failure of annexin V to label merosomes collected from hepatic effluent indicates that phosphatidylserine is not exposed on the surface of the merosome membrane suggesting the infected hepatocyte did not undergo apoptosis prior to merosome release. Merosomal merozoites continued to express green fluorescent protein and did not incorporate propidium iodide or YO-PRO-1 indicating parasite viability and an intact merosome membrane. Evidence of merosomal merozoite infectivity was provided by hepatic effluent containing merosomes being significantly more infective than blood with an identical low-level parasitemia. Ex vivo analysis showed that merosomes eventually disintegrate inside pulmonary capillaries, thus liberating merozoites into the bloodstream. We conclude that merosome packaging protects hepatic merozoites from phagocytic attack by sinusoidal Kupffer cells, and that release into the lung microvasculature enhances the

  11. Sequential surgical resection of hepatic and pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Limmer, Stefan; Oevermann, Elisabeth; Killaitis, Claudia; Kujath, Peter; Hoffmann, Martin; Bruch, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Resection of isolated hepatic or pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer is widely accepted and associated with a 5-year survival rate of 25?40%. The value of aggressive surgical management in patients with both hepatic and pulmonary metastases still remains a controversial area. Materials and methods A retrospective review of 1,497 patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) was analysed. Of 73 patients identified with resection of CRC and, at some point in time, both liver and l...

  12. Onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies in patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic pulmonary pathologies and suspected for paraneoplastic neurological syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalak S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Onconeuronal antibodies are important diagnostic tool in patients with suspicion of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS. However, their role in PNS pathophysiology and specificity for particular neurological manifestation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies in patients with pulmonary pathologies and suspected for PNS. Materials and methods Twenty one patients with pulmonary pathologies were selected from the database of 525 consecutive patients with suspicion of PNS. Patients' sera were screened for the presence of onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies by means of indirect immunofluorescence; the presence was confirmed by Western blotting. Clinical data were obtained from medical records, hospital data base, and questionnaire-based direct telephone contact with patients. Results Among 21 patients, aged 54 ± 11, with pulmonary pathologies, the most frequent neurological manifestations were neuropathies. Typical PNS included paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD and limbic encephalitis (LE. We found cases with multiple onconeuronal antibodies (anti-Ri and anti-Yo and coexisting PNS (PCD/LE. Well-defined onconeuronal antibodies were identified in 23.8% of patients. Among antineuronal antibodies, the most frequent were anti-MAG (23.8%. ROC curves analysis revealed high sensitivity of onconeuronal and antineuronal antibodies for typical PNS and lower for pulmonary malignancies. Conclusions Tests for antibodies are highly sensitive for the diagnosis of typical paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Anti-myelin and anti-MAG antibodies are associated with non-neoplastic pulmonary diseases. Patients with well-defined onconeuronal antibodies require careful screening and follow-up, because the PNS diagnosis indicates a high probability of an underlying malignancy.

  13. Pulmonary retention of colloid used for hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Spironelli, R.

    1977-01-01

    A case patient with hepatic disease and pumnonary infeccion, for which retention by both lings is cearly visualized following an injection of 113 sup(m)In-haemacell for liver scannin, is presented [pt

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension. An echographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurghean, Adriana V; Tudor, Ioana A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of pulmonary hypertension in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension, to determine the possibility of an accurate ultrasound diagnosis of the characteristics of this complication. 347 patients with liver cirrhosis consecutively hospitalized at Coltea Clinical Hospital were screened. 61 were excluded because of other possible causes of portal or pulmonary hypertension. All patients were investigated clinically and by abdominal and cardiac ultrasonography. Of the remaining 286 patients, 116 had portal hypertension, 27 of them (23%) having pulmonary hypertension. In this group we found a higher cardiac index and right atrial volume, higher pressures in the right atrium, suggesting a hyperdynamic state. Porto-pulmonary hypertension was found in only one patient. Echocardiography permits characterization of patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.

  15. Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Lipiodol Embolism in Patients with Hepatic Carcinoma after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jin JIANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods and preventive measures of pulmonary lipiodol embolism (PLE induced by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE so as to improve the cognition and management of PLE. Methods:A total of 2 613 patients with hepatic cancer without history of pulmonary disease who were treated with TACE in our hospital from Sept., 2004 to Mar., 2013 were selected. The clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods and preventing measures of the 9 patients who were accompanied with PLE were observed to analyze the pre-operative hepatic computed tomography (CT and chest X-ray, intra-operative contrast examination, dosage of lipiodol and chemotherapeutic drugs, clinical manifestation and therapeutic progression as well as the postoperative follow-up.Results: Nine patients accompanied by PLE had different-severity cough, hemoptysis and progressive dyspnea, and chest X-ray and/or CT showed flaky high-density radiography. After treated with oxygen inhalation, bronchus expansion and inflammation alleviation, 8 patients were improved but 1 died. Of the 8 patients, 2 were given ventilator to assist breath, and the clinical symptoms of 8 patients disappeared within 3-15 d. The re-examined chest X-ray showed normal after 20-60 d follow-up observation. Additionally, 6 patients were with nidus diameter ≥10 cm, 6 with hepatic artery-vein fistula and 7 with lipiodol dosage ≥20 mL.Conclusion: PLE often occurs in patients with giant hepatic carcinoma accompanied by hepatic artery-vein fistula, whose lipiodol dosage is ≥20 mL. Accurate and correct management during operation can effectively reduce the development of PLE.

  16. Exercise induced pulmonary, hepatic and splenic blood volume changes in diabetic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubashar, M.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise induced blood volume changes in visceral organs were determined by scintillation gamma camera imaging in 11 normal healthy male volunteers and 15 NIDDM male diabetics without clinical signs of neuropathy. After in-vivo labelling of red cells with Technetium-99m, the data was acquired in the supine position at rest and immediately after graded upright ergometer bicycle exercise. From rest to peak exercise, pulmonary blood volume increased 19% and 75% in normal volunteers of less than and more than 40 years of age respectively. A decrease of 18% and 42% was noted in the hepatic and splenic blood volume respectively, regardless of the age, in the normal subjects. In contrast to normals, the diabetic patients showed in response to peak exercise as compared to age-matched controls. A significant difference in the drop in pulmonary blood volume 82.37% and 90% was observed between diabetics of more than and less than 7 years duration respectively. The liver and spleen of the diabetic subjects revealed a lesser decrease of 87.6% and 71.33% respectively in response to peak stress in comparison to the age matched controls. The reduction in the hepatic and splenic blood volume was equally evident in diabetics of more than or less than 50 years of age and it was statistically nonsignificant. This study demonstrates that the normal pattern of redistribution of blood volume in response to maximum exercise in diabetics is altered such that there is restricted pulmonary perfusion and diminished vasoconstriction of the hepato splenic vascular bed and the changes in the pulmonary circulation are related to the duration of the diabetics rather than the age of the patient. (author)

  17. Rapid intra-hepatic dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases following combined loco-regional therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (Singapore)

    2013-08-15

    This manuscript describes an unusual case of rapid intra-hepatic dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases occurring 1 month after combined chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation. Inferior vena cava and portal vein invasion tumor thrombus was also detected, possibly accounting for the mechanism of disease dissemination route of disease.

  18. Rapid intra-hepatic dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases following combined loco-regional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes an unusual case of rapid intra-hepatic dissemination of hepatocellular carcinoma with pulmonary metastases occurring 1 month after combined chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation. Inferior vena cava and portal vein invasion tumor thrombus was also detected, possibly accounting for the mechanism of disease dissemination route of disease.

  19. Contribution of altered signal transduction associated to glutamate receptors in brain to the neurological alterations of hepatic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vicente Felipo

    2006-01-01

    Patients with liver disease may present hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome covering a wide range of neurological alterations,including cognitive and motor disturbances. HE reduces the quality of life of the patients and is associated with poor prognosis. In the worse cases HE may lead to coma or death.The mechanisms leading to HE which are not well known are being studied using animal models. The neurological alterations in HE are a consequence of impaired cerebral function mainly due to alterations in neurotransmission. We review here some studies indicating that alterations in neurotransmission associated to different types of glutamate receptors are responsible for some of the cognitive and motor alterations present in HE.These studies show that the function of the signal transduction pathway glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP associated to the NMDA type of glutamate receptors is impaired in brain in vivo in HE animal models as well as in brain of patients died of HE. Activation of NMDA receptors in brain activates this pathway and increases cGMP. In animal models of HE this increase in cGMP induced by activation of NMDA receptors is reduced,which is responsible for the impairment in learning ability in these animal models. Increasing cGMP by pharmacological means restores learning ability in rats with HE and may be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with HE.However, it is necessary to previously assess the possible secondary effects.Patients with HE may present psychomotor slowing,hypokinesia and bradykinesia. Animal models of HE also show hypolocomotion. It has been shown in rats with HE that hypolocomotion is due to excessive activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in substantia nigra pars reticulata. Blocking mGluR1 in this brain area normalizes motor activity in the rats, suggesting that a similar treatment for patients with HE could be useful to treat psychomotor slowing and

  20. Pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease. Gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoshima, Mitsuo; Maeoka, Yukinori; Kawahara, Hitoshi; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-01-01

    We report 10 cases of pulmonary atelectasis diagnosed by chest computed tomography in patients with neurological or muscular disease. Atelectasis was frequently seen in hypotonic patients who could not roll over on their own. The atelectases located mostly in the dorsal bronchopulmonary segments, adjacent to the heart or diaphragm. Atelectasis diminished in two patients after they became able to roll themselves over. Gravity-related lung compression by the heart and intra-abdominal organs on persistent supine position can cause pulmonary atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease who can not roll over by their own power. To confirm that the prone position reduces compression of the lungs, chest computed tomography was performed in both the supine and the prone position in three patients. Sagittal images with three-dimensional computed tomographic reconstruction revealed significant sternad displacements of the heart and caudal displacements of the dorsal portion of the diaphragm on prone position compared with supine position. The prone position, motor exercises for rolling over, and biphasic cuirass ventilation are effective in reducing gravity-related lung compression. Some patients with intellectual disabilities were also able to cooperate in chest physiotherapy. Chest physiotherapy is useful in preventing atelectasis in patients with neurological or muscular disease. (author)

  1. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  2. Impact of a CXCL12/CXCR4 Antagonist in Bleomycin (BLM Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis and Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leola N Chow

    Full Text Available Modulation of chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in attenuation of bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In pulmonary fibrosis, published reports suggest that collagen production in the injured lung is derived from fibrocytes recruited from the circulation in response to release of pulmonary CXCL12. Conversely, in hepatic fibrosis, resident hepatic stellate cells (HSC, the key cell type in progression of fibrosis, upregulate CXCR4 expression in response to activation. Further, CXCL12 induces HSC proliferation and subsequent production of collagen I. In the current study, we evaluated AMD070, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of CXCL12/CXCR4 in alleviating BLM-induced pulmonary and CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice. Similar to other CXCR4 antagonists, treatment with AMD070 significantly increased leukocyte mobilization. However, in these two models of fibrosis, AMD070 had a negligible impact on extracellular matrix deposition. Interestingly, our results indicated that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling has a role in improving mortality associated with BLM induced pulmonary injury, likely through dampening an early inflammatory response and/or vascular leakage. Together, these findings indicate that the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis is not an effective target for reducing fibrosis.

  3. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  4. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  5. Xe-133 accumulation in fatty liver: hepatic uptake and washout correlated with pulmonary and mesenteric retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Xe-133 uptake in patients with fatty livers is described and compared with uptake and retention in lungs, blood and mesenteric fat and with normal hepatic uptake. In the absence of obstructive lung disease or excessive obesity, Xe-133 uptake and retention is a valuable means of screening patients for the presence of fatty liver. Although non-specific for the etiology of fatty liver, the test is an effective and non-invasive method of detection which merits further application. (author)

  6. Pulmonary and hepatic involvement of toxocariasis in an aduIt: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jin; Kim, Jee Eun; Park, Chul Hi; Yang, Dal Mo [Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Toxocariasis is known as visceral larva migrans in humans and it is caused by T. canis and T. catis, especially in children, but it is less commonly reported in adults. Although several cases of toxocariasis in adults have been reported, there have been no descriptions of toxocariasis involving the liver or, the lungs and the pleura. We report here on a case of T. canis infection in an immunocompetent adult with peripheral eosinophilia, elevated serum levels of Ig E and CT findings displaying multiple focal air space consolidations in the lungs, bilateral pleural effusion and low attenuated hepatic nodules.

  7. Phenotype-genotype correlation in Wilson disease in a large Lebanese family: association of c.2299insC with hepatic and of p. Ala1003Thr with neurologic phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julnar Usta

    Full Text Available Genotype phenotype correlations in Wilson disease (WD are best established in homozygous patients or in compound heterozygous patients carrying the same set of mutations. We determined the clinical phenotype of patients with WD carrying the c.2298_2299insC in Exon 8 (c.2299insC or the p. Ala1003Thr missense substitution in Exon 13 mutations in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. We investigated 76 members of a single large Lebanese family. Their genotypes were determined, and clinical assessments were carried out for affected subjects. We also performed a literature search retrieving the phenotypes of patients carrying the same mutations of our patients in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. There were 7 consanguineous marriages in this family and the prevalence of WD was 8.9% and of carriers of ATP7B mutation 44.7%. WD was confirmed in 9 out of 76 subjects. All 9 had the c.2299insC mutation, 5 homozygous and 4-compound heterozygous with p. Ala1003Thr. Six of our patients had hepatic, 2 had neurologic and 1 had asymptomatic phenotype. Based on our data and a literature review, clear phenotypes were reported for 38 patients worldwide carrying the c.2299insC mutation. About 53% of those have hepatic and 29% have neurologic phenotype. Furthermore, there were 10 compound heterozygous patients carrying the p. Ala1003Thr mutation. Among those, 80% having c.2299insC as the second mutation had hepatic phenotype, and all others had neurologic phenotype. We hereby report an association between the c.2299insC mutation and hepatic phenotype and between the p. Ala1003Thr mutation and neurologic phenotype.

  8. Human case of visceral larva migrans syndrome: pulmonary and hepatic involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almatary A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM syndrome is commonly caused by larvae of roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. Human toxocarosis is a soil-transmitted zoonosis, which may result in partial or general pathological changes in host tissues. We reported a case of 14-year-old boy presented with severe dry cough without dyspnea, mild chest and abdominal pain with general fatigue. Examination of peripheral blood showed marked increase in eosinophils. The chest radiography showed an infiltrative shadow in the lung fields. Chest CT demonstrated multiple opacities in both lungs. Abdominal CT showed multiple low attenuation areas in the liver. Ultrasound guided liver biopsy revealed granulomas with severe eosinophilic infiltration. The boy was treated with albendazole and responded radically. It is worth mentioning that this is the first case of hepato-pulmonary VLM syndrome in Egypt.

  9. Hepatic Warm Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Increase in Pulmonary Capillary Filtration Is Ameliorated by Administration of a Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Inhibitor and Leukotriene D4 Antagonist (MK-571) Through Reducing Neutrophil Infiltration and Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, D Y-W; Yang, Y-C; Wang, J-J

    2015-05-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the major complication subsequent to liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after resection or transplantation of liver. Hallmarks of HPS include increases in pulmonary leukotrienes and neutrophil recruitment and infiltrating across capillaries. We aimed to investigate the protective efficacy of MK-571, a multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 inhibitor and leukotriene D4 agonist, against hepatic I/R injury-associated change in capillary filtration. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were evenly divided into a sham-operated group, a hepatic I/R group, and an MK-571-treated I/R group. MK-571 was administered intraperitoneally 15 min before hepatic ischemia and every 12 hours during reperfusion. Ischemia was conducted by occluding the hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 min, followed by removing the clamps and closing the incision. Forty-eight hours after hepatic ischemia, we assessed the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) through the use of in vitro-isolated, perfused rat lung preparation. We also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). Lung inflammation and oxidative stress were evaluated by use of tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and malondialdehyde levels and lavage differential macrophage and neutrophil cell count. Hepatic I/R injury markedly increased Kfc, W/D, PCBAL, tissue TNF-α level, and differential neutrophil cell count (P < .05). MK-571 treatment reduced neutrophil infiltration and lung inflammation and improved pulmonary capillary filtration, collectively suggesting lung protection. Treatment with MK-571 before and during hepatic ischemia and reperfusion protects lung against pulmonary capillary barrier function impairment through decreasing pulmonary lung inflammation and lavage neutrophils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include: Duchenne muscular dystrophy: DNA diagnosis in practice; Central nervous system magnetic resonance imaging; and Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of neurologic diseases

  11. Adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Nina F

    2012-08-21

    As it is currently configured, completion of child neurology residency requires performance of 12 months of training in adult neurology. Exploration of whether or not this duration of training in adult neurology is appropriate for what child neurology is today must take into account the initial reasons for this requirement and the goals of adult neurology training during child neurology residency.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  13. Neurologic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakeres, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    There is a wide range of indications for radiographic evaluation of possible cerebrovascular disease, since a wide range of neurologic symptoms can be encountered secondary to ischemia. Frequently the diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease is clear on clinical grounds, but radiographic evaluation is essential both to quantify the extent of disease and establish the underlying cause (e.g., vasculitis, embolus) while excluding other causes so that the proper therapy can follow

  14. Cardiac, renal, and neurological benefits of preoperative levosimendan administration in patients with right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension undergoing cardiac surgery: evaluation with two biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and neuronal enolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero-Orriach JL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available José Luis Guerrero-Orriach,1 Daniel Ariza-Villanueva,1 Ana Florez-Vela,1 Lourdes Garrido-Sánchez,2,3 María Isabel Moreno-Cortés,1 Manuel Galán-Ortega,1 Alicia Ramírez-Fernández,1 Juan Alcaide Torres,3 Concepción Santiago Fernandez,3 Isabel Navarro Arce,1 José María Melero-Tejedor,4 Manuel Rubio-Navarro,1 José Cruz-Mañas1 1Department of Cardio-Anaesthesiology, University Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain; 2CIBER Fisiología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Málaga, Spain; 3Department of Nutrition and Endocrinology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas de Málaga (IBIMA, University Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain; 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain Purpose: To evaluate if the preoperative administration of levosimendan in patients with right ventricular (RV dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and high perioperative risk would improve cardiac function and would also have a protective effect on renal and neurological functions, assessed using two biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (N-GAL and neuronal enolase. Methods: This is an observational study. Twenty-seven high-risk cardiac patients with RV dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, scheduled for cardiac valve surgery, were prospectively followed after preoperative administration of levosimendan. Levosimendan was administered preoperatively on the day before surgery. All patients were considered high risk of cardiac and perioperative renal complications. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, renal function by urinary N-GAL levels, and the acute kidney injury scale. Neuronal damage was assessed by neuron-specific enolase levels. Results: After surgery, no significant variations were found in mean and SE levels of N-GAL (14.31 [28.34] ng/mL vs 13.41 [38.24] ng/mL, neuron-specific enolase (5.40 [0.41] ng/mL vs 4.32 [0.61] ng

  15. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  16. Etiopathogenesis of neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 160, 5-6 (2010), s. 152-154 ISSN 0043-5341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : neurogenic pulmonary edema * intracranial pressure * sympathetic system Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  18. Pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... congestion; Lung water; Pulmonary congestion; Heart failure - pulmonary edema ... Pulmonary edema is often caused by congestive heart failure . When the heart is not able to pump efficiently, blood ...

  19. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  20. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  3. Chronic hepatitis C treatment in a cystic fibrosis patient in the pulmonary pre-transplant stage Tratamiento de hepatitis crónica C en un paciente con fibrosis quística en situación de pretrasplante pulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adán Merino

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C, pegylated interferon and ribavirin (pegI/R, has many limitations in both effectiveness and secondary effects, which makes it unsuitable or even contraindicated for some patients. In hepatitis C virus-infected cystic fibrosis patients this treatment could increase respiratory infections with subsequent pulmonary function deterioration. On the contrary, hepatitis C virus (HCV infection may make lung transplant (LT unfeasible. We present the case of a cystic fibrosis-young man diagnosed with HCV infection during LT assessment who was treated with pegI/R. In spite of the lung function worsening and respiratory infections, he managed to complete treatment and even sustained virological response (SVR. At present he is on LT waiting list.El tratamiento estándar de la hepatitis crónica C, interferón pegilado (INF-peg y ribavirina (RBV, puede ser inadecuado o incluso estar contraindicado en algunos pacientes debido a sus limitaciones en cuanto a eficacia y efectos adversos. En pacientes con fibrosis quística infectados por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC el tratamiento antiviral podría aumentar las infecciones respiratorias con el consiguiente empeoramiento de la función pulmonar. Por contra, la infección por VHC podría desestimar a estos pacientes para un necesario trasplante pulmonar. Presentamos el caso de un varón con fibrosis quística diagnosticado de infección VHC durante su evaluación previa al trasplante pulmonar. El paciente fue tratado con INF-peg y RBV. A pesar del empeoramiento en la función pulmonar y numerosas infecciones respiratorias intercurrentes, logró completar el tratamiento y obtener respuesta viral sostenida, encontrándose actualmente en lista de espera.

  4. Neurology and neurologic practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fu-Dong; Jia, Jian-Ping

    2011-11-29

    In the wake of dramatic economic success during the past 2 decades, the specialized field of neurology has undergone a significant transformation in China. With an increase in life expectancy, the problems of aging and cognition have grown. Lifestyle alterations have been associated with an epidemiologic transition both in the incidence and etiology of stroke. These changes, together with an array of social issues and institution of health care reform, are creating challenges for practicing neurologists throughout China. Notable problems include overcrowded, decrepit facilities, overloaded physician schedules, deteriorating physician-patient relationships, and an insufficient infrastructure to accommodate patients who need specialized neurologic care. Conversely, with the creation of large and sophisticated neurology centers in many cities across the country, tremendous opportunities exist. Developments in neurologic subspecialties enable delivery of high-quality care. Clinical and translational research based on large patient populations as well as highly sophisticated technologies are emerging in many neurologic centers and pharmaceutical companies. Child neurology and neurorehabilitation will be fast-developing subdisciplines. Given China's extensive population, the growth and progress of its neurology complex, and its ever-improving quality control, it is reasonable to anticipate that Chinese neurologists will contribute notably to unraveling the pathogenic factors causing neurologic diseases and to providing new therapeutic solutions.

  5. Hepatic vein tumor thrombus as a risk factor for excessive pulmonary deposition of microspheres during TheraSphere therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Chad J; Andrews, James C; Wiseman, Gregory A; Gansen, Denise N; Roberts, Lewis R

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of identifiable hepatic vein tumor thrombus on the ability to safely deliver TheraSphere (yttrium 90-containing glass microspheres) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A retrospective review was performed of 87 patients (71 men, 16 women; mean age, 64.5 years; age range, 25-83 y) referred for TheraSphere therapy for HCC during a 2-year period between April 2005 and May 2007. Evaluation included contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, selective mesenteric angiography, and radionuclide perfusion scintigraphy to measure the arteriovenous shunting through the tumor. Of the 87 patients, 83 underwent angiography and perfusion scintigraphy; 53 were ultimately treated with 65 glass microsphere infusions. Twelve of 83 were identified as having tumor thrombus in a hepatic vein or extending into the inferior vena cava. The mean lung shunt for the patients with hepatic vein tumor thrombus was 30% (range, 11%-60%), compared with 8.2% (range, 3%-23%) for patients without identifiable tumor thrombus. Two of the 12 patients were treated with reduced doses of glass microspheres, and the remaining 10 were offered alternative therapies. The presence of hepatic vein tumor thrombus is a risk factor for an increased lung shunt that may prohibit delivery of a therapeutic dose of TheraSphere to hepatic tumor.

  6. Off-pump hepatic to azygos connection via thoracotomy for relief of fistulas after a Kawashima procedure : Ten-year results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrigoni, Sara C.; van den Heuvel, Freek; Willems, Tineke P.; Hillege, Hans; Lindberg, Harald L.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Ebels, Tjark

    Objectives: An almost universal incidence of developing pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas after the Kawashima operation has been reported. Exclusion of the hepatic venous flow from the pulmonary circulation causes the development of these malformations. Redirection of hepatic venous flow to the

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  8. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  9. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  10. Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated Acute Hepatitis in an Adult Patient without Lung Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Wu Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major cause of respiratory infections in school-aged children. Most M. pneumonia infections in adults involve the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary manifestations of M. pneumonia infection may be found in the skin, cardiovascular, neurologic and hematologic systems. Concomitant liver disease is rare in adults. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient who presented with fever and abdominal pain, but without pulmonary manifestations. The laboratory work-up demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of acute hepatitis caused by M. pneumonia infection. Symptoms subsided and laboratory parameters improved with antibiotics treatment. Thus, this case can help raise clinicians' awareness of the possibility of M. pneumonia infection, with or without lung involvement, as a part of the evaluation of undetermined hepatitis.

  11. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  12. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    This updated and expanded new edition takes neurology trainees by the hand and guides them through the whole patient encounter - from an efficient neurological history and bedside examination through to differential diagnosis, diagnostic procedures and treatment. At each step the expert authors......, as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training....... Medical students, general practitioners and others with an interest in neurology will also find invaluable information here....

  13. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  14. Baixa prevalência das manifestações extra-articulares renais, cardíacas, pulmonares e neurológicas nas espondiloartrites: análise do Registro Brasileiro de Espondiloartrites Low prevalence of renal, cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological extra-articular clinical manifestations in spondyloarthritis: analysis of the Brazilian Registry of Spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as manifestações extra-articulares (cardíacas, renais, pulmonares e neurológicas geralmente não relacionadas às espondiloartrites (EpA em uma grande coorte de pacientes brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Este estudo retrospectivo analisou 1.472 pacientes com o diagnóstico de EpA atendidos em 29 centros distribuídos pelas cinco principais regiões geográficas do Brasil, integrantes do Registro Brasileiro de Espondiloartrites. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados para a prevalência das principais manifestações extra-articulares (cardíacas, renais, pulmonares e neurológicas, divididas por diagnóstico [espondilite anquilosante (EA, artrite psoriásica (AP, artrite reativa (ARe, artrite associada a doença inflamatória intestinal (DII, EpA indiferenciada (EI e EpA juvenil] e por forma clínica (axial, periférica, mista e entesítica. RESULTADOS: Dentre os pacientes avaliados com EpA, 963 apresentavam EA, 271 AP, 49 ARe, 48 artrite associada a DII, 98 EI e 43 EpA juvenil. Acometimento cardíaco foi observado em 44 pacientes (3,0%, seguido por acometimento pulmonar em 19 (1,3%, renal em 17 (1,2% e neurológico em 13 pacientes (0,9%. A maioria dos casos de acometimento visceral ocorreu nos pacientes com EA ou AP e naqueles com forma clínica mista (axial e periférica e/ou predominantemente axial. CONCLUSÃO: As manifestações extra-articulares cardíacas, renais, pulmonares e neurológicas são muito pouco frequentes nas EpA, variando de 0,9%-3% nesta grande coorte brasileira, estando mais associadas a EA e AP.OBJECTIVE: To describe the extra-articular manifestations (cardiac, renal, pulmonary, and neurological, usually not related to spondyloarthritis (SpA, in a large cohort of Brazilian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 1,472 patients diagnosed with SpA and cared for at 29 health care centers distributed in the five major geographic regions in the country, participating in the Brazilian

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  16. [Neurology! Adieau? (Part 2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirmai, Imre

    2010-05-30

    The education of neurologists is debilitated worldwide. University professors are engaged in teaching, research and patient-care. This triple challenge is very demanding, and results in permanent insecurity of University employees. To compensate for the insufficient clinical training, some institutes in the USA employ academic staff members exclusively for teaching. The formation of new subspecialties hinders the education and training of general neurologists. At present, four generations of medical doctors are working together in hospitals. The two older generations educate the younger neurologists who have been brought up in the world of limitless network of sterile information. Therefore their manual skills at the bedside and their knowledge of emergency treatment are deficient. Demographics of medical doctors changed drastically. Twice as many women are working in neurology and psychiatry than men. Integrity of neurology is threatened by: (1) Separation of the cerebrovascular diseases from general neurology. Development of "stroke units" was facilitated by the better reimbursement for treatment and by the interest of the pharmaceutical companies. Healthcare politics promoted the split of neurology into two parts. The independent status of "stroke departments" will reduce the rest of clinical neurology to outpatient service. (2) The main argumentation to segregate the rare neurological diseases was that their research will provide benefit for the diseases with high prevalence. This argumentation serves territorial ambitions. The separation of rare diseases interferes with the teaching of differential diagnostics in neurological training. The traditional pragmatic neurology can not be retrieved. The faculty of neurology could retain its integrity by the improvement of diagnostic methods and the ever more effective drugs. Nevertheless, even the progression of neurological sciences induces dissociation of clinical neurology. Neurology shall suffer fragmentation if

  17. Congenital syphilitic hepatitis: a radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, G.F.; Stanley, P.; Gwinn, J.L.; Miller, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A two-month-old girl with congenital syphilitic hepatitis had bizarre liver scintigraphic features showing diminished hepatic uptake of a radiocolloid with accentuated pulmonary and bone marrow accumulation. These features were reversible following penicillin therapy and to our knowledge are previously undescribed manifestations of this multisystemic disease

  18. Plain radiographic, nuclear medicine and angiographic observations of hepatogenic pulmonary angiodysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang Oh, K; Bender, T M; Bowen, A D; Ledesma-Medina, J

    1983-05-01

    Clinical and radiological findings of hepatogenic pulmonary angiodysplasia are reported in two cases. Myriad spidery pulmonary blood vessles are seen on plain radiographs and verified with right to left intrapulmonary shunting on pulmonary angiogram and pulmonary isotopic perfusion scan. Pathophysiology and differential diagnosis are discussed. We propose the medical term ''pulmonary angiodysplasia'' to include: 1) Pulmonary telangiectasia 2) Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Rendu-Weber syndrome) 3) Classical discrete pulmonary arteriovenous fistula 4) Hepatogenic discrete pulmonary angiodysplasia: pulmonary arteriovenous communications with right to left shunting secondary to hepatic cirrhosis.

  19. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi; Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi; Sias, Alessandro; Marrosu, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and 99m Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in 99m Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating better the

  20. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  1. Neurology at the bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Waldemar, Gunhild

    , as have new chapters including neurogenetics, neurorehabilitation, neurocritical care and heuristic neurological reasoning. In addition, this second edition now includes more than 100 unique case histories. Neurology at the Bedside, Second Edition is written for neurologists in all stages of training...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  3. Minimally invasive surgery using the open magnetic resonance imaging system combined with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for synchronous hepatic and pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer: report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Takebayashi, Katsushi; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Koichiro; Shiomi, Hisanori; Naka, Shigeyuki; Hanaoka, Jun; Tani, Tohru

    2015-05-01

    Simultaneous resection of hepatic and pulmonary metastases (HPM) from colorectal cancer (CRC) has been reported to be effective, but it is also considered invasive. We report the preliminary results of performing minimally invasive surgery using the open magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system to resect synchronous HPM from CRC in four patients. All four patients were referred for thoracoscopy-assisted interventional MR-guided microwave coagulation therapy (T-IVMR-MCT) combined with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The median diameters of the HPM were 18.2 and 23.2 mm, respectively. The median duration of VATS and T-IVMR-MCT was 82.5 and 139 min, respectively. All patients were discharged without any major postoperative complications. One patient was still free of disease at 24 months and the others died of disease progression 13, 36, and 47 months without evidence of recurrence in the treated area. Thus, simultaneous VATS + T-IVMR-MCT appears to be an effective option as a minimally invasive treatment for synchronous HPM from CRC.

  4. The menagerie of neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Shin C.; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neurology is a field known for “eponymophilia.” While eponym use has been a controversial issue in medicine, animal-related metaphoric descriptions continue to flourish in neurologic practice, particularly with the advent of neuroimaging. To provide practicing and trainee neurologists with a useful reference for all these colorful eponyms, we performed a literature review and summarized the various animal eponyms in the practice of neurology (and their etiologic implications) to date. We believe that the ability to recognize animal-like attributes in clinical neurology and neuroradiology may be attributed to a visual phenomenon known as pareidolia. We propose that animal eponyms are a useful method of recognizing clinical and radiologic patterns that aid in the diagnostic process and therefore are effective aidesmémoire and communicative tools that enliven and improve the practice of neurology. PMID:29473555

  5. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurology in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Quantification In Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netravati M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a distinct shift of emphasis in clinical neurology in the last few decades. A few years ago, it was just sufficient for a clinician to precisely record history, document signs, establish diagnosis and write prescription. In the present context, there has been a significant intrusion of scientific culture in clinical practice. Several criteria have been proposed, refined and redefined to ascertain accurate diagnosis for many neurological disorders. Introduction of the concept of impairment, disability, handicap and quality of life has added new dimension to the measurement of health and disease and neurological disorders are no exception. "Best guess" treatment modalities are no more accepted and evidence based medicine has become an integral component of medical care. Traditional treatments need validation and new therapies require vigorous trials. Thus, proper quantification in neurology has become essential, both in practice and research methodology in neurology. While this aspect is widely acknowledged, there is a limited access to a comprehensive document pertaining to measurements in neurology. This following description is a critical appraisal of various measurements and also provides certain commonly used rating scales/scores in neurological practice.

  9. Neurology and international organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J

    2013-07-23

    A growing number of international stakeholders are engaged with neurologic diseases. This article provides a brief overview of important international stakeholders in the practice of neurology, including global disease-specific programs, United Nations agencies, governmental agencies with international influence, nongovernmental organizations, international professional organizations, large private donors, private-public partnerships, commercial interests, armed forces, and universities and colleges. The continued engagement of neurologists is essential for the growing number of international organizations that can and should incorporate neurologic disease into their global agendas.

  10. William Shakespeare's neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Many of Shakespeare's plays contain characters who appear to be afflicted by neurological or psychiatric disorders. Shakespeare, in his descriptive analysis of his protagonists, was contributing to the understanding of these disorders. In fact, Charcot frequently used Shakespearean references in his neurological teaching sessions, stressing how acute objective insight is essential to achieving expert clinical diagnosis. Charcot found in Shakespeare the same rigorous observational techniques for which he himself became famous. This chapter describes many of Shakespearean characters suffering from varied neurological disorders, including Parkinsonism, epilepsy, sleeping disturbances, dementia, headache, prion disease, and paralyses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pulmonary Hypertension and Pulmonary Vasodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberta L

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  13. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive

  14. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  15. Neurologic complications in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pace

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic side effects related to cancer therapy are a common problem in oncology practice. These complications can negatively affect the management of the patient, because they can inhibit treatment and diminish quality of life. Therefore specific skills are required to recognise symptoms and clinical manifestations. This review focuses on the most common neurologic complications to improve physician’s familiarity in determining the aetiology of these symptoms.

  16. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  17. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  19. Neurologic manifestations of achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Jacqueline T; Bodensteiner, John B; Butler, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the best described and most common form of the congenital short-limbed dwarfing conditions. Achondroplasia is apparent at birth and has a birth prevalence of 1 in 20000-30000 live-born infants. Achondroplasia is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition, although 80% of cases occur sporadically as new events in their families. Achondroplasia is caused, in virtually all of the cases, by a G380R mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Patients with achondroplasia should be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians including geneticists, neurologists, and orthopedists, since there are numerous bony and neurological complications. The most severe complication results from craniocervical stenosis and medullary and upper spinal cord compression, which can have devastating and even lethal sequelae during early childhood. In subsequent decades, including adolescence, spinal cord and nerve compression are more prominent. The neurological complications of achondroplasia have been recognized in adults for more than a century and are attributed to bony defects, connective tissue structures, or both. Similar neurological complications are now appreciated in infants, young children, and teenagers with achondroplasia. Defective connective tissue elements in achondroplasia frequently lead to ligamentous laxity, which can aggravate the complications associated with bony stenosis. Bony abnormalities are known to cause neurological morbidity and lead to a shortened lifespan. Neurological complications associated with achondroplasia are reviewed, including recommendations for the evaluation and management of these clinical problems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Neurology and literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2010-10-01

    Literature complements medical literature in the academic and clinical development of neurologists. The present article explores the contributions of writers of fiction on neurology. Literary works of fiction with particular reference to neurology. A symbiosis between writers of fiction and doctors has been well recognised. From Shakespeare to Cervantes by way of Dickens and Cela to writer - physicians such as Anton Chekhov or António Lobo Antunes have contributed through their medically informed literature to the better understanding of neurology. Some writers like Dostoevsky, Machado de Assis and Margiad Evans have written about their own experiences with disease thus bringing new insights to medicine. Furthermore, some neurological disorders have been largely based on literary descriptions. For instance, Dostoevsky's epilepsy has been retrospectively analysed by famous neurologists including Freud, Alajouanine or Gastaut, whilst his writings and biography have prompted others like Waxman and Geschwind to describe typical behavioural changes in temporal lobe epilepsy, finding their source of inspiration in Dostoevsky. Likewise, Cirignotta et al have named an unusual type of seizure after the Russian novelist. Inspired by Lewis Carroll, Todd introduced the term Alice in Wonderland Syndrome to refer to visual distortions generally associated with migraine. Writers of fiction offer a humanised perception of disease by contributing new insights into the clinical history, informing about the subjective experience of the illness and helping to eradicate the stigma associated to neurological disorders.

  1. Pulmonary and hepatic lesions caused by the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, C R M; Pessoa, A F A; Maia, L A; Medeiros, R M T; Colegate, S M; Barros, S S; Soares, M P; Borges, A S; Riet-Correa, F

    2013-09-01

    The effects and susceptibility of donkeys to Crotalaria juncea and Crotalaria retusa poisoning were determined at high and low doses. Seeds of C. juncea containing 0.074% of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (DHPAs) (isohemijunceines 0.05%, trichodesmine 0.016%, and junceine 0.008%) were administered to three donkeys at 0.3, 0.6 and 1 g/kg body weight (g/kg) daily for 365 days. No clinical signs were observed and, on liver and lung biopsies, the only lesion was a mild liver megalocytosis in the donkeys ingesting 0.6 and 1 g/kg/day. Two other donkeys that received daily doses of 3 and 5 g seed/kg showed initial respiratory signs 70 and 40 days after the start of the administration, respectively. The donkeys were euthanized following severe respiratory signs and the main lung lesions were proliferation of Clara cells and interstitial fibrosis. Three donkeys ingested seeds of C. retusa containing 5.99% of monocrotaline at daily doses of 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg for 365 days. No clinical signs were observed and, on liver and lung biopsies, the only lesion was moderate liver megalocytosis in each of the three donkeys. One donkey that received a single dose of 5 g/kg of C. retusa seeds and another that received 1 g/kg daily for 7 days both showed severe clinical signs and died with diffuse centrilobular liver necrosis. No lung lesions were observed. Another donkey that received a single dose of 2.5 g/kg of C. retusa seeds showed no clinical signs. The hepatic and pneumotoxic effects observed are consistent with an etiology involving DHPAs. Furthermore, the occurrence of lung or liver lesions correlates with the type of DHPAs contained in the seeds. Similarly as has been reported for horses, the data herein suggest that in donkeys some DHPAs are metabolized in the liver causing liver disease, whereas others are metabolized in the lung by Clara cells causing lung disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurologic Complications of Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rajat

    2018-02-01

    Neurologic disturbances including encephalopathy, seizures, and focal deficits complicate the course 10-30% of patients undergoing organ or stem cell transplantation. While much or this morbidity is multifactorial and often associated with extra-cerebral dysfunction (e.g., graft dysfunction, metabolic derangements), immunosuppressive drugs also contribute significantly. This can either be through direct toxicity (e.g., posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome from calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus in the acute postoperative period) or by facilitating opportunistic infections in the months after transplantation. Other neurologic syndromes such as akinetic mutism and osmotic demyelination may also occur. While much of this neurologic dysfunction may be reversible if related to metabolic factors or drug toxicity (and the etiology is recognized and reversed), cases of multifocal cerebral infarction, hemorrhage, or infection may have poor outcomes. As transplant patients survive longer, delayed infections (such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy) and post-transplant malignancies are increasingly reported.

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  6. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  7. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  8. Pulmonary agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Oyola, Mercedes; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Gordillo, Gisel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; García, Carlos A.; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Torres, David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary agenesis is an infrequent pathology which occurs predominantly among females with no lateral preference. We report on the case of a newborn male diagnosed with prenatal diaphragm hernia though at birth seemed more likely either to be a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (congenital pulmonary airway malformation) or pulmonary agenesis. The patient died six days after birth and necropsy confirmed pulmonary agenesis. La agenesia pulmonar es una alteración poco frecuente, con...

  9. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  12. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  13. Brain MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of early neurological involvement in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piga, Mario; Satta, Loredana; Serra, Alessandra; Loi, Gianluigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Murru, Alessandra; Demelia, Luigi [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Gastroenterology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Sias, Alessandro [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Radiology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Marrosu, Francesco [Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Neurology, Department of Medical Science, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in early detection of central nervous system abnormalities in patients affected by Wilson's disease (WD) with or without neurological involvement. Out of 25 consecutive WD patients, 13 showed hepatic involvement, ten hepatic and neurological manifestations, and twp hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric symptoms, including mainly movement disorders, major depression, and psychosis. Twenty-four healthy, age-gender matched subjects served as controls. All patients underwent brain MRI and {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl-cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT before starting specific therapy. Voxel-by-voxel analyses were performed using statistical parametric mapping to compare differences in {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain uptake between the two groups. Brain MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensities in seven patients (28%), six of whom were affected by hepatic and neurological forms. Brain perfusion SPECT showed pathological data in 19 patients (76%), revealing diffuse or focal hypoperfusion in superior frontal (Brodmann area (BA) 6), prefrontal (BA 9), parietal (BA 40), and occipital (BA 18, BA 39) cortices in temporal gyri (BA 37, BA 21) and in caudatus and putamen. Moreover, hepatic involvement was detected in nine subjects; eight presented both hepatic and neurological signs, while two exhibited WD-correlated hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric alterations. All but one patient with abnormal MRI matched with abnormal ECD SPECT. Pathologic MRI findings were obtained in six out of ten patients with hepatic and neurological involvement while abnormal ECD SPECT was revealed in eight patients. Both patients with hepatic, neurological, and psychiatric involvement displayed abnormal ECD SPECT and one displayed an altered MRI. These findings suggest that ECD SPECT might be useful in detecting early brain damage in WD, not only in the perspective of assessing and treating motor impairment but also in evaluating

  14. American Academy of Neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on draft guideline manuscript on autism and sleep problems. Capitol Hill Report: Opioid Epidemic Declared Public Health Emergency Read the latest news on how the AAN is fighting for neurology in Washington DC. New Study: Virtual Reality Training May Be as Effective as Regular Therapy ...

  15. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  16. Neurological aspects of eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dejana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The difficult types of preeclampsia and eclampsia are presented with the neurological symptoms. The break of cerebral autoregulation mechanism plays the most important role in pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. Nevertheless eclampsia isn’t just an ordinary hypertensive encephalopathy because other pathogenic mechanisms are involved in its appearance. The main neuropathologic changes are multifocal vasogenic edema, perivascular multiple microinfarctions and petechial hemorrhages. Neurological clinical manifestations are convulsions, headache, visual disturbances and rarely other discrete focal neurological symptoms. Eclampsia is a high-risk factor for onset of hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. This is a reason why neurological diagnostic tests are sometimes needed. The method of choice for evaluation of complicated eclampsia is computerized brain topography that shows multiple areas of hypodensity in occipitoparietal regions. These changes are focal vasogenic cerebral edema. For differential diagnosis of eclampsia and stroke other diagnostic methods can be used - fundoscopic exam, magnetic resonance brain imaging, cerebral angiography and cerebrospinal fluid exam. The therapy of eclampsia considers using of magnesium sulfate, antihypertensive, anticonvulsive and antiedematous drugs.

  17. Astroglia in neurological diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Rodríguez Arellano, Jose Julio; Parpura, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 149-158 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/0184; GA ČR GA309/09/1696 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * Alzheimer's disease * Alexander disease Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Neurology of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, M; Geocadin, R G

    2017-01-01

    This chapter aims to provide an up-to-date review of the science and clinical practice pertaining to neurologic injury after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The past two decades have seen a major shift in the science and practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, with a major emphasis on postresuscitation neurologic care. This chapter provides a nuanced and thoughtful historic and bench-to-bedside overview of the neurologic aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A particular emphasis is made on the anatomy and pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, up-to-date management of survivors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and a careful discussion on neurologic outcome prediction. Guidance to practice evidence-based clinical care when able and thoughtful, pragmatic suggestions for care where evidence is lacking are also provided. This chapter serves as both a useful clinical guide and an updated, thorough, and state-of-the-art reference on the topic for advanced students and experienced practitioners in the field. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neurologic abnormalities in murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P Y; Pincus, J H; Buckner, C

    1995-09-01

    Thirty-one individuals awaiting trial or sentencing for murder or undergoing an appeal process requested a neurologic examination through legal counsel. We attempted in each instance to obtain EEG, MRI or CT, and neuropsychological testing. Neurologic examination revealed evidence of "frontal" dysfunction in 20 (64.5%). There were symptoms or some other evidence of temporal lobe abnormality in nine (29%). We made a specific neurologic diagnosis in 20 individuals (64.5%), including borderline or full mental retardation (9) and cerebral palsy (2), among others. Neuropsychological testing revealed abnormalities in all subjects tested. There were EEG abnormalities in eight of the 20 subjects tested, consisting mainly of bilateral sharp waves with slowing. There were MRI or CT abnormalities in nine of the 19 subjects tested, consisting primarily of atrophy and white matter changes. Psychiatric diagnoses included paranoid schizophrenia (8), dissociative disorder (4), and depression (9). Virtually all subjects had paranoid ideas and misunderstood social situations. There was a documented history of profound, protracted physical abuse in 26 (83.8%) and of sexual abuse in 10 (32.3%). It is likely that prolonged, severe physical abuse, paranoia, and neurologic brain dysfunction interact to form the matrix of violent behavior.

  20. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  1. Evaluation of the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pulmonary and the hepatic toxicity induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalabotu, Siva Krishna

    The field of nanotechnology is rapidly progressing with potential applications in the automobile, healthcare, electronics, cosmetics, textiles, information technology, and environmental sectors. Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. With increased applications of nanotechnology, there are increased chances of exposure to manufactured nanomaterials. Recent reports on the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials have given scientific and regulatory agencies concerns over the safety of nanomaterials. Specifically, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has identified fourteen high priority nanomaterials for study. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles are one among the high priority group. Recent data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles may be toxic to lung cell lines in vitro and lung tissues in vivo. Other work has proposed that oxidative stress may play an important role in the toxicity; however, the exact mechanism of the toxicity, has to our knowledge, not been investigated. Similarly, it is not clear whether CeO2 nanoparticles exhibit systemic toxicity. Here, we investigate whether pulmonary exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the lungs and liver of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Our data suggest that the intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles can cause an increased lung weight to body weight ratio. Changes in lung weights were associated with the accumulation of cerium in the lungs, elevations in serum inflammatory markers, an increased Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, elevated caspase-3 protein levels, increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and diminished phosphorylation of ERK1/2-MAPK. Our findings from the study evaluating the possible translocation of CeO2 nanoparticles from the lungs to the liver suggest that CeO 2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase

  2. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  3. Post dengue neurological complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hizlinda Tohid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is highly endemic in many tropical countries including Malaysia. However, neurological complications arising from dengue infection is not common; Gullain–Barre syndrome (GBS is one of these infrequent complications. In this paper, we have reported a case in which a 39-year-old woman presented with a neurological complication of dengue infection without typical symptoms and signs of dengue fever. She had a history of acute gastroenteritis (AGE followed by an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI weeks prior to her presentation rendering GBS secondary to the post viral URTI and AGE as the most likely diagnosis. Presence of thrombocytopenia was the only clue for dengue in this case.

  4. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  5. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  6. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Van Lancker

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  7. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a Neurology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research – January 2011 – Vol. 1 N0.1. >>>63<<<. Prevalence and Distribution of Neurological Disease in a. Neurology Clinic in Enugu, Nigeria. Onwuekwe IO* and Ezeala-Adikaibe B*. *Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine,. University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  8. Survey of the professors of child neurology: neurology versus pediatrics home for child neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L; McConnell, Emily R; Fernandez, Rosamary; Brooks-Kayal, Amy

    2014-09-01

    The optimal academic home for child neurology programs between adult neurology versus pediatric departments remains an open question. The Professors of Child Neurology, the national organization of child neurology department chairs, division chiefs, and training program directors, was surveyed to evaluate the placement of child neurology programs. Professors of Child Neurology members were surveyed regarding the placement of child neurology programs within adult neurology versus pediatric departments. Questions explored academic versus clinical lines of reporting and factors that may be advantages and disadvantages of these affiliations. Issues also addressed were the current status of board certification and number of clinics expected in academic child neurology departments. Of 120 surveys sent, 95 responses were received (79% response rate). The primary academic affiliation is in neurology in 54% of programs versus 46% in pediatrics, and the primary clinical affiliation is 45% neurology and 55% pediatrics. Advantages versus disadvantages of one's primary affiliation were similar whether the primary affiliation was in neurology or pediatrics. While 61% of respondents are presently board certified in pediatrics, only 2% of those with time-limited certification in general pediatrics plan to be recertified going forward. Typically six to eight half-day clinics per week are anticipated for child neurologists in academic departments without additional funding sources. Overall, leaders of child neurology departments and training programs would not change their affiliation if given the opportunity. Advantages and disadvantages associated with current affiliations did not change whether child neurology was located in neurology or pediatrics. Board certification by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in child neurology is virtually universal, whereas pediatric board certification by the American Board of Pediatrics is being maintained by very few. Most academic

  9. Palliative care and neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  12. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  13. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  15. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  16. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  17. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  18. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  19. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  1. Pulmonary atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with ... known way to prevent this condition. All pregnant women should get routine prenatal care. Many congenital defects ...

  2. Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk for PE, such as: Being bedridden or unable to move around much Having surgery ... of pulmonary embolism (PE) include unexplained shortness of breath, problems breathing, chest pain, coughing , or coughing up ...

  3. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  4. Neurology and literature 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-05-01

    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurological Consequences of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID

  6. Neurological Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Rudrappa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus infection in humans is mostly asymptomatic. Less than 1% of neuro-invasive cases show a fatality rate of around 10%. Acute flaccid paralysis of respiratory muscles leading to respiratory failure is the most common cause of death. Although the peripheral nervous system can be involved, isolated phrenic nerve palsy leading to respiratory failure is rare and described in only two cases in the English literature. We present another case of neurological respiratory failure due to West Nile virus-induced phrenic nerve palsy. Our case reiterates the rare, but lethal, consequences of West Nile virus infection, and the increase of its awareness among physicians.

  7. Education Research: Neurology resident education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayans, David; Schneider, Logan; Adams, Nellie; Khawaja, Ayaz M.; Engstrom, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey US-trained graduating neurology residents who are American Academy of Neurology members, in an effort to trend perceived quality and completeness of graduate neurology education. Methods: An electronic survey was sent to all American Academy of Neurology members graduating from US neurology residency programs in the Spring of 2014. Results: Of 805 eligible respondents, 24% completed the survey. Ninety-three percent of adult neurology residents and 56% of child neurology residents reported plans to pursue fellowship training after residency. Respondents reported a desire for additional training in neurocritical care, neuro-oncology, neuromuscular diseases, botulinum toxin injection, and nerve blocks. There remains a clear deficit in business training of neurology residents, although there was notable improvement in knowledge of coding and office management compared to previous surveys. Discussion: Although there are still areas of perceived weakness in neurology training, graduating neurology residents feel generally well prepared for their chosen careers. However, most still pursue fellowship training for reasons that are little understood. In addition to certain subspecialties and procedures, practice management remains deficient in neurology training and is a point of future insecurity for most residents. Future curriculum changes should consider resident-reported gaps in knowledge, with careful consideration of improving business training. PMID:26976522

  8. History of Neurology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xinde

    2000-01-01

    @@In 1921, the first independent department of neurology was established in Beijing. Before 1949, all over China only 12 professional doctors lectured neurology in medical colleges. Only 30 medically trained personnel were engaged in the neurological departments. The neurological departments contained roughly 200 beds. The thesis on stroke was written by Zhang Shanlei and published in 1922. Author discussed the cerebral stroke on basis of Chinese traditional medicine and European medicine. The first Textbook of Neurology in China was written by Professor Cheng Yu-lin and was published in 1939. In 1952, the Chinese Society of Neurology and Psychiatry of Chinese Medical Association was established. In 1955, the first issue of the Chinese Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry was published.

  9. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  10. Hypercalcemia due to Primary Hepatic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old female with a history of mixed connective tissue disease and pulmonary fibrosis on azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, and prednisone (osteoporosis on teriparatide presented with a 1-month history of hypercalcemia. After discontinuation of teriparatide, the patient’s hypercalcemia persisted. Further evaluation revealed primary hepatic lymphoma as the source of her hypercalcemia.

  11. Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submissions. MORE We Imagine a World Without Pulmonary Fibrosis The Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation mobilizes people and resources to provide ... its battle against the deadly lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PULMONARY FIBROSIS WALK SURPASSES PARTICIPATION AND FUNDRAISING GOALS Nearly ...

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  13. Primary care perceptions of neurology and neurology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Angela M; Wade, Carrie; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-06-01

    Neurophobia (fear of neural sciences) and evaluation of independent sector contracts in neurology have seldom been examined among general practitioners (GPs). A questionnaire determined GPs' perceptions of neurology compared with other medical specialties. GP experiences of neurology services with independent sector companies and the local National Health Service (NHS) were compared. Areas of potential improvement in NHS neurology services were recorded from thematic analyses. Among 76 GPs neurology was perceived to be as interesting as other medical specialties. GPs reported less knowledge, more difficulty and less confidence in neurology compared with other medical specialties. There was a preference for a local NHS neurology service (pneurology services provided better patient satisfaction. GPs prefer local NHS neurology services to independent sector contracts. GPs' evaluations should inform commissioning of neurology services. Combating neurophobia should be an integral part of responsive commissioning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Molecular genetics in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J B

    1993-12-01

    There has been remarkable progress in the identification of mutations in genes that cause inherited neurological disorders. Abnormalities in the genes for Huntington disease, neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, one form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, Kennedy syndrome, Menkes disease, and several forms of retinitis pigmentosa have been elucidated. Rare disorders of neuronal migration such as Kallmann syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome, and Norrie disease have been shown to be due to specific gene defects. Several muscle disorders characterized by abnormal membrane excitability have been defined as mutations of the muscle sodium or chloride channels. These advances provide opportunity for accurate molecular diagnosis of at-risk individuals and are the harbinger of new approaches to therapy of these diseases.

  15. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  16. Deja vu in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The significance of deja vu is widely recognised in the context of temporal lobe epilepsy, and enquiry about deja vu is frequently made in the clinical assessment of patients with possible epilepsy. Deja vu has also been associated with several psychiatric disorders. The historical context of current understanding of deja vu is discussed. The literature reveals deja vu to be a common phenomenon consistent with normality. Several authors have suggested the existence of a "pathological" form of deja vu that differs, qualitatively or quantitatively, from "non-pathological" deja vu. The features of deja vu suggesting neurological or psychiatric pathology are discussed. Several neuroanatomical and psychological models of the deja vu experience are highlighted, implicating the perceptual, mnemonic and affective regions of the lateral temporal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala in the genesis of deja vu. A possible genetic basis for a neurochemical model of deja vu is discussed. Clinical approaches to the patient presenting with possible deja vu are proposed.

  17. Neurology of ciguatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxaemia with dramatic and clinically important neurological features. This severe form of fish poisoning may present with either acute or chronic intoxication syndromes and constitutes a global health problem. Ciguatera poisoning is little known in temperate countries as a potentially global problem associated with human ingestion of large carnivorous fish that harbour the bioaccumulated ciguatoxins of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. This neurotoxin is stored in the viscera of fish that have eaten the dinoflagellate and concentrated it upwards throughout the food chain towards progressively larger species, including humans. Ciguatoxin accumulates in all fish tissues, especially the liver and viscera, of "at risk" species. Both Pacific (P-CTX-1) and Caribbean (C-CTX-1) ciguatoxins are heat stable polyether toxins and pose a health risk at concentrations above 0.1 ppb. The presenting signs of ciguatera are primarily neurotoxic in more than 80% of cases. Such include the pathognomonic features of postingestion paraesthesiae, dysaesthesiae, and heightened nociperception. Other sensory abnormalities include the subjective features of metallic taste, pruritis, arthralgia, myalgia, and dental pain. Cerebellar dysfunction, sometimes diphasic, and weakness due to both neuropathy and polymyositis may be encountered. Autonomic dysfunction leads to hypotension, bradycardia, and hypersalivation in severe cases. Ciguatoxins are potent, lipophilic sodium channel activator toxins which bind to the voltage sensitive (site 5) sodium channel on the cell membranes of all excitable tissues. Treatment depends on early diagnosis and the early administration of intravenous mannitol. The early identification of the neurological features in sentinel patients has the potential to reduce the number of secondary cases in cluster outbreaks.

 PMID:11118239

  18. Child Neurology Services in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Jo M.; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842

  19. Neurologic Manifestation as Initial Presentation in a Case of Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeow Kwan Teo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT, or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome is an uncommon autosomal dominant multi-organ condition of vascular dysplasias. We describe a 19 year old Indian female who presented with cerebral abscess secondary to paradoxical emboli from pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs associated with HHT. Cerebral, pulmonary, hepatic and gastrointestinal involvement can be life-threatening and it is important to have lifelong follow-ups on these patients.

  20. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  1. Neurologic outcome of urea cycle disorder liver transplant recipients may be predicted by pretransplant neurological imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott M; Campbell, Kathleen M; Kukreja, Marcia; Kohli, Rohit

    2015-08-01

    Liver transplantation treats the hepatic affectation of UCDs; however, irreversible neurologic damage pretransplant is difficult to assess providing transplant teams with ethical dilemmas for liver transplantation. The purpose of our study was to determine whether pretransplant neuroimaging can predict developmental outcomes post-liver-transplant in children with UCDs. Patients undergoing liver transplantation for UCDs at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Neurologic assessments prior to and after transplantation were categorized into mild, moderate, or severe disability. Neuroimaging data were categorized into mild, moderate, or severe by a single pediatric neuroradiologist. Fifteen patients were identified of whom eight had neuroimaging prior to transplantation. Of the eight patients that had neuroimaging, four were categorized as severe, one moderate, and three no-to-mild delay. All four patients whose imaging was severe were found to have moderate-to-severe neurologic delay. Of the three patients with no-to-mild changes on neuroimaging two of three were found to have no-to-mild delay on developmental assessments after transplantation. Neuroimaging may be a helpful tool in determining developmental prognosis and outcomes post-liver-transplantation for UCDs. Further studies maybe needed to validate our preliminary findings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Perioperative Management of Neurological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Dhallu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative care of the patients with neurological diseases can be challenging. Most important consideration is the management and understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders and evaluation of new neurological changes that occur perioperatively. Perioperative generally refers to 3 phases of surgery: preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative. We have tried to address few commonly encountered neurological conditions in clinical practice, such as delirium, stroke, epilepsy, myasthenia gravis, and Parkinson disease. In this article, we emphasize on early diagnosis and management strategies of neurological disorders in the perioperative period to minimize morbidity and mortality of patients.

  3. Case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thortrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirato, H.; Kudo, N.; Takita, K. (Nakatori Hospital, Akita (Japan))

    1980-09-01

    A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thorotrast injected as a contrast 40 years before was reported. The patient was a 64-year-old man with severe liver dysfunction, and had psychic and neurological symptoms, and hyperammonemia. There was a relationship between ammonium concentration in blood and psychic and neurological symptoms. Electroencephalogram showed three phases waves peculiar to hepatic coma intermittently. Thorotrast in the liver was detected by radiological methods and in vivo measurement of the radioactivity. From the above-mentioned result, this disease was diagnosed as hepatic encephalopathy induced by long-term sedimentation of thorotrast without complication of malignant tumors. Because of the concurrent presence of cerebral infarction, the diagnosis was difficult to make.

  4. Hepatitis E-induced severe myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Annerose M; Stenzel, Werner; Meisel, Andreas; Büning, Carsten

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Asian and African countries but is rarely reported in Western countries. Although there are some prominent neurological manifestations, HEV is rarely recognized by neurologists. This is a case report of myositis induced by HEV. We report the life-threatening case of a 57-year-old man with flaccid tetraparesis due to myositis, acute hepatitis, and renal failure caused by HEV infection. Muscle biopsy revealed scattered myofiber necrosis with a diffuse, mild lymphomonocytic infiltrate in the endomysium and perimysium. Because the patient suffered from an acute HEV infection with a rapidly progressive course of severe myopathy, we started ribavirin treatment. He recovered partially within 3 weeks and recovered fully within 6 months. This case highlights a neurological manifestation of endemic HEV infection with severe myositis in a patient with alcoholic chronic liver disease. Ribavirin treatment is effective in severe HEV infection and may also lead to rapid neurological recovery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pulmonary abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Chavez, Maria de la Cruz

    2000-01-01

    Pulmonary abscess is defined as a suppurative process and bounded, caused by piogens organisms that it progresses to central necrosis and it commits an or more areas of the pulmonary parenchyma. Initially it is impossible to differ of a located pneumonia, but when the lesion communicates with a bronchus, part of the neurotic tissue is replaced by air, producing the classic image radiological fluid-air. The presence of multiple lesions smaller than 2 cms of diameter cm is defined arbitrarily as necrotizing pneumonia it is indistinguishable of an abscess. The paper includes the pathogenesis and etiology, clinical course, diagnostic and treatment

  6. Xenon-133 retention in hepatic steatosis - correlation with liver biopsy in 45 patients: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Perrillo, R.P.; Sunwoo, Y.C.; Donati, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    This study presents the results of comparison of hepatic fat content with hepatic xenon retention in 45 patients. The degree of hepatic Xe-133 retention was measured during pulmonary ventilation studies. The amount of hepatic steatosis was graded 0 to 4+ on histologic liver sections obtained by needle or surgical biopsy. There was agreement between the amount of hepatic xenon retention determined scintigraphically and the degree of steatosis determined histologically. These results suggest that Xe-133 retention in the liver provides a simple means of evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver. The potential of this technique as a noninvasive means of investigating hepatic fatty infiltration is discussed

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  18. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  20. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  5. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  9. Pulmonary circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, G.; Boos, M.; Scheffler, K.; Steinbrich, W.

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of the pulmonary vasculature is mainly indicated in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism. The routine procedure so far is ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy alone or in combination with diagnostic assessment of the legs to rule out deep venous thrombosis. The results are still not reliable for the majority of patients. In the case of equivocal diagnosis, invasive conventional angiography is considered the gold standard. With steady improvements in tomographic imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), non-invasive alternatives to the routine diagnostic work-up are given. Helical CT and CTA techniques are already in clinical use and estimated to sufficiently serve the demands for detection/exclusion of pulmonary thromboembolism. The disadvantages mainly concern peripheral disease and reconstruction artifacts. MRI and MR angiography have been implemented in the diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease since the introduction of contrast-enhanced MRA. In breath-hold techniques, the entire lung vascularization can be delineated and thromboemboli can be detected. The clinical experience in this field is limited, but MRI has the potential to demonstrate its superiority over CT due to its improved delineation of the vascular periphery and the more comprehensive three-dimensional reconstruction. (orig.)

  10. Pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakido, Michio; Okuzaki, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    When the chest is exposed to x radiation and Co-60 gamma radiation, radiation damage may occur in the lungs 2 to 10 weeks after irradiation. This condition is generally referred to as radiation pneumonitis, with the incidence ranging from 5.4% to 91.8% in the literature. Then radiation pneumonitis may develop into pulmonary fibrosis associated with roentgenologically diffuse linear and ring-like shadows and strong contraction 6 months to one year after irradiation. Until recently, little attention has been paid to pulmonary pneumonitis as a delayed effect of A-bomb radiation. The recent study using the population of 9,253 A-bomb survivors have suggested that the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis tended to be high in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. Two other studies using the cohort of 16,956 and 42,728 A-bomb survivors, respectively, have shown that the prevalence of roentgenologically proven pulmonary fibrosis was higher in men than women (1.82% vs 0.41%), was increased with aging and had a higher tendency in heavily exposed A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  11. Trends in neurology fellowship training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordan S.A. Williams; Trent S. Hodgson; Fernando D. Goldenberg; Rimas V. Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Aim:Aneed for Neurologists exists in the USA.The majority of Neurology residency graduates go on to additional subspecialty training. Methods: Data from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education from 2001-2014 and the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties from was analyzed for trends in the number of Neurology subspecialty training programs and their composition. Results: There has been an overall trend of growth in the number of accredited Neurology subspecialty training programs and fellows. These trends vary between specific subspecialties. Conclusion: The authors provide an overview of the contemporary state of Neurology subspecialty training in the USA. A clearer understanding of subspecialty training allows for anticipation of workforce surpluses and deficits.

  12. Neurological and ocular fascioliasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Coma, Santiago; Agramunt, Verónica H; Valero, María Adela

    2014-01-01

    techniques and neuroimaging useful for the diagnosis of neurological cases are exposed. Within fascioliasis infection indirectly causing ocular manifestations, case distribution and frequency are similarly analysed. A short analysis is devoted to clarify the first reports of a human eye infection. The affection of related and close organs is discussed by differentiating between cases of the dorsal spine, pulmonary manifestations, heart and vessel affection, findings in blood vessels, skin and dermatologic reactions, cases of ectopic mature flukes, and upper body locations. The clinical complexity of the puzzling polymorphisms, the disconcerting multifocality of the manifestations, and their changes along the evolution of the disease in the same patient, as well as the differences between the clinical pictures shown by different patients, are highlighted. The many syndromes involved are enumerated. The pathogenic and physiological mechanisms underlying neurofascioliasis and ophthalmofascioliasis caused by ectopic flukes and the physiopathogenic processes indirectly affecting the central nervous system and causing genuine neurological, meningeal, psychiatric, and ocular manifestations are discussed. The diagnosis of neurological and ophthalmologic fascioliasis is analysed in depth, including clinical and paraclinical diagnosis, eosinophilia in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, differential diagnosis from other parasitic infections such as helminthiases and myiases, an update of human fascioliasis diagnosis, and fluke and/or fluke egg recovery by surgery. Diagnostic analyses with faecal and blood samples for fascioliasis patients are updated. Therapy for patients with major neurological manifestations includes both antiparasitic treatments and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Prognosis in fascioliasis patients with neurological manifestations is discussed, with emphasis on sequelae and fatal cases, and the care of patients with ophthalmologic manifestations is added

  13. Drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior associada a apêndice hepático intracardíaco Anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to intrathoracic hepatic appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R Moraes

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o caso de uma paciente de 61 anos de idade, com drenagem anômala de veia pulmonar inferior direita em veia cava inferior, associada a apêndice hepático intratorácico, herniado através de fenda no diafragma. A correção cirúrgica foi realizada por anastomose direta da veia anômala com o átrio esquerdo, pela redução do apêndice hepático para a cavidade abdominal e, finalmente, pelo fechamento do defeito diafragmático. O pós-operatório decorreu sem qualquer complicação. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade do caso.The authors present a case of a 61-year-old woman with anomalous drainage of the right inferior pulmonary vein into the inferior vena cava associated to an intrathoracic hepatic appendix herniated through a diaphragmatic defect. Surgical correction was obtained by direct anastomosis of the anomalous vein to the left atrium, reduction of the hepatic appendix to the abdominal cavity and closure of the diphragmatic defect. The postoperative course was unevenftul. The rarity of this condition is stressed.

  14. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  15. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  16. Neurologic Manifestations of Enterovirus 71 Infection in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Lee, Myoung Sook; Kim, Dong Bin

    2016-04-01

    Enterovirus 71 frequently involves the central nervous system and may present with a variety of neurologic manifestations. Here, we aimed to describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profiles of patients presenting with neurologic complications of enterovirus 71 infection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 31 pediatric patients hospitalized with acute neurologic manifestations accompanied by confirmed enterovirus 71 infection at Ulsan University Hospital between 2010 and 2014. The patients' mean age was 2.9 ± 5.5 years (range, 18 days to 12 years), and 80.6% of patients were less than 4 years old. Based on their clinical features, the patients were classified into 4 clinical groups: brainstem encephalitis (n = 21), meningitis (n = 7), encephalitis (n = 2), and acute flaccid paralysis (n = 1). The common neurologic symptoms included myoclonus (58.1%), lethargy (54.8%), irritability (54.8%), vomiting (48.4%), ataxia (38.7%), and tremor (35.5%). Twenty-five patients underwent an MRI scan; of these, 14 (56.0%) revealed the characteristic increased T2 signal intensity in the posterior region of the brainstem and bilateral cerebellar dentate nuclei. Twenty-six of 30 patients (86.7%) showed CSF pleocytosis. Thirty patients (96.8%) recovered completely without any neurologic deficits; one patient (3.2%) died due to pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. In the present study, brainstem encephalitis was the most common neurologic manifestation of enterovirus 71 infection. The characteristic clinical symptoms such as myoclonus, ataxia, and tremor in conjunction with CSF pleocytosis and brainstem lesions on MR images are pathognomonic for diagnosis of neurologic involvement by enterovirus 71 infection.

  17. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  18. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema (A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gümüş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a life threatening complication of severe central nervous system injury. The most common cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema is subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by head trauma and epilepsy. The rare causes are cervical spine trauma, multiplesclerosis, cerebellar hemorrhage and intracranial tumors. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is characterized by an increase in extravascular lung water in patients who have sustained a sudden change in neurologic condition. The exact pathophysiology is unclear but it probably involves an adrenergic response to the central nervous system injury which leads to increased catecholamine, pulmonary hydrostatic pressure and increased lung capillary permeability. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and often include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, pinkfroty secretion, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and crackles. These symptoms start within minutes or hours and resolves 48-72 hours that typically for neurogenic pulmonary edema. Basic principles of treatment, surgical decompression, reduce intracranial pressure, controlled ventilation with suplemental oxygen, positive end expiratory pressure and diuresis. We report a case with neurogenic pulmonary edema that occured after head trauma. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 59-62

  19. Neurological examination in small animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Paluš

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This clinical review about the neurological examination in small animals describes the basics about the first steps of investigation when dealing with neurological patients. The knowledge of how to perform the neurological examination is important however more important is how to correctly interpret these performed tests. A step-by-step approach is mandatory and examiners should master the order and the style of performing these tests. Neurological conditions can be sometimes very distressing for owners and for pets that might not be the most cooperating. The role of a veterinary surgeon, as a professional, is therefore to collect the most relevant history, to examine a patient in a professional manner and to give to owners an educated opinion about the further treatment and prognosis. However neurological examinations might look challenging for many. But it is only the clinical application of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology to an every-day situation for practicing veterinarians and it does not require any specific in-to-depth knowledge. This clinical review is aimed not only to provide the information on how to perform the neurological examination but it is also aimed to appeal on veterinarians to challenge their daily routine and to start practicing on neurologically normal patients. This is the best and only way to differentiate between the normal and abnormal in a real situation.

  20. Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawki, Hilal B.; Muhammad, Shakir M.; Reda, Amal N.; Abdulla, Thair S.; Ardalan, Delaram M.

    2007-01-01

    A 38-year-old Iraqi female, presented with one-year history of exertional dyspnea and exercise intolerance, without systemic or constitutional symptoms. Clinical examination revealed bilateral basal crackles with signs suggestive of left side pleural effusion, chest x-ray showed left sided pleural effusion, and diffuse bilateral basal pulmonary shadowing. Her biochemical analysis, hematological tests, electrocardiogram and echocardiography were normal, aspiration of the fluid revealed a chylothorax, the radiological shadowing was proved by computed tomography scan of the chest to be diffuse cystic lesions involving mostly lower lobes. Open lung biopsy showed dilated lymphatic vessels with surrounding inflammatory cells and smooth muscle fibers consistently with the diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. (author)

  1. Neurological Manifestations of Dengue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hong Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue counts among the most commonly encountered arboviral diseases, representing the fastest spreading tropical illness in the world. It is prevalent in 128 countries, and each year >2.5 billion people are at risk of dengue virus infection worldwide. Neurological signs of dengue infection are increasingly reported. In this review, the main neurological complications of dengue virus infection, such as central nervous system (CNS, peripheral nervous system, and ophthalmic complications were discussed according to clinical features, treatment and possible pathogenesis. In addition, neurological complications in children were assessed due to their atypical clinical features. Finally, dengue infection and Japanese encephalitis were compared for pathogenesis and main clinical manifestations.

  2. A century of Dutch neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  3. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  4. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  5. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  6. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  7. Why neurology? Factors which influence career choice in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V; Hoyle, Chad; Yin, Han; McCoyd, Matthew; Lukas, Rimas V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the factors which influence the decision to pursue a career in neurology. An anonymous survey was developed using a Likert scale to rate responses. The survey was sent to adult and child neurology faculty, residents and fellows, as well as medical students applying for neurology. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the factors of influence. Respondents were subsequently categorized into pre-neurology trainees, neurology trainees, child neurologists and adult neurologists, and differences between the groups were analysed using Pearson's chi-square test. One hundred and thirty-three anonymous responses were received. The respondents were neurologists across all levels of training and practice. Across all respondents, the most common factor of high importance was intellectual content of specialty, challenging diagnostic problems, type of patient encountered and interest in helping people. Responses were similar across the groups; however, the earliest trainees cited interest in helping people as most important, while those in neurology training and beyond cite intellectual content of the specialty as most important. As trainees transition from their earliest levels of clinical experience into working as residents and faculty, there is a shift in the cited important factors. Lifestyle and financial factors seem to be the least motivating across all groups. Encouragement from peers, mentors, faculty and practicing physicians is considered high influences in a smaller number of neurologists. This may present an opportunity for practicing neurologists to make connections with medical students early in their education in an effort to encourage and mentor candidates.

  8. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the

  9. Neurologic Complications of Smallpox Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox and smallpox vaccination is reviewed from the Departments of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, and University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque.

  10. Neurological complication in HIV patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.

    2018-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is neurotropic and immunotropic, making themassive destruction of both systems. Although their amount has been reduced, there is still neurological presentations and complications of HIV remain common in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Neurological opportunistic infections (OI) occur in advanced HIV diseases such as primary cerebral lymphoma, cryptococcal meningitis, cerebral toxoplasmosis, and progressive multifocal encephalopathy. Neurological problem directly related to HIV appear at any stage in the progress of HIV disease, from AIDS-associated dementia to the aseptic meningitis of primary HIV infection observed in subjects with an immune deficiency. The replication of peripheral HIV viral is able to be controlled in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Non-HIV-related neurological disease such as stroke increased important as the HIV population ages.

  11. Neurological complications following bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to report on Brazilian cases of neurological complications from bariatric surgery. The literature on the subject is scarce. METHOD: Cases attended by neurologists in eight different Brazilian cities were collected and described in the present study. RESULTS: Twenty-six cases were collected in this study. Axonal polyneuropathy was the most frequent neurological complication, but cases of central demyelination, Wernicke syndrome, optical neuritis, radiculits, meralgia paresthetica and compressive neuropathies were also identified. Twenty-one patients (80% had partial or no recovery from the neurological signs and symptoms. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery, a procedure that is continuously increasing in popularity, is not free of potential neurological complications that should be clearly presented to the individual undergoing this type of surgery. Although a clear cause-effect relation cannot be established for the present cases, the cumulative literature on the subject makes it important to warn the patient of the potential risks of this procedure.

  12. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon

    2013-01-01

    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 31, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  19. Historical perspective of Indian neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shrikant; Trikamji, Bhavesh; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Parampreet; Nair, Rajasekharan

    2013-10-01

    To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. THE HISTORY OF NEUROLOGY IN INDIA IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PERIODS: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20(th) century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN). Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of basic, clinical and epidemiological research being

  20. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in

  1. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... more members within the same family have Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or any other form of Idiopathic Interstitial ...

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include the following: Congestive heart failure Birth defects in the heart Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (blood clots in the pulmonary arteries) Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ( ...

  3. Pulmonary Hypertension in Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    PULMONARY HYPERTENSION IN SCLERODERMA PULMONARY HYPERTENSION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs. If the high ... the right side of the heart. Patients with scleroderma are at increased risk for developing PH from ...

  4. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do I need to know about pulmonary hypertension in connection with HIV? Although pulmonary hypertension and ... Should an HIV patient be tested for pulmonary hypertension? HIV patients know that medical supervision is critical ...

  5. Current pathogenetic aspects of hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Michalak, Agata

    2013-01-07

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a medical phenomenon that is described as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of chronic or acute liver disease that is characterized by psychomotor, intellectual and cognitive abnormalities with emotional/affective and behavioral disturbances. This article focuses on the underlying mechanisms of the condition and the differences between hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can cause neurological death with brain edema and intracranial hypertension. It is assumed that approximately 60%-80% of patients with liver cirrhosis develop hepatic encephalopathy. This review explores the complex mechanisms that lead to hepatic encephalopathy. However, noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is not associated with hepatic diseases and has a completely different etiology. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a severe occurrence that is connected with multiple pathogeneses.

  6. Hippocrates: the forefather of neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenfeld, T; Jurasic, M J; Breitenfeld, D

    2014-09-01

    Hippocrates is one of the most influential medical doctors of all times. He started observing and experimenting in times of mysticism and magic. He carried a holistic and humanitarian approach to the patient with examination as the principal approach-inspection, palpation and auscultation are still the most important tools in diagnosing algorithms of today. He had immense experience with the human body most likely due to numerous wound treatments he had performed; some even believe he performed autopsies despite the negative trend at the time. Hippocrates identified the brain as the analyst of the outside world, the interpreter of consciousness and the center of intelligence and willpower. Interestingly, Hippocrates was aware of many valid concepts in neurology; his treatise On the Sacred Disease was the most important for understanding neurology and epilepsy. His other ideas pioneered modern day neurology mentioning neurological diseases like apoplexy, spondylitis, hemiplegia, and paraplegia. Today, 10 % of neurological Pubmed and 7 % of neuroscience Scopus reviews mention Corpus Hippocraticum as one of the sources. Therefore, Hippocrates may be considered as the forefather of neurology.

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension : an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoendermis, E. S.

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance

  8. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  9. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  10. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  11. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  12. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  16. Chest radiographic pulmonary changes reflecting extrapulmonary involvement in paediatric HIV disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, Richard D.; Goddard, Elizabeth; Hendricks, Marc; Lawrenson, John

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory infections are the commonest cause of pulmonary change on chest radiographs of HIV-infected children. However, HIV-related neurological, oropharyngeal, oesophageal, cardiac and haematological abnormalities may also manifest with pulmonary changes and must be considered in the interpretation of the chest radiograph in HIV-infected children. (orig.)

  17. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  18. A hyperacute neurology team - transforming emergency neurological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkunan, Arani; MacDonald, Bridget K; Boodhoo, Ajay; Tomkins, Andrew; Smyth, Caitlin; Southam, Medina; Schon, Fred

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of an 18-month study of a new model of how to care for emergency neurological admissions. We have established a hyperacute neurology team at a single district general hospital. Key features are a senior acute neurology nurse coordinator, an exclusively consultant-delivered service, acute epilepsy nurses, an acute neurophysiology service supported by neuroradiology and acute physicians and based within the acute medical admissions unit. Key improvements are a major increase in the number of patients seen, the speed with which they are seen and the percentage seen on acute medical unit before going to the general wards. We have shown a reduced length of stay and readmission rates for patients with epilepsy. Epilepsy accounted for 30% of all referrals. The cost implications of running this service are modest. We feel that this model is worthy of widespread consideration. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulmonary biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Peter J.; Chowdhury, Badrul; Kharitonov, Sergei A.; Magnussen, Helgo; Page, Clive P.; Postma, Dirkje; Saetta, Marina

    2006-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in using pulmonary biomarkers to understand and monitor the inflammation in the respiratory tract of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this Pulmonary Perspective we discuss the merits of the various approaches by reviewing the current

  20. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  1. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  2. The neurological basis of occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Schindler, Victoria P

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to survey the literature about the neurological basis of human activity and its relationship to occupation and health. Activities related to neurological function were organized into three categories: those that activate the brain's reward system; those that promote the relaxation response; and those that preserve cognitive function into old age. The results from the literature review correlating neurological evidence and activities showed that purposeful and meaningful activities could counter the effects of stress-related diseases and reduce the risk for dementia. Specifically, it was found that music, drawing, meditation, reading, arts and crafts, and home repairs, for example, can stimulate the neurogical system and enhance health and well-being, Prospective research studies are needed to examine the effects of purposeful activities on reducing stress and slowing the rate of cognitive decline.

  3. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  4. [Neurologic aspects of vibration syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langauer-Lewowicka, H; Zajac-Nedza, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present divergent opinions on the pathogenesis of vibratory syndrome, and primarily on its angio-neurological form, i.e. vascular, neurogenic and immunological theory. In the light of these concepts the clinical manifestations of vibratory syndrome are discussed in view of both systemic and local developments. The issues concerning neurological diagnostics with reference to the usefulness of electrophysiological methods are thoroughly analysed. Difficulties in early diagnosis and identification of symptoms that distinguish vibratory syndrome from other syndromes with similar manifestations are highlighted.

  5. Neurological manifestations in Fabry's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Torvin; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2007-01-01

    . Neurological symptoms, such as burning sensations (occasionally accompanied by acroparesthesia) and stroke, are among the first to appear, and occur in both male and female patients. A delay in establishing the diagnosis of Fabry's disease can cause unnecessary problems, especially now that enzyme replacement...... treatment is available to prevent irreversible organ damage. Females with Fabry's disease who present with pain have often been ignored and misdiagnosed because of the disorder's X-linked inheritance. This Review will stress the importance of recognizing neurological symptoms for the diagnosis of Fabry...

  6. Neurological manifestation of colonic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzair Chaudhary

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are extremely rare in cancer patients and are most commonly associated with certain tumors, such as ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer, and breast cancer. We report here a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in a 53-year-old man with colonic adenocarcinoma with a solitary liver metastasis. His paraneoplastic syndrome was successfully treated by methylprednisolone and primary oncologic therapies including neoadjuvant chemotherapy and definitive surgery. This is also the first documented case of simultaneous manifestation of a sensory neuropathy and limbic encephalitis with colon cancer.

  7. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  8. Methimazole protects lungs during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: an effect not induced by hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tütüncü, Tanju; Demirci, Cagatay; Gözalan, Ugur; Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Bilgihan, Ayse; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2007-05-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury may lead to remote organ failure with mortal respiratory dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to analyze the possible protective effects of methimazole on lungs after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into five groups: a control group, in which bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done; a hepatic ischemia-reperfusion group, in which bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion; a thyroidectomy-ischemia-reperfusion group (total thyroidectomy followed by, 7 days later, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion); a methimazole-ischemia-reperfusion group (following methimazole administration for 7 days, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was done after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion); and a methimazole +L-thyroxine-ischemia-reperfusion group (following methimazole and L-thyroxine administration for 7 days, bilateral pulmonary lobectomy was performed after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion). Pulmonary tissue specimens were evaluated histopathologically and for myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels. All of the ischemia-reperfusion intervention groups had higher pulmonary injury scoring indices than the control group (P < 0.001). Pulmonary injury index of the ischemia-reperfusion group was higher than that of both the methimazole-supplemented hypothyroid and euthyroid groups (P = 0028; P = 0,038, respectively) and was similar to that of the thyroidectomized group. Pulmonary tissue myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels in the ischemia-reperfusion group were similar with that in the thyroidectomized rats but were significantly higher than that in the control, and both the methimazole-supplemented hypothyroid and euthyroid groups. Methimazole exerts a protective role on lungs during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which can be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects rather than hypothyroidism alone.

  9. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  10. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  11. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  12. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  13. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcaterra, G.; Lam, J.; Losekoot, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors performed retrograde pulmonary arteriography by means of a pulmonary venous wedge injection in 10 patients with no demonstrable intrapericardial pulmonary arteries by 'conventional' angiographic techniques. In all cases but one, the procedure demonstrated the feasibility of a further operation. No complications were observed. Retrograde pulmonary arteriography is an important additional method for determining the existence of surgically accessible pulmonary arteries when other techniques have failed. (Auth.)

  14. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  15. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  16. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy.

  17. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L

    2011-09-01

    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  19. International electives in neurology training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  20. Hemorrhagic Stroke Associated with Pulmonary Edema and Catastrophic Cardiac Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Chang Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF is a vascular malformation that is rare in the pediatric population. Older children with cerebral AVF tend to present with neurologic problems related to intracranial venous hypertension or intracranial hemorrhage. Cardiac and pulmonary complications following acute neurologic injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage are common in adults, but are rarely reported in children. However, complications have been reported in cases of enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis in infants and children and can cause high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a 14-year-old boy who presented with cardiac failure associated with pulmonary edema following cerebral hemorrhagic stroke due to AVF. After aggressive investigation and management, we intervened before significant hypoxia and hypotension developed, potentially reducing the risk of long-term adverse neurologic consequences in this patient.

  1. Neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, E.; Thom, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    The most used radiopharmaceuticals in encephaloscintigraphy are analysed, such as: sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, sup(113m)In- DTPA, 203 Hg-or 197 Hg-clormerodrine and 131 I-albumin. A comparative study is made of scintiscanning of normal brain and that of pathological states. The uses of 131 I-albumin, sup(113m)In-DTPA an 169 Y - DTPA are commented in liquor spaces scintiscanning and clinical indications are given [pt

  2. Hepatitis E: Discovery, global impact, control and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuroo, Mohammad S; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S; Khuroo, Naira S

    2016-08-21

    Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults. The disease is particularly severe during pregnancy and in people with underlying liver cirrhosis. Autochthonous hepatitis E is increasingly recognized in developed countries. The virus infects domestic pigs, wild boar and Sika deer in these countries. HEV infections in humans occur by eating the undercooked game flesh, raw liver from supermarkets and Figatelli sausages. Blood transfusion-associated HEV infections occur in many countries and screening of donors for HEV RNA is under consideration. Hepatitis E causes a number of extrahepatic diseases, including a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes. HEV genotype 3 causes prolonged viremia, chronic hepatitis, liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in organ transplant patients. The virus is amenable to ribavirin monotherapy and most patients clear the virus in a few weeks. Hepatitis E vaccine -239, marketed in China, has shown high efficacy with sustained protection for over four years.

  3. Neurologic and neuromuscular functional disorders of the pharynx and esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuttge-Hannig, A.; Hannig, C.

    2007-01-01

    Neurologic swallowing disorders are an increasing diagnostic problem in our overaged population. Undiagnosed chronic aspiration pneumonia is the cause of death in 20-40% of all inhabitants of nursing homes. In neurologic diseases of the pharynx, the physiologic interaction of pharyngeal contraction, closure of the pharynx, and esophageal motility are frequently disturbed. This may be due to cortical, bulbar, or cerebellar brain damage of ischemic or traumatic origin. Furthermore diseases or peripheral nerves, muscles, and synapses cause disturbances. The most life-threatening complication of these disturbances is tracheal aspiration, which requires an iso-osmolar contrast medium for imaging studies that cause no or minimal pulmonary problems. Utilizing fast dynamic documentation we can analyze the swallowing act in 35 images within the passage time of 0.7 s. This requires digital frame sequences from 15-50 images/s, which can be provided by DSI or videofluoroscopy. Neurologic and neuromuscular patterns are demonstrated with and without tracheal aspiration. The differentiation of aspiration in a so-called pre-, intra-, and postdeglutitive form is possible. We distinguish four grades of severity of aspiration, which is also of great clinical impact for the differential rehabilitation therapy. The efficiency of the rehabilitation protocol can be assessed by the dynamic swallowing studies. (orig.) [de

  4. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  5. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  6. Neurological complications of infective endocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sonia A.A.; Yaqub, Basim A.; Al-Deeb, Saleh M.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed the files of 80 successive patients with native and prosthetic valve endocarditis admitted to Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital. Neurolological complications (NC) occurred in 28 (35%) patients. The valves involved were mitral in 12 (43%), aortic in eight (29%), combined mitral and aortic lesions in six (21%) and others in two (7%). The common causative organisms were Streptococci in 12 (43%), Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermides, both occurring in four (14%). Compared to the 52 infective endocarditis patients with no neurological complications (NNC), the NC occurred more frequently in male patients, those with aortic valve lesion, those with atrial fibrillation, those with delayed therapy and those with causative organisms being Streptococci or Staphylococci. Eleven patients died (39%), 12 (43%) recovered with motor sequelae, six (21%) had seizure disorder and five (18%) had full recovery. The frequency of neurological complications and mortality is comparable to those reported in the literature: however, the frequency was higher in our patients. (author)

  7. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  8. Disease mongering in neurological disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kochen, Sara Silvia; Córdoba, Marta

    2017-01-01

    “Diseases mongering”, than a simple definition would be enforced "to promote or sell disease". The main and common characteristhics of all these "diseases" is that they are amenable to treatment with drugs. So, the pharmaceutical industry redefining the concept of disease, the normal and pathological. In Neurology exploits the deepest atavistic fears of suffering and death. We select some diseases, the choise was based on lack or weak evidence in definition of disease; or cost benefit of trea...

  9. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and cinema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano de la Cuerda, Roberto; Jiménez-Antona, Carmen

    2010-12-16

    Cinema has been defined in many different ways, but most of them agree that it should be considered both a technique and an art. Although films often depict fantasy stories, in many cases they also reflect day-to-day realities. In its earliest days cinema was already attracted to the world of health and sickness, and frequently addressed topics like medical practice, how patients lived with their illnesses, bioethical issues, the relationship between physician and patient or research. To review the presence of neurological pathologies in the cinema with a view to identifying the main neurological disorders that have been portrayed in films. Likewise it also intends to describe the medical praxis that is employed, the relationship between physician and patient, how the experiences of the patient and the family are represented, the adaptation to social and occupational situations, and the intervention of other health care professionals related with neurological patients. Some of the most significant films that have addressed these topics were reviewed and it was seen that in some of them the illness is dealt with in a very true-to-life manner, whereas others tend to include a greater number of inaccuracies and a larger degree of fiction. Cinema has helped to shape certain ways of thinking about the health care professionals who work with neurological patients, the importance of support from the family and the social role, among other things. This confirms that resorting to cinematographic productions is a fruitful tool for stimulating a critical interest in the past and present of medical practice.

  10. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  11. Aphasia, Just a Neurological Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto%u2019s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare disorder associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Etiology of HE is not completely understood. High levels of serum antithyroid antibodies are seen in HE. Presentation with otoimmune thyroiditis, cognitive impairment, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms and absence of bacterial or viral enfections are characteristics of HE. HE is a steroid responsive encephalopathy. 60 years old male patient admitted to hospital with forget fulness continuing for ...

  12. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  13. VEGF Signaling in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon W. Shim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a potent growth factor playing diverse roles in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In the brain, VEGF mediates angiogenesis, neural migration and neuroprotection. As a permeability factor, excessive VEGF disrupts intracellular barriers, increases leakage of the choroid plexus endothelia, evokes edema, and activates the inflammatory pathway. Recently, we discovered that a heparin binding epidermal growth factor like growth factor (HB-EGF—a class of EGF receptor (EGFR family ligands—contributes to the development of hydrocephalus with subarachnoid hemorrhage through activation of VEGF signaling. The objective of this review is to entail a recent update on causes of death due to neurological disorders involving cerebrovascular and age-related neurological conditions and to understand the mechanism by which angiogenesis-dependent pathological events can be treated with VEGF antagonisms. The Global Burden of Disease study indicates that cancer and cardiovascular disease including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are two leading causes of death worldwide. The literature suggests that VEGF signaling in ischemic brains highlights the importance of concentration, timing, and alternate route of modulating VEGF signaling pathway. Molecular targets distinguishing two distinct pathways of VEGF signaling may provide novel therapies for the treatment of neurological disorders and for maintaining lower mortality due to these conditions.

  14. History of pediatric neurology in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinborn, Barbara; Józwiak, Sergiusz

    2010-02-01

    This review presents the past and the present of pediatric neurology in Poland. Pediatric neurology has its roots in Polish general neurology represented by many outstanding scientists. The founder of Polish school of neurology at the end of 19th century was Edward Flatau, known as the author of Flatau's law. The most famous Polish neurologist was Joseph Babiński, recognized for the first description of pathological plantar reflex. First Polish publication related to child neurology was Brudziński's report on a new meningeal symptom (the flexion of lower limbs during passive neck flexion with pain in neck). Contemporary child neurology in Poland was created by Professor Zofia Majewska after the Second World War. Now 10 academic centers of child neurology exist in Poland fulfilling educational, scientific, and therapeutic roles. Polish Society of Child Neurology was established in 1991 and now there are about 580 members, including 300 child neurologists.

  15. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Clinical trials in neurology: design, conduct, analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ravina, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    .... Clinical Trials in Neurology aims to improve the efficiency of clinical trials and the development of interventions in order to enhance the development of new treatments for neurologic diseases...

  17. A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by trotrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirato, Hideo; Kudo, Norishige; Takita, Kyoji

    1980-01-01

    A case of hepatic encephalopathy induced by thorotrast injected as a contrast 40 years before was reported. The patient was a 64-year-old man with severe liver dysfunction, and had psychic and neurological symptoms, and hyperammonemia. There was a relationship between ammonium concentration in blood and psychic and neurological symptoms. Electroencephalogram showed three phases waves peculiar to hepatic coma intermittently. Throtrast in the liver was detected by radiological methods and in vivo measurement of the radioactivity. From the above-mentioned result, this disease was diagnosed as hepatic encephalopathy induced by long-term sedimentation of thorotrast without complication of malignant tumors. Because of the concurrent presence of cerebral infarction, the diagnosis was difficult to make. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Solitary pulmonary nodule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule - front view chest x-ray Pulmonary nodule, solitary - CT scan Respiratory system References Gotway MB, Panse PM, Gruden JF, Elicker BM. Thoracic radiology: noninvasive diagnostic imaging. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, ...

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is ...

  20. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  1. Interobserver variability of the neurological optimality score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monincx, W. M.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; Bonsel, G. J.; Zondervan, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the interobserver reliability of the neurological optimality score. The neurological optimality score of 21 full term healthy, neurologically normal newborn infants was determined by two well trained observers. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.31. Kappa for optimality (score of

  2. Paediatric Neurological Conditions Seen at the Physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric neurological conditions constitute a major cause of disability in childhood. However there seems to be an apparent dearth of published works on the patterns of neurological conditions seen in Nigerian physiotherapy clinics of rural locations. This study aimed at describing the spectrum of neurological conditions ...

  3. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by the Pan African Association of Neurological Sciences (PAANS). The AJNS's aim is to publish scientific papers of any aspects of Neurological Sciences. AJNS is published quarterly. Articles submitted exclusively to the AJNS are accepted if neither ...

  4. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  5. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart). This type of pulmonary hypertension was called “secondary pulmonary hypertension” but is now referred to as PH, because the cause is known to be from lung disease, heart disease, or chronic thromboemboli (blood clots). Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) used to be ...

  6. Pulmonary manifestations of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, K.; Enkerlin, H.L.; Riemann, H.; Schoeppe, W.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the two different types of pulmonary manifestations in acute plasmodium falciparum malaria. The more severe variant shows long standing interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, whereas in the more benign courses only short-term pulmonary edemas are visible. (orig.) [de

  7. The seminal role played by Pierre Marie in Neurology and Internal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors review the most important contributions of Pierre Marie to the elucidation and description of several neurological diseases, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth’s disease and hereditary cerebellar ataxia, as well as his contributions to Internal Medicine, including his pioneering studies on acromegaly, ankylosing spondylitis, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy. His works led to incontestable advances in the medical sciences that transcended his time.

  8. RECENT THEORIES OF PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN HEPATITIS C VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Popović Dragonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is potentially reversible, or progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior and personality changes, and transient neurologic symptoms and characteristic electroencephalographic patterns associated with acute and chronic liver failure. For some time, there has been controversy regarding the origin of toxins responsible for the change of mental state. It was found that the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy is responsible for multiple organ peripheral changes (intestinal changes, abnormalities of portal-systemic circulation, liver failure, loss of muscle tissue, changes in brain intracellular communication (osmotic changes, astrocytes and axonal abnormalities in communication, changes in cerebral perfusion and ammonia, endogenous benzodiazepines, gamma amino butyric acid, derivatives of methionine and false neurotransmitters. The aforementioned metabolic factors that contribute to the development of hepatic encephalopathy are not mutually exclusive and multiple factors may be present at the same time.

  9. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  10. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  11. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  12. Neurological aspects of lead intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, H

    1980-05-08

    This study gives a survey over the medical and scientific literature on lead intoxications, which were published until 1979. Neurologic aspects are of particular interest. At present dramatic cases of lead intoxications occur only rarely. However, there are numerous studies about cases of chronical, partly subclinical intoxications. This chronical type of lead intoxication can become manifest clinically as relatively vague symptoms, for example vertigos, insomnia, headaches and weakness. Contrary to this, serious encephalopathies, even with fatal outcome, and polyneuropathies with typical paresis of the radial nerve are preferably observed in acute lead intoxications. Besides the numerous sources of intoxication, also the different opinions found in literature are discussed, concerning the effects of lead on the human body. The fact that there are differing opinions about the limiting value of the blood-lead level at which intoxication symptoms have to be expected, becomes apparent when the determined blood-lead level values are compared and evaluated. Besides the description of general intoxication effects, the discussion of the neurologic aspects found in literature - not only those concerning the central, but also the peripheral system - are preferably concerned. Reports about neuropsychical alterations due to lead exposure, which are mainly found in children, supplement the numerous descriptions of the macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the nervous system provoked by lead. Finally the therapeutic and prophylactic measures given in the literature are discussed.

  13. Neurological disorders in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Vakhnina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common vascular diseases. The brain as target organs in hypertension is damaged more often and earlier. Neurological complications due to hypertension are frequently hyperdiagnosed in Russian neurological practice. Thus, headache, dizziness, impaired recall of recent events, nocturnal sleep disorders, and many other complaints in a hypertensive patient are usually regarded as a manifestation of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. At the same time headaches (tension headache and migraine in hypertensive patients are predominantly primary; headache associated with dramatic marked elevations in blood pressure is encountered in only a small number of patients. The role of cerebrovascular diseases in the development of dizziness in hypertensive patients is also overestimated. The vast majority of cases, patients with this complaint are in fact identified to have benign paroxysmal postural vertigo, Mеniеre’s disease, vestibular neuronitis, or vestibular migraine. Psychogenic disorders or multisensory insufficiency are generally responsible for non-systemic vertigo in hypertensive patients. Chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency may cause non-systemic vertigo as a subjective equivalent of postural instability.Cognitive impairments (CIs are the most common and earliest manifestation of cerebrovascular lesion in hypertension. In most cases, CIs in hypertension were vascular and associated with cerebrovascular lesion due to lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis. However, mixed CIs frequently occur when hypertensive patients are also found to have signs of a degenerative disease, most commonly in Alzheimer’s disease.

  14. Neurological complications in hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Gabriella; Codemo, Valentina; Palmieri, Arianna; Schiff, Sami; Cagnin, Annachiara; Citton, Valentina; Manara, Renzo

    2012-02-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum can impair correct absorption of an adequate amount of thiamine and can cause electrolyte imbalance. This study investigated the neurological complications in a pregnant woman with hyperemesis gravidarum. A 29-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for hyperemesis gravidarum. Besides undernutrition, a neurological examination disclosed weakness with hyporeflexia, ophthalmoparesis, multidirectional nystagmus and optic disks swelling; the patient became rapidly comatose. Brain MRI showed symmetric signal hyperintensity and swelling of periaqueductal area, hypothalamus and mammillary bodies, medial and posterior portions of the thalamus and columns of fornix, consistent with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Neurophysiological studies revealed an axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy, likely due to thiamine deficiency or critical illness polyneuropathy. Sodium and potassium supplementation and parenteral thiamine were administered with improvement of consciousness state in a few days. WE evolved in Korsakoff syndrome. A repeat MRI showed a marked improvement of WE-related alterations and a new hyperintense lesion in the pons, suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis. No sign or symptom due to involvement of the pons was present.

  15. Mechanisms of neurogenic pulmonary edema development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedý, Jiří; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Jendelová, Pavla; Syková, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 499-506 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR GA309/06/1246; GA MŠk 1M0538 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) 1A8697; GA MZd(CZ) NR8339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Neurogenic pulmonary edema * Rat * Lung Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  16. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  17. Clinical Characteristics and Functional Motor Outcomes of Enterovirus 71 Neurological Disease in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hooi-Ling; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Britton, Philip N; Kandula, Tejaswi; Lorentzos, Michelle S; Booy, Robert; Jones, Cheryl A; Rawlinson, William; Ramachandran, Vidiya; Rodriguez, Michael L; Andrews, P Ian; Dale, Russell C; Farrar, Michelle A; Sampaio, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes a spectrum of neurological complications with significant morbidity and mortality. Further understanding of the characteristics of EV71-related neurological disease, factors related to outcome, and potential responsiveness to treatments is important in developing therapeutic guidelines. To further characterize EV71-related neurological disease and neurological outcome in children. Prospective 2-hospital (The Sydney Children's Hospitals Network) inpatient study of 61 children with enterovirus-related neurological disease during a 2013 outbreak of EV71 in Sydney, Australia. The dates of our analysis were January 1, to June 30, 2013. Clinical, neuroimaging, laboratory, and pathological characteristics, together with treatment administered and functional motor outcomes, were assessed. Among 61 patients, there were 4 precipitous deaths (7%), despite resuscitation at presentation. Among 57 surviving patients, the age range was 0.3 to 5.2 years (median age, 1.5 years), and 36 (63%) were male. Fever (100% [57 of 57]), myoclonic jerks (86% [49 of 57]), ataxia (54% [29 of 54]), and vomiting (54% [29 of 54]) were common initial clinical manifestations. In 57 surviving patients, EV71 neurological disease included encephalomyelitis in 23 (40%), brainstem encephalitis in 20 (35%), encephalitis in 6 (11%), acute flaccid paralysis in 4 (7%), and autonomic dysregulation with pulmonary edema in 4 (7%). Enterovirus RNA was more commonly identified in feces (42 of 44 [95%]), rectal swabs (35 of 37 [95%]), and throat swabs (33 of 39 [85%]) rather than in cerebrospinal fluid (10 of 41 [24%]). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed characteristic increased T2-weighted signal in the dorsal pons and spinal cord. All 4 patients with pulmonary edema (severe disease) demonstrated dorsal brainstem restricted diffusion (odds ratio, 2; 95% CI, 1-4; P = .001). Brainstem or motor dysfunction had resolved in 44 of 57 (77%) at 2 months and in 51 of 57 (90%) at 12 months

  18. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  19. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  20. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in a female gardener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Paula; Pedraza Serrano, Fernando; Morán Caicedo, Liliana Patricia; Rodríguez de Guzmán, Maria Carmen; Cebollero Presmanes, María; de Miguel Díez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a subgroup of pulmonary arterial hypertension with a poor prognosis. The diagnosis is usually delayed and treatment options other than lung transplantation are unfortunately limited. We report the case of 51-year-old female gardener diagnosed with PVOD by open lung biopsy before her death. Although there are many reported cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease due to toxic agents present in nature, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure, to date this has not been linked to PVOD. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  2. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  3. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  4. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  5. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  6. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  7. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  8. [Cerebral oximetry in pulmonary thromboendarterectomy with circulatory arrest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán Escudero, P; González Román, A; Serra Ruiz, C N; Barbero Mielgo, M; García Fernández, J

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is an uncommon procedure and should be performed with circulatory arrest. One of the major concerns is the postoperative central neurological injuries. Perioperative brain oxygen monitoring is advisable in this surgical procedure for the early detection of brain hypoperfusion episodes and their intensity as well as any other postoperative episodes that can deteriorate the neurological outcome. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  10. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  11. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  12. Neurology of foreign language aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Biedroń

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This state-of-the art paper focuses on the poorly explored issue of foreign language aptitude, attempting to present the latest developments in this field and reconceptualizations of the construct from the perspective of neuroscience. In accordance with this goal, it first discusses general directions in neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude, starting with the earliest attempts to define the neurological substrate for talent, sources of difficulties in the neurolinguistic research on foreign language aptitude and modern research methods. This is followed by the discussion of the research on the phonology of foreign language aptitude with emphasis on functional and structural studies as well as their consequences for the knowledge of the concept. The subsequent section presents the studies which focus on lexical and morphosyntactic aspects of foreign language aptitude. The paper ends with a discussion of the limitations of contemporary research, the future directions of such research and selec ed methodological issues.

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms in neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovcevski, Mira; Akbarian, Schahram

    2012-08-01

    The exploration of brain epigenomes, which consist of various types of DNA methylation and covalent histone modifications, is providing new and unprecedented insights into the mechanisms of neural development, neurological disease and aging. Traditionally, chromatin defects in the brain were considered static lesions of early development that occurred in the context of rare genetic syndromes, but it is now clear that mutations and maladaptations of the epigenetic machinery cover a much wider continuum that includes adult-onset neurodegenerative disease. Here, we describe how recent advances in neuroepigenetics have contributed to an improved mechanistic understanding of developmental and degenerative brain disorders, and we discuss how they could influence the development of future therapies for these conditions.

  14. Neurological problems of jazz legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L

    2009-08-01

    A variety of neurological problems have affected the lives of giants in the jazz genre. Cole Porter courageously remained prolific after severe leg injuries secondary to an equestrian accident, until he succumbed to osteomyelitis, amputations, depression, and phantom limb pain. George Gershwin resisted explanations for uncinate seizures and personality change and herniated from a right temporal lobe brain tumor, which was a benign cystic glioma. Thelonious Monk had erratic moods, reflected in his pianism, and was ultimately mute and withdrawn, succumbing to cerebrovascular events. Charlie Parker dealt with mood lability and drug dependence, the latter emanating from analgesics following an accident, and ultimately lived as hard as he played his famous bebop saxophone lines and arpeggios. Charles Mingus hummed his last compositions into a tape recorder as he died with motor neuron disease. Bud Powell had severe posttraumatic headaches after being struck by a police stick defending Thelonious Monk during a Harlem club raid.

  15. [Autoantibodies in Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Izumi

    2018-04-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are caused by immune responses against neuronal antigens expressed by the tumor. Based on the immunological pathomechanisms and responsiveness of treatments, onconeuronal antibodies are divided into two categories: 1) antibodies against neural intracellular antigens and 2) antibodies against neuronal surface or synaptic antigens. The recent discovery of onconeuronal antibodies have radically changed concepts of CNS autoimmunity, including PNS. The recognition of PNS provides a foundation for the early detection of underlying tumors and initiations of prompt treatments, which can result in substantial improvement. We here review the characteristic onconeuronal antibodies, including anti-Hu, anti-Ma2, and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and discuss the algorithm for the diagnosis of PNS.

  16. Aphasia, Just a Neurological Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozdemir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto%u2019s encephalopathy (HE is a rare disorder associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Etiology of HE is not completely understood. High levels of serum antithyroid antibodies are seen in HE. Presentation with otoimmune thyroiditis, cognitive impairment, psychiatric and neurologic symptoms and absence of bacterial or viral enfections are characteristics of HE. HE is a steroid responsive encephalopathy. 60 years old male patient admitted to hospital with forget fulness continuing for 9 months and speech loss starting 2 days ago. Strong positivity of antithyroid antibodies increases the odds for HE. Thyroid function tests showed severe hypothyroidism. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging results were compatible with HE. HE is diagnosed with differantial diagnosis and exclusion of other reasons. This uncommon disorder is not recognised enough. High titres of serum antithyroid antiboides are always needed for diagnosis. Correct diagnosis requires awareness of wide range of cognitive and clinical presentations of HE.

  17. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  18. Prehospital neurological deterioration in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Sabreena J; Sucharew, Heidi; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Woo, Daniel; Adeoye, Opeolu; Flaherty, Matthew L; Ferioli, Simona; McMullan, Jason; Mackey, Jason; De Los Rios La Rosa, Felipe; Martini, Sharyl; Kissela, Brett M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2018-04-27

    Patients with stroke can experience neurological deterioration in the prehospital setting. We evaluated patients with stroke to determine factors associated with prehospital neurological deterioration (PND). Among the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region (population ~1.3 million), we screened all 15 local hospitals' admissions from 2010 for acute stroke and included patients aged ≥20. The GCS was compared between emergency medical services (EMS) arrival and hospital arrival, with decrease ≥2 points considered PND. Data obtained retrospectively included demographics, medical history and medication use, stroke subtype (eg, ischaemic stroke (IS), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)) and IS subtype (eg, small vessel, large vessel, cardioembolic), seizure at onset, time intervals between symptom onset, EMS arrival and hospital arrival, EMS level of training, and blood pressure and serum glucose on EMS arrival. Of 2708 total patients who had a stroke, 1092 patients (median (IQR) age 74 (61-83) years; 56% women; 21% black) were analysed. PND occurred in 129 cases (12%), including 9% of IS, 24% of ICH and 16% of SAH. In multivariable analysis, black race, atrial fibrillation, haemorrhagic subtype and ALS level of transport were associated with PND. Haemorrhage and atrial fibrillation is associated with PND in stroke, and further investigation is needed to establish whether PND can be predicted. Further studies are also needed to assess whether preferential transport of patients with deterioration to hospitals equipped with higher levels of care is beneficial, identify why race is associated with deterioration and to test therapies targeting PND. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  20. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  1. Pulmonary tuberculosis with neuromyelitis optica: an uncommon association of a common disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.A.; Hashmi, M.; Azmat, Z.; Mustafa, S.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic tuberculosis has been reported with varying neurological manifestations like meningitis, tuberculomas, myositis and neuropathy. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a well known neurological entity which has been described in association with several systemic disorders like systemic lupus erythematosis, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. insecticides etc. However, only a few cases of NMO have been reported in association with Here, we report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis in association with NMO to highlight the under-reported association of NMO with pulmonary tuberculosis presenting in a peculiar anatomical fashion i.e. longitudinal myelitis with predominant posterior column involvement. (author)

  2. Neurological Signs and Symptoms in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the type and frequency of neurological signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods Persons with FM (n=166) and pain-free controls (n=66) underwent systematic neurological examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurological symptoms present over the preceding 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurological symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Results Compared to the control group, age and gender adjusted estimates revealed the FM group had significantly more neurological abnormalities in multiple categories including: cranial nerves IX and X (42% vs. 8%), sensory (65% vs. 25%), motor (33% vs. 3%), and gait (28% vs. 7%). Similarly, the FM group endorsed significantly more neurological symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories with the biggest differences observed for photophobia (70% vs. 6%), poor balance (63% vs. 4%), and weakness (58% vs. 2%) and tingling (54% vs. 4%) in the arms and legs. Poor balance, coordination, tingling, weakness in the arms and legs, and numbness in any part of body correlated with appropriate neurological exam findings in the FM group. Conclusions This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurological physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurological symptoms than controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical work-up of patients with FM. PMID:19714636

  3. Mensuration of cardioangiopulmonary indices by radiocardiogram before and after the verapamil oral administration in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, P.F.; Hueb, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were studied. The diagnosis was obtained from the history, clinical evaluation, pulmonary radiography, pulmonary and hepatic scintigraphies and spirometry. About 360 mg of verapamil was administered daily, every eight hours for ten days. Before and after drug administration, the arterial pressures, the spirometric measurements and nine cardiac roentgenographic indexes were measured. Vital capacity increased in all cases, but did not reach the normal levels. These data suggest that the effect of verapamil on the pulmonary circulation brought benefits to the subjects. This occurred either by direct pulmonary vasodilation, or by bronchodilation, reducing hypoxia. In all cases, the pulmonary resistance was diminished. Finally, verapamil seems to be a drug with real benefits in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and we advise a continuation of the studies. (author)

  4. Management of Pulmonary Nodules

    OpenAIRE

    Arvin Aryan

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary nodule characterization is currently being redefined as new clinical, radiological and pathological data are reported, necessitating a reevaluation of the clinical management."nIn approach to an incidentally detected pulmonary nodule, we should consider that there are different risk situations, different lesion morphologies, and different sizes with various management options."nIn this session we will review the different risk situations for patients with pulmonary nodules...

  5. Cystic pulmonary hydatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larval stages of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Worldwide, pulmonary hydatid cyst is a significant problem medically, socially, and economically. Surgery is the definitive therapy of pulmonary hydatidosis. Benzimidazoles may be considered in patients with a surgical contraindication. This review will focus on pathogenesis, lifecycle, clinical features, and management of pulmonary hydatid disease.

  6. Pulmonary vasculitis: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Joon Beom; Im, Jung Gi; Chung, Jin Wook; Goo, Jin Mo; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Song, Jae Woo

    1999-01-01

    Vasculitis is defined as an inflammatory process involving blood vessels, and can lead to destruction of the vascular wall and ischemic damage to the organs supplied by these vessels. The lung is commonly affected. A number of attempts have been made to classify and organize pulmonary vasculitis, but because the clinical manifestations and pathologic features of the condition overlap considerably, these afforts have failed to achieve a consensus. We classified pulmonary vasculitis as belonging to either the angitiis-granulomatosis group, the diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage with capillaritis group, or 'other'. Characteristic radiographic and CT findings of the different types of pulmonary vasculitis are illustrated, with a brief discussion of the respective disease entities

  7. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  8. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  9. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  10. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Antinuclear Antibody-Positive Ticlopidine-Induced Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Jo Veldhuyzen van Zanten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticlopidine hydrochloride has been shown to reduce the risk of first or recurrent stroke in patients who have experienced a transient ischemic attack, reversible ischemic neurological deficit, recurrent stroke or first stroke. Severe liver dysfunction is a contraindication for its use. Increase in liver enzymes has been reported with use of this drug, but jaundice is rare. A case of severe ticlopidine-induced hepatitis that was associated with a marked increase in antinuclear antibody (ANA levels is reported. Physicians prescribing ticlopidine hydrochloride should be aware that a potentially severe acute hepatitis associated with ANA positivity can occur. The drug should be discontinued if signs of liver dysfunction occur.

  12. Impact of morphologic characteristics of central pulmonary thromboemboli in massive pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbregar, Matej; Krivec, Bojan; Voga, Gorazd

    2002-09-01

    To assess the impact of morphologically different central pulmonary artery thromboemboli in patients with massive pulmonary emboli (MPEs) on short-term outcome. A prospective registry of consecutive patients. An 11-bed closed medical ICU at a 860-bed community general hospital Forty-seven patients with shock or hypotension due to MPE and central pulmonary thromboemboli detected by transesophageal echocardiography who were treated with thrombolysis between January 1994 and April 2000. Patients were divided into two groups according to the following characteristics of the detected thromboemboli: group 1, thrombi with one or more long, mobile parts; and group 2, immobile thrombi. Right heart catheterization was performed. The incidence of both types of thromboemboli was comparable. Groups 1 and 2 showed no differences in demographic data, risk factors for pulmonary embolism, length of preceding clinical symptoms, percentage of patients in shock, hemodynamic variables, serum lactate levels on hospital admission, and treatment. Seven fatal cases due to obstructive shock and right heart failure were present in group 2, but none were present in group 1 (7 of 23 patients vs 0 of 24 patients, respectively; p < 0.05). At 12 h, the cardiac index was lower in group 2 than in group 1 (2.6 +/- 1.0 vs 3.1 +/- 0.9 L/min/m(2), respectively; p < 0.05), and the central venous pressure (15.0 +/- 6.2 vs 12.5 +/- 3.7 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.05) and total pulmonary resistance (12.9 +/- 5.9 vs 8.6 +/- 2.7 mm Hg/L/min/m(2), respectively; p < 0.001) were higher in group 2 compared to group 1. On hospital admission, inclusion in group 2 (p < 0.03; hazard ratio, 9.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 76.47) and preexisting chronic medical or neurologic disease (p < 0.01; hazard ratio, 16.4; 95% CI, 1.97 to 136.3) were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. On hospital admission, morphology of the thromboemboli and the presence of pre-existing chronic medical or neurologic disease

  13. Clinical characteristic of epidemic hepatitis in case of the effect of low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kov, O.P.; Shubik, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    Clinical course of infections hepatitics B, developed on the background of pulmonary tuberculosis in people, who were subjected to chronic low dose ionizing radiation, indicated more frequent cases of severe and medium-severe forms of morbidity as compared to non-irradiated patients and those with no comitant pulmonary tuberculosis. However the reconvalescence terms, hepatitis size normalization, urine colour in different group patients did not differ essentially. The data obtained testify to the absence of significant peculiarities in the course of infections hepatitis B, combined with pulmonar tuberculosis under conditions of chronic low dose ionizing radiation. 3 refs.; 3 tabs

  14. Regulation of pulmonary inflammation by mesenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkhouri, Hatem; Poppinga, Wilfred Jelco; Tania, Navessa Padma; Ammit, Alaina; Schuliga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodelling are common elements of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In disease, pulmonary mesenchymal cells not only contribute to tissue

  15. The Critical Role of Pulmonary Arterial Compliance in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W.; Pritzker, Marc R.; Scandurra, John; Volmers, Karl; Weir, E. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The normal pulmonary circulation is a low-pressure, high-compliance system. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases in the presence of pulmonary hypertension because of increased extracellular matrix/collagen deposition in the pulmonary arteries. Loss of pulmonary arterial compliance has been consistently shown to be a predictor of increased mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, even more so than pulmonary vascular resistance in some studies. Decreased pulmonary arterial compliance causes premature reflection of waves from the distal pulmonary vasculature, leading to increased pulsatile right ventricular afterload and eventually right ventricular failure. Evidence suggests that decreased pulmonary arterial compliance is a cause rather than a consequence of distal small vessel proliferative vasculopathy. Pulmonary arterial compliance decreases early in the disease process even when pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance are normal, potentially enabling early diagnosis of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in high-risk populations. With the recognition of the prognostic importance of pulmonary arterial compliance, its impact on right ventricular function, and its contributory role in the development and progression of distal small-vessel proliferative vasculopathy, pulmonary arterial compliance is an attractive target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26848601

  16. Diverse Neurological Manifestations of Lead Encephalopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three patients with lead encephalopathy due to industrial poisoning are presented. They all showed a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, which mimic other neurological presentations. It is emphasised that lead poisoning still occurs in industry, despite efforts at prevention. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 1721 (1974) ...

  17. [Neurological syndromes associated with homocystein dismetabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, E A; Leonova, S F

    2006-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of clinical, neurological, and laboratory examination of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The data obtained suggest the existence of common pathobiochemical mechanisms of homocystein, cholesterol, and myelin dysmetabolism. The authors demonstrate that neurological manifestations of hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with the processes of demyelinization in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  18. Neurological status in severely jaundiced Zimbabwean neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M. J.; Beunen, G.; Casaer, P.; Wolf, B.

    1998-01-01

    Neurological status was studied in 50 jaundiced infants with a total serum bilirubin of > 400 mumol/l (23.4 mg/dl). Infants were assessed in the neonatal period with the Neonatal Neurological Examination and 4 months of age with the Infant Motor Screen. Twenty-six (52 per cent) infants were

  19. Neurological complications following adult lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateen, F. J.; Dierkhising, R. A.; Rabinstein, A. A.; van de Beek, D.; Wijdicks, E. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The full spectrum of neurologic complications and their impact on survival in lung recipients has not been reported. A retrospective cohort review of the Mayo Clinic Lung Transplant Registry (1988-2008) was performed to determine the range of neurologic complications in a cohort of adult lung

  20. Breastfeeding and neurological outcome at 42 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Touwen, BCL; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of early feeding mode on the neurological condition at 42 months. For this purpose, healthy pregnant women were recruited in Groningen and Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Children were healthy and born at term. At 42 months, the children were neurologically examined by

  1. THE NEUROLOGICAL FACE OF CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature.MethodsThis prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed.ResultsIn neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5% of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations.ConclusionIt is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  2. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  3. Residual neurologic sequelae after childhood cerebral malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hensbroek, M. B.; Palmer, A.; Jaffar, S.; Schneider, G.; Kwiatkowski, D.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is an important cause of pediatric hospital admissions in the tropics. It commonly leads to neurologic sequelae, but the risk factors for this remain unclear and the long-term outcome unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the common forms of neurologic sequelae that

  4. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  5. Task analysis in neurosciences programme design - neurological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining educational objectives is the key to achieving the goal of professional competence in students. The technique of task analysis was selected to determine components of competence in clinical neurology appropriate to the needs of primary care. A survey of neurological problems in general practice revealed that ...

  6. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  7. THE NEUROLOGICAL FACE OF CELIAC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işikay, Sedat; Kocamaz, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Several neurological disorders have also been widely described in celiac disease patients. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of accompanying different neurologic manifestations in children with celiac disease at the time of diagnosis and to discuss these manifestations in the light of the recent literature. This prospective cross sectional study included 297 children diagnosed with celiac disease. The medical records of all patients were reviewed. In neurological evaluation, totally 40 (13. 5%) of the 297 celiac patients had a neurological finding including headache, epilepsy, migraine, mental retardation, breath holding spells, ataxia, cerebral palsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Down syndrome and Turner syndrome in order of frequency. There was not any significant difference between the laboratory data of the patients with and without neurological manifestations. However; type 3a biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients without neurological manifestations, while type 3b biopsy was statistically significantly more common among patients with neurological manifestations. It is important to keep in mind that in clinical course of celiac disease different neurological manifestations may be reported.

  8. Gluten sensitivity and neurological manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report on six cases of gluten-sensitivity, also defined non-celiac gluten sensitivity, characterized by abdominal features (diarrhea, bloating, pain, genetic positivity for predisposition to celiac disease (DQB1* 02 in all cases; DQA1*05 in three; DQA1*02 in two, DQB1*03 in two, negative anti-t-Transglutaminase antibodies, normal mucosa on biopsy in four cases, type 1 of Marsh in one case. The subjects presented frequent central nervous system (CNS symptoms: headache in three patients, somnolence in one, electroencephalogram aspecific alterations in three (in two of them with previous seizures, leptomeningeal cyst in one, intracranial calcification in one, cerebral gliosis in two. After a gluten-free diet, all intestinal and clinical CNS features remitted, but re-appeared after gluten reintroduction. On the basis of the neurological signs, the authors stress the relevance of immune innate system in the pathogenesis of these cases with possible subsequent evolution on immune adaptive system involvement.

  9. Macitentan for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholdani CA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyrus A Kholdani,1 Wassim H Fares,2 Terence K Trow2 1Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, 2Yale Pulmonary Vascular Disease Program, Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: Macitentan is the most recently approved dual endothelin-receptor antagonist (ERA for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Compared to other available ERAs, it demonstrates superior receptor-binding properties, with consequently improved tissue penetration, and a longer duration of action allowing for once-daily dosing. It has a favorable adverse-effect profile, with notably no demonstrable increase in the risk of hepatotoxicity or peripheral edema, but like other ERAs, it is potentially limited by significant anemia. Phase I data have demonstrated a favorable drug–drug interaction profile and no need for dose adjustment with hepatic and renal impairment. In the pivotal SERAPHIN study, treatment of symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension patients with macitentan led to statistically significant improvements in functional class, exercise tolerance, and hemodynamic parameters, in addition to a reduction in morbidity in an event-driven long-term trial. Keywords: endothelin, endothelin receptor antagonists, macitentan, pulmonary arterial hypertension

  10. Child Neurology Education for Pediatric Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dara V F; Patel, Anup D; Behnam-Terneus, Maria; Sautu, Beatriz Cunill-De; Verbeck, Nicole; McQueen, Alisa; Fromme, H Barrett; Mahan, John D

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the current state of child neurology education during pediatric residency provides adequate preparation for pediatric practice. A survey was sent to recent graduates from 3 pediatric residency programs to assess graduate experience, perceived level of competence, and desire for further education in child neurology. Responses from generalists versus subspecialists were compared. The response rate was 32%, half in general pediatric practice. Only 22% feel very confident in approaching patients with neurologic problems. This may represent the best-case scenario as graduates from these programs had required neurology experiences, whereas review of Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency curricula revealed that the majority of residencies do not. Pediatric neurologic problems are common, and pediatric residency graduates do encounter such problems in practice. The majority of pediatricians report some degree of confidence; however, some clear areas for improvement are apparent.

  11. ESPEN guideline clinical nutrition in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Rosa; Bretón, Irene; Cereda, Emanuele; Desport, Jean Claude; Dziewas, Rainer; Genton, Laurence; Gomes, Filomena; Jésus, Pierre; Leischker, Andreas; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Preiser, Jean Charles; Van der Marck, Marjolein; Wirth, Rainer; Singer, Pierre; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2018-02-01

    Neurological diseases are frequently associated with swallowing disorders and malnutrition. Moreover, patients with neurological diseases are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency and dehydration. On the other hand, nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Multiple causes for the development of malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases are known including oropharyngeal dysphagia, impaired consciousness, perception deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and increased needs. The present evidence- and consensus-based guideline addresses clinical questions on best medical nutrition therapy in patients with neurological diseases. Among them, management of oropharyngeal dysphagia plays a pivotal role. The guideline has been written by a multidisciplinary team and offers 88 recommendations for use in clinical practice for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  13. pulmonary tuberculosis, jimma hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Program manual. RESULTS: A total of 112 extra pulmonary ... Key words: Clinical audit; extra pulmonary Tuberculosis; National Tuberculosis and. Leprosy Control manual. "Addis Ababa ..... intern influence drug regimen selection. Compliance to the 1997 NTLCP inanual is.

  14. Pulmonary artery aneurysm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Introduction. Pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare finding in general radiological practice. The possible causes are myriad and diverse in pathophysiolo- gy. Patients with post-stenotic dilata- tion of the main pulmonary artery usually present fairly late with insidi- ous cardiorespiratory symptoms. Diagnosis requires ...

  15. Pulmonary hypertension CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels

  16. Hepatic Myelopathy in a Patient with Decompensated Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Portal Colopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhotic or hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease usually seen in adults and presents as a progressive pure motor spastic paraparesis which is usually associated with overt liver failure and a surgical or spontaneous systemic portocaval shunt. We describe the development of progressive spastic paraparesis, in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and portal colopathy who presented with the first episode of hepatic encephalopathy. The patient had not undergone any shunt procedure.

  17. Abnormal pulmonary function in adults with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klings, Elizabeth S; Wyszynski, Diego F; Nolan, Vikki G; Steinberg, Martin H

    2006-06-01

    Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 +/- 14.7% predicted) and DLCO (64.5 +/- 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DLCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function.

  18. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. [Neurological disease and facial recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Mitsuru; Sugimoto, Azusa; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka; Tsuruya, Natsuko

    2012-07-01

    To discuss the neurological basis of facial recognition, we present our case reports of impaired recognition and a review of previous literature. First, we present a case of infarction and discuss prosopagnosia, which has had a large impact on face recognition research. From a study of patient symptoms, we assume that prosopagnosia may be caused by unilateral right occipitotemporal lesion and right cerebral dominance of facial recognition. Further, circumscribed lesion and degenerative disease may also cause progressive prosopagnosia. Apperceptive prosopagnosia is observed in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), pathologically considered as Alzheimer's disease, and associative prosopagnosia in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Second, we discuss face recognition as part of communication. Patients with Parkinson disease show social cognitive impairments, such as difficulty in facial expression recognition and deficits in theory of mind as detected by the reading the mind in the eyes test. Pathological and functional imaging studies indicate that social cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease is possibly related to damages in the amygdalae and surrounding limbic system. The social cognitive deficits can be observed in the early stages of Parkinson disease, and even in the prodromal stage, for example, patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show impairment in facial expression recognition. Further, patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM 1), which is a multisystem disease that mainly affects the muscles, show social cognitive impairment similar to that of Parkinson disease. Our previous study showed that facial expression recognition impairment of DM 1 patients is associated with lesion in the amygdalae and insulae. Our study results indicate that behaviors and personality traits in DM 1 patients, which are revealed by social cognitive impairment, are attributable to dysfunction of the limbic system.

  20. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  1. Hepatic vein flow pattern in children: assesment with Doppler sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmetoglu, Ali; Kosucu, Polat; Arikan, Elif; Dinc, Hasan; Resit Guemele, Halit

    2005-01-01

    Background: Aim of this study is to establish normal hepatic vein flow pattern and effect of age, sex, activity and feeding status on the hepatic flow pattern in normal Turkish children less than 15 years of ages and also to compare our values with the previously reported studies. Method: Hepatic vein flow patterns were evaluated in 150 children (83 male, 67 female) without any cardiac, pulmonary and liver disease by using Doppler sonography. Blood flow patterns were compared with age, sex, activity, and feeding status of the children. Results: Only 44% of the children had triphasic flow pattern in all hepatic veins. Monophasic flow pattern was the most common flow pattern in children less then 1 year of age. Triphasic flow pattern increase after 1 year of age. Although most of the children older than 1 year of age had triphasic flow pattern, there is some variation in the flow patterns of the hepatic veins in the same subject. Triphasic hepatic flow pattern is most commonly seen in the left hepatic vein and least commonly seen in the right hepatic vein. There was no significant difference between male and girl, children who were agitated or calm and fasting or not fasting in respect to triphasic flow pattern. Conclusion: Liver stiffening is not only the reason for abnormal hepatic flow pattern and some other physiologic factors may also lead to mono and/or diphasic flow pattern in the children. Absence of triphasic flow pattern must not be accepted as a liver pathology in children especially younger than 1 year of age

  2. Severe neurological complication following adjustable gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martines, G; Musa, N; Aquilino, F; Capuano, P

    2018-01-01

    In the last years with the increase of bariatric surgery, first of all as a result of new indications, a rise in the incidence of nutrient-related complications has been observed. Currently little is known about the impact of post-bariatric malnutrition and neurological complications. Wernicke's encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome which occurs as a result of thiamine deficiency. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome must be considered a serious neurological complication of bariatric surgery with significant morbidity and mortality, with rapidly progressing neurological symptoms, and must be treated immediately. We report the case of a 35 years-old male patient, affected by morbid obesity, anxious-depressive syndrome and alcohol use disorder, who after adjustable gastric banding implanted in another hospital developed a severe malnutrition and neurological syndrome. The patient showed poor adherence to the follow-up and to the dietary indications and after all, we needed to place a PEG for enteral nutrition in order to resolve the malnutrition condition and the neurological syndrome. Our experience emphasizes that preoperative selection and assessment of a patient's nutritional status according to guidelines, is required to identify potential problems, and that bariatric surgeons or physicians caring for patient who have undergone bariatric surgery should be familiar with the constellation of nutritional and neurological disorder that may occur after surgery. We want to remark the importance of preoperative selection of the patients, the follow-up and the cooperation between patient and physician in order to obtain the best result and avoid severe complications.

  3. Neurocritical care education during neurology residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, O.; Manno, E.; Geocadin, R.G.; Ziai, W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available regarding the current state of neurocritical care education for neurology residents. The goal of our survey was to assess the need and current state of neurocritical care training for neurology residents. Methods: A survey instrument was developed and, with the support of the American Academy of Neurology, distributed to residency program directors of 132 accredited neurology programs in the United States in 2011. Results: A response rate of 74% (98 of 132) was achieved. A dedicated neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) existed in 64%. Fifty-six percent of residency programs offer a dedicated rotation in the neuro-ICU, lasting 4 weeks on average. Where available, the neuro-ICU rotation was required in the vast majority (91%) of programs. Neurology residents' exposure to the fundamental principles of neurocritical care was obtained through a variety of mechanisms. Of program directors, 37% indicated that residents would be interested in performing away rotations in a neuro-ICU. From 2005 to 2010, the number of programs sending at least one resident into a neuro-ICU fellowship increased from 14% to 35%. Conclusions: Despite the expansion of neurocritical care, large proportions of US neurology residents have limited exposure to a neuro-ICU and neurointensivists. Formal training in the principles of neurocritical care may be highly variable. The results of this survey suggest a charge to address the variability of resident education and to develop standardized curricula in neurocritical care for neurology residents. PMID:22573636

  4. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy.

  5. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  6. Cloning and Characterization of the Mouse Hepatitis Virus Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-11

    cause inapparent enteric infection, infantile 24 diarrhea, hepatitis, respiratory infection, and acute and chronic demyelinating neurological...antigen family in malignant and nonmalignant human tissues." Cancer Res. 48: 3153- 3157. Craighead, J. E. and M. F. McLane. (1968). " Diabetes Mellitus...virus." J Biochem (Tokyo . 82: 1103-1108. 195 Yoon, J. W.. P. R. McClintock, T. Onodera and A. L Notkins. (1980). "Virus- induced diabetes mellitus

  7. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  8. Neurologic signs and symptoms in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Noonan, Carolyn; Ellenbogen, Richard G

    2009-09-01

    To determine the type and frequency of neurologic signs and symptoms in individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Persons with FM (n = 166) and pain-free controls (n = 66) underwent systematic neurologic examination by a neurologist blinded to disease status. Neurologic symptoms lasting at least 3 months were assessed with a standard questionnaire. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of neurologic symptoms and examination findings with FM status. Within the FM group we examined the correlation between self-reported symptoms and physical examination findings. Age- and sex-adjusted estimates revealed that compared with the control group, the FM group had significantly more neurologic abnormalities in multiple categories, including greater dysfunction in cranial nerves IX and X (42% versus 8%) and more sensory (65% versus 25%), motor (33% versus 3%), and gait (28% versus 7%) abnormalities. Similarly, the FM group had significantly more neurologic symptoms than the control group in 27 of 29 categories, with the greatest differences observed for photophobia (70% versus 6%), poor balance (63% versus 4%), and weakness (58% versus 2%) and tingling (54% versus 4%) in the arms or legs. Poor balance or coordination, tingling or weakness in the arms or legs, and numbness in any part of the body correlated with appropriate neurologic examination findings in the FM group. This blinded, controlled study demonstrated neurologic physical examination findings in persons with FM. The FM group had more neurologic symptoms than did the controls, with moderate correlation between symptoms and signs. These findings have implications for the medical evaluation of patients with FM.

  9. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  10. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  11. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  12. Intravascular pulmonary metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.A.O.; Moore, E.H.; Templeton, P.A.; McLoud, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The diagnosis of intravascular metastatic tumor emboli to the lungs is rarely made. The authors present a characteristic radiographic finding of intravascular lung metastases that they observed in four patients with diagnoses or right atrial myoxoma, invasive renal cell carcinoma, invasive pelvic osteosarcoma, and recurrent pelvic chondrosarcoma. Substantiation of intravascular pulmonary metastases was achieved by means of autopsy, pulmonary artery biopsy, and surgical documentation of tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava or pelvic veins. In all four cases, chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated branching, beaded opacities extending from the hila into the periphery of the lung in the distribution of pulmonary arteries. In one case, similar findings were observed in magnetic resonance (MR) images of the chest. Follow-up studies in three cases showed progressive enlargement and varicosity of the abnormal pulmonary artery consistent with proliferation of intravascular tumor. In the case of metastatic osteosarcoma, intraluminal ossification was also observed at CT. In three of four cases, pulmonary infarction was demonstrated in the distribution of the abnormal pulmonary arteries seen at CT as small, peripheral, wedge-shaped opacities. The demonstration of progressively dilated and beaded pulmonary arteries in patients with extrathoracic malignancies is suggestive of intravascular lung metastases, particularly when accompanied by peripheral infarction

  13. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  14. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  15. Neurological aspects of acute radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torubarov, F.S.; Bushmanov, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the most important clinical studies of human nervous system reactions to acute radiation, carried out at Neurology Clinic of the State Research Center of Russia - Institute of Biophysics are presented. Clinical picture of changes in the nervous system in acute radiation disease caused by homologous and heterologous external irradiation is described. Main neurological syndrome of extremely severe acute radiation disease: acute radiation encephalopathy, radiation toxic encephalopathy, and hemorrhagic syndrome of the central nervous system is distinguished. Relationship between neurological disorders and the geometry of exposure are considered [ru

  16. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  17. Digital Footprint of Neurological Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christopher; Gupta, Raghav; Shah, Aakash; Madill, Evan; Prabhu, Arpan V; Agarwal, Nitin

    2018-05-01

    Patients are increasingly turning to online resources to inquire about individual physicians and to gather health information. However, little research exists studying the online presence of neurosurgeons across the country. This study aimed to characterize these online profiles and assess the scope of neurosurgeons' digital identities. Medicare-participating neurologic surgeons from the United States and Puerto Rico were identified using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Comparable Downloadable File. Each physician was characterized by his or her medical education, graduation year, city of practice, gender, and affiliation with an academic institution. Using a Google-based custom search tool, the top 10 search results for each physician were extracted and categorized as 1 of the following: 1) physician, hospital, or healthcare system controlled, 2) third-party or government controlled, 3) social media-based, 4) primary journal article, or 5) other. Among the physicians within the CMS database, 4751 self-identified as being neurosurgeons, yielding a total of 45,875 uniform resource locator search results pertinent to these physicians. Of the 4751 neurosurgeons, 2317 (48.8%) and 2434 (51.2%) were classified as academic and nonacademic neurosurgeons, respectively. At least 1 search result was obtained for every physician. Hospital, healthcare system, or physician-controlled websites (18,206; 39.7%) and third-party websites (17,122; 37.3%) were the 2 most commonly observed domain types. Websites belonging to social media platforms accounted for 4843 (10.6%) search results, and websites belonging to peer-reviewed academic journals accounted for 1888 (4.1%) search results. The frequency with which a third-party domain appeared as the first search result was higher for nonacademic neurosurgeons than for academic neurosurgeons. In general, neurosurgeons lacked a controllable online presence within their first page of Google Search results

  18. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  19. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Gulati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has a spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild disease to a severe form comprising of jaundice and renal failure. Involvement of the lung can vary from subtle clinical features to deadly pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of late, it has been identified that leptospirosis can present atypically with predominant pulmonary manifestations. This can delay diagnosis making and hence optimum treatment. The purpose of this review is to bring together all the reported pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis and the recent trends in the management.

  20. Smoking is a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, M; Tsuruta, M; Hasegawa, H; Okabayashi, K; Toyoda, N; Iwama, N; Morita, S; Kitagawa, Y

    2017-09-01

    The hepatic microenvironment, which may include chronic inflammation and fibrosis, is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of liver metastases of colorectal cancer. A similar mechanism is anticipated for pulmonary metastases, although no reports are available. Smoking causes pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we hypothesized that smokers would be especially affected by pulmonary metastases of colorectal cancer. In this study, we attempted to clarify the impact of smoking on pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Between September 2005 and December 2010 we reviewed 567 patients with pathological Stage I, II or III colorectal cancer, whose clinicopathological background included a preoperative smoking history, pack-year history from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazard model were performed to determine the independent prognostic factors for pulmonary metastasis-free survival. Pulmonary metastases occurred in 39 (6.9%) patients. The smoking histories revealed 355 never smokers, 119 former smokers and 93 current smokers among the subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that being a current smoker (hazard ratio = 2.72, 95% CI 1.18-6.25; P = 0.02) was an independent risk factor for pulmonary metastases. Smoking may be a risk factor for pulmonary metastasis of colorectal cancer. Cessation of smoking should be recommended to prevent pulmonary metastasis, although further basic and clinical studies are required. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Liere

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only.

  2. [Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular complications hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño Julca, Alexis Jose; Alvarez Murillo, Carlos Melchor; Amoretti Alvino, Pedro Miguel; Florian Florian, Angel Aladino; Castro Johanson, Rosa Aurora; Celi Perez, Maria Danisa; Huamán Prado, Olga Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and portopulmonary hypertension (PPHN) are distinct pulmonary vascular complications of portal hypertension (PHT) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary vascular complications hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. We included patients with HTP hospitalized from January 2012 to June 2013 and that during its evolution progressed with SHP or HTPP. For analysis, they were divided into a first group of patients with liver cirrhosis and a second group with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Of 22 patients with HPT 45.5% were male and the age range was between 1 month and 17 years. The etiology in the group of cirrhosis (n=14) was: autoimmune hepatitis (35.7%), cryptogenic cirrhosis (35.7%), inborn error of metabolism (14.3%), chronic viral hepatitis C (7.15%) virus and atresia extra-hepatic bile ducts (7.15%). Pulmonary vascular complications more frequently occurred in patients with liver cirrhosis (1 case of HPS and a case of PPHTN). They most often dyspnea, asthenia, edema, malnutrition, ascites, hypersplenism and gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal varices was found. Also, they had elevated ALT values, alkaline phosphatase and serum albumin values decreased. In children with pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vascular complications are rare. In the evaluation of these patients pulse oximetry should be included to detect hypoxemia and ubsequently a Doppler echocardiography and contrast echocardiography necessary. Dueto the finding of systolic pulmonary hypertension it is necessary to perform right heart catheterization.

  3. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  4. Capsaicin affects brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Magen, I; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiav, L; Zolotarev, O; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by liver failure. In view of the effects of cannabinoids in a thioacetamide-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy and liver disease and the beneficial effect of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in liver disease, we assumed that capsaicin may also affect hepatic encephalopathy. Experimental approach: Fulminant hepatic failure was induced in mice by thioacetamide and 24 h later, the animals were injected with one of the following compound(s): 2-arachidonoylglycerol (CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor agonist); HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist), SR141716A (CB1 receptor antagonist); SR141716A+2-arachidonoylglycerol; SR144528 (CB2 receptor antagonist); capsaicin; and capsazepine (TRPV1 receptor agonist and antagonist respectively). Their neurological effects were evaluated on the basis of activity in the open field, cognitive function in an eight-arm maze and a neurological severity score. The mice were killed 3 or 14 days after thioacetamide administration. 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. Results: Capsaicin had a neuroprotective effect in this animal model as shown by the neurological score, activity and cognitive function. The effect of capsaicin was blocked by capsazepine. Thioacetamide induced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and the cerebellum and raised brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were decreased by capsaicin, SR141716A and HU-308. Thioacetamide lowered brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels, an effect reversed by capsaicin. Conclusions: Capsaicin improved both liver and brain dysfunction caused by thioacetamide, suggesting that both the endocannabinoid and the vanilloid systems play important roles in hepatic encephalopathy. Modulation of these systems may have therapeutic value. PMID:19764982

  5. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  6. African Journal of Neurological Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences (AJNS) is owned and controlled by ... Decisions about acceptable or rejected manuscripts may take within 8 to 10 weeks. ... The abstract must be clear, precise and concise (no more than 250 words) ...

  7. LEARNERS SATISFACTION FACTORS IN NEUROLOGY RELATED MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.

  8. Neurological Complications Of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , of the neurological deficits complicating chronic myeloid leukaemia. Method: Using patients\\' case folders and haematological malignancy register all cases of chronic myeloid leukaemia seen in Jos University Teaching Hospital between July ...

  9. Editorial | Dechambenoit | African Journal of Neurological Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Neurological findings in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Aicardi, J.; Girot, R.; Rosa, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two siblings with hemolytic anemia caused by triosephosphate isomerase deficiency developed a progressive neurological syndrome featuring dystonic movements, tremor, pyramidal tract signs, and evidence of spinal motor neuron involvement. Intelligence was unaffected. The findings in these patients

  11. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.; Fink, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Almost no other method has reach such an interest as the functional imaging in psychiatric and neurological science; it is fascinating to observe the brain at work. The fundamentals of functional magnetic resonance tomography (fMRT) and the interpretation of MRT images are explained; the state-of-the-art is discussed. The book is focussed on the functional imaging within psychiatry and neurology. The book contains 45 contributions within the following chapters: fundamentals, higher brain accomplishments, disease pattern, examinatory examples, perspectives

  12. [Pulmonary Manifestations of Vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Vietinghoff, S

    2016-11-01

    The variable symptoms and signs of pulmonary vasculitis are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Vasculitis should be considered in rapidly progressing, severe and unusual manifestations of pulmonary disease. Clinical examination of other organ systems typically affected by vasculitis such as skin and kidney and autoantibody measurements are complementary approaches to manage this situation. Pulmonary involvement is common in small vessel vasculitis including anti-GBM disease (Goodpasture syndrome) and the ANCA-associated vasculitides. Life threatening pulmonary hemorrhage and irreversible damage of other organs, frequently the kidney, are important complications necessitating rapid diagnosis of these conditions.Vasculitides are rare diseases of multiple organs and therapies including biologics are evolving rapidly, requiring cooperation of specialities and with specialized centres to achieve best patient care. All involved physicians should be aware of typical complications of immunosuppressive therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Sobrinho, J.H. de; Kambara, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Six cases of pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas, isolated, without hemorrhagic hereditary telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Symdrome) are reported emphasizing the radiographic, tomographic and angiographic examinations, (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Apical pulmonary abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Ferrer, Cesar A; Serrano Vasquez, Francisco O

    2004-01-01

    We presented the case of a 54 year-old man with bilateral apical pulmonary abscess who consults due to fever and bronchorrhoea, isolating moraxella catharralis that is managed with ampicillin-sulbactam with an adequate clinical and radiological evolution

  15. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Echocardiogram Measurements of blood oxygen level (arterial blood gases) Pulmonary function tests 6-minute walk test Tests ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  16. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Won-kyung; Au, Virginia; Rose, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous pulmonary venous return is an uncommon congenital malformation, and may be partial or total. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) is more common than total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and is often associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies. Whilst many patients with PAPVR remain asymptomatic, some may present in later age with symptoms related to left-to-right shunt, right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. We report two cases of PAPVR detected on Computed Tomography Pulmonary Angiogram (CTPA) for the work up of pulmonary hypertension. The cases demonstrate that, although uncommon, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return can be a contributing factor to pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veins should be carefully examined when reading a CTPA study.

  17. Neurological Disorders in Adult Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease may initially present as a neurological disorder. Alternatively, celiac disease may be complicated by neurological changes. With impaired nutrient absorption, different deficiency syndromes may occur and these may be manifested clinically with neurological changes. However, in patients with deficiency syndromes, extensive involvement of the small intestine with celiac disease is often evident. There are a number of reports of celiac disease associated with neuropathy, ataxia, dementia and seizure disorder. In these reports, there is no clear relationship with nutrient deficiency and a precise mechanism for the neurological changes has not been defined. A small number of patients have been reported to have responded to vitamin E administration, but most do not. In some, gluten antibodies have also been described, especially in those with ataxia, but a consistent response to a gluten-free diet has not been defined. Screening for celiac disease should be considered in patients with unexplained neurological disorders, including ataxia and dementia. Further studies are needed, however, to determine if a gluten-free diet will lead to improvement in the associated neurological disorder.

  18. The Role of Magnesium in Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Kirkland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is well known for its diverse actions within the human body. From a neurological standpoint, magnesium plays an essential role in nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. It also functions in a protective role against excessive excitation that can lead to neuronal cell death (excitotoxicity, and has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. Due to these important functions within the nervous system, magnesium is a mineral of intense interest for the potential prevention and treatment of neurological disorders. Current literature is reviewed for migraine, chronic pain, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and stroke, as well as the commonly comorbid conditions of anxiety and depression. Previous reviews and meta-analyses are used to set the scene for magnesium research across neurological conditions, while current research is reviewed in greater detail to update the literature and demonstrate the progress (or lack thereof in the field. There is strong data to suggest a role for magnesium in migraine and depression, and emerging data to suggest a protective effect of magnesium for chronic pain, anxiety, and stroke. More research is needed on magnesium as an adjunct treatment in epilepsy, and to further clarify its role in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Overall, the mechanistic attributes of magnesium in neurological diseases connote the macromineral as a potential target for neurological disease prevention and treatment.

  19. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  20. Neurologic sequelae associated with foscarnet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, E; Liu, Y Q

    1994-09-01

    To report three cases of possible foscarnet-induced neurologic sequelae. We report two cases of seizures and one case of hand cramping and finger paresthesia after starting foscarnet therapy with no evidence of predisposing risk factors, such as serum laboratory abnormalities, renal dysfunction, or known central nervous system (CNS) involvement. All three patients had stable laboratory values during therapy and when the neurologic adverse effects occurred. All patients were receiving appropriate dosages of foscarnet. The incidence of seizures in AIDS patients was reviewed. A history of CNS lesions, infections, and/or AIDS per se may increase the risk of a neurologic adverse effect while receiving foscarnet therapy. Acute ionized hypocalcemia may cause these neurologic adverse effects. Ionized hypocalcemia is transitory, is related to the rate of foscarnet infusion, and may not be reflected as a change in total serum calcium concentration. Foscarnet probably contributed to the neurologic adverse effects reported here. Foscarnet may need to be administered at a slower rate than is recommended by the manufacturer. Electrolytes must be monitored closely; however, a neurologic adverse effect may not be foreseen.

  1. Chapter 50: history of tropical neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2010-01-01

    Tropical neurology began less than two centuries ago. Consumption of dietary toxins predominated at the beginning and gave birth to the geographic entity. The story moved from lathyrism through Jamaican neuropathy to cassava-induced epidemic neuropathy, which was contrasted with Konzo, also associated with cassava. Other tropical diseases enumerated with chronological details include: Chaga's diseases, kwashiorkor, Madras type of motor neuron disease, atlanto-axial dislocation, Burkitt's lymphoma and Kuru, associated with cannibalism among the Fore linguistic group in New Guinea. More recent documentation includes the Cuban neuropathy in 1991 with an epidemic of visual loss and neuropathy, Anaphe venata entomophagy in Nigeria presenting as seasonal ataxia, and neurological aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus infection complete the picture. With time, professional associations were formed and the pioneers were given prominence. The World Federation of Neurology featured Geographic Neurology as a theme in 1977 and Tropical Neurology was given prominence at its 1989 meeting in New Delhi, India. The situation remains unchanged with regards to rare diseases like Meniere's, multiple sclerosis, hereditary disorders. However, with westernization and continued urbanization, changing disease patterns are being observed and tropical neurology may depart from dietary toxins to more western world-type disorders.

  2. [Immersion pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgraz, Benoît; Sartori, Claudio; Saubade, Mathieu; Héritier, Francis; Gabus, Vincent

    2017-07-12

    Immersion pulmonary edema may occur during scuba diving, snorke-ling or swimming. It is a rare and often recurrent disease, mainly affecting individuals aged over 50 with high blood pressure. However it also occurs in young individuals with a healthy heart. The main symptoms are dyspnea, cough and hemoptysis. The outcome is often favorable under oxygen treatment but deaths are reported. A cardiac and pulmonary assessment is necessary to evaluate the risk of recurrence and possible contraindications to immersion.

  3. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  5. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  6. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  7. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  8. Therapeutic hypothermia brings favorable neurologic outcomes in children with near drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Chun; Chu, Chia-Hsiang; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Lin, Jun-Song; Chen, Jui-Hsia; Chang, Yu-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year-10-month-old boy was admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit due to near drowning with pulmonary edema. A conventional ventilator with 100% oxygen supplementation was used initially, but was shifted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation as his oxygen saturation was around 84-88%. Therapeutic hypothermia was applied due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with severe acidosis. His respiratory condition improved and he was extubated successfully on the 6 th hospital day. The patient had no obvious neurological defects and he was discharged in a stable condition after 17 days of hospitalization. Our case report demonstrates the advantages of therapeutic hypothermia on survival and neurological outcomes in treating pediatric near drowning patients.

  9. CT and MR findings of neurological disorders associated with pregnancy and childbirth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tae [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    The onset of pregnancy may predispose women to a variety of neurological diseases due to changes in their hemodynamics, hormonal effects, and complications associated with childbirth. The spectrum of neurological disorders associated with pregnancy and childbirth include hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhaging, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) (secondary to eclampsia), Wernicke encephalopathy, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Sheehan's syndrome, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (secondary to pulmonary amniotic fluid embolism), multifocal infarctions, and extra-potine myelinolysis. The recognition of the various imaging findings of these diseases, along with the clinical presentations should aid in their early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The purpose of this pictorial assay is to describe the characteristic CT and MR findings of these diseases with a literature review to explain the mechanisms and clinical symptoms.

  10. CT and MR findings of neurological disorders associated with pregnancy and childbirth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jee Young; Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2008-01-01

    The onset of pregnancy may predispose women to a variety of neurological diseases due to changes in their hemodynamics, hormonal effects, and complications associated with childbirth. The spectrum of neurological disorders associated with pregnancy and childbirth include hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhaging, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) (secondary to eclampsia), Wernicke encephalopathy, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Sheehan's syndrome, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (secondary to pulmonary amniotic fluid embolism), multifocal infarctions, and extra-potine myelinolysis. The recognition of the various imaging findings of these diseases, along with the clinical presentations should aid in their early diagnosis and prompt treatment. The purpose of this pictorial assay is to describe the characteristic CT and MR findings of these diseases with a literature review to explain the mechanisms and clinical symptoms

  11. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  12. Neurology in a globalizing world: World Congress of Neurology, Vienna, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachinski, Vladimir

    2013-06-11

    The World Congress of Neurology (figure 1) theme "Neurology in a Globalizing World" acknowledges that science and increasingly medicine and neurology are becoming globalized. The best way to manage change is to shape it. It is becoming increasingly clear that brain diseases, particularly stroke and dementia, are projected to rise at a rate that could overwhelm our clinics and hospitals. Hence a new emphasis on prevention and the need to work across disciplines beyond our traditional roles. Neurologists are the guardians of the brain and need to take the lead role in advancing new approaches in stemming the tide of neurologic diseases.

  13. Maintenance of pulmonary vasculature tone by blood derived from the inferior vena cava in a rabbit model of cavopulmonary shunt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikai, Akio; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Nishimura, Kazunobu; Ikeda, Tadashi; Kameyama, Takayuki; Ueyama, Koji; Komeda, Masashi

    2005-01-01

    After cavopulmonary shunt in which the superior vena cava is anastomosed to the right pulmonary artery, the right lung is in a unique condition without flow pulsatility and hepatic venous effluent. In a previous study, we reported that hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction disappeared in the pulmonary circulation after cavopulmonary shunt. In this study, however, to investigate the influence of pulsatility and hepatic venous effluent on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation, we developed an alternative cavopulmonary shunt rabbit model that included hepatic venous effluent in the pulmonary circulation and reduced the pulsatility of the pulmonary arterial blood flow. We then observed the physiologic characteristics of the peripheral pulmonary artery after cavopulmonary shunt, specifically the disappearance of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Sixteen Japanese white rabbits (12-16 weeks old) were used in this study. With general anesthesia, a cavopulmonary shunt was established by anastomosing the right superior vena cava to the right pulmonary artery in an end-to-side fashion. Of the 16 rabbits for the study, the proximal right pulmonary artery was completely ligated in 5 (atresia group) and partially ligated in 6 (stenosis group). Sham operation was performed in the remaining 5 rabbits. Two weeks later, we analyzed the response of the pulmonary artery (which was divided into three categories: segmental, lobular, and acinar level artery) to hypoxia (8% oxygen inhalation) with a specially designed video radiographic system. Morphometric analysis of the resistance pulmonary artery was done in each group after angiography. Mean pressure and pulse pressure in the right pulmonary artery were not significantly different between the atresia and stenosis groups. The mean pulmonary artery pressures in the atresia and stenosis groups were 8 and 11 mm Hg, respectively. However, the pulse pressure was less than 2 mm Hg in both groups. The baseline

  14. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  15. Sildenafil does not influence hepatic venous pressure gradient in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Jens-Otto; Giraldi, Annamaria; Ott, Peter

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if sildenafil increases splanchnic blood flow and changes the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) in patients with cirrhosis. Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors are valuable in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in patients with end-stage liver...

  16. Association between bullous pemphigoid and neurologic diseases: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-de-la-Asunción, E; Ruano-Ruiz, J; Rodríguez-Martín, A M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-11-01

    In the past 10 years, bullous pemphigoid has been associated with other comorbidities and neurologic and psychiatric conditions in particular. Case series, small case-control studies, and large population-based studies in different Asian populations, mainland Europe, and the United Kingdom have confirmed this association. However, no data are available for the Spanish population. This was an observational, retrospective, case-control study with 1:2 matching. Fifty-four patients with bullous pemphigoid were selected. We compared the percentage of patients in each group with concurrent neurologic conditions, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and solid tumors using univariate logistic regression. An association model was constructed with conditional multiple logistic regression. The case group had a significantly higher percentage of patients with cerebrovascular accident and/or transient ischemic attack (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; 95% CI, 1.19-7.87], dementia (OR, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.19-13.93), and Parkinson disease (OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.57-15.94). A significantly higher percentage of cases had neurologic conditions (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.89-13.91). Dementia and Parkinson disease were independently associated with bullous pemphigoid in the multivariate analysis. Patients with bullous pemphigoid have a higher frequency of neurologic conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Voriconazole Therapy: Report of Two Pediatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevliya Öcal Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is a safe drug, treatment with this agent is associated with certain adverse events such as hepatic, neurologic, and visual disturbances. The current report presents two cases, one a 9-year-old boy and the other a 17-year-old girl, who experienced neurologic side effects associated with voriconazole therapy. Our aim is to remind readers of the side effects of voriconazole therapy in order to prevent unnecessary investigations especially for psychological and ophthalmologic problems. The first case was a 9-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and invasive aspergillosis that developed photophobia, altered color sensation, and fearful visual hallucination. The second case was a 17-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and she experienced photophobia, fatigue, impaired concentration, and insomnia, when the dose of voriconazole therapy was increased from 12 mg/kg/day to 16 mg/kg/day. The complaints of the two patients disappeared after discontinuation of voriconazole therapy. Our experience in these patients reminded us of the importance of being aware of the neurologic adverse events associated with voriconazole therapy in establishing early diagnosis and initiating prompt treatment. In addition, although serum voriconazole concentration was not measured in the present cases, therapeutic drug monitoring for voriconazole seems to be critically important in preventing neurologic side effects in pediatric patients.

  18. Does exercise pulmonary hypertension exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Edmund M; Chemla, Denis; Whyte, Kenneth; Kovacs, Gabor; Olschewski, Horst; Herve, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The exercise definition of pulmonary hypertension using a mean pulmonary artery pressure threshold of greater than 30 mmHg was abandoned following the 4th World Pulmonary Hypertension Symposium in 2008, as this definition was not supported by evidence and healthy individuals frequently exceed this threshold. Meanwhile, the clinical value of exercise pulmonary hemodynamic testing has also been questioned. Recent data support the notion that an abnormal pulmonary hemodynamic response during exercise (or exercise pulmonary hypertension) is associated with symptoms and exercise limitation. Pathophysiologic mechanisms accounting for the development of exercise pulmonary hypertension include increased vascular resistance, excessive elevation in left atrial pressure and/or increased volume of trapped air during exercise, resulting in a steep rise in pulmonary artery pressure relative to cardiac output. Recent evidence suggests that exercise pulmonary hypertension may be defined by a mean pulmonary artery pressure surpassing 30 mmHg together with a simultaneous total pulmonary resistance exceeding 3 WU. Exercise pulmonary hypertension is a clinically relevant entity and an improved definition has been suggested based on new evidence. Exercise pulmonary hemodynamics may help unmask early or latent disease, particularly in populations that are at high risk for the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  19. Hepatitis C-related cryoglobulinemic neuropathy: potential role of oxcarbazepine for pain control

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    Background Peripheral neuropathy is one most common, limiting and invalidating neurological symptom in subjects with hepatitis C virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Notably, the medical therapy proposed to eradicate HCV, can frequently exacerbate the painful neuropathy. Therefore, neuropathy therapies are insufficient and inadequate, and comprise immunosuppressive drugs, such as steroid or cyclosporine, intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange. These have shown variable success in case rep...

  20. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk...

  1. Status of neurology medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  2. Acute neurological signs as the predominant clinical manifestation in four dogs with Angiostrongylus vasorum infections in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pors Susanne E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four dogs with acute neurological signs caused by haemorrhages in the central nervous system were diagnosed with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection as the underlying aetiology. Two dogs presented with brain lesions, one dog with spinal cord lesions and one with lesions in both the brain and spinal cord. Only one dog presented with concurrent signs of classical pulmonary angiostrongylosis (respiratory distress, cough, and only two dogs displayed overt clinical signs of haemorrhages. Results of coagulation assays were inconsistent. Neurological signs reflected the site of pathology and included seizures, various cranial nerve deficits, vestibular signs, proprioceptive deficits, ataxia and paraplegia. One dog died and three were euthanised due to lack of improvement despite medical treatment. This emphasises canine angiostrongylosis as a potential cause of fatal lesions of the central nervous system and the importance of including A. vasorum as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with acute neurological signs in Denmark.

  3. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-03-15

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament.

  4. CT appearance of pulmonary ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Chin, Soo Yil

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary ligament consists of 2 serosal of pleura that connect the lower to the mediastinum. Author analyse and present CT appearance of pulmonary ligament of the 40 normal and abnormal patients on the basis of anatomic knowledge from the cross section of cadaver. Left pulmonary ligament is more frequency visualized than the right. The most important CT landmark in localizing pulmonary ligament is the esophagus where the ligament attaches on its lateral wall. Pitfalls in CT identification of pulmonary ligament are right phrenic nerve and right pericardiacophrenic vessels which emerge from lateral wall of the IVC and wall of the emphysematous bulla in the region of the pulmonary ligament

  5. CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Im, Jung Gi; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Hong Dae; Han, Man Chung

    1995-01-01

    The fungus aspergillus can cause a variety of pulmonary disorders. Aspergilloma is a noninvasive aspergillus colonization of virtually any type of preexisting pulmonary cavity or cystic space. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is serious, usually fatal infection in patients being treated with immunosuppressants or who have chronic debilitating disease. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is characterized clinically by asthma, blood and sputum eosinophilia and positive immunologic reaction to aspergillus antigen. Awareness of the radiographic and CT findings of pulmonary aspergillosis is important in making the diagnosis of aspergillus-caused pulmonary disorders. In this pictorial essay, we illustrated various radiological findings of pulmonary aspergillosis focused on CT findings correlated with gross pathologic specimens

  6. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  7. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  8. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  9. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  10. Standards in Neurological Rehabilitation, June 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Barnes

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS Scientific Panel on Neurorehabilitation established a Task Force on standards in neurological rehabilitation in June 1996. The remit for the Task Force was to: (1 produce a report on the state of neurological rehabilitation across Europe; and (2 recommend standards for the provision of neurological services for disabled people. The main conclusions of the Task Force were as follows: (1 A questionnaire circulated to each European member country has indicated a significant lack of adequate neurological rehabilitation facilities across Europe. Very few countries have any established network of neurological rehabilitation centres. Few countries have adequately trained neurological rehabilitation physicians, therapists or nurses. Such poor facilities should be seen in the context of the large numbers and increasing prevalence of people with neurological disabilities. (2 The Task Force has summarized the significant benefits that can follow from the establishment of a dedicated and cost effective neurological rehabilitation service including functional improvement, reduction of unnecessary complications, better coordination and use of limited resources, improved opportunities for education, training and research and a clear point of contact for the disabled person. (3 The Task Force recommends minimum standards for the prevention of neurological disability including access to health education, genetic counselling and emergency resources. The Task Force also encourages governments to invest in improved legislation for accident prevention. (4 The Task Force has outlined some minimum standards for the staffing of a neurological rehabilitation service including improved training both for neurologists and rehabilitation physicians. Such training could include a cross-national training programme both for physicians and other health care staff. (5 The Task Force supports a two-tier system of

  11. Problem neurology residents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabby, David S; Majeed, Muhammed H; Schwartzman, Robert J

    2011-06-14

    Problem residents are found across most medical specialties at a prevalence of about 10%. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and causes of problem neurology residents and to compare neurology programs' responses and outcomes. Directors of 126 US neurology residency programs were sent an electronic survey. We collected data on demographics, first and all "identifiers" of problem residents, and year of training in which the problem was found. We asked about observable signs, etiology, and who performed remediation. We asked what resources were used and what outcomes occurred. Ninety-five program directors completed surveys (75% response rate). Almost all neurology programs have problem residents (81%). Age, sex, marital status, being a US native, or attending a US medical school had no effect on problem status. Being a parent carried a lower likelihood of problems (32%). Most commonly the problem is acted on during the first year of training. Faculty members without defined educational roles were the most frequent first identifiers. Program directors were the most common remediators. The most common remediation techniques were increasing supervision and assigning a faculty mentor. Graduate medical education office and psychiatric or psychological counseling services were most often used. Eleven percent of problem residents required a program for impaired physicians and 14% required a leave of absence. Sixteen percent were dismissed from their programs. The prevalence of problem residents in neurology is similar to other disciplines, and various resources are available to remediate them.

  12. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  13. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  14. Neurology and the Internet: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Marcello; Brigo, Francesco; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Bonavita, Simona; Lavorgna, Luigi

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, the Internet is the major source to obtain information about diseases and their treatments. The Internet is gaining relevance in the neurological setting, considering the possibility of timely social interaction, contributing to general public awareness on otherwise less-well-known neurological conditions, promoting health equity and improving the health-related coping. Neurological patients can easily find several online opportunities for peer interactions and learning. On the other hand, neurologist can analyze user-generated data to better understand patient needs and to run epidemiological studies. Indeed, analyses of queries from Internet search engines on certain neurological diseases have shown a strict temporal and spatial correlation with the "real world." In this narrative review, we will discuss how the Internet is radically affecting the healthcare of people with neurological disorders and, most importantly, is shifting the paradigm of care from the hands of those who deliver care, into the hands of those who receive it. Besides, we will review possible limitations, such as safety concerns, financial issues, and the need for easy-to-access platforms.

  15. Feeding problems in children with neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Ewa; Głuszkiewicz, Ewa; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Woś, Halina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of selected risk factors of weight deficiency in children with chronic metabolic diseases. The study group involved 160 children, from 2 months to 15 years (mean age 3.14 years), with diseases of the nervous system and body weight deficiency. According to the type of neurological disease the following groups of patients were separated: static encephalopathies, progressive encephalopathies, disorders of mental development of undetermined etiology, genetically determined diseases. As the exponent of malnutrition, z-score of weight-for-age standards was used. An inclusion criterion for the study group was z-score of weight-for-age children, neurological disorders, oral motor dysfunction, diseases of other organs, gastrointestinal motility disorders (oral cavity, esophagus, intestines) and type of nutritional therapy. The most advanced malnutrition was in children with progressive encephalopathies and genetically determined diseases. Seizures and muscular hypotonia were most common neurological disorders. Oral motor dysfunctions were observed in 40% of patients. Malnutrition in children with neurological disorders is associated mainly with neurological deficits. In this group of children monitoring of somatic development and early nutritional intervention are necessary.

  16. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  17. Dengue: a new challenge for neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is a leading cause of illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Forty percent of the world’s population currently lives in these areas. The clinical picture resulting from dengue infection can range from relatively minor to catastrophic hemorrhagic fever. Recently, reports have increased of neurological manifestations. Neuropathogenesis seems to be related to direct nervous system viral invasion, autoimmune reaction, metabolic and hemorrhagic disturbance. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis, encephalopathy, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, and cerebromeningeal hemorrhage. The development of neurological symptoms in patients with positive Immunoglobulin M (IgM dengue serology suggests a means of diagnosing the neurological complications associated with dengue. Viral antigens, specific IgM antibodies, and the intrathecal synthesis of dengue antibodies have been successfully detected in cerebrospinal fluid. However, despite diagnostic advancements, the treatment of neurological dengue is problematic. The launch of a dengue vaccine is expected to be beneficial.

  18. Side effects of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus infection-sarcoidosis - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, D; Teodor, Andra; Grigore, Lucia; Jugănariu, Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela; Miftode, Egidia; Azoicăi, Doina

    2012-01-01

    Standard therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection is still a combination of peginterferon alfa2a/2b and ribavirin for 48 weeks. As of side effects, there are organic side effects, such as hematologic disorders, and functional side effects, reflected in the quality of life of hepatitis C patients. Up to 30% of the patients develop specific side effects such as headache, fever, fatigue. Sarcoidosis, known as a granulomatous disease of uncertain cause, is an uncommon finding in this category of patients. This cause-effect relation is accounted for by the convergent action of peginterferon and ribavirin of stimulating type 1 T helper cells and reducing type 2 helper T cells activation. We present the case of male patient known with chronic hepatitis C who developed pulmonary sarcoidosis following antiviral therapy. The first manifestation of the disease was unexplained fever accompanied by pulmonary tract disease. The diagnosis was established by immunophenotyping in bronchial aspirate

  19. Pediatric Pulmonary Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Barbour

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 6-year-old previously healthy male presented to the emergency department with three days of left upper quadrant abdominal pain. Family endorsed one week of fevers, cough productive of yellow sputum, and non-bilious, non-bloody emesis. He denied shortness of breath and chest pain. On exam, the patient was febrile with otherwise normal vital signs. He had diffuse tenderness to his abdomen but clear lungs. Laboratory studies revealed leukocytosis to 25,000/mm3 with a left shift. Significant findings: Upright posterior-anterior plain chest films show a left lower lobe consolidation with an air-fluid level and a single septation consistent with a pulmonary abscess (white arrows. A small left pleural effusion was also present, seen as blunting of the left costophrenic angle and obscuration of the left hemidiaphragm (black arrows. Discussion: Pediatric pulmonary abscesses are rare, most commonly caused by aspiration, and the majority consequently arise in dependent portions of the lung.1 The most common pathogens in children are Streptococcus pneumoniaeand Staphylococcus aureus.1 Immunocompromised patients and those with existing pulmonary disease more commonly contract Pseudomonas aeruginosaor Bacteroides, and fungal pathogens are possible.1 Common symptoms include tachypnea, fever, and cough. Imaging is necessary to distinguish pulmonary abscesses from pneumonia, empyema, pneumatocele, and other etiologies. Plain film radiography may miss up to 18% of pulmonary abscesses yet is often the first modality to visualize an intrathoracic abnormality.2 If seen, pulmonary abscesses most often appear as consolidations with air-fluid levels. Generally, pulmonary abscesses are round with irregular, thick walls, whereas empyemas are elliptical with smooth, thin walls.3 However, these characteristics cannot definitively distinguish these processes.2 Advantages of plain films include being low cost and easily obtained. Computed

  20. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Pediatric Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Massicotte, Patricia [Stollery Children' s Hospital and University of Alberta, Departments of Pediatric Hematology and Cardiology, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  1. Pulmonary thromboembolism in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babyn, Paul S.; Gahunia, Harpal K.; Massicotte, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is uncommonly diagnosed in the pediatric patient, and indeed often only discovered on autopsy. The incidence of pediatric PTE depends upon the associated underlying disease, diagnostic tests used, and index of suspicion. Multiple risk factors can be found including: peripartum asphyxia, dyspnea, haemoptysis, chest pain, dehydration, septicemia, central venous lines (CVLs), trauma, surgery, ongoing hemolysis, vascular lesions, malignancy, renal disease, foreign bodies or, uncommonly, intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, burns, or nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Other types of embolism can occur uncommonly in childhood and need to be recognized, as the required treatment will vary. These include pulmonary cytolytic thrombi, foreign bodies, tumor and septic emboli, and post-traumatic fat emboli. No single noninvasive test for pulmonary embolism is both sensitive and specific. A combination of diagnostic procedures must be used to identify suspect or confirmed cases of PTE. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment of pulmonary embolism in children. It also highlights the current diagnostic tools and protocols used to evaluate pulmonary embolism in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  2. Gastrostomy and gastroesophageal reflux in neurologically impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cappellano

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrostomy has been increasingly indicated for daily feeding ofneurologically impaired children with swallowing abnormalitiesthat hinder the use of the mouth. Therefore, the enteral route hasstill been used by means of oral, nasogastric or nasojejunal tube.However it is no longer the preferential method, mainly in cases ofprolonged use. Today gastrostomy is the most often utilizedprocedure, particularly Stamm gastrostomy. Many of thesepatients present pulmonary abnormalities due to a possiblegastroesophageal reflux (GER. After the study by Jolley et al.(1, in1985, fundoplication has become a systematic and routinecomplement to gastrostomy. The neurologically impaired patientshave been submitted to two surgeries, leading to possible andpredictable increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Althougheffective when properly indicated, this simple management hasrecently been very much debated and rejected. Thus, an updatingbased on recent studies is necessary to make pediatric surgeonsand pediatricians aware of other manners to solve this problem,which aim at correctly feeding these children with impairedswallowing and GER and helping them have a better quality of life.The literature reviewed was searched in PubMed/Medline, fromJanuary 1994 to May 2003. Other articles read and mentioned inthis review and published before 1994 were collected based onarticles cited in the references. Thus, we could assess thechronological progression in management of neurologicallyimpaired children who need gastrostomy for their feeding, andcarry out an analysis of current fundoplication and the questionwhether the use of a prophylactic antireflux valve is compulsoryor not.

  3. Guillain-Barre syndrome caused by hepatitis E infection: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoqin; Yu, Liang; Xu, Qiaomai; Gu, Silan; Tang, Lingling

    2018-01-23

    Hepatitis E infection is a global disorder that causes substantial morbidity. Numerous neurologic illnesses, including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), have occurred in patients with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We report a 58 year-old non-immunocompromised man who presented with progressive muscle weakness in all extremities during an episode of acute HEV infection, which was confirmed by measuring the anti-HEV IgM antibodies in the serum. Both cerebrospinal fluid examination and electrophysiological study were in agreement with the diagnosis of HEV-associated GBS. Following the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient's neurological condition improved rapidly. HEV infection should be strongly considered in patients with neurological symptoms, especially those with elevated levels of liver enzymes.

  4. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Profile of Neurology Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Emre; Ayşe Semra Demir; Esra Acıman; Nejla Çabuk; Sibel Kıran; Aysun Ünal

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early, rapid, and multidisciplinary approaches are very important in the diagnosis of neurological disorders in emergency departments. The present study aimed to investigate the features of patients that presented for neurology consultation in the emergency department. METHODS: The present study included 780 patients. Patient demographic features, reasons for emergent treatment and neurological consultation, neurological diagnosis by the neurologist, and laboratory (total blood...

  6. A national neurological excellence centers network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, S; Cristiani, P; Cavallini, A

    1998-02-01

    The most relevant problems related to the management of neurological disorders are (i) the frequent hospitalization in nonspecialist departments, with the need for neurological consultation, and (ii) the frequent requests of GPs for highly specialized investigations that are very expensive and of little value in arriving at a correct diagnosis. In 1996, the Consorzio di Bioingegneria e Informatica Medica in Italy realized the CISNet project (in collaboration with the Consorzio Istituti Scientifici Neuroscienze e Tecnologie Biomediche and funded by the Centro Studi of the National Public Health Council) for the implementation of a national neurological excellence centers network (CISNet). In the CISNet project, neurologists will be able to give on-line interactive consultation and off-line consulting services identifying correct diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, evaluating the need for both examination in specialist centers and admission to specialized centers, and identifying the most appropriate ones.

  7. Inventory of pediatric neurology "manpower" in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Daniel L; Humphreys, Peter

    2005-08-01

    To review the demographics and workload characteristics of pediatric neurology in Canada. A standardized survey questionnaire was mailed out to practicing pediatric neurologists in Canada in 2001. Variables examined were age, gender, hours on call, regular hours worked per week, type of practice and projected changes in practice over next five to ten years. Results were compared to the 1994 Pediatric Neurology Manpower Survey which had used the same survey instrument. Fifty-six (70%) pediatric neurologists practicing in Canada returned the survey. As was the case in 1994, no significant differences in workload were found based on age or gender. The average age of the practicing pediatric neurologist in 2001 was 51 years compared to 45 years in 1994. The proportion of physicians over 55 years in 2001 was 35% compared to 25% in 1994. Pediatric neurology in Canada is an aging specialty needing a significant recruitment of new members

  8. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations.

  9. Perinatal pharmacology: applications for neonatal neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Anne; Allegaert, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The principles of clinical pharmacology also apply to neonates, but their characteristics warrant a tailored approach. We focus on aspects of both developmental pharmacokinetics (concentration/time relationship) and developmental pharmacodynamics (concentration/effect relationship) in neonates. We hereby aimed to link concepts used in clinical pharmacology with compound-specific observations (anti-epileptics, analgosedatives) in the field of neonatal neurology. Although in part anecdotal, we subsequently illustrate the relevance of developmental pharmacology in the field of neonatal neurology by a specific intervention (e.g. whole body cooling), specific clinical presentations (e.g. short and long term outcome following fetal exposure to antidepressive agents, the development of new biomarkers for fetal alcohol syndrome) and specific clinical needs (e.g. analgosedation in neonates, excitocytosis versus neuro-apoptosis/impaired synaptogenesis). Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lung irradiation induces pulmonary vascular remodelling resembling pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghobadi, G.; Bartelds, B.; van der Veen, S. J.; Dickinson, M. G.; Brandenburg, S.; Berger, R. M. F.; Langendijk, J. A.; Coppes, R. P.; van Luijk, P.

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a commonly fatal pulmonary vascular disease that is often diagnosed late and is characterised by a progressive rise in pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from typical vascular remodelling. Recent data suggest that vascular damage plays an

  11. Rare Neurological Complications After Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Carandina, Sergio; Bossi, Manuela; Polliand, Claude; Genser, Laurent; Barrat, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment of morbid obesity and improvement of obesity-related comorbidities, such as type II diabetes. However, both peripheral and central neurological complications can occur after bariatric surgery. Such complications tend to occur more frequently after bypass surgery than after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The objective of this study was to identify the patients that presented post-operative neurological complications after undergoing SG and describe the incidence, presentation, and management of these complications. This was a retrospective study of 592 cases of SG performed between 2009 and 2014 with a special focus on patients who presented neurological complications. Of the 592 SG cases, only seven (1.18 %) patients presented neurological complications. All patients had uneventful post-operative course, but all reported feeding difficulties, accompanied by severe dysphagia, and rapid weight loss, with a mean weight loss of 35 kg (30-40 kg) 3 months after SG. All patients were readmitted owing to neurological symptoms that included paresthesia, abolition of deep tendon reflexes of the lower limbs, muscle pain, and motor and sensitive deficits in some cases. There were two cases of Wernicke's encephalopathy. All patients were treated for neuropathy secondary to vitamin B1 deficiency and had a significant improvement and/or resolution of their symptoms. Neurological complications after SG are rare and are often preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms, rapid weight loss, and lack of post-operative vitamin supplementation. Re-hospitalization and multidisciplinary team management are crucial to establish the diagnosis and initiate treatment.

  12. [Sir William Richard Gowers: author of the "bible of neurology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Genjiro

    2014-11-01

    William Richard Gowers is one of the great pioneers in neurology and the author of the well-known neurology textbook, "A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System." His concepts of neurology are based on meticulously and carefully accumulated knowledge of history, observations, and neurological examinations of patients with various neurological diseases. He is not only a great neurologist but also a great teacher who loves teaching students and physicians through well-prepared lectures. We can glean the essence of the field of neurology through his life story and numerous writings concerning neurological diseases.

  13. Modern network science of neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Cornelis J

    2014-10-01

    Modern network science has revealed fundamental aspects of normal brain-network organization, such as small-world and scale-free patterns, hierarchical modularity, hubs and rich clubs. The next challenge is to use this knowledge to gain a better understanding of brain disease. Recent developments in the application of network science to conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy have challenged the classical concept of neurological disorders being either 'local' or 'global', and have pointed to the overload and failure of hubs as a possible final common pathway in neurological disorders.

  14. Unspecific neurologic symptoms as possible psychogenic complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Schepank, H; Schellberg, D

    1993-01-01

    Prevalence and course of psychogenically influenced symptoms in neurology and their dependence on age and gender are reported. The epidemiological basis of the data is a long-term follow-up investigation of a high-risk population for about 10 years (n = 240): the Mannheim Cohort Study on Epidemiology of Psychogenic Disorders. Seven psychogenic symptoms of neurologic relevance (headache, lumbar and cervical vertebral complaints, functional vertigo, hyperkinesias, pareses, sleep and concentration disturbances) are characterized in regard to frequency, course and diagnostic significance.

  15. Richard Bright and his neurological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-01-01

    Richard Bright was one of the famous triumvirate of Guy's Hospital physicians in the Victorian era. Remembered for his account of glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease) he also made many important and original contributions to medicine and neurology. These included his work on cortical epileptogenesis, descriptions of simple partial (Jacksonian) seizures, infantile convulsions, and a variety of nervous diseases. Most notable were his reports of neurological studies including papers on traumatic tetanus, syringomyelia, arteries of the brain, contractures of spinal origin, tumours of the base of the brain, and narcolepsy. His career and these contributions are outlined. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Neurological complications of renal dialysis and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Kushan; Taube, David; Khalil, Nofal; Perry, Richard; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2018-04-01

    Neurological complications from renal replacement therapy contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in patients with renal failure. Such complications can affect either the central or peripheral nervous systems. Most neurological disturbances associated with the uraemic state do not respond fully to renal replacement therapy. There are also complications specifically associated with dialysis and transplantation. A multidisciplinary approach, involving both nephrologists and neurologists, is critical for the diagnosis and effective management of these disorders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  18. Pulmonary embolism; Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) requires a quick diagnostic algorithm, as the untreated disease has a high mortality and morbidity. Crucial for the diagnostic assessment chosen is the initial clinical likelihood of PE and the individual risk profile of the patient. The overall goal is to diagnose or rule out PE as quickly and safely as possible or to initiate timely treatment if necessary. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries (CTPA) with multi-slice CT scanner systems presents the actual diagnostic reference standard. With CTPA further important diagnoses can be made, like presence of right ventricular dysfunction. There are different scan and contrast application protocols that can be applied in order to gain diagnostic examinations with sufficient contrast material enhancement in the pulmonary arteries while avoiding all kinds of artifacts. This review article is meant to be a practical guide to examine patients with suspected PE according to the actual guidelines.

  19. Chronicle pulmonary histoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanos, Elkin; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is an acquired mycotic disease produced by the histoplasma capsulatum very frequent in Colombia, primarily affecting lungs. The pathogenesis of the histoplasmosis is similar to the one of tuberculosis. From the clinical point of view, this disease has several manifestations including the primary acute and chronic pulmonary forms. Histoplasmoma pulmonary disseminated histoplasmosis, mediastinal compromise due to granulomatosis and fibrosis, as well as ocular histoplasmosis. A clinical case of a 33-year old man is presented who consults for dry coughing of one year of evolution, without any other symptomatology, with a normal chest x-ray and after several studies including chest cat and fiber-bronchoscopy. A pulmonary histoplasmosis was determined by histopathology

  20. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, J.; Graham, A.; Hughes, J.M.B.; Gibbs, J.S.R.; Jackson, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study

  1. Pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses: angiographic demonstration in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, J. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Graham, A. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, J.M.B. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Gibbs, J.S.R. [Department of Cardiology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Jackson, J.E. [Department of Imaging, Imperial College School of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jejackson@hhnt.org

    2006-03-15

    AIM: To describe direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses seen at pulmonary angiography in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and discuss their possible significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1 August 2000 and 31 July 2004 43 patients (male-to-female ratio 25:18) with a diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) underwent selective pulmonary angiography to assess the extent of disease and suitability for surgical pulmonary endarterectomy. The mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 27-84 mmHg (average of 51 mmHg). Selective bilateral digital subtraction pulmonary angiograms performed in all individuals were reviewed for the presence of intrapulmonary collaterals. RESULTS: In 15 of the 43 patients (male-to-female ratio =7:8) definite (n=12) or probable (n=3) pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated. Of the remaining 28 patients in whom intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen it was felt that in 16 the angiograms were of insufficient diagnostic quality (grades 4-5) to exclude their presence. Twelve patients, eight of whom had angiograms of sufficient diagnostic quality (grades 1-3), demonstrated one or more areas of luxury perfusion but intrapulmonary collaterals were not seen. CONCLUSION: Direct pulmonary artery-to-pulmonary artery anastomoses were demonstrated in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, which to our knowledge have not been previously described. The importance of these collateral vessels is unclear but they may play a role in the maintenance of pulmonary parenchymal viability in patients with chronic pulmonary embolic disease. The rate of development of these collaterals and their prognostic significance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension are areas worthy of further study.

  2. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre F, Carlos E; Torres D, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a relatively common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its appearance during the course of COPD is associated with a worsened prognosis, due to reduced life expectancy and greater use of health care resources. Although a well-defined lineal relationship has not been shown, the prevalence of PH in patients with COPD is higher in cases characterized by greater obstruction and severity. PH is infrequent in cases of mild and moderate COPD. In cases of COPD, PH is generally mild or moderate, and seldom impairs right ventricular function. In many cases it is not apparent during rest, and manifests itself during exercise. PH can be severe or out of proportion with the severity of COPD. In this situation, the possibility of associated conditions should be explored, although COPD might be the only final explanation. There is scarce knowledge about the prevalence and behavior of PH in patients with COPD residing at intermediate and high altitudes (>2.500 meters above sea level), which is a common situation in Latin America and Asia. PH in COPD is not exclusively related with hypoxia/hypoxaemia and hypercapnia. The mechanical disturbances related with COPD (hyper inflation and high alveolar pressure) and inflammation may prevail as causes of endothelial injury and remodeling of pulmonary circulation, which contribute to increased pulmonary vascular pressure and resistance. The appearance of signs of cor p ulmonale indicates advanced PH. This condition should therefore be suspected early when dyspnoea, hypoxaemia, and impairment of diffusion are not in keeping with the degree of obstruction. PH is confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Right heart catheterization may be justified in selected cases. Long-term oxygen therapy is the only intervention proven to be temporarily useful. Conventional vasodilators do not produce medium- or long-term improvement and can be detrimental to the ventilation-perfusion relation

  3. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  4. Radiologic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Ley, S.; Kauczor, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of venous thromboembolism. Despite numerous modern diagnostic methods, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains problematic, especially in view of the nonspecific clinical presentation. In this educational review, current diagnostic methods and their role in the diagnostic workup of pulmonary embolism will be discussed. In addition, practical guidelines are given for the diagnostic cascade contingent on the clinical probability for pulmonary embolism. (orig.) [de

  5. Pulmonary lymphatics and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system has been more difficult to acquire than that of other organ systems owing to the complexity of the respiratory function of the lungs and to the technical difficulties involved. This is especially true of the lymphatics of the lung and is illustrated by the fact that the first measurement of pulmonary lymph flow was in 1942 by Warren and Drinker. A review of the literature reveals that few experiments have been designed to study the pulmonary lymphatics per se in relation to the effects of external radiation or after the inhalation of radioactive particles. However, the documented involvement of hilar lymph nodes implies that the lung lymphatics have a role in transporting particles from the alveoli or malignant cells from the parenchyma. Information from clinical and experimental sources, though scattered, is fairly abundant and of value in assessing the role of the pulmonary lymphatics. Our method for collecting pulmonary lymph is presented. Studies on the pulmonary lymph flow in normal dogs and in dogs with experimental congestive heart failure are described. We irradiated (4000 to 5000 R) the medial one-third of both lungs of a series of dogs. The lymph flow of the lungs was measured immediately after the course of irradiation and after a period of about 5 months. Although lung biopsies showed characteristic radiation pneumonitis in many areas, alterations in the lung parenchyma were not quantitatively reflected in the pulmonary lymph flow either in the acute stage or after fibrosis had time to develop

  6. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  7. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  8. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  9. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  10. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  11. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  13. Pulmonary manifestation of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de

  14. Pulmonary Artery Dissection: A Fatal Complication of Pulmonary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanchen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery dissection is extremely rare but it is a really life-threatening condition when it happens. Most patients die suddenly from major bleeding or tamponade caused by direct rupture into mediastinum or retrograde into the pericardial sac. What we are reporting is a rare case of a 46-year-old female patient whose pulmonary artery dissection involves both the pulmonary valve and right pulmonary artery. The patient had acute chest pain and severe dyspnea, and the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was confirmed by ultrasonography and CT angiography. Moreover, its etiology, clinical manifestations, and management are also discussed in this article.

  15. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  16. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  17. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  18. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  19. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  20. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  1. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  2. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  3. The child neurology clinical workforce in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, James F.; Mintz, Mark; Joshi, Sucheta M.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Radabaugh, Carrie; Ruch-Ross, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: More than a decade has passed since the last major workforce survey of child neurologists in the United States; thus, a reassessment of the child neurology workforce is needed, along with an inaugural assessment of a new related field, neurodevelopmental disabilities. Methods: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Child Neurology Society conducted an electronic survey in 2015 of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists. Results: The majority of respondents participate in maintenance of certification, practice in academic medical centers, and offer subspecialty care. EEG reading and epilepsy care are common subspecialty practice areas, although many child neurologists have not had formal training in this field. In keeping with broader trends, medical school debts are substantially higher than in the past and will often take many years to pay off. Although a broad majority would choose these fields again, there are widespread dissatisfactions with compensation and benefits given the length of training and the complexity of care provided, and frustrations with mounting regulatory and administrative stresses that interfere with clinical practice. Conclusions: Although not unique to child neurology and neurodevelopmental disabilities, such issues may present barriers for the recruitment of trainees into these fields. Creative approaches to enhance the recruitment of the next generation of child neurologists and neurodevelopmental disabilities specialists will benefit society, especially in light of all the exciting new treatments under development for an array of chronic childhood neurologic disorders. PMID:27566740

  4. Neurological disorders in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zavadenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During a clinical examination of children with autistic spectrum disorders, attention should be drawn to both their major clinical manifestations and neurological comorbidities. The paper considers the mechanisms of autism-induced neurological disorders, the spectrum of which may include manifestations, such as retarded and disharmonic early psychomotor development; the specific features of sensory perception/processing; rigidity and monotony of motor and psychic reactions; motor disinhibition and hyperexcitability; motor stereotypies; uncoordinated movements; developmental coordination disorders (dyspraxia; impaired expressive motor skills; speech and articulation disorders; tics; epilepsy. It describes the specific features of neurological symptoms in Asperger’s syndrome, particularly in semantic-pragmatic language disorders, higher incidence rates of hyperlexia, motor and vocal tics. The incidence rate of epilepsy in autistic spectrum disorders is emphasized to be greater than the average population one. At the same time, the risk of epilepsy is higher in mentally retarded patients with autism. Identification of neurological disorders is of great importance in determining the tactics of complex care for patients with autistic spectrum disorders. 

  5. Need for palliative care for neurological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provinciali, Leandro; Carlini, Giulia; Tarquini, Daniela; Defanti, Carlo Alberto; Veronese, Simone; Pucci, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    The new concept of palliative care supports the idea of palliation as an early approach to patients affected by disabling and life-limiting disease which focuses on the patient's quality of life along the entire course of disease. This model moves beyond the traditional concept of palliation as an approach restricted to the final stage of disease and widens the fields of intervention. There is a growing awareness of the importance of palliative care not only in oncological diseases but also in many other branches of medicine, and it appears particularly evident in the approach to many of the most frequent neurological diseases that are chronic, incurable and autonomy-impairing illnesses. The definition and implementation of palliative goals and procedures in neurology must take into account the specific features of these conditions in terms of the complexity and variability of symptoms, clinical course, disability and prognosis. The realization of an effective palliative approach to neurological diseases requires specific skills and expertise to adapt the concept of palliation to the peculiarities of these diseases; this approach should be realized through the cooperation of different services and the action of a multidisciplinary team in which the neurologist should play a central role to identify and face the patient's needs. In this view, it is paramount for the neurologist to be trained in these issues to promote the integration of palliative care in the care of neurological patients.

  6. Are Students with Developmental Dyslexia Neurologically Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith-Phillips, Josephine

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the controversy over a biological basis for developmental dyslexia and illustrates it with two case studies of junior high school students. Reviews neurological evidence for developmental dyslexia, and proposes seven signs characteristic of reading disability that may qualify as dyslexia. (SR)

  7. Chapter 17: cognitive assessment in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W

    2010-01-01

    Modern interests in cognitive assessment began with Franz Gall's early 19th century theory of mental organology and Paul Broca's reports in the 1860s on patients with focal brain injury and aphemia. These workers spurred interest in assessing delimited mental abilities in relation to discrete cerebral areas. With roots in experimental and educational psychology, the intelligence testing movement added assessment tools that could be applied to neurological patients. Early- to mid-20th-century landmarks were Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon's intelligence scale, Howard Knox's nonverbal performance tests, and the intelligence quotient conceived by Lewis Terman and refined by David Wechsler. Also developed during this era were Henry Head's Serial Tests for aphasic patients and Kurt Goldstein's tests for brain-injured patients with impairments in "abstract attitude" and concept formation. Other investigators have contributed procedures for the evaluation of language functions, memory, visuospatial and visuoconstructive skills, praxis, and executive functions. A further milestone was the development of short standardized cognitive instruments for dementia assessment. Within a neurological arena, the historical emphasis has been on a flexible, process-driven approach to the service of neurological diagnosis and syndrome identification. Advances in clinical psychology, neurology, and the cognate clinical neurosciences continue to enrich assessment options.

  8. Mind-body interventions: applications in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Elsas, Siegward-M; Oken, Barry S

    2008-06-10

    Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine with mind-body therapy being the most commonly used form. Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care. The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind-body interventions and their applications in neurology. Medline and PsychInfo were searched on mind-body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong, hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind-body therapy application to general pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson disease, stroke, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder are reviewed. There are several conditions where the evidence for mind-body therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind-body therapies for other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical trials and inadequate control groups.

  9. [Cinema and neurology: early educational applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2015-03-01

    Since its earliest days, cinema has been used in the teaching of neurology both to illustrate the professor's explanations and to make learning easier for students. To analyse some of the first applications of cinema to the teaching and learning of neurology. Shortly after the birth of the film projector it became apparent that it could be a valuable aid in teaching medicine, and especially neurology. Initially, actual recordings made by doctors themselves were used, and later documentaries, short films and feature films were employed as means of showing diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as different pathological signs, such as movement disorders. The intention was not to replace other methodologies but instead to complement them and to make the process of acquiring knowledge easier. Applying cinema in teaching is a useful way to portray the contents of different subjects, especially in the field of neurology, and to favour the acquisition of both specific and cross-disciplinary competences, with very positive results being obtained among students.

  10. Interactive drama in complex neurological disability management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenech, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To establish whether interactive drama has any effect on the responses of people with complex neurological disabilities resident in a long term care facility. Method. This was a service evaluation using interviews with a group of 31 independently consenting long term care residents, and 27

  11. Neurological and neurosurgical manifestations of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neurological and neurosurgical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Mrica. Adelola Adeloye MS FRCS FRCP. Professor. Department of Surgery, College of Medicine. Blantyre, Malawi. Introduction. AIDS was first recognised in the United States of . America in the late 1970s among homosexual ...

  12. [Anesthesia for patients with neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Masafumi; Saito, Shigeru

    2010-09-01

    Several surgical treatments can be employed for the patients with neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease and spinal cord injury. It is possible that anesthesia related complications are induced in these neurologically complicated patients in the perioperative period. Respiratory dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are most common in this population. Respiratory muscle weakness and bulbar palsy may cause aspiration pneumonia. Sometimes, postoperative ventilatory support is mandatory in these patients. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction may cause hypotension secondary to postural changes, blood loss, or positive airway pressure. Some therapeutic agents prescribed for neurological symptoms have drug interaction with anesthetic agents. Patients with motor neuron disease should be considered to be vulnerable to hyperkalemia in response to a depolarizing muscle relaxant. Although perioperative treatment guideline for most neurologic disorders has not been reported to lessen perioperative morbidity, knowledge of the clinical features and the interaction of common anesthetics with the drug therapy is important in planning intraoperative and postoperative management.

  13. Nutrition of patients with severe neurologic impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orel Anija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial enteral formulas are generally recommended for gastrostomy feeding in patients with severe neurologic impairment. However, pureed food diets are still widely used and even gaining popularity among certain groups. We tried to compare the effectiveness of gastrostomy feeding for treatment of severe malnutrition with either enteral formulas or pureed feeds.

  14. Neurological complications of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2018-04-26

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis. ZIKV RNA has been identified in foetal brain tissue and brains of microcephalic infants who died; amniotic fluid and placentas of pregnant mothers; and umbilical cord, cerebro-spinal fluid and meninges of newborns. The increase in the number of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases during the ZIKV outbreak in the Americas provides epidemiological evidence for the link between ZIKV infection and GBS. Less frequently reported ZIKV neurological complications include encephalitis/meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, cerebrovascular complications (ischemic infarction; vasculopathy), seizures and encephalopathy, sensory polyneuropathy and sensory neuronopathy. Analysis of GBS incidence could serve as an epidemiological 'marker' or sentinel for ZIKV disease and other neurological complications associated to ZIKV. Expert commentary: An expanding spectrum of neurological complications associated with ZIKV infection is being recognised.

  15. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  17. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  18. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  19. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, Nc; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, Em

    2011-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT(1A) , on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Jenny, C.; Schwaighofer, B.; Seidl, G.; Burghuber, O.C.

    1987-01-01

    In 43 patients with obstructive and restrictive lung disease a catheterisation of the right heart with measurement of pulmonary artery pressure was performed. In a retrospective study several radiological parameters of pulmonary hypertension were evaluated on the chest radiographs of these patients. Considering those parameters on the p.a. and lateral chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with elevated pulmonary artery pressure at rest can be made with great accuracy. When pulmonary artery pressure is elevated only during exercise, the accuracy of radiological diagnosis is much lower. (orig.) [de

  1. Pathogenesis of pulmonary vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; Schreiber, A; Falk, RJ; Jennette, JC

    2004-01-01

    Vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessels and can affect any type of vessel in any organ. Pulmonary vasculitis usually is a component of a systemic small vessel vasculitis. Three major forms of small vessel vasculitis that often affect the lungs are Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic

  2. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri Harpreet S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH is a relatively uncommon lung disease that generally, but not invariably, occurs in cigarette smokers. The pathologic hallmark of PLCH is the accumulation of Langerhans and other inflammatory cells in small airways, resulting in the formation of nodular inflammatory lesions. While the overwhelming majority of patients are smokers, mechanisms by which smoking induces this disease are not known, but likely involve a combination of events resulting in enhanced recruitment and activation of Langerhans cells in small airways. Bronchiolar inflammation may be accompanied by variable lung interstitial and vascular involvement. While cellular inflammation is prominent in early disease, more advanced stages are characterized by cystic lung destruction, cicatricial scarring of airways, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pulmonary function is frequently abnormal at presentation. Imaging of the chest with high resolution chest CT scanning may show characteristic nodular and cystic abnormalities. Lung biopsy is necessary for a definitive diagnosis, although may not be required in instances were imaging findings are highly characteristic. There is no general consensus regarding the role of immunosuppressive therapy in smokers with PLCH. All smokers must be counseled on the importance of smoking cessation, which may result in regression of disease and obviate the need for systemic immunosuppressive therapy. The prognosis for most patients is relatively good, particularly if longitudinal lung function testing shows stability. Complications like pneumothoraces and secondary pulmonary hypertension may shorten life expectancy. Patients with progressive disease may require lung transplantation.

  3. Imaging pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauner, M.W.; Rety, F.; Naccache, J.M.; Girard, F.; Valeyre, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    Localized fibrosis of the lung is usually scar tissue while diffuse pulmonary fibrosis is more often a sign of active disease. Chronic infiltrative lung disease may be classified into four categories: idiopathic pneumonitis, collagen diseases, granulomatosis (sarcoidosis), and caused by known diseases (pneumoconiosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, drug-induced lung disease, radiation). (authors)

  4. Radiological case. Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera Bernal, Aura Lucia; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge Alberto; Ojeda Leon, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a rare disorder, which affects principally the pulmonary parenchyma of young women at a reproductive age, and is pathologically characterized by the interstitial proliferation of smooth muscle and formation of cysts in the lung. We present the case of a 35-year-old woman that has a lymphangioleiomyomatosis diagnosis

  5. An unexpected pulmonary bystander

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouthuyzen-Bakker, M.; Vorm, van der P. A.; Koning, K. J.; van der Werf, T. S.

    A 30-year-old man from Eritrea was admitted with a pulmonary bacterial abscess. Unexpectedly, histopathology of the resected lobe also revealed an infection with Schistosoma mansoni with surrounding granulomatous tissue and fibrosis. Patients from endemic areas are often asymptomatic with blood

  6. Outcome after pulmonary metastasectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbech, Kåre; Ravn, Jesper; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the results of management of pulmonary metastases in 5 years consecutive operations at our institution. We aim to define the patients who are most likely to benefit from surgery by investigating long-term survival and prognostic factors associated with prolonged survival....

  7. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Jan ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  10. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus disguising as hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yong Min; Lee, Sung Wook; Han, Sang Young; Baek, Yang Hyun; Ahn, Ji Hye; Choi, Won Jong; Lee, Ji Young; Kim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Byeol A

    2015-04-28

    Nonconvulsive status epilepticus has become an important issue in modern neurology and epileptology. This is based on difficulty in definitively elucidating the condition and its various clinical phenomena and on our inadequate insight into the intrinsic pathophysiological processes. Despite nonconvulsive status epilepticus being a situation that requires immediate treatment, this disorder may not be appreciated as the cause of mental status impairment. Although the pathophysiology of nonconvulsive status epilepticus remains unknown, this disorder is thought to lead to neuronal damage, so its identification and treatment are important. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. We report a case of a 52-year-old male with liver cirrhosis presenting an altered mental status. He was initially diagnosed with hepatic encephalopathy but ultimately diagnosed with nonconvulsive status epilepticus by electroencephalogram.

  11. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  12. Three cases of pulmonary varix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takishima, Teruo; Sakuma, Hajime; Tajima, Tsunemi; Okimoto, Takao; Yamamoto, Keiichiro; Dohi, Yutaka (Saitama Medical School (Japan))

    1982-06-01

    Three cases of pulmonary varix associated with valvular heart disease were reported. Round shadows were clearer on first oblique or lateral films of chest x-ray in all 3 cases. On chest tomograms, the shadows were substantial and round-elliptical. RI angiography with sup(99m)Tc-RBC demonstrated these shadows in agreement with the site of influx of the pulmonary vein into the left atrium in Cases 1 and 3 and with the pulmonary vein slightly apart from the left atrium in Case 2. On CT scans in Cases 1 and 3, enhancement with a contrast medium visualized dilatation of the pulmonary vein close to, and in continuation with, the shadow of the left atrium. The diagnosis of pulmonary varix in agreement with the venous phase of pulmonary angiography was made for all 3 cases. Non-surgical examinations (especially CT scan) proved highly useful for the diagnosis of pulmonary varix.

  13. Three cases of pulmonary varix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takishima, Teruo; Sakuma, Hajime; Tajima, Tsunemi; Okimoto, Takao; Yamamoto, Keiichiro; Dohi, Yutaka

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary varix associated with valvular heart disease were reported. Round shadows were clearer on first oblique or lateral films of chest x-ray in all 3 cases. On chest tomograms, the shadows were substantial and round-elliptical. RI angiography with sup(99m)Tc-RBC demonstrated these shadows in agreement with the site of influx of the pulmonary vein into the left atrium in Cases 1 and 3 and with the pulmonary vein slightly apart from the left atrium in Case 2. On CT scans in Cases 1 and 3, enhancement with a contrast medium visualized dilatation of the pulmonary vein close to, and in continuation with, the shadow of the left atrium. The diagnosis of pulmonary varix in agreement with the venous phase of pulmonary angiography was made for all 3 cases. Non-surgical examinations (especially CT scan) proved highly useful for the diagnosis of pulmonary varix. (Chiba, N.)

  14. Pulmonary function in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  15. Radiotherapy and pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S; Miyata, Y; Tachiiri, H [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Clinical findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were outlined, and the relationship between occurence of these disorders and radiotherapy, clinical findings and X-ray picture were studied. Standard radiation dose as cell lethal response of carcinoma of the lung were 4,500 to 5,500 rad in 4 to 5.5 weeks in undifferentiated carcinoma, 6,000 to 7,000 rad in 6 to 7 weeks in squamous cell carcinoma, 7,000 to 9,000 rad in 7 to 9 weeks in adenocarcinoma, 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4 to 5 weeks in the large sized cancer of the esophagus, 6,500 to 7,000 rad in 5 to 7 weeks in the small sized cancer of the esophagus, and irradiation of these amount of dose caused hazards in pulmonary function. Pathological and clinical findings of pulmonary hazards within 6 month period after irradiation, factors causing them and changes in X-ray pictures before and after irradiation were observed and discussed in clinical cases: the case of breast cancer in which 3,000 R/6 times/18 days of 5.5 MeV Liniac electron was irradiated to the chest wall, and the case of pulmonary cancer in which 5,000 rad/25 times/34 days of 6 MeV Liniac X-ray was irradiated in opposite 2 ports radiation beam treatment. The former revealed alveolar lesion and interlobular pleuritis at 4 month later, and remarkable lesion of pulmonary fibrosis was followed at 9 month after radiotherapy. The later developed radiation pneumonitis 1 month after radiotherapy, of which lesion extended to the upper part by 3 months later, and cancer recurred 6.5 month later.

  16. [Fluctuant pulmonary nodules as presentation of a MALT lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz Aspas, R; Toyas Miazza, C; Ruiz Ruiz, F; Morales Rull, J L; Pérez Calvo, J I

    2003-11-01

    Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are a group of non- Hodgkin"s lymphomas of low malignancy degree. The most frequent location is the gastrointestinal tract. Its primary pulmonary presentation is unusual and heterogeneous from point of view radiological. Woman 61 years old with antecedents of vitiligo, gastric ulcus, cirrhosis by VHC, that go into the hospital by sudden disnea, thoracic paint with pleural characterises and fever of 38.5 degrees C, Her thorax radiography and thoracic TAC showed nodes that affect to different pulmonary lobes. The cytology by PAAF confirms their malignant nature. In subsequent radiological controls it was notice the nodels took away completely and returns in different pulmonary place in each recurrence. The presentation like fluctuant pulmonary nodes is exceptional in a MALT lymphoma. It was described a higher incidence of VHC infection and tumour. The evidence of chronic hepatitis by virus C disease, and local chronic inflammatory process as well as autoimmune disorders may be considerate like a factor that contribute to MALT lymphoma.

  17. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  18. Contemporary Teaching of Neurology. Teaching Neurological Behavior to General Practitioners: A Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouesne, C.; Salamon, R.

    1977-01-01

    Ways in which teaching neurology can be simplified for the nonspecialist practitioner are addressed in this assessment of the state-of-the-art in France. The hypothesis implies simplifying both the diagnoses and symptomatology. (LBH)

  19. Abnormal Pulmonary Function in Adults with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Nolan, Vikki G.; Steinberg, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell anemia (Hb-SS) commonly cause morbidity, yet few large studies of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in this population have been reported. Objectives: PFTs (spirometry, lung volumes, and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCO]) from 310 adults with Hb-SS were analyzed to determine the pattern of pulmonary dysfunction and their association with other systemic complications of sickle cell disease. Methods: Raw PFT data were compared with predicted values. Each subject was subclassified into one of five groups: obstructive physiology, restrictive physiology, mixed obstructive/restrictive physiology, isolated low DLCO, or normal. The association between laboratory data of patients with decreased DLCO or restrictive physiology and those of normal subjects was assessed by multivariate linear regression. Measurements and Main Results: Normal PFTs were present in only 31 of 310 (10%) patients. Overall, adults with Hb-SS were characterized by decreased total lung capacities (70.2 ± 14.7% predicted) and DlCO (64.5 ± 19.9%). The most common PFT patterns were restrictive physiology (74%) and isolated low DlCO (13%). Decreased DLCO was associated with thrombocytosis (p = 0.05), with hepatic dysfunction (elevated alanine aminotransferase; p = 0.07), and a trend toward renal dysfunction (elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; p = 0.05 and 0.07, respectively). Conclusions: Pulmonary function is abnormal in 90% of adult patients with Hb-SS. Common abnormalities include restrictive physiology and decreased DLCO. Decreased DLCO may indicate more severe sickle vasculopathy characterized by impaired hepatic and renal function. PMID:16556694

  20. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to